Full Text Available Abstract Background Transformation of medical students to become medical professionals is a core competency required for physicians in the 21st century. Role modeling was traditionally the key method of transmitting this skill. Medical schools are developing medical curricula which are explicit in ensuring students develop the professional competency and understand the values and attributes of this role. The purpose of this study was to determine student perception of professionalism at the University of Ottawa and gain insights for improvement in promotion of professionalism in undergraduate medical education. Methods Survey on student perception of professionalism in general, the curriculum and learning environment at the University of Ottawa, and the perception of student behaviors, was developed by faculty and students and sent electronically to all University of Ottawa medical students. The survey included both quantitative items including an adapted Pritzker list and qualitative responses to eight open ended questions on professionalism at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA. Chi-square and Fischer’s exact test (for cell count less than 5 were used to derive p-values for categorical variables by level of student learning. Results The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students for all four years of the curriculum. 63% of the responses were from students in years 1 and 2 (preclerkship. Students identified role modeling as the single most important aspect of professionalism. The strongest curricular recommendations included faculty-led case scenario sessions, enhancing interprofessional interactions and the creation of special awards to staff and students to “celebrate” professionalism. Current evaluation systems were considered least effective. The importance of role modeling and information on how to report lapses and breaches was highlighted in the answers to the open ended questions. Conclusions Students identify the need for strong positive role models in their learning environment, and for effective evaluation of the professionalism of students and teachers. Medical school leaders must facilitate development of these components within the MD education and faculty development programs as well as in clinical milieus where student learning occurs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Professionalism topics are usually not covered as a separate lesson within formal curriculum, but in subtler and less officially recognized educational activities, which makes them difficult to teach and assess. Interactive methods (e.g. movies could be efficient teaching methods but are rarely studied. The aims of this study were: 1 to test the relevance and usefulness of movies in teaching professionalism to fourth year medical students and, 2 to assess the impact of this teaching method on students' attitudes towards some professionalism topics. Method This was an education study with qualitative data analysis in a group of eleven fourth year medical students from the Medical School of University Maribor who attended an elective four month course on professionalism. There were 8 (66.7% female students in the group. The mean age of the students was 21.9 ± 0.9 years. The authors used students' written reports and oral presentations as the basis for qualitative analysis using thematic codes. Results Students recognised the following dimensions in the movie: communication, empathy, doctors' personal interests and palliative care. It also made them think about their attitudes towards life, death and dying. Conclusions The controlled environment of movies successfully enables students to explore their values, beliefs, and attitudes towards features of professionalism without feeling that their personal integrity had been threatened. Interactive teaching methods could become an indispensible aid in teaching professionalism to new generations.
Weaver, Roslyn; Wilson, Ian; Langendyk, Vicki
Previous research has pointed to the role television can play in informing health practices and beliefs. Within the academic setting in particular, some educators have raised concerns about the influence of medical dramas on students. Less research, however, draws on the perspectives of students, and this study therefore explores medical students' perceptions of medical practice and professionalism in popular medical television programmes. Qualitative data from surveys of Australian undergraduate medical students showed that students perceived professionalism in dichotomous ways, with three main themes: cure-care, where a doctor's skill is either technical or interpersonal; work-leisure, where a doctor is either dedicated to work or personal life; and clinical-administration, where work is either direct patient care or administration. There continue to be imagined divisions between curing and caring for students, who express concerns about balancing work and leisure, and expectations that doctors should have little administrative work. Given students were able to identify these important contemporary issues around professionalism on television, there is pedagogical value in using popular images of the medical world in medical education. PMID:24677335
Thomas Kwiatkowski; William Rennie; Alice Fornari; Salaahuddin Akbar
Objective: The first course of the medical curriculum at the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, From the Person to the Professional: Challenges, Privileges and Responsibilities, provides an innovative early clinical immersion. The course content specific to the Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) curriculum was developed using the New York State Emergency Medical Technician curriculum. Students gain early legitimate clinical experience and practice clinical skills as team members in t...
Shevell, Allison Haley; Thomas, Aliki; Fuks, Abraham
Abstract Background: Medical schools are confronted with the challenge of teaching professionalism during medical training. The aim of this study was to examine medical students' perceptions of using video clips as a beneficial teaching tool to learn professionalism and other aspects of physicianship. Methods: As part of the longitudinal Physician Apprenticeship course at McGill University, first year medical students viewed video clips from the television series ER. The study used qualitative description and thematic analysis to interpret responses to questionnaires, which explored the educational merits of this exercise. Results: Completed questionnaires were submitted by 112 students from 21 small groups. A major theme concerned the students' perceptions of the utility of video clips as a teaching tool, and consisted of comments organized into 10 categories: "authenticity and believability", "thought provoking", "skills and approaches", "setting", "medium", "level of training", "mentorship", "experiential learning", "effectiveness" and "relevance to practice". Another major theme reflected the qualities of physicianship portrayed in video clips, and included seven categories: "patient-centeredness", "communication", "physician-patient relationship", "professionalism", "ethical behavior", "interprofessional practice" and "mentorship". Conclusions: This study demonstrated that students perceived the value of using video clips from a television series as a means of teaching professionalism and other aspects of physicianship. PMID:25313932
Rabow, Michael W.; Wrubel, Judith; Remen, Rachel Naomi
PURPOSE While historic medical oaths and numerous contemporary medical organizations offer guidelines for professionalism, the nature of the professional aspirations, commitments, and values of current medical students is not well known. We sought to provide a thematic catalogue of individual mission statements written by medical students nationally.
Full Text Available Objective: The first course of the medical curriculum at the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, From the Person to the Professional: Challenges, Privileges and Responsibilities, provides an innovative early clinical immersion. The course content specific to the Emergency Medical Technician (EMT curriculum was developed using the New York State Emergency Medical Technician curriculum. Students gain early legitimate clinical experience and practice clinical skills as team members in the pre-hospital environment. We hypothesized this novel curriculum would increase students’ confidence in their ability to perform patient care skills and enhance students’ comfort with team-building skills early in their training. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from first-year medical students (n=97 through a survey developed to assess students’ confidence in patient care and team-building skills. The survey was completed prior to medical school, during the final week of the course, and at the end of their first year. A paired-samples t-test was conducted to compare self-ratings on 12 patient care and 12 team-building skills before and after the course, and a theme analysis was conducted to examine open-ended responses. Results: Following the course, student confidence in patient care skills showed a significant increase from baseline (p<0.05 for all identified skills. Student confidence in team-building skills showed a significant increase (p<0.05 in 4 of the 12 identified skills. By the end of the first year, 84% of the first-year students reported the EMT curriculum had ‘some impact’ to ‘great impact’ on their patient care skills, while 72% reported the EMT curriculum had ‘some impact’ to ‘great impact’ on their team-building skills. Conclusions: The incorporation of EMT training early in a medical school curriculum provides students with meaningful clinical experiences that increase their self-reported level of confidence in the performance of patient care skills early in their medical education.
Rath, Barbara; Muhlhans, Susann; Gaedicke, Gerhard
Not only the general public, but also those studying to become health professionals, are struggling to keep up with a growing body of evidence and increasingly complex information about the many different types of vaccines available to date. At the same time, a number of increasingly complex subjects of study are competing for their attention during undergraduate and graduate education. In many medical school curricula in German-speaking countries, the subject of vaccines has been entirely omitted, or is regarded a minor subtopic. During the studies, most medical school curricula in German-speaking countries do not offer obligatory courses and/ or hands-on training vaccinology in vaccination. In Germany, private pediatricians administer the majority of immunizations. Even during postgraduate training programs in pediatrics, which are largely hospital-based, vaccinations are rarely a topic, and vaccinology remains a "hobby" and a "field without lobby" lacking specific certification requirements. Studies of acceptance of vaccines among health professionals and medical students have shown that many may still have their own doubts and uncertainties about vaccines revealing a number of unanswered questions during their studies and postgraduate training. PMID:25859671
Fronteira Inês; Rodrigues Amabélia; Fresta Mário; Sidat Mohsin; Ferrinho Paulo; da Silva Florinda; Mercer Hugo; Cabral Jorge; Dussault Gilles
Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the professional expectations of medical students during the 2007-2008 academic year at the public medical schools of Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique, and to identify their social and geographical origins, their professional expectations and difficulties relating to their education and professional future. Methods Data were collected through a standardised questionnaire applied to all medical students registered dur...
Gill, Anne C; Nelson, Elizabeth A; Mian, Ayesha I; Raphael, Jean L; Rowley, David R; Mcguire, Amy L
Much has been written about how we understand, teach and evaluate professionalism in medical training. Less often described are explicit responses to mild or moderate professionalism concerns in medical students. To address this need, Baylor College of Medicine created a mechanism to assess professionalism competency for medical students and policies to address breaches in professional behavior. This article describes the development of an intervention using a guided reflection model, student responses to the intervention, and how the program evolved into a credible resource for deans and other educational leaders. PMID:24819504
Bennett, Aurora J.; Roman, Brenda; Arnold, Lesley M.; Kay, Jerald; Goldenhar, Linda M.
Objective: This study compares the instruments and interventions utilized to identify and remediate unprofessional behaviors in medical students across U.S. psychiatry clerkships. Methods: A 20-item questionnaire was distributed to 120 psychiatry clerkship directors and directors of medical student education, in the U.S., inquiring into the…
Choi, Daisi; Tolova, Vera; Socha, Edward; Samenow, Charles P.
Objective: This study sought to examine how specific substance-use behavior, including nonmedical prescription stimulant (NPS) use, among U.S. medical students correlates with their attitudes and beliefs toward professionalism. Method: An anonymous survey was distributed to all medical students at a private medical university (46% response rate).…
Monrouxe, Lynn V.; Rees, Charlotte E.
Recent investigations into the UK National Health Service revealed doctors' failures to act with compassion and professionalism towards patients. The British media asked questions about what happens to students during their learning that influences such behaviour as doctors. We listened to 200 medical students' narratives of professionalism…
Camp, Christopher L.; Gregory, Jeremy K.; Lachman, Nirusha; Chen, Laura P.; Juskewitch, Justin E.; Pawlina, Wojciech
Professionalism is a core competency of medical training that requires students to develop the skills of providing and receiving feedback. Our study evaluated the effectiveness of delivering feedback in a group setting compared with an individual setting. The first-year class of Mayo medical students (n = 49) enrolled in gross anatomy (in…
Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Vrecko, Helena
ABSTRACT Introduction: Professionalism is essential for the development of mature physicians but not much education is devoted to that theme. Aim: We aimed to determine the views of undergraduate medical students on medical professionalism. Methods: This was a qualitative study, based on focus groups of the first and fifth-year undergraduate medical students. Transcripts of the focus groups were independently evaluated by two researches. Segments of transcripts, identified as important, were marked as verbatims. A grounded theory method with open coding was applied. A list of codes was developed and reviewed by both researchers until the consensus was reached. Then, the codes were reviewed and put into the categories and dimensions. Results: Students recognized 10 main medical professionalism dimensions (empathy, respect, responsibility, autonomy, trust, communication, difference between professional and private life, team work, partnership) and two dimensions associated with it (physician's characteristics, external factors). Slight change of the attitudes towards a more self-centred future physicians’ figure was observed in the fifth-year medical students. Conclusion: The students have an appropriate picture of the physicians’ figure even at the beginning of their medical studies but still needs an education in professionalism. It seems that the fifth-year students perceive physicians as more self-centred when compared to their first-year colleagues. PMID:25568575
Davis, Larry E.; King, Molly K.; Wayne, Sharon J.; Kalishman, Summers G.
Objective: Evaluate medical students’ communication and professionalism skills from the perspective of the ambulatory patient and later compare these skills in their first year of residency. Methods: Students in third year neurology clerkship clinics see patients alone followed by a revisit with an attending neurologist. The patient is then asked to complete a voluntary, anonymous, Likert scale questionnaire rating the student on friendliness, listening to the patient, respecting the patient, using understandable language, and grooming. For students who had completed 1?year of residency these professionalism ratings were compared with those from their residency director. Results: Seven hundred forty-two questionnaires for 165 clerkship students from 2007 to 2009 were analyzed. Eighty-three percent of forms were returned with an average of 5 per student. In 64% of questionnaires, patients rated students very good in all five categories; in 35% patients selected either very good or good ratings; and <1% rated any student fair. No students were rated poor or very poor. Sixty-two percent of patients wrote complimentary comments about the students. From the Class of 2008, 52% of students received “better than their peers” professionalism ratings from their PGY1 residency directors and only one student was rated “below their peers.” Conclusion: This questionnaire allowed patient perceptions of their students’ communication/professionalism skills to be evaluated in a systematic manner. Residency director ratings of professionalism of the same students at the end of their first year of residency confirms continued professional behavior. PMID:22723790
Wittich, Christopher M; Pawlina, Wojciech; Drake, Richard L; Szostek, Jason H; Reed, Darcy A; Lachman, Nirusha; McBride, Jennifer M; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Beckman, Thomas J
Improving professional attitudes and behaviors requires critical self reflection. Research on reflection is necessary to understand professionalism among medical students. The aims of this prospective validation study at the Mayo Medical School and Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine were: (1) to develop and validate a new instrument for measuring reflection on professionalism, and (2) determine whether learner variables are associated with reflection on the gross anatomy experience. An instrument for assessing reflections on gross anatomy, which was comprised of 12 items structured on five-point scales, was developed. Factor analysis revealed a three-dimensional model including low reflection (four items), moderate reflection (five items), and high reflection (three items). Item mean scores ranged from 3.05 to 4.50. The overall mean for all 12 items was 3.91 (SD = 0.52). Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's ?) was satisfactory for individual factors and overall (Factor 1 ? = 0.78; Factor 2 ? = 0.69; Factor 3 ? = 0.70; Overall ? = 0.75). Simple linear regression analysis indicated that reflection scores were negatively associated with teamwork peer scores (P = 0.018). The authors report the first validated measurement of medical student reflection on professionalism in gross anatomy. Critical reflection is a recognized component of professionalism and may be important for behavior change. This instrument may be used in future research on professionalism among medical students. PMID:23212713
Kubacki Angela M
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated whether the introduction of professional development teaching in the first two years of a medical course improved students' observed communication skills with simulated patients. Students' observed communication skills were related to patient-centred attitudes, confidence in communicating with patients and performance in later clinical examinations. Methods Eighty-two medical students from two consecutive cohorts at a UK medical school completed two videoed consultations with a simulated patient: one at the beginning of year 1 and one at the end of year 2. Group 1 (n = 35 received a traditional pre-clinical curriculum. Group 2 (n = 47 received a curriculum that included communication skills training integrated into a 'professional development' vertical module. Videoed consultations were rated using the Evans Interview Rating Scale by communication skills tutors. A subset of 27% were double-coded. Inter-rater reliability is reported. Results Students who had received the professional development teaching achieved higher ratings for use of silence, not interrupting the patient, and keeping the discussion relevant compared to students receiving the traditional curriculum. Patient-centred attitudes were not related to observed communication. Students who were less nervous and felt they knew how to listen were rated as better communicators. Students receiving the traditional curriculum and who had been rated as better communicators when they entered medical school performed less well in the final year clinical examination. Conclusions Students receiving the professional development training showed significant improvements in certain communication skills, but students in both cohorts improved over time. The lack of a relationship between observed communication skills and patient-centred attitudes may be a reflection of students' inexperience in working with patients, resulting in 'patient-centredness' being an abstract concept. Students in the early years of their medical course may benefit from further opportunities to practise basic communication skills on a one-to-one basis with patients.
Bernard Aaron W; Malone Matthew; Kman Nicholas E; Caterino Jeffrey M; Khandelwal Sorabh
Abstract Background Professionalism development is influenced by the informal and hidden curriculum. The primary objective of this study was to better understand this experiential learning in the setting of the Emergency Department (ED). Secondarily, the study aimed to explore differences in the informal curriculum between Emergency Medicine (EM) and Internal Medicine (IM) clerkships. Methods A thematic analysis was conducted on 377 professionalism narratives from medical students completing ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the professional expectations of medical students during the 2007-2008 academic year at the public medical schools of Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique, and to identify their social and geographical origins, their professional expectations and difficulties relating to their education and professional future. Methods Data were collected through a standardised questionnaire applied to all medical students registered during the 2007-2008 academic year. Results Students decide to study medicine at an early age. Relatives and friends seem to have an especially important influence in encouraging, reinforcing and promoting the desire to be a doctor. The degree of feminization of the student population differs among the different countries. Although most medical students are from outside the capital cities, expectations of getting into medical school are already associated with migration from the periphery to the capital city, even before entering medical education. Academic performance is poor. This seems to be related to difficulties in accessing materials, finances and insufficient high school preparation. Medical students recognize the public sector demand but their expectations are to combine public sector practice with private work, in order to improve their earnings. Salary expectations of students vary between the three countries. Approximately 75% want to train as hospital specialists and to follow a hospital-based career. A significant proportion is unsure about their future area of specialization, which for many students is equated with migration to study abroad. Conclusions Medical education is an important national investment, but the returns obtained are not as efficient as expected. Investments in high-school preparation, tutoring, and infrastructure are likely to have a significant impact on the success rate of medical schools. Special attention should be given to the socialization of students and the role model status of their teachers. In countries with scarce medical resources, the hospital orientation of students' expectations is understandable, although it should be associated with the development of skills to coordinate hospital work with the network of peripheral facilities. Developing a local postgraduate training capacity for doctors might be an important strategy to help retain medical doctors in the home country.
Ikram, Umar Z; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Suurmond, Jeanine
Abstract Background: Language barriers may lead to poorer healthcare services for patients who do not speak the same language as their care provider. Despite the benefits of professional interpreters, care providers tend to underuse professional interpretation. Evidence suggests that students who received training on language barriers and interpreter use are more likely to utilize interpretation services. Aims: We developed an e-learning module for medical students on using professional interpreters during the medical interview, and evaluated its effects on students' knowledge and self-efficacy. Methods: In the e-learning module, three patient-physician-interpreter video vignettes were presented, with three different types of interpreters: a family member, an untrained bilingual staff member, and a professional interpreter. The students answered two questions about each vignette, followed by feedback which compared their responses with expert information. In total, 281 fourth-year medical students took the e-learning module during the academic year 2012-2013. We assessed their knowledge and self-efficacy in interpreter use pre- and post-test on 1 (lowest) - 10 (highest) scale, and analysed the differences in mean scores using paired t-tests. Results: Upon completing the e-learning module, students reported higher self-efficacy in using professional interpretation. The mean knowledge score on the pre-test was 5.5 (95% confidence interval 5.3-5.8), but on the post-test this increased to 8.4 (95% CI 8.2-8.6). The difference was highly significant (p?0.001). For self-efficacy, the mean score on the pre-test was 4.9 (95% CI 4.7-5.1), and on the post-test 7.0 (95% CI 6.8-7.1); p?0.001. Conclusion: This e-learning module improved students' knowledge and self-efficacy in using professional interpreters during the medical interview. Using such tools in medical curricula might encourage future doctors to use professional interpretation services to overcome language barriers, thereby potentially contributing to equitable healthcare services for a linguistically diverse patient population. PMID:25109296
This research analyses the interest that medical radiation science (MRS) students have about their academic and professional world when they are given the independence to freely choose a topic to research. The research setting includes students of three different MRS degrees who have had, up until the point that this research was carried out, more common learning than degree specific learning. To analyse student interest, a thematic analysis of the self selected topics to be researched for a group work project was undertaken. The results indicate that there are statistically significant differences in interest between students of the three MRS degrees, with students within a degree sharing a strong single unifying common interest in their academic or professional world.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a short overview over the determinants and implications of medics’ international migration and to determine if the international migration of medics can be considered a predictable phenomenon, from the Romanian medical student’s perspective. The study has been conducted on a group of students from the University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Gr. T. Popa” from Ia?i, Romania. The research was conducted on an availability sample of 158 students from the 3rd to 6th year of study, which responded to an auto-administrated questionnaire. The results are in accordance with the results of other similar studies, namely that students are considering international migration to more developed countries as an option for their career development.
Swanwick, Tim; McKimm, Judy
Clinicians are increasingly involved in teaching, learning, assessment and supervisory activities with medical students, trainees and other health professionals. Participation in professional development pathways and activities in medical education enables clinical teachers to provide high quality education and training. PMID:20220724
Wittich, Christopher M.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Drake, Richard L.; Szostek, Jason H.; Reed, Darcy A.; Lachman, Nirusha; McBride, Jennifer M.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Beckman, Thomas J.
Improving professional attitudes and behaviors requires critical self reflection. Research on reflection is necessary to understand professionalism among medical students. The aims of this prospective validation study at the Mayo Medical School and Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine were: (1) to develop and validate a new instrument for…
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This paper compares the socioeconomic profile of medical students registered at the Faculty of Medicine of Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (FM-UEM, Maputo, for the years 1998/99 and 2007/08. Case study The objective is to describe the medical students' social and geographical origins, expectations and perceived difficulties regarding their education and professional future. Data were collected through questionnaires administered to all medical students. Discussion and evaluation The response rate in 1998/99 was 51% (227/441 and 50% in 2007/08 (484/968. The main results reflect a doubling of the number of students enrolled for medical studies at the FM-UEM, associated with improved student performance (as reflected by failure rates. Nevertheless, satisfaction with the training received remains low and, now as before, students still identify lack of access to books or learning technology and inadequate teacher preparedness as major problems. Conclusions There is a high level of commitment to public sector service. However, students, as future doctors, have very high salary expectations that will not be met by current public sector salary scales. This is reflected in an increasing degree of orientation to double sector employment after graduation.
Full Text Available The analysis of military troop probation period of 194 students of Saratov Military Medical Institute has demonstrated the common drawbacks and defects in the military service activity on provision of military service safely. The determination of these drawbacks allows to plan concrete measures for improvement of this process.
Barr, Jennifer; Bull, Rosalind; Rooney, Kim
Patient encounters are central to the provision of learning opportunities for medical students and their development as medical professionals. The primary aim of the study reported in this paper was to discover how partnering medical students with patients with chronic illness in undergraduate learning influenced the development of a patient centred professional identity and professionalism. An exploratory interpretive research design was used to address the research aim within a patient partner program (P3). Three qualitative data collection methods were used: (1) focus groups (2) extended response questionnaire and (3) semi-structured interviews. Data were coded and analysed thematically. The professional identity of medical students is constructed along traditional lines in the preclinical years. Patient-partnership offers a disruption to this development by way of an intersection with patients with chronic illness which potentially allows meaningful construction of what a patient-centred identity should be. This point of reflection provides an opportunity to engage at a higher level in medical identity development and professionalism. The findings discussed in this paper further stimulate the patient-centred agenda by understanding the conflict associated with the student-patient nexus in medical education and its potential for building professionalism and a patient-centred professional identity. To continue the drive for a patient-centred professional identity there must be ongoing engagement with patients in medical education, preferably commencing early in a student's journey so that it becomes the expected norm. This study has highlighted that a true patient-centred emphasis is being encountered too late in their socialisation process. PMID:25008246
Plotnikoff, Gregory A; Amano, Takahiro
Professionalism is a Western concept without a precise equivalent in Asian cultures. The term itself cannot be translated directly into any Asian language, nor does the spectrum of words based on the verb "to profess" exist in any Asian language. In addition, the foundational assumptions found in the West's celebrated Charter on Medical Professionalism do not match Asian ways of thinking regarding autonomy, service, and justice. Finally, there is no tradition in Asia of reciting an oath at medical school graduations. Despite the fact that professionalism is literally a foreign concept in Asia, Keio University School of Medicine in Tokyo has successfully introduced a professionalism curriculum that both supports Japan's cultural traditions and affirms the school's academic mission. This article describes a series of educational events for medical students in the university's 6-year undergraduate program. These include development of a course on medical professionalism for students in their third year, a year-long extracurricular oath-writing project for fourth-year students, introduction of a White Coat Ceremony at the start of the fifth year (when students begin their clinical rotations), and a reflective writing requirement for sixth-year students on professionalism and humanism as witnessed during clinical rotations. PMID:17899848
Thai Trung M; Ross Marianne; Boker John R; Mourra Sarah; Nguyen Vincent P; Shapiro Johanna; Leonard Robert J
Abstract Background The anatomy course offers important opportunities to develop professionalism at an early stage in medical education. It is an academically significant course that also engenders stress in some students. Methods Over a three-year period, 115 of 297 students completed creative projects. Thirty-four project completers and 47 non-completers consented to participate in the study. Projects were analyzed for professionalism themes using grounded theory. A subset of project comple...
Fernando Henrique Canhoto, Alves; Fernanda Pedrosa, Torres; Hilda Satie, Suto; Lunia Sofia Lima, Azevedo; Marcell Maduro, Barbosa; Renato Martins, Pedro; Ana Carolina Delazia Albuquerque, Santana; Daniella, Rantin; Fábio Henrique Luiz, Leonardo; Marina Gomes de, Andrade; Natasha Nicos, Ferreira; Antonio, Pazin Filho.
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Marketing médico é um assunto controverso, principalmente no que concerne a princípios éticos. Portanto, frente à competição acirrada de mercado, é necessário o preparo profissional. Conhecer a percepção dos alunos de Medicina pode auxiliar na estruturação de alternativas de capacitação. [...] METODOLOGIA: Inicialmente, identificaram-se crenças sobre marketing médico através de grupo focal composto por 12 alunos. Com base nesses dados, dez afirmações para avaliar atitudes foram aplicadas aos alunos de uma Faculdade de Medicina pública brasileira. RESULTADOS: Observou-se falta de clareza sobre o conceito de marketing, preocupação com princípios éticos e necessidade de marketing no mercado competitivo. Na fase de aplicação, foram obtidas 280 respostas de diversos estágios do curso. Apenas 16,8% admitiram contato com o tema. Houve clareza sobre ética em relação ao paciente, influenciada positivamente pela progressão no curso, mas houve divergência na ética entre profissionais. CONCLUSÕES: Marketing médico é uma área pouco compreendida e relegada ao currículo oculto, sendo influenciada por transposições inadequadas de métodos didáticos destinados à comunicação profissional para a população leiga. Novos métodos de ensino, como a educação tutorial, podem ser uma alternativa para lidar com essas situações. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Professional marketing is a controversial topic, mainly regarding ethical principles. Therefore, increasing market competion turns professional capacitation mandatory. To know under graduation medical student's perceptions could help to develop educational alternatives to face this probl [...] em. METODOLOGY: First, professional marketing believes were identified through focus group methodology including twelve students. Based on these results, ten affirmatives were constructed to evaluate attitudes and applied to the students of a Brazilian public medicine school. RESULTS: It was observed lack of a clear definition of marketing, preoccupation regarding ethical principles and need to employ marketing strategies in a competitive market. At the survey stage, 280 answers from different stages of the course were obtained. Only 16.8% admitted to have had previous contact with the topic. Clear ethical standards for medical-patient relationship were determined, increasing with course progression. However inter-professional ethical principles was more subject to confusion. CONCLUSION: Professional marketing is poorly understood and it is relegated to the occult curricula, being influenced by didactic methods inadequately transposed for marketing strategies. Newer educational methods, like mentoring, could be an alternative to deal with these situations.Tutoria.
Elam, Carol I.; Ziegler, Craig H.; Greenberg, Ruth B.; Bailey, Beth A.
One way of assuring professional behavior in doctors is to ensure that only those students who are likely to behave professionally are admitted to medical school. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of an instrument to evaluate the professional bearing of applicants at the time of the medical school interview. Specifically,…
Ferdig, Richard E. University Of Florida College Of Education; Dawson, Kara University Of Florida College Of Education; Black, Erik W. University Of Florida College Of Education; Black, Nicole M. Paradise University Of Florida; Thompson, Lindsay A. University Of Florida
This study sought to determine if and how 501 medical students and 312 residents are using Facebook at a large university in the Southeastern United States. Results reveal that medical students and residents are using Facebook and about two-thirds of users maintain public profiles. While there is variation in the types of information provide within profiles, many medical students seem unaware of or unconcerned with the possible ramifications of sharing personal information in publicly-availab...
Demmer, Laurie A; Waggoner, Darrel J
Genomic medicine is a relatively new concept that involves using individual patients' genomic results in their clinical care. Genetic technology has advanced swiftly over the past decade, and most providers have been left behind without an understanding of this complex field. To realize its full potential, genomic medicine must be both understood and accepted by the greater medical community. The current state of professional medical education in genomics and genomic medicine is reviewed, including ongoing plans to expand educational efforts for medical students, clinical geneticists, and nongeneticist physicians. PMID:24635717
Christopher Camp (Mayo Medical School, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine)
This article describes a study evaluating the effectiveness of delivering feedback via two modes, one on one or group feedback on improving professional attitudes and behaviors. This study was conducted in a first year medical course. Methods and outcomes are discussed.
Maudsley, G; Strivens, J
It has been recognized internationally that undergraduate medical education must adapt to changing needs, as illustrated by the Tomorrow's Doctors recommendations from the General Medical Council. This paper aims to relate contemporary educational theory to under-graduate medical educational requirements, specifically highlighting conditions (e.g. experiential learning) for: professional knowledge acquisition; critical thinking, problem-solving and clinical problem-solving; and lifelong professional learning. Furthermore, problem-based learning (PBL) is highlighted as potentially providing such conditions. There are lessons from contemporary educational theory for the reform of undergraduate medical education. These include valuing prior knowledge and experience; promoting learner responsibility through facilitating rather than directing learning; encouraging learners to test out and apply new knowledge, and using small-group work to foster explicitly the elusive skills of critical thinking and reflection. Contemporary educational theory contributes valuable insights, but cannot dictate the ultimate 'mix'; at best it provides some principles for reflective analysis of the learning experiences created for tomorrow's doctors. PMID:10886636
Thai Trung M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The anatomy course offers important opportunities to develop professionalism at an early stage in medical education. It is an academically significant course that also engenders stress in some students. Methods Over a three-year period, 115 of 297 students completed creative projects. Thirty-four project completers and 47 non-completers consented to participate in the study. Projects were analyzed for professionalism themes using grounded theory. A subset of project completers and non-completers were interviewed to determine their views about the stress of anatomy and medical school, as well as the value of the creative projects. We also compared test performance of project completers and non-completers. Results Projects completed early in the course often expressed ambivalence about anatomy, whereas later projects showed more gratitude and sense of awe. Project completers tended to report greater stress than noncompleters, but stated that doing projects reduced stress and caused them to develop a richer appreciation for anatomy and medicine. Project completers performed significantly lower than non-completers on the first written exam (pre-project. Differences between groups on individual exams after both the first and second creative project were nonsignificant. Conclusion For some students, creative projects may offer a useful way of reflecting on various aspects of professionalism while helping them to manage stress.
Contemporary medical ethics is far from the traditional concept of "In-Sul (benevolent art)" or "Yul-Li (?, ethics), which emphasizes so much the personality or the character of a doctor. Nowadays, medical ethics should be considered as "professional ethics" which regulates the acts and medical practices of ordinary doctors in their daily practice. The key concepts of the professional ethics are "autonomy", "integrity", and "professional standard" established by medical organizations such as medical societies or associations. Most of Korean doctors have not been familiar with the concept of professional ethics or professionalism, which is due to the modern history of Korea. However, the concept of professional ethics is really critical to Korean doctors from the perspective of professional dignity and social respect to this profession. The current healthcare system of Korea is suffering from many problems of both private and public sector. Nonetheless, the professional ethics is urgently demanded for that very reason. PMID:23018533
Mustafa Volkan Kavas
Full Text Available Aim: Medical students’ perceptions of professionalism might reflect the impact of the current educational processes on their professional identity development. This study focuses on Ankara University Faculty of Medicine students’ perceptions of ‘good doctor’ along with the factors effective on the formation of these perceptions. Method: Six focus groups with 59 medical students from Grade-1 and Grade-6 were held. The transcripts of discussions were analyzed thematically. Results: Results regarding ‘being a good physician’ mostly mirrored the findings of previous studies framing the medical professionalism concept. The thematic pattern of the discussions on the relation between professional development and medical education suggests that students suffer from a gradual erosion of perception during medical education. That the education cannot either change the person for the better or might downgrade the person instead of improving her/him were shared by participants from both grades. Students consider clinical practice and role models two main variables determining the person's qualification as a professional. Conclusions: The formal and hidden programs determine the quality and efficacy of the professional education together. Attempts to restructure medical education must recognize the reciprocal dynamics between these two components and, thus, should carefully work out the practical aspect of the educational processes.
Kavas, Mustafa Volkan; Demirören, Meral; Ko?an, Ay?en Melek Aytu?; Karahan, Süleyman Tuna; Yalim, Neyyire Yasemin
Aim Medical students’ perceptions of professionalism might reflect the impact of the current educational processes on their professional identity development. This study focuses on Ankara University Faculty of Medicine students’ perceptions of ‘good doctor’ along with the factors effective on the formation of these perceptions. Method Six focus groups with 59 medical students from Grade-1 and Grade-6 were held. The transcripts of discussions were analyzed thematically. Results Results regarding ‘being a good physician’ mostly mirrored the findings of previous studies framing the medical professionalism concept. The thematic pattern of the discussions on the relation between professional development and medical education suggests that students suffer from a gradual erosion of perception during medical education. That the education cannot either change the person for the better or might downgrade the person instead of improving her/him were shared by participants from both grades. Students consider clinical practice and role models two main variables determining the person's qualification as a professional. Conclusions The formal and hidden programs determine the quality and efficacy of the professional education together. Attempts to restructure medical education must recognize the reciprocal dynamics between these two components and, thus, should carefully work out the practical aspect of the educational processes. PMID:25795382
Gunnarsson Ronny; Rödjer Stig; Hellquist Gunilla; von Below Bernhard; Björkelund Cecilia; Wahlqvist Mats
Abstract Background Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and...
Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh
Studies have shown that IQ alone does not contribute to the professional success of medical professionals. Professionals who are trained to be clinically competent, but have inadequate social skills for practice have proved to be less successful in their profession. Emotional intelligence (EI), which has already proved to be a key attribute for…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration. This paper assesses the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on willingness to accept postings to deprived areas among medical students in Ghana. Methods A computer-based survey involving 302 fourth year medical students was conducted from May-August 2009. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between students' willingness to accept rural postings and their professional motivations, rural exposure and family parental professional and educational status (PPES. Results Over 85% of students were born in urban areas and 57% came from affluent backgrounds. Nearly two-thirds of students reported strong intrinsic motivation to study medicine. After controlling for demographic characteristics and rural exposure, motivational factors did not influence willingness to practice in rural areas. High family PPES was consistently associated with lower willingness to work in rural areas. Conclusions Although most Ghanaian medical students are motivated to study medicine by the desire to help others, this does not translate into willingness to work in rural areas. Efforts should be made to build on intrinsic motivation during medical training and in designing rural postings, as well as favour lower PPES students for admission.
McEvoy, Mimi; Gorski, Victoria; Swiderski, Deborah; Alderman, Elizabeth
Teaching about spirituality in medical school training is lacking. Spirituality is a dimension of humanity that can put experiences of health and illness into a meaningful context. Medical students might benefit from understanding how spirituality is an important element in learning to care for patients. Spirituality also provides a context for medical students to explore their own motivations for doctoring. This article describes a longitudinal senior elective course at the end of their medical school training to delve into matters of religion/spirituality surrounding patient care. The authors pose their own perspectives on what both students and faculty gained from the experience. PMID:23625171
Weisberg, Mark; Duffin, Jacalyn
A program that brings together students entering demanding professions (law, medicine, and nursing) to explore issues of ethics and professionalism is described. The course uses thought-provoking stories, classroom discussion, student journals, and collaborative teaching. Lessons learned from teaching the course a number of times are also…
José Félix, Patiño Restrepo.
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La ética y el profesionalismo constituyen el fundamento de la actividad de la medicina, que es una empresa intensamente moral. El profesionalismo no es sólo la base del contrato social de la medicina, sino, principalmente, una fuerza estructuralmente estabilizadora y moralmente protectora de la soci [...] edad. Un profesional es la persona que se ubica en una de las disciplinas eruditas y que actúa observando los estándares técnicos, éticos y deontológicos de una profesión. El concepto de profesionalismo incluye cuatro componentes fundamentales: 1) conocimiento especializado; 2) autonomía en la toma de decisiones; 3) compromiso de servicio a la sociedad; 4) autorregulación. La transformación corporativa de los sistemas de salud que ha ocurrido principalmente en Colombia y en los Estados Unidos constituye una amenaza de destrucción del profesionalismo médico. Es el fenómeno, ya declarado como una ominosa incipiente realidad, de la desprofesionalización de la medicina, que pasaría de ser una noble profesión a convertirse en un simple oficio al servicio de los intereses corporativos. Como reacción se ha conformado un movimiento médico global, el Medical Professionalism Project que pretende el fortalecimiento del profesionalismo en el nuevo milenio a través de la implementación de tres principios y diez responsabilidades profesionales fundamentales. Abstract in english Medicine is an intensely moral endeavor and its practice is based on ethics and professionalism. The social contract of medicine rests on professionalism, but, furthermore, professionalism is both a stablilizing and a morally protective force in society. A professional is the person that engages in [...] one of the learned professions and is characterized by conforming to the technical and ethical standards of a profession. The concept of professionalism incorporates four components: 1) specialized knowledge; 2) autonomy for decision-making processes; 3) commitment of service to society; 4) auto-regulation. The corporate transformation of health care services that takes place mainly in Colombia and the USA, is threatening to destroy medical professionalism. There is a widespread accepted although incipient, ominous social phenomenon: the deprofessionalization of medicine, the transformation of a noble profession into a simple trade to serve corporate interests. But there is global reaction intending to strengthen medical professionalism in the new millennium, and the Medical Professionalism Project has been launched as an international effort with a charter consisting of three principles and 10 commitments.
Simpson, D E; Yindra, K J; Towne, J B; Rosenfeld, P S
In 1985, 683 students at a large private upper-midwestern medical school were surveyed concerning the appropriateness of traditional cheating behaviors and behaviors related to professional misconduct and dishonesty in patient care. They also rated the acceptability of various rationalizations for these behaviors. The students agreed that traditional forms of academic cheating are inappropriate, but they did not agree about the appropriateness of certain behaviors in the areas of patient care and professional misconduct. PMID:2923652
Clyde, Joseph W.; Rodríguez, Melanie M. Domenech; Geiser, Christian
Background Use of social networking services (SNS) is on the rise. While many users sign in for personal purposes, it is not uncommon for professionals to connect over SNSs with clients, students, and patients. Methods The present study used an experimental approach to examine how medical doctors’ SNS profiles impacted potential patients’ impressions of professionalism. Participants (N=250 students) were randomly assigned to view one of six Facebook profiles. Profiles were populated with 1) solely professional material, 2) personal material that was strictly healthy, or 3) personal material that included unhealthy behavior. Profiles portrayed a male or female physician resulting in a total of six experimental conditions. Medical professionalism was measured with the First Impressions of Medical Professionalism (FIMP) scale, specifically developed for this study. Results There was a large and statistically significant main effect for profile type, F(2, 250)=54.77, ppersonal profiles that contained healthy behavior were rated as most professional followed by profiles with strictly professional content. Personal unhealthy profiles were rated as least professional. Additionally, female profiles consistently received higher professionalism ratings across all three profile types [F(1, 250)=5.04, p=0.026, ?p2=0.02]. Conclusion Our results suggest that a physician's SNS profile affects a patient's perception of that physician's medical professionalism. A personal, healthy profile may augment a patient's perception of that physician's character virtues if the profile content upholds the decorum of the medical field. PMID:24947922
Elizabeth Borycki; Anthony Otto; Joe, Ronald S.
This paper describes an implementation of an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) which has been adapted for the purposes of teaching health professional students, including medical and nursing students. Off-the-shelf EMR software, while suited for physicians in practice settings does not completely satisfy the needs of these students and educators. There are many unique requirements of a teaching EMR compared to one used in a production environment. This paper describes the specific architecture ...
Carpenter, Stan; Stimpson, Matthew T.
This article presents a synthesis of recent literature on professionalism in student affairs. Attention is given to the nature of professionalism, a discussion of student affairs as a profession, the scholarly practice of student affairs, and professional development in student affairs. The authors note that an assumption of professionalism…
Clyde, Joseph W.; Domenech Rodri?guez, Melanie M.; Christian Geiser
Background: Use of social networking services (SNS) is on the rise. While many users sign in for personal purposes, it is not uncommon for professionals to connect over SNSs with clients, students, and patients. Methods: The present study used an experimental approach to examine how medical doctors’ SNS profiles impacted potential patients’ impressions of professionalism. Participants (N=250 students) were randomly assigned to view one of six Facebook profiles. Profiles were populated wit...
Development of health inter-professional telemedicine practice through simulation scenario training with students of physiotherapy-, occupational therapy-, medical laboratory technology-, and nursing education
Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Vestergaard, Kitt
Background: Welfare technology is considered to be cost effective and to promote consistent quality in health care (1, 2). Due to the pervasive deployment of telemedicine and the political focus thereon, it is very important that health professional students gain an understanding of its benefits and limitations and that they develop competences related to telemedicine practices. Because close interprofessional and intersectoral cooperation is required in the care and treatment of patients by the use of telemedicine, development of telemedicine competences must take place in an inter-professional context. Aims: The purpose of the project was • to develop practice oriented competences related to telemedicine in an inter-professional and a cross-sectoral context among health professional students of physiotherapy-, occupational therapy-, medical laboratory technology-, and nursing education. • to motivate and retain male students by the use of simulation training that involves technology. Methodology:The project was settled as a cross-professional telemedicine course on health educations. Nursing students (N=20) and physiotherapy students (N=34) participated actively and the scenarios were filmed and enacted via Adobe Connect. Students were divided into groups, and some students acted health professionals, while others acted patients. Excerpts of the recordings were analyzed and discussed with a focus on successful telemedical care and treatments well as challenges and they were followed by evaluation and qualitative interviews. Recordings, field notes, memos and observations of students and lecturers were used as empirical material for follow-up research. Data were analyzed in order to categorize the theoretical perspectives relating to learning and motivation. Results: Evaluations and follow-up research showed that students developed competences equivalent to novice level through simulation training (3). The project gave rise to wide project on Occupational Therapy education and medical laboratory technology education too. Follow-up research concludes that the boys who participated in the project responded positively to simulation training, as many of the girls did. Further results and perspectives will be presented at the conference. References: 1. Accelerating innovation: the power of the crowd. Global lessons in e-Health implementation d Documents/e-health-implementation Case study: UK Department of Health: Whole System Demonstrator program 2. Danske Regioner, Kommunernes Landsforening, Ministeriet for Sundhed og Forebyggelse, Social- og Integrationsministeriet, Erhvervs- og Vækstministeriet, Økonomi- og Indenrigsministeriet & Finansministeriet (2012): National handlingsplan for udbredelse af telemedicin, Fonden for Velfærdsteknologi 3. Nortvig, Anne-Mette et. Eriksen, Kathrine Krageskov. Teknologistøttet simulationsundervisning som translokation for teoretisk viden og praktisk handlen. Læring & Medier (LOM) – nr. 11 – 2013. ISSN: 1903-248X 4. Murray C, Grant MJ, Howarth ML, Leigh J.The use of simulation as a teaching and learning approach to support practice learning. Nurse Education in Practice 2008;8:5-8. 5. Watson K, Wright A, Morris N, McMeeken J, Rivett D, Blackstock F, et al. Can simulation replace part of clinical time? Two parallel randomised controlled trials. Med Educ 2012;46:657-667 6. Dieckmann P, Friis SM, Lippert A, Østergaard D. Goals, Success Factors, and Barriers for Simulation-Based Learning A Qualitative Interview Study in Health Care. Simulation & Gaming 2012;43:627-647. 7. Dreyfus, Stuart E.; Dreyfus, Hubert L. (February 1980). A Five-Stage Model of the Mental Activities Involved in Directed Skill Acquisition. Washington, DC: Storming Media. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
Marcos Augusto, Filisbino; Vardeli Alves de, Moraes.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudo transversal quantitativo descritivo observacional, realizado com discentes do internato da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Goiás. OBJETIVOS: Conhecer a expectativa de prática profissional de discentes do internato e observar possíveis dissonâncias em relação ao perfil do disc [...] ente preconizado pelas Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais e projeto político-pedagógico da instituição. METODOLOGIA: Foi utilizado um questionário distribuído aos 222 discentes do internato da instituição no ano de 2012. A amostra consta de 190 discentes, que correspondem a 85% do universo de análise. A significância estatística foi calculada pelo Teste do Sinal. RESULTADOS: O perfil sociodemográfico caracteriza discentes com idade média de 23,8 anos, solteiros, sendo que 66% pertencem às classes sociais A e B. O ideal do perfil de prática profissional demonstra que 84% pretendem ser especialistas, 96% desejam cursar residência médica, sendo estatisticamente significante (p = 0,0001), e 70% não pretendem, a priori, trabalhar na Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF) (p = 0,005). CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstra discentes com perfil socioeconômico elevado, que pretendem ser especialistas, cursar residência médica e não veem a ESF como uma meta-fim. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The aim of this research is to identify, in terms of professional practice, the ideal internship students in the Medical School of the Federal University of Goiás (UFG) and to observe possible dissonances in relation to the graduate profile as advocated by the National Curriculum Guide [...] lines and by the Political Pedagogical Project of this institution. METHODS: In 2012, two hundred and twenty-two medical internship students of the institution received a survey questionnaire. The sample of this research consisted of one hundred and ninety research subjects, representing 85% of the sample universe. The statistical significance was calculated using the Sign Test. RESULTS: The socio-demographic profile characterizes the students with an average age of 23.8 years old, unmarried, 66% of whom belong to social classes A and B. The ideal profile of professional practice shows that 84% want to become specialists, whereas 96% want to engage in medical residency, which is statistically significant (p = 0.0001), and 70% do not intend to work with Family Health Strategy Programs (p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: This study shows that students with high socio-economic profile, who want to become specialists, undergo a medical residency program and do not see the Family Health Strategy as a professional goal.
Joseph W. Clyde
Full Text Available Background: Use of social networking services (SNS is on the rise. While many users sign in for personal purposes, it is not uncommon for professionals to connect over SNSs with clients, students, and patients. Methods: The present study used an experimental approach to examine how medical doctors’ SNS profiles impacted potential patients’ impressions of professionalism. Participants (N=250 students were randomly assigned to view one of six Facebook profiles. Profiles were populated with 1 solely professional material, 2 personal material that was strictly healthy, or 3 personal material that included unhealthy behavior. Profiles portrayed a male or female physician resulting in a total of six experimental conditions. Medical professionalism was measured with the First Impressions of Medical Professionalism (FIMP scale, specifically developed for this study. Results: There was a large and statistically significant main effect for profile type, F(2, 250=54.77, p<0.001, ?p2=0.31. Post hoc tests indicated that personal profiles that contained healthy behavior were rated as most professional followed by profiles with strictly professional content. Personal unhealthy profiles were rated as least professional. Additionally, female profiles consistently received higher professionalism ratings across all three profile types [F(1, 250=5.04, p=0.026, ?p2=0.02]. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a physician's SNS profile affects a patient's perception of that physician's medical professionalism. A personal, healthy profile may augment a patient's perception of that physician's character virtues if the profile content upholds the decorum of the medical field.
Raúl A., Borracci; Roberto D., Pittaluga; Diego, Manente; Mariano A., Giorgi; Miguel, Rubio.
Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Aunque la elección de la carrera de medicina por los jóvenes implica algún grado de conocimiento de las condiciones laborales actuales del médico, las expectativas de los estudiantes de medicina con respecto a su práctica profesional futura rara vez han sido estudiadas en la Argentina. El objetivo f [...] ue recabar información sobre las expectativas que tienen los estudiantes de medicina próximos a graduarse, con respecto a su práctica profesional futura. Entre septiembre y diciembre de 2008 se encuestaron 125 estudiantes que cursaban el Internado Anual Rotatorio. Por medio de una encuesta anónima se recolectó información sobre las expectativas que tenían con respecto a su futura práctica profesional. Respondieron la encuesta 82.4% (103/125) de los encuestados. El 98.0% (101/103) expresó que deseaba ingresar a un programa de residencias. Con respecto a la elección de la especialidad, pediatría y psiquiatría fueron preferentes entre las mujeres (27% vs. 8%, p = 0.029 y 27% vs. 3%, p = 0.004), mientras que traumatología fue preponderante entre los varones (18% vs. 2%, p = 0.019). La mediana de ingresos esperados a 5 años fue $4.000 (mínimo: $1.500, máximo: $10.000), a 10 años $7.000 (mínimo: $3,000, máximo: $20.000) y a 20 años $10.000 (mínimo: $3 000, máximo: $30.000), según valores ajustados a diciembre de 2008 ($3.0 = US$ 1.0). En conclusión, las especialidades elegidas parecen depender del proceso de feminización de la carrera; mientras que los ingresos esperados podrían exceder la verdadera renta actual de los médicos. Se destaca la intención de participar en la docencia y el escaso interés por la investigación. Abstract in english Although the choice to study medicine implies some knowledge of the current working situation of practitioners, medical students' expectations regarding their future professional practice have been rarely investigated in Argentina. The aim of this work was to collect data about the expectations of s [...] enior medical students regarding their future professional practice. One hundred and twenty-five senior medical students were surveyed between September and December 2008. By using an anonymous survey, information regarding the expectations about their future professional practice was collected. The survey was answered by 82.4% (103/125) of the students and 98.0% (101/103) expressed their desire to enter a residence programme. Regarding specialty, pediatrics and psychiatry were the most chosen by women (27% vs. 8%, p=0.029 and 27% vs. 3%, p=0.004), and orthopedic surgery was the predominant choice in men (18% vs. 2%, p=0.019). Median of expected income at 5 years post graduation was $ 4.000 (minimum: $1,500, maximum: $10.000), at 10 years $7.000 (minimum: $3.000, maximum: $ 20.000) and at 20 years $10.000 (minimum: $3.000, maximum: $30 000), according to money value adjusted to December 2008 ($3.0 = US$ 1.0). In conclusion, chosen specialties seem to be dependent on the increasing number of female students, the expected income would exceed the current remuneration of physicians. Noterworthy finding out the students' willingness to be involved in teaching and the less interest in research.
Raúl A. Borracci
Full Text Available Aunque la elección de la carrera de medicina por los jóvenes implica algún grado de conocimiento de las condiciones laborales actuales del médico, las expectativas de los estudiantes de medicina con respecto a su práctica profesional futura rara vez han sido estudiadas en la Argentina. El objetivo fue recabar información sobre las expectativas que tienen los estudiantes de medicina próximos a graduarse, con respecto a su práctica profesional futura. Entre septiembre y diciembre de 2008 se encuestaron 125 estudiantes que cursaban el Internado Anual Rotatorio. Por medio de una encuesta anónima se recolectó información sobre las expectativas que tenían con respecto a su futura práctica profesional. Respondieron la encuesta 82.4% (103/125 de los encuestados. El 98.0% (101/103 expresó que deseaba ingresar a un programa de residencias. Con respecto a la elección de la especialidad, pediatría y psiquiatría fueron preferentes entre las mujeres (27% vs. 8%, p = 0.029 y 27% vs. 3%, p = 0.004, mientras que traumatología fue preponderante entre los varones (18% vs. 2%, p = 0.019. La mediana de ingresos esperados a 5 años fue $4.000 (mínimo: $1.500, máximo: $10.000, a 10 años $7.000 (mínimo: $3,000, máximo: $20.000 y a 20 años $10.000 (mínimo: $3 000, máximo: $30.000, según valores ajustados a diciembre de 2008 ($3.0 = US$ 1.0. En conclusión, las especialidades elegidas parecen depender del proceso de feminización de la carrera; mientras que los ingresos esperados podrían exceder la verdadera renta actual de los médicos. Se destaca la intención de participar en la docencia y el escaso interés por la investigación.Although the choice to study medicine implies some knowledge of the current working situation of practitioners, medical students' expectations regarding their future professional practice have been rarely investigated in Argentina. The aim of this work was to collect data about the expectations of senior medical students regarding their future professional practice. One hundred and twenty-five senior medical students were surveyed between September and December 2008. By using an anonymous survey, information regarding the expectations about their future professional practice was collected. The survey was answered by 82.4% (103/125 of the students and 98.0% (101/103 expressed their desire to enter a residence programme. Regarding specialty, pediatrics and psychiatry were the most chosen by women (27% vs. 8%, p=0.029 and 27% vs. 3%, p=0.004, and orthopedic surgery was the predominant choice in men (18% vs. 2%, p=0.019. Median of expected income at 5 years post graduation was $ 4.000 (minimum: $1,500, maximum: $10.000, at 10 years $7.000 (minimum: $3.000, maximum: $ 20.000 and at 20 years $10.000 (minimum: $3.000, maximum: $30 000, according to money value adjusted to December 2008 ($3.0 = US$ 1.0. In conclusion, chosen specialties seem to be dependent on the increasing number of female students, the expected income would exceed the current remuneration of physicians. Noterworthy finding out the students' willingness to be involved in teaching and the less interest in research.
Prof. Madhuri S.,
Medical education as one of the respected profession of the society worldwide routinely facescasualty as well as stressful events. Medical students through out their academic tenure exposed to stressfulenvironment, which affect their physical health, psychological well-being as well as their career. Many schoolof consistently comment that strong mentor-mentee relationship greatly influence mentee’s career. It holdsspecific advantages to the mentor as well as mentee benefiting both. This res...
Kusurkar, R. A.
Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis were to gather insights and investigate medical students’ motivation, particularly the importance of quality of motivation, factors influencing and outcomes and to explore how these can be applied t...
The purpose of this paper is to serve as a tool for preceptors to aid in pharmacy students' development of professionalism. Specifically, the article defines professionalism, describes it in the context of contemporary pharmacy practice, discusses the professional socialization process of students, and suggests strategies for preceptors to facilitate improvement in professionalism among students during experiential training. While numerous suggestions are presented, positive role modeling is ...
Muñoz, Diana C; Ortiz, Alexandra; González, Carolina; López, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd
Current e-learning systems are still inadequate to support the level of interaction, personalization and engagement demanded by clinicians, care givers, and the patient themselves. For effective e-learning to be delivered in the health context, collaboration between pedagogy and technology is required. Furthermore, e-learning systems should be flexible enough to be adapted to the students' needs, evaluated regularly, easy to use and maintain and provide students' feedback, guidelines and supporting material in different formats. This paper presents the implementation of an Intelligent Tutoring System (SIAS-ITS), and its evaluation compared to a traditional virtual learning platform (Moodle). The evaluation was carried out as a case study, in which the participants were separated in two groups, each group attending a virtual course on the WHO Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy supported by one of the two e-learning platforms. The evaluation demonstrated that the participants' knowledge level, pedagogical strategies used, learning efficiency and systems' usability were improved using the Intelligent Tutoring System. PMID:20543344
Kim, Jang Han
What is medical professionalism and does it matter to the patients? Medical professionals take responsibility for their judgements and the consequences that ensue. Traditionally medical professionalism is defined as a set of values, behaviors, and relationships which support the trust the public has in doctors. The public is well aware that absence of professionalism is harmful to their interests. However, the exercise of medical professionalism is endangered by the political and cultural environment. The values of professionalism have been changed throughout the medical history and the meaning of it was also changed according to social theories. Traditional medical professionalism was based on the virtue of autonomy, self-regulation and competency etc. However, in the new millenium era, the meaning of professionalism has changed under the concept of responsibility which includes the classical virtues. The meaning of professionalism nowadays is only based on the structure and conflicting theories which cannot solve all the issues surrounding professionalism in medical practice. The conditions of medical practice are critical determinants for the future of professionalism. The interaction between doctor and patient is central to the medical care, and medical professionalism has roots in almost every aspect of medical care. I argue that doctors have responsibility to act according to the values which have been determined by the medical profession, history and surrounding society. The new millennium medical professionalism which based on the responsibility could initiate a public dialogue about the role of the doctor in creating a fairer society. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2015;65:165-172). PMID:25797380
Hamilton, Jan L.
This study examined the impact of the Professional Learning Community model on student achievement in the state of California. Specifically, the study compared student achievement between two school types: Professional Learning Community schools and Non Professional Learning schools. The research utilized existing API scores for California schools…
Gonzales, Ernest; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Gilbert, Pat
Given the growth in the number of older adults and the ageist attitudes many in the health care profession hold, interventions aimed at improving health professionals' attitudes toward older adults are imperative. Vital Visionaries is an intergenerational art program designed to improve medical students' attitudes toward older adults. Participants…
Bansal, Aarti; Swann, Jennifer; Smithson, William Henry
The ability to work with interpreters is a core skill for UK medical graduates. At the University of Sheffield Medical School, this teaching was identified as a gap in the curriculum. Teaching was developed to use professional interpreters in role-play, based on evidence that professional interpreters improve health outcomes for patients with limited English proficiency. Other principles guiding the development of the teaching were an experiential learning format, integration to the core consultation skills curriculum, and sustainable delivery. The session was aligned with existing consultation skills teaching to retain the small-group experiential format and general practitioner (GP) tutor. Core curricular time was found through conversion of an existing consultation skills session. Language pairs of professional interpreters worked with each small group, with one playing patient and the other playing interpreter. These professional interpreters attended training in the scenarios so that they could learn to act as patient and family interpreter. GP tutors attended training sessions to help them facilitate the session. This enhanced the sustainability of the session by providing a cohort of tutors able to pass on their expertise to new staff through the existing shadowing process. Tutors felt that the involvement of professional interpreters improved student engagement. Student evaluation of the teaching suggests that the learning objectives were achieved. Faculty evaluation by GP tutors suggests that they perceived the teaching to be worthwhile and that the training they received had helped improve their own clinical practice in consulting through interpreters. We offer the following recommendations to others who may be interested in developing teaching on interpreted consultations within their core curriculum: 1) consider recruiting professional interpreters as a teaching resource; 2) align the teaching to existing consultation skills sessions to aid integration; and 3) invest in faculty development for successful and sustainable delivery. PMID:25473325
Flaherty, Anne Guerin
This study investigates the relationship between student engagement (as measured by the National Survey of Student Engagement benchmarks) and pharmacy student professionalism (as measured by the Pharmacy Professionalism Domain instrument) in first and third year pharmacy students at seven different schools of pharmacy. Engagement provides the…
Furnham, A.; Hanna, D.; Vincent, Ca
One hundred and eighty medical students completed one of five versions of a questionnaire concerning their attitudes to five complementary therapies: acupuncture, herbalism, homoeopathy, hypnosis, and osteopathy. Very few significant statistical differences in students' attitudes to the five therapies were found, suggesting that students had similar attitudes, which were generally positive, despite the fact that they considered they knew little about the therapies. These results are discussed...
Conceptions of professionalism in medicine draw on social contract theory; its strengths and weaknesses play out in how we reason about professionalism. The social contract metaphor may be a heuristic device prompting reflection on social responsibility, and as such is appealing: it encourages reasoning about privilege and responsibility, the broader context and consequences of action, and diverse perspectives on medical practice. However, when this metaphor is elevated to the status of a theory, it has well-known limits: the assumed subject position of contractors engenders blind spots about privilege, not critical reflection; its tendency to dress up the status quo in the trappings of a theoretical agreement may limit social negotiation; its attempted reconciliation of social obligation and self-interest fosters the view that ethics and self-interest should coincide; it sets up false expectations by identifying appearance and reality in morality; and its construal of prima facie duties as conditional misdirects ethical attention in particular situations from current needs to supposed past agreements or reciprocities. Using philosophical ideas as heuristic devices in medical ethics is inevitable, but we should be conscious of their limitations. When they limit the ethical scope of debate, we should seek new metaphors. PMID:22019534
Brigley, S.; Young, Y.; Littlejohns, P.; Mcewen, J.
The Royal Colleges and their Faculties have moved continuing professional development up the agenda of doctors in the UK. The low educational value and failure to change professional practice of much continuing medical education has led to criticism of its emphasis on formal, didactic teaching and academic knowledge. The ubiquitous scientific or technical bias in medical education makes questionable assumptions about the nature of professional knowledge, how professionals learn, and the linka...
Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder
Full Text Available Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sayeeda Rahman2, Urban JA D’Souza3, Gad Elbeheri4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, M Muzaherul Huq61,2Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 3School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; 4Centre for Child Evaluation and Teaching, Kuwait; 5College of Medicine, Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Centre for Medical Education (CME, Mohakhali, Dhaka, BangladeshAbstract: Learning disabilities (LDs represent the largest group of disabilities in higher education (HE institutes, including medical schools, and the numbers are continuing to rise. The worrying concern is that two-thirds to half of these students with LDs remain undiagnosed when they start their undergraduate education and may even graduate without having their disabilities diagnosed. These students struggle with their academic abilities, receive poor grades and, as a result, develop lower perceptions of their intellectual abilities than do those students without LDs. All these ultimately hamper their professional practice, employment, and career progression. Appropriate and adequate educational policies, provisions, and practices help students to progress satisfactorily. In Asian countries, public and professional awareness about LDs is low, supportive provisions are limited, legislations are inadequate, data are scarce, and equal-opportunity/widening-participation policies are not implemented effectively in the HE sector. This article discusses the issues related to LDs in medical education and draws policy, provision, and practice implications to identify, assess, and support students with LDs in medical schools, particularly in an Asian context.Keywords: medical education, learning disabilities, dyslexia, Asia
Woods, Kendra V; Peek, Kathryn E; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca
Many students in bioengineering and medical physics doctoral programs plan careers in translational research. However, while such students generally have strong quantitative abilities, they often lack experience with the culture, communication norms, and practice of bedside medicine. This may limit students' ability to function as members of multidisciplinary translational research teams. To improve students' preparation for careers in cancer translational research, we developed and implemented a mentoring program that is integrated with students' doctoral studies and aims to promote competencies in communication, biomedical ethics, teamwork, altruism, multiculturalism, and accountability. Throughout the program, patient-centered approaches and professional competencies are presented as foundational to optimal clinical care and integral to translational research. Mentoring is conducted by senior biomedical faculty and administrators and includes didactic teaching, online learning, laboratory mini-courses, clinical practicums, and multidisciplinary patient planning conferences (year 1); student development and facilitation of problem-based patient cases (year 2); and individualized mentoring based on research problems and progress toward degree completion (years 3-5). Each phase includes formative and summative evaluations. Nineteen students entered the program from 2009 through 2011. On periodic anonymous surveys, the most recent in September 2013, students indicated that the program substantially improved their knowledge of cancer biology, cancer medicine, and academic medicine; that the mentors were knowledgeable, good teachers, and dedicated to students; and that the program motivated them to become well-rounded scientists and scholars. We believe this program can be modified and disseminated to other graduate research and professional health care programs. PMID:24585385
Nancy María Rodríguez Beltrán
Full Text Available La educación médica y la medicina son prácticas sociales cuyos fines y medios tienen que definirse históricamente, considerando las necesidades de cada país al respecto y la reorientación didáctica que exige su desarrollo científico para que puedan determinarse, con precisión, los conocimientos requeridos para afrontar situaciones sanitarias epidemiológica y socialmente prioritarias. En este artículo se analizan algunas de las consecuencias generales relacionadas con el empleo de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones, particularmente en la educación superior, y cómo devienen retos que deben asumir las universidades, específicamente de ciencias médicas, en la formación de sus profesionales.Medical education and medical career are social practices whose aims and resources have to be historically defined, considering the needs of each country on this respect and the didactic reorientation that demands their scientific development so that the knowledge required to face epidemiologically and socially high-priority health situations can be accurately determined. Some of the general consequences related to the use of the information and communications technologies are analyzed in this work, particularly in the higher education, and how they become challenges that should be assumed by the universities, specifically of medical sciences, in the training of their professionals.
Nancy María, Rodríguez Beltrán; María Elena, Pardo Gómez; José Manuel, Izquierdo Lao.
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La educación médica y la medicina son prácticas sociales cuyos fines y medios tienen que definirse históricamente, considerando las necesidades de cada país al respecto y la reorientación didáctica que exige su desarrollo científico para que puedan determinarse, con precisión, los conocimientos requ [...] eridos para afrontar situaciones sanitarias epidemiológica y socialmente prioritarias. En este artículo se analizan algunas de las consecuencias generales relacionadas con el empleo de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones, particularmente en la educación superior, y cómo devienen retos que deben asumir las universidades, específicamente de ciencias médicas, en la formación de sus profesionales. Abstract in english Medical education and medical career are social practices whose aims and resources have to be historically defined, considering the needs of each country on this respect and the didactic reorientation that demands their scientific development so that the knowledge required to face epidemiologically [...] and socially high-priority health situations can be accurately determined. Some of the general consequences related to the use of the information and communications technologies are analyzed in this work, particularly in the higher education, and how they become challenges that should be assumed by the universities, specifically of medical sciences, in the training of their professionals.
Full Text Available Aarti Bansal,1 Jennifer Swann,1 William Henry Smithson2 1Academic Unit of Primary Medical Care, University of Sheffield, UK; 2Department of General Practice, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Abstract: The ability to work with interpreters is a core skill for UK medical graduates. At the University of Sheffield Medical School, this teaching was identified as a gap in the curriculum. Teaching was developed to use professional interpreters in role-play, based on evidence that professional interpreters improve health outcomes for patients with limited English proficiency. Other principles guiding the development of the teaching were an experiential learning format, integration to the core consultation skills curriculum, and sustainable delivery. The session was aligned with existing consultation skills teaching to retain the small-group experiential format and general practitioner (GP tutor. Core curricular time was found through conversion of an existing consultation skills session. Language pairs of professional interpreters worked with each small group, with one playing patient and the other playing interpreter. These professional interpreters attended training in the scenarios so that they could learn to act as patient and family interpreter. GP tutors attended training sessions to help them facilitate the session. This enhanced the sustainability of the session by providing a cohort of tutors able to pass on their expertise to new staff through the existing shadowing process. Tutors felt that the involvement of professional interpreters improved student engagement. Student evaluation of the teaching suggests that the learning objectives were achieved. Faculty evaluation by GP tutors suggests that they perceived the teaching to be worthwhile and that the training they received had helped improve their own clinical practice in consulting through interpreters. We offer the following recommendations to others who may be interested in developing teaching on interpreted consultations within their core curriculum: 1 consider recruiting professional interpreters as a teaching resource; 2 align the teaching to existing consultation skills sessions to aid integration; and 3 invest in faculty development for successful and sustainable delivery. Keywords: interpreter, communication skills, curriculum
This Perspective addresses the growing literature about online medical professionalism. Whereas some studies point to the positive potential of social media to enhance and extend medical practice, the dominant emphasis is on the risks and abuses of social media. Overall evidence regarding online medical professionalism is (as with any new area of practice) limited; however, simply accumulating more evidence, without critically checking the assumptions that frame the debate, risks reinforcing negativity toward social media. In this Perspective, the author argues that the medical community should step back and reconsider its assumptions regarding both professionalism and the digital world of social media. Toward this aim, she outlines three areas for critical rethinking by educators and students, administrators, professional associations, and researchers. First she raises some cautions regarding the current literature on using social media in medical practice, which sometimes leaps too quickly from description to prescription. Second, she discusses professionalism. Current debates about the changing nature and contexts of professionalism generally might be helpful in reconsidering notions of online medical professionalism specifically. Third, the author argues that the virtual world itself and its built-in codes deserve more critical scrutiny. She briefly summarizes new research from digital studies both to situate the wider trends more critically and to appreciate the evolving implications for medical practice. Next, the author revisits the potential benefits of social media, including their possibilities to signal new forms of professionalism. Finally, the Perspective ends with specific suggestions for further research that may help move the debate forward. PMID:25076200
Spanish adaptation of The Penn State College of Medicine Scale to assess professionalism in medical students / Adaptación al idioma español de la escala del Penn State College of Medicine para medición del profesionalismo en estudiantes de medicina
Eliseo, Bustamante; Álvaro, Sanabria.
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Introducción. El profesionalismo es un área de interés en las facultades de medicina del mundo. El uso de un cuestionario puede ser útil para evaluar el profesionalismo en Colombia. Objetivo. Adaptar la escala de profesionalismo para estudiantes de medicina del Penn State University College of Medic [...] ine al idioma español como instrumento válido para evaluarlo. Materiales y métodos. Se siguieron las guías para adaptación de instrumentos del proyecto IQOLA, realizando traducción y traducción inversa, así como una prueba piloto y una evaluación de las características psicométricas en 250 estudiantes. Se evaluó la correlación entre ítems y escala y la validez interna con el alfa de Chronbach y se hizo un análisis factorial de componentes principales. Resultados. El alfa de Cronbach global fue de 0,86, la medida de Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin fue de 0,83 y el test de esfericidad de Bartlett tuvo un valor de p>0,00001. Se encontraron seis factores que explicaron 93 % de la varianza total y cuatro nuevos factores que emergieron del análisis factorial. Ocho ítems tuvieron alta singularidad. Conclusión. La escala del Penn State University College of Medicine mide con buen nivel de confiabilidad las actitudes hacia el profesionalismo en los estudiantes de medicina. No obstante, la estructura de la escala mostró diferencias al ser validada en estudiantes latinoamericanos. Abstract in english Introduction: Professionalism is a subject of interest in medical schools around the world. The use of a questionnaire could be useful to assess professionalism in Colombia. Objective: To adapt The Penn State University College of Medicine Professionalism Questionnaire as a culturally valid instrume [...] nt in the Spanish language. Materials and methods: We followed recommendations from the IQOLA project and used forward and back translation with four independent translations, as well as a pilot evaluation and an evaluation of psychometric features with 250 students. We evaluated item-scale correlations and internal consistency with Chronbach´s alpha test and conducted a principal components factor analysis. Results: Global Cronbach´s alpha was 0.86, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was 0.83, and Bartlett´s test of sphericity had a p >0.00001. We found six factors that explained 93% of the total variance and four new factors emerged in the factor analysis, while eight items had high uniqueness. Conclusion: The Penn State University College of Medicine Scale measures professionalism attitudes in medical students with good reliability. However, the structure of the scale demonstrated differences when used in the Latin American medical student population.
Starfield Barbara; Klazinga Niek S; Plochg Thomas
Abstract Background The professional organization of medical work no longer reflects the changing health needs caused by the growing number of complex and chronically ill patients. Key stakeholders enforce coordination and remove power from the medical professions in order allow for these changes. However, it may also be necessary to initiate basic changes to way in which the medical professionals work in order to adapt to the changing health needs. Discussion Medical leaders, supported by he...
Coverdale, John H.
Objective: The goals of this article are to present a framework, based on John Gregory's (1724-1773) concept of professionalism, for advising beginning medical students about what is important to training and to the practice of medicine. Method: The author presents Gregory's concept of professionalism with an emphasis on the related virtues.…
Holtman, Matthew C.
Validity arguments for assessment tools intended to measure medical professionalism suffer for lack of a clear theoretical statement of what professionalism is and how it should behave. Drawing on several decades of field research addressing deviance and informal social control among physicians, a theoretical sketch of professionalism is presented…
D, Nel; R J, Burman; R, Hoffman; S, Randera-Rees.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The workforce of 'physician-scientists' is ageing and decreasing in numbers. The responsibility to combat this trend rests on future generations of healthcare professionals and it is therefore valuable to evaluate medical students' attitudes towards research. OBJECTIVE: To establish the [...] attitudes of University of Cape Town (UCT) medical students towards research and to investigate the factors influencing these attitudes. METHODS: An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire was administered to medical students from years 1 to 6 studying medicine at UCT in 2011. Questions were primarily closed-ended and consisted of Likert scales. RESULTS: Out of a population of 1 195 medical students, 733 were sampled (63%); 65% were female, 53% were preclinical students (years 1 - 3) and 47% were in their clinical years (year 4 - 6). Overall, 61% of students had a positive attitude towards research and 74% felt that participation in research was important to their medical school education; 22% had been involved in voluntarily extracurricular research, 4% had presented at a scientific meeting and 3% had published in peer-reviewed journals. A number of perceived barriers to student research were identified including a lack of adequate training, time and research opportunities. CONCLUSION: Students believed that research was important and had a positive attitude towards it. However, few had been involved in voluntary research and produced work worthy of presentation and/or publication. Addressing identified barriers and improving students' attitudes may begin to reverse the trend in declining numbers of physician-scientists.
Lehmann, Bianca; Kre?mer, Brigitte; Werwick, Katrin; Herrmann, Markus
Aim: The evaluation of medical students' perceptions regarding an elective study course in Homeopathy in which small groups have participated annually for six years, at the Institute for General Practice and Family Medicine at the Otto Von Guericke University, Magdeburg. The course was assessed in terms of concept, delivery, and influence on students' professional development.
Objective: The author proposes courses of action for medical schools to increase positive health promotion among medical students. Method: This article will review the current literature on medical student health care. Strategies of action for medical schools are proposed for increasing student wellness. Results: Medical schools can positively…
Sachs Hills, Laura
Dress, accessories, and grooming are hugely important factors in the medical practice employee's professional image. But what, exactly, is professional when it comes to one's image, and how, specifically, can one convey professionalism to others? This article offers eight very specific strategies the medical practice employee can use to polish his or her professional image. It suggests that it is vital to understand what appearance says to others about you. This article offers guidance for practice employees wearing uniforms and those wearing business attire. It offers tips for being professional yet expressing one's individuality. Finally, this article reveals the classic signs when lack of professional attire is hurting one's career and provides specific tips for practice managers and administrators and the medical practice staff. PMID:18616004
Professional teacher’s ethics is a collection of moral codes of their professional work. It is significant that the teaching profession respects certain designated professional-ethical codes of conduct between the teachers and the students, with their colleagues and other people they professionally cooperate with. This study is focused on analysis of the professional ethical relation of teachers towards students, seen from student’s point of view. These are the results of student?...
Community mental health services are evolving toward more holistic, patient-centered, recovery-based practices. This change necessitates an attitudinal shift from mental health workers, and training in recovery principles is helpful in achieving this change. Medical students often have narrow, doctor-centered concepts of mental health care. Traditional clinical placements in psychiatry do little to address this. We evaluated a recovery-focused teaching program for medical students in psychiatry.
Full Text Available [english] The current challenges of educational policy seem to be associated to changes of the health care system, to counteract concerns regarding the lack of physicians, supply shortage and migration of specialists. Therefore, expectations, wishes and concerns relevant to the anticipated everyday life as a physician of medical students at the Witten/Herdecke University (UWH were acquired with an online questionnaire. Useful for a direct comparison the results of the online survey ‘Medical Study and Future’ throughout Germany have been used. Findings from this survey are common characteristics regarding the choice of the profession and planning of an establishment as a general practitioner and clear differences in reflecting on future issues in the occupational field.[german] Die aktuellen bildungspolitischen Herausforderungen scheinen sich als direkte Reaktion auf Änderungen im Gesundheitssystem zu manifestieren, um den Befürchtungen von Ärztemangel, Versorgungsengpass und Abwanderung von qualifizierten Fachärzten entgegen zu wirken. Deshalb wurden mit einer Online-Befragung die Erwartungen, Wünsche und Befürchtungen von Wittener Medizinstudierenden bzgl. des antizipierten beruflichen Alltags als Ärztin oder Arzt erfasst. Zum direkten Vergleich standen die Ergebnisse einer bundesweiten Online-Umfrage zur Zukunft von Medizinstudierenden zur Verfügung. Dabei zeigen sich Gemeinsamkeiten zwischen den beiden Gruppen bzgl. der angestrebten Fachrichtung und der Planung einer Niederlassung, aber auch deutliche Unterschiede in der Einschätzung zukünftiger beruflicher Problemfelder.
McLachlan John C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Professionalism is a difficult construct to define in medical students but aspects of this concept may be important in predicting the risk of postgraduate misconduct. For this reason attempts are being made to evaluate medical students' professionalism. This study investigated the psychometric properties of Selected Response Questions (SRQs relating to the theme of professional conduct and ethics comparing them with two sets of control items: those testing pure knowledge of anatomy, and; items evaluating the ability to integrate and apply knowledge ("skills". The performance of students on the SRQs was also compared with two external measures estimating aspects of professionalism in students; peer ratings of professionalism and their Conscientiousness Index, an objective measure of behaviours at medical school. Methods Item Response Theory (IRT was used to analyse both question and student performance for SRQs relating to knowledge of professionalism, pure anatomy and skills. The relative difficulties, discrimination and 'guessabilities' of each theme of question were compared with each other using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Student performance on each topic was compared with the measures of conscientiousness and professionalism using parametric and non-parametric tests as appropriate. A post-hoc analysis of power for the IRT modelling was conducted using a Monte Carlo simulation. Results Professionalism items were less difficult compared to the anatomy and skills SRQs, poorer at discriminating between candidates and more erratically answered when compared to anatomy questions. Moreover professionalism item performance was uncorrelated with the standardised Conscientiousness Index scores (rho = 0.009, p = 0.90. In contrast there were modest but significant correlations between standardised Conscientiousness Index scores and performance at anatomy items (rho = 0.20, p = 0.006 though not skills (rho = .11, p = .1. Likewise, students with high peer ratings for professionalism had superior performance on anatomy SRQs but not professionalism themed questions. A trend of borderline significance (p = .07 was observed for performance on skills SRQs and professionalism nomination status. Conclusions SRQs related to professionalism are likely to have relatively poor psychometric properties and lack associations with other constructs associated with undergraduate professional behaviour. The findings suggest that such questions should not be included in undergraduate examinations and may raise issues with the introduction of Situational Judgement Tests into Foundation Years selection.
Stevens, Rosemary A
Professionalism in medicine is an ambiguous term. Discussions are hampered by understandings of the past that are counterproductive to today s debates. Three decades of criticism of physicians as self-interested and arrogant, and of professional organizations as unfairly monopolistic have shaken the confidence of professional leaders and their constituents in their ability to act as a positive social force, and left the concept of professional autonomy without a useful meaning. Inherited assumptions about conflict between the profession, government and the market have encouraged organizational policies to fight familiar enemies for short-term gains, rather than reinvent professionalism as a social force or seek new strategic alliances. This article stresses the importance of distancing the present from the past in re-inventing professionalism for the future, and lists eight fundamental goals. PMID:12429953
Full Text Available AIM: This study has been carried out descriptively to determine the status of medication use among students of Erzincan University which is located in central Erzincan, Turkey. METHODS: The universe of the study comprised 4506 students and the sample involved 885 (19.6% of the universe students who attended faculties, associate programs, and vocational schools of Erzincan University. Data were collected between April-May 2008 through a questionnaire form that included students’ identifying characteristics and their status of medication use. For statistical analyses, percentage and chi-square test were used. RESULTS: It was found that 39.3% of participants were 2nd grade students, 59.8% were between 20-22 years, and 34.7% were attending the Faculty of Education. It was established that 64.6% of students used medication for headache and/or cold-influenza, 83.6% read the respective package insert before using a drug, 47.9% discontinued medicaten after cessation of complaints, 50.5% used a medication within the last couple of months and that 23.2% of them took these medications without prescription. It was also found that 70.3% of participants had used a medication without prescription whenever they had a headache; 61.5% of non-prescription medication used were analgesics; and 64.1% used a non-prescription drug due to prior use of the same drug. A significant difference was established between the gender of the students and their medication use within the last couple of months. It was also found that there is a statistically significant difference between students’ gender and the faculty they attend and rates of package insert reading. CONCLUSION: As a conclusion, it was determined that more than half of the students used a medication within the last one month and 23.2% of these medications were bought without prescription. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 505-512
Ku?e, Josef; Va?harová, Michaela
Both in the general public and in the professional communities, very diverse notions of euthanasia can be found. At the same time determining of the precise semantics of euthanasia is one of the crucial prerequisites for subsequent meaningful ethical discussion of euthanasia. The paper analyzes an empirical study investigating the understanding of euthanasia by medical students. The aim of the conducted research was to identify the semantic definitions of euthanasia used by the first-year medical students. PMID:24968293
Bansal, Aarti; Swann, Jennifer; Smithson, William Henry
The ability to work with interpreters is a core skill for UK medical graduates. At the University of Sheffield Medical School, this teaching was identified as a gap in the curriculum. Teaching was developed to use professional interpreters in role-play, based on evidence that professional interpreters improve health outcomes for patients with limited English proficiency. Other principles guiding the development of the teaching were an experiential learning format, integration to the core cons...
Professionals and researchers have developed a number of strategies aimed at improving the quality and safety of medication use. However, studies continue to demonstrate persistent problems. For instance, the first paper in this thesis reveals the prevalence of potentially harmful drug combinations among elderly people in Europe. The following four papers focus on two professional groups and how they have approached safety and quality issues related to medication use: 1) the Swedish drug and ...
Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2010
The Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) has been providing Western residents with "affordable access to the healthcare professions" for more than 55 years through its Professional Student Exchange Program (PSEP). If an individual enrolls through WICHE's PSEP, he pays reduced tuition at out-of-state public and private…
Student affairs professionals in the United States were surveyed to determine the predictive value of overall job satisfaction, organizational support, organizational politics, and work/nonwork interaction on affective organizational commitment. Results indicate that a supportive work environment leads to increased affective attachment to the…
Monaghan, Catherine H.; Columbaro, Norina L.
The application of Communities of Practice (CofP) can potentially serve as an effective learning strategy for higher education classrooms by contributing to student professional development while fostering a desire for life-long learning. The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the effectiveness of this learning strategy and help…
Register, Shilpa J.
Society has high expectations of health care practitioners leaving the burden of proof on healthcare educational institutions. As educators, it is our responsibility to ensure that students acquire the cognitive and affective domains associated with professionalism through the acquisition of appropriate skills and knowledge leading to the…
Nitasha Bhat; Nimmy Thakolkaran; Sanjay Pattanshetty; Ashwini Kumar; Animesh Jain; Rashmi Kundapur; Sanjeev Badiger; Nowshin Ullal
BackgroundSelf-medication results in wastage of resources, increases resistance of pathogens and generally causes serious health hazards such as adverse drug reactions, prolonged suffering and drug dependence. This study was undertaken to determine the reasons for self-medication and the pattern of self-medication among medical students.MethodThis cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore. The participants were medical students from first to ...
Kaltreider, Nancy B.
Examined impact of medical student's suicide on fellow medical students (n=20). Identified pattern of posttraumatic symptoms which persisted over several months. Found students' tendency to identify with victim was related to prevalent experience of medical student depression. (Author/ABL)
Gavin George; Candice Reardon
Background: The migration of health professionals can have a profound impact on health systems around the globe. The International Organization for Migration’s (IOM) Mobility of Health Professionals Research Project (MoHProf) aimed to improve knowledge about the migration of healthcare professionals and understand migration intentions and factorsinfluencing the migration of medical and nursing students.Objectives: The study aimed to determine the proportion of nursing and medical students w...
Santen, Sally A; Petrusa, Emil; Gruppen, Larry D
Studies have found unprofessional behavior in medical school was associated with disciplinary action by state medical boards. For medical schools, promotions committees are responsible for identifying which students do not demonstrate academic performance and professional behavior acceptable for promotion and graduation. The objective of this study was to determine if student identification by promotions committees during medical school was associated with disciplinary actions by state medical boards later in practice. We reviewed 20 years of promotions committees' records from a single institution and noted students identified by promotions committees for performance or behavioral issues. These were compared with disciplinary action reports from the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) for graduates. Over the two decades, 2,131 students matriculated and 2,078 of these graduated. The promotions committees identified 140 students for poor academic performance or behavioral problems (140/2,078, 6.7 %). Of these, 108 students graduated. FSMB records showed 29 of the 2,078 graduates had sanctions by state boards (29/2,078, 1.4 %). Only four students that had actions by state medical boards were among the 108 graduated students identified by medical school promotions committees (4/108, 3.7 %). Of the students not identified by promotions committees, 25 eventually had disciplinary actions (25/1,970, 1.3 %). The odds of having state medical board action if identified by promotions committees was 3.0 (CI 1.02-8.8, p < 0.05). In conclusion, identification of students by medical school promotions committees was later associated with state medical board actions. However, most graduates with state medical board actions were not identified by medical school promotions committees. PMID:25134665
Hossein Karimi Moonaghi
Full Text Available Introduction: Regarding to the importance of spiritual intelligence and professionalism in faculty development, this study aimed to determine the level of spiritual intelligence, the level of professional development and leadership, and performance of professional responsibilities as two components of professionalism, and the relationship between spiritual intelligence and professionalism.Methods: This is a correlation cross-sectional study with 160 medical faculty members as subjects, which was defined base on stratified probability sampling in one of the medical universities in Iran. King’s modified spiritual intelligence questionnaire and teaching competency self assessment instrument of Alabama University were used. Statistical tests such as t-test, two-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal–Wallis, spearman and regressions were applied to analyze. P-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The results showed that the mean score of spiritual intelligence was 63±1.2, which classifies as moderate. The median score of professional development and leadership was 9 with range between 4 and 12; and the median score of performance of professional responsibilities was 17 with range between 5 and 20. There was a significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and performance of professional responsibilities (rs=0.23, p=0.003. There was no significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and professional development and leadership (rs=0.13, p=0.11. Conclusion: We found a significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and self assessed professionalism components in performance of professional responsibilities dimension, indicating that spiritual intelligence can be the basis for professional promotion.
Essary, Alison C
The use of social media is the norm among the digital native generation, with 75% of the Millennial Generation connected through Facebook. For students in medical education who struggle to distinguish between personal and professional boundaries, social media provides yet another challenge. Incidents of unprofessional conduct and academic dismissal have been reported. Administration, faculty, and students would benefit from clear policies and procedures, case scenarios of social media violations, and suggestions for using social media wisely. PMID:22308935
John H. Holloway
Kindergarten through twelfth grade teacher competence, in both subject matter and pedagogy, is critical for advancing student achievement in science. The National Science Foundation (NSF 1996), however, has found that only about two-thirds of first- through eighth-grade teachers completed at least one college course in science and fewer than 30 percent said they feel well qualified to teach science. Additionally, Lowery (1998) points out that many educators see no need to change from a show-and-tell type of instruction to methods that help students understand science by constructing meaning for themselves through exploration and using prior knowledge. To help teachers raise student achievement levels, Schmoker (2002) proposes that schools design professional development that, by focusing on assessed standards and reviewing student achievement data, directly impacts student learning.
Purpose: Updating professional knowledge is a central tenet of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and professional reading is a common method health practitioners use to update their professional knowledge. This paper reports the level of professional reading by Medical Radiation Science (MRS) practitioners in Australia and examines organisational support for professional reading. Materials and Methods: Survey design was used to collect data from MRS practitioners. A questionnaire was sent to 1142 Australian practitioners, which allowed self-report data to be collected on the length of time practitioners engage in professional reading and the time workplaces allocate to practitioners for professional reading. Results: Of the 362 MRS practitioners who returned the survey, 93.9% engaged in professional reading on a weekly basis. In contrast, only 28.9% of respondents reported that their workplace allocates time for professional reading to practitioners. MRS practitioners employed in universities engaged in higher levels of reading than their colleagues employed in clinical workplaces (p < 0.01) and more university workplaces allocated time for professional reading to their employees than clinical workplaces (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences for clinical practitioners in level of reading across geographic, organisational and professional demographic factors. Significant differences in workplace allocation of time for professional reading in clinicaf time for professional reading in clinical workplaces were evident for health sector (p < 0.01); work environment (p < 0.01); geographic location (p < 0.01) and area of specialisation (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The vast majority of respondent MRS practitioners engage in professional reading to update their professional knowledge. This demonstrates an ongoing commitment at the individual practitioner level for updating professional knowledge. Updating professional knowledge is an organisational as well as an individual practitioner issue. Whilst the majority of organisations do not currently support MRS practitioners with time allocation for professional reading, there were organisations currently providing this form of support to their employees. Wider adoption of protected time for professional reading would provide much needed organisational support to practitioners and reduce the identified inequity that currently exists across the MRS profession.
Burgoyne, Louise N.; Flynn, Siun O. X.; Boylan, Geraldine B.
Background: Research training is essential in a modern undergraduate medical curriculum. Our evaluation aimed to (a) gauge students’ awareness of research activities, (b) compare students’ perceptions of their transferable and research-specific skills competencies, (c) determine students’ motivation for research and (d) obtain students’ personal views on doing research. Methods: Undergraduate medical students (N=317) completed a research skills questionnaire develo...
Murrell, Vicki S.
Objectives The goal of this study was to determine differences in moral judgment among students in medical school. Methods This cross-sectional study involved students currently enrolled in undergraduate medical education. Recruited via email, 192 students took an online version of the Defining Issues Test to determine their current stage of moral judgment, as well as their percentage of post conventional thought. Independent variables included year of graduation, which indicated curriculum completion as well as participation in a professionalism course. Data was analyzed primarily using One-Way Analysis of Variance. Results Of the 192 participants, 165 responses were utilized. ANOVA showed no significant differences in moral judgment between or among any of the student cohorts, which were grouped by year of matriculation. Comparisons included students in the four years of medical school, divided by graduation year; students about to graduate (n=30) vs. those still in school (n=135); and students who had participated in a course in professionalism (n=91) vs. those who had not (n=74). Conclusions These results demonstrate a lack of evolution in the moral reasoning of medical students and raise the issue of what might stimulate positive changes in moral judgment during the medical school experience. PMID:25543016
Full Text Available Abstract Background The professional organization of medical work no longer reflects the changing health needs caused by the growing number of complex and chronically ill patients. Key stakeholders enforce coordination and remove power from the medical professions in order allow for these changes. However, it may also be necessary to initiate basic changes to way in which the medical professionals work in order to adapt to the changing health needs. Discussion Medical leaders, supported by health policy makers, can consciously activate the self-regulatory capacity of medical professionalism in order to transform the medical profession and the related professional processes of care so that it can adapt to the changing health needs. In doing so, they would open up additional routes to the improvement of the health services system and to health improvement. This involves three consecutive steps: (1 defining and categorizing the health needs of the population; (2 reorganizing the specialty domains around the needs of population groups; (3 reorganizing the specialty domains by eliminating work that could be done by less educated personnel or by the patients themselves. We suggest seven strategies that are required in order to achieve this transformation. Summary Changing medical professionalism to fit the changing health needs will not be easy. It will need strong leadership. But, if the medical world does not embark on this endeavour, good doctoring will become merely a bureaucratic and/or marketing exercise that obscures the ultimate goal of medicine which is to optimize the health of both individuals and the entire population.
Behrens, Kevin Gary; Fellingham, Robyn
Many academic philosophers and ethicists are appointed to teach ethics to medical students. We explore exactly what this task entails. In South Africa the Health Professions Council's curriculum for training medical practitioners requires not only that students be taught to apply ethical theory to issues and be made aware of the legal and regulatory requirements of their profession, it also expects moral formation and the inculcation of professional virtue in students. We explore whether such expectations are reasonable. We defend the claim that physicians ought to be persons of virtuous character, on the grounds of the social contract between society and the profession. We further argue that since the expectations of virtue of health care professionals are reasonable, it is also sound reasoning to expect ethics teachers to try to inculcate such virtues in their students, so far as this is possible. Furthermore, this requires of such teachers that they be suitable role models of ethical practice and virtue, themselves. We claim that this applies to ethics teachers who are themselves not members of the medical profession, too, even though they are not bound by the same social contract as doctors. We conclude that those who accept employment as teachers of ethics to medical students, where as part of their contractual obligation they are expected to inculcate moral values in their students, ought to be prepared to accept their responsibility to be professionally ethical, themselves. PMID:23409954
Medical student selection is an important but difficult task. Three recent papers by McManus et al. in BMC Medicine have re-examined the role of tests of attainment of learning (A’ levels, GCSEs, SQA) and of aptitude (AH5, UKCAT), but on a much larger scale than previously attempted. They conclude that A’ levels are still the best predictor of future success at medical school and beyond. However, A’ levels account for only 65% of the variance in performance that is found. Therefore, mor...
Atlas, Michel C
College textbook publishers are planning to make college and professional education textbooks available online to be downloaded to personal communication devices (e.g., smartphones), digital audio players (e.g., iPods), and digital readers (e.g., Kindles). The current literature on the attitudes of current students to this technological change, especially as it relates to medical school students is reviewed. A short survey attempted to determine how ready the first-year medical students at the University of Louisville are to accept this change in their study habits. PMID:23394419
Anjali Singh; Shikha Jain
Hepatitis B is the major infectious disease of mankind. It is the most common cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepato-cellular carcinoma World wide. The health professionals are at the maximum risk. Vaccination against Hepatitis B can prevent this deadly disease. This survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and status of Hepatitis B vaccination among the medical students of B.J.Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
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Background and Objectives: Burnout is caused by high-stress jobs and could induce somatic, psychological disorders and negative attitude to professional actives so that this condition causes poor relationship with the patient. This study aimed at investigating burnout in senior medical students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This research was a cross sectional study carried out on all senior medical students (N=56 in 2008. Data were obtained by two questionnaires including demographic questionnaire and Maslach burnout Inventory. They were then analyzed using SPSS software and Chi square Test. Results: The findings showed that the majority of medical students (91.1% had burnout and only 8.9% of them had not burnout. Severe burnout was in 16% of students. There was not any significant relationship between burnout and sex, age, smoking, duration of education, interest in medical course and marital status P<0.05. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that burnout is common problem in senior medical students and need special consideration. Therefore medical students should be encouraged to seek help and adequate facilities by holding workshops of life-skill training and coping with stress. However, burnout should be paid special attention in medical students by counseling centers of University for prevention of consequences.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Burnout is caused by high-stress jobs and could induce somatic, psychological disorders and negative attitude to professional actives so that this condition causes poor relationship with the patient. This study aimed at investigating burnout in senior medical students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences.Methods: This research was a cross sectional study carried out on all senior medical students (N=56 in 2008. Data were obtained by two questionnaires including demographic questionnaire and Maslach burnout Inventory. They were then analyzed using SPSS software and Chi square Test. Results: The findings showed that the majority of medical students (91.1% had burnout and only 8.9% of them had not burnout. Severe burnout was in 16% of students. There was not any significant relationship between burnout and sex, age, smoking, duration of education, interest in medical course and marital status P<0.05.Conclusion: The results of the study showed that burnout is common problem in senior medical students and need special consideration. Therefore medical students should be encouraged to seek help and adequate facilities by holding workshops of life-skill training and coping with stress. However, burnout should be paid special attention in medical students by counseling centers of University for prevention of consequences.
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Training methodology of medical students has been a subject for profound reforms during the recent years. Revolutionary technological progress is one of the reasons for this process; another reason is a constant search for the most efficient educational ideology. The article presents a historical review of medical education systems in Russia and in Europe. Innovational methods of problem-oriented training, involving use of recent electronic and technical achievements significantly differs traditional scheme, described as a «tutor-student» system. The present work focuses particularly on scientific research as a part of medical training, and its role in preparation of modern medical practitioners. It is stated that doctor is a person who combines professional skills and personal qualities. Therefore complex of technocratic and humanitarian aspects in medical education assists in development of successful training system.
Lukovic, Jasminka Adzic; Miletic, Vladimir; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Trajkovic, Goran; Ratkovic, Nevena; Aleksic, Danijela; Grgurevic, Anita
Introduction Self-medication among future health care professionals can represent a serious threat to professionalism in medicine and it has potential to put at risk public trust into this profession. The aim of this research was to investigate prevalence and risk factors for self-medication among population of medical students, because it was previously shown that their attitudes towards pharmacotherapy could affect the way they could prescribe medication in the future. Material and Methods Research was performed as a cross-sectional study and it included 1296 (84.1%) 1st, 3rd and 6th year students of School of Medicine, University of Belgrade. Students filled out a demographic and self-medication questionnaire created for the purpose of this research and the Physical Health Questionnaire – 9 (PHQ-9). Questions about self-medication were related to the period of the previous year. Results Self-medication was reported by 79.9% students. The most frequently self-prescribed medications were analgesics (55.4%). Independent risk factors for self-medication were possession of home-pharmacies (OR?=?5.3, CI 95% 3.89–7.23), lower level of father's education (OR?=?1.6, CI 95% 1.18–2.25), consumption of alcoholic beverages (OR?=?1.5, CI 95% 1.13–2.08), less than 1 hour spent in physical activity per week (OR?=?1.4, CI 95% 1.00–2.02), female gender (OR?=?1.4, CI 95% 1.02–1.89), older age (OR?=?1.1, CI 95% 1.07–1.21) and higher PHQ-9 score (OR?=?1.09, CI 95% 1.05–1.12). Conclusions Self-medication is an important issue among population of medical students. Prevalence of self-medication could be controlled through regulatory authorities and further education. PMID:25503967
Waghachavare, Vivek B.; Dhumale, Girish B.; Kadam, Yugantara R.; Gore, Alka D.
Objectives: Various studies across the globe have emphasised that students undertaking professional courses, such as medical and dental studies, are subjected to higher stress. Excessive stress could lead to psychological problems like depression and anxiety. The objective of the current study was to assess stress among students of various professional colleges and its association with various academic, social and health-related factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from ...
Planeación estratégica para el fortalecimiento de la ética profesional de Enfermería en la filial Nuevitas Strategic plan for strengthening professional ethics of nursing students from the affiliate medical school of Nuevitas
Niurkis Milanés Céspedes
Full Text Available Se comprobó que existe una deficiente aplicación y sistematización de los valores éticos profesionales en docentes y estudiantes de licenciatura en enfermería de la Filial de Ciencias Médicas de Nuevitas, por lo que se realizó un estudio descriptivo, cualitativo, fundamentado en la metodología de la investigación-acción, con el objetivo de diseñar una propuesta de planeación estratégica que contribuya al fortalecimiento de los mismos. El universo de la investigación abarcó a todos los sujetos involucrados en el proceso de formación de esta especialidad, escogiendo como muestra al 100% de los estudiantes del nuevo modelo formativo y al 100% de los docentes categorizados. El estudio se realiza de forma retrospectiva y con un corte transversal, pues se enmarca en el período de los cursos 2008-2009. A través de encuestas, la observación a las evaluaciones realizadas en la educación en el trabajo, las entrevistas, y el análisis se pudo valorar la efectividad de la propuesta, que permitirá perfeccionar el fortalecimiento de valores éticos profesionales en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje, mediante acciones concretas diseñadas a partir de las debilidades y amenazas encontradas en el diagnóstico estratégico, lo que reforzará la labor educativa y la calidad de la atención de enfermería. Se concluye que el nivel de preparación del claustro de profesores y de los estudiantes de enfermería aún resulta insuficiente. Por lo tanto, es necesaria la actualización de este tema desde posiciones humanistas.During the academic year 2008-2009, a descriptive, qualitative study was carried out to design a strategic plan to contribute to strengthening the professional ethical values of both professors and nursing students from Nuevitas’s affiliate medical school. The universe comprised every subject involved in the nursing formation process. The sample included 100 % of new-formative-model students, as well as 100 % of categorized professors. Results showed a deficient preparation of professors and students. The proposal’s effectiveness was assessed through evaluations, interviews, and analysis.
Shmarak, A. D.
"Spanish for Medical Professionals" is an application authored using the IBM InfoWindow Presentation System (IWPS). It consists of a double-sided videodisc featuring four doctor/patient dialogues interrupted by comprehension quizzes, plus a large visual and audio data base for drill and practice of Spanish words and phrases in the following classifications: Medical History, Review of Systems, Anatomy Vocabulary, General Vocabulary and Pronunciation Guide. These five broad headings yield easy ...
Diers, Jane E.
The purpose of this research was to define professional communication in nursing and to develop a prototype to assess and appraise communication at a selected college. The research focused on verbal and nonverbal communication between the nurse and the client using a simulated environment. The first objective was to identify the major characteristics of professional communication in nursing. In this study, the characteristics of professional communication emerged from the constant comparison method of the results of research studies in the fields of healthcare and communication. These characteristics became the elements, representative properties, and descriptive dimensions to assess and appraise verbal and nonverbal communication at the college of study. The second objective was to develop a template to assess verbal and nonverbal communication at a selected college. Using a two-fold process, the researcher used the results from the first objective to begin template construction. First, specialists in the fields of communication and nursing established the content validity of the elements, representative properties, and descriptive dimensions. Second, the course educators determined the relevancy and importance of the elements, properties, and descriptive dimensions to the objectives of two courses at the college of study. The third objective was to develop a rubric to appraise nursing students' verbal and nonverbal communication in a videotaped communication review. An appraisal rubric was constructed from an extension of the template. This rubric was then tested by faculty at the selected college to appraise the communication of five students each in the junior and senior years of the nursing program.
The goal of this paper is to study the collaboration possibilities between Russia and Finland in the field of professional training of highly-skilled medical professionals. With this objective in mind, the contemporary collaboration between Russia and Finland in medicine is being analyzed. As a result, it has been established that this collaboration is rather poorly organized today and is limited to separate internships and visits of Russian doctors to the Finnish hospitals. At the same ...
Wilson, Anna; Åkerlind, Gerlese; Walsh, Barbara; Stevens, Bruce; Turner, Bethany; Shield, Alison
With rising vocational expectations of higher education, universities are increasingly promoting themselves as preparing students for future professional lives. This makes it timely to ask what makes professionalism meaningful to students. In addressing this question, we first identify aspects of professionalism that might represent appropriate…
Stenfors-Hayes, Terese; Weurlander, Maria; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan
This paper explores medical teachers' perceived barriers and opportunities for educational and professional development. Data has been gathered through 19 semi-structured interviews with participants on a staff development course 1 year after their participation. The analysis shows that most perceived barriers are found on an organisational level,…
Pinilla, Severin; Weckbach, Ludwig T.; Alig, Stefan K.; Bauer, Helen; Noerenberg, Daniel; Singer, Katharina; Tiedt, Steffen
Purpose: Blogging is an increasingly popular method of sharing and reflecting on experiences of medical students in the World Wide Web with a potentially global learning community. The authors are not aware of studies that specifically examined blogs by medical students and thus for the first time investigated the type of experiences and impressions that emerged from these blogs with relevance for medical students and medical educators.
Financial relationships among the biomedical industries, physicians, and professional medical associations (PMAs) can be professional, ethical, mutually beneficial, and, most importantly, can lead to improved medical care. However, such relationships, by their very nature, present conflicts of interest (COIs). One of the greatest concerns regarding COI is continuing medical education (CME), especially because currently industry funds 40-60% of CME. COIs have the potential to bias physicians in practice, educators, and those in leadership positions of PMAs and well as the staff of a PMA. These conflicts lead to the potential to bias the content and type of CME presentations and thereby influence physicians' practice patterns and patient care. Physicians are generally aware of the potential for bias when industry contributes funding for CME, but they are most often unable to detect the bias. This may because it is very subtle and/or the educators themselves may not realize that they have been influenced by their relationships with industry. Following Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education guidelines and mandating disclosure that is transparent and complete have become the fallback positions to manage COIs, but such disclosure does not really mitigate the conflict. The eventual and best solutions to ensure evidence-based education are complete divestment by educators and leaders of PMAs, minimal and highly controlled industry funding of PMAs, blind pooling of any industry contributions to PMAs and CME, strict verification of disclosures, clear separation of marketing from education at CME events, and strict oversight of presentations for the presence of bias. PMID:22145759
Watson, Robert T
Traditional medical schools in modern academic health centers make discoveries, create new knowledge and technology, provide innovative care to the sickest patients, and educate future academic and practicing physicians. Unfortunately, the growth of the research and clinical care missions has sometimes resulted in a loss of emphasis on the general professional education of medical students. The author concludes that it may not be practical for many established medical schools to functionally return to the reason they were created: for the education of medical students.He had the opportunity to discover a different model of medical student education at the first new MD-granting medical school created in the United States in 25 years (in 2000), the Florida State University College of Medicine. He was initially skeptical about how its distributed regional campuses model, using practicing primary care physicians to help medical students learn in mainly ambulatory settings, could be effective. But his experience as a faculty member at the school convinced him that the model works very well.He proposes a better alignment of form and function for many established medical schools and an extension of the regional community-based model to the formation of community-based primary care graduate medical education programs determined by physician workforce needs and available resources. PMID:23187916
Azer, Samy A
Portfolios have been used in the medical curriculum to evaluate difficult-to-assess areas such as students' attitudes, professionalism and teamwork. However, their use early in a problem-based learning (PBL) course to foster deep learning and enhance students' self-directed learning has not been adequately studied. The aims of this paper are to: (1) understand the uses of portfolios and the rationale for using reflection in the early years of a PBL curriculum; (2) discuss how to introduce portfolios and encourage students' critical thinking skills, not just reflection; and (3) provide students with tips that could enhance their skills in constructing good portfolios. PMID:18805751
Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Dornan, Tim; Koopmans, Raymond
Dealing with emotions is a critical feature of professional behaviour. There are no comprehensive theoretical models, however, explaining how medical students learn about emotions. We aimed to explore factors affecting their emotions and how they learn to deal with emotions in themselves and others. During a first-year nursing attachment in hospitals and nursing homes, students wrote daily about their most impressive experiences, explicitly reporting what they felt, thought, and did. In a subsequent interview, they discussed those experiences in greater detail. Following a grounded theory approach, we conducted a constant comparative analysis, collecting and then interpreting data, and allowing the interpretation to inform subsequent data collection. Impressive experiences set up tensions, which gave rise to strong emotions. We identified four 'axes' along which tensions were experienced: 'idealism versus reality', 'critical distance versus adaptation', 'involvement versus detachment' and 'feeling versus displaying'. We found many factors, which influenced how respondents relieved those tensions. Their personal attributes and social relationships both inside and outside the medical community were important ones. Respondents' positions along the different dimensions, as determined by the balance between attributes and tensions, shaped their learning outcomes. Medical students' emotional development occurs through active participation in medical practice and having impressive experiences within relationships with patients and others on wards. Tensions along four dimensions give rise to strong emotions. Gaining insight into the many conditions that influence students' learning about emotions might support educators and supervisors in fostering medical students' emotional and professional development. PMID:23949724
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine whether personality is related to medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills and self-ratings on communication skills. Methods: 524 first- and 507 second-year medical students completed the Communications Skills Attitudes Scale and rated their own communication skills. First-year students answered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and second-year students the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses, controlling for gender, were conducted to study the impact of personality on attitudes. Analysis of variance followed by post hoc Duncan test was used to compare differences in personality traits depending on students' self-ratings on communication skills. Results: After controlling for gender, personality traits predicted differences in attitudes and were significantly related to medical students' self-ratings. Medical students with higher scores on psychoticism or aggression-hostility showed worse attitudes. Students who tended to have a better self-image scored higher on extraversion, psychoticism, impulsive-sensation seeking, or aggression-hostility traits. Conclusions: Findings support the consideration of personality traits for better student career guidance and counselling. Some students could have more difficulties to internalize certain healthcare professional competencies and show more resistance to attitude change.
Medical student selection is an important but difficult task. Three recent papers by McManus et al. in BMC Medicine have re-examined the role of tests of attainment of learning (A' levels, GCSEs, SQA) and of aptitude (AH5, UKCAT), but on a much larger scale than previously attempted. They conclude that A' levels are still the best predictor of future success at medical school and beyond. However, A' levels account for only 65% of the variance in performance that is found. Therefore, more work is needed to establish relevant assessment of the other 35%. Please see related research articles http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/242, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/243 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/244. PMID:24229397
Lehrmann, Jon A.; Hoop, Jinger; Hammond, Katherine Green; Roberts, Laura Weiss
Objective: Despite the acknowledged importance of ethics education in medical school, little empirical work has been done to assess the needs and preferences of medical students regarding ethics curricula. Methods: Eighty-three medical students at the University of New Mexico participated in a self-administered written survey including 41 scaled…
Stevens, Cheryl; Schneider, Paige P.; Johnson, Corey W.
This paper describes a process for guiding students through the writing of a Professional Philosophy of Recreation Paper and a one-page philosophy statement suitable for use in students' professional portfolios. The authors describe how the review of recreation education literature, scholarship on teaching and learning, and assessment of student…
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present specificities of the English language teaching necessary for successful education and professional training of medical students. In contemporary globalized world the English language has become the basic language of communication in all scientific fields including the field of medical science. It is well established that Medical English teaching should primarily focus on stable linguistic competence in English that is created by means of content and context based curriculum, thus preparing students for active use of English upon graduation. In order to achieve this it is very important that English language teaching be based on specific real situations in which the language is to be used. In addition, students should be encouraged to adapt practical skills applicable in specific future professional setting. Medical English teaching represents constant challenge for teachers because they need to be flexible, open to new approaches and methods, make decisions and adapt themselves to constant changes. In addition, long-term learning is at the core of higher education, and being equal partners, both students and teachers should be aware that education is a two-way process.
Recently, so many medical institutions established and the increasing use of the high technological medical imaging equipment, it makes radiological technology become the main instrument for the medical diagnostic and radiation therapy. However, the medical radiological technologies play the important role to operate all the related radiological machines. If they do not use the machines adequately, it will increase the patients' radiation absorbed dose. Then, the whole society health may be influenced. Therefore, constructing the professional competence of the medical radiological technologists is an important course. The purpose of this research are: (1) to construct the index of professional competence with radiological technology students, (2) to discuss the professional competence for the graduates from the department of radiological technology to be the reference for the Ministry of Examination for the license test of radiological technologists, (3) to provide the direction of the radiological technology department development. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to explore the structures for managing student fitness to practise hearings in medical schools in the UK. We surveyed by email the named fitness to practise leads of all full members of the UK Medical Schools Council with a medical undergraduate programme. We asked whether student fitness to practise cases were considered by a committee/panel dedicated to medicine, or by one which also considered other undergraduate health and social care students. Findings All 31 medical schools responded. 19 medical schools had a fitness to practise committee dealing with medical students only. Three had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and dentistry. One had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and veterinary medicine. Eight had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and two or more other programmes, such as dentistry, nursing, midwifery, physiotherapy, dietetics, social work, pharmacy, psychology, audiology, speech therapy, operating department practice, veterinary medicine and education. Conclusion All 31 UK medical schools with undergraduate programmes have a fitness to practise committee to deal with students whose behaviour has given rise to concern about their fitness to practise. The variation in governance structures for student fitness to practise committees/panels can in part be explained by variations in University structures and the extent to which Universities co-manage undergraduate medicine with other courses.
Pandit, M. S.; Pandit, Shobha
The changing doctor-patient relationship and commercialization of modern medical practice has affected the practice of medicine. On the one hand, there can be unfavorable results of treatment and on the other hand the patient suspects negligence as a cause of their suffering. There is an increasing trend of medical litigation by unsatisfied patients. The Supreme Court has laid down guidelines for the criminal prosecution of a doctor. This has decreased the unnecessary harassment of doctors. A...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Migration and ethical recruitment of health care workers is receiving increased attention worldwide. Europe’s aging population is creating new opportunities for medical doctors for finding employment in other countries, particularly those of a better standard of living. Methods We conducted a survey among 1214 medical students in five out of eleven universities in Poland with medical schools in October 2008. A series of statistical tests was applied to analyse the characteristics of potential migrants. Projections were obtained using statistical analyses: descriptive, multifactorial logistic regression and other statistical methods . Results We can forecast that 26–36% of Polish medical students will emigrate over the next few years; 62% of respondents estimated the likelihood of emigration at 50%. Students in their penultimate year of study declared a stronger desire to migrate than those in the final year. At the same time, many students were optimistic about career opportunities in Poland. Also noted among students were: the decline in interest in leaving among final year students, their moderate elaboration of departure plans, and their generally optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland. Conclusions The majority of Polish students see the emigration as a serious alternative to the continuation of their professional training. This trend can pose a serious threat to the Polish health care system, however the observed decline of the interest in leaving among final year students, the moderate involvement in concrete departure plans and the optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland suggest that the actual scale of brain drain of young Polish doctors due to emigration will be more limited than previously feared.
Glick, S. M.
Teaching medical ethics to medical students in a pluralistic society is a challenging task. Teachers of ethics have obligations not just to teach the subject matter but to help create an academic environment in which well motivated students have reinforcement of their inherent good qualities. Emphasis should be placed on the ethical aspects of daily medical practice and not just on the dramatic dilemmas raised by modern technology. Interdisciplinary teaching should be encouraged and teaching ...
Chaytor Andrew T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Professionalism in medical students is not only difficult to define but difficult to teach and measure. As negative behaviour in medical students is associated with post-graduate disciplinary action it would be useful to have a model whereby unprofessional behaviour at the undergraduate level can easily be identified to permit appropriate intervention. We have previously developed a scalar measure of conscientiousness, the Conscientiousness Index (CI, which positively correlates to estimates of professional behaviour in undergraduate medical students. By comparing CI points awarded in year 1 and year 2 of study we were able to use the CI model to determine whether teaching and clinical exposure had any effect on students’ conscientiousness. Methods CI points were collected by administrative staff from 3 successive cohorts of students in years 1 and 2 of study. Points were awarded to students for activities such as submission of immunisation status and criminal record checks, submission of summative assignments by a specified date and attendance at compulsory teaching sessions. CI points were then converted to a percentage of maximal possible scores (CI % to permit direct comparison between years 1 and 2 of study. Results CI % scores were generally high with each year of study for each cohort showing negatively skewed normal distributions with peaks > 89%. There was a high degree of correlation of CI % scores between year 1 and year 2 of study for each cohort alone and when cohort data was combined. When the change in CI % from year 1 to year 2 for all students was compared there was no significant difference in conscientiousness observed. Conclusions We have provided evidence that use of a CI model in undergraduate medical students provides a reliable measure of conscientiousness that is easy to implement. Importantly this study shows that measurement of conscientiousness by the CI model in medical students does not change between years 1 and 2 study suggesting that it is a stable characteristic and not modified by teaching and clinical exposure.
Glick, S M
Teaching medical ethics to medical students in a pluralistic society is a challenging task. Teachers of ethics have obligations not just to teach the subject matter but to help create an academic environment in which well motivated students have reinforcement of their inherent good qualities. Emphasis should be placed on the ethical aspects of daily medical practice and not just on the dramatic dilemmas raised by modern technology. Interdisciplinary teaching should be encouraged and teaching should span the entire duration of medical studies. Attention should be paid particularly to ethical problems faced by the students themselves, preferably at the time when the problems are most on the students' minds. A high level of academic demands, including critical examination of students' progress is recommended. Finally, personal humility on the part of teachers can help set a good example for students to follow. PMID:7861430
Full Text Available Professional teacher’s ethics is a collection of moral codes of their professional work. It is significant that the teaching profession respects certain designated professional-ethical codes of conduct between the teachers and the students, with their colleagues and other people they professionally cooperate with. This study is focused on analysis of the professional ethical relation of teachers towards students, seen from student’s point of view. These are the results of student’s reported opinion of the eighth graders from six primary schools in the region of the city of Skopje. The obtained results show that teachers mainly keep in line with the moral codes of conduct with the students, but not always all teachers respect them.
Familiarize students affiliated with the Student National Medical Association with the National Library of Medicine's online resources that address medical conditions, health disparities, and public health preparedness needs.
Mata, Holly; Latham, Teaniese P; Ransome, Yusuf
The focus of this manuscript is on the next generation of health education professionals and is written by those who are part of that next generation. This manuscript serves as a good reminder to all health educators regarding the importance of professional association membership and attending professional conferences. The co-editors hope that established health education professionals-whether serving as faculty members teaching in professional preparation programs or those practitioners mentoring the next generation-will share this article with students and/ or colleagues regarding the benefits of attending professional conferences and joining professional organizations. Joining professional organizations like the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) and attending professional conferences can provide tremendous career development, skill-building, and professional networking opportunities. PMID:20689051
Brown, Colin; RudkjØbing, Andreas
Medical students of the world have signalled their commitment to health promotion by prohibiting smoking at the semiannual general assembly meetings of the International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA). Although initially adopted in 2000, the smoke-free bylaw took 5 years to come into force. This year finally saw compliance with the bylaw on March 1, 2005, at the IFMSA General Assembly in Antalya, Turkey, when medical students who wanted to smoke had to do so outside.
Jordan J; Jb, Brown; Russell G
OBJECTIVE: To explore factors that influence senior medical students to pursue careers in family medicine. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. SETTING: University of Western Ontario (UWO) in London. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven of 29 graduating UWO medical students matched to Canadian family medicine residency programs beginning in July 2001. METHOD: Eleven semistructured interviews were conducted with a maximum variation sample of medical students. Interviews were transcribed ...
Tanner, T. Bradley; Wilhelm, Susan E.; Rossie, Karen M.; Metcalf, Mary P.
We have developed and assessed two innovative, case-based, interactive training programs on substance abuse, one for health professional students on alcohol and one for primary care providers on SBIRT. Both programs build skills in substance abuse screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT). Real-world effectiveness trials involving medical students (n=10); nursing students (n=60) were completed; trials involving primary care providers (n=65) are in progress during 2011. ...
Full Text Available Introduction. Mental health problems of adolescents are among the prevailing problems of public health. While studying for their future medical profession, the students of medicine have to exchange emotions with the patients intensively, and the empathic relationship itself bears a risk of eventual ”emotional depletion”, which leads to ”professional lack of emotions”. The study was aimed at presenting burnout syndrome as a challenge for mental health of medical students, its importance for the future professional engagement of doctors and the possibilities of its prevention. Methods. The authors of this paper review and analyze data and conclusions of previous national and international studies from this field and suggest possibilities of overcoming the condition of burnout. Results. The frequency of burnout syndrome, which is the synonym for the above mentioned condition of emotional exhaustion, is twice as high in medical professionals, particularly young ones, as in other professions on average. Burnout syndrome is nowadays regarded as a psychological distress experienced during the educational process and it has been observed in as many as 50% of medical students. The most significant factors independently associated with student burnout are: personality traits, stressful personal life events and learning and training conditions at their faculties. Conclusions. It is of utmost importance to understand the causes and consequences of psychological distress in students, and the faculties should not only identify these problems, but also endeavor to promote health by developing strategies for improving personal well-being, which are important for future doctors to achieve professional success and develop resistance to stress.
Bachmann, Larissa; Cantoni, Lorenzo
ELearning provides healthcare professionals an interesting alternative of participating to Continuing Medical Education (CME) activities. It offers the possibility to attend courses at a distance, and it allows creating personal learning schedules without needing to leave the job or the family. Hospitals can choose to organize CME activities for their employees and therefore may also opt to offer eLearning activities. The research studies eLearning acceptance in the CME of healthcare p...
Full text: The active process of technical equipment of radiation therapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology departments requires increased staffing of qualified medical physicists in Russia. To work with the radiotherapy equipment, treatment and diagnostic procedures available in Russian clinics today, it is necessary to have 1,000 medical radiation physics, 30% of which should have a high degree of professional excellence. To achieve the required high technology equipment and procedure level it is essential to have 5,000 specialists. Today Russia has only 280 medical radiation physicists, 25 of which have high qualification - less than 10%. The efficient exploitation of modern radiation therapeutic diagnostic technologies and equipment demands highly qualified medical radiation physicists. However, in Russia the medical physicist responsibilities in the clinic are carried out by the specialists who do not have the basic radiation physics education and the necessary basis of physical and technical knowledge. Medical and clinical physics knowledge is acquired at random through various courses, by self education or empirically without quality and thoroughness control. It is natural that it adversely affects the physical and technical maintenance of radiation therapy and, in the end, the cancer patient treatment quality. Medical physicists are required in different areas, such as: 1. clinics together with the physician to deliver procedures in radiotherapy, nuclo deliver procedures in radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology 2. scientific and engineering organizations involved in the new radiological equipment and technology development 3. universities and other educational institutions engaged in the system of continuing education and professional development of medical physicists and research activities 4. companies supplying medical radiological equipment 5. companies busy with the equipment maintenance, adjustment and certification 6. project organizations involved in scientific planning, design and development of the system equipment of radiation therapeutic and diagnostic centres. It is understood that the areas mentioned above demand specific knowledge and skills from the medical physicists and this should be taken into consideration when elaborating the educational programmes. There are several departments of 'medical physics' speciality in Russian universities. However, the approved student education programme does not meet the modern requirements. Practically, there are no qualified medical physics professors in universities. Therefore, as before, the majority of graduates and medical physicists in clinics do not fit the necessary qualification. The Association of Medical Physicists in Russia (AMPR) has developed and realized the programme on the system of continuing education and professional development of medical radiation physicists based on the cycle of special courses on different sections of radiation therapeutic and diagnostic physics. AMPR and the leading oncology centres in Russia regularly organize courses. The ESTRO teaching courses, supported by the IAEA, also contribute a lot to the professional education of Russian medical physicists. For the efficient organization of scientific and education activities, mainly in the field of the continuing education and professional development of medical physicists, AMPR has established a non-profit Institute of Medical Physics and Engineering (IMPE) which has united practically all leading scientists and professors in medical radiation physics. The group of highly skilled professors is chosen from the best Russian specialists and specially prepared for the training courses. Guidelines and recommendations are developed. Practical studies are conducted in the leading oncology centres. A viable education and training system allows to provide the necessary professional knowledge level, individual qualification control and certification of medical physicists. However, AMPR and IMPE are doing on their own without support from the government, sp
Palmer, Brian A.; Wong, Amanda; Singla, Mohit
The Student Forum, a new section of PLoS Medicine, is a space where medical students from across the world can exchange ideas about the critical issues affecting health and health care from their unique perspective
Rudland, Neale; Kemp, Coral
This paper investigates the literature pertaining to the professional reading habits of teachers. Particular attention is given to those teachers working with students with special education needs. The value of professional reading is considered along with the quantity of professional reading of teachers from Australia and overseas, the types of…
Kirko Gennadij Aleksandrovich
Full Text Available It is reviewed publications on physical education of youth and professional-applied physical training of students of economic universities. The experiment involved 256 students. Determined by means of professional-applied physical training to develop physical fitness and health. The article traces the changes that occur in the body as a result of systematic and substantial physical exercise. Shows the dynamics of development of motor abilities of students of basic medical offices I-II courses for two years of training.
Newble, D I; Gordon, M I
Recent research indicates that students' learning styles and approaches to study may have a significant bearing on their academic success. A study was undertaken on first-, third- and final-year medical students to analyse their preferred learning styles and approaches to study, using the Lancaster Approaches to Learning Inventory. The results showed that students entering the medical school had preferences which were more similar to science students' than arts students'. The medical students had high scores on reproducing orientation (surface approach) in all years tested. The first-year students had low scores on meaning orientation (deep approach) but the scores from students in later years showed a progressive rise. The implications of these results with regard to selection, teaching and assessment are explored. However, this preliminary study does not allow us to differentiate between the effect of student preference and that of the context and the environment in which they study. PMID:3969021
Professional ethics instruction in engineering is commonly conducted by examining case studies in light of the code of conduct of a suitable professional body. Although graphical presentations of spectacular failures, sobering stories of the repercussions and the solid framework provided by the tenets of a code of ethics may leave a lasting impression, students generally gain their professional identity from relatives and colleagues. Their professional ethics tend to be mostly an extension of...
Dalton, Elizabeth A.
This study was based on convergence of two educational theories: 1) that professional development improves teacher quality and instructional practices and therefore positively affects student achievement and 2) allocation of school resources positively affects student achievement. It is a common educational belief that professional development…
The aim of this thesis was to explore Swedish pharmacist students’ learning during pharmacy internship. Internships are meant to introduce students to professional practice. Education programs have to reflect changes in the professional role, and take into account that learning in a professional practice setting differs from organized formal education. This thesis includes both quantitative and qualitative research approaches and applies workplace learning theories. A scheme for measuring p...
Bruno Bezerril Andrade; Antonio José Souza Reis Filho; Vitor Rosa Ramos de Mendonça; Manoel Barral-Netto
Objective: Exposure to science education during college may affect a student’s profile, and research experience may be associated with better professional performance. We hypothesized that the impact of research experience obtained during graduate study differs among professional curricula and among graduate courses. Methods: A validated multiple-choice questionnaire concerning scientific concepts was given to students in the first and fourth years of medical and law school at a public Braz...
Linda R. Adkison
Full Text Available Medical students experience stress during medical education that can negatively impact performance. Typical curricula in U.S. medical schools are rigorously intense and provide little or no time off between courses in the first two years of training. This intensity contributes to increased stress for students accustomed to performing academically near the top of the class prior to matriculating in medical school. We describe an innovative new academic calendar that was modified to create a Professional Enrichment Program. Students can step back from the rigors of coursework and engage in several types of activities in order to decompress from recent studying and examinations. These activities include electives, service opportunities, independent study, and clinical experiences that are self-selected by students. Students and faculty complete surveys about the activities they completed and the usefulness of their choices. Results show broad approval of the program with the greatest results supporting an appreciation of time to decompress and an increase in time for family and personal activities.
Abdallah, Bahia; Irani, Jihad; Sailian, Silva Dakessian; Gebran, Vicky George; Rizk, Ursula
Nursing faculty teaching medical students a module in clinical skills is a relatively new trend. Collaboration in education among medical and nursing professions can improve students’ performance in clinical skills and consequently positively impact the quality of care delivery. In 2011, the Faculty of Medicine in collaboration with the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Balamand, Beirut, Lebanon, launched a module in clinical skills as part of clinical skills teaching to first-year medical students. The module is prepared and delivered by nursing faculty in a laboratory setting. It consists of informative lectures as well as hands-on clinical practice. The clinical competencies taught are hand-washing, medication administration, intravenous initiation and removal, and nasogastric tube insertion and removal. Around sixty-five medical students attend this module every year. A Likert scale-based questionnaire is used to evaluate their experience. Medical students agree that the module provides adequate opportunities to enhance clinical skills and knowledge and favor cross-professional education between nursing and medical disciplines. Most of the respondents report that this experience prepares them better for clinical rotations while increasing their confidence and decreasing anxiety level. Medical students highly appreciate the nursing faculties’ expertise and perceive them as knowledgeable and resourceful. Nursing faculty participating in medical students’ skills teaching is well perceived, has a positive impact, and shows nurses are proficient teachers to medical students. Cross professional education is an attractive model when it comes to teaching clinical skills in medical school. PMID:25419165
Krause, R. G.; Stephens, M. C. C.
This article describes the Special Premedical Studies Program at the University of Manitoba and results of interviews with its graduates. This program prepares aboriginal students for admission to medical school. Six physicians and several other health professionals have graduated from the program. Respondents noted similarities in the needs of rural students and those of aboriginal students.
Full Text Available Introduction: The Comprehensive Healthcare (CHC module was developed to introduce pre-clinical medical and pharmacy students to the concept of comprehensive healthcare. This study aims to explore their shared learning experiences within this module. Methodology: During this module, medical and pharmacy students conducted visits to patients’ homes and to related community-based organisations in small groups. They were required to write a reflective journal on their experiences regarding working with other professions as part of their module assessment. Highly scored reflective journals written by students from the 2011/2012 academic session were selected for analysis. Their shared learning experiences were identified via thematic analysis. We also analysed students’ feedback regarding the module. Results: Analysis of 25 selected reflective journals revealed several important themes: ‘Understanding of impact of illness and its relation to holistic care’, ‘Awareness of the role of various healthcare professions’ and ‘Generic or soft skills for inter-professional collaboration’. Although the primary objective of the module was to expose students to comprehensive healthcare, the students learnt skills required for future collaborative practice from their experiences. Discussion: The CHC module provided early clinical exposure to community-based health issues and incorporated some elements of inter-professional education. The students learnt about the roles of other healthcare professions and acquired soft skills required for future collaborative practice during this module.
The Differential Impact of Various Assessment Parameters on the Medical Students Performance in the Professional Anatomy Examination in a New Medical School / El Impacto Diferencial de Varios Parámetros de Evaluación del Desempeño de Estudiantes de Medicina en el Examen Profesional de Anatomía en una Nueva Escuela de Medicina
L. A. J., Shittu; M. P., Zachariah; M. C., Izegbu; O. A., Adesanya; O. A., Ashiru.
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Existe escasez de conocimiento sobre el nivel de concordancia entre todas las varias tareas de evalución sobre los contenidos de una misma área. En orden a evaluar esta hipótesis, adoptamos el concepto de validez convergente y también de área aislada, de falta de solidez académica entre los estudian [...] tes y readecuar el contenido curricular para balancear esa falta de solidez. Se llevó a cabo un estudio retrospectivo al azar sobre un total de 66 alumnos de Medicina de Tercer Año, quienes tuvieron su primer examen profesional de Anatomía en la nueva Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad del Estado de Lagos, Nigeria. Usando registros de sus grados en varios parámetros de evaluación: promedio final de la evaluación del Curso, preguntas cortas de redacción, ítemes de selección múltiple y prácticas. La media + desviación estándar, correlación de Person con el t-test de Sudents (p Abstract in english There is a dearth of knowledge on the level of agreement between all the various assessment tasks on the same content area, in order to test this hypothesis we adopted the concept of convergent validity and also to isolate area of academic weakness among the students and to readjust the curriculum c [...] ontent to balance the weakness. A blinded cohort retrospective study was carried out on a total of sixty-six third year medical students who had sat for their first professional examination in anatomy in the new medical college of Lagos State University. Using records of their grades in the various assessments parameters- the average end-in course assessment, short essays question (SEQ), multiple-choice questions (MCQ), and practical (Steeple-chase). The mean + S.D. Pearson's correlation with students t-test (p
Full Text Available The growing number of foreign applicants looking forward to getting education in Ukrainian medical universities makes us find the ways how to improve and make effective the pre-professional training system of foreign medical applicants for further education. The article deals with the issues of the history of formation and development of the preprofessional training system of foreign medical applicants in Ukraine. On the ground of the electronic databases of the official websites of higher educational establishments, the data on years of opening first offices of the dean, departments and preparatory faculties for foreign medical applicants in Ukrainian medical universities are analyzed and systematized. Also the data on the setting up preparatory faculties at other universities who carry out licensed training of foreign students of the medical profile are presented. The data on the operating and management of such institutions in the system of the University administration are generalized. It’s revealed that during the years of its functioning the pre-professional training has changed, in particular the system was commercialized and the institutions involved in training foreign applicants have been reorganized. The modern trends in teaching foreign medical students at the preparatory faculties of the Ukrainian medical universities are displayed. Based on the analysis of the data it is concluded that the system of the pre-professional training of foreign medical applicants was set up in the 50s-60s years of the twentieth century. During this time, some positive experience in the preparation of future international medical specialists has been gained. The system of the pre-professional training of foreign medical applicants has been comprehensively improved and an effective system of managing foreign medical applicants has been created.
Ray, Trisha Gerrish
The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in teacher efficacy for classroom management, instructional strategies, and student engagement between teachers who trained in a full-time, yearlong, medical-model professional development school (PDS) and their experience as a first year teacher in comparison to teachers who participated…
Wu, S S; Tsang, P; Wainapel, S F
The present survey aimed to assess the prevalence and nature of physical disabilities among medical school graduates and to investigate the academic performance of these new physicians with disabilities. A questionnaire was sent to the deans of student affairs of each of the then existing 128 United States and Puerto Rican medical schools, addressing the profiles of students with physical disabilities in the 1987 through 1990 graduating classes. Seventy-seven (60%) United States and Puerto Rican medical schools responded to the questionnaire, of which 67 were able to complete it. A total of 67 students with physical disabilities (40 males and 27 females) were reported. Three of the 67 students were excluded from the study because their conditions did not match our definition of physical disability. The remaining 64 students (38 males and 26 females), ranging from 0 to 10 per school, comprised 0.19% of the 33,138 students who graduated from the 67 medical schools during these 4 academic yr. The disabilities represented by the 64 students encompassed a wide spectrum of etiologies, including neurologic (39%), musculoskeletal (20%), medical-surgical (13%), visual (13%), and auditory (9%) problems. The majority of students with disabilities had above average (36%) to average (48%) academic standings. The actual prevalence of medical students with disabilities might be higher than reported because of the underreporting of the less noticeable types of disabilities. PMID:8663924
Ozcan, Neslihan Keser; Bilgin, Hülya; Bad?rgal? Boyac?o?lu, Nur Elçin; Kaya, Fadime
The aim of this study was to determine student nurses' attitudes towards professional containment methods used in psychiatric wards and its relation to their perception of aggression. We employed a cross-sectional descriptive design to evaluate nurses' attitudes. Participants included 120 student nurses who were enrolled in psychiatric nursing during their fourth (final) year of education. The 'Attitude to Containment Measures Questionnaire' and 'The Perception of Aggression Scale' were used for assessments. Student nurses exhibited positive attitudes toward 'intermittent observation', 'Pro re nata Medication' and 'Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit', respectively. The least approved method was 'net bed'. The data showed a negative correlation between approval of 'Intra-Muscular Medication' and 'mechanical restraint' with the perception that aggression was dysfunctional/unacceptable. Student nurses who believed that professional containment methods were effective also perceived aggression as less functional/acceptable. These results emphasize the importance of health care perceptions of aggression towards patients and their experience with containment measures. PMID:25157938
Brunet, Pierre; Cuggia, Marc; Le Beux, Pierre
Information and communication technology (ICT) becomes an important way for the knowledge transmission, especially in the field of medicine. Podcasting (mobile broadcast content) has recently emerged as an efficient tool for distributing information towards professionals, especially for e-learning contents.The goal of this work is to implement software and hardware tools for collecting medical lectures at its source by direct recording (halls and classrooms) and provide the automatic delivery of these resources for students on different type of devices (computer, smartphone or videogames console). We describe the overall architecture and the methods used by medical students to master this technology in their daily activities. We highlight the benefits and the limits of the Podcast technologies for medical education. PMID:21893751
Bruno Bezerril Andrade
Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to science education during college may affect a student’s profile, and research experience may be associated with better professional performance. We hypothesized that the impact of research experience obtained during graduate study differs among professional curricula and among graduate courses. Methods: A validated multiple-choice questionnaire concerning scientific concepts was given to students in the first and fourth years of medical and law school at a public Brazilian educational institution. Results: Medical students participated more frequently in introductory scientific programs than law students, and this trend increased from the first to the fourth years of study. In both curricula, fourth-year students displayed a higher percentage of correct answers than first-year students. A higher proportion of fourth-year students correctly defined the concepts of scientific hypothesis and scientific theory. In the areas of interpretation and writing of scientific papers, fourth-year students, in both curricula, felt more confident than first-year students. Although medical students felt less confident in planning and conducting research projects than law students, they were more involved in research activities. Conclusion: Medical graduation seems to favor the development of critical scientific maturity than law graduation. Specific policy in medical schools is a reasonable explanation for medical students’ participation in more scientific activities.
Parsi, Kayhan; List, Justin
In this article, we discuss the growth of international service learning in undergraduate medical education and tie it to a burgeoning interest among students and educators in global health justice. The process of experience, reflection, and action is the cornerstone of cultivating a sense of social justice among students. Finally, we examine both risks and benefits to international service learning for medical students. We define "service learning," distinguish it from service and volunteerism, and offer praxis as a manifestation of professionalism. PMID:19099018
Devi Kittu, Rohan Patil
Full Text Available Background: Medical education across the globe is perceived as being inherently stressful. Studies on psychological problems such as stress, depression and anxiety among medical students have found that these disorders are under diagnosed and under treated. In this background the present study was undertaken with the objectives to assess the magni-tude of depression and its association with stress among medical students. Methods: A Cross sectional study was undertaken among 235 medical students in a private medical college, Pondicherry. Tools similar to General Health Questionaire (GHQ-12 and Beck depression Inventory (BDI was used to screen psychological stress and depression respectively. Results: The prevalence of depression was 71% among medical students. Psychological stress was associated with depression. Conclusion: Emphasize should be laid on the importance of screening for depression of medical students on a regular basis for early detection and rendering appropriate intervention like group counseling, stress management training etc. to protect the future professionals.
Ambrose, Adrian Jacques H.; Andaya, January M.; Yamada, Seiji; Maskarinec, Gregory G.
In the current rapidly evolving healthcare environment of the United States, social justice programs in pre-medical and medical education are needed to cultivate socially conscious and health professionals inclined to interdisciplinary collaborations. To address ongoing healthcare inequalities, medical education must help medical students to become physicians skilled not only in the biomedical management of diseases, but also in identifying and addressing social and structural determinants of...
Full Text Available Bahia Abdallah,1 Jihad Irani,2 Silva Dakessian Sailian,1 Vicky George Gebran,1 Ursula Rizk1 1Nursing Program at the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Balamand, 2Faculty of Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of Balamand, Beirut, Lebanon Abstract: Nursing faculty teaching medical students a module in clinical skills is a relatively new trend. Collaboration in education among medical and nursing professions can improve students' performance in clinical skills and consequently positively impact the quality of care delivery. In 2011, the Faculty of Medicine in collaboration with the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Balamand, Beirut, Lebanon, launched a module in clinical skills as part of clinical skills teaching to first-year medical students. The module is prepared and delivered by nursing faculty in a laboratory setting. It consists of informative lectures as well as hands-on clinical practice. The clinical competencies taught are hand-washing, medication administration, intravenous initiation and removal, and nasogastric tube insertion and removal. Around sixty-five medical students attend this module every year. A Likert scale-based questionnaire is used to evaluate their experience. Medical students agree that the module provides adequate opportunities to enhance clinical skills and knowledge and favor cross-professional education between nursing and medical disciplines. Most of the respondents report that this experience prepares them better for clinical rotations while increasing their confidence and decreasing anxiety level. Medical students highly appreciate the nursing faculties' expertise and perceive them as knowledgeable and resourceful. Nursing faculty participating in medical students' skills teaching is well perceived, has a positive impact, and shows nurses are proficient teachers to medical students. Cross professional education is an attractive model when it comes to teaching clinical skills in medical school. Keywords: cross-professional education, CPE, clinical skills, medical education, nursing faculty, clinical performance
Schurink, W. J.; Kruger, Christa; Bergh, Anne-marie; Staden, C. W.; Roos, J. L.; Pickworth, G. E.; Joubert, Pierre M.; Du Preez, R. R.; Grey, Somarie V.; Lindeque, B. G.
BACKGROUND: Following the introduction of a new, integrated, problem-oriented undergraduate medical curriculum at the University of Pretoria (UP) in 1997, a research project was undertaken to study interpersonal skills, professional attitudes, teamwork, ethics and related topics – which have come to be known collectively as ‘soft skills’. This contribution is the first of two articles on the professional socialisation of medical students and their development of ‘soft skills’. It...
Lui, May H L; Lam, Lai Wah; Lee, Iris F K; Chien, Wai Tong; Chau, Janita P C; Ip, Wan Yim
The development of a nursing code of professional conduct is to guide nurses to make appropriate clinical decision, in particular when facing ethical dilemma. It is of paramount importance that nurse educators understand baccalaureate nursing students' perceptions of the importance of the code of professional conduct and the level of difficulties in implementing this code while preparing them for future practicing nurses. The Code of Professional Conduct in Hong Kong has been developed to guide nursing practice for over two decades. Nevertheless, no study has examined Hong Kong baccalaureate nursing students' perception about this professional code. The aim of this paper was to examine the perceptions of 263 baccalaureate nursing students about this professional code using a cross sectional survey design. The results indicated that most items in the professional code were rated as important and "provide safe and competent care" was rated as the most important one. A few areas that the students perceived as difficult to implement were discussed and future research was recommended. The significant differences identified among students from different years of study also highlighted areas for consideration in planning educational program to further equip students with the ability to deal with challenges in professional practice. PMID:17449144
Ullah, Midrar; Ameen, Kanwal; Bakhtar, Salman
The study aims to explore the professional activities, needed competencies and education/training needs of medical librarians in Pakistan. The following questions guided the study: what are the current professional activities of medical librarians in Pakistan? What is their perception of the competencies needed of medical librarians? And what are…
Jonathan Mamo; Chantal Fenech
Objectives: To explore the lifestyle choices of international medical students attending a ?student conference. ?Study Design: Questionnaire-based census study.?Methods: A pre-tested structured questionnaire was given to the 481 delegates attending an ?international medical student conference in 2009 in Macedonia. The respondents were asked ?questions on their demographics, physical activity, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, sexual ?activity and nutritional intake. The results...
Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Baumann, Andrea; Kolotylo, Camille; Lawlor, Yvonne; Tompkins, Catherine; Lee, Ruth
Although there is no consensus about the definition of professionalism, some generally recognized descriptors include knowledge, specialization, intellectual and individual responsibility, and well-developed group consciousness. In this study, Q-methodology was used to identify common viewpoints about professionalism held by nursing faculty and students, and four viewpoints emerged as humanists, portrayers, facilitators, and regulators. The humanists reflected the view that professional values include respect for human dignity, personal integrity, protection of patient privacy, and protection of patients from harm. The portrayers believed that professionalism is evidenced by one's image, attire, and expression. For facilitators, professionalism not only involves standards and policies but also includes personal beliefs and values. The regulators believed that professionalism is fostered by a workplace in which suitable beliefs and standards are communicated, accepted, and implemented by its staff. The differences indicate that there may be numerous contextual variables that affect individuals' perceptions of professionalism. PMID:21576400
van Diggele, Christie; Burgess, Annette; Mellis, Craig
Introduction Skills in peer teaching, assessment, and feedback are increasingly documented internationally as required graduate attributes in medicine. Yet these skills are rarely taught in medical schools. We sought to design and deliver a short but effective teacher training (TT) program for medical students that could be easily integrated into the professional development curriculum. This study sought to evaluate such a pilot program, based on student perception. Methods The study took place at a major metropolitan teaching hospital, where 38 medical students were invited to attend a voluntary, newly designed four-module TT program. In total, 23/38 (61%) of invited students attended. Mixed methods were used for evaluation. Questionnaires were completed by 21/23 (91%) of students, and 6/23 (26%) of students participated in a focus group. Results Students reported that as a result of the program they felt more confident to facilitate small group teaching activities and to provide feedback to peers using the suggested frameworks. Students would like the program to contain more in-depth educational theory and to allow a more time for small group learning activities. They would also like to see opportunities for participation across all clinical schools. Conclusion The TT program was successful in increasing student awareness of educational theory and practice, thereby improving their confidence in teaching and assessing their peers and making them feel better prepared for their careers as medical practitioners. Key improvements to the program are needed in terms of more in-depth theory and more time spent on small group learning. This might be achieved by complementing the course with e-learning.
Chester, A.; Kienhuis, M.; Pisani, H.; Shahwan-Akl, L.; White, K.
Social media now form a common part of university students' experience. Both at university and after graduation, in their personal and professional lives, social media offer opportunities for connection previously unavailable. The ubiquitous nature of social networking has brought with it professional and ethical issues that need to be…
Cahill, Kevin C
There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this topic, there has been none in Ireland. Anatomy dissection can be a stressor to medical students-we investigate the attitudes of Irish students to organ donation and how they change with exposure to anatomy dissection. A questionnaire was administered to first year students in the School of Medicine in University College Dublin, Ireland, three times over a nine-week period at the commencement of classes in an academic year. The attitudes of the students were positive throughout regarding organ donation by a stranger, a family member, or themselves. There was, however, a significant decrease in support for the donation of a family member\\'s organs in a minority of students. Irish students\\' attitudes to postmortem organ donation are positive and are not changed by exposure to the dissecting room. There is support for the donation of organs, and willingness among students to donate their own organs and support donation by family members.
Margherita, Ferrante; Rosella, Saulle; Caterina, Ledda; Roberto, Pappalardo; Roberto, Fallico; Giuseppe, La Torre; Maria, Fiore.
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GH [...] PSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p
The Differential Impact of Various Assessment Parameters on the Medical Students Performance in the Professional Anatomy Examination in a New Medical School El Impacto Diferencial de Varios Parámetros de Evaluación del Desempeño de Estudiantes de Medicina en el Examen Profesional de Anatomía en una Nueva Escuela de Medicina
L. A. J. Shittu
Full Text Available There is a dearth of knowledge on the level of agreement between all the various assessment tasks on the same content area, in order to test this hypothesis we adopted the concept of convergent validity and also to isolate area of academic weakness among the students and to readjust the curriculum content to balance the weakness. A blinded cohort retrospective study was carried out on a total of sixty-six third year medical students who had sat for their first professional examination in anatomy in the new medical college of Lagos State University. Using records of their grades in the various assessments parameters- the average end-in course assessment, short essays question (SEQ, multiple-choice questions (MCQ, and practical (Steeple-chase. The mean + S.D. Pearson's correlation with students t-test (pExiste escasez de conocimiento sobre el nivel de concordancia entre todas las varias tareas de evalución sobre los contenidos de una misma área. En orden a evaluar esta hipótesis, adoptamos el concepto de validez convergente y también de área aislada, de falta de solidez académica entre los estudiantes y readecuar el contenido curricular para balancear esa falta de solidez. Se llevó a cabo un estudio retrospectivo al azar sobre un total de 66 alumnos de Medicina de Tercer Año, quienes tuvieron su primer examen profesional de Anatomía en la nueva Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad del Estado de Lagos, Nigeria. Usando registros de sus grados en varios parámetros de evaluación: promedio final de la evaluación del Curso, preguntas cortas de redacción, ítemes de selección múltiple y prácticas. La media + desviación estándar, correlación de Person con el t-test de Sudents (p< 0.05 fueron analizados con el programa SPSS 11 (SPSS inc. Chicago, Illinois. La parte práctica fue significativamente correlacionada con todo el rendimiento (r = 0.89, p< 0.01; con un valor del t-Students de 6.15 (p< 0.01. Aunque las preguntas cortas mostraron correlación significativa para la totalidad de lo hecho (r =0.72; p<0.01, el valor de t de 0,4 no fue significativo, pero estuvo dentro de un rango aceptable. La parte práctica, selección múltiple y preguntas cortas de redacción y final del curso, mostraron un orden de clasificación de relativo desempeño en las tareas de evaluación, lo que indica que, en general, la actividad de los estudiantes en el examen profesional fue mejor que en el examen del curso y de ahí, la necesidad de readecuar este patrón y enfatizar el rol de evaluación dentro del curso en el curriculum
Matharu Kabir; Kravitz Richard L; McMahon Graham T; Wilson Machelle D; Fitzgerald Faith T
Abstract Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N?=?371) with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay me...
To provide the optimum level of healthcare, it is important that the supply of well-trained doctors meets the demand. However, despite many initiatives, Ireland continues to have a shortfall of physicians, which has been projected to persist. Our study aimed to investigate the migration intentions of Irish medical students and identify the factors that influence their decisions in order to design appropriate interventions to sustain the supply of trained doctors in order to maintain a viable medical system.
Neimeyer, Robert A.; Diamond, Ronald J.
As measured by self-assessment, medical students' suicide management skills appear to be better among those having completed a medical interviewing course and those having completed a six-week inpatient psychiatry rotation. Attitudes toward the acceptability of suicide had no impact on selection of correct responses. The utility of the instrument…
Hercigonja-Szekeres, Mira; Ilakovac, Vesna; Soli?, Krešimir
The term eHealth is widely used in both scientific literature and in everyday life. There are many activities related to eHealth both globally and in Europe. In Croatia, eHealth is a priority area of the eCroatia programme. There is no doubt that eHealth is the environment where present and prospective medical students will work after leaving medical schools. In order to find out what medical students think eHealth is and which information about eHealth reach them, we started this project with second year medical students in academic year 2010/2011. At the very beginning of medical informatics course, students were asked to write an essay with the title "eHealth" based on their existing knowledge and experiences on this topic. Till now 147 written contributions were analyzed. We performed lexicometric analysis and correspondence analysis using French software Dtm-Vic for textual analysis. Very modest vocabulary and choice of words imply that students have little personal experience and knowledge about eHealth. Students who had medical secondary school education described eHealth differently, probably because they encounter some of eHealth applications while attending lectures in health care institutions. PMID:22874383
Stephens, Mark B; Landers, Grace; Davis, Stephen W; Durning, Steven J; Crandall, Sonia J
This study examined a cohort of students attending the Uniformed Services University regarding their attitudes toward medical care in underserved populations. Using the previously validated Medical Student Attitudes Toward the Underserved (MSATU), repeated measures analysis of variance showed that student attitudes toward care in underserved populations was less favorable than limited national data at entry and declined over time (Mean MSATU total score Year 1: 46.2 [SD 10.95]; Year 4: 41.7 [SD 12.3] p definition of "service" in the context of active duty military status might explain some of our findings. Providing broad service learning opportunities within the curriculum could increase student exposure to underserved populations and strengthen the social contract between community and institution. PMID:25850128
Since the completion of the Human Genome Project, technology has developed markedly in fields such as medical genetics and genetic counseling in the medical arena. In particular, this technology has advanced the discovery of and ways of understanding various genes responsible for genetic diseases, and genetic polymorphisms thought to be associated with disease. Some have been implicated as factors in common lifestyle diseases and have increased the significance of genetic testing. In Japan, doctors and other health professionals, such as nurse and medical technologists have been engaged in genetic testing and genetic disease treatment. Chromosomal and gene aberrations were detected mainly by medical technologists. However, due to the nature of medical technologists who have to provide various clinical tests, such as blood test, pre-medical technology students are required to cover tremendous knowledge of different academic fields to pass the national exam. Therefore, the time allowed for such students to study chromosomal and gene analysis is quite limited. Moreover, they are forced to enter the medical setting without receiving sufficient training. Among them, only few medical technologists specialize in chromosomal and gene analysis. However, with the advancement of clinical genetics and development of chromosomal and gene analysis, conducting clinical practice is becoming more and more difficult for medical technologists who just passed the national exam. Also, doctors and other health professionals have not been able to keep up with service demands either. This paper attempts to address knowledge and skills gaps (especially clinical genetics, English, and ICT literacy) of medical technologists and we propose educational methods to prepare medical genetics professionals in Japan to meet these gaps. PMID:25202688
Full Text Available Real system of physical education that exists in Ukraine is considered; the ineffectiveness of physical training of students for future life and production activities is shown. In modern conditions the structure of physiological requirements and working conditions is changing and, accordingly, there are additional requirements for professionally-applied physical training. The model of the educational process for credit-module system in high school is given. Theoretical and methodological reasoning of professionally-applied physical training methodology in university of economic profile is carried out. Management options for physical training of students are proposed. The systems of computer technology of professionally-applied physical training are considered.
Perron, Brian E.; Grahovac, Ivana D.; Uppal, Joseph S.; Granillo, M. Teresa; Shutter, Jamie; Porter, Carolyn A.
Despite the significant attention that drugs and alcohol receive on college campuses, few resources and supports are available to students who are recovering from an addiction. Student affairs professionals are uniquely positioned to support these students with a variety of strategies. This article summarizes what is currently known about college students in recovery and ways that student affairs professionals can help build an infrastructure of formal and informal supports for this underserv...
Full Text Available The author considers organizational and methodological terms of implementation of professional and applied physical training for maritime students subject to their motivation to physical self-perfection. The purpose of the research is to define organizational and pedagogical terms for professional and applied physical training of maritime students to improve their physical condition and special physical attainment. The applied methods were: anthropometric metrology, functional probes, tonometry, pulsometry, motion tests and mathematical analysis. 70 students of 17-18 years participated in the research. It was determined that organizational and pedagogical terms directed on acceleration of making necessary for students to self-improve physically, positively impact on development of special physical state that are fundamental for professional activities of maritime students.
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Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the stages and technology of professional student competence of students in higher vocational school.Method or the methodology of the work: Theoretical and methodological basis of the proposed technology of formation of professional student competence in higher education are: a synergetic approach, student-centered approach, social learning theory, the activity approach, the concept of humane education.Results: In the article the theoretical and methodological basis of the statement of technology, disclosed pedagogical conditions and principles of the technology of formation of professional student competence of higher educational institutions as a result of own personal readiness.Field of application of the results: the educational system of higher education institutions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-23
This article describes a survey conducted among medical practitioners in India. The study's objective was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of whole body donation among medical professionals in India. Outcomes and results are discussed.
Collier, D. J.; Beales, I. L.
To assess the prevalence of drinking among medical students a questionnaire on smoking, exercise, drinking, and weight was distributed among the students available. A total of 260 replies were received from an estimated available population of 350 students (134 men and 126 women). The mean alcohol consumption obtained by a quantity-frequency measure was 20.5 units/week for male students and 14.6 units/week for female students. Retrospective diary reports showed mean (SE) consumptions of 18 (2...
Yusoff, Muhamad S. B.
Objectives: The demanding and intense environment of medical training can create excessive pressures on medical students that eventually lead to unfavorable consequences, either at a personal or professional level. These consequences can include poor academic performance and impaired cognitive ability. This study was designed to explore associations between pass-fail outcome and psychological health parameters (i.e. stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms). Methods: A cross-sectional study w...
Skye, Eric P; Wagenschutz, Heather; Steiger, Jeffrey A; Kumagai, Arno K
Creative arts have been increasingly implemented in medical education. This study investigated the use of interactive theater and role play with professional actors in teaching breaking bad news to medical students. The objectives were to explore the contexts, approaches, experiences, and reactions in giving and receiving bad news. Second-year medical students participated in a required educational session that utilized interactive theater which helps students learn about the issues of breaking bad news to a patient with cancer. Following the interactive theater piece, professional actors provided students role play experiences in small groups with breaking bad news. Anonymous evaluation surveys were given out to all second-year medical students at the conclusion of the breaking bad news session. Surveys contained quantitative and qualitative responses. Three years of evaluations were analyzed. A total of 451 (88 %) students completed the evaluations. Comments were thematically analyzed. Ninety-four percent agreed that the theater piece prompted reflection on patient-provider communications, and 89 % agreed that it stimulated discussion on complex issues with breaking bad news. The two most common themes in student comments concerned the importance of realism in the theater piece, and the value of experiencing multiple perspectives. Use of professional actors during the role play exercises enhances the realism and pushed the students out of their own "comfort zones" in ways that may more closely approximate real life clinical situations. Interactive theater can be a potentially powerful tool to teach breaking bad news during medical school. PMID:24683056
Marco Aurelio Janaudis
Full Text Available There is a growing focus on the introduction of courses in humanities in medical education. Music is not a widely-used tool in medical education. It has unique features that make it an excellent educational resource for the possibility to express emotions. Within minutes, topics of interest in learning medicine, such as loss, compassion, sorrow, and solidarity can be identified and used in pedagogical processes. Music—like other art forms—can deal with the emotional universe of the student. Promoting a reflective attitude within an academic discipline requires the creation of space to make it formal. The Public Health Department of Jundiai Medical School (Sao Paulo, Brazil offers a special course on family medicine core values, led by a SOBRAMFA Medical Education & Humanism faculty member. The process of understanding a student’s experience has allowed for the unveiling of a phenomenon that encompasses the student’s inner world as he/she attends to his/her medical training. The music is played on the outside resonates with the story and emotions of the student. Students realize that the pace imposed by the medical school does not allow them to reflect on either their own lives or their formation. The musical experience allows students to hear their feelings and share them with the professor and peers. They are surprised by memories and feelings that surface that they were unaware of or could not remember. These feelings are presented in themes that organize the affective experience of students, mobilized by the music. Several themes have emerged, such as the search for the self; family; vocational doubts; relationships with peers, professors, and patients. The findings of the experience of the music spectrum come in, offering numerous prospects for development in the context of medical education, as noted in the themes that emerged. As the basic experience we have of the world is emotional, the music—this form of human knowledge of affective tone—also becomes educational force, because the teaching process is not limited to transmission of content. Instead, more importantly, it implies that the teacher in development processes of meaning and significance enable the learner to reflect and transform the everyday practice, especially in medicine, where the interpersonal relationship is the basis for the full realization of future professional action.
Laleh Hosseini Shahidi
Full Text Available Introduction: Professional identity development is one of the main concerns of nursing education. This study aimed to evaluate effective educational components on nursing students’ professional identity using Eisner’s model of criticism and connoisseurship. Methods: Eisner’s Criticism and Connoisseurship Model were used for a qualitative evaluation of the nursing education system. This model includes four steps of descriptive, interpretative, evaluative and thematic evaluation. Data were collected by semi-structured interview and observation. Participants were 15 students and faculty members of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, who were selected by purposive sampling. Data were analyzed by Eisner’s model. Results: Four major themes included student admission, educational system defects, reality shock, and self-esteem. These themes that emerged from educational evaluation are effective in developing the professional identity of Iranian nursing students. Conclusion: It seems that changing the admission process, presenting the nursing discipline to students as much as possible, creating a more realistic education, making an exclusive body of knowledge, and following successful role models are helpful in students’ professional identity development.
Rokhsareh Aghili; Khamseh, Mohammad E.; Mansoureh Taghavinia; Mojtaba Malek; Zahra Emami; Baradaran, Hamid R.; Mahboobeh Khabaz Mafinejad
Objectives: Virtual patient simulation (VPS) is used in the education of health care professionals. This method brings an opportunity for the learner to examine necessary diagnostic and therapeutic skills. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of VPS on clinical reasoning abilities of medical students and to evaluate their attitude towards VPS in clinical endocrinology course in a teacher centered educational environment.Methods: Fifty-one medical students in their 6th academic yea...
In my recent roles as Education Officer for SPUMS and also SPUMS representative on Standards Australia, there were frequent queries regarding the requirements for professional diving medicals in Australia. The requirements for Australia have been set by Australian Federal Government Legislation: Australian model work health and safety regulations (4 November 2011). The legislation requires the medical practitioner providing certification of divers to be registered in Australia. In keeping with this legislation, the 2014 version of Australian/New Zealand Standard 2299.1 will separate the medical requirements for divers depending in which country they are working. New Zealand has a centralised registry and health review system for its professional diver medicals, whereas this is not the case in Australia. In the new Australian model work, health and safety regulations, the section on Diving work commences on page 177, section 4.8. The legislation requires that all occupational divers receive a "current certificate of medical fitness to dive by a doctor with appropriate training in underwater medicine". By the legislated reference to AS2299.1:2007,2 the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society is referred to as the appropriate body to provide information on training courses in diving medicine for medical practitioners. The following is offered for guidance, and the linkages for this mandate are as follows: (The page numbers referred to are in the model work, health and safety regulations) Definition of "appropriate training in underwater medicine" (Page 4): Appropriate training in underwater medicine means training that results in knowledge of the matters specified in clause M3 of Appendix M to AS/NZS 2299.1:2007 (Occupational diving operations-Standard operational practice). The requirement for workers to hold a "current certificate of medical fitness" (Page 177, clause 168) Division 2 General diving work - Fitness and competence of worker 168 Person conducting business or undertaking must ensure fitness of workers. A person conducting a business or undertaking at a workplace must not direct or allow a worker to carry out general diving work or undergo training for general diving work unless the worker holds a current certificate of medical fitness. Definition of "fitness criteria" (Page 19): Fitness criteria, in relation to diving work, means the fitness criteria specified in clause M4 of Appendix M to AS/NZS 2299.1:2007 (Occupational diving operations- standard operational practice) M 4.1 General: The following bodily systems Paragraphs M 4.2 to M 4.14) should be evaluated from the diver's history and the medical examination. Where relevant, numerical values are given for certain medical fitness requirements. The paragraphs M 4.2 to M 4.14 then cover a comprehensive assessment of body systems that can only be carried out with a medical assessment which includes a physical examination. Definition of "current" (Page 15): Current certificate of medical fitness means a certificate of medical fitness that: (a) was issued within the past 12 months; and (b) has not expired or been revoked. Requirement that the certificate is issued by a registered medical practitioner with "appropriate training in underwater medicine" (Page 178, clause 169); 169 Certificate of medical fitness. A certificate of medical fitness must: be issued by a registered medical practitioner with appropriate training in underwater medicine. and (E) Definition of "registered medical practitioner" (Page 39): Registered medical practitioner means a person registered under the Health Practitioner Regulation National Law to practise in the medical profession (other than as a student). PMID:25596840
Heron, Sheryl L
Full Text Available Objective: To use 360-degree evaluations within an Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE to assess medical student comfort level and communication skills with intimate partner violence (IPV patients.Methods: We assessed a cohort of fourth year medical students’ performance using an IPV standardized patient (SP encounter in an OSCE. Blinded pre- and post-tests determined the students’ knowledge and comfort level with core IPV assessment. Students, SPs and investigators completed a 360-degree evaluation that focused on each student’s communication and competency skills. We computed frequencies, means and correlations.Results: Forty-one students participated in the SP exercise during three separate evaluation periods. Results noted insignificant increase in students’ comfort level pre-test (2.7 and post-test (2.9. Although 88% of students screened for IPV and 98% asked about the injury, only 39% asked about verbal abuse, 17% asked if the patient had a safety plan, and 13% communicated to the patient that IPV is illegal. Using Likert scoring on the competency and overall evaluation (1, very poor and 5, very good, the mean score for each evaluator was 4.1 (competency and 3.7 (overall. The correlations between trainee comfort level and the specific competencies of patient care, communication skill and professionalism were positive and significant (p<0.05.Conclusion: Students felt somewhat comfortable caring for patients with IPV. OSCEs with SPs can be used to assess student competencies in caring for patients with IPV. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:500-505.
Full Text Available Professional ethics instruction in engineering is commonly conducted by examining case studies in light of the code of conduct of a suitable professional body. Although graphical presentations of spectacular failures, sobering stories of the repercussions and the solid framework provided by the tenets of a code of ethics may leave a lasting impression, students generally gain their professional identity from relatives and colleagues. Their professional ethics tend to be mostly an extension of their personal ethics. Instruction on ethics generally serves only to reinforce students’ inclination to act ethically and provides encouragement to act on these beliefs. In this study a survey based on previous investigations was conducted (n=1136 to examine the personal ethical perceptions of engineering students. The survey measured how engineering students perceive their own ethical beliefs and how they perceive the ethical beliefs and actions of their peers. As a learning exercise, students were then challenged by examining their personal ethical beliefs in light of the professional ethics requirements of the Institute of Engineers Australia (IEAust code of conduct. After familiarisation with the Engineers Australia code of ethics, students were also invited to comment regarding their beliefs regarding adherence to this code.
Dean, Laura A.; Saunders, Sue A.; Thompson, George F.; Cooper, Dianne L.
New staff orientation is a strategy that can positively affect job satisfaction and productivity, especially for those beginning careers in student affairs. In this study, new student affairs professionals were surveyed to determine their perceptions about the content and efficacy of their orientation experiences. Despite literature encouraging…
Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.
The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…
Full Text Available We analyze the results of a study conducted on a sample of students, the purpose of which was diagnostic of their future careers motives. The data obtained using modified and supplemented questionnaire by B.A. Grushin and V.V. Chikin, helps to understand the motives of future professional activities of the following four groups of respondents: students who will not work within their profession, students who have not decided yet, students who will work within profession, young professionals who are already working within specialty. In the article are presented the similarities and differences between these two groups in the structure of professional motivation, identified in the course of the study. The ways of further study of the problem are outlined.
Full Text Available A study was done to compare the attitude towards cheating of the professional and nonprofessional course students. In this study the sample consisted of 20 professional and 20 nonprofessional course students, studying in DEI and University. For the measurement of Attitude towards Cheating, Attitude towards cheating scale by Sharma was administered on the sample. It consists of 35 statements which are either positive or negative. Responses were to be obtained on five point scale. t-test was used for statistical analysis. The finding of this study showed that the students of professional courses have more positive attitude towards cheating as compared to the students of nonprofessional course. The value of t=16.59** was found to be statistically significant at .01 level between the two group of subjects.
Joubert, Pierre M.; Kruger, Christa; Bergh, Anne-marie; Pickworth, G. E.; Staden, C. W.; Roos, J. L.; Schurink, W. J.; Du Preez, R. R.; Grey, Somarie V.; Lindeque, B. G.
OBJECTIVE: The Soft Skills Project examined the professional development of medical students at the University of Pretoria, especially their doctor-patient interaction skills and professional socialisation. This paper reports on one of the findings of the project, namely the importance that medical students attach to role models in the development of soft skills. METHODS: We used a qualitative method with symbolic interactionism and grounded theory as framework. Fourty two final-year...
ALBashtawy, Mohammed; Batiha, Abdul-Monim; Tawalbeh, Loai; Tubaishat, Ahmad; AlAzzam, Manar
Self-medication, usually with over-the-counter (OTC) medication, is reported as a community health problem that affects many people worldwide. Most self-medication practice usually begins with the onset of adolescence. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan, using a simple random sampling method to select 6 public schools from a total of 34 schools. The total sample consisted of 422 school students from Grades 7 through 12. Measures of central tendency and ?(2) were used to compare the difference between the categorical variables. The prevalence of self-medication among the participants was 87.0%. Nearly 75% of self-medication was used for pain relief. The prevalence of self-medication among school students is very high and increases with age. School nurses and other local health-care workers must coordinate with school principals to disseminate health education campaigns about safe use of medication to provide awareness and education to school students, parents, and families. PMID:25318643
Che, Xiang-Xin; Niu, Li; Xia, Xiu-Long; Wang, Xin
To alleviate the shortage of competent undergraduate-level medical professionals in the central and western rural regions of China, from 2010 to 2012, the Chinese government mandated 100 medical colleges to recruit 30,000 rural-oriented, tuition-waived medical students (RTMS) for the township and village hospitals. But no educational curriculum is…
Full Text Available In almost every country, the organ supply for transplantation does not match the increasing demand; health professionals may play an important role in eliminating barriers and increasing organ donation. Therefore, assessing medical students’ knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation is important for the future organ supply. Some 409 of 508 first- and second-year medical students answered an anonymous, multiple-choice questionnaire about demographic variables, knowledge about transplant issues, and willingness to donate organs. The mean age was 20.3±1.8 years (range: 17 to 29 years; 50.1% were male, 49.9% were female. Some 44.8% of the total respondents reported that they had sufficient knowledge about organ donation, and 40.1% reported knowledge about organ transplantation. The primary source of their knowledge was reported as the media (72.1%. Willingness to donate their own organs was 58.4% and willingness as to their relatives’ organs was 39.9%. The acceptance of live organ donation was higher (74.6% than cadaver donation. Only 1.2% had a organ donation card. Female students were more willing to donate their own and their relatives’ organs. Since medical students are prospective leaders of promoting organ donation action, these issues should be taught within the context of social medicine lessons, and desirable behavioral changes should be implemented.
Harada, Violet H.
Describes efforts by the AASL (American Association of School Librarians) to develop a professional community for library media specialists through ALA (American Library Association) Annual Conference programs and the construction of an AASL Web site devoted to issues and topics related to effective teaching and learning behaviors. (Author/LRW)
Garcia-Crespo, Angel; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Gomez-Berbis, Juan Miguel; Tovar-Caro, Edmundo
During last few years, the competential paradigm has become a standard for modern Human Resources Management. The importance and the impact of this concept have led higher education institutions to adopt this concept in the definition of educational resources. In this scenario, knowing which competencies and characteristics define professionals in…
Full Text Available Background: The migration of health professionals can have a profound impact on health systems around the globe. The International Organization for Migration’s (IOM Mobility of Health Professionals Research Project (MoHProf aimed to improve knowledge about the migration of healthcare professionals and understand migration intentions and factorsinfluencing the migration of medical and nursing students.Objectives: The study aimed to determine the proportion of nursing and medical students who were intending to emigrate, their attitudes and beliefs about, and the factors influencing their decision to emigrate.Method: This study was conducted at three medical schools and one nursing school in South Africa (n = 298 amongst 260 medical and 38 nursing students. One hundred and twenty-five students were in the final year of their studies and 143 were in their prefinal year. Thirty students did not indicate the year of their studies. Every student present on the day of data collection completed a questionnaire comprising psychometric and survey-based questions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data.Results: More than a third (37% of the respondents intended to work or specialise abroad. The majority of medical (58.9% and nursing (66.6% students intended to leave SA within five years of completing their medical or nursing studies. The perception of poor working conditions within the health sector, such as long work hours, high patient loads, inadequate resources and occupational hazards, influenced medical students to consider emigrating fromSouth Africa.Conclusion: The high number of medical and nursing students intending to emigrate requires a reassessment of effectiveness of retention strategies for doctors and nurses in the South African healthcare system and actions to improve working conditions in the public healthcare sector.
Sedlacek, W E; Prieto, D O
Despite recent attention to minority student recruitment and retention, data on predicting the success of minority medical students are scarce. Traditional predictors (college grades and scores on the Medical College Admission Test) have modest correlations with medical school grades and scores on the National Board of Medical Examiners examination for minority students. Nonetheless, admission committees also consider nontraditional variables when selecting minority students. Measures of nontraditional variables seem to assess types of intelligence not covered by traditional means. A system of organizing nontraditional or noncognitive variables into eight dimensions is proposed. The dimensions are self-concept, realistic, self-appraisal, understanding and dealing with racism, long-range goals, having a strong support person, showing leadership, having community involvement, and nontraditional knowledge acquired. Further, assessment should place more emphasis on recognizing and defining problems and on performance rather than knowledge. Combining traditional and nontraditional methods is best in selecting minority students, and sufficiently well developed measures exist in each area to make this a practical recommendation for any admission program. PMID:2407258
Seyhan H?d?ro?lu; Muhammed Fatih Önsüz; Ahmet Topuzo?lu; Melda Karavu?
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the perspectives of the academic medical staff and residents concerning continuing professional development in a medical faculty.Method: This descriptive research was performed on 152 academic medical staff and residents who was accepted to participate in the study in a medical faculty in August 2007. Study data was collected through face to face interviews by a questionnaire made up of three parts and 40 questions.Results: Sixty-seven point eig...
Mostyn Alison; Lymn Joanne S
Abstract Background Non-medical prescribing (NMP) is a six month course for nurses and certain allied health professionals. It is critical that these students develop a good understanding of pharmacology; however, many students are mature learners with little or no formal biological science knowledge and struggle with the pharmacology component. The implications for patient safety are profound, therefore we encourage students not just to memorise enough pharmacology to pass the exam but to be...
Dr. Shahu Ingole; Dr. Radha Yegnanarayan
Purpose: Promotion by pharmaceutical company often takes advantage of mental shortcuts. Significant deficiencies have been found in student’s knowledge about pharmaceutical marketing expenditures, professional ethics and accuracy of drug information. The purpose of study was to assess the attitudes of medical students towards relationship with pharmaceutical companies and drug promotion by them. Methods: To assess the attitudes, a prevalidated questionnaire consisting of 18 questions was de...
Boyers, Lindsay N; Schultz, Amanda; Baceviciene, Rasa; Blaney, Susan; Marvi, Natasha; Dellavalle, Robert P; Dunnick, Cory A
Although teledermatology (TD) is regarded as a tool to improve patient access to specialty healthcare, little has been done to evaluate its role in medical education. We describe the TD program at the Denver (CO) Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and evaluate its use as an educational tool for teaching dermatology to dermatology residents and medical students. Dermatology residents manage TD consultations and review all cases with a faculty preceptor; medical students participate as observers when possible. This study assessed dermatology resident (n=14) and medical student (n=16) perceptions of TD and its usefulness in teaching six core clinical competencies. Both residents (79%) and medical students (88%) "strongly agree" or "agree" that TD is an important educational tool. In general, medical students were slightly more satisfied than residents across all of the core competencies assessed except for patient care. Medical students and residents were most satisfied with the competencies of practice-based learning and improvement and medical knowledge, whereas they were least satisfied with those of interpersonal and communication skills and professionalism. Overall, TD is valued as a teaching tool for dermatology in the areas of patient care, medical knowledge, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice. PMID:25635528
Hoang, Lisa; LaHousse, Sheila F; Nakaji, Melanie C; Sadler, Georgia Robins
The Medical Students, Cancer Control, and the Deaf Community Training program (DCT) intended to create physicians who were culturally competent to care for deaf patients were evaluated. DCT medical students (n = 22), UCSD medical faculty (n = 131), and non-DCT medical students (n = 211) were anonymously surveyed about their perceptions related to deaf patients, deaf cultural competency, and interpreter use. The faculty and non-DCT medical students displayed less knowledge than the DCT students. These findings suggest that training medical students in deaf cultural competency can significantly increase their capacity to care for community members and reduce the health disparities experienced by this community. PMID:20652475
Al-Faris, Eiad; And Others
A survey of 253 final-year students at the four Saudi medical schools found the most frequently-chosen specialties were internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics/gynecology. Over one-fourth were unsure of career choice. Gender differences were found. Most common locations for postgraduate training were Saudi Arabia and Canada, and a…
Pinto, Alison; Lee, Sam; Lombardo, Samantha; Salama, Mariam; Ellis, Sandi; Kay, Theresa; Davies, Robyn; Landry, Michel D.
Purpose: To examine how a structured inter-professional education (IPE) clinical placement influences health care professional (HCP) students' perceptions of inter-professional collaboration (IPC) relative to that of students in a traditional clinical placement. Methods: This study used a mixed-methods design. The Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) was administered to HCP students (n=36) in two Toronto hospitals before and after a structured 5-week IPE clinical placement to e...
Full Text Available Sara AlMutar,1 Lulwa AlTourah,1 Hussain Sadeq,2 Jumanah Karim,2 Yousef Marwan3 1Department of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital, 3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Al-Razi Orthopedic Hospital, Kuwait City, Kuwait Background: Teaching sessions for medical students during ward rounds are an essential component of bedside teaching, providing students with the opportunity to regard patients as actual people, and to observe their physical conditions directly, allowing a better understanding of illnesses to be developed. We aim to explore medical students’ perceptions regarding medical and surgical ward rounds within the Faculty of Medicine at Kuwait University, and to evaluate whether this teaching activity is meeting the expectation of learners. Methods: A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data from 141 medical students during the 2012–2013 academic year. They were asked to provide their current and expected ratings about competencies that were supposed to be gained during ward rounds, on a scale from 1 (lowest to 5 (highest. Mean scores were calculated, and the Student t-test was used to compare results. P < 0.05 was the cut-off level for significance. Results: Only 17 students (12.1% declined to participate in the study. The students' current competency scores (for competencies taught within both disciplines – medical and surgical were significantly lower than the scores indicating students’ expectations (P < 0.001. The best-taught competency was bedside examination, in both medical (mean: 3.45 and surgical (mean: 3.05 ward rounds. However, medical ward rounds were better than surgical rounds in covering some competencies, especially the teaching of professional attitude and approach towards patients (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Both medical and surgical ward rounds were deficient in meeting the students’ expectations. Medical educators should utilize the available literature to improve the bedside teaching experience for their students. Keywords: ward rounds, bedside teaching, undergraduate, medical students, medical education
Full Text Available Background: Stress in medical students is not uncommon and is process orientated. Although minimal amount of stress is desirable and is necessary to spark in a healthy competitive spirit, the undue stress has undesirable impact on students.Objective: The present study was designed with an aim to evaluate different stress factors among the first MBBS students.Method: The participants were asked to complete a pre-tested and pre-designed questionnaire that included a list of sources of stress.Results: The most common stress factor reported by participants were high parental expectations (80.9%, vast syllabus (73%, worry about future (71.3%, long duration of course (67.3%, frequency of examinations (66.7%, performance in formative and summative examination (66%, low self esteem (62.3%, lack of sleep (54% and lack of emotional and social support (38%.Conclusion: The life of medical student is stressful. Our study highlights the need for interventions in to cope up stress in medical education. Student counselling and informal mentorship is need of hour.
Undergraduate (UG) medical students of II Semester of different institutions were surveyed to determine the prevalence of 13 different misconceptions (conceptual difficulties) about cardiovascular physiology. The prevalence of these misconceptions ranged from 75.60% to 25.30%. Methods: A list of questionnaire was selected that were diagnostic for difficulties that can seriously interfere with students mastery of the topic. Diagnostic questions were generally of the form: 'If x increases, then will y increases/decrease/show no change'. Results: The result suggests that students have a number of underlying conceptual difficulties about cardio-vascular phenomena. Our possible source of some misconceptions is the students inability to apply simple general models to specific cardiovascular phenomena. Conclusion: UG students may understand less than they appear to 'know'. Some implications of these results for teachers of physiology and medicine are explained. (author)
Jensen, Anne Winther
The paper discusses students' process of acquiring a feeling of being professionals within a vocational education programme for elderly care in Denmark. The focus is on what seems to be a paradox within the programme: the future care helper being constructed within the overall term ‘the professional care helper’ in the school setting but the job being closely related to daily life's routine tasks; the paper points to difficulties for students in identifying the exact content of the term ‘professional’. Furthermore students seem to be uncertain about their ‘professionalism’ in relation to other health professionals, when they are in the work place setting. The analysis indicates that the care work programme still struggles to make a clear distinction between the former non-paid female domestic work and the current work carried out by the care workers. The analysis mobilises the concept ‘storyline’, c.f. Bronwyn Davies and the empirical material consists of observations and interviews in the theoretical periodsand in the traineeships.
Full Text Available The article presents the structure of personal features of students decided to devote their life to medical profession, their personal readiness for a profession of a doctor. 241 students going to enter the Saratov Medical University in 2013 serve as an object of research. Methods of research included psychology tests on a self-assessment of a mental state, ability to empathy, a motivation orientation. Result. It was revealed that the majority of respondents low level of uneasiness, low level of frustration, the average level of aggression, the average level of a rigidity, and also high rates on an empathy scale. The types of the personality in relation to work are emotive and intuitive. Prevalence of motive of achievement of success or motive of avoiding of failures directly depends on specifics of a situation. Conclusion. Students possess qualities which are necessary in professional activity for doctors, namely high resistance to stress, absence of fear before difficulties, low level of rigidity, high level of empathy, the average level of aggression. Students are motivated on success, in situations when they are fully confident.
The response of medical students, young physicians, and other health professionals to the February 2010 earthquake and tsunami in Chile provides important lessons about health care delivery during disasters and about the development of professionalism. Tertiary and secondary care of victims of these disasters was possible because local and national resources were available and field hospitals provided by Chile's armed forces and foreign countries replaced damaged hospitals. However, primary care of persons living on the outskirts of towns and in small villages and coves that were destroyed and isolated by the disaster required the involvement of volunteer groups that were largely composed of students and other young members of the health professions, all of whom were motivated by solidarity, compassion, and social commitment. This experience, similar to previous catastrophes in Chile and elsewhere, reinforces that medical and other health professional schools must instill in graduates an understanding that the privileges of being a health professional come with responsibilities to society. Beyond providing high-quality scientific and technological education, curricula in these schools should include training that enables graduates to meaningfully contribute in the setting of unexpected disasters and that nurtures a sense of responsibility to do so. PMID:21079222
Full Text Available Tzu-Chieh Yu¹, Nichola C Wilson², Primal P Singh¹, Daniel P Lemanu¹, Susan J Hawken³, Andrew G Hill¹¹South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ²Department of Surgery, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ³Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandIntroduction: International interest in peer-teaching and peer-assisted learning (PAL during undergraduate medical programs has grown in recent years, reflected both in literature and in practice. There, remains however, a distinct lack of objective clarity and consensus on the true effectiveness of peer-teaching and its short- and long-term impacts on learning outcomes and clinical practice.Objective: To summarize and critically appraise evidence presented on peer-teaching effectiveness and its impact on objective learning outcomes of medical students.Method: A literature search was conducted in four electronic databases. Titles and abstracts were screened and selection was based on strict eligibility criteria after examining full-texts. Two reviewers used a standard review and analysis framework to independently extract data from each study. Discrepancies in opinions were resolved by discussion in consultation with other reviewers. Adapted models of “Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Learning” were used to grade the impact size of study outcomes.Results: From 127 potential titles, 41 were obtained as full-texts, and 19 selected after close examination and group deliberation. Fifteen studies focused on student-learner outcomes and four on student-teacher learning outcomes. Ten studies utilized randomized allocation and the majority of study participants were self-selected volunteers. Written examinations and observed clinical evaluations were common study outcome assessments. Eleven studies provided student-teachers with formal teacher training. Overall, results suggest that peer-teaching, in highly selective contexts, achieves short-term learner outcomes that are comparable with those produced by faculty-based teaching. Furthermore, peer-teaching has beneficial effects on student-teacher learning outcomes.Conclusions: Peer-teaching in undergraduate medical programs is comparable to conventional teaching when utilized in selected contexts. There is evidence to suggest that participating student-teachers benefit academically and professionally. Long-term effects of peer-teaching during medical school remain poorly understood and future research should aim to address this.Keywords: peer-teaching, peer-assisted learning, near-peer teaching, medical student, medical school
Dr. Shahu Ingole
Full Text Available Purpose: Promotion by pharmaceutical company often takes advantage of mental shortcuts. Significant deficiencies have been found in student’s knowledge about pharmaceutical marketing expenditures, professional ethics and accuracy of drug information. The purpose of study was to assess the attitudes of medical students towards relationship with pharmaceutical companies and drug promotion by them. Methods: To assess the attitudes, a prevalidated questionnaire consisting of 18 questions was designed. Questionnaire was istributed when a series of lectures were scheduled for the entire medical class (253 medical students. Completed questionnaires werecollected at the end of the session and analysis was done using statistical methods. Results: Overall 81% of the medical students were of the opinion that pharmaceutical companies should be allowed to interact with them at the college level. About 95% believe that the information given by MRs is reliable and confirmation of the claims is not required (75% students. Overall 68% students believe that drug promotional offers never compromise the decision making of the physicians. About 70% students think that physicians should be compensated with gifts by medical representatives whenever their drugs are prescribed. Conclusion: The medical students are generally not opposed to interact with MR at some point of time or receive gifts from them. Also many students may not be conscious potential subconscious expectations of give-and-take relationship. Perhaps, the insight gained from our study will be used to reinforce the existing teaching curriculum with added emphasis on this issue.
Full Text Available Background: One objective of the United Nations Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health relates to ensuring a sufficiently skilled workforce. To prepare future healthcare professionals for their role in the 21st century as members of this workforce, awareness of global health is essential, but few studies have explored student perspectives on such education. The main objectives of this study were to establish the views of medical students on learning about women's and children's health in low-income countries, to identify the nature and extent of learning already experienced, and to assess the demand for such learning. Design: A questionnaire survey was conducted at three meetings of the International Federation of Medical Students Associations (IFMSA. Questionnaires were distributed to 500 participants from 75 countries and 336 medical schools, and 492 usable questionnaires were returned. Data were analysed using SPSS Version 20 and statistical analysis was undertaken using Fisher's exact test. Results: There were 492 questionnaires included in the analysis. Forty-eight per cent of participants were from low–middle income countries and 52% were from high-income countries. Less than half (43% of the respondents had received some teaching on women's and children's health in low-income countries. Teaching received was primarily (96% through lectures in the second year of study. Ninety-one per cent of respondents thought such teaching would be important and stated that group work (66% would be the preferred method. In total, only 14% thought they had received sufficient teaching on global health and on women's and children's health in low-income countries. Conclusions: This study has revealed a high demand among medical students for global health teaching, particularly on women's and children's health in low-income countries. The timing and methods of existing teaching on these topics does not match that desired by medical students. To help address this gap, a collaborative approach is proposed which includes students’ views in the processes for revitalising medical curricula to meet the needs of the 21st century.
Haggerty, Kevin D.
This article aims to demystify some of the realities of graduate education for the next generation of professors in the humanities and social sciences. Its "tell it like it is" orientation is designed to ensure that graduate students have a firm understanding of the institution they are entering, and will hopefully help them avoid any number of…
Weidman, John C.; Stein, Elizabeth Leahy
A discussion of the institutional mechanisms and individual processes through which graduate students are socialized to the norms of professional practice in educational administration are presented in this paper, which builds a conceptual framework that draws from research on adult socialization, the socialization and career patterns of school…
Wynia, Matthew K; Papadakis, Maxine A; Sullivan, William M; Hafferty, Frederic W
The term "professionalism" has been used in a variety of ways. In 2012, the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) Standing Committee on Ethics and Professionalism undertook to develop an operational definition of professionalism that would speak to the variety of certification and maintenance-of-certification activities undertaken by ABMS and its 24 member boards. In the course of this work, the authors reviewed prior definitions of professions and professionalism and found them to be largely descriptive, or built around lists of proposed professional attributes, values, and behaviors. The authors argue that while making lists of desirable professional characteristics is necessary and useful for teaching and assessment, it is not, by itself, sufficient either to fully define professionalism or to capture its social functions. Thus, the authors sought to extend earlier work by articulating a definition that explains professionalism as the motivating force for an occupational group to come together and create, publicly profess, and develop reliable mechanisms to enforce shared promises-all with the purpose of ensuring that practitioners are worthy of patients' and the public's trust.Using this framework, the authors argue that medical professionalism is a normative belief system about how best to organize and deliver health care. Believing in professionalism means accepting the premise that health professionals must come together to continually define, debate, declare, distribute, and enforce the shared competency standards and ethical values that govern their work. The authors identify three key implications of this new definition for individual clinicians and their professional organizations. PMID:24667515
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education can affect medical students’ physical and mental health as well as their quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess medical students’ perceptions of their quality of life and its relationship with medical education. Methods First- to sixth-year students from six Brazilian medical schools were interviewed using focus groups to explore what medical student’s lives are like, factors related to increases and decreases of their quality of life during medical school, and how they deal with the difficulties in their training. Results Students reported a variety of difficulties and crises during medical school. Factors that were reported to decrease their quality of life included competition, unprepared teachers, excessive activities, and medical school schedules that demanded exclusive dedication. Contact with pain, death and suffering and harsh social realities influence their quality of life, as well as frustrations with the program and insecurity regarding their professional future. The scarcity of time for studying, leisure activities, relationships, and rest was considered the main factor of influence. Among factors that increase quality of life are good teachers, classes with good didactic approaches, active learning methodologies, contact with patients, and efficient time management. Students also reported that meaningful relationships with family members, friends, or teachers increase their quality of life. Conclusion Quality of teachers, curricula, healthy lifestyles related to eating habits, sleep, and physical activity modify medical students’ quality of life. Lack of time due to medical school obligations was a major impact factor. Students affirm their quality of life is influenced by their medical school experiences, but they also reframe their difficulties, herein represented by their poor quality of life, understood as necessary and inherent to the process of becoming doctors.
Lindenthal, J J; DeLisa, J A; Heinrich, G F; Calderón Gerstein, W S
Physicians are required to advocate for and counsel patients based on the best science and the interests of the individual while avoiding discrimination, ensuring equal access to health and mental services. Nonetheless, the communication gap between physician and patients has long been observed. To this end, the Institute for the Public Understanding of Health and Medicine of the Rutgers University New Jersey Medical School has expanded its efforts. This report describes two new programs: a legacy lecture series for medical students and an international "experience", in Huancayo, Peru, for medical students and faculty. The MiniMed outreach program, now in its ninth year and first described in this journal in 2012, was designed to empower the powerless to communicate more effectively with clinicians, thus improving both the effectiveness of the physician-patient relationship and health care outcomes. The approach of the two new programs and their effects on patients, particularly the underserved, and medical students and faculty, are outlined in the following article. PMID:25834472
Full Text Available JJ Lindenthal,1,2 JA DeLisa,3 GF Heinrich,4 WS Calderón Gerstein,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Institute for the Public Understanding of Health and Medicine, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA; 3Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of New Mexico Health Science Center, Albuquerque, NM, USA; 4Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA; 5Hospital Nacional Ramiro Prialé, EsSalud, Huancayo, Peru Abstract: Physicians are required to advocate for and counsel patients based on the best science and the interests of the individual while avoiding discrimination, ensuring equal access to health and mental services. Nonetheless, the communication gap between physician and patients has long been observed. To this end, the Institute for the Public Understanding of Health and Medicine of the Rutgers University New Jersey Medical School has expanded its efforts. This report describes two new programs: a legacy lecture series for medical students and an international “experience”, in Huancayo, Peru, for medical students and faculty. The MiniMed outreach program, now in its ninth year and first described in this journal in 2012, was designed to empower the powerless to communicate more effectively with clinicians, thus improving both the effectiveness of the physician–patient relationship and health care outcomes. The approach of the two new programs and their effects on patients, particularly the underserved, and medical students and faculty, are outlined in the following article. Keywords: MiniMed program, equal access, underserved populations, Newark Renaissance House, Kintock Group, role modeling
Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Dornan, Tim; Koopmans, Raymond
Dealing with emotions is a critical feature of professional behaviour. There are no comprehensive theoretical models, however, explaining how medical students learn about emotions. We aimed to explore factors affecting their emotions and how they learn to deal with emotions in themselves and others. During a first-year nursing attachment in…
Koponen, Jonna; Pyorala, Eeva; Isotalus, Pekka
Effective communication skills are considered essential to a physician's professional competence. Thus, Finnish medical schools include communication skills training in their curricula. Today it is essential to ensure that students graduate with the interpersonal communication competence (ICC) necessary to succeed in their profession. Experiential…
Mihciokur, Sare; Akin, Ayse; Dogan, Bahar Guciz; Ozvaris, Sevkat Bahar
Abortion has been legal and safe in Turkey since 1983, but the unmet need for safe abortion services remains high. Many medical practitioners believe that the introduction of medical abortion would address this. However, since 2012 there has been political opposition to the provision of abortion services. The government has been threatening to restrict the law, and following an administrative change in booking of appointments, some hospital clinics that provided family planning and abortion services had to stop providing abortions. Thus, the availability of safe abortion depends not only on permissive legislation but also political support and the ability of health professionals to provide it. We conducted a study among university medical school students in three provinces on their knowledge of abortion and abortion methods, to try to understand their future practice intentions. Pre-tested, structured, self-administered questionnaires were answered by 209 final-year medical students. The students' level of knowledge of abortion and abortion methods was very low. More than three-quarters had heard of surgical abortion, but only 56% mentioned medical abortion. Although nearly 90% supported making abortion services available in Turkey, their willingness to provide surgical abortion (16%) or medical abortion (15%) was low, due to lack of knowledge. Abortion care, including medical abortion, needs to be included in the medical school curriculum in order to safeguard this women's health service. PMID:25702066
Philip Maseghe Mwachaka; Eric Thuo Mbugua
BACKGROUND: Although in the recent years gender distribution in medical schools has changed, with the proportion of female medical students drastically increasing, medical specialties continue to have gender disparities. This study aimed at determining gender differences in career choices among medical students in Kenya.
Philip Maseghe Mwachaka
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although in the recent years gender distribution in medical schools has changed, with the proportion of female medical students drastically increasing, medical specialties continue to have gender disparities. This study aimed at determining gender differences in career choices among medical students in Kenya.
al Kadi, Azzam; Salati, Sajad Ahmad
Background. Hand hygiene is a cost-effective method in preventing infection transmission. Hand hygiene practices have been found to be faulty in most healthcare settings. We conducted a study to evaluate the awareness, and compliance of hand hygiene among undergraduate medical students during their clinical phase in Qassim College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A questionnaire based on World Health Organization's concept of “Five Moments for Hand Hygiene” was used to evaluate the awareness of the indications for hand hygiene and compliance was observed during Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) sessions. Sixty students including thirty-six males (60%) and twenty-four females (40%) participated voluntarily in the study. Results. The average awareness regarding the positive indications of hand hygiene was 56%. Rest of the 44% of students were either not sure or unaware of the indications of hygiene. Only 29% of students were able to identify all the five indications for hand hygiene in the questionnaire. Compliance as assessed during OSCE sessions was only 17% with no significant difference between the genders. Conclusion. It was concluded that serious efforts are needed to improve the hand hygiene practices among medical students. PMID:23024653
Full Text Available Learning results in gain of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Some like to learn by seeing, some by hearing and some by demonstration. Learning style influences the retention of information and depth of comprehension. Understanding their preferred learning styles as visual, auditory, read-write or kinesthetic learners will help improve the teaching methods adopted. Role of the educator necessitates making the most of each teaching opportunity by understanding the characteristics of the learning audience and incorporating demonstrated principles of adult educational design, with a focus on collaborative learning and variety in presentation techniques. The goal is to provide student oriented education, producing efficient doctors. A cross-sectional study among 92 medical students of the Govt. Medical College, Bhavnagar, conducted in 2009. VARK questionnaire was used to access their learning preference. Preference for different learning styles were, visual (V 1.08%, auditory (A 20.65%, reading/writing (R 2.17% and kinesthetic (K 17.39%. 41.30% of the total 92 students preferred a single mode of information presentation. Of the 92 students who preferred multiple modes of information presentation, some preferred two modes (bimodal, 31.52%, some preferred three modes (tri-modal, 27.13%, and only one student preferred quadri-modal.
Background Emotional intelligence (EI) is increasingly discussed as having a potential role in medicine, nursing, and other healthcare disciplines, both for personal mental health and professional practice. Stress has been identified as being high for students in healthcare courses. This study investigated whether EI and stress differed among students in four health professions (dental, nursing, graduate mental health workers, medical) and whether there was evidence that EI might serve as a buffer for stress. Method The Schutte Emotional Intelligence and the Perceived Stress scale instruments were administered to four groups of healthcare students in their first year of study in both the autumn and summer terms of the 2005-6 academic year. The groups were undergraduate dental, nursing and medical students, and postgraduate mental health workers. Results No significant differences were found between males and females nor among professional groups for the EI measure. Dental students reported significantly higher stress than medical students. EI was found to be only moderately stable in test-retest scores. Some evidence was found for EI as a possible factor in mediating stress. Students in different health profession courses did not show significant differences in Emotional Intelligence. Conclusion While stress and EI showed a moderate relationship, results of this study do not allow the direction of relationship to be determined. The limitations and further research questions raised in this study are discussed along with the need for refinement of the EI construct and measures, particularly if Emotional Intelligence were to be considered as a possible selection criterion, as has been suggested by some authors. PMID:19761603
Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Perianayagam, Wilson; Rampal, Krishna Gopal
This study was the first to explore factors associated with emotional burnout (EB) among medical residents in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 205 medical residents in a Malaysian general hospital. The self-administered questionnaire used consisted of questions on sociodemographics and work characteristics, sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, engagement, and EB. EB was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Mean (±SD) age of the respondents was 26.5 (±1.6). The most common source of job stress was "fear of making mistakes." Most of the participants were dissatisfied with the increase of residentship period from one year to two years. A high level of EB was reported by 36.6% of the respondents. In multivariate analysis, the most important correlates of EB were sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement. A high prevalence of EB was found among medical residents. Sociodemographic characteristics, performance pressure, and satisfaction with policies were significantly associated with EB. Although this study was limited by its cross-sectional design, its findings posit a sufficient foundation to relevant authorities to construct, amend, and amalgamate existing and future policies. Nothing will sustain you more potently than the power to recognize in your humdrum routine, as perhaps it may be thought, the true poetry of life-the poetry of the common place, of the common man, of the plain, toil-worn woman, with their loves and their joys, their sorrows and their grief.SirWilliam Osler, Aphorisms from the Student Life (Aequanimitas, 1952). PMID:24367238
Hind Ibrahim Fallatah
Full Text Available Interprofessional education (IPE is when members or students of two or more professions learn from and about each other to improve collaboration and quality of care. The aim of this study was to identify the awareness and importance of IPE among medical and nursing students and graduates at King Abdulaziz University. A cross-sectional study was conducted with fourth-year medical students, fourth-year nursing students, interns, and internal medical residents at King Abdulaziz University and hospital. A survey was completed by all the participants after they gave their consent. Participants were asked whether they knew the meaning of IPE. We explained IPE to those who did not know what it was. Then, each participant was asked to rate all 11 items on the survey with one of five choices: strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree and strongly disagree. A total of 105 professionals participated in the study. The participants were primarily fourth-year medical and nursing students, all of whom were women. However, for the medical interns and medical residents, we included both men and women. Only 12 (11.4% participants knew the meaning of IPE, all of whom were medical residents. The majority—77 of 103 (75%, most of whom were nursing students—responded that IPE is important. The difference between the groups was also significant (P = 0.008. In conclusion: Our study showed that our medical students and graduates valued IPE and thought that the implementation of IPE in their education would improve both patient care and health care provider satisfaction.
Gholami-kordkheili, Fatemeh; Wild, Verina; Strech, Daniel
Background: The rising impact of social media on the private and working lives of health care professionals has made researchers and health care institutions study and rethink the concept and content of medical professionalism in the digital age. In the last decade, several specific policies, original research studies, and comments have been published on the responsible use of social media by health care professionals. However, there is no systematic literature review that analyzes the full s...
Antje L umma-Sellenthin
Full Text Available Objectives: The study is aimed at exploring the association between beginning students' attitudes towards group learning and their awareness of learning strategies, to demographic variables and their exposure to problem-based or mixed curricula. Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional design included students (N = 351 from two medical schools with lecture-based and two with problem-based curricula from Germany and Sweden. Gender, age, personal and parents' practice experience within health care were assessed. A questionnaire was designed for measuring attitudes towards group and individual learning, awareness of learning strategies was assessed with the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory. The t-test for independent groups was applied to compare dependent variables between personal factors, and multivariate statistics to compare medical schools. Results: Students' personal work experience correlated with self-regulation (t[sub](333[/sub] = -3.307; p = 0.001 and group learning experience (t[sub](341[/sub] = -2.971; p = 0.003. Students from the German problem-based curriculum reported most experience with group learning (largest mean difference compared to the German lecture-based curriculum = 1.45 on a Likert scale from 1 to 7; SE = 0.181; p < 0.001, and were better at regulating their learning strategies than students from the Swedish lecture-based school (mean difference 0.18; SE = 0.181; p = 0.034. Conclusions: Students' clinical experience seemed to benefit self-regulation skills. Problem-based teaching methods and early interprofessional education appear to be favorable learning conditions for the development of professional skills.
Azzam al Kadi; Sajad Ahmad Salati
Background. Hand hygiene is a cost-effective method in preventing infection transmission. Hand hygiene practices have been found to be faulty in most healthcare settings. We conducted a study to evaluate the awareness, and compliance of hand hygiene among undergraduate medical students during their clinical phase in Qassim College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A questionnaire based on World Health Organization's concept of “Five Moments for Hand Hygiene” was used to evaluate the awa...
Arawi, Thalia; Rosoff, Philip M
Over the last 80 years, a major goal of medical educators has been to improve the quality of applicants to medical school and, hence, the resulting doctors. To do this, academic standards have been progressively strengthened. The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) in the United States and the undergraduate science grade point average (GPA) have long been correlated with success in medical school, and graduation rates have been close to 100 percent for many years. Recent studies have noted that some doctors having difficulties in practice were found to have had similar problems while in school. In this essay, we present a brief historical account of attitudes and approaches to admissions requirements, then discuss basic broad areas of accomplishment in clinical practice: academic mastery, clinical acumen, and professionalism. We then review data that suggest that lack of competency can often be detected very early in a student's career and may or may not be immune to remediation efforts. We end with a recommendation for a course of action that upholds and fulfills the profession's social responsibility. This will be a moral argument, defending an aggressive but equitable approach to maintaining both public accountability and trust. PMID:23180257
Mansour, Nasser; Fisher, Ros
Objectives The aim of this research was to explore the transition of medical students to an international branch campus of a medical university established in Bahrain. Methods In order to gain insights into this transition, we explored two culturally diverse systems of learning of the university and the local schools in Bahrain, using Communities of Practice as a lens for understanding transitions. Focus groups were conducted with secondary school teachers and first year medical students. Additionally, semi-structured interviews were conducted with university lecturers. Results The findings suggest that, while Communities of Practice have been influential in contextualising transitions to university, this model does not seem to help us to fully understand intercultural transitions to the case-study university. Conclusions The research emphasises that more attention should be given to learner individual agency within this theory as a framework for understanding transitions. It also challenges approaches within medical education that attempt to standardise systems of learning through acquisition of established practices. PMID:25725207
Srivastava, Kalpana; Joshi, Saumya; Raichaudhuri, Arkojyoti; Ryali, VSSR; Bhat, P. S.; Shashikumar, R.; Prakash, J.; Basannar, D.
Background: Emotional Intelligence has been associated with positive outcome process in varied professions. There is paucity of Indian literature on the subject; especially involving medical undergraduates; and presently there is no scale available to measure the same in the Indian scenario. Objective: To develop a scale to measure Emotional Intelligence among medical undergraduates. Materials and Methods: Four domains of Emotional intelligence were selected, viz. Self-Awareness, Self-Management, Social-Awareness & Social-Skills and these were included for the purpose of domains of the scale. On the basis of focused group discussions and in-depth deliberations with experts, undergraduate and postgraduate medical students a pool of 50 items was generated. The items were reduced to 27 based on expert consensus and on the basis of frequency of endorsement by expert reviews. It was followed by a pilot study of 50 undergraduates. This completed the preparation of the preliminary draft based on content analysis. The questionnaire was then administered in 480 students and the data was analyzed by appropriate statistical methods. For the purpose of concurrent validity, emotional intelligence scale developed by Dr. Ekta was used. Results: The Cronbach's Alpha for Internal Consistency Reliability was 0.68. The EIS had a significant correlation with social awareness domain of Emotional Intelligence Test (EIT) establishing Concurrent Validity. Conclusion: Emotional Intelligence Scale for medical undergraduates was constructed. Reliability and concurrent validity were also established for the same. PMID:22969179
Full Text Available Background: In recent years there has been a rising optimistic reception on the stresses involved in professional examination as this may affect student’s wellbeing, learning and academic performance.Competitiveness in today’s world has made stress inevitable in life. Medical students face stress in all stages of their academic career, including pre-clinical, paraclinical, and clinical years. The students of first M.B.B.S. probably face a major stress especially during the first credit examination.Materials and Methods: Study was carried out among first year MBBS students of Sri Muthukumaran Medical College during November 2012. 108 first year MBBS students were randomly selected and first part of study captured personal data. The rest comprised anthropometric measurements [ht(cms , wt(kgs] and pulse rate and blood pressure recordings ten days before, on the day(one hour before the examination and ten days after first credit examination. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software version 2.0. Student’s t- test was used to compare the data and p value < 0.05 was considered significant.Result: The overall response rate was 72% (108 out of 150 students. It was observed that 29 males (60 % and 32 (53% females students were having increase in pulse rate and systolic blood pressure one hour before the examination compared to pulse rate(PR and systolic blood pressure(SBP ten days before and ten days after the examination. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP was also increased one hour before to examination compared to ten days before examination, though the difference was not statistically significant.Conclusion: It is evident that the first year MBBS students undergo stress during their academic examinations and need for the hour is to use interventions like social and psychological to improve the quality of life. Student advisors and counsellors can train students about stress management.
Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep
Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…
Full Text Available Introduction:Clinical teachers have an important role in creating an environment for effective clinical teaching to students. In addition, the faculty has a significant impact on the students' feeling of success or failure in professional competence. This study was performed to determine the characteristics of an influential instructor according to the nursing students' viewpoints in Jahrom University of Medical Sciences.Material and Methods:In this cross-sectional survey, 75 nursing students of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences were selected by census sampling method. The data collection tool was a valid and reliable questionnaire consisting of 4 domains including professional competence, interpersonal relationship, personality characteristics, and teaching ability. The data were analyzed by SPSS.Results:The results showed that influential clinical teacher must be professionally competent (mean=4.4 ± 0.80, have interpersonal relationships (mean=4.2 ± 0.96 have good personality characteristics (mean=4.1 ± 0.95, and have high eaching ability (mean=4 ± 0.89. According to the students, the most important characteristics of an influential clinical instructor are having interest in patient care (98.4%, having sufficient professional knowledge (80%, explaining and demonstrating new nursing techniques (80%, performing nursing skills procedures (86.3%, being honest with the students and creating motivation in students (83%.Conclusion:The nursing students' viewpoints indicated that influential clinical instructor has an important role in promoting quality nursing experience and in getting knowledge, professional skills and attitude. Nursing faculty should plan for promoting professional competency in clinical instructors.
Preston-Shoot, Michael; McKimm, Judy
To ensure acceptable practice standards both doctors and social workers should draw on relevant legal rules when reaching professional judgements concerning, for instance, children requiring protection, people with severe mental distress and adults at risk, information sharing, consent to intervention and service user involvement in their care and treatment. Many practitioners use the law to maintain high standards of professionalism. However, research has uncovered limited awareness of legal rules and poor standards of health and social care. Academic benchmarks and practice requirements for health and social care professions centrally position legal knowledge for secure decision-making. Model curricula exist. However, the outcomes of the taught curriculum on students' confidence in their legal knowledge and skills have been relatively overlooked. This article introduces the concept of legal literacy, a distillation of knowledge, understanding, skills and values that enables practitioners to connect relevant legal rules with their professional practice, to appreciate the roles and duties of other practitioners and to communicate effectively across organisational boundaries. It presents the outcomes for a 2006-2009 study of 1154 UK medical and 638 social work students of their law learning for practice, response rates of 46% and 68%. Significant differences were found between medical and social work students' attitudes towards the law, and in their self-ratings of legal knowledge and skills. Confidence levels were low and anxiety high, especially among medical students, although law teaching had some positive outcomes on knowledge and skill development. Social work and medical students associated different themes with the law, the latter especially foregrounding ethics, negligence and liability, which could affect inter-professional working. Students are not fully prepared for legally literate practice, with a consequent need to review the time allocated for, and the content of law learning and the subsequent availability of continuing professional development. PMID:23379906
Rogers, Mary E.; Searle, Judy; Creed, Peter A.; Ng, Shu-Kay
This study reports on the career intentions of 179 final year medical students who completed an online survey that included measures of personality, values, professional and lifestyle expectations, and well-being. Logistic regression analyses identified the determinants of preferred medical specialty, practice location and hours of work.…
Frost, Katherine A; Metcalf, Elizabeth P; Brooks, Rachel; Kinnersley, Paul; Greenwood, Stephen R; Powell, Colin VE
Background Delivering effective clinical pediatric communication skills training to undergraduate medical students is a distinct and important challenge. Pediatric-specific communication skills teaching is complex and under-researched. We report on the development of a scenario-based pediatric clinical communication skills program as well as students’ assessment of this module. Methods We designed a pediatric clinical communication skills program and delivered it five times during one academic year via small-group teaching. Students were asked to score the workshop in eight domains (learning objectives, complexity, interest, competencies, confidence, tutors, feedback, and discussion) using 5-point Likert scales, along with free text comments that were grouped and analyzed thematically, identifying both the strengths of the workshop and changes suggested to improve future delivery. Results Two hundred and twenty-one of 275 (80%) student feedback forms were returned. Ninety-six percent of students’ comments were positive or very positive, highlighting themes such as the timing of teaching, relevance, group sizes, and the use of actors, tutors, and clinical scenarios. Conclusion Scenario-based teaching of clinical communication skills is positively received by students. Studies need to demonstrate an impact on practice, performance, development, and sustainability of communications training. PMID:25653569
Full Text Available Background: Sleep has a major role in daily cycles and reconstruction of physical and mental abilities. Regarding the importance of this feature, we decided to determine sleep quality in medical students.Methods: A questionnaire containing demographic data, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was prepared. We distributed the questionnaires using a census method to every student at the Zanjan Faculty of Medicine. The completed questionnaires were collected and the data was analyzed using SPSS.Results: A total of 224 students answered the questionnaire, with 133 (59.4% students evaluated to have good sleep quality and 91 (40.6% poor sleep quality. Of these 91 students, 38% were female and 44.8% were male (p=0.307. The prevalence of poor sleep quality according to the four stages of medical training was 24.6% of those in basic sciences, 42.9% of those in physiopathology, 41.7% of externs, and 53.5% of interns (p=0.008. According to residential status, the prevalence of poor sleep quality was 61.5% among students living with their spouse, 44.6% for students living in their own private homes, 37.6% among students living in the dormitory, and 20.8% for those living with their parents (p=0.024. According to marital status, 35.8% of singles and 64.9% of married students had poor sleep quality (p=0.001. According to financial status, 57.9%, 46.9%, and 33.9% of those from low, moderate and high economic classes, respectively, were sleep deprived (p=0.049. Among those with average grades of under 16 and over 16 out of 20, 47.5% and 32%, respectively, were suffering from poor sleep quality (p=0.047. There was no obvious relationship between sleep quality and BMI, sex, or history of depression or anxiety.Conclusion: Poor sleep quality was significantly associated with lower grades, economic status, living arrangement and type of training. A large number of students quality of life and work may suffer because sleep deprivation.
Elder, W. G.; Hustedde, Carol; Rakel, Dave; Joyce, Jennifer
Enhancing the professionalism of graduates is a major objective of most health care education institutions today. Educating conventional health care providers about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) may directly and indirectly improve trainee professionalism by expanding trainees’ knowledge and appreciation of diverse health care beliefs and practices, improving physician-patient communication, enhancing self-care, and increasing sense of competence and job satisfaction. A survey...
Full Text Available Katherine A Frost,1,2 Elizabeth P Metcalf,3 Rachel Brooks,2,3 Paul Kinnersley,3 Stephen R Greenwood,3 Colin VE Powell1,2,4 1Noah’s Ark Children’s Hospital for Wales, 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Institute of Medical Education, 4Molecular and Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales Background: Delivering effective clinical pediatric communication skills training to undergraduate medical students is a distinct and important challenge. Pediatric-specific communication skills teaching is complex and under-researched. We report on the development of a scenario-based pediatric clinical communication skills program as well as students’ assessment of this module. Methods: We designed a pediatric clinical communication skills program and delivered it five times during one academic year via small-group teaching. Students were asked to score the workshop in eight domains (learning objectives, complexity, interest, competencies, confidence, tutors, feedback, and discussion using 5-point Likert scales, along with free text comments that were grouped and analyzed thematically, identifying both the strengths of the workshop and changes suggested to improve future delivery. Results: Two hundred and twenty-one of 275 (80% student feedback forms were returned. Ninety-six percent of students' comments were positive or very positive, highlighting themes such as the timing of teaching, relevance, group sizes, and the use of actors, tutors, and clinical scenarios. Conclusion: Scenario-based teaching of clinical communication skills is positively received by students. Studies need to demonstrate an impact on practice, performance, development, and sustainability of communications training. Keywords: communication training, undergraduates, pediatrics, actors
Yusoff, Muhamad S. B.
Objectives: The demanding and intense environment of medical training can create excessive pressures on medical students that eventually lead to unfavorable consequences, either at a personal or professional level. These consequences can include poor academic performance and impaired cognitive ability. This study was designed to explore associations between pass-fail outcome and psychological health parameters (i.e. stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a cohort of first-year medical students in a Malaysian medical school. The depression anxiety stress scale 21-item assessment (DASS-21) was administered to them right after the final paper of the first-year final examination. Their final examination outcomes (i.e. pass or fail) were traced by using their student identity code (ID) through the Universiti Sains Malaysia academic office. Results: A total of 194 (98.0%) of medical students responded to the DASS-21. An independent t-test showed that students who passed had significantly lower stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms than those who failed the first-year final examination (P <0.05). Those who experienced moderate to high stress were at 2.43 times higher risk for failing the examination than those who experienced normal to mild stress. Conclusion: Medical students who failed in the final examination had higher psychological distress than those who passed the examination. Those who experienced high stress levels were more likely to fail than those who did not. Reducing the psychological distress of medical students prior to examination may help them to perform better in the examination. PMID:23573390
Adkison, Linda R.; Hanson, Andrea L.
Medical students experience stress during medical education that can negatively impact performance. Typical curricula in U.S. medical schools are rigorously intense and provide little or no time off between courses in the first two years of training. This intensity contributes to increased stress for students accustomed to performing academically near the top of the class prior to matriculating in medical school. We describe an innovative new academic calendar that was modified to create a Pr...
Professionalism is a focus for student learning in many disciplines. It is known, furthermore, that interpersonal interactions between staff and students constitute an informal curriculum that has a significant influence on students. But the origins of this informal curriculum are not fully apparent. This article offers a multiple case study that…
VIDYAMAVILA CHATHOTH; BHAGYALAKSHMI KODAVANJI; NAYANATARA ARUNKUMAR; SHEILA RAMESH PAI
Considering the explosive growth in internet use among medical students in India, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of internet addiction in undergraduate medical students.This cross-sectional study involved 90 subjects (18-20 years of age) selected by random sampling from the first year undergraduate medical student population at Kasturba Medical College Mangalore. Young’s Internet addiction test questionnaire was administered. Based on the scoring, subjects were classified into...
Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS. Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE's in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE's and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5 and sixty four nursing students (Year 2/3 of 4 were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE's for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33/46; 72% and 81% of nursing students (56/64 passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.
Gonsenhauser, Iahn; Beal, Eliza; Shihadeh, Fadi; Mekhjian, Hagop S; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D
This study tested the feasibility of a quality improvement (QI) program that provided first and second year medical students with education in QI processes and demonstrate their utility within the framework of a real-world QI project. Medical students assessed the use of the Surgical Safety Checklist at The Ohio State University Medical Center. Before performing audits students were required to complete a self-paced online program that provided preliminary education in QI, patient safety, leadership, teamwork, and patient-centered care. A 2.5-hr orientation introduced basic operating room protocol, and the surgical checklist audit tool. Orientation included a multimedia simulation of checklist usage and a role-playing exercise simulating its use. Students completed pre- and postparticipation assessments. Results included an increased knowledge of QI methodology, an improved understanding of the evidence supporting the need for QI projects within health systems, and a greater awareness of available QI projects. Students' perspectives changed to indicate an increased belief that QI is the responsibility of all health professionals including physicians, administrators and other staff. This study concluded that QI education can be effectively disseminated to medical students early in their education using existing online tools and experiential QI projects, and can result in actionable QI data supporting hospital improvement initiatives. PMID:23163971
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Scientific and personal characteristics of teachers are important factors in StudentTeacher relationship. In this study the objective to determine the Factors that influence the relationship between teachers and students regarding the opinion of the students of Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences. Subjects and Methods: This study is descriptive-analytic. The population of the research Includes all students of Ahvaz University of medical sciences. The data was gathered by questionnaire. The criteria for assessment of questions were Likert scale. Results: In this study, The effect of personal, ethical and professional characters of teachers was assessed as high by 63.8 percent of students and very high by 23.4 percent.. In between Of all these characters, “ethic” and “h umility” and also, “heartiness” of teachers have been the most effects regarding the students’ views. The effect of professional and scientific factors was assessed as inefctive by 18.8 percent, as low by 1.8, high by 48.7, and very high by 30.7 percent of the students. The effect of physical environment was considered as ineffective by 42.4 percent, very low by 4.7, low by 13.8, high by 25.3 and very high by 13.8 percent of the students.. Conclusion: This study and other researches show that of different factors, ethical and personal characters of teacher are more effective in student- teacher Relationship.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study aims to examine knowledge and attitudes towards Complementary and Alternative Medicine among medical students in Turkey, and find out whether they want to be trained in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between October and December 2010 among medical students. Data were collected from a total of seven medical schools. Findings The study included 943 medical students. The most well known methods among the students were herbal treatment (81.2?%, acupuncture (80.8?%, hypnosis (78.8?%, body-based practices including massage (77?% and meditation (65.2?%, respectively. Acupuncture, aromatherapy, herbal treatment and meditation were better known among female participants compared to males (p? Conclusions Majority of the medical students were familiar with the CAM methods widely used in Turkey, while most of them had positive attitudes towards CAM as well as willingness to receive training on the subject, and they were likely to recommend CAM methods to their patients in their future professional lives. With its gradual scientific development and increasing popularity, there appears a need for a coordinated policy in integrating CAM into the medical curriculum, by taking expectations of and feedback from medical students into consideration in setting educational standards.
Kikkert, Martijn J.; Schene, Aart H.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Robson, Debbie; Born, Anja; Helm, Hedda; Nose, Michela; Goss, Claudia; Thornicroft, Graham; Gray, Richard J.
One of the major clinical problems in the treatment of people with schizophrenia is suboptimal medication adherence. Most research focusing on determinants of nonadherence use quantitative research methods. These studies have some important limitations in exploring the decision-making process of patients concerning medication. In this study we explore factors influencing medication adherence behavior in people with schizophrenia using concept mapping. Concept mapping is a structured qualitat...
Cutler, Janis L.; Harding, Kelli J.; Mozian, Sharon A.; Wright, Leslie L.; Pica, Adrienne G.; Masters, Scott R.; Graham, Mark J.
People with mental illness around the world continue to suffer from stigmatization and limited care. Previous studies utilizing self-report questionnaires indicate that many medical students regard clinical work with psychiatric patients as unappealing, while the professionalism literature has documented a general decline in students' capacity for…
Schaap, H.; Bruijn, E.; Schaaf, M. F.; Baartman, L. K. J.; Kirschner, P. A.
Students in competence-based vocational education are expected to actively construct a personal professional theory, in which they integrate different types of knowledge and beliefs. Students’ personal professional theories are seen as an important learning outcome of competence-based vocational education. However, it is unknown how personal professional theories can be measured. This study focused on measuring the content and nature of students’ personal professional theor...
Vergare, Michael; Isenberg, Gerald; Cohen, Mitchell; Spandorfer, John
Objectives This study was designed to explore the underlying construct of measures of empathy, optimism, and burnout in medical students. Methods Three instruments for measuring empathy (Jefferson Scale of Empathy, JSE); Optimism (the Life Orientation Test-Revised, LOT-R); and burnout (the Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI, which includes three scales of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Accomplishment) were administered to 265 third-year students at Sidney Kimmel (formerly Jefferson) Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University. Data were subjected to factor analysis to examine relationships among measures of empathy, optimism, and burnout in a multivariate statistical model. Results Factor analysis (principal component with oblique rotation) resulted in two underlying constructs, each with an eigenvalue greater than one. The first factor involved “positive personality attributes” (factor coefficients greater than .58 for measures of empathy, optimism, and personal accomplishment). The second factor involved “negative personality attributes” (factor coefficients greater than .78 for measures of emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization). Conclusions Results confirmed that an association exists between empathy in the context of patient care and personality characteristics that are conducive to relationship building, and considered to be “positive personality attributes,” as opposed to personality characteristics that are considered as “negative personality attributes” that are detrimental to interpersonal relationships. Implications for the professional development of physicians-in-training and in-practice are discussed. PMID:25633650
Young, Joyce A.; Hawes, Jon M.
This paper describes an application of active learning within two different courses: professional selling and sales management. Students assumed the roles of sales representatives and sales managers for an actual fund-raiser--a golf outing--sponsored by a student chapter of the American Marketing Association. The sales project encompassed an…
Dharamsi, S; Whiteman, M; Woollard, R
Humor and laughter in medicine has received much attention in the medical literature. The use of humor by medical students, residents and medical personnel is not uncommon. Laughter can be therapeutic, for patients and practitioners alike. However, when inappropriately directed towards patients humor can be seen as unprofessional, disrespectful and dehumanizing. How physicians interpret their day-to-day professional experiences, and when and how they use humor is influenced by the perspective that is taken, the social distance from the event, culture and context. Some argue that social and physical distance makes it more acceptable to laugh and joke about patients, but not everyone agrees. To laugh with and not at others is the appropriate use of humor in medicine. To cry against the suffering of others and the injustice behind that suffering and not with them in their agony and frustration is the appropriate response to tragedy. PMID:21290366
Dingle, Arden D.
Objective: The author describes child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) undergraduate teaching in American and Canadian medical schools. Methods: A survey asking for information on CAP teaching, student interest in CAP, and opinions about the CAP importance was sent to the medical student psychiatry director at 142 accredited medical schools in the…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The internet is increasingly being used worldwide in imparting medical education and improving its delivery. It has become an important tool for healthcare professionals training but the data on its use by medical students in developing countries is lacking with no study on the subject from Pakistan. This study was, therefore, carried out with an aim to evaluate the pattern of internet access and utilization by medical students in Pakistan. Methods A structured pre-tested questionnaire was administered to a group of 750 medical students in clinical years studying at various public and private medical colleges in Lahore. The questions were related to patterns of internet access, purpose of use and self reported confidence in performing various internet related tasks, use of health related websites to supplement learning and the problems faced by students in using internet at the institution. Results A total of 532 medical students (70.9% returned the questionnaire. The mean age of study participants was 21.04 years (SD 1.96 years. Majority of the respondents (84.0% reported experience with internet use. About half of the students (42.1% were using internet occasionally with 23.1%, 20.9% and 13.9% doing so frequently, regularly and rarely respectively. About two third of the students (61.0% stated that they use internet for both academic and professional activities. Most of the participants preferred to use internet at home (70.5%. Self reported ability to search for required article from PubMed and PakMedinet was reported by only 34.0% of the entire sample. Students were moderately confident in performing various internet related tasks including downloading medical books from internet, searching internet for classification of diseases and downloading full text article. Health related websites were being accessed by 55.1% students to supplement their learning process. Lack of time, inadequate number of available computers and lack of support from staff were cited as the most common problems faced by students while accessing internet in the institution premises. There were significant differences among male and female students with respect to the place of internet use (p = 0.001 and the ability to search online databases for required articles (p = 0.014. Conclusions Majority of the medical students in this study had access to internet and were using it for both academic and personal reasons. Nevertheless, it was seen that there is under utilization of the potential of internet resources to augment learning. Increase in awareness, availability of requisite facilities and training in computing skills are required to enable better utilization of digital resources of digital resources by medical students.
Seval Do?ruk Kaçar
Full Text Available Background and Design: Practical training of medical students, especially in specialties such as dermatology, is performed in outpatient clinics where mostly outpatients are encountered. The aim of this study was to compare patients’ perspectives on medical students in two university hospitals (X–Y situated in different regions of Turkey. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 patients, who visited outpatient clinics of X (group 1 and Y (group 2 university hospitals during practical training for fifth year medical students, were included in this study. A questionnaire composed of 16 items was filled by all patients. The first eight questions were about patients’ consent and preferences on the presence of medical students during their interview and the remaining eight questions inquired patients’ overall thoughts on medical students. Results: The patients in both groups were willing to be a part of the educational programme of medical students (39.8%, 53.5%, respectively. The patients were aware that they had the right to refuse the presence of medical students (61.0%, 62.3% and majority wanted to be informed on the presence of medical students during the interview (72.4%, 80.7%. While patients in group 1 evaluated being with medical students as pleasurable (43.1%, patients in group 2 did not agree (44.7%. In addition, both groups were not bothered to share personal information with medical students (50.4%, 44.7% and stated that they would recommend their friends and relatives to have a physical examination done by medical students (51.2%, 41.2%. Conclusion: The active role of medical students during dermatology training is positively viewed by patients in both western and eastern parts of our country. The patients’ request on being informed for the presence of medical students during clinical examination reveals the requirement of oral and written informed consent.
Opheim, Arild; Andreasson, Sven; Eklund, Astri Brandell; Prescott, Peter
Objective: To explore the effects of brief training in Motivational interviewing (MI) for medical students. Design: Video recordings of consultations between 113 final-year medical students and simulated patients were scored blind by two independent raters with the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC). Half of the students participated in a…
In recent years, rising numbers of medical students and an increasingly demanding clinical workload has put pressures on the educational systems for medical students in the hospital. Bedside teaching remains central to education, but tutorial delivery by registrars, tutors and consultants has proven to be increasingly difficult with the greater numbers of students now in the undergraduate system.
Domino, George; Takahashi, Yoshitomo
Administered Suicide Opinion Questionnaire to 100 medical students from Japan and 100 medical students from the United States (80 percent males, 20 percent females). Found significant differences on Right to Die, Normality, and Aggression scales between Japanese and U.S. students, and significant gender differences on Religion and Impulsivity…
Verma, Rohit Kumar; Wong, Shirley; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Barua, Ankur
Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has become one of the most serious health problems in the world. Medical students awareness, attitudes and opinions must be assessed as they are leading health care professionals who provide treatment and care to the HIV and AIDS individuals. This survey was conducted to assess the level of awareness, attitudes and opinions of third year till fifth year medical students concerning HIV and ...
Wallace, Dawn; Ropers-Huilman, Becky; Abel, Ron
The purpose of this research is to gain some understandings of how university professionals who work with marginalized student populations perceive their professional work as situated within a university context. The professionals in this study work in federal TRIO programs that serve first-generation, low-income students who have been…
Lisi, Peter Waterman
A study examined (1) whether students whose teachers possess a higher level of professional development exhibit greater time-on-task in reading than students whose teachers exhibit a lower level of professional development, and (2) if any specific aspects of teachers' professional development were related to a significantly greater amount of…
This qualitative study sought to identify the complex issues facing Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women students at one Midwestern medical school as they subjectively experience their medical training. Students reported parental and Asian community influences on their decision to enter medicine; most thought faculty perceive them as "quiet," often…
Amalraj Edwin R
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had misconception about transmission of HIV infection should not be allowed to work in the clinic or hospital. 36% of male and 9% of female students admitted indulging in safe sexual practices mostly with their friends.
Blanca M Seijo Echevarría
Full Text Available Con el propósito de diagnosticar la interiorización de los valores éticos profesionales a los alumnos de medicina seleccionados, se realiza esta investigación descriptiva causal. Para ello se determina el Sistema de Valores Éticos de la profesión médica en Camagüey, luego de un estudio profundo de los Códigos de Ética Médica Internacionales y Nacionales y la utilización de diferentes métodos y procedimientos propios de las investigaciones psicológicas y pedagógicas, éstos últimos apoyaron también la realización del diagnóstico de la situación actual de los estudiantes, donde se evidencia una diferencia notoria entre la auto evaluación y la co-evaluación siendo necesario acercar estos criterios. Valores como responsabilidad, profesionalidad, ser culto, internacionalismo y honestidad tienen dificultades en su asimilación. Queda demostrado que la metodología empleada es factible de ser utilizada para el diagnóstico al responder los resultados con las expectativasWith the purpose of diagnostic the ins and outs of the ethical professional values to the selected medicine students this descriptive investigation was carried out. With that purpose the System of Ethical Values of the medical profession in Camaguey was set after a deep study of the International and National Codes of medical Ethics and the use of different methods and procedures of psychological and pedagogic investigations, these also supported the doing of the diagnosis of the current situation of the students, where a notorius difference is evidenced between the self evaluation and the coevaluation being necessary to bring near these approaches. Values as responsability, internacionalism and honesty have difficulties to be cultivated. It is demostrated that the used methodology is feasible of being used for the diagnosis when responding the resultswith expectations
Ness, Genevieve Lynn; Sheehan, Amy Heck; Snyder, Margie E.; Jordan, Joseph; Cunningham, Jean E.; Gettig, Jacob P.
Objective. To determine the use patterns of social media among graduating pharmacy students, characterize students’ views and opinions of professionalism on popular social media sites, and compare responses about social media behavior among students seeking different types of employment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical students come into contact with infectious diseases early on their career. Immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases is therefore vital for both medical students and the patients with whom they come into contact. Methods The purpose of this study was to compare the medical history and serological status of selected vaccine-preventable diseases of medical students in Germany. Results The overall correlation between self-reported medical history statements and serological findings among the 150 students studied was 86.7 %, 66.7 %, 78 % and 93.3 % for measles, mumps, rubella and varicella, conditional on sufficient immunity being achieved after one vaccination. Although 81.2 % of the students' medical history data correlated with serological findings, significant gaps in immunity were found. Conclusion Our findings indicate that medical history alone is not a reliable screening tool for immunity against the vaccine-preventable diseases studied.
In India, globalized flows of biomedical discourse like evidence-based delivery practices (EBDs) and new technologies are reshaping the field of reproductive health care. As iterations of evidence-based medicine shift, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) increasingly act as distributive agents for biomedical projects that equate modernized health care spaces and provider-care techniques with a marked improvement in the safety of birth outcomes. In this article, I examine how particular local iterations of EBDs are distributed to skilled birth attendants (SBAs) who have become sites for globalized projects aimed at reshaping their professional designation. I draw on data collected through in-depth ethnographic interviews with SBAs practicing in health centers around southern Rajasthan to explore the dynamics and tensions surrounding the professionalization of midwives and the increasing promotion of EBDs in institutional labor rooms. PMID:25042051
... Many LGBT Medical Students Don't Reveal Sexual Identity Fear of discrimination cited as biggest reason, survey ... LGBT said they didn't reveal their sexual identity in medical school. Fear of discrimination was the ...
Yu, Hongxing; Hu, Zhenglu; Zhang, Xifan; Li, Bin; Zhou, Shangcheng
Background & Objective: In recent years there have been many cases of violence against healthcare professionals (HCPs) in China leading to the death of some doctors as well as nurses by patient’s relatives. Our objective was to identify the causative factors for these violent acts and address these isssues which is vital to ensure patient safety. Methods: A multidisciplinary research task force was formed to do a root cause analysis of the violent acts against the healthcare professionals. A flowchart was developed to identify the steps in the process and discover the potential links. Results: There are complex reasons behind the violence against HCPs. However, the main reasons were found to be poor quality of medical services and increased awareness of patients’ rights and their willingness to knock at the doors of courts to seek justice. The feasible counter measures includes stimulating hospital directors to improve patient safety, aligning incentives with quality of service provided in healthcare facilities, monitoring educational quality of HCPs, making necessary changes in medical education programmes besides setting up a reasonable academic promotion mechanism for health professionals based on merit and competence. Conclusion: Poor quality of medical services, increased awareness among patients about their rights has resulted in increase in medical disputes and at times violence against healthcare professionals. A number of effective measures can be undertaken by the government, hospitals, and medical schools ensuring patient safety. However, it is essential to sensitize the hospital directors to elevate their quality of medical services. PMID:25878605
Kaae, Susanne; SØrensen, Ellen Westh
Background Interprofessional collaboration between pharmacists and physicians to conduct joint home medication reviews (HMR) is important for optimizing the medical treatment of patients suffering from chronic illnesses. However, collaboration has proved difficult to achieve. The HMR programme "Medisam" was launched in 2009 at the University of Copenhagen with the aim of "developing, implementing and evaluating a collaboration model for HMRs and medicine reconciliations in Denmark". The Medisam programme involves patients, pharmacy internship students, the (pharmacist) supervisor of the pharmacy students and physicians. Objective To explore if it was possible through the Medisam programme to obtain a fruitful HMR collaboration between pharmacy internship students and physicians as a means to develop HMR collaboration between trained pharmacists and physicians further. Setting Ten matching pairs of student-physician collaboration were studied across Denmark. Method Semi-structured interviews about existing collaboration were conducted with pharmacy internship students in the HMR programme, their supervisors and physicians partners. The theoretical framework forming the analyses was derived especially from works of Bradley et al. (Res Soc Adm Pharm 8:36-46, 2012), and Snyder et al. (Res Soc Adm Pharm 6:307-23, 2010) on pharmacists/physician collaboration. Main outcome measure The development of inter-professional collaboration between students and physicians according to the three collaboration drivers: trustworthiness, role specification and professional interaction. Results Full collaboration was not achieved. Physicians found collaboration satisfactory, students however expressed the need of more interaction with physicians. The written collaboration contracts did not ensure a possible need of students to re-negotiate roles and tasks, and did therefore not entirely ensure role specification. Developing mutual professional interdependence through students being recognized by physicians to contribute to improved patient outcomes was also limited. Conclusion Some challenges to fruitful collaboration were identified. Solutions to these challenges include students and their pharmacist supervisors to find ways to present their collaborative needs to physicians and for students to illustrate more explicitly the benefits patient achieve if physicians implement the recommendations of students.
Full Text Available Romanian specialist`s studies show a harsh reality: Romanian universities programs have only theoretical value, creating specialists but not for real life, but for a more abstract environment. Our university graduates are doing very well in a stable economic and institutional environment that offers relatively easy material and financial resources, with a set of skills and professional skills which fail to meet harsh reality of the labor market. An effective solution for professional skills development is the accumulation of work experience during college in the environment and on the job we have in view by following an internship program. As a form of practical education through work, internship meets young people, particularly students keen to gain experience through practical work in a job within a company or institution chosen, giving them the opportunity to translate theoretical knowledge into practice and to develop skills and experience of labor market activities that waits for them. This paper is an original applied research conducted in the West University of Timisoara, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. It aims to identify whether there is a need for specialization Management students to acquire work experience before graduating, to what extent they are able to assess their skills and work in a company and especially the role of internship programs in professional and personal development of students. The results show that participation in an internship program is beneficial not only for students but also for employers. Leading to increased competences and to training and professional skills and personal development, internship becomes a more attractive alternative for young people because it gives them the opportunity to be â€œa ringer" of an employee on the position you have in view. Without being employed, students can gain practical experience in a certain position they sought in a company or institution on the labor market, practical experience they need so much and they can also learn what responsibilities and tasks the job entails and whether or not they are suitable for that position.
Matthias Siebeck; Amp Xfc Ller, Norbert M.; Anna Buchheim; Fabian Jacobs; Max Burger; Eva Reiß; Sebastian Meyer; Sarah Gasperi; Daniela Krause; Sandra Dehning
Objectives. Doctors' empathy towards their patients is considered important for treatment outcome. However, during medical school there might be a decline in empathy called “hardening of the heart.” This study evaluated the cognitive and emotional empathy in medical students and investigated the influence of a preference for a specialty and students attachment styles. Methods. 126 first-year medical students were included and completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test revised version...
Strickland, Colin D; Lowry, Peter A; Petersen, Brian D; Jesse, Mary K
OBJECTIVE. This article describes the creation of a virtual workstation for use by medical students and implementation of that workstation in the reading room. CONCLUSION. A radiology virtual workstation for medical students was created using OsiriX imaging software to authentically simulate the experience of interacting with cases selected to cover important musculoskeletal imaging diagnoses. A workstation that allows the manipulation and interpretation of complete anonymized DICOM images may enhance the educational experience of medical students. PMID:25714314
Mostafa Amr, Md; Abdel Hady El Gilany, Md; Aly El-hawary, Md
Background: Medical education is perceived as being stressful with negative effects on students’ mental health. However, few studies have addressed the influence of gender on stress in medical students.Aim: To compare male and female medical students in Egypt on sources of stress, perception of stress, anxiety, depression, physical symptomatology, and personality profile.Methods: Data were collected through an anonymous self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic data, stress...
Jennifer Kurré; Monika Bullinger; Corinna Petersen-Ewert; Guse, Andreas H.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop a uniquely tailored mentoring program for medical students and evaluate the success of implementation. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among medical students at University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, in 2007 (response rate 74 n=1235) was administered to explore student needs for an individual counseling service (mentoring program). These data were supplemented with additional qualitative data (telephone interviews (n=52) and ex...
Mcmanus, I. C.; Richards, P.
The performance during the preclinical course of 517 students who had applied to this medical school for admission in 1981 and who had been accepted by the school or by another British medical school was analysed in relation to variables measured at the time of application to find factors that predicted success in the preclinical course, whether students chose to take an intercalated degree, and the class achieved in the intercalated degree. Thirty one of the 507 students who entered medical ...
Jerónimo García Fernández
Full Text Available The actual context has enhanced job opportunities in the field of sport in order to respond to the current market demand. Thus, Physical Education and Sport Science graduates who begin to do differents jobs to the traditional ones but relate to their study field. The aim of this study was to guess which are the job preferences of the students of Physical Education and Sport Science of Seville University by gender and age doing the second cycle of their college degree and determine if there are significant differences. A descriptive analysis was carried out, using a questionnaire based on several researches, it was related to professional opportunities in sport sciences. The sample was of 118 students which represented 40.7% of the overall registered students. Results shown that sport management is the most preferable professional opportunity for women and men of the total sample, following in second place by teaching in secondary school for people older than 25 years of both sexes and teaching in primary school for the younger than 25 years. These findings announce changes in occupational trends in sports, to be taken into account in the framework of the European higher education (Degree of Science in Sport and Physical Activity, own US Masters and Official, lifelong learning programs....
Khan, Spogmai; Sharif, Waqar; Khalid, Uzma; Ali, Asad
Introduction. Medicine is one of the most stressful fields of education because of its highly demanding professional and academic requirements. Psychological stress, anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in medical students. Methods. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the Combined Military Hospital Lahore Medical College and the Institute of Dentistry in Lahore (CMH LMC), Pakistan. Students enrolled in all yearly courses for the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) degree were included. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: (1) demographics (2) a table listing 34 potential stressors, (3) the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14), and (4) the Pittsburgh Quality of Sleep Index (PSQI). Logistic regression was run to identify associations between group of stressors, gender, year of study, student’s background, stress and quality of sleep. Results. Total response rate was 93.9% (263/280 respondents returned the questionnaire). The mean (SD) PSS-14 score was 30 (6.97). Logistic regression analysis showed that cases of high-level stress were associated with year of study and academic-related stressors only. Univariate analysis identified 157 cases with high stress levels (59.7%). The mean (SD) PSQI score was 8.1 (3.12). According to PSQI score, 203/263 respondents (77%) were poor sleepers. Logistic regression showed that mean PSS-14 score was a significant predictor of PSQI score (OR 1.99, P < 0.05). Conclusion. We found a very high prevalence of academic stress and poor sleep quality among medical students. Many medical students reported using sedatives more than once a week. Academic stressors contributed significantly to stress and sleep disorders in medical students. PMID:25802809
Kearsley, John H; Lobb, Elizabeth A
We report upon the design, content and feedback from an interactive, experiential series of Workshops in Healing for senior medical students. Fifty-six final year medical students enrolled in 2×3?h workshops designed around the core themes of 'physician know thyself' (Workshop 1) and 'confronting suffering' (Workshop 2). Of the 56 students who initially enrolled, 48 students completed both workshops and provided a written open-ended reflection of their learning experience. The study, undertaken over a consecutive 5-year period (2008-2012), employed an emergent, qualitative design using thematic analysis of the reflective comments. We found that the design and content of both workshops promoted transformative learning for these final year medical students. Students identified the following benefits: (1) the opportunity to reaffirm their commitment to their chosen career path; (2) the value of listening to other students share their stories; (3) the importance of the timing of the workshops to occur after exams; (4) the use of various mediums such as art, poetry, music and contemporary/classic literature to present concepts of suffering and healing; and (5) the creation of a safe and confidential space. Students reported that these innovative workshops gave them a renewed sense of drive and enthusiasm for their chosen career. They highlighted the importance of addressing an aspect of medicine (healing) not covered in the traditional medical curriculum. Workshops in Healing helped them to rediscover a deeper meaning to medicine and their roles as future healthcare professionals. PMID:24473159
Khurana, Poonam; Huang, Edgar
International medical graduates (IMGs) comprise 26% of the U.S. physician work force. While IMGs bring all their knowledge and expertise, their pronunciation and intonation patterns often become a barrier in their ability to be understood. This breakdown in communication can affect physician-patient or physician-staff understanding and hence…
Full Text Available This study compared and analyzed the situation of the college students’ professional identification amongdifferent employment scopes to explore the influence from the scopes to the professional identification. Theresult indicates that the present situation of college students’ professional identification is not satisfactory. Wedid not find remarkable difference between implicit and explicit identification. The result shows that collegestudents among different employment scopes lack of enough implicit professional identification.
Margolis Stephen A; Ypinazar Valmae A
Abstract Background Little is known about teaching medical ethics across cultural and linguistic boundaries. This study examined two successive cohorts of first year medical students in a six year undergraduate MBBS program. Methods The objective was to investigate whether Arabic speaking students studying medicine in an Arabic country would be able to correctly identify some of the principles of Western medical ethical reasoning. This cohort study was conducted on first year students in a si...
BACKGROUND: It is usually observed that medical students undergo tremendous stress during various stages of the MBBS course. There is a high rate of suicide among them. METHODS: To determine incidence of stress and factors controlling stress in medical students at various stages of MBBS course at Seth G S Medical college, 238 students (First year 98, Second 76, Third 64) were asked to complete a questionnaire on personal data (gender, stay at hostel, mode of travel, time spent in travel every...
Kron Frederick W; Gjerde Craig L; Sen Ananda; Fetters Michael D
Abstract Background Studies in K-12 and college students show that their learning preferences have been strongly shaped by new media technologies like video games, virtual reality environments, the Internet, and social networks. However, there is no known research on medical students' game experiences or attitudes towards new media technologies in medical education. This investigation seeks to elucidate medical student experiences and attitudes, to see whether they warrant the development of ...
Cecília Nogueira Valença, Raimunda Medeiros Germano, Rejane Maria Paiva de Menezes
Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the complex theme of self-medication in the elderly people and the role of health professionals and nursing. Methodology: this is a theoretical essay based on a literature review of the narrative type. It was selected articles indexed in databases Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO and the Database of Nursing (BDENF, from 2003 to 2009, using as descriptors: self-medication, nursing and elderly people. It was also used books and manuals of the ministry of health. From the reading and qualitative synthesis of abstracts, were set up two axes of analysis and reflection: Aging and self: views on the issue and Medication in the elderly people: the role of health professionals and nursing. Results: the elderly people are the age group that uses more drugs. Self-medication is a practice that can generate serious health risks such as intoxication. The qualified professional should guide the public about the medicine to lessen the risk and effectively as possible. Conclusion: it was conclude that the use of knowledge of health professionals and nurses to help to reduce the risks associated with self-medication and problems related to use of medicines, contributing to the improvement of quality of life of older people.
Friel, Eileen D.
There is increasingly wide-spread recognition in astronomy that professional training must broaden beyond its traditional approaches to academic classes and research. Many recent community advisory reports, including the National Academy of Sciences Decadal survey, Astro2010, recommend that graduate education accommodate the variety of career paths taken by graduates, taking into account the wide range of activities scientists engage in and the skills necessary to succeed in career options both inside and outside academia and specific scientific disciplines. In response to this need, Indiana University has recently offered a new graduate seminar in astronomy to provide this broader perspective and to prepare students for a variety of career paths after graduate school. The course uses a mixture of class discussion on selected topics supplemented by short readings, activities that prepare students for seeking employment and practice some necessary skills, and discussions with astronomers who have followed a variety of career paths. An important part of the seminar is the practical preparation of complete applications for typical positions students are likely to pursue following graduation, and the revision of these applications to be appropriate for a non-traditional career path. The goal of the course is to make students aware of the many options for careers that will be available to them and the skills that will be important for their success, and to equip students with strategies for following a personally satisfying career path.
Beatriz Molinuevo; Rafael Torrubia
Objectives: To determine whether personality is related to medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills and self-ratings on communication skills. Methods: 524 first- and 507 second-year medical students completed the Communications Skills Attitudes Scale and rated their own communication skills. First-year students answered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and second-year students the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses, control...
Halliday, Ac; Devonshire, Im; Greenfield, Sa; Dommett, Ej
Teaching pharmacology to medical students has long been seen as a challenge, and one to which a number of innovative approaches have been taken. In this article, we describe and evaluate the use of primary research articles in teaching second-year medical students both in terms of the information learned and the use of the papers themselves. We designed a seminar where small groups of students worked on different neurotransmitters before contributing information to a plenary session. Student ...
Wright Scott M; Misra Satish; Bicket Mark; Shochet Robert
Abstract Background Many medical schools are establishing learning communities to foster cohesion among students and to strengthen relationships between students and faculty members. Emerging learning communities require nurturing and attention; this represents an opportunity wherein medical students can become involved as leaders. This study sought to understand issues related to active involvement among students who chose to become highly engaged in a newly developed learning community. Met...
Saima Diderichsen; Jenny Andersson; Johansson, Eva E.; Petra Verdonk; Antoine Lagro-Janssen; Katarina Hamberg
Objectives: To investigate future life expectations among male and female medical students in their first and final year. Methods: The study was cross-sectional and conducted at a Swedish medical school. Out of 600 invited students, 507 (85%) answered an open-ended question about their future life, 298 (59%) first-year students and 209 (41%) last-year students. Women constituted 60% of the respondents. A mixed model design was applied; qualitative content analysis was utilized to create stati...
Alexander, P. John; Kumaraswamy, N.
Using the Senior Medical Student Questionnaire, the attitudes towards psychiatry and the career interest in psychiatry of 146 final year medical students were obtained. The results indicated that, on the overall merits of the field of psychiatry and role definition and functioning of psychiatrists, students had a favorable opinion. Many students considered that career and personal rewards in psychiatry are limited. Analysis of the relationship between career interest and attitudes showed that...
Heron, Sheryl L.; Ander, Douglas S.; Houry, Debra; Hassani, Dahlia M.; Quest, Tammie
Objective: To use 360-degree evaluations within an Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to assess medical student comfort level and communication skills with intimate partner violence (IPV) patients.Methods: We assessed a cohort of fourth year medical students’ performance using an IPV standardized patient (SP) encounter in an OSCE. Blinded pre- and post-tests determined the students’ knowledge and comfort level with core IPV assessment. Students, SPs and investigators complete...
José Antônio, Chehuen Neto; Mauro Toledo, Sirimarco; Nathália Stela Visoná de, Figueiredo; Tatiane Neto, Barbosa; Thiago Gonçalves da, Silveira.
Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, houve um crescimento das implicações em sociedade do erro médico, assunto em que se entrelaçam Medicina e Direito. Este estudo procurou conhecer a percepção de estudantes de Medicina e Direito sobre erro médico, avaliando nível de interesse e informação, e a necessidade de abord [...] ar o tema na graduação e como ela ocorre para cada área, na sua ótica. Estudo observacional descritivo transversal foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (MG) em 2008 com 185 alunos de Medicina e 119 de Direito. 88,7% dos alunos de Medicina (MED) e 92,4% de Direito (DIR) referiram conhecimento sobre erro médico. O interesse se dá por ser um tema muito discutido atualmente. Os alunos consideram necessária sua abordagem na graduação (97,8% MED e 94,9% DIR). É importante discutir um tema tão atual na graduação de Medicina e de Direito pela contribuição que pode ser oferecida para diminuir o ciclo vicioso de erros, iatrogenias e processos jurídicos, além de possibilitar uma reflexão acerca do papel da educação médica na construção ética de novos profissionais. Abstract in english Recent decades have witnessed an increase in the societal implications of medical error, a subject in which Medicine and Law intertwine. This study focused on medical error from the perspective of medical students and law students, assessing their level of interest and information and the need to di [...] scuss the topic during undergraduate education and how it occurs in each field, in their view. A cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study was conducted at the Federal University in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, in 2008 with 185 medical students and 119 law students. 88.7% of the medical students and 92.4% of the law students reported knowledge of medical error. The interest was due to the fact that medical error is currently a widely discussed issue. The students thought the issue should be addressed in their undergraduate education (97.8% of medical students and 94.9% of law students). It is important to discuss such a current issue in undergraduate education in both medicine and law, because of the potential for decreasing the vicious circle of errors, iatrogenesis, and law suits, in addition to fostering reflection on the role of medical education in the ethical training of young professionals.
Kim-Prieto, Chu; Copeland, H. Liesel; Hopson, Rodney; Simmons, Toya; Leibowitz, Michael J.
We examined the relationship between sense of professional identity and academic success among under-represented minority graduate students in a biomedical doctoral program. We found that a sense of professional identity is related to science success among under-represented minority students, but not for non-underrepresented minority students.…
Ashley, Vera Bruce
The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy, benefits and student perceptions of using Internet videoconferencing and a web camera to connect college and university fashion students with apparel industry professionals. A total of 70 college and university fashion students, three instructors, and three apparel industry professionals…
Full Text Available There are multiple reasons that justify teaching computer game design. Its multi-aspectual nature creates opportunity to develop, at the same time, creativity, technical skills and ability to work in team. Thinking of game design classes, one needs direction on what to focus on so that the students could benefit the most. In this paper, we present results of a survey on both the students' and working professionals' expectations from game design course and opinions on game designer job. Although sometimes consistent, the answers from the two groups often reveal significant discrepancies. We believe that the results presented in this paper can help improve the quality of computer game design courses and make their learning outcomes more compatible with the needs of the computer game industry.
Azad, Muhammad Chanchal; Fraser, Kristin; Rumana, Nahid; Abdullah, Ahmad Faris; Shahana, Nahid; Hanly, Patrick J; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury
Medical students carry a large academic load which could potentially contribute to poor sleep quality above and beyond that already experienced by modern society. In this global literature review of the medical students' sleep experience, we find that poor sleep is not only common among medical students, but its prevalence is also higher than in non-medical students and the general population. Several factors including medical students' attitudes, knowledge of sleep, and academic demands have been identified as causative factors, but other potential mechanisms are incompletely understood. A better understanding about the etiology of sleep problems in medical trainees is essential if we hope to improve the overall quality of medical students' lives, including their academic performance. Sleep self-awareness and general knowledge appear insufficient in many studied cohorts, so increasing education for students might be one beneficial intervention. We conclude that there is ample evidence for a high prevalence of the problem, and research in this area should now expand towards initiatives to improve general sleep education for medical students, identify students at risk, and target them with programs to improve sleep. PMID:25515274
Waqas, Ahmed; Khan, Spogmai; Sharif, Waqar; Khalid, Uzma; Ali, Asad
Introduction. Medicine is one of the most stressful fields of education because of its highly demanding professional and academic requirements. Psychological stress, anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in medical students. Methods. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the Combined Military Hospital Lahore Medical College and the Institute of Dentistry in Lahore (CMH LMC), Pakistan. Students enrolled in all yearly courses for the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) degree were included. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: (1) demographics (2) a table listing 34 potential stressors, (3) the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14), and (4) the Pittsburgh Quality of Sleep Index (PSQI). Logistic regression was run to identify associations between group of stressors, gender, year of study, student's background, stress and quality of sleep. Results. Total response rate was 93.9% (263/280 respondents returned the questionnaire). The mean (SD) PSS-14 score was 30 (6.97). Logistic regression analysis showed that cases of high-level stress were associated with year of study and academic-related stressors only. Univariate analysis identified 157 cases with high stress levels (59.7%). The mean (SD) PSQI score was 8.1 (3.12). According to PSQI score, 203/263 respondents (77%) were poor sleepers. Logistic regression showed that mean PSS-14 score was a significant predictor of PSQI score (OR 1.99, P stress and poor sleep quality among medical students. Many medical students reported using sedatives more than once a week. Academic stressors contributed significantly to stress and sleep disorders in medical students. PMID:25802809
Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai; Kurubaran Ganasegeran; Wilson Perianayagam; Krishna Gopal Rampal
This study was the first to explore factors associated with emotional burnout (EB) among medical residents in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 205 medical residents in a Malaysian general hospital. The self-administered questionnaire used consisted of questions on sociodemographics and work characteristics, sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, engagement, and EB. EB was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale, the Maslach Burnout In...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of medical conditions is influenced by whether clinicians regard them as "disease" or "not a disease". The aim of the survey was to determine how medical students classify a range of conditions they might encounter in their professional lives and whether a different name for a condition would influence their decision in the categorisation of the condition as a 'disease' or 'not a disease'. Methods We surveyed 3 concurrent years of medical students to classify 36 candidate conditions into "disease" and "non-disease". The conditions were given a 'medical' label and a (lay label and positioned where possible in alternate columns of the survey. Results The response rate was 96% (183 of 190 students attending a lecture: 80% of students concurred on 16 conditions as "disease" (eg diabetes, tuberculosis, and 4 as "non-disease" (eg baldness, menopause, fractured skull and heat stroke. The remaining 16 conditions (with 21-79% agreement were more contentious (especially obesity, infertility, hay fever, alcoholism, and restless leg syndrome. Three pairs of conditions had both a more, and a less, medical label: the more medical labels (myalgic encephalomyelitis, hypertension, and erectile dysfunction were more frequently classified as 'disease' than the less medical (chronic fatigue syndrome, high blood pressure, and impotence, respectively, significantly different for the first two pairs. Conclusions Some conditions excluded from the classification of "disease" were unexpected (eg fractured skull and heat stroke. Students were mostly concordant on what conditions should be classified as "disease". They were more likely to classify synonyms as 'disease' if the label was medical. The findings indicate there is still a problem 30 years on in the concept of 'what is a disease'. Our findings suggest that we should be addressing such concepts to medical students.
Dissing, Nete; Bak, Nanna Hasle
Studies show that university students are at risk for eating disorders. However, risk behaviour has not been studied among Danish medical students, nor have the gender differences in risk behaviour been described in a Danish context.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients regard health care professionals as role models for leading a healthy lifestyle. Health care professionals' own behaviour and attitudes concerning healthy lifestyle have an influence in counselling patients. The aim of this study was to assess consumption of alcohol, cigarettes and illegal substances among physicians and medical students in two German states: Brandenburg and Saxony. Methods Socio-demographic data and individual risk behaviour was collected by an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Physicians were approached via mail and students were recruited during tutorials or lectures. Results 41.6% of physicians and 60.9% of medical students responded to the questionnaire; more than 50% of the respondents in both groups were females. The majority of respondents consumed alcohol at least once per week; median daily alcohol consumption ranged from 3.88 g/d (female medical students to 12.6 g/d (male physicians. A significantly higher percentage of men (p Conclusion More than one third of the medical students and health care professionals showed problematic alcohol-drinking behaviour. Although the proportion of non-smokers in the investigated sample was higher than in the general population, when compared to the general population, medical students between 18-24 reported higher consumption of illegal substances. These results indicate that methods for educating and promoting healthy lifestyle, particularly with respect to excessive alcohol consumption, tobacco use and abuse of illegal drugs should be considered.
Staden, C. W.; Joubert, Pierre M.; Pickworth, G. E.; Roos, J. L.; Bergh, Anne-marie; Kruger, Christa; Schurink, W. J.; Du Preez, R. R.; Grey, Somarie V.; Lindeque, B. G.
OBJECTIVE: This paper reports on the conceptualisation of "soft skills" as part of a study carried out among two groups of undergraduate medical students before and after curriculum reform at the School of Medicine of the University of Pretoria. Congruent with a call from the World Psychiatric Association, the curriculum reform that was undertaken aimed, inter alia, to place more emphasis on soft skills, including professional interpersonal and social skills, communication skills, an...
Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students? attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19% indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001 and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001. About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20% thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.
Ameneh Barikani; Mahsa Afaghi; Firooze Barikani; Ahmad Afaghi
Introduction: Young physicians have many recruitment barriers in Iran. Therefore, for planning purpose, assessment of the attitudes of medical intern students towards their future career is important. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed the view points of 300 medical students through a self administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software with P value < 0.05. Results: Two hundred and forty students (80%) of the students had responded to the questionnaire. Among t...
Nierman, David M
Principles of medical professionalism include humanistic values, altruism, ethical and moral behavior, and a lifelong commitment to scholarship and learning. These principles can provide behavioral guidelines to residents, fellows and their teacher-physicians during the formative years of postgraduate training. This short paper presents some of the challenging professional questions raised during these years of training, where medical professionalism may help to guide us. PMID:12429960
Full Text Available We describe a training program on “Psychology of effective professional activity”, realized on the basis of the Ural College of the Beauty Industry. The purpose of this discipline is to improve the effectiveness of education and professional activities of college students acquiring professions of “Human-Human” type. To improve effectiveness of education and professional activities, this program provides formation of professionally important qualities of students. The results of the program can be: students’ acquisition of knowledge required for the effective performance of professional activities (ways to prevent burnout, increase self-confidence, etc.; mastery of professional skills (planning, simulation, etc.; formation of professionally important qualities (stress, tolerance, etc.; increasing the efficiency of their professional activities.
Babelli, Sumayah; Chandratilake, Madawa; Roff, Sue
Abstract The Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory I: Academic Integrity was administered to 219 medical students from three Egyptian medical schools. The results indicate a high level of congruence between the genders in Recommended Sanctions on a scale of 1-10 ranging from Ignore through Reprimand to Expulsion/Report to Regulatory Body. Some variations in Recommended Sanctions occurred among the age groups 17-19 years; 20-24 years, and 25 years and older. The Egyptian responses were more lenient than a Scottish medical school cohort on four lapses of professionalism and stricter on 5. The Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory I: Academic Integrity can be used as a 'diagnostic tool' to profile a cohort's recommended responses to 30 lapses of professionalism at undergraduate level in health professions education. That profile can be compared with another cohort to indicate parallels and differences in the importance with which different respondents (perhaps in different countries and cultures) place on generic elements of academic professionalism. This information in turn can be used to target further education in expected standards of professionalism. The process can be used as an e-learning programme as well as for needs analysis, including that for International Medical Graduates moving from one culture to work in another. PMID:25154447
Navin, Thomas R.; Nichols, Andrew W.
This program affiliated with the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, defrays costs faced by an Arizona student in attending an out-of-state medical school by paying the difference between the resident and nonresident tuition at the out-of-state school. It has failed to increase the numbers of medicals students and physicians…
Ayatollahi, Ali; Ayatollahi, Jamshid; Ayatollahi, Fatemeh; Ayatollahi, Reza; Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein
Objective: Although computer technologies are now widely used in medicine, little is known about its use among medical students in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the competence and access to computer and internet among the medical students.
Atkins, K. Meredith; Roberts, Amy E.; Cochran, Nan
Two Dartmouth Medical School (New Hampshire) medical students and their faculty sponsor collaborated to develop an elective course in women's health. Development and implementation of this course and the process by which it was later made part of the required curriculum are described. The success of the effort highlights the crucial role students…
Hidalgo, Jesús López-Torres; Pretel, Fernando Andrés; Bravo, Beatriz Navarro; Rabadan, Francisco Escobar; Serrano Selva, Juan Pedro; Latorre Postigo, Jose Miguel; Martínez, Ignacio Párraga
Objective: To examine the ability of medical students to identify hazardous drinkers using screening tools recommended in clinical practice. Design: Observational cross-sectional study. Setting: Faculty of Medicine of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. Method: The medical students learnt to use Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and…
Full Text Available In this article we study the social recruitment and professional image of students at the University of Debrecen. Social recruitment shows significant differences between the faculties and the branches. The students in the high prestige faculties come from highmiddle class and middle class families. The students of the faculties that were judged having average prestige are from the middle class and the rate of low-middle class students is significantly greater in branches with lower prestige. Important differences were found in the professional image of the students with an education major and not education majors and also in case of the „ideal professional” and the „practical, necessary knowledge”. Both are partly formed by the professional socialization of the students and partly by the stereotypes. As a consequence there are also big differences between the professional image and the future expectations of the students with an education major and with other majors attending the same faculty.
Alberto, Perales; Alfonso, Mendoza; Elard, Sánchez.
Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Propósito: Estudiar la vocación médica desde una perspectiva científica. Objetivos: Analizar la vocación médica respecto a sus orígenes y factores asociados a su desarrollo en médicos considerados ejemplos de conducta profesional y vocación médica. Diseño: Investigación cualitativa, con muestreo de [...] caso típico y entrevistas en profundidad. Institución: Instituto de Ética en Salud, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Médicos. Metodología: La muestra estuvo conformada por 76 médicos seleccionados en base a criterios pre-establecidos, miembros de las cuatro instituciones médicas más prestigiadas del país: Academia Nacional de Medicina, Academia Peruana de Cirugía y Facultades de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos y Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Se obtuvo su consentimiento informado. Principales medidas de resultados: Orígenes y factores asociados a vocación médica. Resultados: El 82% correspondió al sexo masculino; edad promedio 71,6 años, con rango de edad 49 a 88 años; 8% era hijo/a de médico y 14% tenía otro familiar médico; 30% era el/la mayor de los hijos. La vocación médica no siguió un patrón único, pudiendo iniciarse en diferentes momentos del ciclo vital, incluso después de que el alumno hubo ingresado a la Facultad de Medicina. Entre los factores explicativos más frecuentemente asociados destacaron una dinámica personal y la influencia familiar, aunque hubo dos casos en los que no se encontró factor explicativo alguno. A base de los resultados se presenta definiciones de vocación y vocación médica. Conclusiones: El análisis de la información permite entender la vocación médica como un proceso que se genera en un ser humano en virtud de dos factores: uno individual y otro social (entorno que estimula su desarrollo). Su inicio puede ocurrir a edades y en formas variadas constituyéndose, finalmente, en parte del ‘proyecto de ser’ (se dan ejemplos específicos). Abstract in english Purpose: To study medical vocation from a scientific perspective. Objectives: To analyze origins and development-associated factors of medical vocation in physicians considered examples of high-level professional behavior and medical vocation. Design: Qualitative study, with typical case sampling an [...] d in-depth interviews. Setting: Institute on Ethics in Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Participants: Physicians. Methodology: The sample consisted in 76 physicians selected by pre-established criteria from the four more prestigious Peruvian medical institutions: National Academy of Medicine, Peruvian Academy of Surgery, San Marcos University’s and Peruvian Cayetano Heredia University’s Schools of Medicine. Informed consent was previously obtained. Main outcome measures: Medical vocation origins and associated factors. Results: Eighty-two per cent of physicians interviewed were male, 71.6 year-old average with range 49-88 years; only in 8% their father was MD also and in 14% a family member was MD. In 30% the physician was the oldest son/daughter. Medical vocation did not follow a unique pattern and begun in different periods of the vital cycle even after the student had been admitted to the School of Medicine. Most frequently associated factors were personal dynamics and family influence, and in two cases no explanation was found. Upon results vocation and medical vocation definitions are proposed. Conclusions: Data analysis allows understanding medical vocation as a process generated in a human being on account of two factors: individual (the subject) and social (the environment that stimulates its development). Its beginning may occur at different ages and in several ways, finally becoming part of the ‘oneself project’ (specific examples are given).
Khalid, A K
Teenagers and young adultshave the most risk of unplanned pregnancy, due to lack of awareness to see a family planning provider after unprotected sexual intercourse. In addition, nearly one in five physicians is reluctant to provide information regarding Emergency Contraception (EC) to women and this may contribute to their lack of awareness. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the use of EC between medical related students compared to non-medical related students. Data collection was done using questionnaires distributed among students in University College Cork (UCC). 93% of medically related students were aware of EC compared to only 73.5% of non-medically related students. Medical related students also were more aware about the mechanism of action and detailed knowledge of EC compared to the non-medical students. This study has proven that medically related students have more detailed knowledge regarding EC compared to non-medical related students. However, there was no significant difference noted regarding the attitude and practice between the two groups.
Full Text Available Background: Matriculation of international students to United States’ (US medical schools has not mirrored the remarkable influx of these students to other US institutions of higher education. Methods: While these students’ numbers are on the rise, the visibility for their unique issues remains largely ignored in the medical literature. Results: These students are disadvantaged in the medical school admissions process due to financial and immigration-related concerns, and academic standards for admittance also continue to be significantly higher compared with their US-citizen peers. Furthermore, it is simply beyond the mission of many medical schools – both public and private – to support international students’ education, especially since federal, state-allocated or institutional funds are limited and these institutions have a commitment to fulfill the healthcare education needs of qualified domestic candidates. In spite of these obstacles, a select group of international students do gain admission to US medical schools and, upon graduation, are credentialed equally as their US-citizen counterparts by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME. However, owing to their foreign citizenship, these students have visa requirements for post-graduate training that may adversely impact their candidacy for residency placement. Conclusion: By raising such issues, this article aims to increase the awareness of considerations pertinent to this unique population of medical students. The argument is also made to support continued recruitment of international students to US medical schools in spite of these impediments. In our experience, these students are not only qualified to tackle the rigors of a US medical education, but also enrich the cultural diversity of the medical student body. Moreover, these graduates could effectively complement the efforts to augment US physician workforce diversity while contributing to healthcare disparity eradication, minority health issues, and service in medically underserved areas.
Gasiorek, Jessica; van de Poel, Kris
Little is known about how language-discordant mobile medical professionals (MMPs), defined as doctors who work in foreign countries, cultures, and languages, interact with their colleagues. The number of MMPs around the world is growing, and their interactions with colleagues have direct consequences for both patients' health and their own…
Nie, Jing-Bao; Smith, Kirk L; Cong, Yali; Hu, Linying; Tucker, Joseph D
As in other societies, medical professionalism in the Peoples' Republic of China has been rapidly evolving. One of the major events in this process was the endorsement in 2005 of the document, "Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter," by the Chinese Medical Doctor Association (hereafter, the Charter).1 More recently, a national survey, the first on such a large scale, was conducted on Chinese physicians' attitudes toward the fundamental principles and core commitments put forward in the Charter. Based on empirical findings from that study and comparing them to the published results of a similar American survey, the authors offer an in-depth interpretation of significant cross-cultural differences and important transcultural commonalities. The broader historical, socio-economic, and ethical issues relating to salient Chinese cultural practices such as family consent, familism (the custom of deferring decisions to family members), and the withholding of medical information, as well as controversial topics such as not respecting patients' autonomy, are examined. The Chinese Survey found that Chinese physicians supported the principles of the Charter in general. Here we argue that Chinese culture and traditional medical ethics are broadly compatible with the moral commitments demanded by modern medical professionalism. Methodologically and theoretically-recognizing the problems inherent in the hoary but still popular habit of dichotomizing cultures and in relativism-a transcultural approach is adopted that gives greater (due) weight to the internal moral diversity present within every culture, the common ground shared by different cultures, and the primacy of morality. Genuine cross-cultural dialogue, including a constructive Chinese-American dialogue in the area of medical professionalism, is not only possible, but necessary. PMID:25794294
Adelina, Alcorta; Jesús, Ancer; Donato, Saldívar; Santos, Guzmán; María V., Bermúdez; Juan, Montes; Juan F., González; Silvia, Tavitas; Francisco J., Rodríguez; Marco V., Gómez; Ana M., Salinas; Mohammadreza, Hojat; Stefan M., Fernández Zambrano.
Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Como la literatura consigna, los estudiantes y profesionales de la Medicina en comparación con la población general y de otras carreras conforman una población que resulta vulnerable frente a los trastornos de salud psicosocial. En la investigación psicosocial de la educación médica un punto clave c [...] orresponde a la identificación de medidas relevantes con cualidades psicométricas. En el presente trabajo se analiza la validez y confiabilidad de un conjunto de escalas psicosociales aplicadas a 3.603 alumnos de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (México). Las escalas administradas fueron: Soledad, Ansiedad ante los exámenes, Ansiedad general, Autoestima, Extroversión, Locus de control externo, Neuroticismo, Depresión, Eventos estresantes en la vida, Percepción de relaciones tempranas con los padres y amigos y Percepción de estado de salud general. Estas escalas fueron propuestas por investigadores de la Escuela de Medicina de Jefferson (Estados Unidos). Se confirmó la unidimensionalidad y la validez de constructo de las mediciones de Soledad, Ansiedad ante los exámenes, Ansiedad general, Autoestima y Extroversión. Así también, la magnitud y dirección de las correlaciones interescalas apoyaron la validez convergente y discriminante, con excepción de Locus de control externo y Neuroticismo. Los resultados confirman las propiedades psicométricas de las escalas, las cuales son útiles para proveer información a los educadores médicos y a profesionales de la salud mental en la detección temprana de problemas psicosociales quienes en conjunto pueden coadyuvar en la optimización de la salud mental de los estudiantes de escuelas de Medicina a través de programas académicos acordes a sus necesidades. Abstract in english The greater the psychosocial health, the greater is the well-being and the capacity for adaptation and overcoming problems and common life frustrations in family, relationships, and work. Medical students and practicing physicians, in comparison with the general population and that of other professi [...] ons, are exposed to academic and professional stress and therefore are vulnerable to psychosocial health problems and certain specific dysfunctions that may compromise their physical, mental, and social health. In the field of psychosocial research in medical education, the key issue is to find relevant and psychometrically sound measures. The Jefferson Medical College's Psychosocial Questionnaire contains abridged versions of nine personality tests, as well as questions about respondents' relationships with parents in the first five years of life and with classmates in the early schooling. The scales in the questionnaire have shown satisfactory internal consistency reliability and construct validity through factor analysis. To our knowledge, in Mexico, there is not a specific questionnaire that measures psychosocial profile in a non-clinical population such as medical students. The present study adapted and translated the questionnaire from English to Spanish in order to evaluate its validity and reliability in Mexican medical students, to further learn its predictive validity of academic performance. In this study, we compared the factor structure in Mexico to the results obtained in the United States research. Implications for predicting academic and clinical performance of medical students and physicians were discussed. Study participants consisted of 3,603 matriculates at the Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (Mexico). Psychosocial measures included Loneliness, Test anxiety, General anxiety, Self-esteem, Extroversion, External locus of control, Neuroticism, Depression, Stressful life events, Perceptions of early relationships with mother and father, Peer relationships and Perception of health, used by researchers at Jefferson Medical College in the United States. The items were translated into Spanish and back translated from Spanish to Engli
Vivekanantham S; Rp, Ravindran
Sayinthen Vivekanantham, Rahul Prashanth Ravindran Imperial College School of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UKTechnology within health care delivery is improving at an unprecedented rate.1 Medical students demonstrate a preference towards mobile learning2 and familiarity with technology is essential to medical practice.1 We believe electronic timetables are an underutilized technology that can be embraced by institutions delivering medical education.
Woloshin, Phyllis Lerman
This report describes a study undertaken to assess student choices in medical ethical dilemmas. Medical ethical dilemmas are interpreted to include problems such as abortion, euthanasia, sterilization, experimentation on humans, allocation of scarce medical resources, and physician and health personnel training. The major purpose of the study was…
Gutierrez, Anthony Christopher
The purpose of this study is to examine the professional standards and competencies that California community college student government advisors perceive as important, their confidence level in those professional standards and competencies and the role that they believe professional organizations can play in developing those skills. This study…
Navin, T R; Nichols, A W
In this article the authors describe and present an evaluation of the Arizona Medical Student Exchange Program of the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education. The program is designed to help defray the cost that an Arizona student faces in attending an out-of-state medical school by paying, in the student's behalf, the difference between the resident and nonresident tuition at the out-of-state school. Furthermore, the accepting medical school is paid an additional sum as an inducement to accepts more Arizona students in the future. The program's goal is to increase the number of graduating physicians who will return to practice in Arizona, especially in areas of medical need. While the program apparently has been successful in increasing the number of Arizona students studying medicine and the number of physicians returning to the state--both to metropolitan areas and to areas of medical need--these increases have not kept pace with Arizona's growing population. PMID:903947
Stepanchenko N. I.
Full Text Available The state and dynamics of the university of physical culture students’ motivation was determined. The complex of diagnostic methods was used to determine the level of professional-pedagogical motivation, which was directed on outlining motivation components and its development levels determination. The research involved 232 students. It was found that for the 1 st year students the first place was obtained by the professional-cognitive interest, second by achievement motive and third by professional intention. For the 4 th year students, the first place is possessed by professional cognitive interest, then followed by motives referred to professional and then – motives of achievement. The diagnostics have outlined absence of certain professional intentions. Also from first to fourth year of studies the tendency of increasing the amount of students interest of which is not connected either to physical culture, sports nor to pedagogical activity is followed.
Ambrose, Adrian Jacques H; Andaya, January M; Yamada, Seiji; Maskarinec, Gregory G
In the current rapidly evolving healthcare environment of the United States, social justice programs in pre-medical and medical education are needed to cultivate socially conscious and health professionals inclined to interdisciplinary collaborations. To address ongoing healthcare inequalities, medical education must help medical students to become physicians skilled not only in the biomedical management of diseases, but also in identifying and addressing social and structural determinants of the patients' daily lives. Using a longitudinal Problem-Based Learning (PBL) methodology, the medical students and faculty advisers at the University of Hawai'i John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) developed the Social Justice Curriculum Program (SJCP) to supplement the biomedical curriculum. The SJCP consists of three components: (1) active self-directed learning and didactics, (2) implementation and action, and (3) self-reflection and personal growth. The purpose of introducing a student-driven SJ curriculum is to expose the students to various components of SJ in health and medicine, and maximize engagement by using their own inputs for content and design. It is our hope that the SJCP will serve as a logistic and research-oriented model for future student-driven SJ programs that respond to global health inequalities by cultivating skills and interest in leadership and community service. PMID:25157325
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Finland, public health care is the responsibility of primary health care centres, which render a wide range of community level preventive, curative and rehabilitative medical care. Since 1990's, medical studies have involved early familiarization of medical students with general practice from the beginning of the studies, as this pre-clinical familiarisation helps medical students understand patients as human beings, recognise the importance of the doctor-patient relationship and identify practicing general practitioners (GPs as role models for their professional development. Focused on doctor-patient relationship, we analysed the reports of 2002 first year medical students in the University of Kuopio. The students observed GPs' work during their 2-day visit to primary health care centres. Methods We analysed systematically the texts of 127 written reports of 2002, which represents 95.5% of the 133 first year pre-clinical medical students reports. The reports of 2003 (N = 118 and 2004 (N = 130 were used as reference material. Results Majority of the students reported GPs as positive role models. Some students reported GPs' poor attitudes, which they, however, regarded as a learning opportunity. Students generally observed a great variety of responsibilities in general practice, and expressed admiration for the skills and abilities required. They appreciated the GPs' interest in patients concerns. GPs' communication styles were found to vary considerably. Students reported some factors disturbing the consultation session, such as the GP staring at the computer screen and other team members entering the room. Working with marginalized groups, the chronically and terminally ill, and dying patients was seen as an area for development in the busy Finnish primary health care centres. Conclusion During the analysis, we discovered that medical students' perceptions in this study are in line with the previous findings about the importance of role model (good or bad in making good doctors. Therefore, medical students' pre-clinical primary health care centre visits may influence their attitudes towards primary health care work and the doctor-patient relationship. We welcome more European studies on the role of early pre-clinical general practice exposure on medical students' primary care specialty choice.
BACKGROUND: In recent years, rising numbers of medical students and an increasingly demanding clinical workload has put pressures on the educational systems for medical students in the hospital. Bedside teaching remains central to education, but tutorial delivery by registrars, tutors and consultants has proven to be increasingly difficult with the greater numbers of students now in the undergraduate system. AIMS: We have performed a pilot study to determine the feasibility of developing a Junior Tutor Programme, to assist in the delivery of tutorials to undergraduate medical students. METHODS: This was designed and delivered by interns under the supervision of the academic staff in the Departments of Medicine and Surgery in Connolly Hospital. The programme was evaluated by a questionnaire filled in by the students anonymously. RESULTS: A supervised programme of tutorials delivered by interns is a potentially useful way to ensure delivery of clinical teaching to undergraduate medical students.
L, van Niekerk; L, Scribante; P J, Raubenheimer.
Full Text Available International data reveal that medical students are at higher risk of attempting suicide than the general population. We aimed to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt among South African medical students from three universities and identify key predisposing risk factors. Data we [...] re collected via a questionnaire to medical students on demographics, mental health history, depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempt. A total of 874 medical students from three universities were enrolled. We found a high prevalence of suicidal ideation (32.3%) and suicidal attempt (6.9%), which is three times higher than the general age-appropriate South African population. Simple screening questionnaires can identify such students, enabling universities to provide targeted and improved support for at-risk students
Full Text Available Background: Gadget holds the great importance in everyday life. Mobile phone and internet usage have become universal practice especially among the student community. Gadgets usage has both pros and cons. Objective: To assess the magnitude of gadget utilization among medical college students in Delhi and to estimate the burden of gadget dependency. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted in three medical colleges. The participants were 957 medical students selected by systematic random sampling, interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire. Result: The sample consisted of 485 (50.7% males and 472 (49.3% females, aged 17-25 years. Gadgets of at least one variety were uniformly used by all the students, 22.4% of the students surveyed were found to be gadget dependent. Conclusion: Our study shows high prevalence of gadget dependency among medical students. There is need to create awareness regarding the problem of gadget dependency and its social and health effects.
José Adolfo, Rodríguez P.
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english The essence of the medical profession resides in the medical act, whereupon a sick human being meets another with the power to heal him or her. The source of this power has evolved from the divinity itself through magic to science or acquired knowledge. This power implies acknowledgement of values t [...] hat are inherent to the profession as well as responsibility toward one's own conscience and toward society, elements considered constitutive of what we now call professionalism. From antiquity these principles have evolved into behavioral codes containing variable components according to the different ages and cultures, but also permenent core values such as respect for life, altruism, and honesty, among others. Scientific and technological advances have magnified medical power but at the same time they have required that the philosophical and ethical principles that ought to inform professional practice be made explicit. This happens at a time when certitudes are questioned or abandoned, relativism and secularism pervade culture, and traditional medical values are challenged. Therefore, consensus attainment appears for some as the only legitimation of the ethics of professional medical acts, while for others the ancestral principles and values of medicine have permanent validity as objective goods based on the dignity of the human person
Muniz Janaína Barbosa
Full Text Available Asthma results from a combination of three essential features: airflow obstruction, hyperresponsiveness of airways to endogenous or exogenous stimuli and inflammation. Inadequacy of the techniques to use different inhalation devices is one of the causes of therapeutic failure. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate how 20 medical students, 36 resident physicians of Internal Medicine/Pediatrics, and 40 asthma patients used three devices for inhalation therapy containing placebo. All patients were followed at the Pulmonary Outpatient Service of Botucatu Medical School and had been using inhaled medication for at least six months. The following devices were evaluated: metered dose inhalers (MDI, dry powder inhalers (DPI, and MDI attached to a spacer device. A single observer applied a protocol containing the main steps necessary to obtain a good inhaler technique to follow and grade the use of different devices. Health care professionals tested all three devices and patients tested only the device being used on their management. MDI was the device best known by doctors and patients. MDI use was associated with errors related to the coordination between inspiration and device activation. Failure to exhale completely before inhalation of the powder was the most frequent error observed with DPI use. In summary, patients did not receive precise instruction on how to use inhaled medication and health care professionals were not well prepared to adequately teach their patients.
Khan, L. A.; Khan, S. A.
ABSTRACT The Internet has revolutionized information technology. Vast amounts of latest information are available on the Internet to medical professionals. Medical surfing is fast becoming part of a doctor's profession. But the way to approach the Internet and retrieve useful information from myriads of medical websites seems a daunting task to many. This review aims to help the newcomer, the medical students and doctors in obtaining fruitful medical information while surfing. It will...
Afshin Habibzadeh Mahasti Alizadeh Ayoub Malek
Full Text Available Afshin Habibzadeh1 Mahasti Alizadeh2 Ayoub Malek3 Leili Maghbooli1 Mohammadali M Shoja4 Kamyar Ghabili41Students' Research Committee, 2Department of Community Medicine, 3Department of Psychiatry, 4Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: Methylphenidate, a medication prescribed for individuals suffering from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, is increasingly being misused by students.Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate the frequency of methylphenidate use among a group of Iranian medical students and to assess their knowledge of methylphenidate.Methods: Anonymous, self-administered questionnaires were completed by all medical students entering the university between 2000 and 2007.Results: Methylphenidate users’ mean knowledge score was higher than that of nonusers (15.83 ± 3.14 vs 13.66 ± 3.10, P = 0.008. Age, gender, and school year were positively correlated with knowledge score (P < 0.05. Data analysis demonstrated that 27 participants (8.7% had taken methylphenidate at least once in their lifetime. The respondents believed that the most common motive for methylphenidate use among youths was that it aided concentration and therefore ability to study.Conclusion: This study indicates a relatively low level of knowledge about methylphenidate among Iranian medical students. More educational programs regarding the use of methylphenidate are required and should be focused on the student suppliers, clinicians, pharmacists, and medical students.Keywords: methylphenidate, medical student, prevalence, Iran
Strous, Rael D.; Netta Shoenfeld; Avi Lehman; Aharon Wolf; Leah Snyder; Ori Barzilai
Objectives: To investigate the subjective presence of a range of subsyndromal and syndromal mental health conditions in medical students, and to compare the presence of these conditions between preclinical and clinical training. Methods: A cross sectional study was used among first-and fifth-year medical students. Student reported their mental health conditions using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, the fourth version (DSM-IV). Data analysis was based on 110...
Keefer, Matthew; Ashley, Kevin D.
Provides a systematic analysis of the cognitive processes required for acquiring skill in practical ethical reasoning in a professional domain. Reports striking differences in students' and ethicists' use of knowledge and reasoning. Points to the importance of professional knowledge and role-specific professional obligations in resolving ethical…
Barrow, Jennifer Cahoon
The purpose of this study was to propose a grounded theory that contributed to the understanding of the professional school counselor's role at the secondary school level in working with students in gangs. The study explored the role of the professional school counselor from the first person perspective of the professional school counselor and…
Kahan, Meldon; Midmer, Deana; Wilson, Lynn; Borsoi, Diane
Purpose: To determine knowledge of a national sample of medical students about substance withdrawal, screening and early intervention, medical and psychiatric complications of addiction, and treatment options. Methods: Based on learning objectives developed by medical faculty, twenty-two questions on addictions were included in the 1998 Canadian…
Keenan, Craig R.; Nguyen, Hien H.; Srinivasan, Malathi
Objective: Electronic medical records (EMRs) are becoming prevalent and integral tools for residents and medical students. EMRs can integrate point-of-service information delivery within the context of patient care. Though it may be an educational tool, little is known about how EMR technology is currently used for medical learners. Method: The…
Al Shawwa, Lana; Abulaban, Ahmad A; Abulaban, Abdulrhman A; Merdad, Anas; Baghlaf, Sara; Algethami, Ahmed; Abu-shanab, Joullanar; Balkhoyor, Abdulrahman
Background Studies are needed to examine predictors of success in medical school. The aim of this work is to explore factors that potentially influence excellence of medical students. Methods The study was conducted in the Medical Faculty of King Abdulaziz University during October 2012. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Medical students with a grade point average (GPA) ?4.5 (out of 5) were included and compared to randomly selected medical students with a GPA <4.5, who were available at the time of the study. Results A total of 359 undergraduate students participated in the study. 50.4% of the sample was students with a GPA ?4.5. No statistically significant difference regarding the time spent on outings and social events was found. However, 60.7% of high GPA students spend less than 2 hours on social networking per day as compared to 42.6% of the lower GPA students (P<0.01). In addition, 79% of high GPA students prefer to study alone (P=0.02), 68.0% required silence and no interruptions during studying time (P=0.013), and 47% revise their material at least once before an exam (P=0.02). Conclusion Excellent medical students have many different characteristics. For example, they do not use social networking for prolonged periods of time, and they have strong motivation and study enjoyment. Further studies are needed to examine whether these differences have a real impact on GPA or not. PMID:25674033
Hiteshkumar Muktilal Chauhan
Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Stress occurs when pressure is greater than resources available. Medical education has many factors causing stress among the medical students. This study was conducted to find out the prevalence of stress among medical students and to know the factors causing stress in them.Methods: This is a cross sectional study, conducted on the Ist MBBS to III/IInd MBBS students of B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad, using a semistructured self administered questionnaire, in October 2010. A total of 200 students both male & female were participated in this study.Results: Among all 200 students, who were responded the questionnaire, 174 (87% students felt stress at one or other time. Out of total 174 stressed students, 93 (53.45% were female, while 81 (46.55% were of male. Among which Ist & III/IInd MBBS students were more stressed 92% & 90% respectively. Vast medical course, language problems, frequent examinations, homesickness, improper mess food & high parental expectations are the main stressors.Conclusion: Medical students are highly affected with stress, which affect their academic performance as well as their health & day to day activities also. Review academic & exam schedules, changing the exam pattern, adding some recreational activities, better interaction with the faculty and proper guidance, will help them to cope up with stress.
Doyle, Patricia; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth G; Edge, Dana S; Ginsburg, Liane; Goldstein, David H
Background Quality and patient safety (PS) are critical components of medical education. This study reports on the self-reported PS competence of medical students and postgraduate trainees. Methods The Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey was administered to medical students and postgraduate trainees in January 2012. PS dimension scores were compared across learning settings (classroom and clinical) and year in programme. Results Sixty-three percent (255/406) of medical students and 32% (141/436) of postgraduate trainees responded. In general, both groups were most confident in their learning of clinical safety skills (eg, hand hygiene) and least confident in learning about sociocultural aspects of safety (eg, understanding human factors). Medical students’ confidence in most aspects of safety improved with years of training. For some of the more intangible dimensions (teamwork and culture), medical students in their final year had lower scores than students in earlier years. Thirty-eight percent of medical students felt they could approach someone engaging in unsafe practice, and the majority of medical students (85%) and postgraduate trainees (78%) agreed it was difficult to question authority. Conclusions Our results suggest the need to improve the overall content, structure and integration of PS concepts in both classroom and clinical learning environments. Decreased confidence in sociocultural aspects of PS among medical students in the final year of training may indicate that culture in clinical settings negatively affects students’ perceived PS competence. Alternatively, as medical students spend more time in the clinical setting, they may develop a clearer sense of what they do not know. PMID:25605953
Shankar PR, ,
Full Text Available BackgroundKIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal conducts problem-basedpharmacology learning during small-group practical sessions.The present study was carried out to obtain student feedbackregarding the sessions and suggestions for improvement.MethodThe questionnaire-based study was carried out among firstyear medical students during July 2009. Respondents wereenrolled after explaining the aims and objectives of the studyand obtaining written, informed consent. Basic demographicinformation and student agreement with a set of 30statements using a modified Likert-type scale was noted.ResultsSixty-four of the 75 students (86% participated. The mediantotal score was 107 (maximum score 150 and was higheramong males, students from within the Kathmandu valley andself-financing students. The differences were not statisticallysignificant. The suggestions for improvement were improvingthe physical infrastructure of the lab and providing more timefor the practical exercises.ConclusionStudent opinion was favourable. The findings would be ofinterest to medical educators especially in developingcountries.
Full Text Available The aspects of improvement are considered professionally - the applied physical preparation of students of economic specialities taking into account the features of pedagogical process. It is set that in the process of professional - the applied physical preparation the complex of psychophysiological qualities, necessary a worker in his professional activity is successfully formed. The analysis of publications of the Russian and Ukrainian scientists is resulted about the varieties of facilities of improvement professionally - the applied physical preparation of students of higher educational establishments. Some features of professional preparation of future economists are found out. The necessity of search of new technologies of perfection of process of physical education of students is well-proven higher educational establishments of economic specialities. Directions of education the harmoniously developed personality of student are recommended, which will allow to improve a health, form important psychophysical qualities professionally.
Erfan, Yeganeh-Arani; Madawa, Chandratilake; Adamson S, Muula.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The shortage of doctors in all specialties in Malawi is particularly severe in rural areas. Contributory factors are the low number of students graduating each year, migration of doctors, and the preference of new graduates for practising in urban areas. Attempts to increase the output f [...] rom Malawi's only medical school are insufficient to meet the country's healthcare needs. METHODS: We studied the factors influencing career choices of medical undergraduates of the College of Medicine in Blantyre, Malawi, who were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire (N=205) and individual interviews (N=17). RESULTS: Most respondents (89.4%) indicated that they intend to specialise abroad, predominantly to study in 'better institutions' and to get the 'experience' of a different country; 87.0% indicated that they intend to live in Malawi long-term. Although, in general, the rural lifestyle was unattractive to medical students, respondents from rural areas and small towns, and whose parents were 'non-professionals', were more likely to intend working in rural areas and small towns, and to settle in Malawi, than students from urban and professional families. CONCLUSIONS: The College of Medicine should consider increasing its intake of students with lower socio-economic backgrounds and from rural areas/small towns to increase the number of doctors working in rural areas and settling in Malawi. However, the Ministry of Health may need a multipronged approach to reduce the mismatch between doctors' career expectations and the country's healthcare needs.
Jagmohni Kaur Sidhu
Stress amongst medical students is oftenoverlooked. Intelligent students are not always the mostcomposed. This study aimed to look at both male andfemale students of three different ethnic groups and theeffects of stress in areas such as academic, social,financial and their everyday life. The Chinese studentsreported significantly less “academic stress” than theMalay students, and the Malay students reportedsignificantly less “financial stress” compared to theChinese and Indian studen...
Vikas Seth; Prerna Upadhyaya; Mushtaq Ahmad; et al.
Vikas Seth, Prerna Upadhyaya, Mushtaq Ahmad, Vijay MogheDepartment of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, IndiaPurpose: To assess students’ perceptions of the impact of PowerPoint (PPT) presentations in lectures in comparison to the traditional chalk and talk method and lectures using transparencies and overhead projector (TOHP). The study analyzes the preferences for teaching aids of medical students versus dental students.Methods: Second year ...
This article describes a study of Nigerian medical students' perceptions of traditional didactic lectures and their overall learning environment. The results confirm declining interest in didactic lectures and practical sessions with preferences for peer-tutored discussion classes, which were considered more interactive and interesting. This study recommends more emphasis on student-centered learning with alternatives to passive lecture formats and repetitive cookbook practical sessions. The institutionalization of student feedback processes in Nigerian medical schools is also highly recommended.
Chamberlain, Neal R.; Stuart, Melissa K.; Singh, Vineet K.; Sargentini, Neil J.
Background : Small-group case presentation exercises (CPs) were created to increase course relevance for medical students taking Medical Microbiology (MM) and Infectious Diseases (ID) Methods : Each student received a unique paper case and had 10 minutes to review patient history, physical exam data, and laboratory data. Students then had three minutes to orally present their case and defend why they ruled in or out each of the answer choices provided, followed by an additional three minutes ...
Schaap, H.; de Bruijn, E.; Van der Schaaf, M. F.; Baartman, L. K. J.; Kirschner, P. A.
Students in competence-based vocational education are expected to actively construct a personal professional theory, in which they integrate different types of knowledge and beliefs. Students' personal professional theories are seen as an important learning outcome of competence-based vocational education. However, it is unknown how personal…
Literature indicated the need to include a variety of skills in architecture pedagogy to better enable students to establish their footing in professional practice. This study attempted to understand perceptions of fourth year architecture students at two programs regarding their preparation for professional practice. Observations in design…
Ward, Suzanne Pinac; And Others
Using the Code of Professional Conduct, 53 accounting students evaluated the ethical acceptability of accountants in case studies. Ethics instruction appeared to alter student perceptions of ethical behavior. Because time after instruction was an important factor, increased professional socialization was recommended. (SK)
Fowell, S. L.; Bligh, J. G.
Most medical schools in the UK are revising their undergraduate courses in response to the recommendations published by the General Medical Council Education Committee in Tomorrow's doctors. However, achievement of the objectives of curricular change is attendant on revision of the assessment process. This paper reviews traditional and more recently developed methods for assessment of medical education in the light of the General Medical Council's recommendations which relate specifically to ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing recognition that mentoring is essential early in medical careers, little is known about the prevalence of mentoring programs for medical students. We conducted this study to survey all medical schools in Germany regarding the prevalence of mentoring programs for medical students as well as the characteristics, goals and effectiveness of these programs. Methods A definition of mentoring was established and program inclusion criteria were determined based on a review of the literature. The literature defined mentoring as a steady, long-lasting relationship designed to promote the mentee's overall development. We developed a questionnaire to assess key characteristics of mentoring programs: the advocated mentoring model, the number of participating mentees and mentors, funding and staff, and characteristics of mentees and mentors (e.g., level of training. In addition, the survey characterized the mentee-mentor relationship regarding the frequency of meetings, forms of communication, incentives for mentors, the mode of matching mentors and mentees, and results of program evaluations. Furthermore, participants were asked to characterize the aims of their programs. The questionnaire consisted of 34 questions total, in multiple-choice (17, numeric (7 and free-text (10 format. This questionnaire was sent to deans and medical education faculty in Germany between June and September 2009. For numeric answers, mean, median, and standard deviation were determined. For free-text items, responses were coded into categories using qualitative free text analysis. Results We received responses from all 36 medical schools in Germany. We found that 20 out of 36 medical schools in Germany offer 22 active mentoring programs with a median of 125 and a total of 5,843 medical students (6.9 - 7.4% of all German medical students enrolled as mentees at the time of the survey. 14 out of 22 programs (63% have been established within the last 2 years. Six programs (27% offer mentoring in a one-on-one setting. 18 programs (82% feature faculty physicians as mentors. Nine programs (41% involve students as mentors in a peer-mentoring setting. The most commonly reported goals of the mentoring programs include: establishing the mentee's professional network (13 programs, 59%, enhancement of academic performance (11 programs, 50% and counseling students in difficulties (10 programs, 45%. Conclusions Despite a clear upsurge of mentoring programs for German medical students over recent years, the overall availability of mentoring is still limited. The mentoring models and goals of the existing programs vary considerably. Outcome data from controlled studies are needed to compare the efficiency and effectiveness of different forms of mentoring for medical students.
Siew Kheong Lum
Full Text Available Introduction: Undergraduate medical educationshould be broad-based, holistic, integrated andshould promote a framework for the developmentof higher order cognitive skills like communication,professionalism and teamwork to prepare the studentfor a life-long challenging medical career. Recent callsfor a competency-based medical education require, inaddition, competency in clinical and procedural skillsprior to graduation. This study investigates how oftenopportunities exist for medical students to perform fourcommon ward procedures prior to graduation.Method: A prospective cross-sectional study to assessthe opportunities a medical student have in performingfour common ward procedures, comprising intravenouscannulation, nasogastric tube insertion, urinarycatheterisation and chest tube insertion, in a StateGeneral hospital in Malaysia was done.Results: A medical student has sufficient opportunityto perform only intravenous cannulation prior tograduation. He has a remote chance to insert a urinarycatheter and is unlikely to have the opportunity toinsert a nasogastric tube or insert a chest tube prior tograduation.Conclusion: Although competency in clinical skillsand procedural skills prior to graduation are desirable,this is increasingly difficult to achieve due to shortageof clinical material, teachers to supervise, the largenumbers of medical students and house officers, theshort time spent on the main disciplines and thefailure of many universities to invest heavily in skillslaboratories staffed by full time clinicians. The callsto introduce competency-based medical educationin undergraduate medical education, particularly inprocedural competence, should take into account thechallenges in delivery and the realities in the hospitalstoday. This is necessary to avoid demoralising studentswho are unable to achieve their quota of proceduresthrough no fault of theirs.
Rushi N. Pandya
Full Text Available Background: The use of self-medication is highly prevalent in the community more so amongst the medical students. Self-medication can be defined as the use of drugs to treat self-diagnosed disorders or symptoms, or the intermittent or continued use of a prescribed drug for chronic or recurrent disease or symptoms. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence and pattern of use of self-medication among medical students from first year to internship. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out among under graduate medical students including interns of Smt. NHL Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad during the period of March 2010 to May 2010. Results: Out of 747 students and interns enrolled, 685 responded (91.7%. Out of 685 respondents 564 (82.3% reported self-medication within one year of recall period. Most common conditions/symptoms for self-medication in students were fever (72.7%, headache (69.1%, upper respiratory tract infections (64.1% followed by others like body-ache, abdominal pain, diarrhoea etc. Over the counter drugs (84.2% was the most common category of drugs used by all the students except first year students who used prescription only drugs more frequently (48.5%. Herbal and Ayurvedic drugs were also used as self-medication (17.8%; most frequently by the first year students (22.7%. Conclusion: The pattern of self-medication practice changes with time and advancement of knowledge. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 275-280
Full Text Available Questions are considered professionally-applied physical preparation of students of economic specialities with the prevailing use of facilities of football. The methodical receptions of development of professionally important qualities of future economists are presented. Expedience of application of the offered methodical receptions is certain. The elective component of on-line tutorial is improved on physical education. The experimental professionally oriented program of psychophysical preparation of students is developed.
Senior secondary vocational education needs to deliver reflective practitioners who possess an adequate knowledge base, who are able to solve complex problems and who have the ability to acquire and develop new knowledge during their further professional career. It is assumed that all types of knowledge, despite their different content and nature, need to be internalized into a personal professional knowledge base. This personal professional knowledge base is defined as a student’s personal...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal is a developing country in South Asia with a population of 29.8 million. In September 2011, there were 18 medical schools with 14 being in the private sector. KIST Medical College is a private school in Lalitpur district. The present study was conducted to obtain information on student perceptions about working in rural Nepal after graduation. Methods The study was conducted among first- and second-year undergraduate medical students using a semi-structured questionnaire developed by the authors using inputs from the literature and their experiences of teaching medical students. Year of study, gender, method of financing of medical education, place of family residence and occupation of parents were noted. Participant responses were analysed, grouped together and the number of respondents stating a particular response was noted. Results Of the 200 students, 185 (92.5% participated with 95 being from the first year and 90 from the second. Most students were self-financing and from urban areas. Regarding the question of working in rural Nepal after graduation, 134 (72.4% said they will work after their undergraduate course. Students preferred to work in the government or nongovernmental sector. Student felt doctors are reluctant to serve in rural Nepal due to inadequate facilities, low salary, less security, problems with their professional development, less equipment in health centres, decreased contact with family and difficulties in communicating with an illiterate, rural population. About 43% of respondents felt medical education does not adequately prepare them for rural service. Repeated rural exposure, postings in rural hospitals and health centres, and training students to diagnose and treat illness with less technology were suggested. The median monthly salary expected was 60 000 Nepalese rupees (US$ 820 and was significantly higher among first-year students. Conclusions The majority of respondents were in favour of working in rural Nepal after graduation. They wanted facilities in rural areas and health centres to be improved. Changes in the education system were suggested. Providing relatively better facilities for rural doctors compared with urban doctors and reorienting medical education for producing doctors for rural Nepal can be considered. Further studies are required in other private medical schools.
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Prescription of drugs follows some principles about which the medical students should be aware, and they should practice them efficiently so that they become experienced in the field. This study aims to determine the practice and knowledge of drug prescription in senior medical students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 140 students from Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected using self administered questionnaires in the format of case study and essay questions. The questions were designed based on principles of drug prescription presented to the interns in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences on the subjects including drug indication, interaction and side effects; contraindication of drugs in pregnancy; maximum drugs prescribed in one prescription letter; and the rules of insurance organizations in Iran. The data analysis was performed using SPSS, version 15. Content validity of multiple choice questions was confirmed by expert opinion and the consensus of four reference texts. 120 students participated in this study with a response rate of 85.7%. As to the knowledge of medical students, only 34.18% of them were competent in prescribing drugs; however, no one got a full score in the exam. 27.73% of them answered the questions incompletely, and 30.09% of them showed wrong prescription. Most mistakes were related to drug interaction, antibiotics and analgesics drugs (68.3%. As to the reference books of pharmacology, 16.9% had complete knowledge, 54.8% moderate level of knowledge, 28.3% had no information about that. This study shows that the knowledge of medical students as to drug prescription is inadequate. Also, many studies have approved that effective education has a significant effect on improvement of drug prescription by physicians. We recommend interventions such as curriculum development to increase the students’ skills. This should be taken into account in further research and by public health professionals and health policy makers.
Rose, Anuradha; George, Kuryan; T, Arul Dhas; Pulimood, Anna Benjamin
Education in ethics is now a formal part of the undergraduate medical curriculum. However, most courses are structured around principles and case studies more appropriate to western countries. The cultures and practices of countries like India differ from those of western countries. It is, therefore, essential that our teaching should address the issues which are the most relevant to our setting. An anonymised, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey of medical students was carried out to get a picture of the ethical problems faced by students in India. The data were categorised into issues related to professional behaviour and ethical dilemmas. Unprofessional behaviour was among the issues reported as a matter of concern by a majority of the medical students. The survey highlights the need to design the curriculum in a way that reflects the structure of medical education in India, where patients are not always considered socio-culturally equal by students or the medical staff. This perspective must underpin any further efforts to address education in ethics in India. PMID:24509105
Spampinato, Christine M.; Wittich, Christopher M.; Beckman, Thomas J.; Cha, Stephen S.; Pawlina, Wojciech
Medical professionalism is a multifaceted paradigm and is an essential component of medical education. Gross anatomy is a laboratory to teach professionalism, and promoting critical reflection in medical students is a prerequisite to furthering professionalism. The aim of this study was to determine if professionalism case discussions during a…
Nina, Horwitz Campos.
Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english This essay looks into the meaning of today's professionalism and the apparent inconsistency between its growing status and a context of profound changes and dissatisfaction with medical practice. The cultural climate of our times is reviewed, as the framework for understanding changes in the social [...] organization of medicine. One of the critical traits of professions has been their power to manage specialized knowledge under their own standards, without external control. The limits of this self regulation of expertise have faded, representing an important threat for professionalism. Together with the fundamental changes and tensions of work conditions for professionals, however, the appeal of professionalism is on the rise. Because of its ability to submit devastating individualism to collective interests, professionalism can contribute to the stability of social systems, as a third logic, between the market and public organizations. In medicine, professionalism as a value based system and ideology, also emerges as a response to the challenges posed to its practice. It represents reflection and preservation of traditional values inspiring a practice of excellence, which will undoubtedly restore and enhance public confidence in medicine
Nina Horwitz Campos
Full Text Available This essay looks into the meaning of today's professionalism and the apparent inconsistency between its growing status and a context of profound changes and dissatisfaction with medical practice. The cultural climate of our times is reviewed, as the framework for understanding changes in the social organization of medicine. One of the critical traits of professions has been their power to manage specialized knowledge under their own standards, without external control. The limits of this self regulation of expertise have faded, representing an important threat for professionalism. Together with the fundamental changes and tensions of work conditions for professionals, however, the appeal of professionalism is on the rise. Because of its ability to submit devastating individualism to collective interests, professionalism can contribute to the stability of social systems, as a third logic, between the market and public organizations. In medicine, professionalism as a value based system and ideology, also emerges as a response to the challenges posed to its practice. It represents reflection and preservation of traditional values inspiring a practice of excellence, which will undoubtedly restore and enhance public confidence in medicine
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial competence and frustration tolerance are important characteristics of skilled medical professionals. In the present study we explored the usefulness of applying a comprehensive motivational theory (Goal orientations, for this purpose. According to goal orientation theory, learning motivation is defined as the general goals students pursue during learning (either mastery goals - gaining new knowledge; or performance goals - gaining a positive evaluation of competence or avoiding negative evaluation. Perceived psychosocial abilities are a desirable outcome, and low frustration tolerance (LFT, is a negative feature of student behavior. The hypothesis was that the mastery goal would be positively associated with psychosocial abilities while performance goals would be positively associated with LFT. Methods 143 first-year medical students completed at the end of an annual doctor-patient communication course a structured questionnaire that included measures of learning goal orientations (assessed by Pattern of Adaptive Learning Scale - PALS, psychosocial abilities (assessed by Psychological Medicine Inventory- student version -PMI-S and Low Frustration Tolerance (LFT. Results All study variables were found reliable (Cronbach's ? ranged from .66 to .90 and normally distributed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations supporting the hypotheses. The mastery goal orientation was positively associated with perceived psychosocial abilities (PMI-S (? = .16, p Conclusions The results suggest that the goal orientations theory may be a useful theoretical framework for understanding and facilitating learning motivation among medical students. Limitations and suggestions for practice within medical education context are discussed.
Diego García-Huidobro M
Full Text Available Background: During the last few years, multiple new medical schools have emerged in Chile, associated to the constant preoccupation to provide a good quality medical care. This created the need to evaluate medical training programs and to open a discussion about the attributes that a good physician should have. Aim: To evaluate the medical student's perception of the ideal medical doctor profile. Material and methods: An analytical, descriptive and cross sectional study was designed. Eleven second year, 11 third year, nine fourth year, 13 fifth year, 6 sixth year and 8 seventh year students were studied. Data collection was gathered by focus groups. Codes and triangulation were used for data analysis. Results: As attitudes and moral-ethical values, students valued the absence of discrimination a listening attitude and empathy. Among job related issues, they valued responsibility and punctuality. Emotional and legal self-care were valued as self related attitudes. Among skills, competences and capacities, a value was given to communicational skills, team work and professional easiness. Knowledge about medical and non medical topics was appraised. The valued attributes among duties and activities were patient diagnosis, treatment and education, team leadership and continuous medical training. Conclusions: These findings should help to design new curricula for medical schools (Rev Méd Chile 2006; 134: 947-54
Diego, García-Huidobro M; Felipe, Núñez V; Paula, Vargas I; Smiljan, Astudillo M; Mario, Hitschfeld A; Rubén, Gennero R; Loreto, Salvatierra L; Ángela, Benavente C.
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: During the last few years, multiple new medical schools have emerged in Chile, associated to the constant preoccupation to provide a good quality medical care. This created the need to evaluate medical training programs and to open a discussion about the attributes that a good physician [...] should have. Aim: To evaluate the medical student's perception of the ideal medical doctor profile. Material and methods: An analytical, descriptive and cross sectional study was designed. Eleven second year, 11 third year, nine fourth year, 13 fifth year, 6 sixth year and 8 seventh year students were studied. Data collection was gathered by focus groups. Codes and triangulation were used for data analysis. Results: As attitudes and moral-ethical values, students valued the absence of discrimination a listening attitude and empathy. Among job related issues, they valued responsibility and punctuality. Emotional and legal self-care were valued as self related attitudes. Among skills, competences and capacities, a value was given to communicational skills, team work and professional easiness. Knowledge about medical and non medical topics was appraised. The valued attributes among duties and activities were patient diagnosis, treatment and education, team leadership and continuous medical training. Conclusions: These findings should help to design new curricula for medical schools (Rev Méd Chile 2006; 134: 947-54)
Azeem Dad Gadi
Full Text Available Background: The north-east (NE region of Sri Lanka observed a critical health workers’ shortage after the long-lasting armed conflict. This study aimed to explore medical students’ attitudes towards working in the NE and to identify factors determining such attitudes. Methods: A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in two medical schools, one in the NE and the other near the capital, in October 2004. Data were qualitatively analysed using the framework approach. Results: Three main themes were identified: 1 Professional motives and career plans; 2 Students’ perceptions of the healthcare situation in the NE; and 3 Students’ choice of the NE as a future practice location. It was found that familiarity with the difficulties faced by the NE people was a major motivation for medical students to work in the NE in the future. For NE students, familiarity was linked to their sense of belonging. For non-NE students, their personal experience of the NE familiarized them with the difficult situation there, which positively influenced their willingness to work there. Demotivations to work in the NE were poor working and living conditions, fewer opportunities for postgraduate education, language differences, insecurity, and fear of an unpleasant social response from the NE communities. Conclusions: NE local medical students had a sense of belonging to the NE and compassion for the Tamil people as members of the ethnic group. They were willing to work in the NE if their concerns about difficult working and living conditions and postgraduate education could be solved. Non-NE students who were familiar with the NE situation through their personal experience also showed a willingness to work there; thus, early exposure programmes in medical education might help to increase the health workforce in the NE. It is also expected that non-NE physicians working for the NE people would facilitate reconciliation and the rebuilding of trust between two ethnic groups.
Castle, Sharon; Arends, Richard I.; Rockwood, Kathleen D.
This study investigated the impact of a Professional Development School (PDS) on student learning by comparing student achievement in a PDS and a control school. Student achievement data were collected from an elementary PDS and a matched control school over a 6-year period. The results indicate that the PDS moved more students up to mastery level…
BAZRAFCAN, LEILA; NABEIEI, PARISA; SHOKRPOUR, NASRIN; MOADAB, NEDA
Introduction: Assuming any social role has obligations and fulfilling the related responsibilities has ethical aspects that must be addressed carefully. Each role requires extensive training, which usually takes place in university institutions. Ethics is applied in at least three academic areas, including: a) in education of students' personal growth, b) in patient care, and c) in university communion in population-based health care. Given the importance of this issue in the moral domain, this study examines the correlation among the students, nurses and teacher's opinions regarding principles of medical ethics at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study conducted in 2010. The participants of this research consisted of all medical students, nurses in public hospitals, and faculty members in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. For validity evaluation, the expert panel method and for reliability evaluation, test-retest method was used. Results: Based on the medical ethics’ scores in these three groups, there was a significant relationship between the mean scores of student-nurses and employed nurses, but there was no significant relationship between those of student-faculties. Also the mean score of the students was the highest in medical ethics. Conclusion: In this study, we presented a list of virtues and moral characteristics of medical staff and found out the method of practicing medical ethics in everyday life of students to improve the moral reasoning of teachers, nurses and students. Moreover, medical ethics, with the presentation of specific criteria for ethical behavior in various domains of human life, especially in dealing with patients, can help practice ethical values in the medical community. PMID:25587553
In this article I report on an investigation of the pharmaceutical industry's influence in medical education. Findings are based on fifty semi-structured interviews with medical students in the United States and Canada conducted between 2010 and 2013. Participant responses support the survey-based literature demonstrating that there is clear and pervasive influence of the pharmaceutical industry in medical education. They also challenge the theory that medical students feel entitled to industry gifts and uncritically accept industry presence. I investigate how medical students who are critical of the pharmaceutical industry negotiate its presence in the course of their medical education. Findings suggest that these participants do not simply absorb industry presence, but interpret it and respond in complex ways. Participants were uncomfortable with industry influence throughout their medical training and found multifaceted ways to resist. They struggled with power relations in medical training and the prevailing notion that industry presence is a normal part of medical education. I argue that this pervasive norm of industry presence is located in neoliberal structural transformations within and outside both education and medicine. The idea that industry presence is normal and inevitable represents a challenge for students who are critical of industry. PMID:24922608
Full Text Available According to the definition of World Health Organization (WHO, life style is the method of life built on specific behavioral patterns. We performed a survey among a group of Iranian medical students to identify their health related life style. A cross sectional study was performed by using the questionnaire. In this process, three-hundred out of all 800 medical students who have entered the medical faculty of Tabriz Medical University, Iran during 1998 and 2004 participated in the survey. The questions were designed based on the health behaviors among the medical students. Approximately 14% of all respondents reported that they used tobacco. Fifty eight percent of smokers resided in the studentsï¿½ dormitory. Half of the smokers declared that they smoke less than 5 cigarettes a day while 16.7% smoked more than fifteen cigarettes per day. Thirteen percent of the students drink alcoholic beverages. Furthermore, 50% of the students declared the ages of 19-22 as the age of first alcohol intake. Approximately 59% said that they eat food regularly at all the three main meals. Also 45.5% of females and 54.5% of males eat junk foods more than 5 times a week. Nearly 67% of the women and 33% of men eat fruit and vegetables more than 4 servings a week. Exercise was more frequent in the lower year medical students. This study demonstrated that unhealthy behaviors are increasing among the medical students; however Iranian medical students` unhealthy habits are lesser than those of university students assessed in America and European countries.
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop a uniquely tailored mentoring program for medical students and evaluate the success of implementation. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among medical students at University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, in 2007 (response rate 74 n=1235 was administered to explore student needs for an individual counseling service (mentoring program. These data were supplemented with additional qualitative data (telephone interviews (n=52 and expert panels. The success of implementation was evaluated according to publicity and participation within the target group. Results: In total, 66(n=798 of the students claimed an interest in a mentoring program. With regard to possible challenges related to the launching of a new program, awareness was frequently mentioned. Experts suggested the establishment of a differential mentoring program consisting of three parts that is tailored to students´ individual performance. Thus, a mentoring program providing individual and voluntary mentoring for all medical students was designed. The program attracted 40(n=104 of medical students when it was launched in 2009. Participation increased continuously in 2010 (cohort 2009: 49 n=150 and 2011 (cohort 2010: 51 n=126. Conclusions: The initial needs analysis followed by a serious decision-making process within the faculty was identified as an important predictor for the successful establishment of an innovative mentoring program at a large faculty. Differential mentorship may assist medical schools in ensuring both equal opportunities and the promotion of diverse talent.
Navarro, Anita M; Taylor, Anita D; Pokorny, Anita P
Medical students make specialty decisions that are critically important to their long-term career satisfaction and overall well-being. The dynamic of larger class sizes set against stagnant numbers of residency positions creates an imperative for students to make and test specialty decisions earlier in medical school. Ideally, formal career advising begins in medical school. Medical schools typically offer career development programs as extracurricular offerings. The authors describe three curricular approaches and the innovative courses developed to address medical students' career development needs. The models differ in complexity and cost, but they share the goals of assisting students to form career identities and to use resources effectively in their specialty decision processes. The first model is a student-organized specialties elective. To earn course credit, students must complete questionnaires for the sessions, submit results from two self-assessments, and report on two physician informational interviews. The second model comprises two second-year career development courses that have evolved into a longitudinal career development program. The third model integrates career topics through a doctoring course and advising teams. The authors discuss challenges and lessons learned from implementing each of the programs, including marshaling resources, achieving student buy-in, and obtaining time in the curriculum. Invoking a curricular approach seems to normalize the tasks associated with career development and puts them on par in importance with other medical school endeavors. PMID:21099397
Full Text Available Background: Patients have always been part of medical education. The patients’ co-operation with the undergraduate medical students is vital in clinical education. Patient contact is an integral component of medical education, training and assessment. It provides students and doctors with an opportunity to learn and to develop their professional skills, attitudes and identity. Patients can also benefit from involvement in teaching and training, by increasing their own knowledge, and indirectly through improved training of the medical workforce. Recent reforms of medical education now use more structured and extensive patient contact. Patients should be actively involved in the development, review and implementation of Medical curriculum. But lack of experience of the large number students may evoke negative attitude and acceptability of patients which may sometimes adversely affect the clinical teaching environment. Lots of studies conducted on this area in the different part of the world with varying results with different cultural patients with socio-demographic variation. In this area there was need of more studies especially at this part of the world, Burdwan Medical College, India, where there was no such study conducted before. Objective: In this study my objective was to explore the attitude & acceptability of the undergraduate medical students by the patients in a tertiary care teaching hospital of eastern India. Methods: This study was conducted among 560 patients in OPD & inpatients in Burdwan Medical College, Burdwan , India, from March 2012- June 2012, using predesigned structured questionnaires. Results: Among 560 patients 545 patients responded. Male patients were 54.678% & female were 45.32%. Hindu patients were 37.064% (n=202 and Muslim patients were 62.935% ( n=343. Higher acceptance of both male& female undergraduate medical students at the rate of 86.972% (n=474 by the patients when there was medical examination with the presence of doctors. Whereas only 30.09% (n=164 acceptance of both male& female students by the patients when there was no doctors. In general there was higher acceptance of both sexes’ students by the patients when there was no direct contact with the patients, e.g. taking history of illness, presenting at the OPD clinic, reading the patients file etc. 69.908% (n=381 of patients felt comfortable with the presence of medical students, while 79.266% (n=432 of patients gave favorable opinion regarding the improvement of the quality of health care with the presence of undergraduate medical students. Conclusion: Though a large number of patients did not accept the students without the presence doctor, but majority of the patients showed overall positive attitude towards the involvement of medical students. Key Words: Medical Students, Medical Education, Patients’ acceptability, OPD Clinic.
Bergh, Anne-marie; Staden, C. W.; Joubert, Pierre M.; Kruger, Christa; Pickworth, G. E.; Roos, J. L.; Schurink, W. J.; Du Preez, R. R.; Grey, Somarie V.; Lindeque, B. G.
BACKGROUND: This paper reports on medical students’ views on the ways in which their ‘soft skills’ were developed. It is the result of a study on soft skills among two groups of students before and after curriculum reform at the School of Medicine of the University of Pretoria. One of the aims of the reform was to provide more teaching and learning opportunities for the development of soft skills. Soft skills include professional interpersonal and social skills, communication skills,...
Scott, Doneka R.; Akers, Paige
Objective To assess pharmacy students' Facebook activity and opinions regarding accountability and e-professionalism and determine effects of an e-professionalism education session on pharmacy students' posting behavior. Methods A 21-item questionnaire was developed, pilot-tested, revised, and administered to 299 pharmacy students at 3 colleges of pharmacy. Following a presentation regarding potential e-professionalism issues with Facebook, pharmacy students with existing profiles answered an additional question concerning changes in online posting behavior. Results Incoming first-year pharmacy students' Facebook usage is consistent with that of the general college student population. Male students are opposed to authority figures' use of Facebook for character and professionalism judgments and are more likely to present information they would not want faculty members, future employers, or patients to see. More than half of the pharmacy students planned to make changes to their online posting behavior as a result of the e-professionalism presentation. Conclusions There is high social media usage among pharmacy students and many do not fully comprehend the issues that arise from being overly transparent in online settings. Attitudes toward accountability for information supplied via social networking emphasize the need for e-professionalism training of incoming pharmacy students. PMID:19885073
Nieuwhof, M G H; Rademakers, J J D J M; Kuyvenhoven, M M; Soethout, M B M; ten Cate, Th J
Students' beliefs and attitudes towards the medical profession have been studied in relation to career choices, but most research has been restricted to either predetermined aspects or to a limited number of specialties. This study aimed at getting unprompted insight in the students' perceptions of their future profession in dimensions that may be determinants of study success and career choice. Undergraduate and graduated medical students were interviewed and asked to characterize the medical profession in general and four contrasting specialties in particular. Grounded Theory methodology was used to analyse the data. Participants were medical students at the start of their training (n = 16), during clerkships (n = 10) and after graduation (n = 37). Beginning students perceive the medical profession in limited dimensions: the activities of a physician, their relationship to patients and the physician's knowledge, skills and personality. They do not see many differences between specialties, in contrast with students with clinical experience and graduate students. Undergraduate students' perception is focussed more on social aspects of the profession compared to graduates. PMID:16451892
Full Text Available Considering the explosive growth in internet use among medical students in India, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of internet addiction in undergraduate medical students.This cross-sectional study involved 90 subjects (18-20 years of age selected by random sampling from the first year undergraduate medical student population at Kasturba Medical College Mangalore. Young’s Internet addiction test questionnaire was administered. Based on the scoring, subjects were classified into normal users (score 79 internet addiction groups.The prevalence of internet addiction (moderate and severe was determined to be 18.88%. Majority (57.77% conformed to mild addiction. The most common purpose for internet use was found to be social networking (97.8%, followed closely by e mailing (87.8%.The prevalence of moderate to severe internet addiction appeared to be low, a significant number of students conform to mild addiction.
Fox, Robert D.; West, Russell F.
Examined the personality factors and perceived benefits associated with different strategies of medical students regarding self-directed learning projects. Indicated that certain personality attributes are predictive of the type of strategy. (JOW)
Full Text Available Goal of the research was to study conditionality of overcoming strategies in difficult situations of social interaction by personal representations of attitude to others among medical students. Material and methods. 134 first-year students of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky took part in the comparative diagnostic study. Results. Comparison of average indices of various strategies evidence in coping behaviour allowed revealing statistically significant dependence of coping behaviour modi in difficult situations of social interaction upon types of personal representations of attitude toward others and gender features of forming effective strategies of coping behaviour among medical students. Conclusion. Correlation between coping behaviour modi in difficult situations of social interaction and typology of personal representations of attitudes toward others among medical students was marked.
Bryan, Charles S.
The recent surge of dialogue about medical professionalism has largely ignored HIV/AIDS, perhaps because the ethical issues that abounded during the 1980s and early 1990s have become largely passé. Prior to the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996, the care ethic for patients with HIV/AIDS depended heavily on compassion since effective treatment was unavailable. Moreover, physicians and other health care workers often assumed physical risks on behalf of patien...
Bramstedt, Katrina A; Prang, Melissa; Dave, Sameer; Shin, Paul Ng Hung; Savy, Amani; Fatica, Richard A
A novel patient-centered approach was used to deliver ethics curriculum to medical students. Two medical school clinicians designed a telemedicine session linking their facilities (across 2 continents). The session, Exploring the Patient Experience Through Telemedicine: Dialysis and End-Stage Renal Disease, allowed second-year medical students to explore various parameters of quality of life experienced by dialysis patients. A panel of 4 medical students interviewed a dialysis patient via Skype video connection between the medical school and the hospital's dialysis unit. Interview questions were adapted from the Kidney Disease Quality of Life instrument. During the live video-streamed interview, the remaining 23 second-year medical students observed the session. Afterward, the 23 were offered a voluntary anonymous online feedback survey (15 responded). The 4 panelists submitted narrative responses to 2 open-ended questions about their experience. All 15 responding students "Strongly agreed" or "Agreed" that the session was an aid to their professionalism skills and behaviors; 14 of 15 "Strongly agreed" or "Agreed" that telemedicine technology contributed to their understanding of the topic; 12 of 15 "Strongly agreed" that the session improved their understanding of the psychosocial burdens of dialysis, quality of life, and human suffering, and increased their empathy toward patients; and 12 of 15 "Strongly agreed" or "Agreed" that the session encouraged reflective thinking and was an aid to improving their communication skills. Telemedicine can be an effective and feasible method to deliver an ethics curriculum with a patient-centered approach. Additionally, the cross-cultural experience exposes students to additional contextual features of medicine. PMID:25193732
Full Text Available The Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial and subsequent studies have had a tremendous impact on the treatment and prognosis of optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis in adults. The results of these studies have been extrapolated to children; however, pediatric data are sparse. Using the method of prospective preference assessment, the willingness of parents and medical professionals to enroll children in a hypothetical Pediatric Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial was assessed using a mock consent form and questionnaire. A 3-arm trial was proposed: 1 intravenous corticosteroids, 2 high-dose oral corticosteroids, and 3 an oral placebo. The forms were completed by 198 parents and 49 physicians. After reviewing the hypothetical scenario, trial design, risks and benefits, and alternatives to the study, 21% of parents would enroll their children in the trial whereas 98% of medical professionals would enroll their patients. With medical professional recommendation, 43% of parents would enroll their children. The manner in which this hypothetical trial was presented to parents, specifically with respect to the recommendation of their child’s health care team, influenced a parent’s willingness to participate.
Ogunsemi Olawale O; Odusan Olatunde; Olatawura Michael O
Abstract Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a psychiatric label attached to an apparently normal person on the attitude of final year medical students at a Nigerian university. Methods A questionnaire with sections on demographic information, a single-paragraph case description illustrating a normal person, a social distance scale and questions on expected burden was used to elicit responses from 144 final year medical students who have had previous exposure to psyc...
Mcgeown, Helen Rosemary
This study investigated the impact of information on level of prototypicality of the ingroup ‘medical students’, comparing self-esteem effects for those primed as individuals with self-esteem effects for those primed as group members. Indication of prototypicality was given by false feedback on purported individual levels of empathy, an important group norm for medical students. As well as priming type having interactive effects with prototypicality information, it was hypothesized that i...
Singh, M.; Bhardwaj, A.; Ahluwalia, S. K.; Saini, S.; Qadri, S.
Introduction: There are 2 million corneal blind in India with a big gap between corneal demand and supply. The Govt. of Haryana by launching Nehru Drishti Yojna has taken a big step to eliminate corneal blindness from Haryana. Medical students are from a different educational background with a scientific base and thus have a pivotal role play in becoming as role models and mass educators. Objective: To assess the perception of medical students regarding eye donation. Methods: A cross sectiona...
Brick, Cameron A.; Seely, Darbi L.; Palermo, Tonya M.
The aim of this study was to determine whether subjective sleep quality was reduced in medical students, and whether demographics and sleep hygiene behaviors were associated with sleep quality. A Web-based survey was completed by 314 medical students, containing questions about demographics, sleep habits, exercise habits, caffeine, tobacco and alcohol use, and subjective sleep quality (using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). Correlation and regression analyses tested for associations among...
Hoffman, Lance; Bott, Kristine; Puumala, Susan; Shostrom, Valerie
OBJECTIVE: This Institutional Review Board-approved, prospective, observational study compared the clinical performance of senior medical students in an emergency medicine (EM) clerkship using a clinical behavioral evaluation tool in which one group had mandatory, topic specific readings and the other did not.METHODS: The study took place in an urban, tertiary referral center emergency department treating 43,000 patients annually and supporting medical student clerkships and an EM residency. ...
Kalet, Adina L.; Steven Yavner; Rachel Ellaway; Frederick More; Hyuksoon Song; Nick, Michael W.; Mary Ann Hopkins; Umut Sarpel; Martin Pusic
Introduction: Special concerns often arise when medical students are themselves the subjects of education research. A recently completed large, multi-center randomized controlled trial of computer-assisted learning modules for surgical clerks provided the opportunity to explore the perceived level of risk of studies where medical students serve as human subjects by reporting on: 1) the response of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) at seven institutions to the same study protocol; and 2) the ...
Chai-Eng Tan; Aida Jaffar; Seng-Fah Tong; Majmin Sheikh Hamzah; Nabishah Mohamad
Introduction: The Comprehensive Healthcare (CHC) module was developed to introduce pre-clinical medical and pharmacy students to the concept of comprehensive healthcare. This study aims to explore their shared learning experiences within this module. Methodology: During this module, medical and pharmacy students conducted visits to patients’ homes and to related community-based organisations in small groups. They were required to write a reflective journal on their experiences regarding wor...
Md Anwarul Azim Majumder; Sayeeda Rahman; Amp Rsquo Souza, Urban Ja D.; et al.
Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sayeeda Rahman2, Urban JA D’Souza3, Gad Elbeheri4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, M Muzaherul Huq61,2Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 3School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; 4Centre for Child Evaluation and Teaching, Kuwait; 5College of Medicine, Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Centre for Medical Education (CME), Mohakhali, Dhaka, Ba...
Marcotte, D. B.; And Others
Results from a sample of 160 medical and 79 law students revealed that medical students know less about sex and hold less tolerant views towards others' sexual behavior. Evidence of a double standard was not found, but the data reinforce the need for medical sex education to equip doctors with both knowledge and a tolerant attitude. (Author/LBH)
Full text: Introduction: Every profession has a collection of principles and rules, which it is regulated. The professional behavior in medical activities is particularly importance due to their specific nature. The modern education of the X-ray technician strives to meet the need to create and shape the personalities to provide quality care and services. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among students of the Medical College ‘J. Filaretova’ at Sofia, specialty ‘X-ray Technician’ and mentors from the education- practical bases in different directions - diagnostic imaging, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy. The inquiry study included thirty-four students in the third course and twenty- two of their mentors. Following methods were used: sociological (direct anonymous inquiry); documentary (discussing and analyzed the curriculum and training programs for X-ray Technician); statistical method (survey data were processed with statistical computer program SATGRAPHICS PLUS and EXCEL). Results: The study found that 61% of students feel fully prepared theoretically to have a professional conduct in their practice, which is supported by 50% of their mentors. 50% believe that students are partly prepared as there is no one who claims that they are not well prepared. 94% of students say they keep the workplace discipline and actively participate in the activities carried out at the education- practical bases. A large percentage of mentors (77%) confirm this. The training enables them to acquire the skills to work in a team and communicate with patients and colleagues. Conclusion: College education creates conditions and prerequisites the students from the specialty ‘X-ray Technician’ to acquire professional knowledge and skills and to apply them in practice with providing a quality health care
Alfred, Danita; Yarbrough, Susan; Martin, Pam; Mink, Janice; Lin, Yu-Hua; Wang, Liching S
Globalization is a part of modern life. Sharing a common set of professional nursing values is critical in this global environment. The purpose of this research was to examine the professional values of nursing students from two distinct cultural perspectives. Nurse educators in Taiwan partnered with nurse educators in the United States to compare professional values of their respective graduating nursing students. The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics served as the philosophical framework for this examination. The convenience sample comprised 94 Taiwanese students and 168 US students. Both groups reported high scores on an overall measure of values. They did differ substantially on the relative importance of individual items related to advocacy, competence, education, self-evaluation, professional advancement, and professional associations. Global implications for the collaborative practice of nurses from different cultures working together can be improved by first recognizing and then attending to these differences in value priorities. PMID:23702893
Adina L. Kalet
Full Text Available Introduction: Special concerns often arise when medical students are themselves the subjects of education research. A recently completed large, multi-center randomized controlled trial of computer-assisted learning modules for surgical clerks provided the opportunity to explore the perceived level of risk of studies where medical students serve as human subjects by reporting on: 1 the response of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs at seven institutions to the same study protocol; and 2 the thoughts and feelings of students across study sites about being research subjects. Methods: From July 2009 to August 2010, all third-year medical students at seven collaborating institutions were eligible to participate. Patterns of IRB review of the same protocol were compared. Participation burden was calculated in terms of the time spent interacting with the modules. Focus groups were conducted with medical students at each site. Transcripts were coded by three independent reviewers and analyzed using Atlas.ti. Results: The IRBs at the seven participating institutions granted full (n=1, expedited (n=4, or exempt (n=2 review of the WISE Trial protocol. 995 (73% of those eligible consented to participate, and 207 (20% of these students completed all outcome measures. The average time to complete the computer modules and associated measures was 175 min. Common themes in focus groups with participant students included the desire to contribute to medical education research, the absence of coercion to consent, and the low-risk nature of the research. Discussion: Our findings demonstrate that risk assessment and the extent of review utilized for medical education research vary among IRBs. Despite variability in the perception of risk implied by differing IRB requirements, students themselves felt education research was low risk and did not consider themselves to be vulnerable. The vast majority of eligible medical students were willing to participate as research subjects. Participants acknowledged the time demands of their participation and were readily able to withdraw when those burdens became unsustainable.
West, John B.
Reviews proceedings of a symposium sponsored by the Education Committee of the American Physiology Society. Summarizes the teaching of respiratory physiology to medical students at the following medical schools: University of California at San Diego, McMaster University, University of Pennsylvania, University of Gottingen (Federal Republic of…
Gurpinar, Erol; Bati, Hilal; Tetik, Cihat
The aim of the present study was to investigate if any changes exist in the learning styles of medical students over time and in relation to different curriculum models with these learning styles. This prospective cohort study was conducted in three different medical faculties, which implement problem-based learning (PBL), hybrid, and integrated…
A pilot program based in a freestanding ambulatory surgery center at the Chicago Medical School Department of Surgery is described, its curriculum outlined, and the daily activities of the residents and medical students are detailed. A brief history of ambulatory surgery is given. (Author/MLW)
Full Text Available Sayinthen Vivekanantham, Rahul Prashanth Ravindran Imperial College School of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UKTechnology within health care delivery is improving at an unprecedented rate.1 Medical students demonstrate a preference towards mobile learning2 and familiarity with technology is essential to medical practice.1 We believe electronic timetables are an underutilized technology that can be embraced by institutions delivering medical education.
Mueller, M. H.; Foreman, G.
The University of Minnesota Medical School has an innovative curriculum, called Didactic/Selective, which provides third- and fourth-year medical students with multidisciplinary and multispecialty courses. Within this framework, the Bio-Medical Library planned a course to teach the knowledge and skills necessary for library research and information management. It included (1) searching case-related topics in print indexes, (2) formulating and processing MEDLINE searches on BRS Colleague, (3) ...
?çli, Fikri; Cal??kan, Deniz; Gönüllü, U?ur; Sunguro?lu, Kadirhan; Akdur, Recep; Akbulut, Hakan; Özkan, Asiye; Ölmez, Senay; Gönüllü, ?pek; ?bi?, Erkan
A survey in the year 2007 among medical students of Ankara University Medical School to assess the smoking rates showed that 25.1 % of them were smoking. Moreover, the smoking rate was 35 % at sixth grade students and 60 % of the smokers specified that they started smoking at medical school. This report provides a successful approach to decrease smoking among medical students by measures against starting smoking. An "Antismoking Group" composed of voluntary academic staff, nurses, students, psychologists, and a social worker of the medical school was established to engage in lowering the smoking rate and eliminating it eventually among our students. Several methods including regular monthly meetings, annual "Smoking or Health" symposiums, and lectures to first, second, and third grade students to increase their awareness related to harms of smoking and their role in the fight against smoking were carried out. Our surveys in the years 2009 (641 students) and 2012 (975 students) showed that total smoking rates dropped to 15.0 and 11.0 %, respectively (p?0.0002). Moreover, the smoking rate for the sixth grade students dropped from 35.0 % in 2007 to 21.8 and 8.8 % in the years 2009 and 2012, respectively (p?0.0002). In 2012, the smoking rates of first year and sixth year students were 7.8 and 9.0 %, respectively. These close rates of smoking at the first and last years of medical school training and the significant drop in smoking rates in 5 years confirm that our group pursued a realistic and successful strategy against smoking. PMID:24189831
D. K. Apturkar
Full Text Available Introduction: There is acute shortage of teachers in medical field and very few new members are joining this noble profession. The shortage of medical teachers is resulting in decrease of teaching quality, decrease in number of medical seats and the country is losing its education standard worldwide.Aims: To find out the view and inclination of undergraduate medical students towards teaching as career.Objectives: It is an attempt to find possible reasons preventing or stimulating the undergraduates’ students to consider teaching as career. Many studies are available about the students view towards clinical specialties choice but literature hardly mentions medical teaching as choice. The objective is to attempt to collect undergraduate student’s view.Methods: A questionnaire based cross sectional descriptive study involving 315 undergraduate MBBS students of first year (115, second year (72 and third year part II (128. Their responses were recorded on Likert’s scale, tabulated and analyzed.Conclusion: This study shows a trend going against the option of teaching as career. The data collected does not give definite proof but indications are visible that as the students progresses from first to final year their positive attitude towards considering teaching as career show decline.
Full Text Available Objectives: Medical students, the future doctors, were presumed to be knowledgeable about physical activity and would have future influence on their patients. This study aims to describe the pattern of physical activity, predictors of physical inactivity and perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity among a sample of Egyptian and Saudi medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out on 319 Egyptian and 297 Saudi medical students. The long form of the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ was used to measure physical activity. Data was analyzed according to the guidelines for data processing and analysis of the IPAQ. Perceived barriers to and potential benefits of physical activity were reported. Results: Physical inactivity was significantly higher among Saudi than Egyptian medical students (41.1% versus 15.4%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent predictors of physical inactivity were non-membership in sports clubs (OR =4.6 and use of private cars for transportation (OR=3.9. The most frequent barriers to physical activity are time limitation due to busy study schedule and lack of accessible and suitable sporting places. More than 70% of students perceived that physical activity promotes and maintains health. Conclusions: Because time and access are key barriers to medical student exercise, we believe that provision of free playgrounds in the college to practice sports during free times will promote physical activity in students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 35-44
Zailinawati, A H; Teng, C L; Chung, Y C; Teow, T L; Lee, P N; Jagmohni, K S
Poor sleep quality and daytime somnolence is reported to be associated with cardiovascular events, road traffic accident, poor academic performance and psychological distress. Some studies documented that it is prevalent in most populations but its frequency among medical students has not been documented in Malaysia. This is a self-administered questionnaire survey of medical students from International Medical University, Malaysia. Daytime sleepiness of medical students was assessed using Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Student scoring ESS > 11 was regarded as having excessive daytime sleepiness. Psychological distress was measured using 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). A total of 799 medical students participated in this survey (response rate 69.5%). Daytime sleepiness occurred in 35.5%, psychological distress was present in 41.8% and 16.1% reported bad sleep quality. Daytime sleepiness was significantly more common among the clinical students, those with self-reported bad sleep quality and psychological distress; but unrelated to the number of hours sleep at night. We have documented high prevalence of daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality and psychological distress. Higher frequency among clinical students and the significant relationship with psychological distress suggest possible link to the stressful clinical training. PMID:20058567
The University of Wisconsin-La Crosse offers the first online medical dosimetry program in the nation. There is no data to research a program of this type. This research consisted of the evaluation of other distance education programs including health profession programs in addition to face-to-face medical dosimetry programs. There was a need to collect and analyze student perceptions of online learning in medical dosimetry. This research provided a guide for future implementation by other programs as well as validated the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse program. Methodology used consisted of an electronic survey sent to all previous and currently enrolled students in the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse medical dosimetry program. The survey was both quantitative and qualitative in demonstrating attitudinal perceptions of students in the program. Quantitative data was collected and analyzed using a 5-point Likert scale. Qualitative data was gathered based on the open-ended responses and the identifying themes from the responses. The results demonstrated an overall satisfaction with this program, the instructor, and the online courses. Students felt a sense of belonging to the courses and the program. Considering that a majority of the students had never taken an online course previously, the students felt there were no technology issues. Future research should include an evaluation of board exam statistics for students enrolled in the online and face-to-face medicalled in the online and face-to-face medical dosimetry programs.
Delaram, Masoumeh; Hosseini, Sara
Introduction: Inappropriate advice interferes with the students’ achievement of educational and professional goals and they may fail to use proper resources for their educational needs. The present study was carried out to compare the students’ satisfaction about the performance of academic advisors before and after the advisor project in Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences.
Banerjee, Indranil; Biswas, Supreeti; Biswas, Ashish; De, Mausumi; Begum, Sabnam Ara; Haldar, Swaraj
The use of computer and information technology is on an escalation. The internet, one of the key developments in this field, provides instant access to latest medical information. The present study was conducted (i) to estimate the extent and purpose of internet usage among undergraduate (UG) and postgraduate (PG) medical students, (ii) to identify factors that encourage the students to use internet for medical information, (iii) to assess the need for incorporating computer education in medical curriculum. A prospective, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted on 150 students of Burdwan Medical College and Hospital between June 2009 and December 2009. Majority of the students accessed internet from their home PC (42% UGs and 52% PGs).Common search engines browsed commonly by both UGs and PGs include Google and yahoo. Regarding principles of telemedicine and evidence-based medicine, majority of the PGs are well versed while UGs are not (p-value 0.0001). Almost all students agreed to incorporate computer education in medical curriculum. Primary source of medical information was textbook for UGs (62%) and internet for the PGs (48%). Majority of UGs (48%) used internet as a ready source of information thus saving time while PGs (68%) primarily relied on internet for recent advances in their disciplines. The primary purposes of internet use are educational for both UGs and PGs. The data obtained indicates that majority of the medical students participating in the present study embrace and use internet to access medical information. It also justifies the need to incorporate internet and associated information technology into existing medical curriculum. PMID:22315834
Leffel, G Michael; Oakes Mueller, Ross A; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D
Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no consensus about the primary goals of ethics education. Two prevailing perspectives dominate the literature, constituting what is sometimes referred to as the "virtue/skill dichotomy". The first perspective argues that teaching ethics is a means of providing physicians with a skill set for analyzing and resolving ethical dilemmas. The second perspective suggests that teaching ethics is a means of creating virtuous physicians. The authors argue that this debate about medical ethics education mirrors the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate in contemporary moral psychology. In the following essay, the authors sketch the relevance of the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate to medical ethics and professionalism. They then outline a moral intuitionist model of virtuous caring that derives from but also extends the "social intuitionist model" of moral action and virtue. This moral intuitionist model suggests several practical implications specifically for medical character education but also for health science education in general. This approach proposes that character development is best accomplished by tuning-up (activating) moral intuitions, amplifying (intensifying) moral emotions related to intuitions, and strengthening (expanding) intuition-expressive, emotion-related moral virtues, more than by "learning" explicit ethical rules or principles. PMID:25319836
Nkya Hassan M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT is a corner stone for successful implementation of prevention, care and support services among HIV negative and positive individuals. VCT is also perceived to be an effective strategy in risk reduction among sexually active young people.. This study aimed to assess the acceptability of VCT and its actual uptake among young health care professional students at KCM College of Tumaini University and Allied health schools. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. A structured questionnaire was used among health care professional students aged 18–25 years who were enrolled in degrees, diplomas and certificates courses at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College and all other Allied health schools Results A total of 309 students were recruited, among these 197 (63.8% were females. All respondents were aware of the benefits of VCT. Only 107 (34.6% of students have had VCT done previously. About 59 (19.1% of the students had negative for health care professional to attend VCT. Risk perception among the students was low (37.2% even though they were found to have higher risk behaviors that predispose them to get HIV infection. Conclusion Awareness of VCT services and willingness to test is high among students; however its uptake is low. In order to promote these services, a comprehensive training module on VCT needs to be included in their training curricula. In particular, more emphasis should focus on the benefits of VCT and to help the students to internalize the risk of HIV so that they can take preventive measures.
Wright Scott M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many medical schools are establishing learning communities to foster cohesion among students and to strengthen relationships between students and faculty members. Emerging learning communities require nurturing and attention; this represents an opportunity wherein medical students can become involved as leaders. This study sought to understand issues related to active involvement among students who chose to become highly engaged in a newly developed learning community. Methods Between April and June 2008, 36 students who assumed leadership roles within the Colleges Program were queried electronically with open-ended questions about their engagement. Qualitative analysis of the written responses was independently performed by two investigators; coding was compared for agreement. Content analysis identified major themes. Results 35 students (97% completed the questionnaire. Motives that emerged as reasons for getting involved included: endorsing the need for the program; excitement with the start-up; wanting to give back; commitment to institutional excellence; and collaboration with talented peers and faculty. Perceived benefits were grouped under the following domains: connecting with others; mentoring; learning new skills; and recognition. The most frequently identified drawbacks were the time commitment and the opportunity costs. Ideas for drawing medical students into new endeavors included: creating defined roles; offering a breadth of opportunities; empowering students with responsibility; and making them feel valued. Conclusions Medical students were drawn to and took on leadership roles in a medical school curricular innovation. This example may prove helpful to others hoping to engage students as leaders in learning communities at their schools or those wishing to augment student involvement in other programs.
Hosmer, Laura; Langston, G.; Heatherly, S.; Towner, A. P.; Ford, J.; Simon, R. S.; White, S.; O'Neil, K. L.; Haipslip, J.; Reichart, D.
The NRAO 20m telescope is now on-line as a part of UNC's Skynet worldwide telescope network. The NRAO is completing integration of radio astronomy tools with the Skynet web interface. We present the web interface and astronomy projects that allow students and astronomers from all over the country to become Radio Astronomers. The 20 meter radio telescope at NRAO in Green Bank, WV is dedicated to public education and also is part of an experiment in public funding for astronomy. The telescope has a fantastic new web-based interface, with priority queuing, accommodating priority for paying customers and enabling free use of otherwise unused time. This revival included many software and hardware improvements including automatic calibration and improved time integration resulting in improved data processing, and a new ultra high resolution spectrometer. This new spectrometer is optimized for very narrow spectral lines, which will allow astronomers to study complex molecules and very cold regions of space in remarkable detail. In accordance with focusing on broader impacts, many public outreach and high school education activities have been completed with many confirmed future activities. The 20 meter is now a fully automated, powerful tool capable of professional grade results available to anyone in the world. Drop by our poster and try out real-time telescope control!
Rael D. Strous
Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the subjective presence of a range of subsyndromal and syndromal mental health conditions in medical students, and to compare the presence of these conditions between preclinical and clinical training. Methods: A cross sectional study was used among first-and fifth-year medical students. Student reported their mental health conditions using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, the fourth version (DSM-IV. Data analysis was based on 110 questionnaires. Results: A total of 61 students (55.5 reported that they experienced symptoms of mental illness, albeit many with minimum severity. More than 50 of the students reported that they experienced Axis I and Axis II disorders, which mostly were mood disorders (38in year 1 and 35in year 5 and obsessive-compulsive traits (41in year 1 and 46in year 5, respectively. The least common disorders reported were psychotic disorders (5in year 1 and 0in year 5 and schizotypal traits (7in year 1 and 2in year 5. Fifth-year students reported more Axis I disorders than first-year students. Female students reported more Axis I disorders than their male peers. A further analysis indicated that there was no significant association between age and Axis disorders. Several conditions were comorbid with other mental illnesses. Conclusions: A great number of students reported that they experience mental health conditions with minimal severity. This implies a need for indispensable ongoing support programs for the special needs of medical students.
Gituma, A.; Masika, M.; Muchangi, E.; Nyagah, L.; Otieno, V.; Irimu, G.; Wasunna, A.; Ndiritu, M.; English, M.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate final year medical students' access to new medical information. METHOD: Cross-sectional survey of final year medical students at the University of Nairobi using anonymous, self-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: Questionnaires were distributed to 85% of a possible 343 students and returned by 44% (152). Half reported having accessed some form of new medical information within the previous 12 months, most commonly from books and the internet. Few students reported re...
Burstein, Alvin C.; And Others
A longitudinal study of personality traits of medical students was first administered to freshmen and then later to the same students during their junior year. The results suggest that over the two years a developmental shift away from motivations focusing on effort and control toward those focusing on self-gratification took place. Implications…
Moore-West, Maggi; Heath, Debbie
A survey of all U.S. medical schools, with just over half responding, reveals that there were very few problems in either disabled students' academic performance or the institution's adaptation, and that when one disabled student is accepted, a school tends to accept more. Some schools recommended more academic and emotional support services. (MSE)
Machado, Jorge Americo Dinis; Barbosa, Joselina Maria Pinto; Ferreira, Maria Amelia Duarte
Radiological imaging is gaining relevance in the acquisition of competencies in clinical anatomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of medical students on teaching/learning of imaging anatomy as an integrated part of anatomical education. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the perceptions of second-year students…
Huntington, Ian; Shrestha, Suvash; Reich, Nicholas G; Hagopian, Amy
The number of medical students trained in Nepal each year has increased nearly fifty-fold in the last 15 years, primarily through the creation of private medical schools. It is unknown where this expanding cohort of new physicians will ultimately practice. We distributed an anonymous survey to students in their last 2 years of medical school at four medical schools in Nepal to examine two dimensions of career intention: the intention to practice in Nepal and the intention to practice in rural areas. Eighty-five per cent of the eligible study population participated, for a total of 469 medical students. Of these, 88% thought it was likely they would practice in Nepal and 88% thought it likely they would practice in urban areas. Those students who indicated a greater likelihood of practicing abroad came from families with higher incomes, were more likely to think earning a good salary was very important to their decision to become a physician, and were less likely to think they could earn a good salary in Nepal. Students whose tuition was paid by the government were no more likely to indicate an intention to practice in Nepal than students paying their own tuition at private medical schools. Students who indicated a greater likelihood of practicing in rural areas were more likely to be male, to have gone to a government secondary school, to have been born in a village, or to have received a scholarship from the Ministry of Education that requires rural service. Based on our findings, we suggest the following policy changes: (1) medical schools consider selecting for students from rural backgrounds or government secondary schools who are more likely to intend to practice in rural areas, and (2) increase the number of post-graduate positions--weighted toward rural health needs--to retain students in Nepal. PMID:21880690
Kristin Heilmann, Vanessa; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Gumz, Antje
As a consequence of earlier investigations, which have demonstrated that 20-25% of the students report psychological distress, the knowledge of the need and the utilization of help resulting from psychological or social problems have to be improved. Data from 366 students were collected to determine the need for advice, the utilization of help and the occurrence of psychological symptoms (SCL-27) and interpersonal problems (IIP-C). Comparisons between students and the total population as well as between students with and without need for advice were made. 23,3% of the persons surveyed, expressed the wish to receive professional help. In comparison to the total population, the students reported more psychological symptoms and consulted less frequently a general practitioner or a gynecologist. Students with need for advice experienced more psychological distress. To encourage more of the distressed students to utilize professional help, the access to professional help should be facilitated. PMID:25588107
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is usually observed that medical students undergo tremendous stress during various stages of the MBBS course. There is a high rate of suicide among them. METHODS: To determine incidence of stress and factors controlling stress in medical students at various stages of MBBS course at Seth G S Medical college, 238 students (First year 98, Second 76, Third 64 were asked to complete a questionnaire on personal data (gender, stay at hostel, mode of travel, time spent in travel every day, medium of study in school, place of school education., Stress inducing factors, Zung?s depression scale, ways of coping, stress relievers, perceived social support and personality type. Statistical tests used were ANOVA, critical ratio and Student?s ?t? test. RESULTS: Majority of medical students (175/238--73% perceived stress. Stress was found to be significantly more in Second and Third MBBS students rather than First MBBS levels (p < 0.05. Stress was not found to differ significantly on the basis of sex, stay at hostel, model of travel, time spent in travel every day, medium of study in school, place of school education. Stress was found to be significantly more in students having more than 95% of marks at 12th Standard as compared to others. Academic factors were greater perceived cause of stress in medical students. There was no significant difference in the students at different levels of MBBS regarding academic factors and social factors as a stress inducing factors. Physical factors were found to be significantly more in Second and Third MBBS students as compared to First MBBS students. Emotional factors were found to be significantly more in First MBBS students as compared to Second & Third MBBS students. Stress was more common in medical students who have dominant strategy of coping as positive reappraisal, accepting responsibility and planful problem solving. Stress was less common in medical students at Seth G S Medical College who have dominant strategy of coping as escaping and distancing from difficult situation. Family and Friend as perceived social supports were more in Second MBBS than First MBBS medical students. Stress was not found to be significantly more in students having their personality factor contributing to stress (Type A--52/67 as compared to others (Type B--123/171. This indicates that the stress was not trait oriented but was process oriented (p = NS. CONCLUSION: Stress in medical students is common and is process oriented. It is more in second and third year. Academic factors are greater perceived cause of stress in medical students at Seth G S medical college. Emotional factors are found to be significantly more in First MBBS. It is dependent on person?s ways of coping and social support.
Liu, Yang; Liu, Changhua
By witchcraft, it refers to the activities of imagining and intending to affect or control the object through"supernatural power". Ancient witchcraft was applied extensively in which those applied for medical purpose included sorcery, praying, superstitious art of anti-disaster, and tabooing, were collectively called"medical witchcraft". During the Qin-Han periods, witchcraft was transformed by the theory of Yin-Yang and Five-Phases as a part of technical profession. Among them, the system of demon-ghost witchcraft was replaced by the necromantic ghost system; exorcism and taboo system were infiltrated with the conception of the art of mathematics and technical system; whereas the superstitious art of anti-disaster was replaced by incantation. The remnants of medical witchcraft not yet totally transformed were also applied by the technical professionals of the Qin-Han Dynasties. PMID:24989803
Henning, K; Ey, S; Shaw, D
Extensive attention has been paid over the past three decades to the stressors involved in training in the health professions. Although empirical studies have identified demographic subgroups of students most likely to become distressed during training, less research has been carried out to evaluate the impact of students' personality characteristics on their adjustment. Severe perfectionism is one such personality trait that has been shown to increase the risk for anxiety and depressive disorders in other populations. Another set of personality traits linked to increased psychological problems has been labelled the 'impostor phenomenon', which occurs when high achieving individuals chronically question their abilities and fear that others will discover them to be intellectual frauds. Both perfectionism and the impostor phenomenon would seem to be pertinent factors in the adjustment of health professional students; however, these character traits have not been empirically examined in this population. In the present study psychological distress, perfectionism and impostor feelings were assessed in 477 medical, dental, nursing and pharmacy students. Consistent with previous reports, the results showed that a higher than expected percentage of students (27.5%) were currently experiencing psychiatric levels of distress. Strong associations were found between current psychological distress, perfectionism and impostor feelings within each programme and these character traits were stronger predictors of psychological adjustment than most of the demographic variables associated previously with distress in health professional students. Implications for future research, limitations of this study and clinical recommendations are discussed. PMID:10211285
Teaching pharmacology to medical students has long been seen as a challenge, and one to which a number of innovative approaches have been taken. In this article, we describe and evaluate the use of primary research articles in teaching second-year medical students both in terms of the information learned and the use of the papers themselves. We designed a seminar where small groups of students worked on different neurotransmitters before contributing information to a plenary session. Student feedback suggested that when the information was largely novel, students learned considerably more. Crucially, this improvement in knowledge was seen even when they had not directly studied a particular transmitter in their work groups, suggesting a shared learning experience. Moreover, the majority of students reported that using primary research papers was easy and useful, with over half stating that they would use them in future study.
The attention is paid to the role of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in the support of the education on the pregraduate and postgraduate level. On pregraduate level the NRPI is engaged in education of the students of the Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering (FNSPE) in the field of radiation protection and radiological physics. On the postgraduate level there is an important role of NRPI in the postgraduate education of the health professionals. This education can take advantage of the more than the thirty years cooperation between NRPI and IPVZ (Institute for postgraduate medical education). In the presentation the important data and experience of the courses of radiation protection organized for health professionals will be ShOWll. In the presentation there are also presented activities of the division of medical exposures of the NRPI, which are pointing to the public information. Some typical questions, which have been addressed to NRPI are brought forward and discussed. (authors)
Haber, Richard J.; Bardach, Naomi S.; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Gillum, Leslie A.; Haber, Lawrence A.; Dhaliwal, Gurpreet S.
Interns are expected to teach medical students, yet there is little formal training in medical school to prepare them for this role. To enhance the teaching skills of our graduating students we initiated a 4-hour “teaching to teach” course as part of the end of the fourth-year curriculum. Course evaluations demonstrate that students strongly support this program (overall ratings 2000 to 2005: mean = 4.4 [scale 1 to 5], n = 224). When 2004 course participants were surveyed during the last ...
Cristiana Silveira, Silva; Murilo Barreto, Souza; Roberto Silveira, Silva Filho; Luciana Molina de, Medeiros; Paulo Ricardo, Criado.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Dermatological disorders are common in medical practice. In medical school, however, the time devoted to teaching dermatology is usually very limited. Therefore, online educational systems have increasingly been used in medical education settings to enhance exposure to dermatology. OBJ [...] ECTIVE: The present study was designed to develop a e-learning program for medical students in dermatology and evaluate the impact of this program on learning. METHODS: This prospective study included second year medical students at the University of Technology and Science, Salvador, Brazil. All students attended discussion seminars and practical activities, and half of the students had adjunct online seminars (blended learning). Tests were given to all students before and after the courses, and test scores were evaluated. RESULTS: Students who participated in online discussions associated with face-to-face activities (blended learning) had significantly higher posttest scores (9.0 + 0.8) than those who only participated in classes (7.75+1.8, p
Hennen, B. K.; Morrissy, J.; Grindrod, A.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a workshop on medical ethics attended by family medicine preceptors would affect their students' learning of ethics, and what educational and experiential factors affected the students' learning about ethics. DESIGN: A 3-hour workshop planned by a group of family physicians and ethicists and taught by a faculty member and an ethicist was offered to family physician preceptors. Students entering the clerkship were invited by letter to complete written answers to...
Jensen, Dorthe H.; Jetten, Jolanda
It is increasingly recognized that graduates’ achievements depend in important ways on their opportunities to develop an academic and a professional identity during their studies. Previous research has shown that students’ socio-economic status (SES) and social capital prior to entering university affects their ability to obtain these identities in higher education. However, what is less well understood is whether social capital that is built during university studies shapes identity development, and if so, whether the social capital gained during university years impacts on academic and professional identity differently. In a qualitative study, we interviewed 26 Danish and 11 Australian university students about their social interaction experiences, their opportunities to develop bonding capital as well as bridging capital, and their academic and professional identity. Findings show that while bonding social capital with co-students facilitated academic identity formation, such social capital does not lead to professional identity development. We also found that the development of bridging social capital with educators facilitated students’ professional identity formation. However, bonding social capital among students stood in the way of participating in bridging interaction with educators, thereby further hindering professional identity formation. Finally, while students’ parental background did not affect the perceived difficulty of forming professional identity, there was a tendency for students from lower SES backgrounds to be more likely to make internal attributions while those from higher SES backgrounds were more likely to make external attributions for the failure to develop professional identity. Results point to the importance of creating opportunities for social interaction with educators at university because this facilitates the generation of bridging social capital, which, in turn, is essential for students’ professional identity development. PMID:25762954
Jensen, Dorthe H; Jetten, Jolanda
It is increasingly recognized that graduates' achievements depend in important ways on their opportunities to develop an academic and a professional identity during their studies. Previous research has shown that students' socio-economic status (SES) and social capital prior to entering university affects their ability to obtain these identities in higher education. However, what is less well understood is whether social capital that is built during university studies shapes identity development, and if so, whether the social capital gained during university years impacts on academic and professional identity differently. In a qualitative study, we interviewed 26 Danish and 11 Australian university students about their social interaction experiences, their opportunities to develop bonding capital as well as bridging capital, and their academic and professional identity. Findings show that while bonding social capital with co-students facilitated academic identity formation, such social capital does not lead to professional identity development. We also found that the development of bridging social capital with educators facilitated students' professional identity formation. However, bonding social capital among students stood in the way of participating in bridging interaction with educators, thereby further hindering professional identity formation. Finally, while students' parental background did not affect the perceived difficulty of forming professional identity, there was a tendency for students from lower SES backgrounds to be more likely to make internal attributions while those from higher SES backgrounds were more likely to make external attributions for the failure to develop professional identity. Results point to the importance of creating opportunities for social interaction with educators at university because this facilitates the generation of bridging social capital, which, in turn, is essential for students' professional identity development. PMID:25762954
Student teachers often struggle with handling events in the complex environment that is a classroom. This article reports on a study that investigates the potential of using video-based materials to support mathematics student teachers in developing and applying professional knowledge. Student teachers viewed videos of classroom events with…
Al Shawwa L
Full Text Available Lana Al Shawwa,1 Ahmad A Abulaban,2 Abdulrhman A Abulaban,3 Anas Merdad,3 Sara Baghlaf,3 Ahmed Algethami,3 Joullanar Abu-shanab,3 Abdulrahman Balkhoyor3 1Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 2Department of Medicine-Neurology, King Fahad National Guard Hospital, King Abdulziz Medical City, Riyadh, 3Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Studies are needed to examine predictors of success in medical school. The aim of this work is to explore factors that potentially influence excellence of medical students. Methods: The study was conducted in the Medical Faculty of King Abdulaziz University during October 2012. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Medical students with a grade point average (GPA ?4.5 (out of 5 were included and compared to randomly selected medical students with a GPA <4.5, who were available at the time of the study. Results: A total of 359 undergraduate students participated in the study. 50.4% of the sample was students with a GPA ?4.5. No statistically significant difference regarding the time spent on outings and social events was found. However, 60.7% of high GPA students spend less than 2 hours on social networking per day as compared to 42.6% of the lower GPA students (P<0.01. In addition, 79% of high GPA students prefer to study alone (P=0.02, 68.0% required silence and no interruptions during studying time (P=0.013, and 47% revise their material at least once before an exam (P=0.02. Conclusion: Excellent medical students have many different characteristics. For example, they do not use social networking for prolonged periods of time, and they have strong motivation and study enjoyment. Further studies are needed to examine whether these differences have a real impact on GPA or not. Keyword: King Abdulaziz University KAU, medical school, study habits, exam habits
Full Text Available Background: Aims and objectives of current study were to assess the pattern of mobile phone usage and prevalence of nomophobia amongst third year medical students in north India. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted amongst 130 medical students of third year MBBS of Sri Aurobindo institute of medical sciences, Indore. A pre-formed pre-tested questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions. Results: Response rate was 90.76%. Female preponderance (65 females out of 118 respondents was seen in our study. Most of the students were in the age group of 22-24 years. All of them were having possession of at least one mobile phone with activated internet services in 87% of students. 34% were having two mobile phones, while 4% had more than two mobiles. 61% students had to recharge the internet services once a month, 28% twice a month, while 11% students had to recharge it more than three times a month. 73% of students were nomophobics. 21% of nomophobics experienced rinxiety. 83% of students experienced panic attacks when their mobile phone was misplaced. Headache and lethargy were the commonest side effects that were experienced by 61% of students. Conclusion: Our study gives a brief idea about the woeful outcomes of nomophobia. There is a definite need of further studies in this field. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 705-707
Full Text Available Abstract Background Learning environment in any medical school is found to be important in determining students' academic success. This study was undertaken to compare the perceptions of first year and clinical phase students regarding the learning environment at Melaka Manipal Medical College (MMMC (Manipal Campus and also to identify the gender wise differences in their perceptions. Methods In the present study, the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM inventory was used. DREEM was originally developed at Dundee and has been validated as a universal diagnostic inventory for assessing the quality of educational environment. In the present study, DREEM was administered to undergraduate medical students of first year (n = 118 and clinical phase (n = 108 and the scores were compared using a nonparametric test. Results Among the two batches, first year students were found to be more satisfied with the learning environment at MMMC (as indicated by their higher DREEM score compared to the clinical batch students. Gender wise, there was not much difference in the students' perceptions. Conclusion The present study revealed that both groups of students perceived the learning environment positively. Nevertheless, the study also revealed problematic areas of learning environment in our medical school which enabled us to adopt some remedial measures.
Lymn Joanne S; Bowskill Dianne; Meade Oonagh
Abstract Background Nurses and other health professionals in the U.K. can gain similar prescribing rights to doctors by undertaking a non-medical prescribing course. Non-medical prescribing students must have a thorough understanding of the pharmacology of prescribing to ensure safe practice. Pharmacology education at this level is complicated by the variation in students' prior subject knowledge of, and anxiety about, the subject. The recent advances in technology, particularly the potential...
Claudia S. Naidu
Full Text Available Background: Fourth-year medical students at the University of Cape Town (UCT work closely with stakeholders in community teaching sites to conduct community-based research projects and follow-up health promotion interventions during their Public Health training.Objectives: This study evaluated the placements as a learning experience from the perspectives of past students and community stakeholders.Methods: A total of 32 projects were randomly selected out of 232 projects undertaken during 2006, 2008 and 2009. Two students and a stakeholder involved with each project were sampled. A standardised survey was emailed to students and in-depth interviews were held with stakeholders.Results: Fifty two per cent of 64 students and 57% of 25 stakeholders responded. Most students felt that the placements enhanced their academic experience and confidence in research skills, and were an effective form of learning. Perceived challenges included time constraints and, for a minority, inadequately prepared settings and stakeholders. Stakeholders felt that the placements empowered the communities and prepared students for the realities of working as a medical professional. They viewed students as a valuable resource and believed that student projects addressed important community myths and health problems. Recommendations from students and stakeholders included more time for the Public Health block, followup interventions for greater continuity, and better alignment of projects with stakeholder programmes.Conclusion: The evaluation reveals both the importance and challenges of community placements and identifies areas of improvement. Despite the limited duration of the placements, they offered valuable community-based learning experiences for the students and worthwhile benefits for the communities.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the medical exposure to ionizing radiation of X type in a interventional radiology service, of an university hospital, making a correlation with the importance of using dosimeters for monitoring the effective dose in individuals occupationally exposed (IOE). It was performed an analysis of radiation doses in two stages: the first there was not guidance on the need of using dosimeters; in the second time the professionals performed all procedures carrying the dosimeter. The result showed an average effective dose of professionals / year of 8.60 mSv at first moment, against a dose of 27.41 mSv in the second time after the routine of use the dosimeters, surpassing, in this second phase, the annual dose rate allowed by current radiation protection legislation, which calls for 20 mSv / year for professional. The comparison result in an increase of effective dose of professionals in nearly 300%. It is concluded that the implementation a continuing education project, including awareness of the importance in daily use dosimeter, shows up as a solution for optimizing the dose of these occupationally exposed individuals
Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature relating to self-medicationpractice with nonprescription medication among universitystudents.Methods: A narrative review of studies on self-medicationpractice with nonprescription medication among universitystudent was performed. An extensive literature search wasundertaken using indexing services available at UniversitiSains Malaysia (USM library. The following keywords wereused for the search: self-care, self-medication, over-thecountermedicine, nonprescription medicine, minor illnesses,minor ailment, university population and communitypharmacy. Electronic databases searched were Science Direct,Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Inside Web, JSTOR, SpringerLink, Proquest, Ebsco Host and Google Scholar. Theseelectronic databases were searched for full text paperspublished in English.Results: Eleven studies were identified. In general, the reviewhas shown that self-medication practice with nonprescriptionmedication highly prevalence among university students. Thereasons for self-medication are vary among this populationand the main symptoms leading to self-medication areheadache or minor pain; fever, flu, cough, or cold; anddiarrhoea.The common medication is analgesic, antipyreticproducts, cough and cold remedies, anti allergy andvitamins or minerals. The sources of the medicines arepharmacy, home medicine cabinet, supermarket/shopand other person such as family, friend, neighbours andclassmates. The sources of drug information are familymember, previous experience, pharmacy salesman,doctor or nurse, advertisement and others. The reviewalso has shown that the self-medication practice couldhave many problems.Conclusions: The review provides insights about theself-medication practices among the university students.These practices were highly prevalence among universitystudents. The symptoms leading to self-medication arevary, thus the medication used and the medicationsources. It needs an adequate drug information andappropriate pharmaceutical care in self-medicationpractice appropriately among university student. Furtherstudy looking into the self-medication related problemsassociated with non-prescription products is needed.
National Writing Project (NJ1), 2010
The National Writing Project (NWP) has expanded its national portfolio of research projects conducted at local Writing Project sites to 16 studies that examine professional development, teacher practices, and student writing achievement. NWP sites emphasize common principles of high-quality instruction and the professional development necessary to…
Schwallie-Giddis, Pat; Anstrom, Kristina; Sanchez, Patricio; Sardi, Victoria A.; Granato, Laura
This study used qualitative methods to investigate the challenges and professional development needs of elementary and secondary school counselors who work with linguistically and culturally diverse students and families, and their perceptions of the impact of a 9-month professional development program focused on improving school counselors'…
Reybold, L. Earle; Halx, Mark D.; Jimenez, Anne L.
This study examined administrative staff perceptions of professional ethics in a student affairs division at one university. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 staff members (six assistant/associate vice presidents and six directors) and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Participants described three dimensions of professional…
Park, Hye Jin; Roberts, Kelly D.; Stodden, Robert
"Innovative and Sustainable Teaching Methods and Strategies" project staff provided professional development to instructional faculty to enhance their attitudes, knowledge, and skills in meeting the diverse needs of students with disabilities. This practice brief describes one of the professional development programs, delivered over the course of…
Cherubini, Giorgio; Zambelli, Franco; Boscolo, Pietro
K-12 teachers completed an inservice designed with a constructivist perspective to foster their professional development regarding student motivation. Participants reflected on their professional expertise and practical knowledge in groups conducted by university researchers. At the end of the intervention, participants showed increased ability to…
Kuisma, Marja; Sandberg, Anette
This article discusses the different ways in which students and preschool teachers at two Swedish universities interpret the concept of professionalism. Data for this article are drawn from a study conducted in two different urban areas of Sweden which explored the following four questions: (1) What does the concept of professionalism imply for…
The objective of this study was to estimate doses in the physician and the nurse assistant at different positions during interventional radiology procedures. In this study, effective doses obtained for the physician and at points occupied by other workers were normalised by air kerma-area product (KAP). The simulations were performed for two X-ray spectra (70 kVp and 87 kVp) using the radiation transport code MCNPX (version 2.7.0), and a pair of anthropomorphic voxel phantoms (MASH/FASH) used to represent both the patient and the medical professional at positions from 7 cm to 47 cm from the patient. The X-ray tube was represented by a point source positioned in the anterior posterior (AP) and posterior anterior (PA) projections. The CC can be useful to calculate effective doses, which in turn are related to stochastic effects. With the knowledge of the values of CCs and KAP measured in an X-ray equipment, at a similar exposure, medical professionals will be able to know their own effective dose. - Highlights: ? This study presents a series of simulations to determine scatter-dose in IR. ? Irradiation of the worker is non-uniform and a part of his body is shielded. ? With the CCs it is possible to estimate the occupational doses in the CA examination. ? Protection of medical personnel in IR is an important issue of radiological protection
Windsor Westbrook Sherrill, Ph D.
Background: An increasing number of medical schools are offering dual degree MD/MBA programs. Career choices and factors influencing students to enter these programs provide an indicator of the roles in which dual degree students will serve in health care as well as the future of dual degree programs. Purpose: Using career choice theory as a conceptual framework, career goals and factors influencing decisions to enter dual degree programs were assessed among dual degree medical students. Me...
Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study were to explore how Asian medical students from different cultural backgrounds engaged with issues of death and bereavement in an interactive group setting and to report their subjective experience of participation in the group. Methods: A convenience sample of thirteen, fourth year students at Penang Medical College participated in an audio-recorded focus group. Thematic analysis was performed on their personal narratives on death and bereavement. Results: The dominant themes that emerged were openness with regard to students' narratives, strong identification with traditional beliefs and rituals, the influence of professional identity and recognition of commonality of bereavement experience. There was some discomfort arising from the group process but this was mitigated by the level of support within the group. Conclusions: The implications of our findings for undergraduate medical curricula are that interactive, small group teaching of this important but culturally sensitive topic would be well tolerated and acceptable in an Asian medical school setting. However, the group process must be carefully structured and facilitated.
Frank, Julia B.
Background and Objectives: Concepts such as demoralization fit well into Problem or Case-based learning methods that encourage students to organize knowledge based on clinical problems, rather than according to the disciplines of basic science. Methods: At two US schools, psychiatry clerkship students learn about demoralization and psychotherapy through structured, case based exercises that teach them to elicit and respond to patients´ life stories in ways that emphasize hope and empowerment...
Straus, Christopher M; Webb, Emily M; Kondo, Kimi L; Phillips, Andrew W; Naeger, David M; Carrico, Caroline W; Herring, William; Neutze, Janet A; Haines, G Rebecca; Dodd, Gerald D
The ACR Task Force on Medical Student Education in Radiology, in partnership with the Alliance of Medical Student Educators in Radiology, investigated the current status of how and to what extent medical imaging was being taught in medical schools. The task force executed a 3-part survey of medical school deans, radiology department chairs, and intern physicians. The results provided an updated understanding of the status of radiology education in medical schools in the United States. This summary includes recommendations about how individual radiology departments and ACR members can assist in advancing the specialty of diagnostic radiology through medical student education. PMID:24713496
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most medical professionals are expected to possess basic electrocardiogram (EKG interpretation skills. But, published data suggests that residents' and physicians' EKG interpretation skills are suboptimal. Learning styles differ among medical students; individualization of teaching methods has been shown to be viable and may result in improved learning. Puzzles have been shown to facilitate learning in a relaxed environment. The objective of this study was to assess efficacy of teaching puzzle in EKG interpretation skills among medical students. Methods This is a reader blinded crossover trial. Third year medical students from College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University participated in this study. Two groups (n = 9 received two traditional EKG interpretation skills lectures followed by a standardized exam and two extra sessions with the teaching puzzle and a different exam. Two other groups (n = 6 received identical courses and exams with the puzzle session first followed by the traditional teaching. EKG interpretation scores on final test were used as main outcome measure. Results The average score after only traditional teaching was 4.07 ± 2.08 while after only the puzzle session was 4.04 ± 2.36 (p = 0.97. The average improvement after the traditional session was followed up with a puzzle session was 2.53 ± 1.94 while the average improvement after the puzzle session was followed with the traditional session was 2.08 ± 1.73 (p = 0.67. The final EKG exam score for this cohort (n = 15 was 84.1 compared to 86.6 (p = 0.22 for a comparable sample of medical students (n = 15 at a different campus. Conclusion Teaching EKG interpretation with puzzles is comparable to traditional teaching and may be particularly useful for certain subgroups of students. Puzzle session are more interactive and relaxing, and warrant further investigations on larger scale.
Purpose – This study aims to assess the state of technology readiness of professional accounting students in Malaysia, to examine their level of internet self-efficacy, to assess their prior computing experience, and to explore if they are satisfied with the professional course that they are pursuing in improving their technology skills. Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire was developed to collect data. The questionnaire was posted to the first 500 students registered for the Ma...
Full Text Available Objectives: Virtual patient simulation (VPS is used in the education of health care professionals. This method brings an opportunity for the learner to examine necessary diagnostic and therapeutic skills. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of VPS on clinical reasoning abilities of medical students and to evaluate their attitude towards VPS in clinical endocrinology course in a teacher centered educational environment.Methods: Fifty-one medical students in their 6th academic year were simply randomized in two groups, the simulation and the control. The students in the simulation group were provided by an application which presented them virtual case scenarios on diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and osteomalacia. All the students sat for a diagnostic test at the beginning and at the end of the course. The test comprised a series of essay questions matched for their academic level and closely related to the case scenarios. They were also asked to complete a questionnaire to assess their attitude towards the application.Results: Participants in both groups did not have any statistical differences in scientific background in basic sciences (P=0.672 and prior clinical examinations (P=0.376. At completion of the course the mean score of the students in the simulation group improved significantly compared to the students in the control group by 3.5 vs. 1.0 points (P=0.001. The students found the application worthful and showed a positive attitude towards it.Conclusions: Virtual patient simulation improved clinical reasoning abilities of medical students in the context of a traditional teaching/learning environment.
Timothy W. Bodnar
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess whether the organization and structure of inpatient team rounds affects medical student perception of the overall quantity and quality of teaching on an inpatient general medicine service. Methods: A pilot project to improve inpatient care was launched at the Department of Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System (VAAAHS. General medicine attending physicians involved in the pilot followed a "non-traditional" rounding structure (accentuating senior resident-run "work rounds" while time for "attending rounds" focused on critical issues and teaching. The remainder kept the "traditional" rounding structure (entire team rounds on patients one-by-one. In a cross-sectional design, third- and fourth-year medical students at the University of Michigan were surveyed after their rotation about their experience. Students were asked to rate their educational experience in 21 domains. Responses were evaluated by rounding structure. Results: A total of 90 students (59 responded. Across every domain surveyed, students rated the quantity and quality of teaching higher after experiencing "non-traditional" rounds. Statistically significant increases were seen in ratings for "teaching during rounds from senior resident", "teaching during rounds from attending", "sit-down teaching from attending", "overall amount/quality of teaching", and "overall improvement in internal medicine knowledge", among others. Conclusions: The organization and structure of inpatient rounds can significantly impact medical student education. Teaching physicians and medical school clerkship directors should consider this when organizing inpatient team workflow.
Barberis, Ilaria; Mazzarello, Giovanni; Del Bono, Valerio; Viscoli, Claudio; Copello, Francesco; Sossai, Dimitri; Orengo, Giovanni; Sticchi, Laura; Ansaldi, Filippo
The surveillance of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in both healthcare workers and healthcare students is considered fundamental for tuberculosis (TB) prevention. The aim of the present study was to estimate LTBI prevalence and evaluate potential risk-factors associated with this condition in a large cohort of medical students in Italy. In a cross-sectional study, performed between March and December 2012, 1511 eligible subjects attending the Medical School of the University of Genoa, trained at the IRCCS San Martino-IST Teaching Hospital of Genoa, were actively called to undergo the tuberculin skin test (TST). All the TST positive cases were confirmed with an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). A standardized questionnaire was collected for multivariate risk analysis. A total of 1302 (86.2%) students underwent TST testing and completed the questionnaire. Eleven subjects (0.8%) resulted TST positive and LTBI diagnosis was confirmed in 2 (0.1%) cases. Professional exposure to active TB patients (OR 21.7, 95% CI 2.9–160.2; P value 0.003) and previous BCG immunization (OR 28.3, 95% CI 3.0–265.1; P value 0.003) are independently associated with TST positivity. Despite the low prevalence of LTBI among Italian medical students, an occupational risk of TB infection still exists in countries with low circulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:25705685
Brian E. Mavis
Full Text Available Introduction: We operationalized the taxonomy developed by Hauer and colleagues describing common clinical performance problems. Faculty raters pilot tested the resulting worksheet by observing recordings of problematic simulated clinical encounters involving third-year medical students. This approach provided a framework for structured feedback to guide learner improvement and curricular enhancement. Methods: Eighty-two problematic clinical encounters from M3 students who failed their clinical competency examination were independently rated by paired clinical faculty members to identify common problems related to the medical interview, physical examination, and professionalism. Results: Eleven out of 26 target performance problems were present in 25% or more encounters. Overall, 37% had unsatisfactory medical interviews, with ‘inadequate history to rule out other diagnoses’ most prevalent (60%. Seventy percent failed because of physical examination deficiencies, with missing elements (69% and inadequate data gathering (69% most common. One-third of the students did not introduce themselves to their patients. Among students failing based on standardized patient (SP ratings, 93% also failed to demonstrate competency based on the faculty ratings. Conclusions: Our review form allowed clinical faculty to validate pass/fail decisions based on standardized patient ratings. Detailed information about performance problems contributes to learner feedback and curricular enhancement to guide remediation planning and faculty development.
Durando, Paolo; Alicino, Cristiano; Orsi, Andrea; Barberis, Ilaria; Paganino, Chiara; Dini, Guglielmo; Mazzarello, Giovanni; Del Bono, Valerio; Viscoli, Claudio; Copello, Francesco; Sossai, Dimitri; Orengo, Giovanni; Sticchi, Laura; Ansaldi, Filippo; Icardi, Giancarlo
The surveillance of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in both healthcare workers and healthcare students is considered fundamental for tuberculosis (TB) prevention. The aim of the present study was to estimate LTBI prevalence and evaluate potential risk-factors associated with this condition in a large cohort of medical students in Italy. In a cross-sectional study, performed between March and December 2012, 1511 eligible subjects attending the Medical School of the University of Genoa, trained at the IRCCS San Martino-IST Teaching Hospital of Genoa, were actively called to undergo the tuberculin skin test (TST). All the TST positive cases were confirmed with an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). A standardized questionnaire was collected for multivariate risk analysis. A total of 1302 (86.2%) students underwent TST testing and completed the questionnaire. Eleven subjects (0.8%) resulted TST positive and LTBI diagnosis was confirmed in 2 (0.1%) cases. Professional exposure to active TB patients (OR 21.7, 95% CI 2.9-160.2; P value 0.003) and previous BCG immunization (OR 28.3, 95% CI 3.0-265.1; P value 0.003) are independently associated with TST positivity. Despite the low prevalence of LTBI among Italian medical students, an occupational risk of TB infection still exists in countries with low circulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:25705685
Baller, Frauke A E; Ludwig, Karin V; Kinas-Gnadt Olivares, Clara L; Graef-Calliess, Iris-Tatjana
The aim of this study was to explore the ideas and expectations of medical students toward their career choices and the speciality of psychiatry. A total of 323 students of the Hannover Medical School filled in a questionnaire about their career choices, preferred medical specialization, factors of influence on career choices and attitude towards psychiatry. The three most important factors of influence appeared to be: (1) work-life balance, (2) flexible working hours, (3) career prospects. Although expectations towards the professional life of psychiatrists were quite positive among the students, there was only a small number of students (n = 53 of 318 respondents, 17%) interested in specializing in psychiatry. Important reasons for choosing psychiatry included personal experience with somatic or mental health issues and practical experience in psychiatry. Most of the students experienced clinical exposure to psychiatry but at a much later period in the curriculum. For a career choice of psychiatry as a speciality it seems to be important to start psychiatric education in medical school early. The positive aspects of the professional life in psychiatry, such as flexible working hours, career prospects and good work-life balance should be more emphasized. PMID:24032497
Full Text Available Purpose : to prove the superiority of techniques integrated approach to sports and recreational activities of students of special medical groups in the educational institution. Material / methods : the annual pedagogical experiment conducted on three groups that have been formed based on the results of preliminary studies based on diagnosis. Learning process based on the principle of improving training. Results : the advantages of an integrated approach to sports and recreational activities of students with disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Recommended approaches to increase physical and functional training. Also - the formation of a stable demand of motor activity, leading healthy lifestyles, in the acquisition of social status in the educational activity. Conclusions : the integrated approach will meet the educational needs of students to form a cultural competence of the individual in the preservation and conservation of health, ability to adapt and successfully implement their professional activities.
McDougle, Leon; Mavis, Brian E.; Jeffe, Donna B.; Roberts, Nicole K.; Ephgrave, Kimberly; Hageman, Heather L.; Lypson, Monica L.; Thomas, Lauree; Andriole, Dorothy A.
This study sought to determine the academic and professional outcomes of medical school graduates who failed the United States Licensing Examination Step 1 on the first attempt. This retrospective cohort study was based on pooled data from 2,003 graduates of six Midwestern medical schools in the classes of 1997-2002. Demographic, academic, and…
Vankar, Jagdish R; Prabhakaran, Anusha; Sharma, Himanshu
Objectives: This study aimed to assess prevalence rate of depression and perceptions regarding stigma associated with depression amongst medical students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 331 undergraduate medical students at a private medical college in Gujarat. Data was collected, which comprised of socio-demographic details, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and a 22-item semi-structured questionnaire to assess personal, perceived, and help-seeking stigma. Univariate analysis and chi-square tests were used to test for association between variables. Results: Overall prevalence of depression was found to be 64%. Highest level of depression was seen in first year. Moderate to severe depression was found in 26.6% students. 73.3% students felt that having depression would negatively affect their education, and 52.3% saw depression as a sign of personal weakness. Females more strongly believed that students would not want to work with a depressed student (50.9% v/s 36.2%) and that if depressed, they would be unable to complete medical college responsibilities (61.9% v/s 44.1%). With increasing academic year, there was increase in stigma about disclosing depression to friends (P = 0.0082) and increase in stigma about working with a depressed student (P = 0.0067). Depressed students felt more strongly than non-depressed students on 10 items of the stigma questionnaire. Conclusions: High stigma exists among students about the causation of depression, and there exists an environment in which students discriminate fellow colleagues based on the presence of depression. This raises need for increasing awareness and support from peers and faculty. PMID:25035546
In 2009 an asynchronous on-line case discussion assessment was introduced, to replace an existing traditional case study assessment, within the Medical Ultrasound Programmes at City University London, to help extend collaborative, inter-professional student-led learning skills. Two clinical modules were used to develop the on-line learning method with associated assessments. Students selected and led a clinical case from their department, uploaded anonymised images and case details with questions, to encourage interaction from other colleagues. Thirty students participated in the on-line case discussions. The assessment was evaluated via informal feedback, end of module feedback and an on-line questionnaire. Some students completed two modules, using the on-line discussion, others were involved in only one module, of which 21 out of 26 students completed end of module feedback for the 1st module and 18 out of 20 students completed feedback from the 2nd module. Twelve students out of 30 completed the on-line questionnaire. Feedback suggested that the on-line case discussions were a good learning tool, providing a wide range of cases for students to participate in or read and learn from each other. All students found the cases interesting, engaging and useful, but time consuming. Despite the small numbers involved, useful feedback was provided to assist further development of the assessment, particularly in relation to the number of cases being assessed and length of avr of cases being assessed and length of availability. On-line case discussions are an innovative, engaging method to encourage self directed, collaborative learning which could be utilised in the health care setting to share interesting cases, promote inter-professional and self-directed learning.
Niekerk, L.; Viljoen, A. J.; Rischbieter, P.; Scribante, L.
INTRODUCTION: Following the suicide of a 4th-year medical student, questions were raised as to whether medical students are more vulnerable to depression and suicide than their counterparts studying other courses at the University of Pretoria. A literature search revealed that medical students and doctors run a higher risk for suicide than other students and professions. METHOD: A questionnaire was devised and distributed to medical students and a control group of other students, asking about...
Goodfellow, Linda M
A descriptive online survey design was used to describe professional socialization of students enrolled in an online Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) program in nursing. Twenty-six (48%) of 54 students participated by completing the Doctoral Student Socialization Questionnaire. Activities associated with four of the six dimensions of professional socialization, including student-peer interactions, supportive faculty environment, collegiality, and student scholarly encouragement, were prevalent in the analysis. Activities associated with student-faculty interactions and preparation in scholarly activities were evident but were not prevalent. Students in an online PhD program in nursing can be socialized to the graduate school environment, as well as to their future role in an academic setting. Although challenging in the online environment, faculty need to promote activities related to student-faculty interactions and preparation in scholarly activities. PMID:25275993
Hamilton, C B; Smith, C A; Butters, J M
Several initiatives have been introduced over the years to address the maldistribution of health care professionals and to improve access to care for underserved rural populations. One of these is the sponsorship of community-based, service-oriented teams comprised of students from various health disciplines. This study investigated extramural training as a complement to traditional hospital-based experiences. The specific objective of the study was to determine the extent to which the nation's medical schools combine training with a rural community-based experience in the form of an interdisciplinary student health team program. In the fall of 1994, a 32-item questionnaire was mailed to the chief academic or clinical affairs administrators of the nation's 126 allopathic medical schools. A total of 104 (82.5%) medical schools responded to the survey. Eighty-six of the respondents (82.7%) reported some type of rural training or public service activity; 22 (21.2%) acknowledged the sponsorship of an interdisciplinary student health team program. Small rural communities, those with populations of 5,000 or fewer, were the focus of 76 percent of the reporting programs. Nearly two-thirds of the reporting programs were located in the South, the region with the nation's lowest physician-to-population ratio. The nursing and medical professions were most frequently represented, although a wide range of disciplines were identified as participating on the student health teams. Activities of the teams included both ambulatory care and community outreach services. The majority of the programs used team-building exercises to enhance team effectiveness. Extramural training programs offer students a realistic examination of the social, cultural, economic, and political forces that influence both individual and community health. Rural community-based programs, such as interdisciplinary student health teams, should be valued because they can strengthen the link between the sponsoring institution's educational mission and its public service obligation. PMID:10177153
Meffert, Cornelia; Stößel, Ulrich; Körner, Mirjam; Becker, Gerhild
The purpose of our study was to examine the perceptions of a good death among medical students, who are future care providers. The authors identified 9 domains that contribute to a good death according to first- and fifth-year medical students (N = 432). From their perspective, being free from pain and physical distress is only 1 important component of a good death, and other elements such as psychosocial issues should also be taken into account. A majority of medical students considers psychosocial well-being as a highly relevant aspect of patients' conditions. The results of this study could help to develop concepts for better care and more empathy, which are needed to ensure a good death for all patients. PMID:25848838
Webb, Jadon R; Thomas, John W; Valasek, Mark A
Medical school and residency can be stressful times, involving years of intensive academic study and pressure to earn high grades. Students and residents must learn to care for the sick, a task requiring long work hours and sleep deprivation. In such an environment, it is important to monitor the mental health of trainees and the factors that influence it. This essay examines a relatively unexplored facet of physician mental health: the use of pharmacological stimulants by students and residents to study better, earn higher grades, stay awake longer, and take better care of patients. Practical and ethical considerations of stimulant use in the medical profession, along with future directions for medical student mental health, are discussed. PMID:20495258
Bracht, N F; Anderson, I
This article describes an educational demonstration in interdisciplinary community field experiences between social work and medical students at the University of Kentucky Medical school, the hospital social service department, the school of social work, and community social and health agencies. The pilot program in which students from different professions lived for 6 weeks in outling rural communities served by the medical center, provided an opportunity: (a) to study the feasibility of combining a borad community health study experimence with casework services in a hospital-based educational program and (b) to assess the benefits of early interdisciplinary community and clinical work between future doctors and social workers. Students saw the advantages of cooperative teamwork in studying community problems, and were able to apply classroom theory about community organization to real community situations. The organizational structure and staff resources required to carry out such a demonstration are described, and the implications of the training project are discussed. PMID:1235185
Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine M; Goldsmith, Joy; Ragan, Sandra L; Sanchez-Reilly, Sandra
This study focused on the undergraduate medical student to identify views and ideas held toward palliative care communication training, pedagogical approaches to this training, and its perceived effectiveness and use in the medical field. Two focus groups consisting of fourth-year medical students were conducted, and their responses were analyzed using grounded theory categorization. Results indicated that students: (a) prefer to learn nonverbal communication techniques, (b) believe that natural ability and experience outweigh communication curriculum, (c) view the skill of breaking bad news as largely dependent on knowledge and expertise, and (d) prefer curriculum on palliative care and hospice to consist of information (eg, advance directives) rather than communication skills. Implications for these interpretive themes are discussed as well as future research and practice. PMID:19815899
Julia B., Frank.
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Background and Objectives: Concepts such as demoralization fit well into Problem or Case-based learning methods that encourage students to organize knowledge based on clinical problems, rather than according to the disciplines of basic science. Methods: At two US schools, psychiatry clerkship studen [...] ts learn about demoralization and psychotherapy through structured, case based exercises that teach them to elicit and respond to patients´ life stories in ways that emphasize hope and empowerment. Results: Students´ reactions to these exercises, though mixed, suggest that they may enhance students´ understanding of the universal elements of distress (demoralization) that cut across many disabling conditions and of the role that caregivers may play in compounding or relieving this distress. Conclusions: Learning to recognize and respond to demoralization is an advanced communication skill that can be introduced during a psychiatry clerkship.
Kvamme, J M; Fauske, S
A substantial amount of resources available to the health services in Norway are spent on alcohol- and drug-related disorders. Physicians play an important role in preventing, diagnosing and treating these disorders. We have reviewed the curricula used at our four Norwegian medical schools for education in this field. The curricula are characterized by lack of specified educational goals and are somewhat limited, seen in relation to the extent of the alcohol- and drug-related problems. With reference to a structured educational programme at Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm, we propose a new Norwegian model for alcohol- and drug related medical education. This model focuses especially on early identification of problems and intervention in harmful alcohol consumption. PMID:2321229
Chan Wing P; Wu Ting-Yu; Hsieh Ming-Shium; Chou Ting-Ywan; Wong Chih-Shung; Fang Ji-Tseng; Chang Nen-Chung; Hong Chuang-Ye; Tzeng Chii-Ruey
Abstract Background Improving the quality of medical education is a key goal of government policy in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to reflect the responses of medical education from the perspective of graduating medical students in Taiwan. This is the first survey study of medical education in Taiwan. Methods Using the Medical School Graduation Questionnaire from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), we distributed 406 questionnaires to medical students of four medical scho...
Sarikaya, O; Civaner, M; Kalaca, S
High levels of anxiety and stress during medical education may have negative effects on students' learning and may also influence students' performance, decision-making and caring capabilities. This study aims to compare the anxieties of clerkships of two medical schools that apply two different preclinical curricula; one is problem-based and the other is integrated. Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine (DEUSM) has the basic clinical and communication skills education by the first year of medical education. However, the students of Marmara University School of Medicine (MUSM) had not any preclinical training about these issues at the time we performed this study. In order to evaluate the perceived anxiety, we used a questionnaire which comprises 39 issues presented as 4-point Likert-type scales. Eighty-six clerkships from MUSM and 115 clerkships from DEUSM participated in the study. According to the students of both of the schools, fear of making mistakes that could harm the patients was at the top of the list of sources of anxiety. The students of MUSM have additional anxieties related to the core clinical skills such as suturing patients, taking blood from patients and giving injections. On the other hand, the students of DEUSM have anxieties mostly related to difficult issues in communication such as breaking bad news. The study has revealed that medical students might have anxiety related to the clinical practice in the beginning of their clerkships. It was also shown that sources of anxiety may vary among students exposed to different preclinical curricula and different educational environment. If basic clinical and communication skills courses are integrated in preclinical curriculum, the students would meet some clinical task in the early year and would be orientated through clinical period. PMID:16787438
Wiese, Christoph Hr; Fragemann, Kirstin; Keil, Peter C.; Bundscherer, Anika Christin; Lindenberg, Nicole; Lassen, Christoph L.; Markowski, Klara; Graf, Bernhard M.; Trabold, Benedikt
Background Demographic development is accompanied by an increasingly aging society. Concerning medical education, the treatment of older people as well as the scientific research and exploration of ageing aspects in the coming years need to be considered. Aim of the study was to ascertain medical students’ knowledge, interest, and attitudes regarding older patients and geriatric medicine. Methods Each participant completed a self-designed questionnaire. This questionnaire was base...
Farhad Hatami; Azim Mirzazadeh; Mohammad Arbabi; Maziar Seyedian; Maryam Zahmatkesh; Shahram Ejtemaei Mehr; Gholamreza Hassanzadeh
Integration is an important educational strategy in medical education. Considering this idea, the goal of the present study was to design and implementation of longitudinal and vertical integrated education of anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, neurology and neuropsychiatry subjects of brain's basal ganglia by a multidisciplinary team. Kern's approach to curriculum development was used. Participants were 20 medical students at basic science level who contribute in a 10 stations of pre-test ex...
Franz Porzsolt; Peter Braubach; Petra Inge Flurschütz; Alex Göller; Maria Barbara Sailer; Manfred Weiss; Peter Wyer
Background: Applying the principles of Evidence Based Health Care (EBHC) in an academic environment we became aware of important differences between medical students and the users of clinical research. The latter may be clinicians, educators, guideline developers, or industry managers. These users are adapted to the system and have some kind of conflict of interest: they are either biased by patients’ demands, by main stream thinking, by medical standards and/or by economic interests. All a...
Smith, Saxon; Werren, Julia
This article focuses on the ethical, social and liability implications of patients obtaining unsolicited medical advice over the phone. The ethical discussion centres on the demise of paternalism and the increase in patient autonomy and individualism and the growing public expectations of health professionals. The article then discusses the advantages and disadvantages of telephone consultations from a social and policy perspective. In light of these considerations it considers what the liability implications are for phone consultations. It argues that the ethic of individualism, coupled with recent Australian tort reforms, suggests that only in limited circumstances would a doctor be found liable for negligence in relation to telephone consultations. However, the increasing expectations being placed on medical personnel, as evidenced by the increase in unsolicited telephone consultations, if left untempered, may lead to a situation with which the health care system is ill equipped to deal. PMID:18807795
Martin, Georgianna L.
Using longitudinal data from the Wabash National Study on Liberal Arts Education, this research explored the impact of students' interactions with student affairs professionals on socially responsible leadership development during the first year of college. Overall, students' interactions with student affairs professionals were…
Windsor Westbrook Sherrill, Ph.D., MBA
Full Text Available Background: An increasing number of medical schools are offering dual degree MD/MBA programs. Career choices and factors influencing students to enter these programs provide an indicator of the roles in which dual degree students will serve in health care as well as the future of dual degree programs. Purpose: Using career choice theory as a conceptual framework, career goals and factors influencing decisions to enter dual degree programs were assessed among dual degree medical students. Methods: Students enrolled at dual degree programs at six medical schools were surveyed and interviewed. A control group of traditional medical students was also surveyed. Results: Factors influencing students to seek both medical and business training are varied but are often related to a desire for leadership opportunities, concerns about change in medicine and job security and personal career goals. Most students expect to combine clinical and administrative roles. Conclusions: Students entering these programs do so for a variety of reasons and plan diverse careers. These findings can provide guidance for program development and recruitment for dual degree medical education program
Windsor Westbrook Sherrill, Ph.D., MBA
Full Text Available Background: An increasing number of medical schools are offering dual degree MD/MBA programs. Career choices and factors influencing students to enter these programs provide an indicator of the roles in which dual degree students will serve in health care as well as the future of dual degree programs. Purpose: Using career choice theory as a conceptual framework, career goals and factors influencing decisions to enter dual degree programs were assessed among dual degree medical students. Methods: Students enrolled at dual degree programs at six medical schools were surveyed and interviewed. A control group of traditional medical students was also surveyed. Results: Factors influencing students to seek both medical and business training are varied but are often related to a desire for leadership opportunities, concerns about change in medicine and job security and personal career goals. Most students expect to combine clinical and administrative roles. Conclusions: Students entering these programs do so for a variety of reasons and plan diverse careers. These findings can provide guidance for program development and recruitment for dual degree medical education programs
Full Text Available The questions of the use of facilities are examined professionally-applied physical preparation of students. The necessity of more rapid and high-quality mastering of certain labour abilities and skills, increase of the labour productivity, prophylaxis of professional diseases is marked. It is marked that forms and facilities of physical education of students of forestry specialities are determined features professionally-labour to activity of this industry. Employments of the special applied orientation are plugged in itself: theoretical employments, practical employments, sports and fitness measures, individual independent professionally-applied physical exercises, special applied types of sport. The features of forming professionally of important qualities of future specialist are certain in the process of physical education in the institute of higher.
Herkner Harald; Holzer Michael; Kliegel Andreas; Haugk Moritz; Uray Thomas; Sterz Fritz; Kulnig Johannes; Robak Oliver; Laggner Anton N; Domanovits Hans
Abstract Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training is gaining more importance for medical students. There were many attempts to improve the basic life support (BLS) skills in medical students, some being rather successful, some less. We developed a new problem based learning curriculum, where students had to teach CPR to cardiac arrest survivors in order to improve the knowledge about life support skills of trainers and trainees. Methods Medical students who enrolled in our curr...