(Background) To help us understand the medical students' reflections about professional skill educations we conducted a study on medical students' conceptions of selected medical phenomena, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, CPR. (Methods) The study was conducted in January 2008, using a sample consisting of medical students from one of the…
Ongel, Kurtulus; Mergen, Haluk; Kayacan, Hacer; Yildizhan, Alpaslan
Full Text Available Objective: The first course of the medical curriculum at the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, From the Person to the Professional: Challenges, Privileges and Responsibilities, provides an innovative early clinical immersion. The course content specific to the Emergency Medical Technician (EMT curriculum was developed using the New York State Emergency Medical Technician curriculum. Students gain early legitimate clinical experience and practice clinical skills as team members in the pre-hospital environment. We hypothesized this novel curriculum would increase students’ confidence in their ability to perform patient care skills and enhance students’ comfort with team-building skills early in their training. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from first-year medical students (n=97 through a survey developed to assess students’ confidence in patient care and team-building skills. The survey was completed prior to medical school, during the final week of the course, and at the end of their first year. A paired-samples t-test was conducted to compare self-ratings on 12 patient care and 12 team-building skills before and after the course, and a theme analysis was conducted to examine open-ended responses. Results: Following the course, student confidence in patient care skills showed a significant increase from baseline (p<0.05 for all identified skills. Student confidence in team-building skills showed a significant increase (p<0.05 in 4 of the 12 identified skills. By the end of the first year, 84% of the first-year students reported the EMT curriculum had ‘some impact’ to ‘great impact’ on their patient care skills, while 72% reported the EMT curriculum had ‘some impact’ to ‘great impact’ on their team-building skills. Conclusions: The incorporation of EMT training early in a medical school curriculum provides students with meaningful clinical experiences that increase their self-reported level of confidence in the performance of patient care skills early in their medical education.
Abstract Background This study investigated whether the introduction of professional development teaching in the first two years of a medical course improved students' observed communication skills with simulated patients. Students' observed communication skills were related to patient-centred attitudes, confidence in communicating with patients and performance in later clinical examinations. Methods Eighty-two medical students from two consecutive cohorts at a ...
Joekes Katherine; Noble Lorraine M; Kubacki Angela M; Ww, Potts Henry; Lloyd Margaret
Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the professional expectations of medical students during the 2007-2008 academic year at the public medical schools of Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique, and to identify their social and geographical origins, their professional expectations and difficulties relating to their education and professional future. Methods Data were collected through a standardised questionnaire applied to all ...
Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate medical student's communication and professionalism skills from the perspective of the ambulatory patient and later compare these skills in their first year of residency. Methods: Students in third year neurology clerkship clinics see patients alone followed by a revisit with an attending neurologist. The patient is then asked to complete a voluntary, anonymous, Likert scale questionnaire rating the student on friendliness, listening to the patient, respecting the patient, using understandable language, and grooming. For students who had completed one year of residency these professionalism ratings were compared with those from their residency director. Results: Seven hundred forty-two questionnaires for 165 clerkship students from 2007 to 2009 were analyzed. Eighty-three percent of forms were returned with an average of 5 per student. In 64% of questionnaires, patients rated students very good in all five categories; in 35% patients selected either very good or good ratings; and <1% rated any student fair. No students were rated poor or very poor. Sixty-two percent of patients wrote complimentary comments about the students. From the Class of 2008, 52% of students received "better than their peers” professionalism ratings from their PGY1 residency directors and only one student was rated "below their peers". Conclusions: This questionnaire allowed patient perceptions of their students' communication/professionalism skills to be evaluated in a systematic manner. Residency director ratings of professionalism of the same students at the end of their first year of residency confirms continued professional behavior.
Abstract Introduction This paper compares the socioeconomic profile of medical students registered at the Faculty of Medicine of Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (FM-UEM), Maputo, for the years 1998/99 and 2007/08. Case study The objective is to describe the medical students' social and geographical origins, expectations and perceived difficulties regarding their education and professional future. Data were collected through questionnaires administered to all medic...
In Guinea Bissau, the majority of university level professionals are still being trained abroad and most of them do not return to their country. This was a major incentive for creating Guinea Bissau's Medical School. An observational, cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted on the second trimester of 2007 to characterize the socio-demographic, familial and educational profile of medical students, their satisfaction levels, difficulties and expectations concerning the medicine course. A questionnaire was used and a response rate of 63% achieved (81 students). Data was analyzed using SPSS v.17 for descriptive statistics. Students are very committed to their education. They tend to decide to take the medicine course early in their lives and are influenced by their relatives. They choose to be medical doctors because they like it but also for altruistic reasons and the desire to save lives. Although many face financial and material difficulties, they tend to have success in their academic live. They live with their parents, do not have children and some have side jobs to provide for extra income to help with their education. They expect their education to make them good doctors in any part of the world and want to work simultaneously in the public (to serve their country and pay their debt to the State) and in the private sector (to enhance their income). The large majority wants to work in a hospital, in Bissau, and to be a pediatrician or obstetrician. They have unreasonably high expectations concerning their future income as medical doctors. PMID:22011598
Fronteira, Inês; Rodrigues, Amabélia; Pereira, Camilo; Silva, Augusto P; Mercer, Hugo; Dussault, Guilles; Ferrinho, Paulo
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated whether the introduction of professional development teaching in the first two years of a medical course improved students' observed communication skills with simulated patients. Students' observed communication skills were related to patient-centred attitudes, confidence in communicating with patients and performance in later clinical examinations. Methods Eighty-two medical students from two consecutive cohorts at a UK medical school completed two videoed consultations with a simulated patient: one at the beginning of year 1 and one at the end of year 2. Group 1 (n = 35 received a traditional pre-clinical curriculum. Group 2 (n = 47 received a curriculum that included communication skills training integrated into a 'professional development' vertical module. Videoed consultations were rated using the Evans Interview Rating Scale by communication skills tutors. A subset of 27% were double-coded. Inter-rater reliability is reported. Results Students who had received the professional development teaching achieved higher ratings for use of silence, not interrupting the patient, and keeping the discussion relevant compared to students receiving the traditional curriculum. Patient-centred attitudes were not related to observed communication. Students who were less nervous and felt they knew how to listen were rated as better communicators. Students receiving the traditional curriculum and who had been rated as better communicators when they entered medical school performed less well in the final year clinical examination. Conclusions Students receiving the professional development training showed significant improvements in certain communication skills, but students in both cohorts improved over time. The lack of a relationship between observed communication skills and patient-centred attitudes may be a reflection of students' inexperience in working with patients, resulting in 'patient-centredness' being an abstract concept. Students in the early years of their medical course may benefit from further opportunities to practise basic communication skills on a one-to-one basis with patients.
Kubacki Angela M
Surveys of first- and fourth-year Johns Hopkins University (Maryland) medical students found little change in attitudes about abortion over four years. Attitudes correlated most strongly with personal beliefs about when a fetus is considered human life and somewhat with student gender. Results are used in a medical ethics course to illuminate…
Dans, Peter E.
In this issue, Brenner and colleagues report a correlation between the frequency of negative comments in the "dean's letter" and future problems during a psychiatry residency program. Their study makes an important contribution to the body of literature on factors that predict professionalism-related performance issues during residency and suggests the importance of dependable data that can be used to predict and hopefully intervene early in the training of future physicians across all specialties. As we think about the implications of this study, important issues involving the standardization of medical student performance evaluations (MSPEs) and the assessment of professionalism are raised. Despite the Association of American Medical Colleges' 2002 guidelines for MSPEs, subsequent studies have revealed that considerable inconsistencies among the evaluations still remain. To enhance the accuracy and usefulness of the MSPEs in predicting "problem residents," improved standardization is necessary. Moreover, Brenner's findings call for the development of more vigorous assessment of professionalism in undergraduate medical education, as well as more accurate reporting of these assessments to residency programs. Longitudinal assessment of professionalism with robust tools allows for the identification and possible remediation of students early in their undergraduate training. Insofar as unprofessional behavior in medical school is predictive not only of problems during residency but also of later disciplinary action against the practicing physician by state medical boards, it is the obligation of the medical school to the residency program and to society to identify and report these behaviors. PMID:20592502
Green, Marianne; Zick, Amanda; Thomas, John X
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the professional expectations of medical students during the 2007-2008 academic year at the public medical schools of Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique, and to identify their social and geographical origins, their professional expectations and difficulties relating to their education and professional future. Methods Data were collected through a standardised questionnaire applied to all medical students registered during the 2007-2008 academic year. Results Students decide to study medicine at an early age. Relatives and friends seem to have an especially important influence in encouraging, reinforcing and promoting the desire to be a doctor. The degree of feminization of the student population differs among the different countries. Although most medical students are from outside the capital cities, expectations of getting into medical school are already associated with migration from the periphery to the capital city, even before entering medical education. Academic performance is poor. This seems to be related to difficulties in accessing materials, finances and insufficient high school preparation. Medical students recognize the public sector demand but their expectations are to combine public sector practice with private work, in order to improve their earnings. Salary expectations of students vary between the three countries. Approximately 75% want to train as hospital specialists and to follow a hospital-based career. A significant proportion is unsure about their future area of specialization, which for many students is equated with migration to study abroad. Conclusions Medical education is an important national investment, but the returns obtained are not as efficient as expected. Investments in high-school preparation, tutoring, and infrastructure are likely to have a significant impact on the success rate of medical schools. Special attention should be given to the socialization of students and the role model status of their teachers. In countries with scarce medical resources, the hospital orientation of students' expectations is understandable, although it should be associated with the development of skills to coordinate hospital work with the network of peripheral facilities. Developing a local postgraduate training capacity for doctors might be an important strategy to help retain medical doctors in the home country.
This research analyses the interest that medical radiation science (MRS) students have about their academic and professional world when they are given the independence to freely choose a topic to research. The research setting includes students of three different MRS degrees who have had, up until the point that this research was carried out, more common learning than degree specific learning. To analyse student interest, a thematic analysis of the self selected topics to be researched for a group work project was undertaken. The results indicate that there are statistically significant differences in interest between students of the three MRS degrees, with students within a degree sharing a strong single unifying common interest in their academic or professional world.
Dempsey, Shane E., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Medical Radiation Science, University of Newcastle, Box 16, Hunter Building (Australia); Warren-Forward, Helen M., E-mail: email@example.com [School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Medical Radiation Science, University of Newcastle, Box 16, Hunter Building (Australia)
This research analyses the interest that medical radiation science (MRS) students have about their academic and professional world when they are given the independence to freely choose a topic to research. The research setting includes students of three different MRS degrees who have had, up until the point that this research was carried out, more common learning than degree specific learning. To analyse student interest, a thematic analysis of the self selected topics to be researched for a group work project was undertaken. The results indicate that there are statistically significant differences in interest between students of the three MRS degrees, with students within a degree sharing a strong single unifying common interest in their academic or professional world.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This paper compares the socioeconomic profile of medical students registered at the Faculty of Medicine of Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (FM-UEM, Maputo, for the years 1998/99 and 2007/08. Case study The objective is to describe the medical students' social and geographical origins, expectations and perceived difficulties regarding their education and professional future. Data were collected through questionnaires administered to all medical students. Discussion and evaluation The response rate in 1998/99 was 51% (227/441 and 50% in 2007/08 (484/968. The main results reflect a doubling of the number of students enrolled for medical studies at the FM-UEM, associated with improved student performance (as reflected by failure rates. Nevertheless, satisfaction with the training received remains low and, now as before, students still identify lack of access to books or learning technology and inadequate teacher preparedness as major problems. Conclusions There is a high level of commitment to public sector service. However, students, as future doctors, have very high salary expectations that will not be met by current public sector salary scales. This is reflected in an increasing degree of orientation to double sector employment after graduation.
Improving professional attitudes and behaviors requires critical self reflection. Research on reflection is necessary to understand professionalism among medical students. The aims of this prospective validation study at the Mayo Medical School and Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine were: (1) to develop and validate a new instrument for…
Wittich, Christopher M.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Drake, Richard L.; Szostek, Jason H.; Reed, Darcy A.; Lachman, Nirusha; McBride, Jennifer M.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Beckman, Thomas J.
Clinicians are increasingly involved in teaching, learning, assessment and supervisory activities with medical students, trainees and other health professionals. Participation in professional development pathways and activities in medical education enables clinical teachers to provide high quality education and training. PMID:20220724
Swanwick, Tim; McKimm, Judy
The present study examined the understandings held by 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students, their teachers and medical professionals about germs. Specifically, this study describes the content and structure of students' and adults' conceptions in the areas of germ contraction, transmission, and treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. Naturalistic and empirical research methods were used to investigate participants' conceptions. Between and within group similarities were found using data from concept maps on the topic "flu," drawings of germs, a 20 word card sort related to germs and illness, and a semi-structured interview. Concept maps were coded according to techniques by Novak and Gowan (1984). Drawings of germs were coded into four main categories (bacteria, viruses, animal cell, other) and five subcategories (disease, caricature, insect, protozoa, unclassified). Cluster patterns for the card sorts of each group were found using multidimensional scaling techniques. Six coding categories emerged from the interview transcripts: (a) transmission, (b) treatment, (c) effect of weather on illness, (d) immune response, (e) location of germs, and (f) similarities and differences between bacteria and viruses. The findings showed students, teachers and medical professionals have different understandings about bacteria and viruses and the structures of those understandings vary. Gaps or holes in the participants knowledge were found in areas such as: (a) how germs are transmitted, (b) where germs are found, (c) how the body transports and uses medicine, (d) how the immune system functions, (e) the difference between vaccines and non-prescription medicines, (f) differences that exist between bacteria and viruses, and (g) bacterial resistance to medication. The youngest students relied heavily upon personal experiences with germs rather than formal instruction when explaining their conceptions. As a result, the influence of media was evident in the students' understandings and images of microbes. Students also viewed germs as a human problem rather than seeing microorganisms as an independent member of the ecosystem. Teachers' explanations about germs varied in explicitness based on the grade level they taught while medical professionals based their understandings on formal knowledge and tended to use explicit technical language in their explanations of the phenomena.
Rua, Melissa Jo
Abstract Background Over two-thirds of UK medical schools are augmenting their selection procedures for medical students by using the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT), which employs tests of cognitive and non-cognitive personal qualities, but clear evidence of the tests’ predictive validity is lacking. This study explores whether academic performance and professional behaviours that are important in a health professional context can be predicted by these measur...
Adam Jane; Bore Miles; McKendree Jean; Munro Don; Powis David
Abstract Background The anatomy course offers important opportunities to develop professionalism at an early stage in medical education. It is an academically significant course that also engenders stress in some students. Methods Over a three-year period, 115 of 297 students completed creative projects. Thirty-four project completers and 47 non-completers consented to participate in the study. Projects were analyzed for professionalism themes using grounded the...
Shapiro Johanna; Nguyen Vincent P; Mourra Sarah; Boker John R; Ross Marianne; Thai Trung M; Leonard Robert J
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Marketing médico é um assunto controverso, principalmente no que concerne a princípios éticos. Portanto, frente à competição acirrada de mercado, é necessário o preparo profissional. Conhecer a percepção dos alunos de Medicina pode auxiliar na estruturação de alternativas de capacitação. [...] METODOLOGIA: Inicialmente, identificaram-se crenças sobre marketing médico através de grupo focal composto por 12 alunos. Com base nesses dados, dez afirmações para avaliar atitudes foram aplicadas aos alunos de uma Faculdade de Medicina pública brasileira. RESULTADOS: Observou-se falta de clareza sobre o conceito de marketing, preocupação com princípios éticos e necessidade de marketing no mercado competitivo. Na fase de aplicação, foram obtidas 280 respostas de diversos estágios do curso. Apenas 16,8% admitiram contato com o tema. Houve clareza sobre ética em relação ao paciente, influenciada positivamente pela progressão no curso, mas houve divergência na ética entre profissionais. CONCLUSÕES: Marketing médico é uma área pouco compreendida e relegada ao currículo oculto, sendo influenciada por transposições inadequadas de métodos didáticos destinados à comunicação profissional para a população leiga. Novos métodos de ensino, como a educação tutorial, podem ser uma alternativa para lidar com essas situações. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Professional marketing is a controversial topic, mainly regarding ethical principles. Therefore, increasing market competion turns professional capacitation mandatory. To know under graduation medical student's perceptions could help to develop educational alternatives to face this probl [...] em. METODOLOGY: First, professional marketing believes were identified through focus group methodology including twelve students. Based on these results, ten affirmatives were constructed to evaluate attitudes and applied to the students of a Brazilian public medicine school. RESULTS: It was observed lack of a clear definition of marketing, preoccupation regarding ethical principles and need to employ marketing strategies in a competitive market. At the survey stage, 280 answers from different stages of the course were obtained. Only 16.8% admitted to have had previous contact with the topic. Clear ethical standards for medical-patient relationship were determined, increasing with course progression. However inter-professional ethical principles was more subject to confusion. CONCLUSION: Professional marketing is poorly understood and it is relegated to the occult curricula, being influenced by didactic methods inadequately transposed for marketing strategies. Newer educational methods, like mentoring, could be an alternative to deal with these situations.Tutoria.
Alves, Fernando Henrique Canhoto; Torres, Fernanda Pedrosa; Suto, Hilda Satie; Azevedo, Lunia Sofia Lima; Barbosa, Marcell Maduro; Pedro, Renato Martins; Santana, Ana Carolina Delazia Albuquerque; Rantin, Daniella; Leonardo, Fábio Henrique Luiz; Andrade, Marina Gomes de; Ferreira, Natasha Nicos; Pazin Filho, Antonio.
This study sought to determine if and how 501 medical students and 312 residents are using Facebook at a large university in the Southeastern United States. Results reveal that medical students and residents are using Facebook and about two-thirds of users maintain public profiles. While there is variation in the types of information provide within profiles, many medical students seem unaware of or unconcerned with the possible ramifications of sharing personal information in publicly-availab...
Ferdig, Richard E. University Of Florida College Of Education; Dawson, Kara University Of Florida College Of Education; Black, Erik W. University Of Florida College Of Education; Black, Nicole M. Paradise University Of Florida; Thompson, Lindsay A. University Of Florida
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over two-thirds of UK medical schools are augmenting their selection procedures for medical students by using the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT, which employs tests of cognitive and non-cognitive personal qualities, but clear evidence of the tests’ predictive validity is lacking. This study explores whether academic performance and professional behaviours that are important in a health professional context can be predicted by these measures, when taken before or very early in the medical course. Methods This prospective cohort study follows the progress of the entire student cohort who entered Hull York Medical School in September 2007, having taken the UKCAT cognitive tests in 2006 and the non-cognitive tests a year later. This paper reports on the students’ first and second academic years of study. The main outcome measures were regular, repeated tutor assessment of individual students’ interpersonal skills and professional behaviour, and annual examination performance in the three domains of recall and application of knowledge, evaluation of data, and communication and practical clinical skills. The relationships between non-cognitive test scores, cognitive test scores, tutor assessments and examination results were explored using the Pearson product–moment correlations for each group of data; the data for students obtaining the top and bottom 20% of the summative examination results were compared using Analysis of Variance. Results Personal qualities measured by non-cognitive tests showed a number of statistically significant relationships with ratings of behaviour made by tutors, with performance in each year’s objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs, and with themed written summative examination marks in each year. Cognitive ability scores were also significantly related to each year’s examination results, but seldom to professional behaviours. The top 20% of examination achievers could be differentiated from the bottom 20% on both non-cognitive and cognitive measures. Conclusions This study shows numerous significant relationships between both cognitive and non-cognitive test scores, academic examination scores and indicators of professional behaviours in medical students. This suggests that measurement of non-cognitive personal qualities in applicants to medical school could make a useful contribution to selection and admission decisions. Further research is required in larger representative groups, and with more refined predictor measures and behavioural assessment methods, to establish beyond doubt the incremental validity of such measures over conventional cognitive assessments.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The anatomy course offers important opportunities to develop professionalism at an early stage in medical education. It is an academically significant course that also engenders stress in some students. Methods Over a three-year period, 115 of 297 students completed creative projects. Thirty-four project completers and 47 non-completers consented to participate in the study. Projects were analyzed for professionalism themes using grounded theory. A subset of project completers and non-completers were interviewed to determine their views about the stress of anatomy and medical school, as well as the value of the creative projects. We also compared test performance of project completers and non-completers. Results Projects completed early in the course often expressed ambivalence about anatomy, whereas later projects showed more gratitude and sense of awe. Project completers tended to report greater stress than noncompleters, but stated that doing projects reduced stress and caused them to develop a richer appreciation for anatomy and medicine. Project completers performed significantly lower than non-completers on the first written exam (pre-project. Differences between groups on individual exams after both the first and second creative project were nonsignificant. Conclusion For some students, creative projects may offer a useful way of reflecting on various aspects of professionalism while helping them to manage stress.
Thai Trung M
Studies have shown that IQ alone does not contribute to the professional success of medical professionals. Professionals who are trained to be clinically competent, but have inadequate social skills for practice have proved to be less successful in their profession. Emotional intelligence (EI), which has already proved to be a key attribute for…
Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh
Background Smartphones are becoming ubiquitous in health care settings. The increased adoption of mobile technology such as smartphones may be attributed to their use as a point-of-care information source and to perceived improvements in clinical communication and efficiency. However, little is known about medical students’ use of personal smartphones for clinical work. Objective The intent of the study was to examine final-year medical students’ experience with and attitudes toward using personal mobile technology in the clinical environment, with respect to the perceived impact on patient confidentiality and provider professionalism. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were completed by final-year medical students at the University of Toronto. Respondents were asked about the type of personal mobile phone they use, security features on their personal phone, experiences using their personal phone during clinical rotations, and attitudes about using their personal phone for clinical work purposes. Results The overall response rate was 45.4% (99/218). Smartphone ownership was prevalent (98%, 97/99) with the majority (86%, 85/99) of participants using their personal phones for patient-related communication during clinical rotations. A total of 26% (26/99) of participants reported not having any type of security feature on their personal phone, 94% (90/96) of participants agreed that using their personal phone for clinical work makes them more efficient, and 86% (82/95) agreed that their personal phone allows them to provide better patient care. Although 68% (65/95) of participants believe that the use of personal phones for patient-related communication with colleagues poses a risk to the privacy and confidentiality of patient health information, 22% (21/96) of participants still use their personal phone to text or email identifiable patient data to colleagues. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the use of personal smartphones for clinical work by medical students is prevalent. There is a need to more fully address the threat to patient confidentiality posed by the use of unsecured communication devices such as smartphones.
Morra, Dante; Lo, Vivian; Quan, Sherman D; Abrams, Howard; Wu, Robert C
In Pakistan there are 3.3 Million child laborers without healthcare services and educational opportunities, whichaffect our social fabric. We report how structured ‘Service Experience’ helped broaden medical students understanding of social justice.Objective: To produce health professionals who are ready to work for a cause without voracity. Study design: A Cross sectional survey througha focal group discussion. Research question: Do opportunities for structured Service Learning help modi...
In 1985, 683 students at a large private upper-midwestern medical school were surveyed concerning the appropriateness of traditional cheating behaviors and behaviors related to professional misconduct and dishonesty in patient care. They also rated the acceptability of various rationalizations for these behaviors. The students agreed that traditional forms of academic cheating are inappropriate, but they did not agree about the appropriateness of certain behaviors in the areas of patient care and professional misconduct. PMID:2923652
Simpson, D E; Yindra, K J; Towne, J B; Rosenfeld, P S
Objectives: There are currently no guidelines on the most effective ways of supporting medical students to develop high standards of medical professionalism. The aim of this review is to summarise the evidence currently available on methods used by medical schools to promote medical professionalism. Methods: We performed a systematic search of electronic databases (Medline, PsychInfo, British Education Index, Educational Resources Information Centre, Sociological Abstracts and Topics in Medic...
Vimmi Passi; Manjo Doug; Ed Peile; Jill Thistlethwaite; Neil Johnson
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La ética y el profesionalismo constituyen el fundamento de la actividad de la medicina, que es una empresa intensamente moral. El profesionalismo no es sólo la base del contrato social de la medicina, sino, principalmente, una fuerza estructuralmente estabilizadora y moralmente protectora de la soci [...] edad. Un profesional es la persona que se ubica en una de las disciplinas eruditas y que actúa observando los estándares técnicos, éticos y deontológicos de una profesión. El concepto de profesionalismo incluye cuatro componentes fundamentales: 1) conocimiento especializado; 2) autonomía en la toma de decisiones; 3) compromiso de servicio a la sociedad; 4) autorregulación. La transformación corporativa de los sistemas de salud que ha ocurrido principalmente en Colombia y en los Estados Unidos constituye una amenaza de destrucción del profesionalismo médico. Es el fenómeno, ya declarado como una ominosa incipiente realidad, de la desprofesionalización de la medicina, que pasaría de ser una noble profesión a convertirse en un simple oficio al servicio de los intereses corporativos. Como reacción se ha conformado un movimiento médico global, el Medical Professionalism Project que pretende el fortalecimiento del profesionalismo en el nuevo milenio a través de la implementación de tres principios y diez responsabilidades profesionales fundamentales. Abstract in english Medicine is an intensely moral endeavor and its practice is based on ethics and professionalism. The social contract of medicine rests on professionalism, but, furthermore, professionalism is both a stablilizing and a morally protective force in society. A professional is the person that engages in [...] one of the learned professions and is characterized by conforming to the technical and ethical standards of a profession. The concept of professionalism incorporates four components: 1) specialized knowledge; 2) autonomy for decision-making processes; 3) commitment of service to society; 4) auto-regulation. The corporate transformation of health care services that takes place mainly in Colombia and the USA, is threatening to destroy medical professionalism. There is a widespread accepted although incipient, ominous social phenomenon: the deprofessionalization of medicine, the transformation of a noble profession into a simple trade to serve corporate interests. But there is global reaction intending to strengthen medical professionalism in the new millennium, and the Medical Professionalism Project has been launched as an international effort with a charter consisting of three principles and 10 commitments.
José Félix, Patiño Restrepo.
Full Text Available La ética y el profesionalismo constituyen el fundamento de la actividad de la medicina, que es una empresa intensamente moral. El profesionalismo no es sólo la base del contrato social de la medicina, sino, principalmente, una fuerza estructuralmente estabilizadora y moralmente protectora de la sociedad. Un profesional es la persona que se ubica en una de las disciplinas eruditas y que actúa observando los estándares técnicos, éticos y deontológicos de una profesión. El concepto de profesionalismo incluye cuatro componentes fundamentales: 1 conocimiento especializado; 2 autonomía en la toma de decisiones; 3 compromiso de servicio a la sociedad; 4 autorregulación. La transformación corporativa de los sistemas de salud que ha ocurrido principalmente en Colombia y en los Estados Unidos constituye una amenaza de destrucción del profesionalismo médico. Es el fenómeno, ya declarado como una ominosa incipiente realidad, de la desprofesionalización de la medicina, que pasaría de ser una noble profesión a convertirse en un simple oficio al servicio de los intereses corporativos. Como reacción se ha conformado un movimiento médico global, el Medical Professionalism Project que pretende el fortalecimiento del profesionalismo en el nuevo milenio a través de la implementación de tres principios y diez responsabilidades profesionales fundamentales.Medicine is an intensely moral endeavor and its practice is based on ethics and professionalism. The social contract of medicine rests on professionalism, but, furthermore, professionalism is both a stablilizing and a morally protective force in society. A professional is the person that engages in one of the learned professions and is characterized by conforming to the technical and ethical standards of a profession. The concept of professionalism incorporates four components: 1 specialized knowledge; 2 autonomy for decision-making processes; 3 commitment of service to society; 4 auto-regulation. The corporate transformation of health care services that takes place mainly in Colombia and the USA, is threatening to destroy medical professionalism. There is a widespread accepted although incipient, ominous social phenomenon: the deprofessionalization of medicine, the transformation of a noble profession into a simple trade to serve corporate interests. But there is global reaction intending to strengthen medical professionalism in the new millennium, and the Medical Professionalism Project has been launched as an international effort with a charter consisting of three principles and 10 commitments.
José Félix Patiño Restrepo
Takashi Fujiwara1, Mai Nishimura2, Ryoko Honda3, Takashi Nishiyama4, Masahiro Nomoto5, Naoto Kobayashi6, Masayuki Ikeda71Division of Educational Training, Kurashiki Central Hospital, Kurashiki, Japan, 2Sixth-year medical student, 3Department of Anaesthesiology and Resuscitology, 4Department of Emergency Medicine, 5Department of Therapeutics, 6Medical Education Center, Ehime University School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan, 7Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University School of Medi...
Fujiwara T; Nishimura M; Honda R; Nishiyama T; Nomoto M; Kobayashi N; Ikeda M
Background Use of social networking services (SNS) is on the rise. While many users sign in for personal purposes, it is not uncommon for professionals to connect over SNSs with clients, students, and patients. Methods The present study used an experimental approach to examine how medical doctors’ SNS profiles impacted potential patients’ impressions of professionalism. Participants (N=250 students) were randomly assigned to view one of six Facebook profiles. Profiles were populated with 1) solely professional material, 2) personal material that was strictly healthy, or 3) personal material that included unhealthy behavior. Profiles portrayed a male or female physician resulting in a total of six experimental conditions. Medical professionalism was measured with the First Impressions of Medical Professionalism (FIMP) scale, specifically developed for this study. Results There was a large and statistically significant main effect for profile type, F(2, 250)=54.77, p<0.001, ?p2=0.31 Post hoc tests indicated that personal profiles that contained healthy behavior were rated as most professional followed by profiles with strictly professional content. Personal unhealthy profiles were rated as least professional. Additionally, female profiles consistently received higher professionalism ratings across all three profile types [F(1, 250)=5.04, p=0.026, ?p2=0.02]. Conclusion Our results suggest that a physician's SNS profile affects a patient's perception of that physician's medical professionalism. A personal, healthy profile may augment a patient's perception of that physician's character virtues if the profile content upholds the decorum of the medical field.
Clyde, Joseph W.; Rodriguez, Melanie M. Domenech; Geiser, Christian
Development of health inter-professional telemedicine practice through simulation scenario training with students of physiotherapy-, occupational therapy-, medical laboratory technology-, and nursing education
Background: Welfare technology is considered to be cost effective and to promote consistent quality in health care (1, 2). Due to the pervasive deployment of telemedicine and the political focus thereon, it is very important that health professional students gain an understanding of its benefits and limitations and that they develop competences related to telemedicine practices. Because close interprofessional and intersectoral cooperation is required in the care and treatment of patients by the use of telemedicine, development of telemedicine competences must take place in an inter-professional context. Aims: The purpose of the project was â?¢ to develop practice oriented competences related to telemedicine in an inter-professional and a cross-sectoral context among health professional students of physiotherapy-, occupational therapy-, medical laboratory technology-, and nursing education. â?¢ to motivate and retain male students by the use of simulation training that involves technology. Methodology:The project was settled as a cross-professional telemedicine course on health educations. Nursing students (N=20) and physiotherapy students (N=34) participated actively and the scenarios were filmed and enacted via Adobe Connect. Students were divided into groups, and some students acted health professionals, while others acted patients. Excerpts of the recordings were analyzed and discussed with a focus on successful telemedical care and treatments well as challenges and they were followed by evaluation and qualitative interviews. Recordings, field notes, memos and observations of students and lecturers were used as empirical material for follow-up research. Data were analyzed in order to categorize the theoretical perspectives relating to learning and motivation. Results: Evaluations and follow-up research showed that students developed competences equivalent to novice level through simulation training (3). The project gave rise to wide project on Occupational Therapy education and medical laboratory technology education too. Follow-up research concludes that the boys who participated in the project responded positively to simulation training, as many of the girls did. Further results and perspectives will be presented at the conference. References: 1. Accelerating innovation: the power of the crowd. Global lessons in e-Health implementation d Documents/e-health-implementation Case study: UK Department of Health: Whole System Demonstrator program 2. Danske Regioner, Kommunernes Landsforening, Ministeriet for Sundhed og Forebyggelse, Social- og Integrationsministeriet, Erhvervs- og VÃ¦kstministeriet, Ã?konomi- og Indenrigsministeriet & Finansministeriet (2012): National handlingsplan for udbredelse af telemedicin, Fonden for VelfÃ¦rdsteknologi 3. Nortvig, Anne-Mette et. Eriksen, Kathrine Krageskov. TeknologistÃ¸ttet simulationsundervisning som translokation for teoretisk viden og praktisk handlen. LÃ¦ring & Medier (LOM) â?? nr. 11 â?? 2013. ISSN: 1903-248X 4. Murray C, Grant MJ, Howarth ML, Leigh J.The use of simulation as a teaching and learning approach to support practice learning. Nurse Education in Practice 2008;8:5-8. 5. Watson K, Wright A, Morris N, McMeeken J, Rivett D, Blackstock F, et al. Can simulation replace part of clinical time? Two parallel randomised controlled trials. Med Educ 2012;46:657-667 6. Dieckmann P, Friis SM, Lippert A, Ã?stergaard D. Goals, Success Factors, and Barriers for Simulation-Based Learning A Qualitative Interview Study in Health Care. Simulation & Gaming 2012;43:627-647. 7. Dreyfus, Stuart E.; Dreyfus, Hubert L. (February 1980). A Five-Stage Model of the Mental Activities Involved in Directed Skill Acquisition. Washington, DC: Storming Media. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Vestergaard, Kitt
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudo transversal quantitativo descritivo observacional, realizado com discentes do internato da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Goiás. OBJETIVOS: Conhecer a expectativa de prática profissional de discentes do internato e observar possíveis dissonâncias em relação ao perfil do disc [...] ente preconizado pelas Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais e projeto político-pedagógico da instituição. METODOLOGIA: Foi utilizado um questionário distribuído aos 222 discentes do internato da instituição no ano de 2012. A amostra consta de 190 discentes, que correspondem a 85% do universo de análise. A significância estatística foi calculada pelo Teste do Sinal. RESULTADOS: O perfil sociodemográfico caracteriza discentes com idade média de 23,8 anos, solteiros, sendo que 66% pertencem às classes sociais A e B. O ideal do perfil de prática profissional demonstra que 84% pretendem ser especialistas, 96% desejam cursar residência médica, sendo estatisticamente significante (p = 0,0001), e 70% não pretendem, a priori, trabalhar na Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF) (p = 0,005). CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstra discentes com perfil socioeconômico elevado, que pretendem ser especialistas, cursar residência médica e não veem a ESF como uma meta-fim. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The aim of this research is to identify, in terms of professional practice, the ideal internship students in the Medical School of the Federal University of Goiás (UFG) and to observe possible dissonances in relation to the graduate profile as advocated by the National Curriculum Guide [...] lines and by the Political Pedagogical Project of this institution. METHODS: In 2012, two hundred and twenty-two medical internship students of the institution received a survey questionnaire. The sample of this research consisted of one hundred and ninety research subjects, representing 85% of the sample universe. The statistical significance was calculated using the Sign Test. RESULTS: The socio-demographic profile characterizes the students with an average age of 23.8 years old, unmarried, 66% of whom belong to social classes A and B. The ideal profile of professional practice shows that 84% want to become specialists, whereas 96% want to engage in medical residency, which is statistically significant (p = 0.0001), and 70% do not intend to work with Family Health Strategy Programs (p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: This study shows that students with high socio-economic profile, who want to become specialists, undergo a medical residency program and do not see the Family Health Strategy as a professional goal.
Marcos Augusto, Filisbino; Vardeli Alves de, Moraes.
Background: Use of social networking services (SNS) is on the rise. While many users sign in for personal purposes, it is not uncommon for professionals to connect over SNSs with clients, students, and patients. Methods: The present study used an experimental approach to examine how medical doctors' SNS profiles impacted potential patients' impressions of professionalism. Participants (N=250 students) were randomly assigned to view one of six Facebook profiles. Profiles were populated with 1) solely professional material, 2) personal material that was strictly healthy, or 3) personal material that included unhealthy behavior. Profiles portrayed a male or female physician resulting in a total of six experimental conditions. Medical professionalism was measured with the First Impressions of Medical Professionalism (FIMP) scale, specifically developed for this study. Results: There was a large and statistically significant main effect for profile type, F(2, 250)=54.77, p<0.001, ?p2=0.31. Post hoc tests indicated that personal profiles that contained healthy behavior were rated as most professional followed by profiles with strictly professional content. Personal unhealthy profiles were rated as least professional. Additionally, female profiles consistently received higher professionalism ratings across all three profile types [F(1, 250)=5.04, p=0.026, ?p2=0.02]. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a physician's SNS profile affects a patient's perception of that physician's medical professionalism. A personal, healthy profile may augment a patient's perception of that physician's character virtues if the profile content upholds the decorum of the medical field. PMID:24947922
Clyde, Joseph W; Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M; Geiser, Christian
Full Text Available This paper describes an implementation of an Electronic Medical Record (EMR which has been adapted for the purposes of teaching health professional students, including medical and nursing students. Off-the-shelf EMR software, while suited for physicians in practice settings does not completely satisfy the needs of these students and educators. There are many unique requirements of a teaching EMR compared to one used in a production environment. This paper describes the specific architecture and unique features of an EMR that was employed in the University of British Columbia Medical School teaching program in December, 2007 with 200 participating medical students distributed across three physical sites in the Province of British Columbia.
This guide compiles information reported by medical schools on their efforts to help students develop a sound code of professional ethics. The introduction opens with background information on an Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) 1992 survey of medical schools and on why it is imperative that schools assist medical students' ethical…
Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis were to gather insights and investigate medical students’ motivation, particularly the importance of quality of motivation, factors influencing and outcomes and to explore how these can be applied t...
Current e-learning systems are still inadequate to support the level of interaction, personalization and engagement demanded by clinicians, care givers, and the patient themselves. For effective e-learning to be delivered in the health context, collaboration between pedagogy and technology is required. Furthermore, e-learning systems should be flexible enough to be adapted to the students' needs, evaluated regularly, easy to use and maintain and provide students' feedback, guidelines and supporting material in different formats. This paper presents the implementation of an Intelligent Tutoring System (SIAS-ITS), and its evaluation compared to a traditional virtual learning platform (Moodle). The evaluation was carried out as a case study, in which the participants were separated in two groups, each group attending a virtual course on the WHO Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy supported by one of the two e-learning platforms. The evaluation demonstrated that the participants' knowledge level, pedagogical strategies used, learning efficiency and systems' usability were improved using the Intelligent Tutoring System. PMID:20543344
Muñoz, Diana C; Ortiz, Alexandra; González, Carolina; López, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd
Abstract Background Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration. This paper assesses the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on willingness to accept postings to deprived areas among medical students in Ghana. Methods A computer-based survey involving 302 fourth year medical students was conducted from May-August 2009. Logistic regr...
Those who are considering a career in counseling face many questions. This book is designed to provide information and insight on the process and problems associated with development as a professional counselor. It is intended for those thinking about entering a counselor training program, students in training, and professionals who deal with the…
Hazler, Richard J.; Kottler, Jeffrey A.
Focusing on just three things--evidence of student learning, feedback on teacher and principal decisions, and depth of implementation--renowned author and thinker Douglas B. Reeves provides you with a blueprint for how to ensure professional development improves student learning. Find out: (1) Which ineffective professional development practices…
Reeves, Douglas B.
Full Text Available Introduction. Medical studies bring many stressful activities to students. Prolonged stress can make adverse effects to mental health and lead to further professional burnout. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the association of stress impact and adverse effects of medical studies with psychological distress among medical students. Methods. The cross sectional study was conducted on 367 fourthyear medical students of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade, by means of the anonymous questionnaire, containing: sociodemographic data, selfreported health status and stressful influences of studying activities. Mental health status was estimated by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12. Results. More than 50% of students perceive frequent feeling of psychic tension, and one third has problems with insomnia. Nearly onehalf of students assessed their general stress level as moderate or high. Exams were estimated as high stressor in 63.1% of all students. Stressful effects of communication with teaching staff were reported by one quarter of the examinees. The scores of GHQ12 were above the threshold in 55.6 % of all students. Mental health problems among students were most significantly associated with stressful experience during exams and contacts with teaching staff. Conclusion. Academic stress makes great influence on mental health of medical students. Reduction of stress effects should be directed to optimization of the examination process and improvement of communication skills. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175078
Backovi? Dušan V.
Background Healthcare worldwide needs translation of basic ideas from engineering into the clinic. Consequently, there is increasing demand for graduates equipped with the knowledge and skills to apply interdisciplinary medicine/engineering approaches to the development of novel solutions for healthcare. The literature provides little guidance regarding barriers to, and facilitators of, effective interdisciplinary learning for engineering and medical students in a team-based project context. Methods A quantitative survey was distributed to engineering and medical students and staff in two universities, one in Ireland and one in Belgium, to chart knowledge and practice in interdisciplinary learning and teaching, and of the teaching of innovation. Results We report important differences for staff and students between the disciplines regarding attitudes towards, and perceptions of, the relevance of interdisciplinary learning opportunities, and the role of creativity and innovation. There was agreement across groups concerning preferred learning, instructional styles, and module content. Medical students showed greater resistance to the use of structured creativity tools and interdisciplinary teams. Conclusions The results of this international survey will help to define the optimal learning conditions under which undergraduate engineering and medicine students can learn to consider the diverse factors which determine the success or failure of a healthcare engineering solution.
A good strategy for working with external media is essential to the success of student affairs professionals. Examples of practices that lead to effective engagement with the various media are examined. (Author)
Montgomery, Ted; Snyder, Mary Beth
Along with the advances in such new image measuring apparatuses as X-ray CT, NMR imaging apparatus and digitalized X-ray apparatus, the need is arising for a medical image workstation as diagnosis support to medical professionals where there are provided the image processing techniques and functions. The workstation must also fulfill a role of the terminal in the hospital medical information network. To meet such requirements, an image processing workstation has been constructed in trial, which possesses the functions of high fineness image display, high-speed image processing, communication, etc. Functions of the workstation are described, and also various new image diagnosis apparatuses and the image processing and its hardware as diagnosis support are explained. The relation between future PACS (picture archiving and communication system) and the hospital information system is also described. (Mori, K.)
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to study motivation of students of medical schools in choice of profession of the doctor and dynamics of defining motives in educational space of university. Material and methods: 497 students of the 1 st course took part in comparative research (356 students of medical faculty and 141 students of pediatric faculty and 382 students of the 6th course (270 students of medical faculty and 112 students of pediatric faculty of Saratov state medical university n.a. V. I. Razumovsky. In research methods of questioning and statistical data processing have been used. Results: The comparative analysis of the maximum and minimum values of the main types of motivation in professional field choice allowed to determine leading motives in medical students, and also to reveal their dynamics connected with various stages of professionalizing in the course of receiving medical education. Conclusion: Professional self-determination of the student of medical school has a multi-vector focus of structure of motivation. Determination by internal motives is supplemented with influence of external motivation, both positive, and negative value. In students of the 6th course indicators of motives included «Prestige», «Opportunity to help people», «Possibility of use of professional skills out of work».
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La educación médica y la medicina son prácticas sociales cuyos fines y medios tienen que definirse históricamente, considerando las necesidades de cada país al respecto y la reorientación didáctica que exige su desarrollo científico para que puedan determinarse, con precisión, los conocimientos requ [...] eridos para afrontar situaciones sanitarias epidemiológica y socialmente prioritarias. En este artículo se analizan algunas de las consecuencias generales relacionadas con el empleo de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones, particularmente en la educación superior, y cómo devienen retos que deben asumir las universidades, específicamente de ciencias médicas, en la formación de sus profesionales. Abstract in english Medical education and medical career are social practices whose aims and resources have to be historically defined, considering the needs of each country on this respect and the didactic reorientation that demands their scientific development so that the knowledge required to face epidemiologically [...] and socially high-priority health situations can be accurately determined. Some of the general consequences related to the use of the information and communications technologies are analyzed in this work, particularly in the higher education, and how they become challenges that should be assumed by the universities, specifically of medical sciences, in the training of their professionals.
Nancy María, Rodríguez Beltrán; María Elena, Pardo Gómez; José Manuel, Izquierdo Lao.
Full Text Available Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sayeeda Rahman2, Urban JA D’Souza3, Gad Elbeheri4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, M Muzaherul Huq61,2Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 3School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; 4Centre for Child Evaluation and Teaching, Kuwait; 5College of Medicine, Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Centre for Medical Education (CME, Mohakhali, Dhaka, BangladeshAbstract: Learning disabilities (LDs represent the largest group of disabilities in higher education (HE institutes, including medical schools, and the numbers are continuing to rise. The worrying concern is that two-thirds to half of these students with LDs remain undiagnosed when they start their undergraduate education and may even graduate without having their disabilities diagnosed. These students struggle with their academic abilities, receive poor grades and, as a result, develop lower perceptions of their intellectual abilities than do those students without LDs. All these ultimately hamper their professional practice, employment, and career progression. Appropriate and adequate educational policies, provisions, and practices help students to progress satisfactorily. In Asian countries, public and professional awareness about LDs is low, supportive provisions are limited, legislations are inadequate, data are scarce, and equal-opportunity/widening-participation policies are not implemented effectively in the HE sector. This article discusses the issues related to LDs in medical education and draws policy, provision, and practice implications to identify, assess, and support students with LDs in medical schools, particularly in an Asian context.Keywords: medical education, learning disabilities, dyslexia, Asia
Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder
Spanish adaptation of The Penn State College of Medicine Scale to assess professionalism in medical students / Adaptación al idioma español de la escala del Penn State College of Medicine para medición del profesionalismo en estudiantes de medicina
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Introducción. El profesionalismo es un área de interés en las facultades de medicina del mundo. El uso de un cuestionario puede ser útil para evaluar el profesionalismo en Colombia. Objetivo. Adaptar la escala de profesionalismo para estudiantes de medicina del Penn State University College of Medic [...] ine al idioma español como instrumento válido para evaluarlo. Materiales y métodos. Se siguieron las guías para adaptación de instrumentos del proyecto IQOLA, realizando traducción y traducción inversa, así como una prueba piloto y una evaluación de las características psicométricas en 250 estudiantes. Se evaluó la correlación entre ítems y escala y la validez interna con el alfa de Chronbach y se hizo un análisis factorial de componentes principales. Resultados. El alfa de Cronbach global fue de 0,86, la medida de Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin fue de 0,83 y el test de esfericidad de Bartlett tuvo un valor de p>0,00001. Se encontraron seis factores que explicaron 93 % de la varianza total y cuatro nuevos factores que emergieron del análisis factorial. Ocho ítems tuvieron alta singularidad. Conclusión. La escala del Penn State University College of Medicine mide con buen nivel de confiabilidad las actitudes hacia el profesionalismo en los estudiantes de medicina. No obstante, la estructura de la escala mostró diferencias al ser validada en estudiantes latinoamericanos. Abstract in english Introduction: Professionalism is a subject of interest in medical schools around the world. The use of a questionnaire could be useful to assess professionalism in Colombia. Objective: To adapt The Penn State University College of Medicine Professionalism Questionnaire as a culturally valid instrume [...] nt in the Spanish language. Materials and methods: We followed recommendations from the IQOLA project and used forward and back translation with four independent translations, as well as a pilot evaluation and an evaluation of psychometric features with 250 students. We evaluated item-scale correlations and internal consistency with Chronbach´s alpha test and conducted a principal components factor analysis. Results: Global Cronbach´s alpha was 0.86, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was 0.83, and Bartlett´s test of sphericity had a p >0.00001. We found six factors that explained 93% of the total variance and four new factors emerged in the factor analysis, while eight items had high uniqueness. Conclusion: The Penn State University College of Medicine Scale measures professionalism attitudes in medical students with good reliability. However, the structure of the scale demonstrated differences when used in the Latin American medical student population.
Eliseo, Bustamante; Álvaro, Sanabria.
always a burden. The professional exams of universities are the matter of their norms and regulation, but we have day-to-day assessment through-out duration; this is enough to moralize them and prepare before final professional examination. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 412-412
Rakesh Chandra Chaurasia
Full Text Available Self-medication is consumption of medicinal products for treating diseases without a prescription resulting in wastage of resources, increased drug resistance and causes health hazards. Selfmedication, often without adult guidance, has been reported to be a common practice during adolescence. Similar to other preventable health-risk behaviors initiated in early adolescence, it has become a cause for concern universally. The main problem with self medication with antimicrobials is the emergence of pathogenic resistance. Antimicrobial resistance is an existing problem world-wide, mainly in developing countries. The aim and objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge regarding self medication among medical students of Uttar Pradesh Rural Institute Of Medical Sciences and Research, Saifai. This was a questionnaire based study of 4 months duration.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The workforce of 'physician-scientists' is ageing and decreasing in numbers. The responsibility to combat this trend rests on future generations of healthcare professionals and it is therefore valuable to evaluate medical students' attitudes towards research. OBJECTIVE: To establish the [...] attitudes of University of Cape Town (UCT) medical students towards research and to investigate the factors influencing these attitudes. METHODS: An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire was administered to medical students from years 1 to 6 studying medicine at UCT in 2011. Questions were primarily closed-ended and consisted of Likert scales. RESULTS: Out of a population of 1 195 medical students, 733 were sampled (63%); 65% were female, 53% were preclinical students (years 1 - 3) and 47% were in their clinical years (year 4 - 6). Overall, 61% of students had a positive attitude towards research and 74% felt that participation in research was important to their medical school education; 22% had been involved in voluntarily extracurricular research, 4% had presented at a scientific meeting and 3% had published in peer-reviewed journals. A number of perceived barriers to student research were identified including a lack of adequate training, time and research opportunities. CONCLUSION: Students believed that research was important and had a positive attitude towards it. However, few had been involved in voluntary research and produced work worthy of presentation and/or publication. Addressing identified barriers and improving students' attitudes may begin to reverse the trend in declining numbers of physician-scientists.
D, Nel; R J, Burman; R, Hoffman; S, Randera-Rees.
The Royal Colleges and their Faculties have moved continuing professional development up the agenda of doctors in the UK. The low educational value and failure to change professional practice of much continuing medical education has led to criticism of its emphasis on formal, didactic teaching and academic knowledge. The ubiquitous scientific or technical bias in medical education makes questionable assumptions about the nature of professional knowledge, how professionals learn, and the linka...
Brigley, S.; Young, Y.; Littlejohns, P.; Mcewen, J.
Full Text Available Prior studies indicate that people’s perception have an important influence on their career decisions. This study explores the accounting students’ perceptions on professional examination and the factors that influence their decisions to take the exam. Questionnaires were distributed to final year accounting students of a public university in Malaysia. About 103 questionnaires were completed and usable for the purpose of the study. Regression analysis was employed to analyse the data. The results indicate that about 70% of the respondents plan to work immediately after graduating, and only about 28% of the respondents really have the intention to pursue professional qualification. Among others, the findings reveal that the job security and stability, and opportunities for advancement as well as the students’ perception towards the profession are the three main variables found to be significant in influencing the accounting students’ decision to pursue professional examination. The results of the study appear to suggest that the educators and universities must play their role to positively influence and motivate the students to pursue professional examination. The favourable information about the profession may attract the potential students to take the challenge.
Mohammad Hasmawi Abu Hassan
Occupational health professionals originate from either the medical or the nursing professions (both traditional areas with their own established codes of practice) and work in an industrial setting alongside, for instance, managers, who also have an established, if different code of practice. Occupational health professionals are therefore confronted with the task of integrating their medical role within a managerial context. This paper aims to explore how occupational health professionals overcome the problems inherent in balancing medical with managerial values. PMID:9614765
Objective: The author proposes courses of action for medical schools to increase positive health promotion among medical students. Method: This article will review the current literature on medical student health care. Strategies of action for medical schools are proposed for increasing student wellness. Results: Medical schools can positively…
Community mental health services are evolving toward more holistic, patient-centered, recovery-based practices. This change necessitates an attitudinal shift from mental health workers, and training in recovery principles is helpful in achieving this change. Medical students often have narrow, doctor-centered concepts of mental health care. Traditional clinical placements in psychiatry do little to address this. We evaluated a recovery-focused teaching program for medical students in psychiatry.
The library instruction program for medical students at the University of Tennessee Center for the Health Sciences is described. This instruction program, which was developed in cooperation with the medical faculty, is included in the College of Medicine curriculum. Library instruction is presented sequentially at scheduled times during the four-year curriculum when students need specific information. The development, implementation, and evaluation of the program are discussed. PMID:3518841
Graves, K J; Selig, S A
The library instruction program for medical students at the University of Tennessee Center for the Health Sciences is described. This instruction program, which was developed in cooperation with the medical faculty, is included in the College of Medicine curriculum. Library instruction is presented sequentially at scheduled times during the four-year curriculum when students need specific information. The development, implementation, and evaluation of the program are discussed.
Graves, K. J.; Selig, S. A.
Second and third year medical students were invited to write down their comments about necropsies during a pilot study of a postal questionnaire on the subject. Their comments were analysed in detail on the following aspects: about how useful and necessary a procedure the necropsy is in medical practice and in education; their personal distaste for the procedure; whether attendance at a necropsy should remain a compulsory part of a medical education; staff attitudes; observance of relatives' ...
Benbow, E. W.
Student affairs professionals in the United States were surveyed to determine the predictive value of overall job satisfaction, organizational support, organizational politics, and work/nonwork interaction on affective organizational commitment. Results indicate that a supportive work environment leads to increased affective attachment to the…
Peer assessment has been shown to be an effective tool to promote professionalism in medical students. Peer assessment may be particularly useful in anatomy dissection laboratory as the required close collaboration and long hours of anatomy laboratory provide students insights into their peers' work habits and interpersonal skills. The…
Spandorfer, John; Puklus, Tanya; Rose, Victoria; Vahedi, Mithaq; Collins, Lauren; Giordano, Carolyn; Schmidt, Richard; Braster, Chris
Full Text Available The importance of incorporating medical (or healthinformatics into the education of medical students andmedical practitioners is being increasingly recognised.The advances in information and communicationtechnology and the pervasion of the Internet intoeveryday life have important implications forhealthcare services and medical education.Students and practitioners should learn to utilisebiomedical information for problem solving anddecision making based on evidence. The extensiveintroduction of electronic health information systemsinto hospitals and clinics and at the enterprise level inMalaysia and elsewhere is driving a demand for healthprofessionals who have at least basic skills in andappreciation of the use of these technologies.The essential clinical informatics skills have beenidentified and should be incorporated into theundergraduate medical curriculum. It is recommendedthat these be introduced in stages and integrated intoexisting programmes rather than taught as a separatemodule. At the same time, medical schools shouldsupport the integration of e-learning in the educationalprocess in view of the numerous potential benefits.
Full Text Available Introduction: Medical education is one of the core part of educational system of any country. Medical education requires undergraduate students to study a wide range of medical specialties. It is often assumed that students do not make their career preferences until after they have graduated from medical school. So the reasons and factors responsible for preferences need to be found out among medical students. Material and Methods: It was a Cross sectional study on 180 medical students to assess preference for specialty and factors responsible. Results: Out of total 190 medical students more or less everyone (97.89% wanted to pursue specialization and majority of them (96.84% wanted to pursue the same in Medical Field(p>0.05. majority of male students were interested to pursue their specialization in the field of medicine (37.63%, surgery (23.65% and pediatrics (13.97%. On the other hand female students were more interested in medicine (24.17%, pediatrics (32.96% and obstetrics & gynecology (24.17%(p<0.05. Interest, by far was found to be most common factor (76.63% responsible for the preference of particular medical specialty among all four groups of students (1st professional-25.27%, 2nd professional-75.92%, final professional-89.47%, interns-68.42%.Conclusion: It is thus concluded there are many factors playing role in the specialty selection and preference among the medical students and should be equally justified and addressed.
Court Decision: 353 Federal Reporter, 3d Series 436; 2003 Dec 17 (date of decision). The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit reversed a lower court decision and held that Ohio's partial-birth abortion law was constitutional because the law permitted the procedure in the event of significant maternal health risk and did not prohibit dilation and evacuation (a lawful abortion procedure). Women's Medical Professional Corporation challenged the constitutionality of Ohio's ban on partial-birth abortion, claiming that the law did not contain an adequate exception for maternal health and that it unduly burdened a woman's right to abort a nonviable fetus by dilation and evacuation (D&E). The Sixth Circuit held that the law's maternal health exception was valid under the Fourteenth Amendment because it allowed partial-birth abortion when there is significant maternal health risk. The court rejected the plaintiff's assertion that partial-birth abortion should be allowed at any physician's discretion and noted that precedent allows states to "restrict an abortion procedure except when the procedure is necessary to prevent a significant health risk." The court also held that the law did not ban D&E, the most common second-trimester abortion procedure, because the law explicitly tracked the medical differences between D&E and partial-birth abortion, it provided an exception for D&E, and it focused on other distinctions between D&E and partial-birth abortion. For these reasons, Ohio's partial-birth abortion ban did not unduly burden a woman's right to terminate a pregnancy and was therefore constitutional. PMID:16477714
Abstract Background Professionalism in medical students is not only difficult to define but difficult to teach and measure. As negative behaviour in medical students is associated with post-graduate disciplinary action it would be useful to have a model whereby unprofessional behaviour at the undergraduate level can easily be identified to permit appropriate intervention. We have previously developed a scalar measure of conscientiousness, the Conscientiousness Index (CI), whi...
Chaytor Andrew T; Spence Jacqueline; Armstrong Ann; McLachlan John C
In almost every country, the organ supply for transplantation does not match the increasing demand; health professionals may play an important role in eliminating barriers and increasing organ donation. Therefore, assessing medical students’ knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation is important for the future organ supply. Some 409 of 508 first- and second-year medical students answered an anonymous, multiple-choice questionnaire about demographic variables, knowledge about transpla...
Medical school is an academic and developmental path toward a professional life demanding self-regulation and self-education. Thus, many medical schools include in their goals for medical student education their graduates' ability to self-assess and self-regulate their education upon graduation and throughout their professional lives. This study…
White, Casey B.
The aim of this paper is twofold. First, to revise some European Communities' recommendations regarding qualification, education and training of professionals involved in ionisation radiation practices, to respond to the Directive 97/43 EURATOM. And then, as Medical Physicists are directly concerned with these practices, to describe how the Spanish Society of Medical Physics deals with the challenge of improving the competence of Medical Physicists in order to assure the best patient protection against ionisation radiation. Therefore, to achieve the first aim, the point of view of the European Federation of Organisations on Medical Physics (EFOMP) concerning the introduction of the 'Medical Physics Expert' and their guidelines for Continuous Professional Development are reviewed, as well as the point of view of European Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ESTRO) in professional education matters. Referring to the second aim, after succeeding in the recognition of the Medical Physics Speciality in Spain in 1997, the SEFM is now promoting the Continuous Education and Training of their specialists through its Education Committee (Comision de Docencia de la SEFM), so that they can cope with all new professional challenges. Moreover, a number of SEFM members are also involved in education matters to others professionals: Medicine students, nurses, Radiation Technologists, etc. In conclusion, the SEFM has always been aware of the importance of specialisation and continuous education of all professionals involved in radiation ionisation practices, as a way to contribute to guarantee the best radiation protection to the patients. (author)
The purpose of this research was to define professional communication in nursing and to develop a prototype to assess and appraise communication at a selected college. The research focused on verbal and nonverbal communication between the nurse and the client using a simulated environment. The first objective was to identify the major characteristics of professional communication in nursing. In this study, the characteristics of professional communication emerged from the constant comparison method of the results of research studies in the fields of healthcare and communication. These characteristics became the elements, representative properties, and descriptive dimensions to assess and appraise verbal and nonverbal communication at the college of study. The second objective was to develop a template to assess verbal and nonverbal communication at a selected college. Using a two-fold process, the researcher used the results from the first objective to begin template construction. First, specialists in the fields of communication and nursing established the content validity of the elements, representative properties, and descriptive dimensions. Second, the course educators determined the relevancy and importance of the elements, properties, and descriptive dimensions to the objectives of two courses at the college of study. The third objective was to develop a rubric to appraise nursing students' verbal and nonverbal communication in a videotaped communication review. An appraisal rubric was constructed from an extension of the template. This rubric was then tested by faculty at the selected college to appraise the communication of five students each in the junior and senior years of the nursing program.
Diers, Jane E.
BackgroundSelf-medication results in wastage of resources, increases resistance of pathogens and generally causes serious health hazards such as adverse drug reactions, prolonged suffering and drug dependence. This study was undertaken to determine the reasons for self-medication and the pattern of self-medication among medical students.MethodThis cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore. The participants were medical students from first to ...
Sanjeev Badiger; Rashmi Kundapur; Animesh Jain; Ashwini Kumar; Sanjay Pattanshetty; Nimmy Thakolkaran; Nitasha Bhat; Nowshin Ullal
Full Text Available The article discusses the necessity of adoption of professional responsibility insurance act into the public health service. It is considered as the basic mechanism of compensation in case of damage to a patient at medical aid rendering
Objectives: Various studies across the globe have emphasised that students undertaking professional courses, such as medical and dental studies, are subjected to higher stress. Excessive stress could lead to psychological problems like depression and anxiety. The objective of the current study was to assess stress among students of various professional colleges and its association with various academic, social and health-related factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from ...
Full Text Available BackgroundSelf-medication results in wastage of resources, increases resistance of pathogens and generally causes serious health hazards such as adverse drug reactions, prolonged suffering and drug dependence. This study was undertaken to determine the reasons for self-medication and the pattern of self-medication among medical students.MethodThis cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore. The participants were medical students from first to final year. Medical students were selected through convenience sampling. The data was collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. The data was analysed using SPSS version 16 and the results expressed as proportions.ResultsA total of 200 students, 121 (60.5% female and 79 (39.5% male, were included in the study. Of the medical students surveyed, self-medication was reported among 92%. The respondents who used self-medication found it to be time-saving in providing relief from minor ailments. The most common ailments for which self-medication were used were: the common cold (69%, fever (63% and headache (60%. The students consulted their textbooks (39% and seniors or classmates (38% for the medications. Antipyretics (71%, analgesics (65%, antihistamines (37% and antibiotics (34% were the most common self-medicated drugs. Of the respondents, 33% were unaware of the adverse effects of the medication and 5% had experienced adverse reactions. The majority (64% of students advised medications to others, more often to family and friends.ConclusionThe prevalence of self-medication among medical students is high, facilitated by the easy availability of drugs and information from textbooks or seniors. A significant number of students are unaware of the adverse effects of the medication that they themselves take and suggest to others. Therefore, potential problems of self-medication should be emphasised to the students.
Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical s...
An experiment at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine with a short-term medical student couples' workshop designed to foster increased sensitivity between medical students and their partners resulted in recommendation that such workshops be offered to medical students. (JT)
Porter, Kenneth; And Others
Medicine bridges the gap between science and society. Indeed, the application of scientific knowledge to human health is a crucial aspect of clinical practice. Doctors are one important agent through which that scientific understanding is expressed. But medicine is more than the sum of our knowledge about disease. Medicine concerns the experiences, feelings, and interpretations of human beings in often extraordinary moments of fear, anxiety, and doubt. In this extremely vulnerable position, it is medical professionalism that underpins the trust the public has in doctors. This Working Party was established to define the nature and role of medical professionalism in modern society. Britain's health system is undergoing enormous change. The entry of multiple health providers, the wish for more equal engagement between patients and professionals, and the ever-greater contribution of science to advances in clinical practice all demand a clear statement of medicine's unifying purpose and doctors' common values. What is medical professionalism and does it matter to patients? Although evidence is lacking that more robust professionalism will inevitably lead to better health outcomes, patients certainly understand the meaning of poor professionalism and associate it with poor medical care. The public is well aware that an absence of professionalism is harmful to their interests. The Working Party's view, based on the evidence it has received, is that medical professionalism lies at the heart of being a good doctor. The values that doctors embrace set a standard for what patients expect from their medical practitioners. The practice of medicine is distinguished by the need for judgement in the face of uncertainty. Doctors take responsibility for these judgements and their consequences. A doctor's up-to-date knowledge and skill provide the explicit scientific and often tacit experiential basis for such judgements. But because so much of medicine's unpredictability calls for wisdom as well as technical ability, doctors are vulnerable to the charge that their decisions are neither transparent nor accountable. In an age where deference is dead and league tables are the norm, doctors must be clearer about what they do, and how and why they do it. We define medical professionalism as a set of values, behaviours, and relationships that underpin the trust the public has in doctors. We go on to describe what those values, behaviours, and relationships are, how they are changing, and why they matter. This is the core of our work. We have also identified six themes where our definition has further implications: leadership, teams, education, appraisal, careers, and research. The Working Party's definition and description of medical professionalism, and the recommendations arising from them, can be found in Section 5 of this report. If our recommendations are acted upon, we believe that professionalism could flourish and prosper to the benefit of patients and doctors alike. However, the exercise of medical professionalism is hampered by the political and cultural environment of health, which many doctors consider disabling. The conditions of medical practice are critical determinants for the future of professionalism. We argue that doctors have a responsibility to act according to the values we set out in this report. Equally, other members of the healthcare team--notably managers--have a reciprocal duty to help create an organisational infrastructure to support doctors in the exercise of their professional responsibilities. Just as the patient-doctor partnership is a pivotal therapeutic relationship in medicine, so the interaction between doctor and manager is central to the delivery of professional care. High-quality care depends on both effective health teams and efficient health organisations. Professionalism therefore implies multiple commitments--to the patient, to fellow professionals, and to the institution or system within which healthcare is provided, to the extent that the system supports patients collectively. A doctor's corporate
Full Text Available Hepatitis B is the major infectious disease of mankind. It is the most common cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepato-cellular carcinoma World wide. The health professionals are at the maximum risk. Vaccination against Hepatitis B can prevent this deadly disease. This survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and status of Hepatitis B vaccination among the medical students of B.J.Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
Full Text Available Introduction: Regarding to the importance of spiritual intelligence and professionalism in faculty development, this study aimed to determine the level of spiritual intelligence, the level of professional development and leadership, and performance of professional responsibilities as two components of professionalism, and the relationship between spiritual intelligence and professionalism.Methods: This is a correlation cross-sectional study with 160 medical faculty members as subjects, which was defined base on stratified probability sampling in one of the medical universities in Iran. King’s modified spiritual intelligence questionnaire and teaching competency self assessment instrument of Alabama University were used. Statistical tests such as t-test, two-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal–Wallis, spearman and regressions were applied to analyze. P-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The results showed that the mean score of spiritual intelligence was 63±1.2, which classifies as moderate. The median score of professional development and leadership was 9 with range between 4 and 12; and the median score of performance of professional responsibilities was 17 with range between 5 and 20. There was a significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and performance of professional responsibilities (rs=0.23, p=0.003. There was no significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and professional development and leadership (rs=0.13, p=0.11. Conclusion: We found a significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and self assessed professionalism components in performance of professional responsibilities dimension, indicating that spiritual intelligence can be the basis for professional promotion.
Hossein Karimi Moonaghi
Purpose: To assess current education, practices, attitudes, and perceptions pertaining to ethics and professionalism in medical physics. Methods: A link to a web-based survey was distributed to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) e-mail membership list, with a follow-up e-mail sent two weeks later. The survey included questions about ethics/professionalism education, direct personal knowledge of ethically questionable practices in clinical care, research, education (teaching and mentoring), and professionalism, respondents’ assessment of their ability to address ethical/professional dilemmas, and demographics. For analysis, reports of unethical or ethically questionable practices or behaviors by approximately 40% or more of respondents were classified as “frequent.” Results: Partial or complete responses were received from 18% (1394/7708) of AAPM members. Overall, 60% (827/1377) of the respondents stated that they had not received ethics/professionalism education during their medical physics training. Respondents currently in training were more likely to state that they received instruction in ethics/professionalism (80%, 127/159) versus respondents who were post-training (35%, 401/1159). Respondents’ preferred method of instruction in ethics/professionalism was structured periodic discussions involving both faculty and students/trainees. More than 90% (1271/1384) supported continuing education in ethics/professionalism and 75% (1043/1386) stated they would attend ethics/professionalism sessions at professional/scientific meetings. In the research setting, reports about ethically questionable authorship assignment were frequent (approximately 40%) whereas incidents of ethically questionable practices about human subjects protections were quite infrequent (5%). In the clinical setting, there was frequent recollection of incidents regarding lack of training, resources and skills, and error/incident reporting. In the educational setting, incidents of unethical or ethically questionable practices were only frequently recollected with respect to mentorship/guidance. With respect to professional conduct, favoritism, hostile work/learning environment, and maltreatment of subordinates and colleagues were frequently reported. A significantly larger proportion of women reported experiences with hostile work/learning environments, favoritism, poor mentorship, unfairness in educational settings, and concerns about student privacy and confidentiality. Conclusions: The survey found broad interest in ethics/professionalism topics and revealed that these topics were being integrated into the curriculum at many institutions. The incorporation of ethics and professionalism instruction into both graduate education and postgraduate training of medical physicists, and into their subsequent lifelong continuing education is important given the nontrivial number of medical physicists who had direct personal knowledge of unethical or ethically questionable incidents in clinical practice, research, education, and professionalism.
Ozturk, Naim; Armato, Samuel G.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Serago, Christopher F.; Ross, Lainie F.
Full Text Available Professional teacher’s ethics is a collection of moral codes of their professional work. It is significant that the teaching profession respects certain designated professional-ethical codes of conduct between the teachers and the students, with their colleagues and other people they professionally cooperate with. This study is focused on analysis of the professional ethical relation of teachers towards students, seen from student’s point of view. These are the results of student’s reported opinion of the eighth graders from six primary schools in the region of the city of Skopje. The obtained results show that teachers mainly keep in line with the moral codes of conduct with the students, but not always all teachers respect them.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Burnout is caused by high-stress jobs and could induce somatic, psychological disorders and negative attitude to professional actives so that this condition causes poor relationship with the patient. This study aimed at investigating burnout in senior medical students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences.Methods: This research was a cross sectional study carried out on all senior medical students (N=56 in 2008. Data were obtained by two questionnaires including demographic questionnaire and Maslach burnout Inventory. They were then analyzed using SPSS software and Chi square Test. Results: The findings showed that the majority of medical students (91.1% had burnout and only 8.9% of them had not burnout. Severe burnout was in 16% of students. There was not any significant relationship between burnout and sex, age, smoking, duration of education, interest in medical course and marital status P<0.05.Conclusion: The results of the study showed that burnout is common problem in senior medical students and need special consideration. Therefore medical students should be encouraged to seek help and adequate facilities by holding workshops of life-skill training and coping with stress. However, burnout should be paid special attention in medical students by counseling centers of University for prevention of consequences.
Full Text Available
Background and Objectives: Burnout is caused by high-stress jobs and could induce somatic, psychological disorders and negative attitude to professional actives so that this condition causes poor relationship with the patient. This study aimed at investigating burnout in senior medical students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This research was a cross sectional study carried out on all senior medical students (N=56 in 2008. Data were obtained by two questionnaires including demographic questionnaire and Maslach burnout Inventory. They were then analyzed using SPSS software and Chi square Test. Results: The findings showed that the majority of medical students (91.1% had burnout and only 8.9% of them had not burnout. Severe burnout was in 16% of students. There was not any significant relationship between burnout and sex, age, smoking, duration of education, interest in medical course and marital status P<0.05. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that burnout is common problem in senior medical students and need special consideration. Therefore medical students should be encouraged to seek help and adequate facilities by holding workshops of life-skill training and coping with stress. However, burnout should be paid special attention in medical students by counseling centers of University for prevention of consequences.
It is known that interaction between pharmaceutical companies and medical professionals may lead to corruption of professional values, irrational use of medicine, and negative effects on the patient-physician relationship. Medical students frequently interact with pharmaceutical company representatives and increasingly accept their gifts.…
Sarikaya, Ozlem; Civaner, Murat; Vatansever, Kevser
Purpose: Updating professional knowledge is a central tenet of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and professional reading is a common method health practitioners use to update their professional knowledge. This paper reports the level of professional reading by Medical Radiation Science (MRS) practitioners in Australia and examines organisational support for professional reading. Materials and Methods: Survey design was used to collect data from MRS practitioners. A questionnaire was sent to 1142 Australian practitioners, which allowed self-report data to be collected on the length of time practitioners engage in professional reading and the time workplaces allocate to practitioners for professional reading. Results: Of the 362 MRS practitioners who returned the survey, 93.9% engaged in professional reading on a weekly basis. In contrast, only 28.9% of respondents reported that their workplace allocates time for professional reading to practitioners. MRS practitioners employed in universities engaged in higher levels of reading than their colleagues employed in clinical workplaces (p < 0.01) and more university workplaces allocated time for professional reading to their employees than clinical workplaces (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences for clinical practitioners in level of reading across geographic, organisational and professional demographic factors. Significant differences in workplace allocation of time for professional reading in clinical workplaces were evident for health sector (p < 0.01); work environment (p < 0.01); geographic location (p < 0.01) and area of specialisation (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The vast majority of respondent MRS practitioners engage in professional reading to update their professional knowledge. This demonstrates an ongoing commitment at the individual practitioner level for updating professional knowledge. Updating professional knowledge is an organisational as well as an individual practitioner issue. Whilst the majority of organisations do not currently support MRS practitioners with time allocation for professional reading, there were organisations currently providing this form of support to their employees. Wider adoption of protected time for professional reading would provide much needed organisational support to practitioners and reduce the identified inequity that currently exists across the MRS profession.
Shanahan, Madeleine, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [School of Medical Science, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia); Herrington, Anthony [Head, School of Regional, Remote and eLearning (RRE), Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Herrington, Jan [School of Education, Murdoch University, Perth (Australia)
Purpose: Updating professional knowledge is a central tenet of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and professional reading is a common method health practitioners use to update their professional knowledge. This paper reports the level of professional reading by Medical Radiation Science (MRS) practitioners in Australia and examines organisational support for professional reading. Materials and Methods: Survey design was used to collect data from MRS practitioners. A questionnaire was sent to 1142 Australian practitioners, which allowed self-report data to be collected on the length of time practitioners engage in professional reading and the time workplaces allocate to practitioners for professional reading. Results: Of the 362 MRS practitioners who returned the survey, 93.9% engaged in professional reading on a weekly basis. In contrast, only 28.9% of respondents reported that their workplace allocates time for professional reading to practitioners. MRS practitioners employed in universities engaged in higher levels of reading than their colleagues employed in clinical workplaces (p < 0.01) and more university workplaces allocated time for professional reading to their employees than clinical workplaces (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences for clinical practitioners in level of reading across geographic, organisational and professional demographic factors. Significant differences in workplace allocation of time for professional reading in clinical workplaces were evident for health sector (p < 0.01); work environment (p < 0.01); geographic location (p < 0.01) and area of specialisation (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The vast majority of respondent MRS practitioners engage in professional reading to update their professional knowledge. This demonstrates an ongoing commitment at the individual practitioner level for updating professional knowledge. Updating professional knowledge is an organisational as well as an individual practitioner issue. Whilst the majority of organisations do not currently support MRS practitioners with time allocation for professional reading, there were organisations currently providing this form of support to their employees. Wider adoption of protected time for professional reading would provide much needed organisational support to practitioners and reduce the identified inequity that currently exists across the MRS profession.
Purpose: Blogging is an increasingly popular method of sharing and reflecting on experiences of medical students in the World Wide Web with a potentially global learning community. The authors are not aware of studies that specifically examined blogs by medical students and thus for the first time investigated the type of experiences and impressions that emerged from these blogs with relevance for medical students and medical educators.Method: This was a qualitative study. Initially 75 blog...
Purpose: Blogging is an increasingly popular method of sharing and reflecting on experiences of medical students in the World Wide Web with a potentially global learning community. The authors are not aware of studies that specifically examined blogs by medical students and thus for the first time investigated the type of experiences and impressions that emerged from these blogs with relevance for medical students and medical educators.
Familiarize students affiliated with the Student National Medical Association with the National Library of Medicine's online resources that address medical conditions, health disparities, and public health preparedness needs.
In order to investigate medical professional attitudes and behaviors in China and explore the influencing factors with a focus on hospital internal management, we developed a 13-item professional attitudes and 11-item behaviors inventory. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 390 physicians mainly in four specialties in two tertiary Chinese hospitals in 2011. 306 completed questionnaires were collected. More than 90% of respondents agreed with at least nine of the 13 specific statements about principles. However, responses on behaviors were not necessarily consistent with those on attitudes. 80.3% of respondents reported that they usually or always participated in quality improvement activities and 48.2% reported that they usually or always participated in peer evaluations of colleagues' quality of care. Some 47.8% had encountered incompetent colleagues and 17.7% had encountered significant medical errors caused by colleagues. Among those who had encountered incompetence or significant medical errors, almost two thirds had never reported their concerns to the hospital or other relevant authorities. Half of the physicians did not obtain enough continuing medical education credits. Physicians' professional reported behaviors were influenced by their personal and professional characteristics, professional attitudes, and assessment of hospital internal management constitutions. For example, participation in decision-making had a significant role in professional reported behaviors of protecting patient confidentiality, improving quality of care, and self-regulation, with those sometimes or often participating in decision-making indicating higher levels of reported behaviors than those who seldom participated (odds ratios: 1.84; 4.31, 2.44; 3.31). The results showed Chinese physicians demonstrated positive attitudes to professionalism principles. However, their reported behaviors were at times inconsistent with their attitudes, especially in the areas of competence, quality improvement, and self-regulation. One of effective strategies to facilitate Chinese physicians' professionalism may be to improving hospital management. PMID:23102754
Chen, Jing; Xu, Juan; Zhang, Chunmei; Fu, Xinqiao
Medical student selection is an important but difficult task. Three recent papers by McManus et al. in BMC Medicine have re-examined the role of tests of attainment of learning (A' levels, GCSEs, SQA) and of aptitude (AH5, UKCAT), but on a much larger scale than previously attempted. They conclude that A' levels are still the best predictor of future success at medical school and beyond. However, A' levels account for only 65% of the variance in performance that is found. Therefore, more work is needed to establish relevant assessment of the other 35%. Please see related research articles http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/242, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/243 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/244. PMID:24229397
Medical student selection is an important but difficult task. Three recent papers by McManus et al. in BMC Medicine have re-examined the role of tests of attainment of learning (A’ levels, GCSEs, SQA) and of aptitude (AH5, UKCAT), but on a much larger scale than previously attempted. They conclude that A’ levels are still the best predictor of future success at medical school and beyond. However, A’ levels account for only 65% of the variance in performance that is found. Therefore, more work is needed to establish relevant assessment of the other 35%. Please see related research articles http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/242, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/243 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/244.
Purpose: Blogging is an increasingly popular method of sharing and reflecting on experiences of medical students in the World Wide Web with a potentially global learning community. The authors are not aware of studies that specifically examined blogs by medical students and thus for the first time investigated the type of experiences and impressions that emerged from these blogs with relevance for medical students and medical educators. Method: This was a qualitative study. Initially 75 blogs were identified. 33 blogs with a total of 1228 English and 337 German blog entries met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. We started with line-by-line coding and switched to focused coding using constant comparative analysis to create a categorical framework for blogs. Results: Medical students use blogs to write and reflect about a large variety of issues related to medical school. Major emerging themes included the preparation for written and oral high-stakes exams, experiences during clinical rotations, dealing with distressing situations during medical school, and social life of students beyond medical school. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that blogs are a potentially useful tool for medical students to reflect on their experiences during medical school as well as for medical educators to better understand how students perceive their time in medical school. The educational benefit of blogging might even be increased if trained medical educators would help to facilitate meaningful and targeted discussions emerging from blog entries and comment on students' learning challenges with the chance to reach a large community of learners. PMID:23467720
Pinilla, Severin; Weckbach, Ludwig T; Alig, Stefan K; Bauer, Helen; Noerenberg, Daniel; Singer, Katharina; Tiedt, Steffen
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine whether personality is related to medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills and self-ratings on communication skills. Methods: 524 first- and 507 second-year medical students completed the Communications Skills Attitudes Scale and rated their own communication skills. First-year students answered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and second-year students the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses, controlling for gender, were conducted to study the impact of personality on attitudes. Analysis of variance followed by post hoc Duncan test was used to compare differences in personality traits depending on students' self-ratings on communication skills. Results: After controlling for gender, personality traits predicted differences in attitudes and were significantly related to medical students' self-ratings. Medical students with higher scores on psychoticism or aggression-hostility showed worse attitudes. Students who tended to have a better self-image scored higher on extraversion, psychoticism, impulsive-sensation seeking, or aggression-hostility traits. Conclusions: Findings support the consideration of personality traits for better student career guidance and counselling. Some students could have more difficulties to internalize certain healthcare professional competencies and show more resistance to attitude change.
Dealing with emotions is a critical feature of professional behaviour. There are no comprehensive theoretical models, however, explaining how medical students learn about emotions. We aimed to explore factors affecting their emotions and how they learn to deal with emotions in themselves and others. During a first-year nursing attachment in hospitals and nursing homes, students wrote daily about their most impressive experiences, explicitly reporting what they felt, thought, and did. In a subsequent interview, they discussed those experiences in greater detail. Following a grounded theory approach, we conducted a constant comparative analysis, collecting and then interpreting data, and allowing the interpretation to inform subsequent data collection. Impressive experiences set up tensions, which gave rise to strong emotions. We identified four 'axes' along which tensions were experienced: 'idealism versus reality', 'critical distance versus adaptation', 'involvement versus detachment' and 'feeling versus displaying'. We found many factors, which influenced how respondents relieved those tensions. Their personal attributes and social relationships both inside and outside the medical community were important ones. Respondents' positions along the different dimensions, as determined by the balance between attributes and tensions, shaped their learning outcomes. Medical students' emotional development occurs through active participation in medical practice and having impressive experiences within relationships with patients and others on wards. Tensions along four dimensions give rise to strong emotions. Gaining insight into the many conditions that influence students' learning about emotions might support educators and supervisors in fostering medical students' emotional and professional development. PMID:23949724
Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Dornan, Tim; Koopmans, Raymond
Today's medical students are being confronted with ethical situations of far greater complexity than were their predecessors and yet the medical education system does little to prepare students for the ethical dilemmas which they inevitably face when entering the hospital environment. The following article addresses the issues surrounding a case where a patient has told a student in confidence of his plans to commit suicide. What should the student do? The only way for the student to prevent ...
Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the characteristics of mentoring relationships formed between faculty and medical students. Individual mentoring relationships of clinical medical students at Munich Medical School were characterized quantitatively and qualitatively. Methods: All students signing up for the mentoring program responded to a questionnaire on their expectations (n = 534. Mentees were asked to give feedback after each of their one-on-one meetings (n = 203. A detailed analysis of the overall mentoring process and its characteristics was performed. For qualitative text analysis, free-text items were analyzed and categorized by two investigators. Quantitative analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon-test to assess differences in grades between students with and without mentors. Results: High-performing students were significantly more likely to participate in the mentoring program (p<0.001. Topics primarily discussed include the mentee's personal goals (65.5%, career planning (59.6%, and experiences abroad (57.6%. Mentees mostly perceived their mentors as counselors (88.9%, providers of ideas (85.0%, and role models (73.3%. Mentees emphasized the positive impact of the mentoring relationship on career planning (77.2% and research (75.0%. Conclusions: Medical students with strong academic performance as defined by their grades are more likely to participate in formal mentoring programs. Mentoring relationships between faculty and medical students are perceived as a mutually satisfying and effective instrument for key issues in medical students’ professional development. Practical implications: Mentoring relationships are a highly effective means of enhancing the bidirectional flow of information between faculty and medical students. A mentoring program can thus establish a feedback loop enabling the educational institution to swiftly identify and address issues of medical students.
International students representing 75 countries (N=172) completed Fischer and Turner's scale of Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Help. Analyses of results suggested that international students inexperienced with professional help perceive it as a nontrustworthy, inappropriate means for solving personal difficulties. (Author)
Dadfar, Sohrab; Friedlander, Myran L.
This paper reports a case study that investigated the practice of peer assessment in a professional course, with particular emphasis on students' experience. It was found that peer assessment processes were beneficial to students' learning and development as professionals. The case study pointed to several conditions for effective implementation…
Vu, Thu Thuy; Dall'Alba, Gloria
Both in the general public and in the professional communities, very diverse notions of euthanasia can be found. At the same time determining of the precise semantics of euthanasia is one of the crucial prerequisites for subsequent meaningful ethical discussion of euthanasia. The paper analyzes an empirical study investigating the understanding of euthanasia by medical students. The aim of the conducted research was to identify the semantic definitions of euthanasia used by the first-year medical students. Keywords: euthanasia - death - thanatology - killing. PMID:24968293
Ku?e, Josef; Va?harová, Michaela
Professional ethics instruction in engineering is commonly conducted by examining case studies in light of the code of conduct of a suitable professional body. Although graphical presentations of spectacular failures, sobering stories of the repercussions and the solid framework provided by the tenets of a code of ethics may leave a lasting impression, students generally gain their professional identity from relatives and colleagues. Their professional ethics tend to be mostly an extension of...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Migration and ethical recruitment of health care workers is receiving increased attention worldwide. Europe’s aging population is creating new opportunities for medical doctors for finding employment in other countries, particularly those of a better standard of living. Methods We conducted a survey among 1214 medical students in five out of eleven universities in Poland with medical schools in October 2008. A series of statistical tests was applied to analyse the characteristics of potential migrants. Projections were obtained using statistical analyses: descriptive, multifactorial logistic regression and other statistical methods . Results We can forecast that 26–36% of Polish medical students will emigrate over the next few years; 62% of respondents estimated the likelihood of emigration at 50%. Students in their penultimate year of study declared a stronger desire to migrate than those in the final year. At the same time, many students were optimistic about career opportunities in Poland. Also noted among students were: the decline in interest in leaving among final year students, their moderate elaboration of departure plans, and their generally optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland. Conclusions The majority of Polish students see the emigration as a serious alternative to the continuation of their professional training. This trend can pose a serious threat to the Polish health care system, however the observed decline of the interest in leaving among final year students, the moderate involvement in concrete departure plans and the optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland suggest that the actual scale of brain drain of young Polish doctors due to emigration will be more limited than previously feared.
As part of a large scale practice analysis on Phlebotomy Technicians (PBTs), Medical Laboratory Technicians (MLTs), and Medical Technologists (MTs), additional data on four "home made measures" of professional-related outcomes, i.e., professional development, quality assurance monitoring, employer reimbursement, and types of continuing education, were also collected. In order to maximize data use from the overall sample of 3,097 respondents (constituting only 18% of the population surveyed), pairwise deletion of data was utilized. No a priori differences between PBTs, MLTs and MTs on these outcomes were hypothesized, and none were found for professional development and employer reimbursement. The finding that PBTs were lower than MLTs and MTs on quality assurance monitoring was interpreted as being job expected. Despite the study limitations, professional development for not just laboratory professionals but all allied health professionals remains an important recruitment and retention issue, as demand for all health services is expected to increase. PMID:19753394
Blau, Gary; Portwood, Jim; Chapman, Susan; Doyle, Kay; Holladay, Blair; Freeman, Vicki
Full Text Available Background: Birth order is claimed to be linked with academic achievement. However, many scientists do not accept it. Objective: To assess the association of birth order in North Indian medical students with number of attempts to cross the competition bar. Study design: Cross sectional study. Setting and participation: M.B.B.S. 1st year students of L.L.R.M. Medical College, Meerut. Statistical analysis used: Chi Square test. Methods: Enquiry of Birth order and number of attempts to crack the medical entrance examination from responded 360 medical students among 494 students admitted during 2005 – 2010. Results: The study revealed insignificant relationship between ages of entrance in medical college in both sexes. of 360 students responded 37% students were of first Birth order. Among those admitted in first attempt, 67% students were of first birth order and proportion of success in first attempt reduced with increasing birth order. Conclusion: Birth Order strongly influences academic achievements.
Background. Adherence to hygiene guidelines is of utmost importance for healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge on and the adherence to hygiene guidelines among medical students in Austria. Additionally, a possible difference between female and male students was investigated. Methods. An open paper-based survey among third-year medical students at the Medical University of Graz was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of 20 single-choice questions cover...
Herbert, Verena G.; Schlumm, Paul; Kessler, Harald H.; Frings, Andreas
Background: There is hardly any structured study reporting the perspective of medical students, with regard to the medical education system in Maharashtra, which is facing challenges. Aim: A perception study of students was conducted to explore the situation, challenges, and consequent solutions of medical education in Maharashtra. Settings and Design: A descriptive perception study. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was e-mailed to 92 students, and...
Hira R; Gupta A; Salvi V; Ross M
OBJECTIVE: To explore factors that influence senior medical students to pursue careers in family medicine. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. SETTING: University of Western Ontario (UWO) in London. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven of 29 graduating UWO medical students matched to Canadian family medicine residency programs beginning in July 2001. METHOD: Eleven semistructured interviews were conducted with a maximum variation sample of medical students. Interviews were transcribed ...
Jordan, John; Brown, Judith Belle; Russell, Grant
BACKGROUND--There have been numerous studies on smoking habits among young adults in developed countries. Similar data from developing countries are scanty. METHODS--A survey of medical students from one of the medical colleges in Pakistan assessed their smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking. In June 1993 a coded survey questionnaire was sent to each medical student at The Aga Khan Medical University in Karachi requesting data on their smoking habits, their attitudes towards smoking in...
Full Text Available Introduction. Mental health problems of adolescents are among the prevailing problems of public health. While studying for their future medical profession, the students of medicine have to exchange emotions with the patients intensively, and the empathic relationship itself bears a risk of eventual ”emotional depletion”, which leads to ”professional lack of emotions”. The study was aimed at presenting burnout syndrome as a challenge for mental health of medical students, its importance for the future professional engagement of doctors and the possibilities of its prevention. Methods. The authors of this paper review and analyze data and conclusions of previous national and international studies from this field and suggest possibilities of overcoming the condition of burnout. Results. The frequency of burnout syndrome, which is the synonym for the above mentioned condition of emotional exhaustion, is twice as high in medical professionals, particularly young ones, as in other professions on average. Burnout syndrome is nowadays regarded as a psychological distress experienced during the educational process and it has been observed in as many as 50% of medical students. The most significant factors independently associated with student burnout are: personality traits, stressful personal life events and learning and training conditions at their faculties. Conclusions. It is of utmost importance to understand the causes and consequences of psychological distress in students, and the faculties should not only identify these problems, but also endeavor to promote health by developing strategies for improving personal well-being, which are important for future doctors to achieve professional success and develop resistance to stress.
Full Text Available Based on the Global Health Professions Student Survey questionnaire, 770 students of Kazan Medical University, third and fifth years were surveyed. About 90% responded that health professionals should be educated to provide smoking cessation help, while one in five reported to have acquired such skills. Students were more likely to consider quit advice effective if they got classes on smoking cessation and relevant medicines. Classes just on tobacco health impact were not associated with higher confidence that quit advice is effective. It is recommended to strengthen curricula with knowledge and skills regarding smoking cessation help. (Full text is in Russian
Research training is essential in a modern undergraduate medical curriculum. Our evaluation aimed to (a) gauge students\\' awareness of research activities, (b) compare students\\' perceptions of their transferable and research-specific skills competencies, (c) determine students\\' motivation for research and (d) obtain students\\' personal views on doing research.
Burgoyne, Louise N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as “a “persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient”. Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0% of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.
Financial relationships among the biomedical industries, physicians, and professional medical associations (PMAs) can be professional, ethical, mutually beneficial, and, most importantly, can lead to improved medical care. However, such relationships, by their very nature, present conflicts of interest (COIs). One of the greatest concerns regarding COI is continuing medical education (CME), especially because currently industry funds 40-60% of CME. COIs have the potential to bias physicians in practice, educators, and those in leadership positions of PMAs and well as the staff of a PMA. These conflicts lead to the potential to bias the content and type of CME presentations and thereby influence physicians' practice patterns and patient care. Physicians are generally aware of the potential for bias when industry contributes funding for CME, but they are most often unable to detect the bias. This may because it is very subtle and/or the educators themselves may not realize that they have been influenced by their relationships with industry. Following Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education guidelines and mandating disclosure that is transparent and complete have become the fallback positions to manage COIs, but such disclosure does not really mitigate the conflict. The eventual and best solutions to ensure evidence-based education are complete divestment by educators and leaders of PMAs, minimal and highly controlled industry funding of PMAs, blind pooling of any industry contributions to PMAs and CME, strict verification of disclosures, clear separation of marketing from education at CME events, and strict oversight of presentations for the presence of bias. PMID:22145759
Full Text Available Objectives: To explore medical students' experiences of an emotionally challenging learning situation: the autopsy. Methods: Qualitative data were collected by means of written accounts from seventeen students after their first and third autopsies and a group interview with seven students after their first autopsy. Data was interpreted using inductive thematic analysis. Results: Students experienced the autopsy in three ways: as an unnatural situation, as a practical exercise, and as a way to learn how pathologists work. Most students found the situation unpleasant, but some were overwhelmed. Their experiences were characterised by strong unpleasant emotions and closeness to the situation. The body was perceived as a human being, recently alive. Students who experienced the autopsy as a practical exercise saw it mainly as a part of the course and their goal was to learn anatomy and pathology. They seemed to objectify the body and distanced themselves from the situation. Students who approached the autopsy as a way to learn how pathologists work concentrated on professional aspects of the autopsy. The body was perceived as a patient rather than as a biological specimen. Conclusions: Autopsies are emotionally challenging learning situations. If students attend autopsies, they need to participate in several autopsies in order to learn about procedures and manifestations of pathological changes. Students need opportunities to discuss their experiences afterwards, and teachers need to be aware of how different students perceive the autopsies, and guide students through the procedure. Our findings emphasize the importance of investigating emotional aspects of medical education.
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of professionalism scenarios on the medical school admissions process from applicant and faculty perspectives. Specifically, do completing professionalism scenarios as part of the medical school interview process have an impact on both the interviewee’s and the faculty’s perception of the process and outcome?Method: Ninety-one faculty interviewed 199 applicants from January 2007 through April 2007 at The University of Toledo College of Medicine. All applicants were asked one standard professionalism scenario in each of their two interviews. A total of six scenarios were used for the entire interviewing season in rotation every two months. A survey was administered by an admissions office staff member to both the interviewed applicants as well as faculty who conducted interviews about how these scenarios impacted their interview experience.Results: Asking applicants to respond to professionalism scenarios during the interview was described as having a positive influence on their interview experience. This was also associated with leaving an impression on the applicant about what our institution values in its students and contributed an element of personal reflection about what will be expected of them in the medical profession. Applicants more often reported that asking questions about professionalism was an important aspect of the interview than did faculty. Overall, there was an association between the interviewer’s perception of the applicant’s response and the interviewer’s assessment of professionalism.Conclusions: Professionalism scenarios can be a worthwhile tool for use in the admissions process. The interview process should encourage participation from faculty who value this as an important component in the evaluation of an applicant. Determinants of faculty perception of the role of assessing professionalism in the interview process should be investigated in future research.
James Kleshinski, MD
Presents the historical background of how medical illustration was incorporated into a science, math, and technology curriculum. Describes the four-week, adapted graduate medical illustration program that aimed to provide a more realistic understanding of graduate school experience to high school students. Describes student development while…
Edwards, Robert; Reynon, Cheryl; Case, Jennifer
Results of a nationwide survey of students showed that, when the students had access to information from medical professionals (faculty members, deans, house physicians) regarding residency selection, they felt they had greater access than did students who made greater use of other sources (official directories, classmates, and the "grapevine").…
Taggart, Mary P.; And Others
Full Text Available Introduction: Myanmar is one of South East Asian countries and tobacco consumption and ?exposure to environmental smoking in Myanmar youth is high from the report of Global Youth ?Tobacco Survey. Tobacco control experts and Global Health Professional Survey on youth ?reports have emphasized the importance of training medical students about tobacco smoking. ?This study examined cigarette smoking among a sample of newly intake medical students of ?famous medical university in Myanmar. The knowledge and practice and factors associated with ?cigarette smoking in students were discussed and issues which need to be implemented to control ?the smoking among them in the future are presented.?Objective: To find out the knowledge upon tobacco smoking among first year medical students, ?to determine the smoking practice of first year medical student and To determine the gender ?difference of smoking among the studentsMethod: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was done among first year medical ?students of the University of Medicine-1, Yangon, during August 2007. Data were collected ?using a pretested structured self-administered questionnaire. Questionnaire included sections ?about socio-demographic information, smoking behaviour and knowledge. Current smoker was ?defined as a person who practiced tobacco smoking at the time of data collection. Ex-smoker ?was defined as a person who quit smoking more than a year ago. ?Result: There were total 400 first year medical students were participated in the survey. Median ?age of the students was 17 years, 53.3% were males and 45.8% females. Overall prevalence of ?current smokers and ex-smokers was 5.8% and 3.5% respectively. Median age at initiation of ?smoking was 14.5 years. The difference in rates smokers between male (8.9% and female (2.1% ?students was statistically significant. Most of the students aware of the health hazard of smoking ?but nearly half the students had poor knowledge about prevention and control of smoking.?Conclusion: Smoking among medical students was less frequent than youth in Myanmar. ?Medical educators may utilize this positive mindset of future doctors to train them about ?prevention and control of tobacco smoking.?
Kye Mon Min Swe
In this paper, an extended teaching implication is performed based on the study of medical students’ linguistic needs in Tawian (Hwang, Lin, 2010). The aims of previous study were to provide a description of the linguistic needs and perceptions of medical students and faculty members in Taiwan. However, this paper put more thoughts on the pedagogical application of the findings. The paper presented teaching implication of medical English or general English based on perceptions of m...
A 63-item questionnaire on attitudes to psychosocial issues in medicine was administered to final-year students in the Faculties of Medicine (n = 104), Pharmacy (n = 57) and Arts and Social Sciences (n = 75) of the University of Benin. The responses given were analysed by the summation and Cornell scalogram techniques for content and intensity. On aggregate, the pharmacy students scored significantly higher than their medical and arts/social science counterparts (P advantage over medical students was on only one subscale: paramedical cooperation. The scores of the pharmacy and arts/social science groups were significantly lowe than those of medical students on the social factors subscale. On issues that threaten to diminish the traditional role and status of the medical profession (e.g. paramedical cooperation and government intervention), the attitude of medical students was either unenthusiastic or clearly resentful. However, they shared the same orientation as the other groups towards matters which did not challenge the prerogatives of medical doctors (e.g. preventive medicine and doctor-patient relationship). It is suggested that measures be adopted to raise the level of awareness of non-health professionals vis--vis the non-biological antecedents of disease and also to bridge the gap in attitudes among groups in the health care team. PMID:8594390
Nnodim, J O; Osuji, C U
ELearning provides healthcare professionals an interesting alternative of participating to Continuing Medical Education (CME) activities. It offers the possibility to attend courses at a distance, and it allows creating personal learning schedules without needing to leave the job or the family. Hospitals can choose to organize CME activities for their employees and therefore may also opt to offer eLearning activities. The research studies eLearning acceptance in the CME of healthcare p...
Bachmann, Larissa; Cantoni, Lorenzo
Tobacco is a major preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality. Health professionals are uniquely positioned to provide targeted interventions and should be empowered to provide cessation counselling that influence patient smoking. A cross-sectional national survey was administered to all third year students in four disciplines at the University of Malta. The Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) questionnaire was distributed to collect standardised demographic, smoking...
Prescriptive authority has been extended in the UK to include non-medical healthcare professionals. However, uptake and use of prescribing by these professionals are inconsistent. Collaborative practice is key for its successful implementation, and such practice is a benefit of interprofessional education (IPE). This study explored the feasibility of IPE between nurse prescribers at Anglia Ruskin University and 3rd year medical students at the University of Cambridge. Three focus groups and three individual interviews were undertaken with nurse and medical prescribing students, following shared learning sessions on drug interactions, prescription writing and legal issues and accountability. Benefits included the opportunity for mutual understanding of prescribing training and role. Medical students valued the opportunity to be able to gain an insight into nurses' views about prescribing. The level and breadth of pharmacology knowledge of medical and nursing students differed. Location of sessions, scheduling of classes and balancing of students acted as barriers to learning. PMID:23025499
The study explored the ways in which qualified and trainee clinical psychologists perceived professional behaviour, as illustrated in a series of short vignettes, in student and clinical practice contexts. Comparisons were made to identify the extent to which ideas of professionalism differed across different learning contexts and between qualified and unqualified staff, with the aim of adding to the literature on which factors influence the development of professional identity in health professionals. An online questionnaire depicting a range of potentially unprofessional behaviours was completed by 265 clinical psychology trainees and 106 qualified clinical psychologists. The data were analysed using a general linear model with simultaneous entry in which rater (trainee vs qualified clinical psychologist), setting (student vs placement) and their interaction predicted acceptability ratings. We found that, in general, trainees and qualified staff agreed on those behaviours that were potentially unprofessional, although where significant differences were found, these were due to trainees rating the same behaviours as more professionally acceptable than qualified clinical psychologists. Despite trainees identifying a range of behaviours as professionally unacceptable, some percentage reported having engaged in a similar behaviour in the past. Irrespective of the status of the rater, the same behaviours tended to be viewed as more professionally unacceptable when in a placement (clinical) setting than in a student (university) setting. Generally, no support was found for a rater by setting interaction. The study suggests that trainee clinical psychologists are generally successful at identifying professional norms, although they do not always act in accordance with these. Conflicting student and professional norms may result in trainees viewing some potentially unprofessional behaviour as less severe than qualified staff. Health professional educators should be aware of this fact and take steps to shape trainee norms to be consistent with that of the professional group. PMID:23053871
McKenzie, Karen; Cossar, Jill A; Fawns, Tim; Murray, Aja L
Full text: The active process of technical equipment of radiation therapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology departments requires increased staffing of qualified medical physicists in Russia. To work with the radiotherapy equipment, treatment and diagnostic procedures available in Russian clinics today, it is necessary to have 1,000 medical radiation physics, 30% of which should have a high degree of professional excellence. To achieve the required high technology equipment and procedure level it is essential to have 5,000 specialists. Today Russia has only 280 medical radiation physicists, 25 of which have high qualification - less than 10%. The efficient exploitation of modern radiation therapeutic diagnostic technologies and equipment demands highly qualified medical radiation physicists. However, in Russia the medical physicist responsibilities in the clinic are carried out by the specialists who do not have the basic radiation physics education and the necessary basis of physical and technical knowledge. Medical and clinical physics knowledge is acquired at random through various courses, by self education or empirically without quality and thoroughness control. It is natural that it adversely affects the physical and technical maintenance of radiation therapy and, in the end, the cancer patient treatment quality. Medical physicists are required in different areas, such as: 1. clinics together with the physician to deliver procedures in radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology 2. scientific and engineering organizations involved in the new radiological equipment and technology development 3. universities and other educational institutions engaged in the system of continuing education and professional development of medical physicists and research activities 4. companies supplying medical radiological equipment 5. companies busy with the equipment maintenance, adjustment and certification 6. project organizations involved in scientific planning, design and development of the system equipment of radiation therapeutic and diagnostic centres. It is understood that the areas mentioned above demand specific knowledge and skills from the medical physicists and this should be taken into consideration when elaborating the educational programmes. There are several departments of 'medical physics' speciality in Russian universities. However, the approved student education programme does not meet the modern requirements. Practically, there are no qualified medical physics professors in universities. Therefore, as before, the majority of graduates and medical physicists in clinics do not fit the necessary qualification. The Association of Medical Physicists in Russia (AMPR) has developed and realized the programme on the system of continuing education and professional development of medical radiation physicists based on the cycle of special courses on different sections of radiation therapeutic and diagnostic physics. AMPR and the leading oncology centres in Russia regularly organize courses. The ESTRO teaching courses, supported by the IAEA, also contribute a lot to the professional education of Russian medical physicists. For the efficient organization of scientific and education activities, mainly in the field of the continuing education and professional development of medical physicists, AMPR has established a non-profit Institute of Medical Physics and Engineering (IMPE) which has united practically all leading scientists and professors in medical radiation physics. The group of highly skilled professors is chosen from the best Russian specialists and specially prepared for the training courses. Guidelines and recommendations are developed. Practical studies are conducted in the leading oncology centres. A viable education and training system allows to provide the necessary professional knowledge level, individual qualification control and certification of medical physicists. However, AMPR and IMPE are doing on their own without support from the government, sponsors and investors. AMPR and IMPE a re i
Full Text Available Background: Research training is essential in a modern undergraduate medical curriculum. Our evaluation aimed to (a gauge students’ awareness of research activities, (b compare students’ perceptions of their transferable and research-specific skills competencies, (c determine students’ motivation for research and (d obtain students’ personal views on doing research. Methods: Undergraduate medical students (N=317 completed a research skills questionnaire developed by the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning in Applied Undergraduate Research Skills (CETL-AURS at Reading University. The questionnaire assessed students’ transferable skills, research-specific skills (e.g., study design, data collection and data analysis, research experience and attitude and motivation towards doing research. Results: The majority of students are motivated to pursue research. Graduate entrants and male students appear to be the most confident regarding their research skills competencies. Although all students recognise the role of research in medical practice, many are unaware of the medical research activities or successes within their university. Of those who report no interest in a career incorporating research, a common perception was that researchers are isolated from patients and clinical practice. Discussion: Students have a narrow definition of research and what it entails. An explanation for why research competence does not align more closely with research motivation is derived from students’ lack of understanding of the concept of translational research, as well as a lack of awareness of the research activity being undertaken by their teachers and mentors. We plan to address this with specific research awareness initiatives.
Louise N. Burgoyne
Full Text Available Introduction. Most students experience some level of anxiety during the exam. However, when anxiety affects the exam performance, it represents a problem. Test anxiety is a special form of anxiety, which is characterized with somatic, cognitive and behavioral symptoms of anxiety in situations of preparing and performing tests and exams. Test anxiety turns into a problem when it becomes so high that it interferes with test preparation and performance. The objective of this study was to ascertain the presence of test anxiety in medical students and to analyze some aspects of test anxiety in medical students of different gender, at different years of studying and possibility of failing a year. Material and methods. The study sample consisted of 198 students of Belgrade University School of Medicine of all years. Test anxiety was assessed by the Test Anxiety Inventory. Results. The following results have been obtained in the study: 1. Medical students generally present moderate level of test anxiety; 2. female students have statistically significant more intense symptoms of test anxiety than male students; 3. the most intense symptoms are in the 3rd year and the least are in the 4th year of studies; 4. there is no statistically significant difference in the presence of symptoms of test anxiety among the students who have repeated one of the years of studies and regular students. Conclusion. There is a considerable number of medical students who have intense symptoms of test anxiety and these students require help and support.
Objectives: To explore the lifestyle choices of international medical students attending a ?student conference. ?Study Design: Questionnaire-based census study.?Methods: A pre-tested structured questionnaire was given to the 481 delegates attending an ?international medical student conference in 2009 in Macedonia. The respondents were asked ?questions on their demographics, physical activity, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, sexual ?activity and nutritional intake. The results...
Full Text Available Background: The implementation of ICT in the academic curriculum is a part of the e-reform of the undergraduate education currently ongoing at the Moroccan medical school. In order to evaluate the efficiency of such reform, the authors have conducted a survey at the Marrakech school of medicine including 200 students. Materials and Methods: A comparison between the third year medical students and sixth year medical students was performed in our university Hospital. Results: The majority of the students have a personal computer and internet access. Our study shows no significant differences between third year medical students and sixth year medical students. In both students? groups the level of internet and computer access, the internet skills, the opinions on internet use and ICT implementation and the difficulties encountered when using internet for medical purpose were similar. This can be explained by the lack of no implementation of ICT in our university. Conclusion: The learning process is still based on traditional methods. Educational authorities have to train students to improve their internet skills.
Full Text Available The author considers organizational and methodological terms of implementation of professional and applied physical training for maritime students subject to their motivation to physical self-perfection. The purpose of the research is to define organizational and pedagogical terms for professional and applied physical training of maritime students to improve their physical condition and special physical attainment. The applied methods were: anthropometric metrology, functional probes, tonometry, pulsometry, motion tests and mathematical analysis. 70 students of 17-18 years participated in the research. It was determined that organizational and pedagogical terms directed on acceleration of making necessary for students to self-improve physically, positively impact on development of special physical state that are fundamental for professional activities of maritime students.
Full Text Available Medical students experience stress during medical education that can negatively impact performance. Typical curricula in U.S. medical schools are rigorously intense and provide little or no time off between courses in the first two years of training. This intensity contributes to increased stress for students accustomed to performing academically near the top of the class prior to matriculating in medical school. We describe an innovative new academic calendar that was modified to create a Professional Enrichment Program. Students can step back from the rigors of coursework and engage in several types of activities in order to decompress from recent studying and examinations. These activities include electives, service opportunities, independent study, and clinical experiences that are self-selected by students. Students and faculty complete surveys about the activities they completed and the usefulness of their choices. Results show broad approval of the program with the greatest results supporting an appreciation of time to decompress and an increase in time for family and personal activities.
Linda R. Adkison
Abstract Background The evidence base for mental illness related stigma interventions in health care professionals and trainees is underdeveloped. This study aimed to examine the impact of mental illness related stigma training on third year medical students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour related to people with mental illness. Methods A non-randomised controlled trial was conducted with 110 third year medical students at a medical school in England to deter...
Baccalaureate nursing students were involved in a unique learning activity that facilitated their understanding of the value of the professional association, The American Nurses Association (ANA). By participating actively in group dialogue, the learners identified critical issues that affect professional nursing practice and appreciated the worth of a committed, organized body of professionals dedicated to improving health care. As an instructional strategy, the activity incorporated numerous teaching and learning principles that supported the learners' decision-making, analytical, and interpersonal process skill development. The technique may be used with a variety of topics that concern nursing students. PMID:2011277
Lindsay, E G; Gaddis, L M
Information and communication technology (ICT) becomes an important way for the knowledge transmission, especially in the field of medicine. Podcasting (mobile broadcast content) has recently emerged as an efficient tool for distributing information towards professionals, especially for e-learning contents.The goal of this work is to implement software and hardware tools for collecting medical lectures at its source by direct recording (halls and classrooms) and provide the automatic delivery of these resources for students on different type of devices (computer, smartphone or videogames console). We describe the overall architecture and the methods used by medical students to master this technology in their daily activities. We highlight the benefits and the limits of the Podcast technologies for medical education. PMID:21893751
Brunet, Pierre; Cuggia, Marc; Le Beux, Pierre
Abstract Background Medical education and training can contribute to the development of depressive symptoms that might lead to possible academic and professional consequences. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of depressive symptoms among 481 medical students (79.8% of the total who matriculated). Methods The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and cluster analyses were used in order to better describe the characteristics of depressive symptoms. Medical ed...
Baldassin Sergio; Alves Tânia; de Andrade Arthur; Nogueira Martins Luiz
Objectives: To assess the self-perceived need and preferred format for educational intervention among Latvian medical students in fostering the increasing demanding of management-related competences for healthcare professionals. Methods: A cross sectional study design was used to assess student-perceived deficiencies and the need for knowledge and skills in 10 different domains of activity. All medical students from one of the two major Latvian universities were invited to participate in this...
Juris Barzdins; Atis Barzdins
Although evidence of medical student mistreatment has accumulated for more than 20 years, only recently have professional organizations like the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and the American Medical Association truly acknowledged it as an issue. Since 1991, the AAMC's annual Medical School Graduation Questionnaire (GQ) has included questions about mistreatment. Responses to the GQ have become the major source of evidence of the prevalence and types of mistreatment. This article reviews national mistreatment data, using responses to the GQ from 2000 through 2012; examines how students' experiences have changed over time; and highlights the implications of this information for the broader medical education system. The authors discuss what mistreatment is, including the changing definitions from the GQ; the prevalence, types, and sources of mistreatment; and evidence of students reporting incidents. In addition, they discuss next steps, including better defining mistreatment, specifically public humiliation and belittling, taking into account students' subjective evaluations; understanding and addressing the influence of institutional culture and what institutions can learn from current approaches at other institutions; and developing better systems to report and respond to reports of mistreatment. They conclude with a discussion of how mistreatment currently is conceptualized within the medical education system and the implications of that conceptualization for eradicating mistreatment in the future. PMID:24667505
Mavis, Brian; Sousa, Aron; Lipscomb, Wanda; Rappley, Marsha D
To compare the study motives and career choices of senior undergraduate medical and dental students in Iran. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey study involving final year medical and dental students from 4 dental and medical schools was conducted in 2010. The questionnaire was designed in three sections (Demographic details, motivational items and career choice items) and after confirming the validity and reliability of the questions, it was distributed among the students. Data were entered into SPSS; statistical analysis included logistic regression and multiple linear regression. The response rate was 62% (n=219) for medical and 64% (n=300) for dental students. The factor analysis identified six motivational items: "Social and professional status", "Health care and people", "Others' recommendation", "personal interest and nature of occupation", "Occupational experience" and "Personal life". Medical students were more influenced by "Playing a role in community health" and "Personal interest". "Work independence" and "Social factors" however were two major influential factors among dental students. There were significant differences in important influences by age (Social and professional status, Others' recommendation), Parents' education (Social and professional status, Health care and people, Personal life) and marital status (single >married: Occupational experience, married > single: Personal life). Engaging in postgraduate studies was the first career preference among 90.9% and 89.8% of dental and medical students respectively. Medical and dental students report a wide range of motivational factors in studying medicine/dentistry and future career plans which is affected by age, parents' education and marital status. PMID:22837121
Vahid Dastjerdi, Marzieh; Mahdian, Mina; Vahid Dastjerdi, Elahe; Namdari, Mahshid
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GH [...] PSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p
Margherita, Ferrante; Rosella, Saulle; Caterina, Ledda; Roberto, Pappalardo; Roberto, Fallico; Giuseppe, La Torre; Maria, Fiore.
Information about medical students' lifestyles was obtained from 785 second-year students from seven medical schools in Great Britain by a personally administered questionnaire. Fifteen per cent of the students were non-drinkers. Among those who drank, 48% of the men and 38% of the women exceeded sensible weekly limits of alcohol consumption, and high-risk levels of consumption were reported by 12% of men and 7% of women. Cannabis had been used at least once or twice by more than half the men and 40% of the women, and 10% reported regular use (weekly or more often). Experience with other illicit drugs was also reported: amphetamines (8% of students), LSD (7%), ecstasy (4%), amyl/butyl nitrate (10%) and magic mushrooms (7%). Nineteen per cent of the students had used two or more different drugs. Experience with illicit drugs started before entering university in more than a third of those who used them. Comparison of the results with other student surveys suggests that the lifestyles of medical students differ little from those of other student groups, but that alcohol and illicit drug consumption is increasing in university students generally. Prospective studies are under way to establish whether medical students change their lifestyles at later stages of their course and after qualification. PMID:9743790
Webb, E; Ashton, C H; Kelly, P; Kamah, F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication training builds on the assumption that understanding of the concepts related to professional communication facilitates the training. We know little about whether students' knowledge of clinical communication skills is affected by their attendance of communication training courses, or to what degree other elements of the clinical training or curriculum design also play a role. The aim of this study was to determine which elements of the curriculum influence acquisition of knowledge regarding clinical communication skills by medical students. Methods The study design was a cross-sectional survey performed in the four Norwegian medical schools with different curricula, spring 2003. A self-administered questionnaire regarding knowledge of communication skills (an abridged version of van Dalen's paper-and-pencil test was sent to all students attending the four medical schools. A total of 1801 (59% students responded with complete questionnaires. Results At the end of the 1st year of study, the score on the knowledge test was higher in students at the two schools running communication courses and providing early patient contact (mean 81% than in the other two medical schools (mean 69–75%, P ? 0.001, with students studying a traditional curriculum scoring the lowest. Their scores increased sharply towards the end of the 3rd year, during which they had been subjected to extensive patient contact and had participated in an intensive communication course (77% vs. 72% the previous year, P ? 0.01. All students scored generally lower in academic years in which there was no communication training. However, at the end of the final year the difference between the schools was only 5% (81% vs. 86%, P ? 0.001. Conclusion The acquisition of knowledge regarding communication skills by medical students may be optimised when the training is given together with extensive supervised patient contact, especially if this teaching takes place in the initial years of the curriculum.
Full Text Available Background: Medical education can contribute to the development of depression in medical students which may have possible negative academic and professional consequences. The aims of this study were to explore the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their relationships to socio-demographic variables among a cross section of medical students of a private medical college in India. Methods: A cross-sectional anonymous questionnaire-based survey was conducted including all students from first to fourth year of a medical college in India. Beck depression inventory was used to assess the level of depression with a score of 12 or higher considered depressive. Additional questions regarding demographic variables were also included in the survey. Data analysis was done on Epi info version 6. Results: A total of 336 students participated giving a response rate of 88%. A total of 49.1% students reported depressive symptoms. It was significantly higher in 1st year (59.3% and 2nd year (65.6%, as compared to 3rd (34.4% and 4th year (37.2% students [p<0. 05]. Substance abuse(p<0.0001, first and second year of study, female sex and language of instruction other than English at 10+2 level were associated factors for the development of depressive symptoms [p<0.05]. A significant negative association was also found between regular exercise and depression (p<0.05. Conclusion: Depression may be a significant hidden problem in Indian medical students and mechanisms to identify and help students with mental health problems should be seriously considered.
Full Text Available Background: Although medical students’ initial orientation is an important point of transition in medical education, there is a paucity of literature on the subject and major variations in the ways that different institutions orient incoming medical students to their programs. Methods: We conducted a discourse analysis of medical education orientation in the literature and on data from a survey of peer institutions’ approaches to orientation. Results: These two discourses of orientation had clear similarities, in particular, the critical role of ceremony and symbols, and the focus on developing professionalism and physician identities. There were also differences between them, in particular, in the way that the discourse in the literature focused on the symbolic and professional aspects of orientation; something we have called ‘cultural orientation’. Meanwhile, those who were responsible for orientation in their own institutions tended to focus on the practical and social dimensions. Conclusion: By examining how orientation has been described and discussed, we identify three domains of orientation: cultural, social, and practical. These domains are relatively distinct in terms of the activities associated with them, and in terms of who is involved in organizing and running these activities. We also describe orientation as a liminal activity system on the threshold of medical school where incoming students initially cross into the profession. Interestingly, this state of ambiguity also extends to the scholarship of orientation with only some of its aspects attracting formal enquiry, even though there is a growing interest in transitions in medical education as a whole. We hope, therefore, that this study can help to legitimize enquiry into orientation in all its forms and that it can begin to situate the role of orientation more firmly within the firmament of medical education practice and research.
Rachel H. Ellaway
Background Although medical students’ initial orientation is an important point of transition in medical education, there is a paucity of literature on the subject and major variations in the ways that different institutions orient incoming medical students to their programs. Methods We conducted a discourse analysis of medical education orientation in the literature and on data from a survey of peer institutions’ approaches to orientation. Results These two discourses of orientation had clear similarities, in particular, the critical role of ceremony and symbols, and the focus on developing professionalism and physician identities. There were also differences between them, in particular, in the way that the discourse in the literature focused on the symbolic and professional aspects of orientation; something we have called ‘cultural orientation’. Meanwhile, those who were responsible for orientation in their own institutions tended to focus on the practical and social dimensions. Conclusion By examining how orientation has been described and discussed, we identify three domains of orientation: cultural, social, and practical. These domains are relatively distinct in terms of the activities associated with them, and in terms of who is involved in organizing and running these activities. We also describe orientation as a liminal activity system on the threshold of medical school where incoming students initially cross into the profession. Interestingly, this state of ambiguity also extends to the scholarship of orientation with only some of its aspects attracting formal enquiry, even though there is a growing interest in transitions in medical education as a whole. We hope, therefore, that this study can help to legitimize enquiry into orientation in all its forms and that it can begin to situate the role of orientation more firmly within the firmament of medical education practice and research.
Ellaway, Rachel H.; Cooper, Gerry; Al-Idrissi, Tracy; Dube, Tim; Graves, Lisa
This article describes a method for the assessment of professional student outcomes (performance-type outcomes or soft skills). The method is based upon group activities, research on modern electrical engineering topics by individual students, classroom presentations on chosen research topics, final presentations, and technical report writing.…
Keshavarz, Mohsen; Baghdarnia, Mostafa
Full Text Available Professional ethics instruction in engineering is commonly conducted by examining case studies in light of the code of conduct of a suitable professional body. Although graphical presentations of spectacular failures, sobering stories of the repercussions and the solid framework provided by the tenets of a code of ethics may leave a lasting impression, students generally gain their professional identity from relatives and colleagues. Their professional ethics tend to be mostly an extension of their personal ethics. Instruction on ethics generally serves only to reinforce students’ inclination to act ethically and provides encouragement to act on these beliefs. In this study a survey based on previous investigations was conducted (n=1136 to examine the personal ethical perceptions of engineering students. The survey measured how engineering students perceive their own ethical beliefs and how they perceive the ethical beliefs and actions of their peers. As a learning exercise, students were then challenged by examining their personal ethical beliefs in light of the professional ethics requirements of the Institute of Engineers Australia (IEAust code of conduct. After familiarisation with the Engineers Australia code of ethics, students were also invited to comment regarding their beliefs regarding adherence to this code.
Full Text Available We analyze the results of a study conducted on a sample of students, the purpose of which was diagnostic of their future careers motives. The data obtained using modified and supplemented questionnaire by B.A. Grushin and V.V. Chikin, helps to understand the motives of future professional activities of the following four groups of respondents: students who will not work within their profession, students who have not decided yet, students who will work within profession, young professionals who are already working within specialty. In the article are presented the similarities and differences between these two groups in the structure of professional motivation, identified in the course of the study. The ways of further study of the problem are outlined.
Abstract Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N?=?371) with a response rate of 68%. Results Few responden...
Matharu Kabir; Kravitz Richard L; McMahon Graham T; Wilson Machelle D; Fitzgerald Faith T
Among the core transitions in medical education is the one from medical school to residency. Despite this challenging transition, the final year of medical school is known as lacking structure and clarity. The authors examine the preparation of medical students for the professional and personal challenges of internship in the context of transition courses. They first describe the development of a residency transition course, offered since 2001 at the University of California, San Francisco, S...
Teo, Alan R.; Harleman, Elizabeth; O’sullivan, Patricia S.; Maa, John
Full Text Available Introduction: Professional identity development is one of the main concerns of nursing education. This study aimed to evaluate effective educational components on nursing students’ professional identity using Eisner’s model of criticism and connoisseurship. Methods: Eisner’s Criticism and Connoisseurship Model were used for a qualitative evaluation of the nursing education system. This model includes four steps of descriptive, interpretative, evaluative and thematic evaluation. Data were collected by semi-structured interview and observation. Participants were 15 students and faculty members of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, who were selected by purposive sampling. Data were analyzed by Eisner’s model. Results: Four major themes included student admission, educational system defects, reality shock, and self-esteem. These themes that emerged from educational evaluation are effective in developing the professional identity of Iranian nursing students. Conclusion: It seems that changing the admission process, presenting the nursing discipline to students as much as possible, creating a more realistic education, making an exclusive body of knowledge, and following successful role models are helpful in students’ professional identity development.
Laleh Hosseini Shahidi
Full Text Available Background: Worldwide tobacco is the second most common cause of death. It is the biggest enemy of public health, still people smoke knowing well the consequences. In addition to the high public health costs of treating tobacco-caused diseases, tobacco kills people at the height of their productivity, depriving families of bread winners and nations of a healthy workforce. Tobacco addiction mostly starts at adolescence. Various reasons cited by adolescents being; peer pressure, stress or for fun. Research Question: What is the level of awareness regarding tobacco use among medical students? Objectives: To assess awareness about tobacco abuse among medical students of Uttarakhand. Study Design: Cross-Sectional epidemiological study. Settings and Participants: Medical and Dental students of all professionals excluding Interns of two Medical and two Dental colleges of Uttarakhand were selected for survey. Study Period: May 2008 to October 2008 Sample Size: 400 Medical and Dental students. Sampling Technique: Simple stratified random sampling. Study Variable: A predesigned, pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting information on Age, Sex, Socio-demographic profile, Knowledge and awareness regarding Tobacco use, etc. Statistical Analysis: Standard statistical package i.e. SPSS, Microsoft Excel. Results: Life time prevalence of tobacco use was found to be 31.75%, the most common reasons cited by students was peer pressure 33.7%. The level of awareness regarding the harmful effects of tobacco smoking was found to be 91.8%. Majority 68.3% of tobacco users think that media plays an important source for creating awareness about harmful effects of tobacco. 83.25% students are against tobacco advertisements and support ban, 84.75% on tobacco use in public place. 83.75% students surveyed believed that the preventive measures taken up by the Government are not sufficient.
Full Text Available SM Moslehuddin Ahmed1, Md Anwarul Azim Majumdar2, Rezina Karim3, Sayeeda Rahman2, Nuzhat Rahman41Department of Community Medicine, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 3Department of Microbiology, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 4Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAIntroduction: Information regarding career choices of medical students is important to plan human resources for health, design need-based educational programs, and ensure equitable and quality health care services in a country.Aim: The aim of the study is to identify career choices, nature of career, intended practice locations, and reasons for career choices of Bangladesh medical students.Method: First-, third-, and fifth-year students of Bangladesh Medical College and Uttara Adhunik Medical College completed a self-report questionnaire on career choices, nature of career, intended practice locations, and reasons for career choices. The students were requested to choose three long-term choices from the given specialties.Results: A total of 132 students responded (46 males and 86 females and response rate was 75%. The popular choices (first choice among males and females were medical specialty, surgical specialty, obstetrics and gynecology, and general practice. For first, second, and third choices altogether, male students chose surgical specialties and female students preferred medical specialties. The leading reasons for selecting a specialty were personal interest and wide job opportunity. More than 67% of respondents wanted to join private services and about 90% chose major cities as practice locations. About 43% of respondents expressed willingness to practice medicine in Bangladesh, whereas 51% of total respondents wanted to practice abroad.Discussion: Majority of students intended to specialize in established clinical specialties and subsequently practice in major cities, and more than half wanted to immigrate to other countries. Basic medical subjects and service-oriented (lifestyle-related and preventive/social medical specialties were found to be less attractive. If this pattern continues, Bangladesh will suffer a chronic shortage of health personnel in certain specialties and in rural areas.Conclusions: Reorientation of health care and medical education is needed along with policy settings to attract doctors to the scarcity and high-priority disciplines so that imbalances encountered would be minimal in future.Keywords: career choices, medical students, Bangladesh
SM Moslehuddin Ahmed
As measured by self-assessment, medical students' suicide management skills appear to be better among those having completed a medical interviewing course and those having completed a six-week inpatient psychiatry rotation. Attitudes toward the acceptability of suicide had no impact on selection of correct responses. The utility of the instrument…
Neimeyer, Robert A.; Diamond, Ronald J.
To assess the prevalence of drinking among medical students a questionnaire on smoking, exercise, drinking, and weight was distributed among the students available. A total of 260 replies were received from an estimated available population of 350 students (134 men and 126 women). The mean alcohol consumption obtained by a quantity-frequency measure was 20.5 units/week for male students and 14.6 units/week for female students. Retrospective diary reports showed mean (SE) consumptions of 18 (2...
Collier, D. J.; Beales, I. L.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that medical students are more aware of the benefits of psychotropic treatment than are members of the general public, and that the more knowledge students acquire about psychiatry and pharmacology, the more favorable their attitudes become towards psychotropic drugs and other treatments. Objectives This study among students investigates the relationship between certain aspects of personality and attitudes towards advising adolescents with psychosocial problems about the use of psychotropic medication. Methods Two groups of healthcare students were recruited from universities in Eastern France. 41 fourth-year medical students (MS who had completed their psychiatry course, and 76 third-year psychology students (PS in the faculty of human sciences. Respondents completed a self-administered instrument (20 brief case studies, and a personality inventory at the end of a lecture. Participation was voluntary and unpaid. Results MS would recommend psychotropic drugs in 40% of the 20 cases, PS in 27%. MS who would prescribe psychotropic medication differed in personality profile from PS. MS with a tendency to experience anger and related states such as frustration, and who did not see fulfilling moral obligations as important were more likely to prescribe psychotropic drugs. Also more likely to recommend psychotropic drugs, but for different reasons, were PS who were susceptible to stress but not shy or socially anxious, who showed friendliness but little interest in others, and who lacked distance in their decision-making. Conclusion Health promotion is not simply a matter of educating those young people who take psychotropic drugs – health professionals must also question the criteria that inform their decisions. It is as important to investigate the attitudes of the future health professionals (advisers or prescribers as it is to focus on consumer-related issues.
Background:The process of medical education is stressful and medical students are at risk of psychological problems. In addition to the normal stressors of everyday life, medical students must deal with stresses specific to medical school. The aim of this study was to assess mental health in senior medical students and residents. Methods:This cross-sectional study included 100 senior medical students and 100 residents of Iran University of Medical Sciences,Tehran,between October and December...
Marzieh Nojomi; Banafsheh Gharayee
Pennsylvania developed a generalist physician initiative, inspired by that of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, initiating a longitudinal tracking system at six allopathic and two osteopathic medical schools to follow students from matriculation into professional careers. The statewide database includes information on over 18,000 students,…
Rabinowitz, Howard K.; Veloski, J. Jon; Aber, Robert C.; Adler, Sheldon; Ferretti, Sylvia M.; Kelliher, Gerald J.; Mochen, Eugene; Morrison, Gail; Rattner, Susan L.; Sterling, Gerald; Robeson, Mary R.; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Xu, Gang
Objective: To determine the trends of academic misconduct in undergraduate students of different private and government section medical institutes. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at three medical colleges of Karachi, Pakistan. The students were evaluated by giving a self reported questionnaire containing various questions assessing their educational dishonesty and cheating behaviors. Results: A total of 274 students from different years completed the questionnaire. Mean age was 21.48 ± 1.89 years. Most of the students were in 4(th) year (n=86; 31.3%). There were 182 (66.5%) females and 92 (33.5%) males. Majority of the students (n=155; 55.1%) accepted that they have cheated at least once. There was no significant difference regarding acceptance of cheating among different years of study (p=0.23) however females were found to accept cheating more as compared to males (p=0.036). First year students were found more to ask teachers for answers during OSCE (p=0.01). A large number of students accepted that they mark proxy for their friends (85.7%) and also ask their friends to mark proxy for them (85.03%). Nearly half (44.02%) of the students rotating in wards also admitted to write fake histories. Conclusion: A large number of medical students admitted cheating and involvement in other academic misconduct. We need to improve our educational system, formally add professional session and strict disciplinary action should be taken against those who are found guilty. PMID:24353611
Hafeez, Kamran; Laiq-Uz-Zaman Khan, Muhammad; Jawaid, Masood; Haroon, Saroona
Full Text Available Objective: To use 360-degree evaluations within an Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE to assess medical student comfort level and communication skills with intimate partner violence (IPV patients.Methods: We assessed a cohort of fourth year medical students’ performance using an IPV standardized patient (SP encounter in an OSCE. Blinded pre- and post-tests determined the students’ knowledge and comfort level with core IPV assessment. Students, SPs and investigators completed a 360-degree evaluation that focused on each student’s communication and competency skills. We computed frequencies, means and correlations.Results: Forty-one students participated in the SP exercise during three separate evaluation periods. Results noted insignificant increase in students’ comfort level pre-test (2.7 and post-test (2.9. Although 88% of students screened for IPV and 98% asked about the injury, only 39% asked about verbal abuse, 17% asked if the patient had a safety plan, and 13% communicated to the patient that IPV is illegal. Using Likert scoring on the competency and overall evaluation (1, very poor and 5, very good, the mean score for each evaluator was 4.1 (competency and 3.7 (overall. The correlations between trainee comfort level and the specific competencies of patient care, communication skill and professionalism were positive and significant (p<0.05.Conclusion: Students felt somewhat comfortable caring for patients with IPV. OSCEs with SPs can be used to assess student competencies in caring for patients with IPV. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:500-505.
Heron, Sheryl L
Background: Medical research at undergraduate level has been given poor importance in developing countries including India. Less incentives, poor resources, lack of benefits has all been the reason for curbing the research interests of the students. Objective: This research was done to understand if medical students perceived research to be important at an undergraduate level, to understand the reasons for doing research and the benefits obtained from research. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Material and Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to medical students studying in second, third, fourth and fifth years in the MBBS course at an undergraduate medical conference and a medical college. Questions were so designed to verify student's ideas on research, their research involvement and their reasons for conducting research. The answers were tabulated, data analyzed and statistics were made based on their answers. Statistical Analysis: Frequency and percentage. Results: Out of the given sample, it was seen that though only 20.9% of the students had credited publications, 81.7% of the students admitted to research being essential to understanding and changing their perception of medicine. Only 38.3% of the sample found research to be cumbersome. 24.3% of the students were involved in research purely for the purpose of acquiring knowledge, 18.3% were pursuing interest in the field and a meager 1.7% were doing research to improve their curriculum vitae. Conclusion : These results are in conformance with other studies from elsewhere that shows decreased Indian medical student's engagement in researches, compared to those from developed countries, but on par with those from the developing countries. PMID:24551667
Jimmy, Rosmy; Palatty, Princy Louis; D'Silva, Prajna; Baliga, Manjunath Srinath; Singh, Abhimanyu
Full Text Available There is a growing focus on the introduction of courses in humanities in medical education. Music is not a widely-used tool in medical education. It has unique features that make it an excellent educational resource for the possibility to express emotions. Within minutes, topics of interest in learning medicine, such as loss, compassion, sorrow, and solidarity can be identified and used in pedagogical processes. Music—like other art forms—can deal with the emotional universe of the student. Promoting a reflective attitude within an academic discipline requires the creation of space to make it formal. The Public Health Department of Jundiai Medical School (Sao Paulo, Brazil offers a special course on family medicine core values, led by a SOBRAMFA Medical Education & Humanism faculty member. The process of understanding a student’s experience has allowed for the unveiling of a phenomenon that encompasses the student’s inner world as he/she attends to his/her medical training. The music is played on the outside resonates with the story and emotions of the student. Students realize that the pace imposed by the medical school does not allow them to reflect on either their own lives or their formation. The musical experience allows students to hear their feelings and share them with the professor and peers. They are surprised by memories and feelings that surface that they were unaware of or could not remember. These feelings are presented in themes that organize the affective experience of students, mobilized by the music. Several themes have emerged, such as the search for the self; family; vocational doubts; relationships with peers, professors, and patients. The findings of the experience of the music spectrum come in, offering numerous prospects for development in the context of medical education, as noted in the themes that emerged. As the basic experience we have of the world is emotional, the music—this form of human knowledge of affective tone—also becomes educational force, because the teaching process is not limited to transmission of content. Instead, more importantly, it implies that the teacher in development processes of meaning and significance enable the learner to reflect and transform the everyday practice, especially in medicine, where the interpersonal relationship is the basis for the full realization of future professional action.
Marco Aurelio Janaudis
Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students? attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk facto...
Al-Haqwi Ali; Tamim Hani; Asery Ali
Renewed emphases on teaching professionalism require physicians to develop the ability to critically reflect upon their own decisions. Innovative programs that address teaching professionalism within medical curricula have been implemented in almost all medical schools. The foundation for many of these programs is "reflection," which is regarded as a core skill in professional competence. In order to achieve the desired outcomes and meet the demands of a required curriculum, an understanding of educational concepts in the designing of medical curricula is essential. Educators recognize that, for most medical students, professional growth is initiated during the first year of the medical curriculum and, therefore, traditionally pure content delivery courses such as first year anatomy course are being utilized now in order to explore issues related to critical thinking and professionalism. As a result, learning strategies such as "reflective practice" are beginning to play an important role in curriculum design. This article provides an overview of the theory of reflective practice, and demonstrates how reflective practice may be integrated into the anatomy curriculum. In order to incorporate reflective exercises into a curriculum, the basic elements of a reflective process are defined, strategies to implement reflective exercises within the course are described, and the benefits of reflective practice are highlighted. Therefore, in creating an environment that fosters reflective learning, the gap between theory and practice may be consolidated, which in the context of anatomy promotes the issue of teaching for relevance and clinical application. PMID:16683241
Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech
The summer season at CERN is known for the traditional visit of Summer Students coming from Member and non-Member States. This time, a total of 176 future scientists are spending part of their summer with us, learning and working in the laboratory. Summer Students enjoying a lecture on particle physics by Ronald Kleiss. Now that summer has finally arrived, you'll have noticed some changes at CERN: longer queues at the bar, faces you don't recognise in the corridors, and a breath of fresh air, but where is it coming from? The answer is easy: the Summer Students are here! Aged between 20 and 27, this group of 176 future scientists has been selected from 600 candidates to spend their summer at the Laboratory. This year, there are 24 more 'Summies' than last following a recommendation in the 2000 5-yearly review to increase the number of students. The Summies mainly come from Member States, but this year there are also 11 Americans, two Mexicans, an Armenian, a Turk, a Pakistani and two South Africans. Judith N...
Objective: To identify the expectations of students enrolled in the oral health technician course conducted by the School of Public Health of Ceará, about their professional future. Methods:This work presents a quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive study held with students of seven classes in dental hygiene course conducted by the School of Public Health. Data collection was conducted between March and April 2011, through the application of a semistructured questionnaire, which addressed...
Full Text Available In almost every country, the organ supply for transplantation does not match the increasing demand; health professionals may play an important role in eliminating barriers and increasing organ donation. Therefore, assessing medical students’ knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation is important for the future organ supply. Some 409 of 508 first- and second-year medical students answered an anonymous, multiple-choice questionnaire about demographic variables, knowledge about transplant issues, and willingness to donate organs. The mean age was 20.3±1.8 years (range: 17 to 29 years; 50.1% were male, 49.9% were female. Some 44.8% of the total respondents reported that they had sufficient knowledge about organ donation, and 40.1% reported knowledge about organ transplantation. The primary source of their knowledge was reported as the media (72.1%. Willingness to donate their own organs was 58.4% and willingness as to their relatives’ organs was 39.9%. The acceptance of live organ donation was higher (74.6% than cadaver donation. Only 1.2% had a organ donation card. Female students were more willing to donate their own and their relatives’ organs. Since medical students are prospective leaders of promoting organ donation action, these issues should be taught within the context of social medicine lessons, and desirable behavioral changes should be implemented.
Full Text Available Abstract In Voltaire's work, Candide, a young, naïve man, who has been taught that humans live in the best of all possible worlds, is thrust into the world only to find that this may not be so. He learns over time to balance his optimism with the skepticism he acquires through experience. While today's medical students are not naïve like the character Candide, they, nonetheless, carry an impression of the ideal medical practice, along with the expectation of a successful medical practice. Good mentors and role models are important to students in order to temper their optimism, control their skepticism, and to help them to be realistic, not only about their expectations of medical practice, but what society expects of them.
Papadimos Thomas J
Full Text Available India today has one of the largest educational systems in theworld. The total enrolment exceeds 70 million, there are two millionstudents in higher education, and the number engaged in research is about 10,000. Teachers total over two million. There has been a great upsurge in Indian education since independence, but it is only the beginning of an educational revolution crucial to the economic and social development of the country. Professional education has occupied a dominant position in independent India since it was perceived as a promoter of economic growth, technological development and also as an instrument of equal opportunity and upward social mobility. The present paper will discussvarious commissions and committees deliberated on its criticality to the social and economic development of the country. Further, the paper will find out, the gender parity of professional education, at Under Graduate Level in Karnataka particularly and analyze the student’s enrolment in different professional courses.
Advocates public policy education in higher education and student involvement in state public policy. Discusses ways to incorporate public policy education in university courses in family and consumer sciences curricula at the introductory, advanced, and graduate levels, including writing briefing reports, participating in professional…
Stanberry, Anne M.; Blackwell, Ann P.
This paper presents findings of a qualitative interview study of the role of emotions in the professional identity of student teachers. Strong positive and negative emotions (mostly related to pupils and supervisors) were expressed about personal teaching experiences. The results confirm that emotions play an important role in social learning and,…
Timostsuk, Inge; Ugaste, Aino
Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the correlation of online social network usage and quality of interpersonal relationship among 350 third students of four different year professional colleges of Manipal University. The study found that a weak negative correlation exist between online social network usage and perceived quality of interpersonal relationship.
Nevil Johnson Raju1 , Blessy Prabha Valsaraj 2 , Judith A Noronha3
This study examined the impact of gender, race, intergroup contact, and diversity training on racial prejudice of student affairs professionals. Diversity training and race of participants were statistically significant contributors to change in racial prejudice. Findings suggest that racial prejudice decreases as diversity training increases.…
Choi-Pearson, Catherine; Castillo, Linda; Maples, Mary Finn
We report the results of a survey of second-year medical students concerning attitudes and basic knowledge of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). It appeared that there were significant negative biases against ECT in a portion of the group. Forty percent of the students who participated felt that psychiatrists often misused ECT, while 31% actually thought ECT was used to punish violent or uncooperative patients. Few students knew the typical frequency or duration of treatment or even that it was done under general anesthesia. It was interesting that the group describing themselves as highly knowledgeable about psychiatric illness had a greater bias against ECT. Students in the negative group did not differ in the sources of their information about ECT. The most common sources of this information about ECT were movies or college classes. The results document the need for appropriate coverage of ECT in medical school curriculum. PMID:11417934
Clothier, J L; Freeman, T; Snow, L
Background: Birth order is claimed to be linked with academic achievement. However, many scientists do not accept it. Objective: To assess the association of birth order in North Indian medical students with number of attempts to cross the competition bar. Study design: Cross sectional study. Setting and participation: M.B.B.S. 1st year students of L.L.R.M. Medical College, Meerut. Statistical analysis used: Chi Square test. Methods: Enquiry of Birth order and number of attempts to crack the ...
Vinay Agarwal; Sunil Kumar Garg; Megha Kulshreshtha Mishra; Lalita Chaudhary
Background: Sleep has a major role in daily cycles and reconstruction of physical and mental abilities. Regarding the importance of this feature, we decided to determine sleep quality in medical students.Methods: A questionnaire containing demographic data, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was prepared. We distributed the questionnaires using a census method to every student at the Zanjan Faculty of Medicine. The completed questionnaires were collected and the data ...
Ghoreishi A; Aghajani A H
Full Text Available Kun Hwang,1 Huan Fan,1 Se Won Hwang2 1Department of Plastic Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea; 2Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, UK Abstract: Pathography is defined as “historical biography from a medical, psychological, and psychiatric viewpoint.” We thought that writing about an experience of illness might help students understand patients’ experience and in turn grow in terms of self-understanding. Participants included 151 medical students. Students wrote about their own experience of illness and were asked to answer questions from the Likert scale. Most students wrote about themselves (79.2%; however, some students (20.8% wrote about the illness of others. Among the 149 pathographies, ecopathography was most frequent (30.9%, followed by testimonial pathography (25.5%; angry pathography (13.4% and alternative pathography (12.1% were relatively less frequent. Eighty-eight pathographies (59.1% showed 120 expressions of family relationship. Among the 120 cases, worrying about family members was most frequent (47.5%, followed by reliance on a family member (32.5%. All students wrote about the enlightenment experienced on returning to daily life. The sense of belonging together was most frequent (38.3%, followed by gratitude for living (20.8%, resolution to be a good doctor (18.1%, and a will to live and be healthy (12.1%. Answers on the Likert scale (total 5 for pathography beneficence were very high in understanding desirable doctor image (4.46, attaining morals and personality as a health care professional (4.49, and understanding basic communication skills (4.46. Writing about an experience of illness allows students to better understand patients’ experience and to grow in self-understanding. Keywords: writing, disease, patients, narration, pathography
Objectives: The authors sought to ascertain the details of medical school policies about relationships between drug companies and medical students as well as student affairs deans' attitudes about these interactions. Methods: In 2005, the authors surveyed deans and student affairs deans at all U.S. medical schools and asked whether their schools…
Sierles, Frederick; Brodkey, Amy; Cleary, Lynn; McCurdy, Frederick A.; Mintz, Matthew; Frank, Julia; Lynn, Deborah Joanne; Chao, Jason; Morgenstern, Bruce; Shore, William; Woodard, John
Abstract Background Non-medical prescribing (NMP) is a six month course for nurses and certain allied health professionals. It is critical that these students develop a good understanding of pharmacology; however, many students are mature learners with little or no formal biological science knowledge and struggle with the pharmacology component. The implications for patient safety are profound, therefore we encourage students not just to memorise enough pharmacology to pass t...
Lymn Joanne S; Mostyn Alison
Full Text Available Carrier selection is one of the important major question in student life. Various factors affects individual’s carrier selection. Among various factors socioeconomic status and parental educational background is most important, which affects student’s carrier selection. More than student’s interest in particular field for higher education he should be affordable for necessary money required as well he should have proper guidance and inspiration for higher education. Primary guidance of students starts at home so if parents are highly qualified in education, student can get good guidance and motivation at home. In present study we tried to evaluate Socio-economic and Parental educational background of Medical students. Study was conducted in first year medical students of Govt. Medical College, Bhavnagar. Students were given objective questionnaire regarding information like their native place whether in urban or rural area, income of their parents and educational level of their parents. Data was compiled and analyzed. It was observed that students from good socio-economical and high parental educational background have good chances to get admission in good professional courses. Schools in rural area should be upgraded and this students should provide necessary help and guidance to meet their needs.
Ghuntla Tejas P.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure selected anthropometrical characteris-tics, motor abilities and cardiorespiratory functions of medical students. Eighty-seven students were involved in this investigation. The students were categorized into five groups: (1 recreational, doing sport activities irregularly, (2 basketball and (3 handball players, having training at least two times per week, as well as men (4 and women (5 students entering medical school. In all groups the mean body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio were at the upper level of the normal range, while body fat percentage was similar to standards for sedentary subjects. Better motor per-formances were obtained from the basketball and handball players than from the other groups. Static strength for the sample was somewhat above the normal sedentary level. The resting blood pressure and heart rate for most subjects were in the normal. Cardiovascular risk factors were found in six students. Their systolic blood pressure was above 140 mm Hg. There were no sub-jects identified with low blood pressure. The heart rate was elevated for three students from the recreational group, and in the women. Bradycardia did not occur. The vital capacity and the ability to hold one?s breath was at the upper level of the normal range. The present results emphasis the need to improve the students` prevention oriented life style through participation in exercising.
Dr. Lajos Ángyán
Self-perceptions of male and female medical students on various psychosocial characteristics were compared in 1980. The questionnaire consisted of: the Social Support Networks questions, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (Holmes and Rahe, 1967), the General Well Being Scale (Gurin, Veroff, and Felds, 1960), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale…
Blumberg, Phyllis; And Others
A course is described which altered the traditional physician-dominated teaching pattern and allowed nurses to help teach potential physicians. Provided by staff nurses from various agencies and a university school of nursing, "Introduction to Nursing" for first-year medical students taught patient care from a nurse's perspective. (Author/AJ)
Harding, Elizabeth H.; And Others
The Medical Students, Cancer Control, and the Deaf Community Training program (DCT) intended to create physicians who were culturally competent to care for deaf patients were evaluated. DCT medical students (n?=?22), UCSD medical faculty (n?=?131), and non-DCT medical students (n?=?211) were anonymously surveyed about their perceptions related to deaf patients, deaf cultural competency, and interpreter use. The faculty and non-DCT medical students displayed less knowledge than the...
Hoang, Lisa; Lahousse, Sheila F.; Nakaji, Melanie C.; Sadler, Georgia Robins
This study deals with personality variables of medical students in relation to their academic success in the preclinical stage. One hundred and one students completed the 16PF Questionnaire at the beginning of their medical course and the scores were analysed in relation to their marks obtained at the end of the 2-year preclinical stage. This study shows that the 16PF Questionnaire can be a useful instrument for identifying personality variables in candidates who are likely to have academic problems and those who are likely to do well in the preclinical stage of a medical course. Students of urban origin and the eldest in the family performed better in their preclinical years. Performance was not related to sex, ethnic group, family size of entrance qualification into medicine. Personality variables of being enthusiastic, venturesome, self-opinionated, imaginative, experimenting, resourceful and driven correlate positively with performance, whereas being self-assured has negative correlation. Problem students were more reserved, emotionally less stable and more apprehensive than non-problem students. PMID:8594392
Peng, R; Khaw, H H; Edariah, A B
Full Text Available Abstract Background The British medical student population has undergone rapid diversification over the last decades. This study focuses on medical students' views about their experiences in relation to ethnicity and gender during their undergraduate training within the context of the hidden curriculum in one British medical school as part of a wider qualitative research project into undergraduate medical education. Method We interviewed 36 undergraduate medical students in one British Medical School, across all five years of training using a semi-structured interview schedule. We selected them by random and quota sampling, stratified by sex and ethnicity and used the whole medical school population as a sampling frame. Data analyses involved the identification of common themes, reported by means of illustrative quotations and simple counts. Results The students provided information about variations patterned by gender in their motivation and influences when deciding to study medicine. Issues in relation to ethnicity were: gaining independence from parents, perceived limitations to career prospects, incompatibility of some religious beliefs with some medical practices and acquired open-mindedness towards students and patients from different ethnic backgrounds. Despite claiming no experiences of gender difference during medical training, female and male students expressed gender stereotypes, e.g. that women bring particularly caring and sympathetic attitudes to medicine, or that surgery requires the physical strength and competitiveness stereotypically associated with men that are likely to support the continuation of gender differentiation in medical careers. Conclusion The key themes identified in this paper in relation to ethnicity and to gender have important implications for medical educators and for those concerned with professional development. The results suggest a need to open up aspects of these relatively covert elements of student culture to scrutiny and debate and to take an explicitly wider view of the influence of what has sometimes been called the hidden curriculum upon the training of medical professionals and the practice of medicine.
This study explores the influences of cultural traditions rooted in the tone of medical discourse at the Instituto Fernandes Figueira/ Fundação Oswaldo Cruz by physicians regarding children with genetic diseases involving malformations and mental retardation, as well as reflections upon the professional care for these children. Data were collected using oral interviews (in the form of conversational narratives) and were submitted to semiotic analysis. The results pointed to four main cultural traditions present in medical discourse: the norm, the reason, the family and the Jewish-Christian religiosity. This article, however, focuses on the latter two, emphasizing how the notion of the family, mainly the mythification of the mother, can make the child with a genetic disease 'invisible,' in addition to contributing towards womanhood being underestimated when contrasted with motherhood. Such concepts overlap with those brought by the religious traditions and directly influence the medical perceptions towards patients and their families. PMID:22267048
Martins, Antilia Januária; Cardoso, Maria Helena Cabral de Almeida; Llerena, Juan Clinton; Moreira, Martha Cristina Nunes
Full Text Available It is defined the development and support of a certain level of important psychical and physical qualities from professional point. The experiment has been carried out by the participation of the students of the Medical Academy. Along with other physical exercises particular attention has been paid to special respiratory exercises. The ways of physical culture and sport that improve general and specific professional and physical capacity for work have been shown. The methods of combining correctly organized breathing and psychological tuning with as a result of a favorable influence on a person's organism are also considered. It has been proved that suggested exercises have promoted the improvement of important psychical and physical qualities from professional point, as well as raising the individual's capacity for work, freeing from nervous stress.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotional intelligence (EI is increasingly discussed as having a potential role in medicine, nursing, and other healthcare disciplines, both for personal mental health and professional practice. Stress has been identified as being high for students in healthcare courses. This study investigated whether EI and stress differed among students in four health professions (dental, nursing, graduate mental health workers, medical and whether there was evidence that EI might serve as a buffer for stress. Method The Schutte Emotional Intelligence and the Perceived Stress scale instruments were administered to four groups of healthcare students in their first year of study in both the autumn and summer terms of the 2005-6 academic year. The groups were undergraduate dental, nursing and medical students, and postgraduate mental health workers. Results No significant differences were found between males and females nor among professional groups for the EI measure. Dental students reported significantly higher stress than medical students. EI was found to be only moderately stable in test-retest scores. Some evidence was found for EI as a possible factor in mediating stress. Students in different health profession courses did not show significant differences in Emotional Intelligence. Conclusion While stress and EI showed a moderate relationship, results of this study do not allow the direction of relationship to be determined. The limitations and further research questions raised in this study are discussed along with the need for refinement of the EI construct and measures, particularly if Emotional Intelligence were to be considered as a possible selection criterion, as has been suggested by some authors.
Background Emotional intelligence (EI) is increasingly discussed as having a potential role in medicine, nursing, and other healthcare disciplines, both for personal mental health and professional practice. Stress has been identified as being high for students in healthcare courses. This study investigated whether EI and stress differed among students in four health professions (dental, nursing, graduate mental health workers, medical) and whether there was evidence that EI might serve as a buffer for stress. Method The Schutte Emotional Intelligence and the Perceived Stress scale instruments were administered to four groups of healthcare students in their first year of study in both the autumn and summer terms of the 2005-6 academic year. The groups were undergraduate dental, nursing and medical students, and postgraduate mental health workers. Results No significant differences were found between males and females nor among professional groups for the EI measure. Dental students reported significantly higher stress than medical students. EI was found to be only moderately stable in test-retest scores. Some evidence was found for EI as a possible factor in mediating stress. Students in different health profession courses did not show significant differences in Emotional Intelligence. Conclusion While stress and EI showed a moderate relationship, results of this study do not allow the direction of relationship to be determined. The limitations and further research questions raised in this study are discussed along with the need for refinement of the EI construct and measures, particularly if Emotional Intelligence were to be considered as a possible selection criterion, as has been suggested by some authors.
Full Text Available Sara AlMutar,1 Lulwa AlTourah,1 Hussain Sadeq,2 Jumanah Karim,2 Yousef Marwan3 1Department of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital, 3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Al-Razi Orthopedic Hospital, Kuwait City, Kuwait Background: Teaching sessions for medical students during ward rounds are an essential component of bedside teaching, providing students with the opportunity to regard patients as actual people, and to observe their physical conditions directly, allowing a better understanding of illnesses to be developed. We aim to explore medical students’ perceptions regarding medical and surgical ward rounds within the Faculty of Medicine at Kuwait University, and to evaluate whether this teaching activity is meeting the expectation of learners. Methods: A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data from 141 medical students during the 2012–2013 academic year. They were asked to provide their current and expected ratings about competencies that were supposed to be gained during ward rounds, on a scale from 1 (lowest to 5 (highest. Mean scores were calculated, and the Student t-test was used to compare results. P < 0.05 was the cut-off level for significance. Results: Only 17 students (12.1% declined to participate in the study. The students' current competency scores (for competencies taught within both disciplines – medical and surgical were significantly lower than the scores indicating students’ expectations (P < 0.001. The best-taught competency was bedside examination, in both medical (mean: 3.45 and surgical (mean: 3.05 ward rounds. However, medical ward rounds were better than surgical rounds in covering some competencies, especially the teaching of professional attitude and approach towards patients (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Both medical and surgical ward rounds were deficient in meeting the students’ expectations. Medical educators should utilize the available literature to improve the bedside teaching experience for their students. Keywords: ward rounds, bedside teaching, undergraduate, medical students, medical education
Background: Students' perception of the environment within which they study has shown to have a significant impact on their behavior, academic progress and sense of well-being. This study was undertaken to evaluate the students' perception of their learning environment in an Indian medical school following traditional curricula and to study differences, if any, between the students according to the stages of medical education, i.e., the pre-clinical and clinical stages. Methodology: In the present study, the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) inventory was administered to undergraduate medical students of first (n = 227), third (n = 175), fifth (n = 171) and seventh (n = 123) semesters. Scores obtained were expressed as mean ± Standard Deviation (SD) and analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Dunnett's test. P-value DREEM score for our medical school was 123/200.The first-year students were found to be more satisfied with learning environment (indicated by their higher DREEM score) compared to other semester students. Progressive decline in scores with each successive semester was observed. Evaluating the sub-domains of perception, the registrars in all semesters had a more positive perception of learning (Average mean score: 29.44), their perception of course organizers moved in the right direction (Average mean score: 26.86), their academic self-perception was more on the positive side (Average mean score: 20.14), they had a more positive perception of atmosphere (Average mean score: 29.07) and their social self-perception could be graded as not too bad (Average mean score: 17.02). Conclusion: The present study revealed that all the groups of students perceived their learning environment positively. However, a few problematic areas of learning environment were perceived such as: students were stressed more often; they felt that the course organizers were authoritarian and emphasized factual learning. Implementing more problem-based learning, student counseling and workshops on teaching-learning for educators might enable us to remedy and enrich our learning environment. PMID:24596737
Pai, Preethi G; Menezes, Vishma; Srikanth; Subramanian, Atreya M; Shenoy, Jnaneshwara P
Background: Students’ perception of the environment within which they study has shown to have a significant impact on their behavior, academic progress and sense of well-being. This study was undertaken to evaluate the students’ perception of their learning environment in an Indian medical school following traditional curricula and to study differences, if any, between the students according to the stages of medical education, i.e., the pre-clinical and clinical stages. Methodology: In the present study, the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) inventory was administered to undergraduate medical students of first (n = 227), third (n = 175), fifth (n = 171) and seventh (n = 123) semesters. Scores obtained were expressed as mean ± Standard Deviation (SD) and analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s test. P-value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The mean DREEM score for our medical school was 123/200.The first-year students were found to be more satisfied with learning environment (indicated by their higher DREEM score) compared to other semester students. Progressive decline in scores with each successive semester was observed. Evaluating the sub-domains of perception, the registrars in all semesters had a more positive perception of learning (Average mean score: 29.44), their perception of course organizers moved in the right direction (Average mean score: 26.86), their academic self-perception was more on the positive side (Average mean score: 20.14), they had a more positive perception of atmosphere (Average mean score: 29.07) and their social self-perception could be graded as not too bad (Average mean score: 17.02). Conclusion: The present study revealed that all the groups of students perceived their learning environment positively. However, a few problematic areas of learning environment were perceived such as: students were stressed more often; they felt that the course organizers were authoritarian and emphasized factual learning. Implementing more problem-based learning, student counseling and workshops on teaching-learning for educators might enable us to remedy and enrich our learning environment.
Pai, Preethi G; Menezes, Vishma; Srikanth; Subramanian, Atreya M.; Shenoy, Jnaneshwara P.
Attitudes toward euthanasia differ between individuals and populations, and in many studies the medical profession is more reluctant than the general public. Our goal was to explore medical students' attitude toward euthanasia. A questionnaire containing open-ended questions was answered anonymously by 165 first- and fifth-year medical students. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis with no predetermined categories. The students' arguments opposing euthanasia were based on opinions of 1. euthanasia being morally wrong, 2. fear of possible negative effects on society, 3. euthanasia causing strain on physicians and 4. doubts about the true meaning of requests of euthanasia from patients. Arguments supporting euthanasia were based on 1. patients' autonomy and 2. the relief of suffering, which could be caused by severe illnesses, reduced integrity, hopelessness, social factors and old age. There are several contradictions in the students' arguments and the results indicate a possible need for education focusing on the possibility of symptom control in palliative care and patients' perceived quality of life. PMID:17942500
Karlsson, Marit; Strang, Peter; Milberg, Anna
Full Text Available Purpose: Promotion by pharmaceutical company often takes advantage of mental shortcuts. Significant deficiencies have been found in student’s knowledge about pharmaceutical marketing expenditures, professional ethics and accuracy of drug information. The purpose of study was to assess the attitudes of medical students towards relationship with pharmaceutical companies and drug promotion by them. Methods: To assess the attitudes, a prevalidated questionnaire consisting of 18 questions was designed. Questionnaire was istributed when a series of lectures were scheduled for the entire medical class (253 medical students. Completed questionnaires werecollected at the end of the session and analysis was done using statistical methods. Results: Overall 81% of the medical students were of the opinion that pharmaceutical companies should be allowed to interact with them at the college level. About 95% believe that the information given by MRs is reliable and confirmation of the claims is not required (75% students. Overall 68% students believe that drug promotional offers never compromise the decision making of the physicians. About 70% students think that physicians should be compensated with gifts by medical representatives whenever their drugs are prescribed. Conclusion: The medical students are generally not opposed to interact with MR at some point of time or receive gifts from them. Also many students may not be conscious potential subconscious expectations of give-and-take relationship. Perhaps, the insight gained from our study will be used to reinforce the existing teaching curriculum with added emphasis on this issue.
Dr. Shahu Ingole
Full Text Available To compare the study motives and career choices of senior undergraduate medical and dental students in Iran. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey study involving final year medical and dental students from 4 dental and medical schools was conducted in 2010. The questionnaire was designed in three sections (Demographic details, motivational items and career choice items and after confirming the validity and reliability of the questions, it was distributed among the students. Data were entered into SPSS; statistical analysis included logistic regression and multiple linear regression. The response rate was 62% (n=219 for medical and 64% (n=300 for dental students. The factor analysis identified six motivational items: "Social and professional status", "Health care and people", "Others recommendation", "personal interest and nature of occupation", "Occupational experience" and "Personal life". Medical students were more influenced by "Playing a role in community health" and "Personal interest". "Work independence" and "Social factors" however were two major influential factors among dental students. There were significant differences in important influences by age (Social and professional status, Others' recommendation, Parents education (Social and professional status, Health care and people, Personal life and marital status (single >married: Occupational experience, married > single: Personal life. Engaging in postgraduate studies was the first career preference among 90.9% and 89.8% of dental and medical students respectively. Medical and dental students report a wide range of motivational factors in studying medicine/dentistry and future career plans which is affected by age, parents' education and marital status.
Elahe Vahid Dastjerdi
The paper discusses students' process of acquiring a feeling of being professionals within a vocational education programme for elderly care in Denmark. The focus is on what seems to be a paradox within the programme: the future care helper being constructed within the overall term â??the professional care helperâ?? in the school setting but the job being closely related to daily life's routine tasks; the paper points to difficulties for students in identifying the exact content of the term â??professionalâ??. Furthermore students seem to be uncertain about their â??professionalismâ?? in relation to other health professionals, when they are in the work place setting. The analysis indicates that the care work programme still struggles to make a clear distinction between the former non-paid female domestic work and the current work carried out by the care workers. The analysis mobilises the concept â??storylineâ??, c.f. Bronwyn Davies and the empirical material consists of observations and interviews in the theoretical periodsand in the traineeships.
Jensen, Anne Winther
Self-medication is a serious issue in most parts of the world. This study aims to evaluate self-medication among university students of Abbottabad, Pakistan. This cross-sectional survey study was carried out in COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad during December 1 - December 31,2011. A sample of 275 students was selected for the study using convenience method of sampling. Data were managed and analyzed via SPSS version 16.0. Inferences were drawn using Z-test Out of 268 respondents (male = 61.6%, female = 38.6%), 138 were non-health professional students whereas 130 were health professional students. The prevalence of self-medication was 95.5%. Most common factor (45.7%) responsible for self-medication was "low severity of disease". Most common symptom (50.8%) that caused self-medication and stocking of medicines was "storage of medicines for multi purposes". Some respondents (22.7%) got addicted due to self-medication. Most of the students trust in allopathic medicines system. High prevalence of self-medication can be controlled through regulatory authorities, mass education and availability of health facilities. PMID:24147372
Ullah, Hanif; Khan, Shujaat A; Ali, Sayyad; Karim, Sabiha; Baseer, Abdul; Chohan, Ossam; Hassan, Syed M F; Khan, Kashif M; Murtaza, Ghulam
A study was conducted to determine whether the attitudes of medical students to death and caring changed during the 3 months following exposure to cadaver dissection. All first-year students were invited to complete a questionnaire immediately before their initial cadaver dissection experience, after 6 weeks, and after a further 3 months. The questionnaire reflected attitudes to death, violent death, death of someone known to the respondent and caring when someone known to the respondent is seriously injured. Ethnicity and previous exposure to dying has no effect on responses, but overall men students' reactions were significantly less than for women (P < 0.001). The responses given on the final part of the questionnaire after 3 months were significantly lower than those to most questions in the first part of the questionnaire. The exceptions were those questions where the subject in the given scenario was known to the respondent, where reactions were rated significantly greater (P < 0.001) in the follow-up questionnaire and can be explained on the basis that they were a personal referent. Students rapidly develop a coping mechanism which enables them to view cadaver dissection as an occupation quite divorced from living human beings. During these early months of training solicitude decreases for those who die who are unknown to them, but concern for personal referents increases. Educators should be aware of the dramatic change of attitudes among students and the process of professionalization which might influence their caring of future patients. PMID:7861999
Charlton, R; Dovey, S M; Jones, D G; Blunt, A
Purpose: The reduction of tobacco use among medical students is a potentially powerful strategy to reduce tobacco use among future health professionals, who in turn, can have significant impact on tobacco use among patients as well as the general population in China. The goal of this study is to update information on the prevalence of cigarette…
Chen, Xinguang; Tang, Xiaolan; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Hanwu; Chen, Weiqing
Abstract Background Medical and pre-professional health students ask questions about human health that can be answered in two ways, by giving proximate and evolutionary explanations. Proximate explanations, most common in textbooks and classes, describe the immediate scientifically known biological mechanisms of anatomical characteristics or physiological processes. These explanations are necessary but insufficient. They can be complemented with evolutionary explanations that...
Harris Eugene E; Malyango Avelin A
Full Text Available Objectives: The study is aimed at exploring the association between beginning students' attitudes towards group learning and their awareness of learning strategies, to demographic variables and their exposure to problem-based or mixed curricula. Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional design included students (N = 351 from two medical schools with lecture-based and two with problem-based curricula from Germany and Sweden. Gender, age, personal and parents' practice experience within health care were assessed. A questionnaire was designed for measuring attitudes towards group and individual learning, awareness of learning strategies was assessed with the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory. The t-test for independent groups was applied to compare dependent variables between personal factors, and multivariate statistics to compare medical schools. Results: Students' personal work experience correlated with self-regulation (t[sub](333[/sub] = -3.307; p = 0.001 and group learning experience (t[sub](341[/sub] = -2.971; p = 0.003. Students from the German problem-based curriculum reported most experience with group learning (largest mean difference compared to the German lecture-based curriculum = 1.45 on a Likert scale from 1 to 7; SE = 0.181; p < 0.001, and were better at regulating their learning strategies than students from the Swedish lecture-based school (mean difference 0.18; SE = 0.181; p = 0.034. Conclusions: Students' clinical experience seemed to benefit self-regulation skills. Problem-based teaching methods and early interprofessional education appear to be favorable learning conditions for the development of professional skills.
Antje L umma-Sellenthin
Patients' receptivity towards medical student participation has been examined predominantly from the patient and/or the medical student perspective. Few studies have investigated the preceptor's perspective. The study examined preceptors' experience with patients declining medical student participation in clinical care and identified…
Tang, Tricia S.; Skye, Eric P.
Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had...
Amalraj Edwin R; Chandrasekaran Nirmala; Solomon Sunithi; Sumbandam Raja P
Since written reports are completed on most calls to which emergency medical technicians (EMTs) respond, report writing is an important part of their professional lives. Discourse analysis focused on how EMTs establish professional authority using specific rhetorical strategies when completing "run reports." One way of understanding the role of…
Munger, Roger H.
Full Text Available Introduction: Global health education is becoming more important for developing well-rounded physicians and may encourage students toward a career in primary care. Many medical schools, however, lack adequate and structured opportunities for students beginning the curriculum. Methods: Second-year medical students initiated, designed, and facilitated a pass–fail international health elective, providing a curricular framework for preclinical medical students wishing to gain exposure to the clinical and cultural practices of a developing country. Results: All course participants (N=30 completed a post-travel questionnaire within one week of sharing their experiences. Screening reflection essays for common themes that fulfill university core competencies yielded specific global health learning outcomes, including analysis of health care determinants. Conclusion: Medical students successfully implemented a sustainable global health curriculum for preclinical student peers. Financial constraints, language, and organizational burdens limit student participation. In future, long-term studies should analyze career impact and benefits to the host country.
Full Text Available Tobacco is a major preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality. Health professionals are uniquely positioned to provide targeted interventions and should be empowered to provide cessation counselling that influence patient smoking. A cross-sectional national survey was administered to all third year students in four disciplines at the University of Malta. The Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS questionnaire was distributed to collect standardised demographic, smoking prevalence, behavioural, and attitudinal data. 81.9% completed the questionnaire (n = 173/211. A positive significant association between tobacco smoke exposure at home and current smoking status was identified. Non-smokers regarded anti-tobacco policies more favourably than smokers, being more likely to agree with banning of tobacco sales to adolescents (OR 3.6; 95% CI: 2.5–5.3; p ? 0.001; and with a smoking ban in all public places (OR 8.9; 95% CI: 6.1–13.1; p ? 0.001. Non-smokers favoured a role for health professionals in promoting smoking cessation (OR 5.1; 95% CI: 3.1–8.5; p ? 0.001. Knowledge of antidepressants as tools for smoking cessation was also associated with a perceived role for skilled health professionals in cessation counselling (OR 4.9; 95% CI: 1.8–13.3; p = 0.002. Smoking negatively influences beliefs and attitudes of students toward tobacco control. There is a need to adopt a standard undergraduate curriculum containing comprehensive tobacco prevention and cessation training to improve their effectiveness as role models.
Tobacco is a major preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality. Health professionals are uniquely positioned to provide targeted interventions and should be empowered to provide cessation counselling that influence patient smoking. A cross-sectional national survey was administered to all third year students in four disciplines at the University of Malta. The Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) questionnaire was distributed to collect standardised demographic, smoking prevalence, behavioural, and attitudinal data. 81.9% completed the questionnaire (n = 173/211). A positive significant association between tobacco smoke exposure at home and current smoking status was identified. Non-smokers regarded anti-tobacco policies more favourably than smokers, being more likely to agree with banning of tobacco sales to adolescents (OR 3.6; 95% CI: 2.5-5.3; p ? 0.001); and with a smoking ban in all public places (OR 8.9; 95% CI: 6.1-13.1; p ? 0.001). Non-smokers favoured a role for health professionals in promoting smoking cessation (OR 5.1; 95% CI: 3.1-8.5; p ? 0.001). Knowledge of antidepressants as tools for smoking cessation was also associated with a perceived role for skilled health professionals in cessation counselling (OR 4.9; 95% CI: 1.8-13.3; p = 0.002). Smoking negatively influences beliefs and attitudes of students toward tobacco control. There is a need to adopt a standard undergraduate curriculum containing comprehensive tobacco prevention and cessation training to improve their effectiveness as role models. PMID:22851959
Cauchi, Daniel; Mamo, Julian
Abstract Background Most medical professionals are expected to possess basic electrocardiogram (EKG) interpretation skills. But, published data suggests that residents' and physicians' EKG interpretation skills are suboptimal. Learning styles differ among medical students; individualization of teaching methods has been shown to be viable and may result in improved learning. Puzzles have been shown to facilitate learning in a relaxed environment. The objective of this study wa...
Rubinstein Jack; Dhoble Abhijeet; Ferenchick Gary
Full Text Available Introduction:Clinical teachers have an important role in creating an environment for effective clinical teaching to students. In addition, the faculty has a significant impact on the students' feeling of success or failure in professional competence. This study was performed to determine the characteristics of an influential instructor according to the nursing students' viewpoints in Jahrom University of Medical Sciences.Material and Methods:In this cross-sectional survey, 75 nursing students of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences were selected by census sampling method. The data collection tool was a valid and reliable questionnaire consisting of 4 domains including professional competence, interpersonal relationship, personality characteristics, and teaching ability. The data were analyzed by SPSS.Results:The results showed that influential clinical teacher must be professionally competent (mean=4.4 ± 0.80, have interpersonal relationships (mean=4.2 ± 0.96 have good personality characteristics (mean=4.1 ± 0.95, and have high eaching ability (mean=4 ± 0.89. According to the students, the most important characteristics of an influential clinical instructor are having interest in patient care (98.4%, having sufficient professional knowledge (80%, explaining and demonstrating new nursing techniques (80%, performing nursing skills procedures (86.3%, being honest with the students and creating motivation in students (83%.Conclusion:The nursing students' viewpoints indicated that influential clinical instructor has an important role in promoting quality nursing experience and in getting knowledge, professional skills and attitude. Nursing faculty should plan for promoting professional competency in clinical instructors.
Full Text Available Objective: To identify the expectations of students enrolled in the oral health technician course conducted by the School of Public Health of Ceará, about their professional future. Methods:This work presents a quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive study held with students of seven classes in dental hygiene course conducted by the School of Public Health. Data collection was conducted between March and April 2011, through the application of a semistructured questionnaire, which addressed the professional profile of the participants, their expectations about the labor market and the profession. Statistical analysis was performedwith a degree of significance of 0.05. Results: 154 students were interviewed, of whom 96.1% were women, mean age of 32.9 (± 7.3 years. Most (93.8%, N = 120 graduated from high school and 71.1% (N = 108 were registered at the Regional Council of Dentistry. Regardingtheir insertion in the labor market, 42.9% believed it would be satisfactory and 58% that it would occur in public service. The biggest obstacle mentioned by the subjects about the insertion of oral health technicians in the labor market was the difficulty of hiring (45.5%. When asked to punctuate some actions that they would play as TSB, 82.2% cited clinical and collective actions. The majority (96% claimed to feel safe to act as TSB. Conclusion:The students’ expectations regarding their professional future are positive. However, it is necessary to develop further research in this area, so that the profession has a growing support within the labor market.
José Ferreira Lima Junior
Full Text Available Professional socialization of graduate students is a give-and-take process due to its complexity and dynamism. This paper, which falls under organizational behavior focuses on the three approaches to socialization of graduate students—functionalist, interpretive and critical. The author views professional socialization from the standpoint of interpretive approach, which argues that a student plays a significant role in the professional socialization process. While the department puts the student through the socialization process, the student makes a decision and chooses how to behave through the socialization process. Thus, the student influences socialization process just as the socialization process influences the student’s professional preparation. The paper focuses on graduate students because of the assumption that graduate study plays a fundamental role in socializing and preparing students for work and developing an early professional identity.
Orpha Kemunto Ongiti
Background: Distress and burnout among medical and psychology professionals are commonly reported and have implications for the quality of patient care delivered. Already in the course of university studies, medicine and psychology students report mental distress and low life satisfaction. There is a need for interventions that promote better coping skills in students in order to prevent distress and future burnout. This study examines the effect of a seven-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduc...
Vibe, Michael; Solhaug, Ida; Tyssen, Reidar; Friborg, Oddgeir; Rosenvinge, Jan H.; Sørlie, Tore; Bjørndal, Arild
Background: Reflection on professional experience is increasingly accepted as a critical attribute for health care practice; however, evidence that it has a positive impact on performance remains scarce. This study investigated whether, after allowing for the effects of knowledge and consultation skills, reflection had an independent effect on students' ability to solve problem cases. Methods : Data was collected from 362 undergraduate medical students at Ghent University solving video cas...
Koole, Sebastiaan; Dornan, Tim; Aper, Leen; Scherpbier, Albert; Valcke, Martin; Cohen-schotanus, Janke; Derese, Anselme
To ensure acceptable practice standards both doctors and social workers should draw on relevant legal rules when reaching professional judgements concerning, for instance, children requiring protection, people with severe mental distress and adults at risk, information sharing, consent to intervention and service user involvement in their care and treatment. Many practitioners use the law to maintain high standards of professionalism. However, research has uncovered limited awareness of legal rules and poor standards of health and social care. Academic benchmarks and practice requirements for health and social care professions centrally position legal knowledge for secure decision-making. Model curricula exist. However, the outcomes of the taught curriculum on students' confidence in their legal knowledge and skills have been relatively overlooked. This article introduces the concept of legal literacy, a distillation of knowledge, understanding, skills and values that enables practitioners to connect relevant legal rules with their professional practice, to appreciate the roles and duties of other practitioners and to communicate effectively across organisational boundaries. It presents the outcomes for a 2006-2009 study of 1154 UK medical and 638 social work students of their law learning for practice, response rates of 46% and 68%. Significant differences were found between medical and social work students' attitudes towards the law, and in their self-ratings of legal knowledge and skills. Confidence levels were low and anxiety high, especially among medical students, although law teaching had some positive outcomes on knowledge and skill development. Social work and medical students associated different themes with the law, the latter especially foregrounding ethics, negligence and liability, which could affect inter-professional working. Students are not fully prepared for legally literate practice, with a consequent need to review the time allocated for, and the content of law learning and the subsequent availability of continuing professional development. PMID:23379906
Preston-Shoot, Michael; McKimm, Judy
The term "professionalism" has been used in a variety of ways. In 2012, the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) Standing Committee on Ethics and Professionalism undertook to develop an operational definition of professionalism that would speak to the variety of certification and maintenance-of-certification activities undertaken by ABMS and its 24 member boards. In the course of this work, the authors reviewed prior definitions of professions and professionalism and found them to be largely descriptive, or built around lists of proposed professional attributes, values, and behaviors. The authors argue that while making lists of desirable professional characteristics is necessary and useful for teaching and assessment, it is not, by itself, sufficient either to fully define professionalism or to capture its social functions. Thus, the authors sought to extend earlier work by articulating a definition that explains professionalism as the motivating force for an occupational group to come together and create, publicly profess, and develop reliable mechanisms to enforce shared promises-all with the purpose of ensuring that practitioners are worthy of patients' and the public's trust.Using this framework, the authors argue that medical professionalism is a normative belief system about how best to organize and deliver health care. Believing in professionalism means accepting the premise that health professionals must come together to continually define, debate, declare, distribute, and enforce the shared competency standards and ethical values that govern their work. The authors identify three key implications of this new definition for individual clinicians and their professional organizations. PMID:24667515
Wynia, Matthew K; Papadakis, Maxine A; Sullivan, William M; Hafferty, Frederic W
Full Text Available Romanian specialist`s studies show a harsh reality: Romanian universities programs have only theoretical value, creating specialists but not for real life, but for a more abstract environment. Our university graduates are doing very well in a stable economic and institutional environment that offers relatively easy material and financial resources, with a set of skills and professional skills which fail to meet harsh reality of the labor market. An effective solution for professional skills development is the accumulation of work experience during college in the environment and on the job we have in view by following an internship program. As a form of practical education through work, internship meets young people, particularly students keen to gain experience through practical work in a job within a company or institution chosen, giving them the opportunity to translate theoretical knowledge into practice and to develop skills and experience of labor market activities that waits for them. This paper is an original applied research conducted in the West University of Timisoara, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. It aims to identify whether there is a need for specialization Management students to acquire work experience before graduating, to what extent they are able to assess their skills and work in a company and especially the role of internship programs in professional and personal development of students. The results show that participation in an internship program is beneficial not only for students but also for employers. Leading to increased competences and to training and professional skills and personal development, internship becomes a more attractive alternative for young people because it gives them the opportunity to be â€œa ringer" of an employee on the position you have in view. Without being employed, students can gain practical experience in a certain position they sought in a company or institution on the labor market, practical experience they need so much and they can also learn what responsibilities and tasks the job entails and whether or not they are suitable for that position.
Full Text Available Objective: To study the attitudes of the patients towards medical students rotating in the dermatology clinic in the King Fahad Hospital of the University (KFHU. Materials and Methods: One hundred and two adult outpatients attending the KFHU in Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia during the period March to June 2004 completed a questionnaire to evaluate their receptiveness towards medical students attending with the dermatologist. Results: Almost 57% preferred physician and medical student participation in their care and 46% welcomed their presence during physical examination. The majority of patients (64.8% felt comfortable disclosing personal information to the medical student and (68.7% enjoyed the interaction with the medical students. Patients (63.7% agreed that the students understood their healthcare needs. Conclusion: The majority of the patients in this study enjoyed their interactions with the students and felt comfortable disclosing information. Some patients want to spend time alone with the physician so permission for medical student participation should be requested.
Full Text Available The actual context has enhanced job opportunities in the field of sport in order to respond to the current market demand. Thus, Physical Education and Sport Science graduates who begin to do differents jobs to the traditional ones but relate to their study field. The aim of this study was to guess which are the job preferences of the students of Physical Education and Sport Science of Seville University by gender and age doing the second cycle of their college degree and determine if there are significant differences. A descriptive analysis was carried out, using a questionnaire based on several researches, it was related to professional opportunities in sport sciences. The sample was of 118 students which represented 40.7% of the overall registered students. Results shown that sport management is the most preferable professional opportunity for women and men of the total sample, following in second place by teaching in secondary school for people older than 25 years of both sexes and teaching in primary school for the younger than 25 years. These findings announce changes in occupational trends in sports, to be taken into account in the framework of the European higher education (Degree of Science in Sport and Physical Activity, own US Masters and Official, lifelong learning programs....
Jerónimo García Fernández
Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…
Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep
BACKGROUND: Medical school has historically reinforced traditional views of women. This cohort study follows implementation of a revitalized curriculum and examines students' attitudes toward women on entry into an Ontario medical school, and 3 years later. METHODS: Of the 75 students entering first year at Queen's University medical school 70 completed the initial survey in September 1994 and 54 were resurveyed in May 1997. First-year students at 2 other Ontario medical schools were also sur...
Phillips, S. P.; Ferguson, K. E.
Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression wer...
Rawan Al-Fouzan; Sarah Al-Ajlan; Yousef Marwan; Mervat Al-Saleh
Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS. Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE's in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE's and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5 and sixty four nursing students (Year 2/3 of 4 were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE's for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33/46; 72% and 81% of nursing students (56/64 passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.
This study was the first to explore factors associated with emotional burnout (EB) among medical residents in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 205 medical residents in a Malaysian general hospital. The self-administered questionnaire used consisted of questions on sociodemographics and work characteristics, sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, engagement, and EB. EB was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Mean (±SD) age of the respondents was 26.5 (±1.6). The most common source of job stress was "fear of making mistakes." Most of the participants were dissatisfied with the increase of residentship period from one year to two years. A high level of EB was reported by 36.6% of the respondents. In multivariate analysis, the most important correlates of EB were sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement. A high prevalence of EB was found among medical residents. Sociodemographic characteristics, performance pressure, and satisfaction with policies were significantly associated with EB. Although this study was limited by its cross-sectional design, its findings posit a sufficient foundation to relevant authorities to construct, amend, and amalgamate existing and future policies. Nothing will sustain you more potently than the power to recognize in your humdrum routine, as perhaps it may be thought, the true poetry of life-the poetry of the common place, of the common man, of the plain, toil-worn woman, with their loves and their joys, their sorrows and their grief.SirWilliam Osler, Aphorisms from the Student Life (Aequanimitas, 1952). PMID:24367238
Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Perianayagam, Wilson; Rampal, Krishna Gopal
There is increasingly wide-spread recognition in astronomy that professional training must broaden beyond its traditional approaches to academic classes and research. Many recent community advisory reports, including the National Academy of Sciences Decadal survey, Astro2010, recommend that graduate education accommodate the variety of career paths taken by graduates, taking into account the wide range of activities scientists engage in and the skills necessary to succeed in career options both inside and outside academia and specific scientific disciplines. In response to this need, Indiana University has recently offered a new graduate seminar in astronomy to provide this broader perspective and to prepare students for a variety of career paths after graduate school. The course uses a mixture of class discussion on selected topics supplemented by short readings, activities that prepare students for seeking employment and practice some necessary skills, and discussions with astronomers who have followed a variety of career paths. An important part of the seminar is the practical preparation of complete applications for typical positions students are likely to pursue following graduation, and the revision of these applications to be appropriate for a non-traditional career path. The goal of the course is to make students aware of the many options for careers that will be available to them and the skills that will be important for their success, and to equip students with strategies for following a personally satisfying career path.
Friel, Eileen D.
People with mental illness around the world continue to suffer from stigmatization and limited care. Previous studies utilizing self-report questionnaires indicate that many medical students regard clinical work with psychiatric patients as unappealing, while the professionalism literature has documented a general decline in students' capacity for…
Cutler, Janis L.; Harding, Kelli J.; Mozian, Sharon A.; Wright, Leslie L.; Pica, Adrienne G.; Masters, Scott R.; Graham, Mark J.
The article discusses the positive and negative impact of the new Federal state educational standards of higher professional education on the quality of studying the discipline «Law» in medical schools
Erugina ?.V.; Vlasova ?.V.; Sazanova G.U.; Dolgova ?.?.; Abyzova N.V.
Background: The rising impact of social media on the private and working lives of health care professionals has made researchers and health care institutions study and rethink the concept and content of medical professionalism in the digital age. In the last decade, several specific policies, original research studies, and comments have been published on the responsible use of social media by health care professionals. However, there is no systematic literature review that analyzes the full s...
Gholami-kordkheili, Fatemeh; Wild, Verina; Strech, Daniel
Full Text Available There are multiple reasons that justify teaching computer game design. Its multi-aspectual nature creates opportunity to develop, at the same time, creativity, technical skills and ability to work in team. Thinking of game design classes, one needs direction on what to focus on so that the students could benefit the most. In this paper, we present results of a survey on both the students' and working professionals' expectations from game design course and opinions on game designer job. Although sometimes consistent, the answers from the two groups often reveal significant discrepancies. We believe that the results presented in this paper can help improve the quality of computer game design courses and make their learning outcomes more compatible with the needs of the computer game industry.
Background: Health care workers including medical students are vulnerable to hepatitis B & C virus infections. The objective of this study was to determine the level of willingness for screening among medical students. Methodology: This cross-sectional survey was carried out at Gomal Medical College, Dera Ismail Khan from 1st April 2010 to 15 June…
Ahmad, Iftikhar; Mahsud, Muhammad Amin Jan; Hussain, Javed; Khan, Muhammad Hussain; Khan, Habibullah; Noman, Nargis; Rabi, Fazle, Din, Siraj ud
Objective: The author describes child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) undergraduate teaching in American and Canadian medical schools. Methods: A survey asking for information on CAP teaching, student interest in CAP, and opinions about the CAP importance was sent to the medical student psychiatry director at 142 accredited medical schools in the…
Dingle, Arden D.
Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????(NEO-PI-R??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????1 ????????????????????????????????????????2 ?????????????????????????????????????3 ?????????????????????????????????????????????(p ?4 ????????????????????????????????????????????????(p ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Objective: To find out the medical ethics personality tendency among medical students, and provide reference for consummation medical ethics education. Methods: The study is based on a survey of 439 medical students in Gansu, who are assessed with the NEO-PI-R and the medical ethics personality questionnaire which is compiled, the significant difference and the related factors are analyzed. Results: It is agreeableness, conscientious, tender-mindedness, dutifulness, trust, warmth, and altruism that constitute the main factors of the personality traits. Ethic cognition, emotions, will, faith, and behaviour are the main factors of the medical ethics personality. In addition to medical ethics cognition and openness, medical ethics faith and neuroticism, the score of medical students in personality traits and medical ethics personality have significant difference (p . Conscientiousness, altruism, warmth, impulsiveness, depression, achievement striving, values and feelings, these factors can predict the medical ethics personality tendency of medical students (p . Conclusion: The major goal of ethics education is to cultivate the medical ethics personality in medical colleges and universities, we should guide the formation of medical students to dedicate to the cause of medical solid psychological traits and good behavior habits, by the cultivation of medical students’ kindheartedness, rigorous, modest, honest, honest good personality quality, and the increase of the teaching research and reform.
The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy, benefits and student perceptions of using Internet videoconferencing and a web camera to connect college and university fashion students with apparel industry professionals. A total of 70 college and university fashion students, three instructors, and three apparel industry professionals…
Ashley, Vera Bruce
After an historic recall of nuclear medicine in France and in the world, a presentation of the education and formation of nuclear physicians in France, the author explains why nuclear physicians are privileged mediators between nuclear professionals and general practitioners
In recent years, rising numbers of medical students and an increasingly demanding clinical workload has put pressures on the educational systems for medical students in the hospital. Bedside teaching remains central to education, but tutorial delivery by registrars, tutors and consultants has proven to be increasingly difficult with the greater numbers of students now in the undergraduate system.
Objective: To explore the effects of brief training in Motivational interviewing (MI) for medical students. Design: Video recordings of consultations between 113 final-year medical students and simulated patients were scored blind by two independent raters with the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC). Half of the students participated in a…
Opheim, Arild; Andreasson, Sven; Eklund, Astri Brandell; Prescott, Peter
Asian students comprise over half of all international students in the United States, yet little is known about their help-seeking behaviors and preferences for mental health professionals. The purpose of this study was to use conjoint analysis to examine characteristics of mental health professionals influencing Korean international students' preferences when choosing a mental health professional. Korean international students from three universities in the United States were recruited on a volunteer basis to participate in this study (N = 114). Results indicated that mental health professional characteristics, including ethnicity, age, professional identity, and training institution, were significant factors in students' preference formation; however, gender of the mental health professional was not found to be a significant factor in the present study. Ethnic similarity was the most powerful predictor of preference formation. Implications for promoting help-seeking and mental health service utilization among Asian international students are discussed. PMID:23325071
Lee, Eun-Jeong; Chan, Fong; Ditchman, Nicole; Feigon, Maia
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had misconception about transmission of HIV infection should not be allowed to work in the clinic or hospital. 36% of male and 9% of female students admitted indulging in safe sexual practices mostly with their friends.
Amalraj Edwin R
BACKGROUND: Studies of career and parenting satisfaction have focused separately on medical students, residents and practising physicians. The objective of this study was to compare satisfaction across a spectrum of stages of medical career. METHODS: A survey of incoming medical students, current medical students, residents and physician teachers at the University of Saskatchewan was conducted in the spring of 1997. Response rates were 77% (43/56), 81% (177/218), 65% (134/206) and 39% (215/55...
Cujec, B.; Oancia, T.; Bohm, C.; Johnson, D.
Full Text Available Stress amongst medical students is oftenoverlooked. Intelligent students are not always the mostcomposed. This study aimed to look at both male andfemale students of three different ethnic groups and theeffects of stress in areas such as academic, social,financial and their everyday life. The Chinese studentsreported significantly less “academic stress” than theMalay students, and the Malay students reportedsignificantly less “financial stress” compared to theChinese and Indian students. Medical education can bea health hazard for medical students
Jagmohni Kaur Sidhu
Background Interprofessional collaboration between pharmacists and physicians to conduct joint home medication reviews (HMR) is important for optimizing the medical treatment of patients suffering from chronic illnesses. However, collaboration has proved difficult to achieve. The HMR programme "Medisam" was launched in 2009 at the University of Copenhagen with the aim of "developing, implementing and evaluating a collaboration model for HMRs and medicine reconciliations in Denmark". The Medisam programme involves patients, pharmacy internship students, the (pharmacist) supervisor of the pharmacy students and physicians. Objective To explore if it was possible through the Medisam programme to obtain a fruitful HMR collaboration between pharmacy internship students and physicians as a means to develop HMR collaboration between trained pharmacists and physicians further. Setting Ten matching pairs of student-physician collaboration were studied across Denmark. Method Semi-structured interviews about existing collaboration were conducted with pharmacy internship students in the HMR programme, their supervisors and physicians partners. The theoretical framework forming the analyses was derived especially from works of Bradley et al. (Res Soc Adm Pharm 8:36-46, 2012), and Snyder et al. (Res Soc Adm Pharm 6:307-23, 2010) on pharmacists/physician collaboration. Main outcome measure The development of inter-professional collaboration between students and physicians according to the three collaboration drivers: trustworthiness, role specification and professional interaction. Results Full collaboration was not achieved. Physicians found collaboration satisfactory, students however expressed the need of more interaction with physicians. The written collaboration contracts did not ensure a possible need of students to re-negotiate roles and tasks, and did therefore not entirely ensure role specification. Developing mutual professional interdependence through students being recognized by physicians to contribute to improved patient outcomes was also limited. Conclusion Some challenges to fruitful collaboration were identified. Solutions to these challenges include students and their pharmacist supervisors to find ways to present their collaborative needs to physicians and for students to illustrate more explicitly the benefits patient achieve if physicians implement the recommendations of students.
Kaae, Susanne; SÃ¸rensen, Ellen Westh
Medical students experience stress during medical education that can negatively impact performance. Typical curricula in U.S. medical schools are rigorously intense and provide little or no time off between courses in the first two years of training. This intensity contributes to increased stress for students accustomed to performing academically near the top of the class prior to matriculating in medical school. We describe an innovative new academic calendar that was modified to cr...
Adkison, Linda R.; Hanson, Andrea L.
Full Text Available In this article we study the social recruitment and professional image of students at the University of Debrecen. Social recruitment shows significant differences between the faculties and the branches. The students in the high prestige faculties come from highmiddle class and middle class families. The students of the faculties that were judged having average prestige are from the middle class and the rate of low-middle class students is significantly greater in branches with lower prestige. Important differences were found in the professional image of the students with an education major and not education majors and also in case of the „ideal professional” and the „practical, necessary knowledge”. Both are partly formed by the professional socialization of the students and partly by the stereotypes. As a consequence there are also big differences between the professional image and the future expectations of the students with an education major and with other majors attending the same faculty.
Full Text Available We describe a training program on “Psychology of effective professional activity”, realized on the basis of the Ural College of the Beauty Industry. The purpose of this discipline is to improve the effectiveness of education and professional activities of college students acquiring professions of “Human-Human” type. To improve effectiveness of education and professional activities, this program provides formation of professionally important qualities of students. The results of the program can be: students’ acquisition of knowledge required for the effective performance of professional activities (ways to prevent burnout, increase self-confidence, etc.; mastery of professional skills (planning, simulation, etc.; formation of professionally important qualities (stress, tolerance, etc.; increasing the efficiency of their professional activities.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop a uniquely tailored mentoring program for medical students and evaluate the success of implementation. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among medical students at University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, in 2007 (response rate 74 n=1235) was administered to explore student needs for an individual counseling service (mentoring program). These data were supplemented with additional qualitative data (telephone interviews (n=52) and ex...
Jennifer Kurré; Monika Bullinger; Corinna Petersen-Ewert; Guse, Andreas H.
Background: Little is known about the characteristics of mentoring relationships formed between faculty and medical students. Individual mentoring relationships of clinical medical students at Munich Medical School were characterized quantitatively and qualitatively. Methods: All students signing up for the mentoring program responded to a questionnaire on their expectations (n = 534). Mentees were asked to give feedback after each of their one-on-one meetings (n = 203). A detailed analysis o...
Konstantinos Dimitriadis; Philip von der Borch; Rmann, Sylv X. E. Re St X. F.; Meinel, Felix G.; Stefan Moder; Martin Reincke; Fischer, Martin R.
Full Text Available Abstract: Context: There is evidence of significant career dissatisfaction among practicing physicians and those considering medicine as a profession. Most research on career satisfaction has examined practicing physicians. This study was undertaken to look at determinants of satisfaction in those at the earliest stage of their medical careers ? medical students. Methods: As part of a larger study, students comprising one class at the University of Washington School of Medicine were surveyed three times over the course of their medical education. For the present study we examined measures specifically related to determinants of career satisfaction. Findings: Over time, students? sense of the importance of most measured determinants of satisfaction showed significant change, the majority of which were in the direction of decreased importance. However, most of the change was relative. That is, factors that students considered to be most important at the start of medical school continued to be most important throughout the educational experience and those factors students considered to be least important at Year 1 continued to be least important at Years 2 and 4. Discussion: These findings have implications for medical education, a time when students are forming expectations that will impact their career satisfaction. In addition to information on career satisfaction, students should understand the professional values of medicine, their own values and expectations, current practice patterns, economics, and the role of advocacy.
Virginia A. Reed, PhD
Work based learning and teaching in health care settings are complex and dynamic. Sociocultural theory addresses this complexity by focusing on interaction between learners, teachers, and their environment as learners develop their professional identity. Although social interaction between doctors and students plays a crucial role in this developmental process, socio-cultural research from the perspective of doctors is scarce. We performed discourse analysis on seven general practitioners' audio diaries during a 10-week general practice clerkship to study how they gave shape to their interaction with their students. Examination of 61 diary-entries revealed trajectories of developing relationships. These trajectories were initiated by the way respondents established a point of departure, based on their first impression of the students. It continued through the development of dialogue with their student and through conceptualizations of good medical practice. Such conceptualizations about what was normal in medical and educational practice enabled respondents to recognize qualities in the student and to indirectly determine students' desired learning trajectory. Towards the end, discursive turns in respondents' narratives signaled development within the relationship. This became evident in division of roles and positions in the context of daily practice. Although respondents held power in the relationships, we found that their actions depended strongly on what the students afforded them socially. Our findings address a gap in literature and could further inform theory and practice, for example by finding out how to foster constructive dialogue between doctors and students, or by exploring different discourses among learners and teachers in other contexts. PMID:23771397
van der Zwet, J; Dornan, T; Teunissen, P W; de Jonge, L P J W M; Scherpbier, A J J A
Full Text Available Background: Worldwide, patients are the cornerstone of bedside teaching of medical students. In this study, the authors aimed to assess patients’ acceptability toward medical students in teaching hospitals of the Faculty of Medicine of Kuwait University. Methods: Ninehundred and ninety five patients were approached in 14 teaching hospitals; 932 patients agreed to participate (refusal rate is 6.3%. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Results: In general, higher acceptance of students by patients was found when there is no direct contact between the patient and the student (e.g., reading patients’ files, presenting in outpatient clinic, observing doctors performing examination or procedures compared to other situations (e.g., performing physical examination or procedures. Pediatrics patients showed higher acceptance of students compared to patients in other specialties, while Obstetrics/Gynecology patients showed the highest refusal of students. Gender of patients (especially females and students appeared to affect the degree of acceptance of medical students by patients. Majority of the patients (436; 46.8% believed that the presence of medical students in hospitals improves the quality of health care. Conclusion: Patients are an important factor of bedside teaching. Clinical tutors must take advantage of patients who accept medical students. Clinical tutors and medical students should master essential communication skills to convince patients in accepting students, thus improving bedside teaching. Also, using simulation and standardization should be considered to address scenarios that most patients are unwilling to allow students to participate.
According to the definition of World Health Organization (WHO), life style is the method of life built on specific behavioral patterns. We performed a survey among a group of Iranian medical students to identify their health related life style. A cross sectional study was performed by using the questionnaire. In this process, three-hundred out of all 800 medical students who have entered the medical faculty of Tabriz Medical University, Iran during 1998 and 2004 participated in the survey. Th...
Mahasti Alizadeh; Kamyar Ghabili
To explore medical students' views of assisted death practices in patient cases that describe different degrees and types of physical and mental suffering, an anonymous survey was administered to all students at one medical school. Respondents were asked about the acceptability of assisted death activities in five patient vignettes and withdrawal of life support in a sixth vignette. In the vignettes, actions were performed by four possible agents: the medical student personally; a referral physician; physicians in general; or non-physicians. Of 306 medical students, 166 (54%) participated. Respondents expressed opposition or uncertainty about assisted death practices in the five patient cases that illustrated severe forms of suffering which were secondary to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, treatment-resistant depressive and somatoform disorders, antisocial and sexually violent behavior, or AIDS. Students supported the withdrawal of life support in the sixth vignette depicting exceptional futility secondary to AIDS. Students were especially opposed to their own involvement and to the participation of non-physicians in assisted death activities. Differences in views related to sex, religious beliefs, and personal philosophy were found. Medical students do not embrace assisted death practices, although they exhibit tolerance regarding the choices of medical colleagues. How these attributes of medical students will translate into future behaviors toward patients and peers remains uncertain. Medical educators must strive to understand the perspectives of physicians-in-training. Expanded, empirically informed education that is attuned to the attitudes of medical students may be helpful in fulfilling the responsibility of imparting optimal clinical care skills. PMID:11495712
Warner, T D; Roberts, L W; Smithpeter, M; Rogers, M; Roberts, B; McCarty, T; Franchini, G; Geppert, C; Obenshain, S S
This study analyzes videotaped conversations between various family members of a child with cerebral palsy and medical professionals. The conversations are examined for information elaboration and condensation, information negotiation, as well as methodological benefits. The medical interviews elicited new information in various contexts and…
Tannen, Deborah; Wallat, Cynthia
Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…
Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat
Objectives: To investigate future life expectations among male and female medical students in their first and final year. Methods: The study was cross-sectional and conducted at a Swedish medical school. Out of 600 invited students, 507 (85 answered an open-ended question about their future life, 298 (59 first-year students and 209 (41 last-year students. Women constituted 60of the respondents. A mixed model design was applied; qualitative content analysis was utilized to create statistically...
Saima Diderichsen; Jenny Andersson; Johansson, Eva E.; Petra Verdonk; Antoine Lagro-Janssen; Katarina Hamberg
Objectives: To determine whether personality is related to medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills and self-ratings on communication skills. Methods: 524 first- and 507 second-year medical students completed the Communications Skills Attitudes Scale and rated their own communication skills. First-year students answered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and second-year students the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses, control...
Beatriz Molinuevo; Rafael Torrubia
Objectives: To investigate future life expectations among male and female medical students in their first and final year. Methods: The study was cross-sectional and conducted at a Swedish medical school. Out of 600 invited students, 507 (85%) answered an open-ended question about their future life, 298 (59%) first-year students and 209 (41%) last-year students. Women constituted 60% of the respondents. A mixed model design was applied; qualitative content analysis was utilized to create stati...
Diderichsen, Saima; Andersson, Jenny; Johansson, Eva E.; Verdonk, Petra; Lagro-janssen, Toine; Hamberg, Katarina
Full Text Available The number of college students who take psychiatric medication has dramatically increased. These students may be at risk for negative mental health outcomes because research shows that mental illness can delay the attainment of developmental milestones critical to adulthood. This article explores college students’ experience with psychiatric medication and how it impacts functioning and stigma. Perceptions of medication treatment could be crucial to understanding the factors that enable college students with mental illness to thrive in a university setting. Seventeen undergraduate college students in a private, Midwestern university who had a psychiatric illness and were taking prescribed psychiatric medication, were enrolled. A semi-structured interview queried college students about their perceptions of taking psychiatric medications and how the use of medication influences their functioning. Authors conducted thematic analysis by using the constant comparative method for coding data and sorting in-vivo codes by shared theme. Respondents generally reported positive attitudes toward medication and minimal stigma. Particular themes included: higher functioning; mitigation of symptoms; willingness to disclose; and positive long-term outlook regarding the use of medication. Students were empowered by their treatment because it positively impacted functioning and integration into the college setting. However, in contrast to the majority of study participants, one minority student reported experiencing significant external and internal stigma due to her use of psychiatric medication. Although the study’s qualitative nature, small sample size,and lack of ethnic diversity of respondents limit generalizability, important preliminary findings indicate that some college students are benefiting from the use of psychiatric medication with minimal stigma. More research is needed on college students’ experience of psychiatric medication, particularly the experience of minority students, since extant literature indicates their reluctance to utilize psychiatric medications, and a tendency toward negative perceptions of help-seeking for mental illness.
Eileen P. Anderson-Fye
Stigmatising attitudes towards persons with mental illness are commonly reported among health professionals. Familiarity with mental illness has been reported to improve these attitudes. Very few studies have compared future medical doctors’ attitudes toward types of mental illness, substance use disorders and physical illness. A cross-sectional survey of 5th and 6th year medical students as well as recently graduated medical doctors was conducted in April 2011. The 12-item level of contact...
Bawo Onesirosan James; Joyce Ohiole Omoaregba; Esther Osemudiamen Okogbenin
Humor and laughter in medicine has received much attention in the medical literature. The use of humor by medical students, residents and medical personnel is not uncommon. Laughter can be therapeutic, for patients and practitioners alike. However, when inappropriately directed towards patients humor can be seen as unprofessional, disrespectful and dehumanizing. How physicians interpret their day-to-day professional experiences, and when and how they use humor is influenced by the perspective that is taken, the social distance from the event, culture and context. Some argue that social and physical distance makes it more acceptable to laugh and joke about patients, but not everyone agrees. To laugh with and not at others is the appropriate use of humor in medicine. To cry against the suffering of others and the injustice behind that suffering and not with them in their agony and frustration is the appropriate response to tragedy. PMID:21290366
Dharamsi, S; Whiteman, M; Woollard, R
Vikas Seth, Prerna Upadhyaya, Mushtaq Ahmad, Vijay MogheDepartment of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, IndiaPurpose: To assess students’ perceptions of the impact of PowerPoint (PPT) presentations in lectures in comparison to the traditional chalk and talk method and lectures using transparencies and overhead projector (TOHP). The study analyzes the preferences for teaching aids of medical students versus dental students.Methods: Second year medical ...
Vikas Seth; Prerna Upadhyaya; Mushtaq Ahmad; et al., .
Full Text Available Abstract Background An integrated sense of professionalism enables health professionals to draw on relevant knowledge in context and to apply a set of professional responsibilities and ethical principles in the midst of changing work environments 12. Inculcating professionalism is therefore a critical goal of health professional education. Two multi-professional courses for first year Health Science students at the University of Cape Town, South Africa aim to lay the foundation for becoming an integrated health professional 3. In these courses a diagram depicting the domains of the integrated health professional is used to focus the content of small group experiential exercises towards an appreciation of professionalism. The diagram serves as an organising framework for conceptualising an emerging professional identity and for directing learning towards the domains of 'self as professional' 45. Objective This paper describes how a diagrammatic representation of the core elements of an integrated health professional is used as a template for framing course content and for organising student learning. Based on the assumption that all health care professionals should be knowledgeable, empathic and reflective, the diagram provides students and educators with a visual tool for investigating the subjective and objective dimensions of professionalism. The use of the diagram as an integrating point of reference for individual and small group learning is described and substantiated with relevant literature. Conclusion The authors have applied the diagram with positive impact for the past six years with students and educators reporting that "it just makes sense". The article includes plans for formal evaluation. Evaluation to date is based on preliminary, informal feedback on the value of the diagram as a tool for capturing the domains of professionalism at an early stage in the undergraduate education of health professional students.
Medical administration is a recognised medical specialty in Australia. Historically, medical administrators have rarely been subjected to litigation or disciplinary hearings relating specifically to their administrative functions. However, the legal landscape for medical administrators in Australia appears to be shifting. In 2009, the Queensland Health Practitioners Tribunal heard two separate cases involving the professional conduct of medical administrators who were implicated in the scandal surrounding Dr. Jayant Patel at Bundaberg Hospital. In September 2010, judgment in one of those cases was delivered. This article reviews the tribunal's decision through the lens of relevant United Kingdom authorities and recent legislative changes in Australia regulating the health professions. PMID:21528739
Currently no medical informatics curriculum is required at US medical schools. In 1998 the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Medical School Objectives Project (MSOP) identified topics for inclusion in medical school curriculum, categorized in five domains: Life-Long Learner, Educator/Communicator, Clinician, Researcher, and Manager. Here we present the results of a web-based survey of 1st and 2nd year medical students at Case Western Reserve University (Case). The survey determi...
Krause, Nicholas D.; Roulette, G. Dante; Papp, Klara K.; Kaelber, David
Stigmatization of mental illness is a widespread phenomenon even among health professionals. To explore the origins of this inappropriate attitude, medical students at the beginning and in the end of their studies were examined with self-report measures of social distance towards mentally ill persons, beliefs about etiology of mental disorders, valuation of psychotherapy and the personality features empathy and narcissism. While the students' attitudes turn out to be unrelated to the personality features, significant differences between the two groups were found indicating that distance towards mentally ill patients in the medical role and ambivalence about the etiological factors of mental disorders are stronger pronounced in the end of the studies compared to the beginning. These findings underline the need to prepare medical students better for contacts with mentally ill patients. PMID:22334088
Neumann, Eva; Obliers, Rainer; Albus, Christian
Full Text Available Con el propósito de diagnosticar la interiorización de los valores éticos profesionales a los alumnos de medicina seleccionados, se realiza esta investigación descriptiva causal. Para ello se determina el Sistema de Valores Éticos de la profesión médica en Camagüey, luego de un estudio profundo de los Códigos de Ética Médica Internacionales y Nacionales y la utilización de diferentes métodos y procedimientos propios de las investigaciones psicológicas y pedagógicas, éstos últimos apoyaron también la realización del diagnóstico de la situación actual de los estudiantes, donde se evidencia una diferencia notoria entre la auto evaluación y la co-evaluación siendo necesario acercar estos criterios. Valores como responsabilidad, profesionalidad, ser culto, internacionalismo y honestidad tienen dificultades en su asimilación. Queda demostrado que la metodología empleada es factible de ser utilizada para el diagnóstico al responder los resultados con las expectativasWith the purpose of diagnostic the ins and outs of the ethical professional values to the selected medicine students this descriptive investigation was carried out. With that purpose the System of Ethical Values of the medical profession in Camaguey was set after a deep study of the International and National Codes of medical Ethics and the use of different methods and procedures of psychological and pedagogic investigations, these also supported the doing of the diagnosis of the current situation of the students, where a notorius difference is evidenced between the self evaluation and the coevaluation being necessary to bring near these approaches. Values as responsability, internacionalism and honesty have difficulties to be cultivated. It is demostrated that the used methodology is feasible of being used for the diagnosis when responding the resultswith expectations
Blanca M Seijo Echevarría
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el propósito de diagnosticar la interiorización de los valores éticos profesionales a los alumnos de medicina seleccionados, se realiza esta investigación descriptiva causal. Para ello se determina el Sistema de Valores Éticos de la profesión médica en Camagüey, luego de un estudio profundo de l [...] os Códigos de Ética Médica Internacionales y Nacionales y la utilización de diferentes métodos y procedimientos propios de las investigaciones psicológicas y pedagógicas, éstos últimos apoyaron también la realización del diagnóstico de la situación actual de los estudiantes, donde se evidencia una diferencia notoria entre la auto evaluación y la co-evaluación siendo necesario acercar estos criterios. Valores como responsabilidad, profesionalidad, ser culto, internacionalismo y honestidad tienen dificultades en su asimilación. Queda demostrado que la metodología empleada es factible de ser utilizada para el diagnóstico al responder los resultados con las expectativas Abstract in english With the purpose of diagnostic the ins and outs of the ethical professional values to the selected medicine students this descriptive investigation was carried out. With that purpose the System of Ethical Values of the medical profession in Camaguey was set after a deep study of the International an [...] d National Codes of medical Ethics and the use of different methods and procedures of psychological and pedagogic investigations, these also supported the doing of the diagnosis of the current situation of the students, where a notorius difference is evidenced between the self evaluation and the coevaluation being necessary to bring near these approaches. Values as responsability, internacionalism and honesty have difficulties to be cultivated. It is demostrated that the used methodology is feasible of being used for the diagnosis when responding the resultswith expectations
Blanca M, Seijo Echevarría; Ramón, Cardoso Pérez; Jorge, Álvarez Vázquez; Tamara, Valle Sánchez; Maritza, Muñoz Rodríguez.
Purpose: Mentoring plays an important role in students' performance and career. The authors of this study assessed the need for mentoring among medical students and established a novel large-scale mentoring program at Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) Munich School of Medicine.Methods: Needs assessment was conducted using a survey distributed to all students at the medical school (n=578 of 4,109 students, return rate 14.1%). In addition, the authors held focus groups with selected medical students (n=24) and faculty physicians (n=22). All students signing up for the individual mentoring completed a survey addressing their expectations (n=534).Results: Needs assessment revealed that 83% of medical students expressed overall satisfaction with the teaching at LMU. In contrast, only 36.5% were satisfied with how the faculty supports their individual professional development and 86% of students voiced a desire for more personal and professional support. When asked to define the role of a mentor, 55.6% "very much" wanted their mentors to act as counselors, arrange contacts for them (36.4%), and provide ideas for professional development (28.1%). Topics that future mentees "very much" wished to discuss included research (56.6%), final year electives (55.8%) and experiences abroad (45.5%).Conclusions: Based on the strong desire for mentoring among medical students, the authors developed a novel two-tiered system that introduces one-to-one mentoring for students in their clinical years and offers society-based peer mentoring for pre-clinical students. One year after launching the program, more than 300 clinical students had experienced one-to-one mentoring and 1,503 students and physicians were involved in peer mentoring societies. PMID:21818236
von der Borch, Philip; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Störmann, Sylvère; Meinel, Felix G; Moder, Stefan; Reincke, Martin; Tekian, Ara; Fischer, Martin R
Abstract Background Studies in K-12 and college students show that their learning preferences have been strongly shaped by new media technologies like video games, virtual reality environments, the Internet, and social networks. However, there is no known research on medical students' game experiences or attitudes towards new media technologies in medical education. This investigation seeks to elucidate medical student experiences and attitudes, to see whether they warrant th...
Kron Frederick W; Gjerde Craig L; Sen Ananda; Fetters Michael D
OBJECTIVE—To assess the impact of GALS locomotor screen teaching to all 3rd year medical students, at a British medical school.?METHOD—In 1998, during their 3rd year, all students were taught the GALS screen in a one hour small group session. At the end of this year, 242 medical students undertook a 16 station Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). One station assessed the locomotor screening examination, while six stations assessed the examination of other systems. Th...
Fox, R.; Dacre, J.; Clark, C.; Scotland, A.
Full Text Available The aspects of improvement are considered professionally - the applied physical preparation of students of economic specialities taking into account the features of pedagogical process. It is set that in the process of professional - the applied physical preparation the complex of psychophysiological qualities, necessary a worker in his professional activity is successfully formed. The analysis of publications of the Russian and Ukrainian scientists is resulted about the varieties of facilities of improvement professionally - the applied physical preparation of students of higher educational establishments. Some features of professional preparation of future economists are found out. The necessity of search of new technologies of perfection of process of physical education of students is well-proven higher educational establishments of economic specialities. Directions of education the harmoniously developed personality of student are recommended, which will allow to improve a health, form important psychophysical qualities professionally.
Students in competence-based vocational education are expected to actively construct a personal professional theory, in which they integrate different types of knowledge and beliefs. Students' personal professional theories are seen as an important learning outcome of competence-based vocational education. However, it is unknown how personal…
Schaap, H.; de Bruijn, E.; Van der Schaaf, M. F.; Baartman, L. K. J.; Kirschner, P. A.
Using the Code of Professional Conduct, 53 accounting students evaluated the ethical acceptability of accountants in case studies. Ethics instruction appeared to alter student perceptions of ethical behavior. Because time after instruction was an important factor, increased professional socialization was recommended. (SK)
Ward, Suzanne Pinac; And Others
Abstract Background This study aims to determine the correlation between medical education systems, medical college (MC) and medical school (MS), and empathy by investigating the changes in empathy among students with each additional year of medical education. Methods The subjects were MC and MS students who had participated in the same study the previous year. All participants completed the same self-report instruments: a questionnaire on sociodemographic chara...
Hong Minha; Lee Won; Park Jae; Yoon Tai; Moon Duk; Lee Sang; Bahn Geon
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients regard health care professionals as role models for leading a healthy lifestyle. Health care professionals' own behaviour and attitudes concerning healthy lifestyle have an influence in counselling patients. The aim of this study was to assess consumption of alcohol, cigarettes and illegal substances among physicians and medical students in two German states: Brandenburg and Saxony. Methods Socio-demographic data and individual risk behaviour was collected by an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Physicians were approached via mail and students were recruited during tutorials or lectures. Results 41.6% of physicians and 60.9% of medical students responded to the questionnaire; more than 50% of the respondents in both groups were females. The majority of respondents consumed alcohol at least once per week; median daily alcohol consumption ranged from 3.88 g/d (female medical students to 12.6 g/d (male physicians. A significantly higher percentage of men (p Conclusion More than one third of the medical students and health care professionals showed problematic alcohol-drinking behaviour. Although the proportion of non-smokers in the investigated sample was higher than in the general population, when compared to the general population, medical students between 18-24 reported higher consumption of illegal substances. These results indicate that methods for educating and promoting healthy lifestyle, particularly with respect to excessive alcohol consumption, tobacco use and abuse of illegal drugs should be considered.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of medical conditions is influenced by whether clinicians regard them as "disease" or "not a disease". The aim of the survey was to determine how medical students classify a range of conditions they might encounter in their professional lives and whether a different name for a condition would influence their decision in the categorisation of the condition as a 'disease' or 'not a disease'. Methods We surveyed 3 concurrent years of medical students to classify 36 candidate conditions into "disease" and "non-disease". The conditions were given a 'medical' label and a (lay label and positioned where possible in alternate columns of the survey. Results The response rate was 96% (183 of 190 students attending a lecture: 80% of students concurred on 16 conditions as "disease" (eg diabetes, tuberculosis, and 4 as "non-disease" (eg baldness, menopause, fractured skull and heat stroke. The remaining 16 conditions (with 21-79% agreement were more contentious (especially obesity, infertility, hay fever, alcoholism, and restless leg syndrome. Three pairs of conditions had both a more, and a less, medical label: the more medical labels (myalgic encephalomyelitis, hypertension, and erectile dysfunction were more frequently classified as 'disease' than the less medical (chronic fatigue syndrome, high blood pressure, and impotence, respectively, significantly different for the first two pairs. Conclusions Some conditions excluded from the classification of "disease" were unexpected (eg fractured skull and heat stroke. Students were mostly concordant on what conditions should be classified as "disease". They were more likely to classify synonyms as 'disease' if the label was medical. The findings indicate there is still a problem 30 years on in the concept of 'what is a disease'. Our findings suggest that we should be addressing such concepts to medical students.
Case-based, multidisciplinary seminars provided a vehicle for clinicians, philosophers and students to debate current problems in medical ethics in a manner which ensured maximum learning and interest for all participants. Prior training in philosophical medical ethics was an essential prerequisite, giving students the knowledge and skills to take part in the discussions at an appropriate level of sophistication.
In order to accumulate data on foreign medical students in the Americas, medical schools of the member countries of the Pan American Health Organization region of the World Health Organization were surveyed to acquire data on their student enrollments by country of origin, sex, and year of study for the 1971-72 academic year. A tabular…
Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Div. of Manpower Intelligence.
Objective: To examine the ability of medical students to identify hazardous drinkers using screening tools recommended in clinical practice. Design: Observational cross-sectional study. Setting: Faculty of Medicine of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. Method: The medical students learnt to use Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and…
Hidalgo, Jesús López-Torres; Pretel, Fernando Andrés; Bravo, Beatriz Navarro; Rabadan, Francisco Escobar; Serrano Selva, Juan Pedro; Latorre Postigo, Jose Miguel; Martínez, Ignacio Párraga
Reports on the results of a survey meant to ascertain the views of 16- to 18-year-old students (n=778) on using animals in medical research. Suggests that students have no greater objection to the use of genetically engineered animals over naturally bred animals in medical research. Contains 16 references. (Author/WRM)
Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; O'Sullivan, Helen; Boyes, Edward
Purpose: This study examined the impact of medical education on students' views of substance abuse treatment, public policy options and training. Method: A longitudinal survey was conducted on a single-class cohort of 101 students in a major American, urban medical school. The survey was administered in the Spring semesters of the first to third…
Agrawal, Shantanu; Everett, Worth W.; Sharma, Sonali
This study compared and analyzed the situation of the college students’ professional identification among
different employment scopes to explore the influence from the scopes to the professional identification. The
result indicates that the present situation of college students’ professional identification is not satisfactory. We
did not find remarkable difference between implicit and explicit identification. The result shows that college
Chuanbo Sun; Yunfeng He; Lin Ding
Full Text Available Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results: Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7% decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2% students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%, 17 (11.8%, and 16 (11.1% students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4% of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8% and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3% were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065 more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002. Conclusion : A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.
The deterioration of humanism and professionalism during graduate medical training is an acknowledged concern, and programs are required to provide professionalism education for pediatric fellows. We conducted a needs assessment survey in a national sample of 138 first- and second-year gastroenterology fellows (82% response rate). Most believed that present humanism and professionalism education met their needs, but this education was largely informal (eg, role modeling). Areas for formal education desired by >70% included competing demands of clinical practice versus research, difficult doctor-patient relationships, depression/burnout, angry parents, medical errors, work-life balance, and the patient illness experience. These results may guide curricula to formalize humanism and professionalism education in pediatric gastroenterology fellowships. PMID:23863327
Garvey, Katharine C; Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Herrick, Daniel B; Woolf, Alan D; Leichtner, Alan M
SUMMARYIn Spain a million and a half blood transfusions by year are carried out, that supposes between 2 and 10 cases of infection of VIH by year. The present state of science invites to do something more with tests to detect other virological and immunological markers, in order to identify seronegative carriers and thus avoid HIV transmission by them. We must consider the possibility to incur in professional responsibilities if we do not report adequate of this risk or if we do not provide p...
Transfusion medicine, a section of the Department of Laboratory Medicine at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center is committed to the education and advancement of its health care professionals. It is our belief that giving medical laboratory professionals a path for advancement leads to excellence and increases overall professionalism in the Immunohematology Laboratory. As a result of this strong commitment to excellence and professionalism, the Immunohematology laboratory has instituted a Professional Development Model (PDM) that aims to create Medical Laboratory Scientists (MLS) that are not only more knowledgeable, but are continually striving for excellence. In addition, these MLS are poised for advancement in their careers. The professional development model consists of four levels: Discovery, Application, Maturation, and Expert. The model was formulated to serve as a detailed path to the mastery of all process and methods in the Immunohematology Laboratory. Each level in the professional development model consists of tasks that optimize the laboratory workflow and allow for concurrent training. Completion of a level in the PDM is rewarded with financial incentive and further advancement in the field. The PDM for Medical Laboratory Scientists in the Immunohematology Laboratory fosters personal development, rewards growth and competency, and sets high standards for all services and skills provided. This model is a vital component of the Immunohematology Laboratory and aims to ensure the highest quality of care and standards in their testing. It is because of the success of this model and the robustness of its content that we hope other medical laboratories aim to reach the same level of excellence and professionalism, and adapt this model into their own environment. PMID:22458043
Garza, Melinda N; Pulido, Lila A; Amerson, Megan; Ali, Faheem A; Greenhill, Brandy A; Griffin, Gary; Alvarez, Enrique; Whatley, Marsha; Hu, Peter C
Full Text Available Background: Gadget holds the great importance in everyday life. Mobile phone and internet usage have become universal practice especially among the student community. Gadgets usage has both pros and cons. Objective: To assess the magnitude of gadget utilization among medical college students in Delhi and to estimate the burden of gadget dependency. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted in three medical colleges. The participants were 957 medical students selected by systematic random sampling, interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire. Result: The sample consisted of 485 (50.7% males and 472 (49.3% females, aged 17-25 years. Gadgets of at least one variety were uniformly used by all the students, 22.4% of the students surveyed were found to be gadget dependent. Conclusion: Our study shows high prevalence of gadget dependency among medical students. There is need to create awareness regarding the problem of gadget dependency and its social and health effects.
BACKGROUND: In recent years, rising numbers of medical students and an increasingly demanding clinical workload has put pressures on the educational systems for medical students in the hospital. Bedside teaching remains central to education, but tutorial delivery by registrars, tutors and consultants has proven to be increasingly difficult with the greater numbers of students now in the undergraduate system. AIMS: We have performed a pilot study to determine the feasibility of developing a Junior Tutor Programme, to assist in the delivery of tutorials to undergraduate medical students. METHODS: This was designed and delivered by interns under the supervision of the academic staff in the Departments of Medicine and Surgery in Connolly Hospital. The programme was evaluated by a questionnaire filled in by the students anonymously. RESULTS: A supervised programme of tutorials delivered by interns is a potentially useful way to ensure delivery of clinical teaching to undergraduate medical students.
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to explore how medical students with Specific Learning Difficulties perceive and understand their Specific Learning Difficulty and how it has impacted on their experience of medical training. Method: A purposive sample of fifteen students from one medical school was interviewed. Framework Analysis was used to identify and organise themes emerging from the data. An interpretation of the data was made capturing the essence of what had been learned. The c...
Angela Rowlands; Stephen Abbott; Grazia Bevere; Roberts, Christopher M.
Purpose: Despite the prevalence of musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders, the degree to which medical schools are providing students the knowledge and confidence to treat these problems is unclear. This study evaluated MSK knowledge in second and fourth year medical students using a newly developed written assessment tool and examined the maturation of clinical confidence in treating core MSK disorders. Methods: Over a 3-year period, the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) MSK subject examin...
Digiovanni, Benedict F.; Chu, Jennifer Y.; Mooney, Christopher J.; Lambert, David R.
Kun Hwang,1 Huan Fan,1 Se Won Hwang2 1Department of Plastic Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea; 2Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, UK Abstract: Pathography is defined as “historical biography from a medical, psychological, and psychiatric viewpoint.” We thought that writing about an experience of illness might help students understand patients’ experience and in turn grow in terms of self-understanding. Participants included 151 medical students. Stu...
Hwang K; Fan H; Sw, Hwang
In 2002 the University of Michigan Medical School created a one-month course in advanced medical therapeutics (AMT). All senior medical students were required to complete the course. To provide some flexibility for students who were interviewing for residency positions the AMT course was created using a distance-learning model, and in the 2008–2009 academic year it was offered in a fully online format. The components of the course are weekly case-based modules, a weekly online seminar,...
Abstract Background Uganda has an acute problem of inadequate human resources partly due to health professionals' unwillingness to work in a rural environment. One strategy to address this problem is to arrange health professional training in rural environments through community placements. Makerere University College of Health Sciences changed training of medical students from the traditional curriculum to a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum in 2003. This curriculum is...
This paper considers the multiple discourses that influence medical education with a focus on the discourses of competence and caring. Discourses of competence are largely constituted through, and related to, biomedical and clinical issues whereas discourses of caring generally focus on social concerns. These discourses are not necessarily equal…
This report describes a study undertaken to assess student choices in medical ethical dilemmas. Medical ethical dilemmas are interpreted to include problems such as abortion, euthanasia, sterilization, experimentation on humans, allocation of scarce medical resources, and physician and health personnel training. The major purpose of the study was…
Woloshin, Phyllis Lerman
Bandura's social learning theory provides a useful conceptual framework to understand medical students' perceptions of a house calls experience at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine. Social learning and role modeling reflect Liaison Committee on Medical Education guidelines for "Medical schools (to) ensure that the learning…
Abbey, Linda; Willett, Rita; Selby-Penczak, Rachel; McKnight, Roberta
Teenagers and young adultshave the most risk of unplanned pregnancy, due to lack of awareness to see a family planning provider after unprotected sexual intercourse. In addition, nearly one in five physicians is reluctant to provide information regarding Emergency Contraception (EC) to women and this may contribute to their lack of awareness. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the use of EC between medical related students compared to non-medical related students. Data collection was done using questionnaires distributed among students in University College Cork (UCC). 93% of medically related students were aware of EC compared to only 73.5% of non-medically related students. Medical related students also were more aware about the mechanism of action and detailed knowledge of EC compared to the non-medical students. This study has proven that medically related students have more detailed knowledge regarding EC compared to non-medical related students. However, there was no significant difference noted regarding the attitude and practice between the two groups.
Khalid, A K
Full Text Available Afshin Habibzadeh1 Mahasti Alizadeh2 Ayoub Malek3 Leili Maghbooli1 Mohammadali M Shoja4 Kamyar Ghabili41Students' Research Committee, 2Department of Community Medicine, 3Department of Psychiatry, 4Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: Methylphenidate, a medication prescribed for individuals suffering from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, is increasingly being misused by students.Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate the frequency of methylphenidate use among a group of Iranian medical students and to assess their knowledge of methylphenidate.Methods: Anonymous, self-administered questionnaires were completed by all medical students entering the university between 2000 and 2007.Results: Methylphenidate users’ mean knowledge score was higher than that of nonusers (15.83 ± 3.14 vs 13.66 ± 3.10, P = 0.008. Age, gender, and school year were positively correlated with knowledge score (P < 0.05. Data analysis demonstrated that 27 participants (8.7% had taken methylphenidate at least once in their lifetime. The respondents believed that the most common motive for methylphenidate use among youths was that it aided concentration and therefore ability to study.Conclusion: This study indicates a relatively low level of knowledge about methylphenidate among Iranian medical students. More educational programs regarding the use of methylphenidate are required and should be focused on the student suppliers, clinicians, pharmacists, and medical students.Keywords: methylphenidate, medical student, prevalence, Iran
Afshin Habibzadeh Mahasti Alizadeh Ayoub Malek
Among the core transitions in medical education is the one from medical school to residency. Despite this challenging transition, the final year of medical school is known as lacking structure and clarity. The authors examine the preparation of medical students for the professional and personal challenges of internship in the context of transition courses. They first describe the development of a residency transition course, offered since 2001 at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine (UCSF), exploring aspects of a needs assessment, course goals and content, core competencies, and course implementation. They then critically analyze the course, judging it successful based on high subjective satisfaction scores and increased perceived preparedness data. Next, the authors discuss the national context of transition courses, perspectives of various stakeholders, and lessons learned from the UCSF experience. Finally, they consider future directions, suggesting that internship transition courses be a standard part of the medical school curriculum. PMID:21617513
Teo, Alan R; Harleman, Elizabeth; O'sullivan, Patricia S; Maa, John
Full Text Available Vikas Seth, Prerna Upadhyaya, Mushtaq Ahmad, Vijay MogheDepartment of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, IndiaPurpose: To assess students’ perceptions of the impact of PowerPoint (PPT presentations in lectures in comparison to the traditional chalk and talk method and lectures using transparencies and overhead projector (TOHP. The study analyzes the preferences for teaching aids of medical students versus dental students.Methods: Second year medical and dental undergraduates were asked to fill in a nine-item questionnaire about their perceptions of the three lecture delivery methods. Following analysis of the questionnaire the students were interviewed further. The results were analyzed separately for medical and dental students to see if there was any difference in their perceptions.Results: The majority of the medical students (65.33% preferred PPT presentations, while 15.16% of students preferred the lectures using chalkboard, and 19.51% preferred TOHP for teaching (P < 0.001. Of the dental students: 41.84% preferred chalkboard, 31.21% preferred TOHP, and 25.85% students preferred PPT presentations in the lectures (P < 0.05. Some important comments of the students were also recorded on interview which could be valuable for the medical teachers.Conclusion: The medical students clearly preferred the use of PPT presentations while the dental students did not. The study does not bring out evidence based superiority of any lecture delivery method. It appears that in the hands of a trained teacher any teaching aid would be appropriate and effective. This highlights the need for formal training in teaching technologies to develop good presentation skills and thus motivate the students.Keywords: audiovisual aids, medical education, lecture delivery methods, PowerPoint presentations, OHP, chalkboard
Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Como la literatura consigna, los estudiantes y profesionales de la Medicina en comparación con la población general y de otras carreras conforman una población que resulta vulnerable frente a los trastornos de salud psicosocial. En la investigación psicosocial de la educación médica un punto clave c [...] orresponde a la identificación de medidas relevantes con cualidades psicométricas. En el presente trabajo se analiza la validez y confiabilidad de un conjunto de escalas psicosociales aplicadas a 3.603 alumnos de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (México). Las escalas administradas fueron: Soledad, Ansiedad ante los exámenes, Ansiedad general, Autoestima, Extroversión, Locus de control externo, Neuroticismo, Depresión, Eventos estresantes en la vida, Percepción de relaciones tempranas con los padres y amigos y Percepción de estado de salud general. Estas escalas fueron propuestas por investigadores de la Escuela de Medicina de Jefferson (Estados Unidos). Se confirmó la unidimensionalidad y la validez de constructo de las mediciones de Soledad, Ansiedad ante los exámenes, Ansiedad general, Autoestima y Extroversión. Así también, la magnitud y dirección de las correlaciones interescalas apoyaron la validez convergente y discriminante, con excepción de Locus de control externo y Neuroticismo. Los resultados confirman las propiedades psicométricas de las escalas, las cuales son útiles para proveer información a los educadores médicos y a profesionales de la salud mental en la detección temprana de problemas psicosociales quienes en conjunto pueden coadyuvar en la optimización de la salud mental de los estudiantes de escuelas de Medicina a través de programas académicos acordes a sus necesidades. Abstract in english The greater the psychosocial health, the greater is the well-being and the capacity for adaptation and overcoming problems and common life frustrations in family, relationships, and work. Medical students and practicing physicians, in comparison with the general population and that of other professi [...] ons, are exposed to academic and professional stress and therefore are vulnerable to psychosocial health problems and certain specific dysfunctions that may compromise their physical, mental, and social health. In the field of psychosocial research in medical education, the key issue is to find relevant and psychometrically sound measures. The Jefferson Medical College's Psychosocial Questionnaire contains abridged versions of nine personality tests, as well as questions about respondents' relationships with parents in the first five years of life and with classmates in the early schooling. The scales in the questionnaire have shown satisfactory internal consistency reliability and construct validity through factor analysis. To our knowledge, in Mexico, there is not a specific questionnaire that measures psychosocial profile in a non-clinical population such as medical students. The present study adapted and translated the questionnaire from English to Spanish in order to evaluate its validity and reliability in Mexican medical students, to further learn its predictive validity of academic performance. In this study, we compared the factor structure in Mexico to the results obtained in the United States research. Implications for predicting academic and clinical performance of medical students and physicians were discussed. Study participants consisted of 3,603 matriculates at the Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (Mexico). Psychosocial measures included Loneliness, Test anxiety, General anxiety, Self-esteem, Extroversion, External locus of control, Neuroticism, Depression, Stressful life events, Perceptions of early relationships with mother and father, Peer relationships and Perception of health, used by researchers at Jefferson Medical College in the United States. The items were translated into Spanish and back translated from Spanish to Engli
Alcorta, Adelina; Ancer, Jesús; Saldívar, Donato; Guzmán, Santos; Bermúdez, María V.; Montes, Juan; González, Juan F.; Tavitas, Silvia; Rodríguez, Francisco J.; Gómez, Marco V.; Salinas, Ana M.; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Fernández Zambrano, Stefan M..
We have reconsidered the responsibility of occupational therapists who have been supporting the victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake. They can analyze problems and provide appropriate support for victims with rehabilitation and occupational therapy as well as for handicapped people. Support measures that can be provided by occupational therapists are as follows: 1) Maintenance and improvement of mind and body functions through occupational therapy. 2) Mental care. 3) Coordination of social circumstances for elderly and handicapped people. 4) Maintenance and improvement of ability to perform common activities of daily living. 5) Choice and adaptation of welfare equipment. Especially, occupational therapy provided with the aim to open victims' minds has an effect on mental care. Their mental wounds cannot be healed easily. However, networking and work activities play important roles in dealing with daily life. Occupational therapists will be expected to provide long-term treatment for victims through work activities with professional skills. PMID:23855231
Musical education and the musical profession can be stressful, which may make musicians vulnerable for stress-related disorders. To determine if music students are particularly at risk for mental problems, we used the Standardised Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) and the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ48S) to compare symptoms in first-year conservatory students (n=33) and first-year medical students (n=43). On the SAPAS, we found that medical students have significantly more difficulty making and keeping friends (p=0.015). Also, we observed a trend that conservatory students lose their temper more easily (p=0.040). Both student groups showed high scores for the personality trait "perfectionism." On the SQ48, we observed a trend that both conservatory and medical students experience more psychological problems than the general population, but there were no significant differences between conservatory students and medical students in the total scores of both questionnaires. PMID:24925180
van Fenema, E M; van Geel, Ccj
Globalization is a part of modern life. Sharing a common set of professional nursing values is critical in this global environment. The purpose of this research was to examine the professional values of nursing students from two distinct cultural perspectives. Nurse educators in Taiwan partnered with nurse educators in the United States to compare professional values of their respective graduating nursing students. The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics served as the philosophical framework for this examination. The convenience sample comprised 94 Taiwanese students and 168 US students. Both groups reported high scores on an overall measure of values. They did differ substantially on the relative importance of individual items related to advocacy, competence, education, self-evaluation, professional advancement, and professional associations. Global implications for the collaborative practice of nurses from different cultures working together can be improved by first recognizing and then attending to these differences in value priorities. PMID:23702893
Alfred, Danita; Yarbrough, Susan; Martin, Pam; Mink, Janice; Lin, Yu-Hua; Wang, Liching S
A medicine clerkship for students at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine provided the setting for a pilot program in interdisciplinary geriatric training with nursing students from the College of Mount Saint Vincent. The program's objectives were to provide opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration and to increase appreciation for the role of each discipline in caring for the aged. Additionally, it sought to foster a holistic approach to the aging and a recognition of the psychosocial influences on their lives. Teams of one medical and two nursing students conducted patient work-ups and presented cases to an interdisciplinary group of health care professionals. Analysis of pretest-posttest responses of ten medical and ten nursing students to a Role Assessment Questionnaire (RAQ) found that the program significantly increased medical students' perceptions of the nurse's role in caring for hospitalized elderly patients (P less than 0.05). Despite this gain, however, there continued to be substantial discrepancies between medical and nursing students' perceptions of the extent to which nurses are "essential" in caring for the elderly. In evaluating the program, all participants concurred that working with students in another health profession was a valuable learning experience. While nursing students felt that the program achieved all its goals, responses of medical students were more variable, with volunteers having more positive perceptions of program impact than those who were assigned. The program demonstrated both the need for and the effect of interdisciplinary training, and that teaching and clinical experiences centering around the hospitalized older person can provide a natural setting for such training. PMID:6690578
Croen, L G; Hamerman, D; Goetzel, R Z
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal is a developing country in South Asia with a population of 29.8 million. In September 2011, there were 18 medical schools with 14 being in the private sector. KIST Medical College is a private school in Lalitpur district. The present study was conducted to obtain information on student perceptions about working in rural Nepal after graduation. Methods The study was conducted among first- and second-year undergraduate medical students using a semi-structured questionnaire developed by the authors using inputs from the literature and their experiences of teaching medical students. Year of study, gender, method of financing of medical education, place of family residence and occupation of parents were noted. Participant responses were analysed, grouped together and the number of respondents stating a particular response was noted. Results Of the 200 students, 185 (92.5% participated with 95 being from the first year and 90 from the second. Most students were self-financing and from urban areas. Regarding the question of working in rural Nepal after graduation, 134 (72.4% said they will work after their undergraduate course. Students preferred to work in the government or nongovernmental sector. Student felt doctors are reluctant to serve in rural Nepal due to inadequate facilities, low salary, less security, problems with their professional development, less equipment in health centres, decreased contact with family and difficulties in communicating with an illiterate, rural population. About 43% of respondents felt medical education does not adequately prepare them for rural service. Repeated rural exposure, postings in rural hospitals and health centres, and training students to diagnose and treat illness with less technology were suggested. The median monthly salary expected was 60 000 Nepalese rupees (US$ 820 and was significantly higher among first-year students. Conclusions The majority of respondents were in favour of working in rural Nepal after graduation. They wanted facilities in rural areas and health centres to be improved. Changes in the education system were suggested. Providing relatively better facilities for rural doctors compared with urban doctors and reorienting medical education for producing doctors for rural Nepal can be considered. Further studies are required in other private medical schools.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to evaluate a hypothesis premised on the idea that if medical leaders in the United States support an unfettered access for patients injured by medical error to the American civil justice system, that approach would improve patient safety and be cost effective. Method: An analysis of the relevant legal and medical literature. Results: Medical liability in the American civil justice system derived from traditional tort law is based on accountability. Reforms applied to medical liability cases urged by healthcare providers limit and in some cases eliminate legal rights of patients injured by healthcare error which rights exist for all others in non-medical cases. Yet medical liability cases have promoted a culture of safety. Information learned from medical liability cases has been used to make care safer with a reduced incidence of adverse outcomes and lower costs. A just culture of safety can limit provider emotional stress. Using the external pressures to reduce the incidence of law suits and promoting ethical mandates to be safer and disclose the truth can promote provider satisfaction. Conclusions: An alliance between legal and medical professionals on the common ground of respect for the due process legal rights of patients in the American system of justice and the need for accountability can make care safer and can be cost effective.
Steven E. Pegalis
The NRAO 20m telescope is now on-line as a part of UNC's Skynet worldwide telescope network. The NRAO is completing integration of radio astronomy tools with the Skynet web interface. We present the web interface and astronomy projects that allow students and astronomers from all over the country to become Radio Astronomers. The 20 meter radio telescope at NRAO in Green Bank, WV is dedicated to public education and also is part of an experiment in public funding for astronomy. The telescope has a fantastic new web-based interface, with priority queuing, accommodating priority for paying customers and enabling free use of otherwise unused time. This revival included many software and hardware improvements including automatic calibration and improved time integration resulting in improved data processing, and a new ultra high resolution spectrometer. This new spectrometer is optimized for very narrow spectral lines, which will allow astronomers to study complex molecules and very cold regions of space in remarkable detail. In accordance with focusing on broader impacts, many public outreach and high school education activities have been completed with many confirmed future activities. The 20 meter is now a fully automated, powerful tool capable of professional grade results available to anyone in the world. Drop by our poster and try out real-time telescope control!
Hosmer, Laura; Langston, G.; Heatherly, S.; Towner, A. P.; Ford, J.; Simon, R. S.; White, S.; O'Neil, K. L.; Haipslip, J.; Reichart, D.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are growing numbers of refugees throughout the world. Refugee health is a relatively unstudied and rarely taught component of medical education. In response to this need, a Refugee Health Elective was begun. Medical student perceptions toward cultural aspects of medicine and refugee health before and after participation in the elective were measured. Methods Preliminary questionnaires were given to all preclinical students at the academic year commencement with follow-up questionnaires at the refugee elective's conclusion. Both questionnaires examined students' comfort in interacting with patients and familiarity with refugee medical issues, alternative medical practices, and social hindrances to medical care. The preliminary answers served as a control and follow-up questionnaire data were separated into participant/non-participant categories. All preclinical medical students at two Midwestern medical schools were provided the opportunity to participate in the Refugee Health Elective and surveys. The 3 data groups were compared using unadjusted and adjusted analysis techniques with the Kruskall-Wallis, Bonferroni and ANCOVA adjustment. P-values Results 408 and 403 students filled out the preliminary and follow-up questionnaires, respectfully, 42 of whom participated in the elective. Students considering themselves minorities or multilingual were more likely to participate. Elective participants were more likely to be able to recognize the medical/mental health issues common to refugees, to feel comfortable interacting with foreign-born patients, and to identify cultural differences in understanding medical/mental health conditions, after adjusting for minority or multilingual status. Conclusion As medical schools integrate a more multicultural curriculum, a Refugee Health Elective for preclinical students can enhance awareness and promote change in attitude toward medical/mental health issues common to refugees. This elective format offers tangible and effective avenues for these topics to be addressed.
Full Text Available Asthma results from a combination of three essential features: airflow obstruction, hyperresponsiveness of airways to endogenous or exogenous stimuli and inflammation. Inadequacy of the techniques to use different inhalation devices is one of the causes of therapeutic failure. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate how 20 medical students, 36 resident physicians of Internal Medicine/Pediatrics, and 40 asthma patients used three devices for inhalation therapy containing placebo. All patients were followed at the Pulmonary Outpatient Service of Botucatu Medical School and had been using inhaled medication for at least six months. The following devices were evaluated: metered dose inhalers (MDI, dry powder inhalers (DPI, and MDI attached to a spacer device. A single observer applied a protocol containing the main steps necessary to obtain a good inhaler technique to follow and grade the use of different devices. Health care professionals tested all three devices and patients tested only the device being used on their management. MDI was the device best known by doctors and patients. MDI use was associated with errors related to the coordination between inspiration and device activation. Failure to exhale completely before inhalation of the powder was the most frequent error observed with DPI use. In summary, patients did not receive precise instruction on how to use inhaled medication and health care professionals were not well prepared to adequately teach their patients.
Muniz Janaína Barbosa
This study aimed to investigate the use of vocabulary learning strategies among medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) in Iran as an EFL context. A questionnaire was administered to 120 medical students (53 males, 67 females) to identify; 1) the effective types of vocabulary learning strategies used by the learners and 2) the differences in vocabulary strategy use based on gender. The results revealed that guessing and dictionary strategies were the most fre...
Fatemeh Seddigh; Nasrin Shokrpur
Full Text Available SUMMARYIn Spain a million and a half blood transfusions by year are carried out, that supposes between 2 and 10 cases of infection of VIH by year. The present state of science invites to do something more with tests to detect other virological and immunological markers, in order to identify seronegative carriers and thus avoid HIV transmission by them. We must consider the possibility to incur in professional responsibilities if we do not report adequate of this risk or if we do not provide patients all the cares that require, according to the state of the science so called lex artis.RESUMENEn España se realizan un millón y medio de transfusiones de sangre al año, lo que supone un riesgo de entre 2 y 10 casos de infección de VIH a través de las mismas. El estado actual de la ciencia invita a hacer algo más pudiéndose ampliar los estudios de marcadores víricos e inmunológicos, para identificar a portadores seronegativos y así tratar de evitar la transmisión del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana a través de ellos. Debemos considerar la posibilidad de incurrir en responsabilidades profesionales si no informamos adecuadamente de este riesgo o si no proporcionamos a los pacientes todos los cuidados que requieren, según el estado actual de la ciencia, lo que denominamos lex artis.
R. Ortiz de Lejarazu Leonardo
Objectives: To explore medical students' experiences of an emotionally challenging learning situation: the autopsy. Methods: Qualitative data were collected by means of written accounts from seventeen students after their first and third autopsies and a group interview with seven students after their first autopsy. Data was interpreted using inductive thematic analysis. Results: Students experienced the autopsy in three ways: as an unnatural situation, as a practical exercise, and as a way to...
Maria Weurlander; Max Scheja; Håkan Hult; Annika Wernerson
Use and opinion of herbs among medical students of Imo State University Nigeria was assessed. Information on herb use, indication and opinion from returned self-administered questionnaire was analyzed. A total of 114 students (91.2%) of 125 responded. 32 (28.1%) students had used herbs before, a significant proportion being males (OR 3.7). Herbal tea was the most popular herb used; maintaining good health and treating malaria were the only indications (50% each). Most students (>90%) believe ...
Enwere, O. Okezie
Full text: Introduction: Every profession has a collection of principles and rules, which it is regulated. The professional behavior in medical activities is particularly importance due to their specific nature. The modern education of the X-ray technician strives to meet the need to create and shape the personalities to provide quality care and services. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among students of the Medical College ‘J. Filaretova’ at Sofia, specialty ‘X-ray Technician’ and mentors from the education- practical bases in different directions - diagnostic imaging, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy. The inquiry study included thirty-four students in the third course and twenty- two of their mentors. Following methods were used: sociological (direct anonymous inquiry); documentary (discussing and analyzed the curriculum and training programs for X-ray Technician); statistical method (survey data were processed with statistical computer program SATGRAPHICS PLUS and EXCEL). Results: The study found that 61% of students feel fully prepared theoretically to have a professional conduct in their practice, which is supported by 50% of their mentors. 50% believe that students are partly prepared as there is no one who claims that they are not well prepared. 94% of students say they keep the workplace discipline and actively participate in the activities carried out at the education- practical bases. A large percentage of mentors (77%) confirm this. The training enables them to acquire the skills to work in a team and communicate with patients and colleagues. Conclusion: College education creates conditions and prerequisites the students from the specialty ‘X-ray Technician’ to acquire professional knowledge and skills and to apply them in practice with providing a quality health care
Background : Small-group case presentation exercises (CPs) were created to increase course relevance for medical students taking Medical Microbiology (MM) and Infectious Diseases (ID) Methods : Each student received a unique paper case and had 10 minutes to review patient history, physical exam data, and laboratory data. Students then had three minutes to orally present their case and defend why they ruled in or out each of the answer choices provided, followed by an additional three minutes ...
Chamberlain, Neal R.; Stuart, Melissa K.; Singh, Vineet K.; Sargentini, Neil J.
Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Propósito: Estudiar la vocación médica desde una perspectiva científica. Objetivos: Analizar la vocación médica respecto a sus orígenes y factores asociados a su desarrollo en médicos considerados ejemplos de conducta profesional y vocación médica. Diseño: Investigación cualitativa, con muestreo de [...] caso típico y entrevistas en profundidad. Institución: Instituto de Ética en Salud, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Médicos. Metodología: La muestra estuvo conformada por 76 médicos seleccionados en base a criterios pre-establecidos, miembros de las cuatro instituciones médicas más prestigiadas del país: Academia Nacional de Medicina, Academia Peruana de Cirugía y Facultades de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos y Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Se obtuvo su consentimiento informado. Principales medidas de resultados: Orígenes y factores asociados a vocación médica. Resultados: El 82% correspondió al sexo masculino; edad promedio 71,6 años, con rango de edad 49 a 88 años; 8% era hijo/a de médico y 14% tenía otro familiar médico; 30% era el/la mayor de los hijos. La vocación médica no siguió un patrón único, pudiendo iniciarse en diferentes momentos del ciclo vital, incluso después de que el alumno hubo ingresado a la Facultad de Medicina. Entre los factores explicativos más frecuentemente asociados destacaron una dinámica personal y la influencia familiar, aunque hubo dos casos en los que no se encontró factor explicativo alguno. A base de los resultados se presenta definiciones de vocación y vocación médica. Conclusiones: El análisis de la información permite entender la vocación médica como un proceso que se genera en un ser humano en virtud de dos factores: uno individual y otro social (entorno que estimula su desarrollo). Su inicio puede ocurrir a edades y en formas variadas constituyéndose, finalmente, en parte del ?proyecto de ser? (se dan ejemplos específicos). Abstract in english Purpose: To study medical vocation from a scientific perspective. Objectives: To analyze origins and development-associated factors of medical vocation in physicians considered examples of high-level professional behavior and medical vocation. Design: Qualitative study, with typical case sampling an [...] d in-depth interviews. Setting: Institute on Ethics in Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Participants: Physicians. Methodology: The sample consisted in 76 physicians selected by pre-established criteria from the four more prestigious Peruvian medical institutions: National Academy of Medicine, Peruvian Academy of Surgery, San Marcos University?s and Peruvian Cayetano Heredia University?s Schools of Medicine. Informed consent was previously obtained. Main outcome measures: Medical vocation origins and associated factors. Results: Eighty-two per cent of physicians interviewed were male, 71.6 year-old average with range 49-88 years; only in 8% their father was MD also and in 14% a family member was MD. In 30% the physician was the oldest son/daughter. Medical vocation did not follow a unique pattern and begun in different periods of the vital cycle even after the student had been admitted to the School of Medicine. Most frequently associated factors were personal dynamics and family influence, and in two cases no explanation was found. Upon results vocation and medical vocation definitions are proposed. Conclusions: Data analysis allows understanding medical vocation as a process generated in a human being on account of two factors: individual (the subject) and social (the environment that stimulates its development). Its beginning may occur at different ages and in several ways, finally becoming part of the ?oneself project? (specific examples are given).
Perales, Alberto; Mendoza, Alfonso; Sánchez, Elard.
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Prescription of drugs follows some principles about which the medical students should be aware, and they should practice them efficiently so that they become experienced in the field. This study aims to determine the practice and knowledge of drug prescription in senior medical students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 140 students from Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected using self administered questionnaires in the format of case study and essay questions. The questions were designed based on principles of drug prescription presented to the interns in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences on the subjects including drug indication, interaction and side effects; contraindication of drugs in pregnancy; maximum drugs prescribed in one prescription letter; and the rules of insurance organizations in Iran. The data analysis was performed using SPSS, version 15. Content validity of multiple choice questions was confirmed by expert opinion and the consensus of four reference texts. 120 students participated in this study with a response rate of 85.7%. As to the knowledge of medical students, only 34.18% of them were competent in prescribing drugs; however, no one got a full score in the exam. 27.73% of them answered the questions incompletely, and 30.09% of them showed wrong prescription. Most mistakes were related to drug interaction, antibiotics and analgesics drugs (68.3%. As to the reference books of pharmacology, 16.9% had complete knowledge, 54.8% moderate level of knowledge, 28.3% had no information about that. This study shows that the knowledge of medical students as to drug prescription is inadequate. Also, many studies have approved that effective education has a significant effect on improvement of drug prescription by physicians. We recommend interventions such as curriculum development to increase the students’ skills. This should be taken into account in further research and by public health professionals and health policy makers.
Little is known about how language-discordant mobile medical professionals (MMPs), defined as doctors who work in foreign countries, cultures, and languages, interact with their colleagues. The number of MMPs around the world is growing, and their interactions with colleagues have direct consequences for both patients' health and their own…
Gasiorek, Jessica; van de Poel, Kris
Full Text Available Background: The north-east (NE region of Sri Lanka observed a critical health workers’ shortage after the long-lasting armed conflict. This study aimed to explore medical students’ attitudes towards working in the NE and to identify factors determining such attitudes. Methods: A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in two medical schools, one in the NE and the other near the capital, in October 2004. Data were qualitatively analysed using the framework approach. Results: Three main themes were identified: 1 Professional motives and career plans; 2 Students’ perceptions of the healthcare situation in the NE; and 3 Students’ choice of the NE as a future practice location. It was found that familiarity with the difficulties faced by the NE people was a major motivation for medical students to work in the NE in the future. For NE students, familiarity was linked to their sense of belonging. For non-NE students, their personal experience of the NE familiarized them with the difficult situation there, which positively influenced their willingness to work there. Demotivations to work in the NE were poor working and living conditions, fewer opportunities for postgraduate education, language differences, insecurity, and fear of an unpleasant social response from the NE communities. Conclusions: NE local medical students had a sense of belonging to the NE and compassion for the Tamil people as members of the ethnic group. They were willing to work in the NE if their concerns about difficult working and living conditions and postgraduate education could be solved. Non-NE students who were familiar with the NE situation through their personal experience also showed a willingness to work there; thus, early exposure programmes in medical education might help to increase the health workforce in the NE. It is also expected that non-NE physicians working for the NE people would facilitate reconciliation and the rebuilding of trust between two ethnic groups.
Azeem Dad Gadi
Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT is a corner stone for successful implementation of prevention, care and support services among HIV negative and positive individuals. VCT is also perceived to be an effective strategy in risk reduction among sexually active young people.. This study aimed to assess the acceptability of VCT and its actual uptake among young health care professional students at KCM College of Tumaini University and Allied health schools. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. A structured questionnaire was used among health care professional students aged 18–25 years who were enrolled in degrees, diplomas and certificates courses at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College and all other Allied health schools Results A total of 309 students were recruited, among these 197 (63.8% were females. All respondents were aware of the benefits of VCT. Only 107 (34.6% of students have had VCT done previously. About 59 (19.1% of the students had negative for health care professional to attend VCT. Risk perception among the students was low (37.2% even though they were found to have higher risk behaviors that predispose them to get HIV infection. Conclusion Awareness of VCT services and willingness to test is high among students; however its uptake is low. In order to promote these services, a comprehensive training module on VCT needs to be included in their training curricula. In particular, more emphasis should focus on the benefits of VCT and to help the students to internalize the risk of HIV so that they can take preventive measures.
Nkya Hassan M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial competence and frustration tolerance are important characteristics of skilled medical professionals. In the present study we explored the usefulness of applying a comprehensive motivational theory (Goal orientations, for this purpose. According to goal orientation theory, learning motivation is defined as the general goals students pursue during learning (either mastery goals - gaining new knowledge; or performance goals - gaining a positive evaluation of competence or avoiding negative evaluation. Perceived psychosocial abilities are a desirable outcome, and low frustration tolerance (LFT, is a negative feature of student behavior. The hypothesis was that the mastery goal would be positively associated with psychosocial abilities while performance goals would be positively associated with LFT. Methods 143 first-year medical students completed at the end of an annual doctor-patient communication course a structured questionnaire that included measures of learning goal orientations (assessed by Pattern of Adaptive Learning Scale - PALS, psychosocial abilities (assessed by Psychological Medicine Inventory- student version -PMI-S and Low Frustration Tolerance (LFT. Results All study variables were found reliable (Cronbach's ? ranged from .66 to .90 and normally distributed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations supporting the hypotheses. The mastery goal orientation was positively associated with perceived psychosocial abilities (PMI-S (? = .16, p Conclusions The results suggest that the goal orientations theory may be a useful theoretical framework for understanding and facilitating learning motivation among medical students. Limitations and suggestions for practice within medical education context are discussed.
Over its 4-year history the formal tutorial program for disadvantaged first-year medical students at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York City, has become successful in preparing students to compete scholastically. This article assesses its effect, particularly the attitudes of students (positive), administration (supportive), and faculty…
Marshall, Carter L.; And Others
Background The move to frame medical education in terms of competencies – the extent to which trainees “can do” a professional responsibility - is congruent with calls for accountability in medical education. However, the focus on competencies might be a poor fit with curricula intended to prepare students for responsibilities not emphasized in traditional medical education. This study examines an innovative approach to the use of potential competency expectations related to advancing global health equity to promote students’ reflections and to inform curriculum development. Methods In 2012, 32 medical students were admitted into a newly developed Global Health and Disparities (GHD) Path of Excellence. The GHD program takes the form of mentored co-curricular activities built around defined competencies related to professional development and leadership skills intended to ameliorate health disparities in medically underserved settings, both domestically and globally. Students reviewed the GHD competencies from two perspectives: a) their ability to perform the identified competencies that they perceived themselves as holding as they began the GHD program and b) the extent to which they perceived that their future career would require these responsibilities. For both sets of assessments the response scale ranged from “Strongly Disagree” to “Strongly Agree.” Wilcoxon’s paired T-tests compared individual students’ ordinal rating of their current level of ability to their perceived need for competence that they anticipated their careers would require. Statistical significance was set at p?.01. Results Students’ ratings ranged from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree” that they could perform the defined GHD-related competencies. However, on most competencies, at least 50 % of students indicated that the stated competencies were beyond their present ability level. For each competency, the results of Wilcoxon paired T-tests indicate – at statistically significant levels - that students perceive more need in their careers for GHD-program defined competencies than they currently possess. Conclusion This study suggests congruence between student and program perceptions of the scope of practice required for GHD. Students report the need for enhanced skill levels in the careers they anticipate. This approach to formulating and reflecting on competencies will guide the program’s design of learning experiences aligned with students’ career goals.
Full Text Available Abstract Background As socioeconomic health inequalities persist and widen, the health effects of adversity are a constant presence in the daily work of physicians. Gruen and colleagues suggest that, in responding to important population health issues such as this, defining those areas of professional obligation in contrast to professional aspiration should be on the basis of evidence and feasibility. Drawing this line between obligation and aspiration is a part of the work of professional medical colleges and associations, and in doing so they must respond to members as well as a range of other interest groups. Our aim was to explore the usefulness of Gruen's model of physician responsibility in defining how professional medical colleges and associations should lead the profession in responding to socioeconomic health inequalities. Methods We report a case study of how the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners is responding to the issue of health inequalities through its work. We undertook a consultation (80 interviews with stakeholders internal and external to the College and two focus groups with general practitioners and program and policy review of core programs of College interest and responsibility: general practitioner training and setting of practice standards, as well as its work in public advocacy. Results Some strategies within each of these College program areas were seen as legitimate professional obligations in responding to socioeconomic health inequality. However, other strategies, while potentially professional obligations within Gruen's model, were nevertheless contested. The key difference between these lay in different moral orientations. Actions where agreement existed were based on an ethos of care and compassion. Actions that were contested were based on an ethos of justice and human rights. Conclusion Colleges and professional medical associations have a role in explicitly leading a debate about values, engaging both external stakeholder and practicing member constituencies. This is an important and necessary step in defining an agreed role for the profession in addressing health inequalities.
Full Text Available According to the definition of World Health Organization (WHO, life style is the method of life built on specific behavioral patterns. We performed a survey among a group of Iranian medical students to identify their health related life style. A cross sectional study was performed by using the questionnaire. In this process, three-hundred out of all 800 medical students who have entered the medical faculty of Tabriz Medical University, Iran during 1998 and 2004 participated in the survey. The questions were designed based on the health behaviors among the medical students. Approximately 14% of all respondents reported that they used tobacco. Fifty eight percent of smokers resided in the studentsï¿½ dormitory. Half of the smokers declared that they smoke less than 5 cigarettes a day while 16.7% smoked more than fifteen cigarettes per day. Thirteen percent of the students drink alcoholic beverages. Furthermore, 50% of the students declared the ages of 19-22 as the age of first alcohol intake. Approximately 59% said that they eat food regularly at all the three main meals. Also 45.5% of females and 54.5% of males eat junk foods more than 5 times a week. Nearly 67% of the women and 33% of men eat fruit and vegetables more than 4 servings a week. Exercise was more frequent in the lower year medical students. This study demonstrated that unhealthy behaviors are increasing among the medical students; however Iranian medical students` unhealthy habits are lesser than those of university students assessed in America and European countries.
SUMMARY AIM: This study was carried out in order to determine medical faculty students? time management skills. METHOD: This is a cross sectional study and was carried out between 13 -31 May 2010. The universe of the study comprised 513 medical faculty students and data collection was performed by using the Time Management Inventory (TMI) from 420 students (%81,9 of the universe). For statistical analyses of data percentage, Kruskal-Wallis, One-way Anova, Mann-Whitney U, Student-t test...
Umit Yavas; Gultekin Ozturk; Cengizhan Acikel; Mustafa Ozer
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop a uniquely tailored mentoring program for medical students and evaluate the success of implementation. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among medical students at University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, in 2007 (response rate 74 n=1235 was administered to explore student needs for an individual counseling service (mentoring program. These data were supplemented with additional qualitative data (telephone interviews (n=52 and expert panels. The success of implementation was evaluated according to publicity and participation within the target group. Results: In total, 66(n=798 of the students claimed an interest in a mentoring program. With regard to possible challenges related to the launching of a new program, awareness was frequently mentioned. Experts suggested the establishment of a differential mentoring program consisting of three parts that is tailored to students´ individual performance. Thus, a mentoring program providing individual and voluntary mentoring for all medical students was designed. The program attracted 40(n=104 of medical students when it was launched in 2009. Participation increased continuously in 2010 (cohort 2009: 49 n=150 and 2011 (cohort 2010: 51 n=126. Conclusions: The initial needs analysis followed by a serious decision-making process within the faculty was identified as an important predictor for the successful establishment of an innovative mentoring program at a large faculty. Differential mentorship may assist medical schools in ensuring both equal opportunities and the promotion of diverse talent.
INTRODUCTION: Dermatological disorders are common in medical practice. In medical school, however, the time devoted to teaching dermatology is usually very limited. Therefore, online educational systems have increasingly been used in medical education settings to enhance exposure to dermatology. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to develop an e-learning program for medical students in dermatology and evaluate the impact of this program on learning. METHODS: This prospective study included second year medical students at the University of Technology and Science, Salvador, Brazil. All students attended discussion seminars and practical activities, and half of the students had adjunct online seminars (blended learning). Tests were given to all students before and after the courses, and test scores were evaluated. RESULTS: Students who participated in online discussions associated with face-to-face activities (blended learning) had significantly higher posttest scores (9.0±0.8) than those who only participated in classes (7.75±1.8, p <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that an associated online course might improve the learning of medical students in dermatology.
Silva, Cristiana Silveira; Souza, Murilo Barreto; Filho, Roberto Silveira Silva; de Medeiros, Luciana Molina; Criado, Paulo Ricardo
Full Text Available Abstract Many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medicines, especially those available over-the-counter, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals such as general practitioners and pharmacists. The primary aim of this review therefore, was to investigate the literature relating to health professionals' and women's knowledge, attitudes and practices towards medication use and safety in breastfeeding. The limited literature that was uncovered identified that general practitioners and pharmacists have poor knowledge, but positive attitudes, and variable practices that are mostly guided by personal experience. They tend to make decisions about the use of a medicine whilst breastfeeding based on the potential 'risk' that it poses to the infant in terms of possible adverse reactions, rather than its 'compatibility' with breast milk. The decision-making process between health professionals and women is usually not a negotiated process, and women are often asked to stop breastfeeding whilst taking a medicine. Women, in turn, are left dissatisfied with the advice received, many choosing not to initiate therapy or not to continue breastfeeding. Some directions for future research have been suggested to address the issues identified in this critical area. This review is important from a societal perspective because many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medications, especially those available without prescription, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals, which is ultimately influenced by their knowledge, attitudes and practices. However, there is an absence of high quality evidence from randomised controlled trials on the safety of medications taken during breastfeeding, which naturally would hinder health professionals from appropriately advising women. It is equally important to know about women's experiences of advice received from health professionals, and whether there is consistency between recommendations made across resources on medication safety in breastfeeding, in order to gain a full understanding of the issues prevalent in this area of practice.
Full Text Available Background: The use of self-medication is highly prevalent in the community more so amongst the medical students. Self-medication can be defined as the use of drugs to treat self-diagnosed disorders or symptoms, or the intermittent or continued use of a prescribed drug for chronic or recurrent disease or symptoms. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence and pattern of use of self-medication among medical students from first year to internship. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out among under graduate medical students including interns of Smt. NHL Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad during the period of March 2010 to May 2010. Results: Out of 747 students and interns enrolled, 685 responded (91.7%. Out of 685 respondents 564 (82.3% reported self-medication within one year of recall period. Most common conditions/symptoms for self-medication in students were fever (72.7%, headache (69.1%, upper respiratory tract infections (64.1% followed by others like body-ache, abdominal pain, diarrhoea etc. Over the counter drugs (84.2% was the most common category of drugs used by all the students except first year students who used prescription only drugs more frequently (48.5%. Herbal and Ayurvedic drugs were also used as self-medication (17.8%; most frequently by the first year students (22.7%. Conclusion: The pattern of self-medication practice changes with time and advancement of knowledge. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 275-280
Rushi N. Pandya
Medicine in the 21st century requires expanded multidisciplinary problem-solving in order to deliver cost-effective, quality health care, yet many medical schools still educate their students in relative isolation with little interaction or understanding of other health care professionals. To begin to address this issue, the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ) School of Health Related Professions and School of Nursing were invited by the New Jersey Medical School to introduce medical students at the New Jersey Medical School to a cross-section of health professions they are likely to encounter. These health professions included medical imaging, dietetics-nutrition, laboratory technology, nursing, physical therapy, physician assistant, respiratory therapy and social work. During a 60-min educational session, a simulated case-based approach heightened medical school students' awareness of the function and value of interdisciplinary collaboration. Faculty from each of the eight disciplines gave a brief summary of their profession, including their scope-of-practice and academic requirements. At the end of the session, participants were given a brief 12-item survey to evaluate the experience. Though this was only a small, explorative project, survey results suggested that participants increased their understanding of other health professions, including when to refer to and collaborate with these professions. Feedback from this pilot project may be used to optimize future initiatives of this type. PMID:20539929
Heuer, Albert J; Geisler, Sheryl; Kamienski, Mary; Langevin, Denise; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie
Full Text Available Considering the explosive growth in internet use among medical students in India, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of internet addiction in undergraduate medical students.This cross-sectional study involved 90 subjects (18-20 years of age selected by random sampling from the first year undergraduate medical student population at Kasturba Medical College Mangalore. Young’s Internet addiction test questionnaire was administered. Based on the scoring, subjects were classified into normal users (score 79 internet addiction groups.The prevalence of internet addiction (moderate and severe was determined to be 18.88%. Majority (57.77% conformed to mild addiction. The most common purpose for internet use was found to be social networking (97.8%, followed closely by e mailing (87.8%.The prevalence of moderate to severe internet addiction appeared to be low, a significant number of students conform to mild addiction.
An increasingly diverse population and ongoing health disparities have brought national attention to cultural competence training in medical schools. However, few data exist on medical students' knowledge in cultural competence. The purpose of this study is to assess medical students' knowledge in cultural competence to identify training areas for curriculum development. All third-year medical students at a single institution during the period of November 2001 to February 2004 completed a questionnaire to assess their knowledge of cultural competence during their medicine clerkship. The 40-item questionnaire measured several domains of cultural competence: health disparities, stereotyping, exploring culture, perceptions of health and illness, and communication/language. The mean knowledge score was 55%, and no student scored >80%. Race and prior cultural training were not predictors of overall performance. PMID:16296218
Bussey-Jones, Jada; Genao, Inginia; St George, Diane Marie; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
Abstract Background Empathy is important to patient care. The prevailing view is that empathy declines during university medical education. The significance of that decline has been debated. This paper reports the findings in respect of two questions relating to university medical education: 1. Do men and women medical students differ in empathy? 2. Does empathy change amongst men and women over time? Methods The medical course at the University of Cambridge comprises two components: Core Sci...
In Military-medical academy named by Kirov S.M., 857 HIV-infectioned patients were treated. The most part of them required in reanimation and surgical treatment, at 25.6% of patients the HIV-infection was registered in stage AIDS. More than half of cases of diseases are registered for the first time. 51.1% of patients knew about their HIV-positive status, but only 16% of patients have informed doctors. Interrogation of experts shows their low epidemiological vigilance. By calculations, registration of medical traumas occurs on the average in 7.4% of cases. There is a risk professional infection. There were defined the directions of decrease of risk of professional traumatism and infection with haemocontact infections. The algorithm of emergency chemoprophylaxis of the HIV-infection in military-medical establishment is offered. PMID:19537105
Lobzin, Iu V; Belevitin, A B; Bulan'kov, Iu I; Akimkin, V G
Full Text Available Background/Aim: Various ethical problems have emerged regarding Assisted Reproduction (AR. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the attitudes of nursing students and professional nurses against assisted reproduction with emphasis on current ethical issues.Material and methods: The research sample consisted of 150 ATEI nursing students and 150 professional nurses. A questionnaire with open and closed type questionnaires was used. Contingency tables and ?2 test were used. Statistical significant was set at p<0.05. Results: Mean age of nurses was 34,41±7,28 years old, while mean age of students was 21,83±3,07 years old. Nursing students are more receptive regarding cryopreserved human germ cells for future use, cloning of embryos and AR above 40 years of age. Conclusions: The attitudes of professional nurses and nursing students upon bioethical issues of AR are quite different. Nursing students seem more receptive against new methods of AR.
The study discusses the first results of a survey on the academic competences of L2 medical students (DEOEC, University of Debrecen) from non-Hungarian countries, who pursue their undergraduate medical diploma courses in English. Of the four basic learning skills, the comprehensive study will focus on students' reading, writing and oral skills. Our research results, derived from the Study Skill Checklist (source: Cook Counseling Centre, Virginia Tech Research University) and interviews, teste...
Tar Ildikó; Tánczos Judit; Wiwczaroski, Troy B.; Tar Ildikó (1959-) (angol-magyar nyelv és irodalom szakos tanár); Tánczos Judit (1959-) (pszichológus, klinikai szakpszichológus); Wiwczaroski, Troy B.
Experience of acute medical, surgical conditions, and clinical procedures of undergraduate students were assessed via a questionnaire survey during the final week of the 1993/1998 programme at the School of Medical Sciences, Univestiti Sains Malaysia. Individual performances were assessed by a scoring system. One hundred and twenty four students responded, (response rate 97%). More than 90% had seen myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, pneumonia, respiratory distress, gastroenteri...
Quah, Ban Seng; Malik, Alam Sher; Simpson, Hamish
This study investigated the impact of information on level of prototypicality of the ingroup ‘medical students’, comparing self-esteem effects for those primed as individuals with self-esteem effects for those primed as group members. Indication of prototypicality was given by false feedback on purported individual levels of empathy, an important group norm for medical students. As well as priming type having interactive effects with prototypicality information, it was hypothesized that i...
Mcgeown, Helen Rosemary
The aim of this study was to determine whether subjective sleep quality was reduced in medical students, and whether demographics and sleep hygiene behaviors were associated with sleep quality. A Web-based survey was completed by 314 medical students, containing questions about demographics, sleep habits, exercise habits, caffeine, tobacco and alcohol use, and subjective sleep quality (using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). Correlation and regression analyses tested for associations among...
Brick, Cameron A.; Seely, Darbi L.; Palermo, Tonya M.
Afshin Habibzadeh1 Mahasti Alizadeh2 Ayoub Malek3 Leili Maghbooli1 Mohammadali M Shoja4 Kamyar Ghabili41Students' Research Committee, 2Department of Community Medicine, 3Department of Psychiatry, 4Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: Methylphenidate, a medication prescribed for individuals suffering from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, is increasingly being misused by students.Objective: The aims of this st...
Afshin Habibzadeh Mahasti Alizadeh Ayoub Malek; et al
A computer based education system has been developed which teaches medical students efficient imaging management of common medical and surgical problems. Through the use of imaging algorithms students learn the sequence of imaging tests which are necessary to effectively determine a patient's clinical diagnosis. The instruction is presented on a personal computer which is interfaced to a random access slide projector. Visual feedback of images ordered are provided along with textual results.
Objective: To study the attitudes of the patients towards medical students rotating in the dermatology clinic in the King Fahad Hospital of the University (KFHU). Materials and Methods: One hundred and two adult outpatients attending the KFHU in Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia during the period March to June 2004 completed a questionnaire to evaluate their receptiveness towards medical students attending with the dermatologist. Results: Almost 57% preferred physician a...
Tarek Tawfik Amin1, Feroze Kaliyadan2, Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib31Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Section; 3Vice Dean for Female Students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To assess the preferred methods for assessment among medical students at both preclinical and clinical stages of medical education and the possible correlates that promote these preferences.Subjects and methods: ...
Tarek Tawfik Amin; Feroze Kaliyadan; Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib
Abstract Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a psychiatric label attached to an apparently normal person on the attitude of final year medical students at a Nigerian university. Methods A questionnaire with sections on demographic information, a single-paragraph case description illustrating a normal person, a social distance scale and questions on expected burden was used to elicit responses from 144 final year medical students who hav...
Background: Medical Ethics is structured to guide doctors towards a better professional practice. However, its teaching in medical schools seems to be neglected. Aim: To evalúate the perception of Federal University of Sergipe medical students about ethical conflicts duringtheir academic practice, in two different periods of a medical course. Material ana Methods: A cross-sectional, analytic and observatio-nal study. Using a qualitative approach, analytic categories were identified using an ...
Full Text Available Este estudo aborda a avaliação do exercício da prática profissional (EAPP no curso de enfermagem da Faculdade de Medicina de Marília (Famema; tem como objetivo analisar a concepção de avaliação do professor que realizou o EAPP com estudantes de primeira a quarta séries do curso. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, modalidade análise de conteúdo e identificação da seguinte temática: as ambigüidades do processo de avaliação. Constata-se que a concepção do professor na avaliação no EAPP aproxima-se muito da abordagem de competência dialógica, que articula e integra resultados, atributos e contexto em situações distintas, com diferentes formas de realizar tarefas essenciais para a formação do enfermeiro. Contradições no processo avaliativo entre os professores, porém, estão presentes e necessitam ser constantemente trabalhadas.This paper approached the evaluation of professional practice in the Nursing Program at Marilia Medical School (Famema with the purpose of analyzing the concept of evaluation of the teacher who used the Professional Practice Evaluation (PPE with the students of the nursing program. It was a qualitative study which focused on content analysis and the identification of ambiguities in the evaluation process. It was possible to verify that the teacher's evaluation concept of PPE was very close to the dialogic competence approach that articulates and integrates results, attributes and context in distinct situations with different ways of carrying out essential tasks in the nurse's education. However, there are contradictions about evaluation among teachers and these contradictions must be constantly revised.
Luzmarina Aparecida Doretto Braccialli
Full Text Available Introduction: Special concerns often arise when medical students are themselves the subjects of education research. A recently completed large, multi-center randomized controlled trial of computer-assisted learning modules for surgical clerks provided the opportunity to explore the perceived level of risk of studies where medical students serve as human subjects by reporting on: 1 the response of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs at seven institutions to the same study protocol; and 2 the thoughts and feelings of students across study sites about being research subjects. Methods: From July 2009 to August 2010, all third-year medical students at seven collaborating institutions were eligible to participate. Patterns of IRB review of the same protocol were compared. Participation burden was calculated in terms of the time spent interacting with the modules. Focus groups were conducted with medical students at each site. Transcripts were coded by three independent reviewers and analyzed using Atlas.ti. Results: The IRBs at the seven participating institutions granted full (n=1, expedited (n=4, or exempt (n=2 review of the WISE Trial protocol. 995 (73% of those eligible consented to participate, and 207 (20% of these students completed all outcome measures. The average time to complete the computer modules and associated measures was 175 min. Common themes in focus groups with participant students included the desire to contribute to medical education research, the absence of coercion to consent, and the low-risk nature of the research. Discussion: Our findings demonstrate that risk assessment and the extent of review utilized for medical education research vary among IRBs. Despite variability in the perception of risk implied by differing IRB requirements, students themselves felt education research was low risk and did not consider themselves to be vulnerable. The vast majority of eligible medical students were willing to participate as research subjects. Participants acknowledged the time demands of their participation and were readily able to withdraw when those burdens became unsustainable.
Adina L. Kalet
Full Text Available Considering the importance of quality of life in medical students we have conducted a cross sectional & descriptive study on screening of mental illness of 60 medical students of prefinal year and comparing it with 60 students of third year of Science and Art College. Students were selected via random sampling. GHQ-12 was used as a screening tool and after obtaining scores students were graded in 3 categories - individuals screened positive for psychological morbidity were of Grades 2 and 3 and individuals screened negative for psychological morbidity were of Grade 1 and they were compared according to college, gender & residence. Students screened positive for psychological morbidity as per GHQ-12 were found higher in medical college (87% as compared to Science and Art College (45% and a statistically significant association was found between psychological morbidity and medical students. Psychological morbidity was not significantly associated with residence and gender.
Nursing students need the necessary resources to successfully complete a professional paper writing assignment. The purpose of this article is to describe resource support and evaluation strategies used in a professional paper writing assignment in a baccalaureate nursing program. The impetus for the study is to address the need for nursing faculty to move students toward writing proficiency while improving their information management skills. Students need resources to successfully complete professional papers due to the need for mining relevant professional sources, assistance with editing, and refinement of paper gained through peer feedback. Methods include evaluation of the interdisciplinary resource collaboration with campus librarians (information literacy), campus writing center tutorial oversight, and peer reviewer support and feedback. Student evaluation of the teaching strategy found the resources helpful for completion of the writing assignment and the collaborative learning with campus colleagues and writing experts beneficial. PMID:21956258
McMillan, Libba Reed; Raines, Kimberly
In a phenomenological study, 69 nursing students discussed their experience of being professional, which was grounded in their concept of self and others. Three interrelated figural themes emerged from this ground: belonging, knowing, and affirmation. (SK)
Secrest, Janet A.; Norwood, Barbara R.; Keatley, Virginia M.
This paper is a report of an interview about the metaparadigm of nursing and the influence of the metaparadigm on the professional identity development of students enrolled in an online RN-BSN program. PMID:23247357
Lee, Rebecca C; Fawcett, Jacqueline
Purpose: This study aims to assess the state of technology readiness of professional accounting students in Malaysia, to examine their level of internet self-efficacy, to assess their prior computing experience, and to explore if they are satisfied with the professional course that they are pursuing in improving their technology skills.…
Entry-level student affairs staff are the profession's future and seasoned professionals must lay a strong supervisory foundation. Supervision has received little attention in the literature even though practitioners spend substantial time supervising. Although an important role, many seasoned professionals are ill prepared for this task. This…
Shupp, Matthew R.; Arminio, Jan L.
AIM: To compare the attitudes of students towards the necropsy at different stages of their undergraduate career. METHOD: Students in the first, fourth and sixth academic years (n = 283) were asked to respond anonymously to a questionnaire comprised of 26 attitude statements. These statements dealt with the importance of the necropsy in medicine, rapport with the bereaved family and emotional reactions to the necropsy. RESULTS: Of the students, 226 (80%) completed the questionnaire. Overall, ...
Botega, N. J.; Metze, K.; Marques, E.; Cruvinel, A.; Moraes, Z. V.; Augusto, L.; Costa, L. A.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The views of medical professionals on efficiency of health system and needs for any changes are very critical and constitute a cornerstone for any health system improvement. This is particularly relevant to Iraqi Kurdistan case as the events of the last few decades have significantly devastated the national Iraqi health system while the necessity for adopting a new health care system is increasingly recognized since 2004. This study aims to examine the regional health system in Iraqi Kurdistan from medical professionals' perspectives and try to define its problems and priorities for improvement. Methods A survey questionnaire was developed and administered to a convenience sample of 250 medical professionals in Erbil governorate. The questionnaire included four items; rating of the quality of services and availability of resources in the health institutions, view on different aspects of the health system, the perceived priority needs for health system improvement and gender and professional characteristics of the respondents. Results The response rate to the survey was 83.6%. A high proportion of respondents rated the different aspects of services and resources in the health institutions as weak or very weak including the availability of the required quantity and quality of medicines (68.7%, the availability of sufficient medical equipment and investigation tools (68.7%, and the quality of offered services (65.3%. Around 72% of respondents had a rather negative view on the overall health system. The weak role of medical research, the weak role of professional associations in controlling the system and the inefficient health education were identified as important problems in the current health system (87.9%, 87.1% and 84.9%, respectively. The priority needs of health system improvement included adoption of social insurance for medical care of the poor (82%, enhancing the role of family medicine (77.2%, adopting health insurance system (76.1% and periodic scientific evaluation of physicians and other health staff (69.8%. Conclusion Medical professionals were generally unsatisfied with the different aspects of the health system in Iraqi Kurdistan region. A number of problems and different priority needs for health system improvement have been recognized that require to be studied in more details.
Saleh Abubakir M
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to explore how medical students with Specific Learning Difficulties perceive and understand their Specific Learning Difficulty and how it has impacted on their experience of medical training. Method: A purposive sample of fifteen students from one medical school was interviewed. Framework Analysis was used to identify and organise themes emerging from the data. An interpretation of the data was made capturing the essence of what had been learned. The concept of 'reframing' was then used to re-analyse and organise the data. Results: Students reported having found ways to cope with their Specific Leaning Difficulty in the past, some of which proved inadequate to deal with the pressures of medical school. Diagnosis was a mixed experience: many felt relieved to understand their difficulties better, but some feared discrimination. Practical support was available in university but not in placement. Students focused on the impact of their Specific Learning Difficulty on their ability to pass undergraduate exams. Most did not contemplate difficulties post-qualification. Conclusions: The rigours of the undergraduate medical course may reveal undisclosed Specific Learning Difficulties. Students need help to cope with such challenges, psychologically and practically in both classroom and clinical practice. University services for students with Specific Learning Difficulties should become familiar with the challenges of clinical placements, and ensure that academic staff has access to information about the needs of these students and how these can be met.
It is generally believed that culturally competent clinical practice depends in part on the development of positive attitudes toward the care of immigrant patients. However, few tools exist to measure such attitudes in physicians. The authors operationalized ''culturally competent attitudes'' to include a high level of interest in caring for immigrant patients, an acceptance of the responsibility of doctors and hospitals to adapt to immigrant patients' needs, and the opinion that understanding the patient's psychosocial context is particularly important when caring for immigrant patients. The authors then assessed these attitudes and opinions among a sample of 619 Geneva doctors and medical students using a self-administered questionnaire and explored their association to respondents' personal characteristics and professional experience. The authors found that both personal characteristics and professional experience were associated with attitudes toward caring for immigrant patients. In particular, the perceived importance of understanding the psychosocial context when caring for migrants was higher among medical students, women, Swiss nationals, those with greater interest in caring for immigrant patients and those who had received training in cultural competence. However, it is unclear whether cultural competence training and clinical context lead to the development of more positive attitudes or whether medical students and physicians who already have positive attitudes are more likely to participate in such training. PMID:20484060
Hudelson, Patricia; Perron, Noëlle Junod; Perneger, Thomas V
The aim of the present study was to investigate if any changes exist in the learning styles of medical students over time and in relation to different curriculum models with these learning styles. This prospective cohort study was conducted in three different medical faculties, which implement problem-based learning (PBL), hybrid, and integrated…
Gurpinar, Erol; Bati, Hilal; Tetik, Cihat
Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the subjective presence of a range of subsyndromal and syndromal mental health conditions in medical students, and to compare the presence of these conditions between preclinical and clinical training. Methods: A cross sectional study was used among first-and fifth-year medical students. Student reported their mental health conditions using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, the fourth version (DSM-IV. Data analysis was based on 110 questionnaires. Results: A total of 61 students (55.5 reported that they experienced symptoms of mental illness, albeit many with minimum severity. More than 50 of the students reported that they experienced Axis I and Axis II disorders, which mostly were mood disorders (38in year 1 and 35in year 5 and obsessive-compulsive traits (41in year 1 and 46in year 5, respectively. The least common disorders reported were psychotic disorders (5in year 1 and 0in year 5 and schizotypal traits (7in year 1 and 2in year 5. Fifth-year students reported more Axis I disorders than first-year students. Female students reported more Axis I disorders than their male peers. A further analysis indicated that there was no significant association between age and Axis disorders. Several conditions were comorbid with other mental illnesses. Conclusions: A great number of students reported that they experience mental health conditions with minimal severity. This implies a need for indispensable ongoing support programs for the special needs of medical students.
Rael D. Strous
Abstract Background Migration and ethical recruitment of health care workers is receiving increased attention worldwide. Europe’s aging population is creating new opportunities for medical doctors for finding employment in other countries, particularly those of a better standard of living. Methods We conducted a survey among 1214 medical students in five out of eleven universities in Poland with medical schools in October 2008. A series of statistical tests wa...
Krajewski-Siuda Krzysztof; Szromek Adam; Romaniuk Piotr; Gericke Christian A; Szpak Andrzej; Kaczmarek Krzysztof
"nMedical education in Iran has witnessed important reforms within the last three decades. Among them was the formation of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and a sudden rise in medical student admissions. This reform took place in a specific time period and was aimed to meet the country's requirement of training more physicians. Other reforms have aimed to improve the quality and outcomes of physician training. This is possible through two measures: a change in medi...
Majdzadeh, R.; Nedjat, S.; Keshavarz, H.; Rashidian, A.; Eynollahi, B.; Larijani, B.; Kb, Lankarani
The University of Minnesota Medical School has an innovative curriculum, called Didactic/Selective, which provides third- and fourth-year medical students with multidisciplinary and multispecialty courses. Within this framework, the Bio-Medical Library planned a course to teach the knowledge and skills necessary for library research and information management. It included (1) searching case-related topics in print indexes, (2) formulating and processing MEDLINE searches on BRS Colleague, (3) ...
Mueller, M. H.; Foreman, G.
The psychiatric clerkship for medical students is examined with regard to the accompanying educational process of reconciliation of fantasy to clinical reality. Commonly encountered student fantasies are detailed, and questions are raised concerning the suitability of psychiatric clerkships. (Author/DS)
A study of preclinical medical students' cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills showed students had a very recent CPR course had a significantly lower failure rate than those with courses one or two years previously. The most frequent errors were in chest compression rate and inability to adhere to the single-rescuer compression-to-ventilation…
Fossel, Michael; And Others
Medical students at Mount Sinai School of Medicine participated in an intervention designed to promote knowledge and improved communication skills related to cadaveric organ donation. The intervention required students to interact with a standardized patient for approximately 10 minutes and respond to questions posed about organ donation in a…
Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Anker, Ashley E.; Soriano, Rainier; Friedman, Erica
Nursing role conceptions of registered nursing (RN) students were compared with those of generic students in the baccalaureate program at South Dakota State University. The study population consisted of 76 students. Responses were obtained from four groups of students using a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest group design. Factors positively or…
Hegge, Margaret Joy
Medical professionalism is a multifaceted paradigm and is an essential component of medical education. Gross anatomy is a laboratory to teach professionalism, and promoting critical reflection in medical students is a prerequisite to furthering professionalism. The aim of this study was to determine if professionalism case discussions during a…
Spampinato, Christine M.; Wittich, Christopher M.; Beckman, Thomas J.; Cha, Stephen S.; Pawlina, Wojciech
The application of radiation in the field of medicine is the most active area. Due to the rapid and strong development of intervention radiology at present near 20 years, particularly, the medical workers become a popularize group which most rapid increasing and also receiving the must high of professional exposure dose. Because, inter alias, radiation protection management nag training have not fully follow up, the aware of radioactive protection and appropriate approach have tot fully meet the development and need, the professional exposure dose received by medical workers, especially those being engaged in intervention radiology, are more higher, as well as have not yet fully receiving the complete personal dose monitoring, the medical workers become the population group which should be paid the most attention to. The writer would advice in this paper that all medical workers who being received a professional radiation exposure should pay more attention to the safety and healthy they by is strengthening radiation protection and receiving complete personal dose monitoring. (authors)
Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence base for mental illness related stigma interventions in health care professionals and trainees is underdeveloped. This study aimed to examine the impact of mental illness related stigma training on third year medical students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour related to people with mental illness. Methods A non-randomised controlled trial was conducted with 110 third year medical students at a medical school in England to determine the effectiveness of a mental illness related stigma training package that targeted their knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Results We detected a significant positive effect of factual content and personal testimonies training upon an improvement in knowledge, F(1, 61 = 16.3, p = 0.0002. No such difference was determined with attitudes or for behaviour. Conclusions Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour may need to be separately targeted in stigma reduction interventions, and separately assessed. The inter-relationships between these components in mental health promotion and medical education warrant further research. The study next needs to be replicated with larger, representative samples using appropriate evaluation instruments. More intensive training for medical students may also be required.
In 2002 the University of Michigan Medical School created a one-month course in advanced medical therapeutics (AMT). All senior medical students were required to complete the course. To provide some flexibility for students who were interviewing for residency positions the AMT course was created using a distance-learning model, and in the 2008–2009 academic year it was offered in a fully online format. The components of the course are weekly case-based modules, a weekly online seminar, quiz...
The University of Minnesota Medical School has an innovative curriculum, called Didactic/Selective, which provides third- and fourth-year medical students with multidisciplinary and multispecialty courses. Within this framework, the Bio-Medical Library planned a course to teach the knowledge and skills necessary for library research and information management. It included (1) searching case-related topics in print indexes, (2) formulating and processing MEDLINE searches on BRS Colleague, (3) building a personal file with PC-File or Notebook, and (4) exploring various methods for current awareness. Students' evaluations were positive, with the majority indicating that they found the course interesting and the knowledge gained substantial. PMID:3315055
Mueller, M H; Foreman, G
In 2009 an asynchronous on-line case discussion assessment was introduced, to replace an existing traditional case study assessment, within the Medical Ultrasound Programmes at City University London, to help extend collaborative, inter-professional student-led learning skills. Two clinical modules were used to develop the on-line learning method with associated assessments. Students selected and led a clinical case from their department, uploaded anonymised images and case details with questions, to encourage interaction from other colleagues. Thirty students participated in the on-line case discussions. The assessment was evaluated via informal feedback, end of module feedback and an on-line questionnaire. Some students completed two modules, using the on-line discussion, others were involved in only one module, of which 21 out of 26 students completed end of module feedback for the 1st module and 18 out of 20 students completed feedback from the 2nd module. Twelve students out of 30 completed the on-line questionnaire. Feedback suggested that the on-line case discussions were a good learning tool, providing a wide range of cases for students to participate in or read and learn from each other. All students found the cases interesting, engaging and useful, but time consuming. Despite the small numbers involved, useful feedback was provided to assist further development of the assessment, particularly in relation to the number of cases being assessed and length of availability. On-line case discussions are an innovative, engaging method to encourage self directed, collaborative learning which could be utilised in the health care setting