Van Rooyen, Marietjie; Treadwell, Ina
BACKGROUND: Professionalism forms an important aspect of medicine's contract with society, and it is therefore important that it should be assessed and developed in medical schools. For the effective assessment of medical students' professionalism, clear objectives, or outcomes based on a clear definition of professionalism, have to be accepted by society, the faculty and the students. A Physician's Charter, 'Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium', was published by the Annals of Inter...
Rezler, Agnes G.; And Others
This project evaluated and compared the values used by medical and law students when dealing with ethical dilemmas in the practice of law and medicine. The Professional Decisions and Values Test was given to 77 medical students and 92 law students. Differences were noted on beneficence, professional responsibility, and harm avoidance. (MLW)
Langendyk, Vicki; Hegazi, Iman; Cowin, Leanne; Johnson, Maree; Wilson, Ian
The transition of a medical student or a nursing student into a health care practitioner requires many changes. Among these is the development of an appropriate professional identity, which assists in the establishment of a sound base for professional practice and therefore should be a focus for health professions educators. There is evidence, however, that medical education and nursing education face challenges in guiding students' development of appropriate professional identities. In medicine, there is concern that medical education may contribute to the development of professional identities that alienate patients rather than identities that are patient centered. The nursing profession struggles with poor retention rates in the workforce, which have been attributed in part to discrepancies between the professional identities that students develop during nursing school and the realities of professional practice.In this Perspective, the authors explore the importance of and the pedagogical strategies used to facilitate professional identity formation for medical and nursing students. They argue that medical and nursing educators aim to instill in their students strong occupational identities which may perpetuate hierarchical disciplinary boundaries. They suggest that health professions educators should move beyond current disciplinary silos and create interprofessional education opportunities for medical students and nursing students to learn together to facilitate the development of the collaborative interprofessional identities necessary for the delivery of high-quality, patient-centered health care. PMID:25901875
Full Text Available Abstract Background Transformation of medical students to become medical professionals is a core competency required for physicians in the 21st century. Role modeling was traditionally the key method of transmitting this skill. Medical schools are developing medical curricula which are explicit in ensuring students develop the professional competency and understand the values and attributes of this role. The purpose of this study was to determine student perception of professionalism at the University of Ottawa and gain insights for improvement in promotion of professionalism in undergraduate medical education. Methods Survey on student perception of professionalism in general, the curriculum and learning environment at the University of Ottawa, and the perception of student behaviors, was developed by faculty and students and sent electronically to all University of Ottawa medical students. The survey included both quantitative items including an adapted Pritzker list and qualitative responses to eight open ended questions on professionalism at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA. Chi-square and Fischer’s exact test (for cell count less than 5 were used to derive p-values for categorical variables by level of student learning. Results The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students for all four years of the curriculum. 63% of the responses were from students in years 1 and 2 (preclerkship. Students identified role modeling as the single most important aspect of professionalism. The strongest curricular recommendations included faculty-led case scenario sessions, enhancing interprofessional interactions and the creation of special awards to staff and students to “celebrate” professionalism. Current evaluation systems were considered least effective. The importance of role modeling and information on how to report lapses and breaches was highlighted in the answers to the open ended questions. Conclusions Students identify the need for strong positive role models in their learning environment, and for effective evaluation of the professionalism of students and teachers. Medical school leaders must facilitate development of these components within the MD education and faculty development programs as well as in clinical milieus where student learning occurs.
Background Professionalism topics are usually not covered as a separate lesson within formal curriculum, but in subtler and less officially recognized educational activities, which makes them difficult to teach and assess. Interactive methods (e.g. movies) could be efficient teaching methods but are rarely studied. The aims of this study were: 1) to test the relevance and usefulness of movies in teaching professionalism to fourth year medical students and, 2) to assess the impact of this teaching method on students' attitudes towards some professionalism topics. Method This was an education study with qualitative data analysis in a group of eleven fourth year medical students from the Medical School of University Maribor who attended an elective four month course on professionalism. There were 8 (66.7%) female students in the group. The mean age of the students was 21.9 ± 0.9 years. The authors used students' written reports and oral presentations as the basis for qualitative analysis using thematic codes. Results Students recognised the following dimensions in the movie: communication, empathy, doctors' personal interests and palliative care. It also made them think about their attitudes towards life, death and dying. Conclusions The controlled environment of movies successfully enables students to explore their values, beliefs, and attitudes towards features of professionalism without feeling that their personal integrity had been threatened. Interactive teaching methods could become an indispensible aid in teaching professionalism to new generations. PMID:21861900
Full Text Available Abstract Background Professionalism topics are usually not covered as a separate lesson within formal curriculum, but in subtler and less officially recognized educational activities, which makes them difficult to teach and assess. Interactive methods (e.g. movies could be efficient teaching methods but are rarely studied. The aims of this study were: 1 to test the relevance and usefulness of movies in teaching professionalism to fourth year medical students and, 2 to assess the impact of this teaching method on students' attitudes towards some professionalism topics. Method This was an education study with qualitative data analysis in a group of eleven fourth year medical students from the Medical School of University Maribor who attended an elective four month course on professionalism. There were 8 (66.7% female students in the group. The mean age of the students was 21.9 ± 0.9 years. The authors used students' written reports and oral presentations as the basis for qualitative analysis using thematic codes. Results Students recognised the following dimensions in the movie: communication, empathy, doctors' personal interests and palliative care. It also made them think about their attitudes towards life, death and dying. Conclusions The controlled environment of movies successfully enables students to explore their values, beliefs, and attitudes towards features of professionalism without feeling that their personal integrity had been threatened. Interactive teaching methods could become an indispensible aid in teaching professionalism to new generations.
Klemenc-Ketis Zalika; Kersnik Janko
Abstract Background Professionalism topics are usually not covered as a separate lesson within formal curriculum, but in subtler and less officially recognized educational activities, which makes them difficult to teach and assess. Interactive methods (e.g. movies) could be efficient teaching methods but are rarely studied. The aims of this study were: 1) to test the relevance and usefulness of movies in teaching professionalism to fourth year medical students and, 2) to assess the impact of ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical television programs offer students fictional representations of their chosen career. This study aimed to discover undergraduate medical students' viewing of medical television programs and students' perceptions of professionalism, ethics, realism and role models in the programs. The purpose was to consider implications for teaching strategies. Methods A medical television survey was administered to 386 undergraduate medical students across Years 1 to 4 at a university in New South Wales, Australia. The survey collected data on demographics, year of course, viewing of medical television programs, perception of programs' realism, depiction of ethics, professionalism and role models. Results The shows watched by most students were House, Scrubs, and Grey's Anatomy, and students nominated watching 30 different medical programs in total. There was no statistical association between year of enrolment and perceptions of accuracy. The majority of students reported that friends or family members had asked them for their opinion on an ethical or medical issue presented on a program, and that they discussed ethical and medical matters with their friends. Students had high recall of ethical topics portrayed on the shows, and most believed that medical programs generally portrayed ideals of professionalism well. Conclusions Medical programs offer considerable currency and relevance with students and may be useful in teaching strategies that engage students in ethical lessons about practising medicine.
Full Text Available Objective: The first course of the medical curriculum at the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, From the Person to the Professional: Challenges, Privileges and Responsibilities, provides an innovative early clinical immersion. The course content specific to the Emergency Medical Technician (EMT curriculum was developed using the New York State Emergency Medical Technician curriculum. Students gain early legitimate clinical experience and practice clinical skills as team members in the pre-hospital environment. We hypothesized this novel curriculum would increase students’ confidence in their ability to perform patient care skills and enhance students’ comfort with team-building skills early in their training. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from first-year medical students (n=97 through a survey developed to assess students’ confidence in patient care and team-building skills. The survey was completed prior to medical school, during the final week of the course, and at the end of their first year. A paired-samples t-test was conducted to compare self-ratings on 12 patient care and 12 team-building skills before and after the course, and a theme analysis was conducted to examine open-ended responses. Results: Following the course, student confidence in patient care skills showed a significant increase from baseline (p<0.05 for all identified skills. Student confidence in team-building skills showed a significant increase (p<0.05 in 4 of the 12 identified skills. By the end of the first year, 84% of the first-year students reported the EMT curriculum had ‘some impact’ to ‘great impact’ on their patient care skills, while 72% reported the EMT curriculum had ‘some impact’ to ‘great impact’ on their team-building skills. Conclusions: The incorporation of EMT training early in a medical school curriculum provides students with meaningful clinical experiences that increase their self-reported level of confidence in the performance of patient care skills early in their medical education.
Fronteira Inês; Rodrigues Amabélia; Fresta Mário; Sidat Mohsin; Ferrinho Paulo; da Silva Florinda; Mercer Hugo; Cabral Jorge; Dussault Gilles
Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the professional expectations of medical students during the 2007-2008 academic year at the public medical schools of Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique, and to identify their social and geographical origins, their professional expectations and difficulties relating to their education and professional future. Methods Data were collected through a standardised questionnaire applied to all medical students registered dur...
Shield, Renée R; Farrell, Timothy W; Campbell, Susan E; Nanda, Aman; Wetle, Terrie
Teaching professionalism is an important goal in American medical education. With the aging of the U.S. population, it is critical to understand how medical students develop professional behaviors when caring for older adults. Exposure to geriatrics and older patients can enhance students' professional development with patients of all ages and across different specialties. Medical students learn explicit and implicit messages during their education. In addition to helping to evaluate curricula, reflective journaling encourages individual development and helps in revealing how medical students become professionals. In this study, medical student volunteers described their responses to new geriatrics content in their curriculum, encounters with older patients in clinical settings, and their evolving physician identities. Multidisciplinary team analysis elicited 10 themes regarding: evaluation of geriatrics within the curriculum, recognition of geriatrics principles, and attitudes regarding aging and professional development over time. This article focuses on the impact of geriatrics exposure on students' professional development, revealing ways that students think about professionalism and older patients. Medical educators should consider journaling to help foster and gauge students' professional development. PMID:25152977
Bernat, James L
The essence of medical professionalism is placing dedication to the welfare of patients above physicians' personal or proprietary interests. Medicine has become deprofessionalized as a consequence of socioeconomic factors leading to increasing commercialization and perverse financial incentives converting it into a business, the presence of unmanaged conflicts of interest, challenges to medical authority by insurance companies and the consumerism movement, and by gradual changes in the attitudes of physicians. Organized medicine has responded by making explicit its standards of professionalism and its dedication to preserving them. Medical educators have studied the means to develop professional attitudes and behaviors among medical students and residents. Modeling the characteristics of professional behavior by virtuous physicians remains the most effective method to instill professional behaviors in trainees. Restoring professionalism may be abetted by changes in physicians' financial incentives through innovative models of health care delivery, by physicians reducing their conflicts of interest, and by medical societies rejecting a guild identity. PMID:22915177
Roberts, Laura Weiss; Hammond, Katherine A. Green; Geppert, Cynthia M. A.; Warner, Teddy D.
Objective: To assess the perspectives and preferences of medical students and residents regarding professionalism and ethics education. Methods: A new written survey with 124 items (scale: "strongly disagree" = 1, "strongly agree" = 9) was sent to all medical students (n = 308) and PGY 1-3 residents (n = 233) at one academic center. Results: Of…
Lown, Nick; Davies, Ioan; Cordingley, Lis; Bundy, Chris; Braidman, Isobel
Personal and Professional Development (PPD) is now key to the undergraduate medical curriculum and requires provision of appropriate learning experiences. In order to achieve this, it is essential that we ascertain students' perceptions of what is important in their PPD. We required a methodological approach suitable for a large medical school,…
Sharpless, Joanna; Baldwin, Nell; Cook, Robert; Kofman, Aaron; Morley-Fletcher, Alessio; Slotkin, Rebecca; Wald, Hedy S
Professional identity formation (PIF) within medical education is the multifaceted, individualized process through which students develop new ways of being in becoming physicians. Personal backgrounds, values, expectations, interests, goals, relationships, and role models can all influence PIF and may account for diversity of both experience and the active constructive process of professional formation. Guided reflection, including reflective writing, has been used to enhance awareness and meaning making within the PIF process for both students and medical educators and to shed light on what aspects of medical education are most constructive for healthy PIF. Student voices about the PIF process now emerging in the literature are often considered and interpreted by medical educators within qualitative studies or in broad theoretical overviews of PIF.In this Commentary, the authors present a chorus of individual student voices from along the medical education trajectory. Medical students (years 1-4) and a first-year resident in pediatrics respond to a variety of questions based on prevalent PIF themes extracted from the literature to reflect on their personal experiences of PIF. Topics queried included pretending in medical education, role of relationships, impact of formal and informal curricula on PIF (valuable aspects as well as suggestions for change), and navigating and developing interprofessional relationships and identities. This work aims to vividly illustrate the diverse and personal forces at play in individual students' PIF processes and to encourage future pedagogic efforts supporting healthy, integrated PIF in medical education. PMID:25881650
Kubacki Angela M
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated whether the introduction of professional development teaching in the first two years of a medical course improved students' observed communication skills with simulated patients. Students' observed communication skills were related to patient-centred attitudes, confidence in communicating with patients and performance in later clinical examinations. Methods Eighty-two medical students from two consecutive cohorts at a UK medical school completed two videoed consultations with a simulated patient: one at the beginning of year 1 and one at the end of year 2. Group 1 (n = 35 received a traditional pre-clinical curriculum. Group 2 (n = 47 received a curriculum that included communication skills training integrated into a 'professional development' vertical module. Videoed consultations were rated using the Evans Interview Rating Scale by communication skills tutors. A subset of 27% were double-coded. Inter-rater reliability is reported. Results Students who had received the professional development teaching achieved higher ratings for use of silence, not interrupting the patient, and keeping the discussion relevant compared to students receiving the traditional curriculum. Patient-centred attitudes were not related to observed communication. Students who were less nervous and felt they knew how to listen were rated as better communicators. Students receiving the traditional curriculum and who had been rated as better communicators when they entered medical school performed less well in the final year clinical examination. Conclusions Students receiving the professional development training showed significant improvements in certain communication skills, but students in both cohorts improved over time. The lack of a relationship between observed communication skills and patient-centred attitudes may be a reflection of students' inexperience in working with patients, resulting in 'patient-centredness' being an abstract concept. Students in the early years of their medical course may benefit from further opportunities to practise basic communication skills on a one-to-one basis with patients.
Davis, Larry E; King, Molly K.; Wayne, Sharon J.; Kalishman, Summers G.
Objective: Evaluate medical students’ communication and professionalism skills from the perspective of the ambulatory patient and later compare these skills in their first year of residency. Methods: Students in third year neurology clerkship clinics see patients alone followed by a revisit with an attending neurologist. The patient is then asked to complete a voluntary, anonymous, Likert scale questionnaire rating the student on friendliness, listening to the patient, respecting the patient,...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the professional expectations of medical students during the 2007-2008 academic year at the public medical schools of Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique, and to identify their social and geographical origins, their professional expectations and difficulties relating to their education and professional future. Methods Data were collected through a standardised questionnaire applied to all medical students registered during the 2007-2008 academic year. Results Students decide to study medicine at an early age. Relatives and friends seem to have an especially important influence in encouraging, reinforcing and promoting the desire to be a doctor. The degree of feminization of the student population differs among the different countries. Although most medical students are from outside the capital cities, expectations of getting into medical school are already associated with migration from the periphery to the capital city, even before entering medical education. Academic performance is poor. This seems to be related to difficulties in accessing materials, finances and insufficient high school preparation. Medical students recognize the public sector demand but their expectations are to combine public sector practice with private work, in order to improve their earnings. Salary expectations of students vary between the three countries. Approximately 75% want to train as hospital specialists and to follow a hospital-based career. A significant proportion is unsure about their future area of specialization, which for many students is equated with migration to study abroad. Conclusions Medical education is an important national investment, but the returns obtained are not as efficient as expected. Investments in high-school preparation, tutoring, and infrastructure are likely to have a significant impact on the success rate of medical schools. Special attention should be given to the socialization of students and the role model status of their teachers. In countries with scarce medical resources, the hospital orientation of students' expectations is understandable, although it should be associated with the development of skills to coordinate hospital work with the network of peripheral facilities. Developing a local postgraduate training capacity for doctors might be an important strategy to help retain medical doctors in the home country.
Barr, Jennifer; Bull, Rosalind; Rooney, Kim
Patient encounters are central to the provision of learning opportunities for medical students and their development as medical professionals. The primary aim of the study reported in this paper was to discover how partnering medical students with patients with chronic illness in undergraduate learning influenced the development of a patient…
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a short overview over the determinants and implications of medics’ international migration and to determine if the international migration of medics can be considered a predictable phenomenon, from the Romanian medical student’s perspective. The study has been conducted on a group of students from the University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Gr. T. Popa” from Ia?i, Romania. The research was conducted on an availability sample of 158 students from the 3rd to 6th year of study, which responded to an auto-administrated questionnaire. The results are in accordance with the results of other similar studies, namely that students are considering international migration to more developed countries as an option for their career development.
Background The importance of professional behaviour has been emphasized in medical school curricula. However, the lack of consensus on what constitutes professionalism poses a challenge to medical educators, who often resort to a negative model of assessment based on the identification of unacceptable behaviour. This paper presents results from a study exploring medical students’ views on professionalism, and reports on students’ constructs of the ‘good’ and the ‘professional’ doctor. Methods Data for this qualitative study were collected through focus groups conducted with medical students from one Western Australian university over a period of four years. Students were recruited through unit coordinators and invited to participate in a focus group. De-identified socio-demographic data were obtained through a brief questionnaire. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed and subjected to inductive thematic analysis. Results A total of 49 medical students took part in 13 focus groups. Differences between students’ understandings of the ‘good’ and ‘professional’ doctor were observed. Being competent, a good communicator and a good teacher were the main characteristics of the ‘good’ doctor. Professionalism was strongly associated with the adoption of a professional persona; following a code of practice and professional guidelines, and treating others with respect were also associated with the ‘professional’ doctor. Conclusions Students felt more connected to the notion of the ‘good’ doctor, and perceived professionalism as an external and imposed construct. When both constructs were seen as acting in opposition, students tended to forgo professionalism in favour of becoming a ‘good’ doctor. Results suggest that the teaching of professionalism should incorporate more formal reflection on the complexities of medical practice, allowing students and educators to openly explore and articulate any perceived tensions between what is formally taught and what is being observed in clinical practice. PMID:24725303
Wittich, Christopher M.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Drake, Richard L.; Szostek, Jason H.; Reed, Darcy A.; Lachman, Nirusha; McBride, Jennifer M.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Beckman, Thomas J.
Improving professional attitudes and behaviors requires critical self reflection. Research on reflection is necessary to understand professionalism among medical students. The aims of this prospective validation study at the Mayo Medical School and Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine were: (1) to develop and validate a new instrument for…
Full Text Available The analysis of military troop probation period of 194 students of Saratov Military Medical Institute has demonstrated the common drawbacks and defects in the military service activity on provision of military service safely. The determination of these drawbacks allows to plan concrete measures for improvement of this process.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences. In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1–4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators. The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Methods Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Results Sixty students (70% and 15 facilitators (71% completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. Conclusion In this project, a new Early Professional Contact course was analysed from both student and facilitator perspectives. The students experienced the course as providing them with a valuable introduction to the physician's professional role in clinical practice. In contrast, course facilitators often experienced a heavy workload and lack of support, despite thorough preparatory education. A possible conflict between the clinical facilitator's task as educator and member of the workplace is suggested. More research is needed on how doctors combine their professional tasks with work as facilitators.
Barr, Jennifer; Bull, Rosalind; Rooney, Kim
Patient encounters are central to the provision of learning opportunities for medical students and their development as medical professionals. The primary aim of the study reported in this paper was to discover how partnering medical students with patients with chronic illness in undergraduate learning influenced the development of a patient centred professional identity and professionalism. An exploratory interpretive research design was used to address the research aim within a patient partner program (P3). Three qualitative data collection methods were used: (1) focus groups (2) extended response questionnaire and (3) semi-structured interviews. Data were coded and analysed thematically. The professional identity of medical students is constructed along traditional lines in the preclinical years. Patient-partnership offers a disruption to this development by way of an intersection with patients with chronic illness which potentially allows meaningful construction of what a patient-centred identity should be. This point of reflection provides an opportunity to engage at a higher level in medical identity development and professionalism. The findings discussed in this paper further stimulate the patient-centred agenda by understanding the conflict associated with the student-patient nexus in medical education and its potential for building professionalism and a patient-centred professional identity. To continue the drive for a patient-centred professional identity there must be ongoing engagement with patients in medical education, preferably commencing early in a student's journey so that it becomes the expected norm. This study has highlighted that a true patient-centred emphasis is being encountered too late in their socialisation process. PMID:25008246
Adam Jane; Bore Miles; McKendree Jean; Munro Don; Powis David
Abstract Background Over two-thirds of UK medical schools are augmenting their selection procedures for medical students by using the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT), which employs tests of cognitive and non-cognitive personal qualities, but clear evidence of the tests’ predictive validity is lacking. This study explores whether academic performance and professional behaviours that are important in a health professional context can be predicted by these measures, when taken be...
Fernando Henrique Canhoto, Alves; Fernanda Pedrosa, Torres; Hilda Satie, Suto; Lunia Sofia Lima, Azevedo; Marcell Maduro, Barbosa; Renato Martins, Pedro; Ana Carolina Delazia Albuquerque, Santana; Daniella, Rantin; Fábio Henrique Luiz, Leonardo; Marina Gomes de, Andrade; Natasha Nicos, Ferreira; Antonio, Pazin Filho.
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Marketing médico é um assunto controverso, principalmente no que concerne a princípios éticos. Portanto, frente à competição acirrada de mercado, é necessário o preparo profissional. Conhecer a percepção dos alunos de Medicina pode auxiliar na estruturação de alternativas de capacitação. [...] METODOLOGIA: Inicialmente, identificaram-se crenças sobre marketing médico através de grupo focal composto por 12 alunos. Com base nesses dados, dez afirmações para avaliar atitudes foram aplicadas aos alunos de uma Faculdade de Medicina pública brasileira. RESULTADOS: Observou-se falta de clareza sobre o conceito de marketing, preocupação com princípios éticos e necessidade de marketing no mercado competitivo. Na fase de aplicação, foram obtidas 280 respostas de diversos estágios do curso. Apenas 16,8% admitiram contato com o tema. Houve clareza sobre ética em relação ao paciente, influenciada positivamente pela progressão no curso, mas houve divergência na ética entre profissionais. CONCLUSÕES: Marketing médico é uma área pouco compreendida e relegada ao currículo oculto, sendo influenciada por transposições inadequadas de métodos didáticos destinados à comunicação profissional para a população leiga. Novos métodos de ensino, como a educação tutorial, podem ser uma alternativa para lidar com essas situações. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Professional marketing is a controversial topic, mainly regarding ethical principles. Therefore, increasing market competion turns professional capacitation mandatory. To know under graduation medical student's perceptions could help to develop educational alternatives to face this probl [...] em. METODOLOGY: First, professional marketing believes were identified through focus group methodology including twelve students. Based on these results, ten affirmatives were constructed to evaluate attitudes and applied to the students of a Brazilian public medicine school. RESULTS: It was observed lack of a clear definition of marketing, preoccupation regarding ethical principles and need to employ marketing strategies in a competitive market. At the survey stage, 280 answers from different stages of the course were obtained. Only 16.8% admitted to have had previous contact with the topic. Clear ethical standards for medical-patient relationship were determined, increasing with course progression. However inter-professional ethical principles was more subject to confusion. CONCLUSION: Professional marketing is poorly understood and it is relegated to the occult curricula, being influenced by didactic methods inadequately transposed for marketing strategies. Newer educational methods, like mentoring, could be an alternative to deal with these situations.Tutoria.
Zhang, Hongwei; Yin, Jianhua; Tan, Xiaojie; Chang, Wenjun; Ding, Yibo; Han, Yifang; Cao, Guangwen
Background Disaster is a serious public health issue. Health professionals and community residents are main players in disaster responses but their knowledge levels of disaster medicine are not readily available. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among potential disaster responders and presented a necessity to popularize disaster medicine education. Methods A self-reporting questionnaire survey on knowledge level and training needs of disaster medicine was conducted in Shanghai, China, in 2012. A total of randomly selected 547 health professionals, 456 medical students, and 1,526 local residents provided intact information. The total response rate was 93.7%. Results Overall, 1.3% of these participants have received systematic disaster medicine training. News media (87.1%) was the most common channel to acquire disaster medicine knowledge. Although health professionals were more knowledgeable than community residents, their knowledge structure of disaster medicine was not intact. Medical teachers were more knowledgeable than medical practitioners and health administrators (p?=?0.002). Clinicians performed better than public health physicians (p<0.001), whereas public health students performed better than clinical medical students (p<0.001). In community residents, education background significantly affected the knowledge level on disaster medicine (p<0.001). Training needs of disaster medicine were generally high among the surveyed. ‘Lecture’ and ‘practical training’ were preferred teaching methods. The selected key and interested contents on disaster medicine training were similar between health professionals and medical students, while the priorities chosen by local residents were quite different from health professionals and medical students (p<0.001). Conclusions Traditional clinical-oriented medical education might lead to a huge gap between the knowledge level on disaster medicine and the current needs of disaster preparedness. Continuing medical education and public education plans on disaster medicine via media should be practice-oriented, and selectively applied to different populations and take the knowledge levels and training needs into consideration. PMID:23826190
Wojtal, Mariola; Kurpas, Donata; Bielska, Dorota; Steciwko, Andrzej; Szarowska, Kamila
Smoking tobacco in our society is the primary risk factor in the emergence of many diseases, including cardiovascular and cancer, elevating the risk of mortality before 65 years of age. Very important is the fact that this is a removable, which can be completely eliminated. The smoker health could be in better conditions and also other people from his environment. A man who is messed up is the sick man who, while having the motivation to stop smoking, need a comprehensive and specialized medical treatment. Respondents nursing and midwifery students in Opole PMWSZ most important in providing advice to patients students choose family doctors (34.1%) and internists (17.9%). According to the respondents, patients who, despite a strong motivation to stop smoking can not, should find help in specialized anti-tobacco clinic (27.8%), substance abuse treatment clinic (16.5%), and psychological counseling (11.4%). Half of the surveyed students (51.35%) declared the ability to advice patients, while only 18.7% of respondents correctly answered the question what is the minimum intervention of tobacco control, 56% of respondents claimed that it is information to the patient of the consequences of smoking. Important in reducing the health effects of smoking is to prepare health workers to diagnose the problem of addiction and comprehensive professional treatment. PMID:20301943
Ferdig, Richard E. University Of Florida College Of Education; Dawson, Kara University Of Florida College Of Education; Black, Erik W. University Of Florida College Of Education; Black, Nicole M. Paradise University Of Florida; Thompson, Lindsay A. University Of Florida
This study sought to determine if and how 501 medical students and 312 residents are using Facebook at a large university in the Southeastern United States. Results reveal that medical students and residents are using Facebook and about two-thirds of users maintain public profiles. While there is variation in the types of information provide within profiles, many medical students seem unaware of or unconcerned with the possible ramifications of sharing personal information in publicly-availab...
Demmer, Laurie A; Waggoner, Darrel J
Genomic medicine is a relatively new concept that involves using individual patients' genomic results in their clinical care. Genetic technology has advanced swiftly over the past decade, and most providers have been left behind without an understanding of this complex field. To realize its full potential, genomic medicine must be both understood and accepted by the greater medical community. The current state of professional medical education in genomics and genomic medicine is reviewed, including ongoing plans to expand educational efforts for medical students, clinical geneticists, and nongeneticist physicians. PMID:24635717
Hilton, Sean; Southgate, Lesley
Medical professionalism in today's society requires the exhibition of a range of qualities deployed in the service of patients, rather than more traditionally defined aspects such as mastery, autonomy and self-regulation. These qualities incorporate demonstrated clinical competence; aspiring to excellence in practice while demonstrating humility…
Full Text Available Takashi Fujiwara1, Mai Nishimura2, Ryoko Honda3, Takashi Nishiyama4, Masahiro Nomoto5, Naoto Kobayashi6, Masayuki Ikeda71Division of Educational Training, Kurashiki Central Hospital, Kurashiki, Japan, 2Sixth-year medical student, 3Department of Anaesthesiology and Resuscitology, 4Department of Emergency Medicine, 5Department of Therapeutics, 6Medical Education Center, Ehime University School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan, 7Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Nagasaki, JapanBackground: The effect of peer-led training in basic life support (BLS in the education of medical students has not been assessed.Subjects and methods: This study was a randomized controlled trial with a blinded outcome assessor. A total of 74 fourth-year medical students at Ehime University School of Medicine, Japan were randomly assigned to BLS training conducted by either a senior medical student (peer-led group or a health professional (professional-led group. The primary outcome measure was the percentage of chest compressions with adequate depth (38–51 mm by means of a training mannequin evaluated 20 weeks after BLS training. Secondary outcome measures were compression depth, compression rate, proportion of participants who could ensure adequate compression depth (38–51 mm and adequate compression rate (90–110/minute, and retention of BLS knowledge as assessed by 22-point questionnaire.Results: Percentage chest compressions with adequate depth (mean ± SD was 54.5% ± 31.8% in the peer-led group and 52.4% ± 35.6% in the professional-led group. The 95% confidence interval (CI of difference of the means was –18.7% to 22.8%. The proportion of participants who could ensure an adequate mean compression rate was 17/23 (73.9% in the peer-led group but only 8/22 (36.4% in the professional-led group (P = 0.011. On the 22-point questionnaire administered 20 weeks after training, the peer-led group scored 17.2 ± 2.3 whereas the professional-led group scored 17.8 ± 2.0. The 95% CI of difference of the means was –1.72 to 0.57.Conclusion: Peer-led training in BLS by medical students is feasible and as effective as health professional-led training.Keywords: basic life support, education, training, randomized controlled trial
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over two-thirds of UK medical schools are augmenting their selection procedures for medical students by using the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT, which employs tests of cognitive and non-cognitive personal qualities, but clear evidence of the tests’ predictive validity is lacking. This study explores whether academic performance and professional behaviours that are important in a health professional context can be predicted by these measures, when taken before or very early in the medical course. Methods This prospective cohort study follows the progress of the entire student cohort who entered Hull York Medical School in September 2007, having taken the UKCAT cognitive tests in 2006 and the non-cognitive tests a year later. This paper reports on the students’ first and second academic years of study. The main outcome measures were regular, repeated tutor assessment of individual students’ interpersonal skills and professional behaviour, and annual examination performance in the three domains of recall and application of knowledge, evaluation of data, and communication and practical clinical skills. The relationships between non-cognitive test scores, cognitive test scores, tutor assessments and examination results were explored using the Pearson product–moment correlations for each group of data; the data for students obtaining the top and bottom 20% of the summative examination results were compared using Analysis of Variance. Results Personal qualities measured by non-cognitive tests showed a number of statistically significant relationships with ratings of behaviour made by tutors, with performance in each year’s objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs, and with themed written summative examination marks in each year. Cognitive ability scores were also significantly related to each year’s examination results, but seldom to professional behaviours. The top 20% of examination achievers could be differentiated from the bottom 20% on both non-cognitive and cognitive measures. Conclusions This study shows numerous significant relationships between both cognitive and non-cognitive test scores, academic examination scores and indicators of professional behaviours in medical students. This suggests that measurement of non-cognitive personal qualities in applicants to medical school could make a useful contribution to selection and admission decisions. Further research is required in larger representative groups, and with more refined predictor measures and behavioural assessment methods, to establish beyond doubt the incremental validity of such measures over conventional cognitive assessments.
Eliseo, Bustamante; Álvaro, Sanabria.
Full Text Available Introducción. El profesionalismo es un área de interés en las facultades de medicina del mundo. El uso de un cuestionario puede ser útil para evaluar el profesionalismo en Colombia. El objetivo fue evaluarlo en estudiantes de medicina, mediante la escala de actitudes ante el profesionalismo de Penn [...] State University College of Medicine (PSCOM) y su cambio al pasar de los semestres básicos a los clínicos. Métodos. Se hizo un estudio de corte trasversal con 250 estudiantes de medicina, utilizando la escala PSCOM. Se determinaron variables socioeconómicas y académicas. Se midieron las actitudes hacia el profesionalismo. Los datos se reportan en frecuencia y se comparan entre los semestres básicos y los de clínicas. Resultados. Hubo una reorganización de prioridades dentro de cada dominio de la escala, en comparación con lo propuesto originalmente. La mayor frecuencia de respuesta negativa fue de 58 % en el dominio servicio. Varios ítems decayeron al pasar de los semestres básicos a los de clínicas. Conclusión. Las actitudes de los estudiantes ante los factores que caracterizan el profesionalismo médico, demuestran que existen debilidades importantes que son un desafío para la educación de pregrado y que requieren estrategias que permitan desarrollar las habilidades profesionales dentro del currículo. Abstract in english Introduction: Professionalism is a subject of interest in medical schools around the world. The use of a questionnaire could be useful to assess professionalism in Colombia. The aim was to assess The Penn State University College of Medicine (PSCOM) Professionalism Questionnaire in medical students [...] and its change from basic to clinical settings. Methods: We completed a cross-sectional survey of 250 medical students using the PSCOM scale. We assessed socioeconomic and academic variables. Attitudes toward professionalism were also measured. Data are reported in frequency and comparisons were made between the basic and the clinical semesters. Results: We found reorganization in the priorities within each original scale domain in comparison with the original order. The most negative answer was 58% in the service domain. Some items decreased when students went from basic to clinical semesters. Conclusion: Medical students' attitudes toward factors that define professionalism show important weaknesses. This is a challenge for graduate education and it makes it necessary to introduce strategies to develop professional skills into the curriculum.
Contemporary medical ethics is far from the traditional concept of "In-Sul (benevolent art)" or "Yul-Li (?, ethics), which emphasizes so much the personality or the character of a doctor. Nowadays, medical ethics should be considered as "professional ethics" which regulates the acts and medical practices of ordinary doctors in their daily practice. The key concepts of the professional ethics are "autonomy", "integrity", and "professional standard" established by medical organizations such as medical societies or associations. Most of Korean doctors have not been familiar with the concept of professional ethics or professionalism, which is due to the modern history of Korea. However, the concept of professional ethics is really critical to Korean doctors from the perspective of professional dignity and social respect to this profession. The current healthcare system of Korea is suffering from many problems of both private and public sector. Nonetheless, the professional ethics is urgently demanded for that very reason. PMID:23018533
Gunnarsson Ronny; Rödjer Stig; Hellquist Gunilla; von Below Bernhard; Björkelund Cecilia; Wahlqvist Mats
Abstract Background Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and...
Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh
Studies have shown that IQ alone does not contribute to the professional success of medical professionals. Professionals who are trained to be clinically competent, but have inadequate social skills for practice have proved to be less successful in their profession. Emotional intelligence (EI), which has already proved to be a key attribute for…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration. This paper assesses the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on willingness to accept postings to deprived areas among medical students in Ghana. Methods A computer-based survey involving 302 fourth year medical students was conducted from May-August 2009. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between students' willingness to accept rural postings and their professional motivations, rural exposure and family parental professional and educational status (PPES. Results Over 85% of students were born in urban areas and 57% came from affluent backgrounds. Nearly two-thirds of students reported strong intrinsic motivation to study medicine. After controlling for demographic characteristics and rural exposure, motivational factors did not influence willingness to practice in rural areas. High family PPES was consistently associated with lower willingness to work in rural areas. Conclusions Although most Ghanaian medical students are motivated to study medicine by the desire to help others, this does not translate into willingness to work in rural areas. Efforts should be made to build on intrinsic motivation during medical training and in designing rural postings, as well as favour lower PPES students for admission.
Rakesh Chandra Chaurasia
Undergraduate medical education is very vast area comprises of over dozen subjects and their evaluation through professional examination. In current scenario of modern life students are pressurized from every corners, economic burden, lack of proper teaching or friendly environment, senior and peer group pressure, love affairs are common issues during college life. Insecurity of job after completion of education will pose future financial fear. These are some common reasons enough to pressuri...
Nakayama, Don K
Film director Akira Kurosawa (1918-1998) portrayed doctors and patients in 4 films that spanned the most productive phase in his career: Drunken Angel, The Quiet Duel, Ikiru, and Red Beard. Observing death and destruction during the Second World War and the social disintegration that followed it in Japan, Kurosawa viewed the world as a dispiriting, dangerous, and chaotic place. His response was an optimistic and humanist view that life's meaning lies in the service to others. Because his main characters are doctors and patients, the films have a connection to today's medical community trying to define a modern concept of professionalism and what it means to be a physician. PMID:20142142
Elizabeth Borycki; Anthony Otto; Ronald S. Joe
This paper describes an implementation of an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) which has been adapted for the purposes of teaching health professional students, including medical and nursing students. Off-the-shelf EMR software, while suited for physicians in practice settings does not completely satisfy the needs of these students and educators. There are many unique requirements of a teaching EMR compared to one used in a production environment. This paper describes the specific architecture ...
Aida M. Mohamed
Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, e.g. personal preferences, difficult work conditions and low remuneration. Our aim was to determine the effect of motivational factors on willingness to accept postings to rural underserved areas in Alexandria, Egypt and to identify perceived attributes of rural service.,A cross-sectional survey involving 302 4th-year medical students was conducted in March-July 2012. Logistic regression analysis was used to asses...
Development of health inter-professional telemedicine practice through simulation scenario training with students of physiotherapy-, occupational therapy-, medical laboratory technology-, and nursing education
Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Vestergaard, Kitt
Background: Welfare technology is considered to be cost effective and to promote consistent quality in health care (1, 2). Due to the pervasive deployment of telemedicine and the political focus thereon, it is very important that health professional students gain an understanding of its benefits and limitations and that they develop competences related to telemedicine practices. Because close interprofessional and intersectoral cooperation is required in the care and treatment of patients by the use of telemedicine, development of telemedicine competences must take place in an inter-professional context. Aims: The purpose of the project was • to develop practice oriented competences related to telemedicine in an inter-professional and a cross-sectoral context among health professional students of physiotherapy-, occupational therapy-, medical laboratory technology-, and nursing education. • to motivate and retain male students by the use of simulation training that involves technology. Methodology:The project was settled as a cross-professional telemedicine course on health educations. Nursing students (N=20) and physiotherapy students (N=34) participated actively and the scenarios were filmed and enacted via Adobe Connect. Students were divided into groups, and some students acted health professionals, while others acted patients. Excerpts of the recordings were analyzed and discussed with a focus on successful telemedical care and treatments well as challenges and they were followed by evaluation and qualitative interviews. Recordings, field notes, memos and observations of students and lecturers were used as empirical material for follow-up research. Data were analyzed in order to categorize the theoretical perspectives relating to learning and motivation. Results: Evaluations and follow-up research showed that students developed competences equivalent to novice level through simulation training (3). The project gave rise to wide project on Occupational Therapy education and medical laboratory technology education too. Follow-up research concludes that the boys who participated in the project responded positively to simulation training, as many of the girls did. Further results and perspectives will be presented at the conference. References: 1. Accelerating innovation: the power of the crowd. Global lessons in e-Health implementation d Documents/e-health-implementation Case study: UK Department of Health: Whole System Demonstrator program 2. Danske Regioner, Kommunernes Landsforening, Ministeriet for Sundhed og Forebyggelse, Social- og Integrationsministeriet, Erhvervs- og Vækstministeriet, Økonomi- og Indenrigsministeriet & Finansministeriet (2012): National handlingsplan for udbredelse af telemedicin, Fonden for Velfærdsteknologi 3. Nortvig, Anne-Mette et. Eriksen, Kathrine Krageskov. Teknologistøttet simulationsundervisning som translokation for teoretisk viden og praktisk handlen. Læring & Medier (LOM) – nr. 11 – 2013. ISSN: 1903-248X 4. Murray C, Grant MJ, Howarth ML, Leigh J.The use of simulation as a teaching and learning approach to support practice learning. Nurse Education in Practice 2008;8:5-8. 5. Watson K, Wright A, Morris N, McMeeken J, Rivett D, Blackstock F, et al. Can simulation replace part of clinical time? Two parallel randomised controlled trials. Med Educ 2012;46:657-667 6. Dieckmann P, Friis SM, Lippert A, Østergaard D. Goals, Success Factors, and Barriers for Simulation-Based Learning A Qualitative Interview Study in Health Care. Simulation & Gaming 2012;43:627-647. 7. Dreyfus, Stuart E.; Dreyfus, Hubert L. (February 1980). A Five-Stage Model of the Mental Activities Involved in Directed Skill Acquisition. Washington, DC: Storming Media. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
Development of health inter-professional telemedicine practice through simulation scenario training with students of physiotherapy-, occupational therapy-, medical laboratory technology, and nursing education
Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Vestergaard, Kitt
Background: Welfare technology is considered to be cost effective and to promote consistent quality in health care (1, 2). Due to the pervasive deployment of telemedicine and the political focus thereon, it is very important that health professional students gain an understanding of its benefits and limitations and that they develop competences related to telemedicine practices. Because close interprofessional and intersectoral cooperation is required in the care and treatment of patients by the use of telemedicine, development of telemedicine competences must take place in an inter-professional context. Aims: The purpose of the project was • to develop practice oriented competences related to telemedicine in an inter-professional and a cross-sectoral context among health professional students of physiotherapy-, occupational therapy-, medical laboratory technology-, and nursing education. • to motivate and retain male students by the use of simulation training that involves technology. Methodology:The project was settled as a cross-professional telemedicine course on health educations. Nursing students (N=20) and physiotherapy students (N=34) participated actively and the scenarios were filmed and enacted via Adobe Connect. Students were divided into groups, and some students acted health professionals, while others acted patients. Excerpts of the recordings were analyzed and discussed with a focus on successful telemedical care and treatments well as challenges and they were followed by evaluation and qualitative interviews. Recordings, field notes, memos and observations of students and lecturers were used as empirical material for follow-up research. Data were analyzed in order to categorize the theoretical perspectives relating to learning and motivation. Results: Evaluations and follow-up research showed that students developed competences equivalent to novice level through simulation training (3). The project gave rise to wide project on Occupational Therapy education and medical laboratory technology education too. Follow-up research concludes that the boys who participated in the project responded positively to simulation training, as many of the girls did. Further results and perspectives will be presented at the conference. References: 1. Accelerating innovation: the power of the crowd. Global lessons in e-Health implementation d Documents/e-health-implementation Case study: UK Department of Health: Whole System Demonstrator program 2. Danske Regioner, Kommunernes Landsforening, Ministeriet for Sundhed og Forebyggelse, Social- og Integrationsministeriet, Erhvervs- og Vækstministeriet, Økonomi- og Indenrigsministeriet & Finansministeriet (2012): National handlingsplan for udbredelse af telemedicin, Fonden for Velfærdsteknologi 3. Nortvig, Anne-Mette et. Eriksen, Kathrine Krageskov. Teknologistøttet simulationsundervisning som translokation for teoretisk viden og praktisk handlen. Læring & Medier (LOM) – nr. 11 – 2013. ISSN: 1903-248X 4. Murray C, Grant MJ, Howarth ML, Leigh J.The use of simulation as a teaching and learning approach to support practice learning. Nurse Education in Practice 2008;8:5-8. 5. Watson K, Wright A, Morris N, McMeeken J, Rivett D, Blackstock F, et al. Can simulation replace part of clinical time? Two parallel randomised controlled trials. Med Educ 2012;46:657-667 6. Dieckmann P, Friis SM, Lippert A, Østergaard D. Goals, Success Factors, and Barriers for Simulation-Based Learning A Qualitative Interview Study in Health Care. Simulation & Gaming 2012;43:627-647. 7. Dreyfus, Stuart E.; Dreyfus, Hubert L. (February 1980). A Five-Stage Model of the Mental Activities Involved in Directed Skill Acquisition. Washington, DC: Storming Media. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
Marcos Augusto, Filisbino; Vardeli Alves de, Moraes.
Full Text Available Estudo transversal quantitativo descritivo observacional, realizado com discentes do internato da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Goiás. OBJETIVOS: Conhecer a expectativa de prática profissional de discentes do internato e observar possíveis dissonâncias em relação ao perfil do disc [...] ente preconizado pelas Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais e projeto político-pedagógico da instituição. METODOLOGIA: Foi utilizado um questionário distribuído aos 222 discentes do internato da instituição no ano de 2012. A amostra consta de 190 discentes, que correspondem a 85% do universo de análise. A significância estatística foi calculada pelo Teste do Sinal. RESULTADOS: O perfil sociodemográfico caracteriza discentes com idade média de 23,8 anos, solteiros, sendo que 66% pertencem às classes sociais A e B. O ideal do perfil de prática profissional demonstra que 84% pretendem ser especialistas, 96% desejam cursar residência médica, sendo estatisticamente significante (p = 0,0001), e 70% não pretendem, a priori, trabalhar na Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF) (p = 0,005). CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstra discentes com perfil socioeconômico elevado, que pretendem ser especialistas, cursar residência médica e não veem a ESF como uma meta-fim. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The aim of this research is to identify, in terms of professional practice, the ideal internship students in the Medical School of the Federal University of Goiás (UFG) and to observe possible dissonances in relation to the graduate profile as advocated by the National Curriculum Guide [...] lines and by the Political Pedagogical Project of this institution. METHODS: In 2012, two hundred and twenty-two medical internship students of the institution received a survey questionnaire. The sample of this research consisted of one hundred and ninety research subjects, representing 85% of the sample universe. The statistical significance was calculated using the Sign Test. RESULTS: The socio-demographic profile characterizes the students with an average age of 23.8 years old, unmarried, 66% of whom belong to social classes A and B. The ideal profile of professional practice shows that 84% want to become specialists, whereas 96% want to engage in medical residency, which is statistically significant (p = 0.0001), and 70% do not intend to work with Family Health Strategy Programs (p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: This study shows that students with high socio-economic profile, who want to become specialists, undergo a medical residency program and do not see the Family Health Strategy as a professional goal.
Raúl A. Borracci
Full Text Available Aunque la elección de la carrera de medicina por los jóvenes implica algún grado de conocimiento de las condiciones laborales actuales del médico, las expectativas de los estudiantes de medicina con respecto a su práctica profesional futura rara vez han sido estudiadas en la Argentina. El objetivo fue recabar información sobre las expectativas que tienen los estudiantes de medicina próximos a graduarse, con respecto a su práctica profesional futura. Entre septiembre y diciembre de 2008 se encuestaron 125 estudiantes que cursaban el Internado Anual Rotatorio. Por medio de una encuesta anónima se recolectó información sobre las expectativas que tenían con respecto a su futura práctica profesional. Respondieron la encuesta 82.4% (103/125 de los encuestados. El 98.0% (101/103 expresó que deseaba ingresar a un programa de residencias. Con respecto a la elección de la especialidad, pediatría y psiquiatría fueron preferentes entre las mujeres (27% vs. 8%, p = 0.029 y 27% vs. 3%, p = 0.004, mientras que traumatología fue preponderante entre los varones (18% vs. 2%, p = 0.019. La mediana de ingresos esperados a 5 años fue $4.000 (mínimo: $1.500, máximo: $10.000, a 10 años $7.000 (mínimo: $3,000, máximo: $20.000 y a 20 años $10.000 (mínimo: $3 000, máximo: $30.000, según valores ajustados a diciembre de 2008 ($3.0 = US$ 1.0. En conclusión, las especialidades elegidas parecen depender del proceso de feminización de la carrera; mientras que los ingresos esperados podrían exceder la verdadera renta actual de los médicos. Se destaca la intención de participar en la docencia y el escaso interés por la investigación.Although the choice to study medicine implies some knowledge of the current working situation of practitioners, medical students' expectations regarding their future professional practice have been rarely investigated in Argentina. The aim of this work was to collect data about the expectations of senior medical students regarding their future professional practice. One hundred and twenty-five senior medical students were surveyed between September and December 2008. By using an anonymous survey, information regarding the expectations about their future professional practice was collected. The survey was answered by 82.4% (103/125 of the students and 98.0% (101/103 expressed their desire to enter a residence programme. Regarding specialty, pediatrics and psychiatry were the most chosen by women (27% vs. 8%, p=0.029 and 27% vs. 3%, p=0.004, and orthopedic surgery was the predominant choice in men (18% vs. 2%, p=0.019. Median of expected income at 5 years post graduation was $ 4.000 (minimum: $1,500, maximum: $10.000, at 10 years $7.000 (minimum: $3.000, maximum: $ 20.000 and at 20 years $10.000 (minimum: $3.000, maximum: $30 000, according to money value adjusted to December 2008 ($3.0 = US$ 1.0. In conclusion, chosen specialties seem to be dependent on the increasing number of female students, the expected income would exceed the current remuneration of physicians. Noterworthy finding out the students' willingness to be involved in teaching and the less interest in research.
Raúl A., Borracci; Roberto D., Pittaluga; Diego, Manente; Mariano A., Giorgi; Miguel, Rubio.
Full Text Available Aunque la elección de la carrera de medicina por los jóvenes implica algún grado de conocimiento de las condiciones laborales actuales del médico, las expectativas de los estudiantes de medicina con respecto a su práctica profesional futura rara vez han sido estudiadas en la Argentina. El objetivo f [...] ue recabar información sobre las expectativas que tienen los estudiantes de medicina próximos a graduarse, con respecto a su práctica profesional futura. Entre septiembre y diciembre de 2008 se encuestaron 125 estudiantes que cursaban el Internado Anual Rotatorio. Por medio de una encuesta anónima se recolectó información sobre las expectativas que tenían con respecto a su futura práctica profesional. Respondieron la encuesta 82.4% (103/125) de los encuestados. El 98.0% (101/103) expresó que deseaba ingresar a un programa de residencias. Con respecto a la elección de la especialidad, pediatría y psiquiatría fueron preferentes entre las mujeres (27% vs. 8%, p = 0.029 y 27% vs. 3%, p = 0.004), mientras que traumatología fue preponderante entre los varones (18% vs. 2%, p = 0.019). La mediana de ingresos esperados a 5 años fue $4.000 (mínimo: $1.500, máximo: $10.000), a 10 años $7.000 (mínimo: $3,000, máximo: $20.000) y a 20 años $10.000 (mínimo: $3 000, máximo: $30.000), según valores ajustados a diciembre de 2008 ($3.0 = US$ 1.0). En conclusión, las especialidades elegidas parecen depender del proceso de feminización de la carrera; mientras que los ingresos esperados podrían exceder la verdadera renta actual de los médicos. Se destaca la intención de participar en la docencia y el escaso interés por la investigación. Abstract in english Although the choice to study medicine implies some knowledge of the current working situation of practitioners, medical students' expectations regarding their future professional practice have been rarely investigated in Argentina. The aim of this work was to collect data about the expectations of s [...] enior medical students regarding their future professional practice. One hundred and twenty-five senior medical students were surveyed between September and December 2008. By using an anonymous survey, information regarding the expectations about their future professional practice was collected. The survey was answered by 82.4% (103/125) of the students and 98.0% (101/103) expressed their desire to enter a residence programme. Regarding specialty, pediatrics and psychiatry were the most chosen by women (27% vs. 8%, p=0.029 and 27% vs. 3%, p=0.004), and orthopedic surgery was the predominant choice in men (18% vs. 2%, p=0.019). Median of expected income at 5 years post graduation was $ 4.000 (minimum: $1,500, maximum: $10.000), at 10 years $7.000 (minimum: $3.000, maximum: $ 20.000) and at 20 years $10.000 (minimum: $3.000, maximum: $30 000), according to money value adjusted to December 2008 ($3.0 = US$ 1.0). In conclusion, chosen specialties seem to be dependent on the increasing number of female students, the expected income would exceed the current remuneration of physicians. Noterworthy finding out the students' willingness to be involved in teaching and the less interest in research.
Lazarus, Cathy J.; Chauvin, Sheila W.; Rodenhauser, Paul; Whitlock, Robin
Describes the Program for Professional Values and Ethics in Medical Education (PPVEME) at Tulane University School of Medicine. It brings together students, residents, and faculty into learning teams that teach the other teams about one of five themes: integrity, communication, teamwork, leadership, and service. It emphasizes learner-driven self…
Full Text Available This paper describes an implementation of an Electronic Medical Record (EMR which has been adapted for the purposes of teaching health professional students, including medical and nursing students. Off-the-shelf EMR software, while suited for physicians in practice settings does not completely satisfy the needs of these students and educators. There are many unique requirements of a teaching EMR compared to one used in a production environment. This paper describes the specific architecture and unique features of an EMR that was employed in the University of British Columbia Medical School teaching program in December, 2007 with 200 participating medical students distributed across three physical sites in the Province of British Columbia.
Full Text Available IMU is one of 17 institutions of higherlearning conducting the Bachelor of Pharmacy coursein Malaysia. The White paper on pharmacy studentprofessionalism by the Task Force of the AmericanPharmaceutical Association Academy of Students ofPharmacy together with the American Association ofColleges of Pharmacy Council of Deans mentioned10 essential traits of a professional, recommendingtheir early development. Since the beginning of theIMU Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm (Hons coursein July 2004 on Registration Day, IMU has adopted theconcept of developing professionalism in the pharmacystudent from the very first day of university, by havingthe White Coat Ceremony where the entire class takesthe Pledge of Professionalism (adapted from the TaskForce against the “Code of Conduct for Pharmacistsand Bodies Corporate” by the Pharmacy Board ofMalaysia in the presence of the Senior Director of thePharmaceutical Services Division of the Ministry ofHealth, Malaysia and the President of the MalaysianPharmaceutical Society (MPS. Throughout their4 years in IMU, the pharmacy students are exposed tovarious aspects of professionalism in different subjectsin their curriculum. On 23rd April 2012, when thefifth cohort of BPharm students received their finalexamination results, “Pharmacy Professional Day” waslaunched. The graduating students took the Oath of aPharmacist (adapted from the American Association ofColleges of Pharmacy’s Oath with slight amendment.Talks by alumni and speakers from MPS aimed tofacilitate the transition of the new graduate to workinglife as a pharmacist.
Glenn, Jason E
This article examines the difficulties encountered in teaching professionalism to medical students in the current social and political climate where economic considerations take top priority in health care decision making. The conflict between the commitment to advocate at all times the interests of one's patients over one's own interests is discussed. With personal, institutional, tech industry, pharmaceutical industry, and third-party payer financial imperatives that stand between patients and the delivery of health care, this article investigates how medical ethics instructors are to teach professionalism in a responsible way that does not avoid dealing with the principle of justice. PMID:23114981
Gorrindo, Tristan; Groves, James E
The AMA's social media guidelines provide physicians with some basic rules for maintaining professional boundaries when engaging in online activities. Left unanswered are questions about how these guidelines are to be implemented by physicians of different generations. By examining the issues of privacy and technological skill through the eyes of digital natives and digital immigrants, the challenges associated with medical e-professionalism become clear. PMID:21837890
Nishigori, Hiroshi; Harrison, Rebecca; Busari, Jamiu; Dornan, Tim
Medical professionalism has become a core topic in medical education. As it has been considered mostly from a Western perspective, there is a need to examine how the same or similar concepts are reflected in a wider range of cultural contexts. To gain insights into medical professionalism concepts in Japanese culture, the authors compare the tenets of a frequently referenced Western guide to professionalism (the physician charter proposed by the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation, American College of Physicians Foundation, and the European Federation of Internal Medicine) with the concepts of Bushido, a Japanese code of personal conduct originating from the ancient samurai warriors. The authors also present survey evidence about how a group of present-day Japanese doctors view the values of Bushido.Cultural scholars have demonstrated Bushido's continuing influence on Japanese people today. The authors explain the seven main virtues of Bushido (e.g., rectitude), describe the similarities and differences between Bushido and the physician charter, and speculate on factors that may account for the differences, including the influence of religion, how much the group versus the individual is emphasized in a culture, and what emphasis is given to virtue-based versus duty-based ethics.The authors suggest that for those who are teaching and practicing in Japan today, Bushido's virtues are applicable when considering medical professionalism and merit further study. They urge that there be a richer discussion, from the viewpoints of different cultures, on the meaning of professionalism in today's health care practice. PMID:24556758
Areeba Saif; Syed Askari Hasan; Tahrim Farrukh; Najla Khan; Hira Batool; Tooba Baqai
Background: The choice of a medical specialty by a medical student is a complex process in which several factors play a contributory role, making the decision process an evolving one as the medical student undergoes different experiences in his/her professional journey. In our study, we attempted to identify factors that play a significant role in influencing medical students towards choosing a specialty and also to delineate the differences that exist amongst students’ priorities based on ...
Muñoz, Diana C; Ortiz, Alexandra; González, Carolina; López, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd
Current e-learning systems are still inadequate to support the level of interaction, personalization and engagement demanded by clinicians, care givers, and the patient themselves. For effective e-learning to be delivered in the health context, collaboration between pedagogy and technology is required. Furthermore, e-learning systems should be flexible enough to be adapted to the students' needs, evaluated regularly, easy to use and maintain and provide students' feedback, guidelines and supporting material in different formats. This paper presents the implementation of an Intelligent Tutoring System (SIAS-ITS), and its evaluation compared to a traditional virtual learning platform (Moodle). The evaluation was carried out as a case study, in which the participants were separated in two groups, each group attending a virtual course on the WHO Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy supported by one of the two e-learning platforms. The evaluation demonstrated that the participants' knowledge level, pedagogical strategies used, learning efficiency and systems' usability were improved using the Intelligent Tutoring System. PMID:20543344
The importance of incorporating medical (or health)informatics into the education of medical students andmedical practitioners is being increasingly recognised.The advances in information and communicationtechnology and the pervasion of the Internet intoeveryday life have important implications forhealthcare services and medical education.Students and practitioners should learn to utilisebiomedical information for problem solving anddecision making based on evidence. The extensiveintroduction...
Backovi? Dušan V.
Full Text Available Introduction. Medical studies bring many stressful activities to students. Prolonged stress can make adverse effects to mental health and lead to further professional burnout. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the association of stress impact and adverse effects of medical studies with psychological distress among medical students. Methods. The cross sectional study was conducted on 367 fourthyear medical students of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade, by means of the anonymous questionnaire, containing: sociodemographic data, selfreported health status and stressful influences of studying activities. Mental health status was estimated by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12. Results. More than 50% of students perceive frequent feeling of psychic tension, and one third has problems with insomnia. Nearly onehalf of students assessed their general stress level as moderate or high. Exams were estimated as high stressor in 63.1% of all students. Stressful effects of communication with teaching staff were reported by one quarter of the examinees. The scores of GHQ12 were above the threshold in 55.6 % of all students. Mental health problems among students were most significantly associated with stressful experience during exams and contacts with teaching staff. Conclusion. Academic stress makes great influence on mental health of medical students. Reduction of stress effects should be directed to optimization of the examination process and improvement of communication skills. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175078
D, Nel; R J, Burman; R, Hoffman; S, Randera-Rees.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The workforce of 'physician-scientists' is ageing and decreasing in numbers. The responsibility to combat this trend rests on future generations of healthcare professionals and it is therefore valuable to evaluate medical students' attitudes towards research. OBJECTIVE: To establish the [...] attitudes of University of Cape Town (UCT) medical students towards research and to investigate the factors influencing these attitudes. METHODS: An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire was administered to medical students from years 1 to 6 studying medicine at UCT in 2011. Questions were primarily closed-ended and consisted of Likert scales. RESULTS: Out of a population of 1 195 medical students, 733 were sampled (63%); 65% were female, 53% were preclinical students (years 1 - 3) and 47% were in their clinical years (year 4 - 6). Overall, 61% of students had a positive attitude towards research and 74% felt that participation in research was important to their medical school education; 22% had been involved in voluntarily extracurricular research, 4% had presented at a scientific meeting and 3% had published in peer-reviewed journals. A number of perceived barriers to student research were identified including a lack of adequate training, time and research opportunities. CONCLUSION: Students believed that research was important and had a positive attitude towards it. However, few had been involved in voluntary research and produced work worthy of presentation and/or publication. Addressing identified barriers and improving students' attitudes may begin to reverse the trend in declining numbers of physician-scientists.
Flaherty, Anne Guerin
This study investigates the relationship between student engagement (as measured by the National Survey of Student Engagement benchmarks) and pharmacy student professionalism (as measured by the Pharmacy Professionalism Domain instrument) in first and third year pharmacy students at seven different schools of pharmacy. Engagement provides the…
Munsch, Patty; Cortez, Lori
The purpose of this chapter is to explore the integration of the ACPA/NASPA Professional Competency Areas for Student Affairs Practitioners (ACPA/NASPA, 2010) on community college campuses. The competencies provide specific skill sets for a broad range of student affairs practice areas that should be met by professionals throughout their careers.…
Conceptions of professionalism in medicine draw on social contract theory; its strengths and weaknesses play out in how we reason about professionalism. The social contract metaphor may be a heuristic device prompting reflection on social responsibility, and as such is appealing: it encourages reasoning about privilege and responsibility, the broader context and consequences of action, and diverse perspectives on medical practice. However, when this metaphor is elevated to the status of a theory, it has well-known limits: the assumed subject position of contractors engenders blind spots about privilege, not critical reflection; its tendency to dress up the status quo in the trappings of a theoretical agreement may limit social negotiation; its attempted reconciliation of social obligation and self-interest fosters the view that ethics and self-interest should coincide; it sets up false expectations by identifying appearance and reality in morality; and its construal of prima facie duties as conditional misdirects ethical attention in particular situations from current needs to supposed past agreements or reciprocities. Using philosophical ideas as heuristic devices in medical ethics is inevitable, but we should be conscious of their limitations. When they limit the ethical scope of debate, we should seek new metaphors. PMID:22019534
Brigley, S.; Young, Y.; Littlejohns, P; McEwen, J.
The Royal Colleges and their Faculties have moved continuing professional development up the agenda of doctors in the UK. The low educational value and failure to change professional practice of much continuing medical education has led to criticism of its emphasis on formal, didactic teaching and academic knowledge. The ubiquitous scientific or technical bias in medical education makes questionable assumptions about the nature of professional knowledge, how professionals learn, and the linka...
Stewart, S M; Betson, C; Marshall, I; Wong, C M; Lee, P W; Lam, T H
One hundred and forty Hong Kong Chinese students were surveyed early in the second year of their medical education (year 2), and compared with 138 students surveyed prior to beginning their first year of medical school and with 74 non-medical university students in their second year. In year 2 students, distress as reflected in their scores on anxiety and depression self-report scales was high, and these students reported greater utilization of health professional services as compared with the other two groups. In year 2 students, concerns related to the medical school environment and curriculum, and whether one has the endurance and ability to be successful were significant correlates with depression and anxiety. Loss of opportunity to maintain social and recreational sources of gratification correlated with anxiety. There was no difference between the sexes with regard to the development of anxiety and depression symptoms. Academically less successful students reported somewhat higher levels of depressive ideation and symptomatology. Trait anxiety correlated with the development of distress, while optimism protected against the development of distress. Active coping styles and positive reinterpretation as a coping strategy correlated negatively with distress, while wishful thinking correlated positively with distress. These findings emphasize the need for greater attention to the psychological well-being of doctors-in-training, in Hong Kong as in the Western world. These findings should be further explored in longitudinal studies, and may be helpful in designing intervention and support programmes for vulnerable students. PMID:7623698
Santen, Sally A.; Petrusa, Emil; Gruppen, Larry D.
Studies have found unprofessional behavior in medical school was associated with disciplinary action by state medical boards. For medical schools, promotions committees are responsible for identifying which students do not demonstrate academic performance and professional behavior acceptable for promotion and graduation. The objective of this…
McLachlan John C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring professionalism in undergraduate medical students is a difficult process, and no one method has currently emerged as the definitive means of assessment in this field. Student skills in reflection have been shown to be highly important in the development of professional behaviours. By studying student reflections on lapses in professional judgement, recorded as 'critical incidents', it is possible to explore themes which are significant for the development of professional behaviour in an undergraduate setting. Methods We examined critical incident reporting combined with optional written student reflection as a method for exploring professionalism in undergraduate medical students. 228 students split between Year 1 and 2 of one academic year of undergraduate medicine were studied retrospectively and a grounded theory approach to analysis was employed. Results This year generated 16 critical incident reports and corresponding student reflections, all of which were considered. In addition to identifying the nature of the critical incidents, 3 principal themes emerged. These were the impact and consequences of the report having been made, student reactions to the events (both positive and negative, and student responses regarding future actions. Conclusion This study indicates that unprofessional behaviour can be identified and challenged by both the faculty and the students involved, and suggests that positive behavioural changes might be made with the aim of preventing future occurrences. We provide a low cost approach of measuring and recording professional behaviour.
Woods, Kendra V; Peek, Kathryn E; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca
Many students in bioengineering and medical physics doctoral programs plan careers in translational research. However, while such students generally have strong quantitative abilities, they often lack experience with the culture, communication norms, and practice of bedside medicine. This may limit students' ability to function as members of multidisciplinary translational research teams. To improve students' preparation for careers in cancer translational research, we developed and implemented a mentoring program that is integrated with students' doctoral studies and aims to promote competencies in communication, biomedical ethics, teamwork, altruism, multiculturalism, and accountability. Throughout the program, patient-centered approaches and professional competencies are presented as foundational to optimal clinical care and integral to translational research. Mentoring is conducted by senior biomedical faculty and administrators and includes didactic teaching, online learning, laboratory mini-courses, clinical practicums, and multidisciplinary patient planning conferences (year 1); student development and facilitation of problem-based patient cases (year 2); and individualized mentoring based on research problems and progress toward degree completion (years 3-5). Each phase includes formative and summative evaluations. Nineteen students entered the program from 2009 through 2011. On periodic anonymous surveys, the most recent in September 2013, students indicated that the program substantially improved their knowledge of cancer biology, cancer medicine, and academic medicine; that the mentors were knowledgeable, good teachers, and dedicated to students; and that the program motivated them to become well-rounded scientists and scholars. We believe this program can be modified and disseminated to other graduate research and professional health care programs. PMID:24585385
Nancy María Rodríguez Beltrán
Full Text Available La educación médica y la medicina son prácticas sociales cuyos fines y medios tienen que definirse históricamente, considerando las necesidades de cada país al respecto y la reorientación didáctica que exige su desarrollo científico para que puedan determinarse, con precisión, los conocimientos requeridos para afrontar situaciones sanitarias epidemiológica y socialmente prioritarias. En este artículo se analizan algunas de las consecuencias generales relacionadas con el empleo de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones, particularmente en la educación superior, y cómo devienen retos que deben asumir las universidades, específicamente de ciencias médicas, en la formación de sus profesionales.Medical education and medical career are social practices whose aims and resources have to be historically defined, considering the needs of each country on this respect and the didactic reorientation that demands their scientific development so that the knowledge required to face epidemiologically and socially high-priority health situations can be accurately determined. Some of the general consequences related to the use of the information and communications technologies are analyzed in this work, particularly in the higher education, and how they become challenges that should be assumed by the universities, specifically of medical sciences, in the training of their professionals.
Nancy María, Rodríguez Beltrán; María Elena, Pardo Gómez; José Manuel, Izquierdo Lao.
Full Text Available La educación médica y la medicina son prácticas sociales cuyos fines y medios tienen que definirse históricamente, considerando las necesidades de cada país al respecto y la reorientación didáctica que exige su desarrollo científico para que puedan determinarse, con precisión, los conocimientos requ [...] eridos para afrontar situaciones sanitarias epidemiológica y socialmente prioritarias. En este artículo se analizan algunas de las consecuencias generales relacionadas con el empleo de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones, particularmente en la educación superior, y cómo devienen retos que deben asumir las universidades, específicamente de ciencias médicas, en la formación de sus profesionales. Abstract in english Medical education and medical career are social practices whose aims and resources have to be historically defined, considering the needs of each country on this respect and the didactic reorientation that demands their scientific development so that the knowledge required to face epidemiologically [...] and socially high-priority health situations can be accurately determined. Some of the general consequences related to the use of the information and communications technologies are analyzed in this work, particularly in the higher education, and how they become challenges that should be assumed by the universities, specifically of medical sciences, in the training of their professionals.
Mueller, Paul S.
Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement), good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.). Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.). Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual’s career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a “professionalism portfolio,” the totality of which represents a picture of the individual’s professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts. PMID:25973263
Mueller, Paul S
Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement), good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.). Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.). Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual's career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a "professionalism portfolio," the totality of which represents a picture of the individual's professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts. PMID:25973263
Beardsley, Katherine Pedro; And Others
Investigated achieving styles of student affairs professionals and students involved in student activities using the Lipman, Blumen, Leavitt, and Associates Achieving Styles Inventory. Found means to vary by role and by gender. Reviews the theoretical development of the achieving styles model and offers profiles of students and of student affairs…
Spanish adaptation of The Penn State College of Medicine Scale to assess professionalism in medical students / Adaptación al idioma español de la escala del Penn State College of Medicine para medición del profesionalismo en estudiantes de medicina
Eliseo, Bustamante; Álvaro, Sanabria.
Full Text Available Introducción. El profesionalismo es un área de interés en las facultades de medicina del mundo. El uso de un cuestionario puede ser útil para evaluar el profesionalismo en Colombia. Objetivo. Adaptar la escala de profesionalismo para estudiantes de medicina del Penn State University College of Medic [...] ine al idioma español como instrumento válido para evaluarlo. Materiales y métodos. Se siguieron las guías para adaptación de instrumentos del proyecto IQOLA, realizando traducción y traducción inversa, así como una prueba piloto y una evaluación de las características psicométricas en 250 estudiantes. Se evaluó la correlación entre ítems y escala y la validez interna con el alfa de Chronbach y se hizo un análisis factorial de componentes principales. Resultados. El alfa de Cronbach global fue de 0,86, la medida de Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin fue de 0,83 y el test de esfericidad de Bartlett tuvo un valor de p>0,00001. Se encontraron seis factores que explicaron 93 % de la varianza total y cuatro nuevos factores que emergieron del análisis factorial. Ocho ítems tuvieron alta singularidad. Conclusión. La escala del Penn State University College of Medicine mide con buen nivel de confiabilidad las actitudes hacia el profesionalismo en los estudiantes de medicina. No obstante, la estructura de la escala mostró diferencias al ser validada en estudiantes latinoamericanos. Abstract in english Introduction: Professionalism is a subject of interest in medical schools around the world. The use of a questionnaire could be useful to assess professionalism in Colombia. Objective: To adapt The Penn State University College of Medicine Professionalism Questionnaire as a culturally valid instrume [...] nt in the Spanish language. Materials and methods: We followed recommendations from the IQOLA project and used forward and back translation with four independent translations, as well as a pilot evaluation and an evaluation of psychometric features with 250 students. We evaluated item-scale correlations and internal consistency with Chronbach´s alpha test and conducted a principal components factor analysis. Results: Global Cronbach´s alpha was 0.86, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was 0.83, and Bartlett´s test of sphericity had a p >0.00001. We found six factors that explained 93% of the total variance and four new factors emerged in the factor analysis, while eight items had high uniqueness. Conclusion: The Penn State University College of Medicine Scale measures professionalism attitudes in medical students with good reliability. However, the structure of the scale demonstrated differences when used in the Latin American medical student population.
Discussion and analysis of effects of educational debt for professional school students includes four tables based on the National Student Loan Survey showing: (1) income and debt levels by graduate field of study; (2) graduate students in law and medicine (debts and income); (3) fields of graduate study with high payment-to-income ratios; and (4)…
Mentorship has been used in undergraduate medical education to support students ? learning and development. The medical education literature describes various goals for mentoring, various designs of mentoring programs, and various roles and functions of the mentor. The aim of the thesis was to deepen the understanding of the meaning of mentoring for medical students ? professional and personal development and to contribute new knowledge that will be useful when designing mentoring programs fo...
Rakesh Chandra Chaurasia
always a burden. The professional exams of universities are the matter of their norms and regulation, but we have day-to-day assessment through-out duration; this is enough to moralize them and prepare before final professional examination. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 412-412
Objective: The author proposes courses of action for medical schools to increase positive health promotion among medical students. Method: This article will review the current literature on medical student health care. Strategies of action for medical schools are proposed for increasing student wellness. Results: Medical schools can positively…
Bleakley, Alan; Bligh, John
Medical students must be prepared for working in inter-professional and multi-disciplinary clinical teams centred on a patient's care pathway. While there has been a good deal of rhetoric surrounding patient-centred medical education, there has been little attempt to conceptualise such a practice beyond the level of describing education of…
Ahmadi, Jamshid; Galal Ahmed, Mohammed; Ali Bayoumi, Fatehia; Abdul Moneenum, Abeer; Alshawa, Haya
Objective: Considering the association between medical school dropout and psychiatric distress, we aimed to assess the prevalence of psychiatric distress among medical students at Dubai Medical College.
The rapidly changing nature of Europe and of education and culture that includes conditions for student teacher professional development is generated by the democracy transition from opportunity to choose towards qualities and purposes in the context of cultural and educational globalization. Conditions of contribution applied to enhance student…
Professional teacher’s ethics is a collection of moral codes of their professional work. It is significant that the teaching profession respects certain designated professional-ethical codes of conduct between the teachers and the students, with their colleagues and other people they professionally cooperate with. This study is focused on analysis of the professional ethical relation of teachers towards students, seen from student’s point of view. These are the results of student?...
Full Text Available The importance of incorporating medical (or healthinformatics into the education of medical students andmedical practitioners is being increasingly recognised.The advances in information and communicationtechnology and the pervasion of the Internet intoeveryday life have important implications forhealthcare services and medical education.Students and practitioners should learn to utilisebiomedical information for problem solving anddecision making based on evidence. The extensiveintroduction of electronic health information systemsinto hospitals and clinics and at the enterprise level inMalaysia and elsewhere is driving a demand for healthprofessionals who have at least basic skills in andappreciation of the use of these technologies.The essential clinical informatics skills have beenidentified and should be incorporated into theundergraduate medical curriculum. It is recommendedthat these be introduced in stages and integrated intoexisting programmes rather than taught as a separatemodule. At the same time, medical schools shouldsupport the integration of e-learning in the educationalprocess in view of the numerous potential benefits.
Community mental health services are evolving toward more holistic, patient-centered, recovery-based practices. This change necessitates an attitudinal shift from mental health workers, and training in recovery principles is helpful in achieving this change. Medical students often have narrow, doctor-centered concepts of mental health care. Traditional clinical placements in psychiatry do little to address this. We evaluated a recovery-focused teaching program for medical students in psychiatry.
Srinivasa, D K; Soudarssanane, M B; Roy, G; Ramalingam, G; Narayan, K A; Rotti, S B; Danabalan, M; Sahai, A
This article outlines the features of community postings for medical students in their second clinical year at the Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, in Pondicherry, India. Their exposure to the realities of preventive and social medicine in the field clearly helps them to cope with what would otherwise be only theoretical knowledge. PMID:8185770
The Differential Impact of Various Assessment Parameters on the Medical Students Performance in the Professional Anatomy Examination in a New Medical School El Impacto Diferencial de Varios Parámetros de Evaluación del Desempeño de Estudiantes de Medicina en el Examen Profesional de Anatomía en una Nueva Escuela de Medicina
Shittu, L. A. J.; Zachariah, M. P.; Izegbu, M. C.; Adesanya, O. A.; Ashiru, O. A.
There is a dearth of knowledge on the level of agreement between all the various assessment tasks on the same content area, in order to test this hypothesis we adopted the concept of convergent validity and also to isolate area of academic weakness among the students and to readjust the curriculum content to balance the weakness. A blinded cohort retrospective study was carried out on a total of sixty-six third year medical students who had sat for their first professional examination in anat...
Full Text Available Introduction: Medical education is one of the core part of educational system of any country. Medical education requires undergraduate students to study a wide range of medical specialties. It is often assumed that students do not make their career preferences until after they have graduated from medical school. So the reasons and factors responsible for preferences need to be found out among medical students. Material and Methods: It was a Cross sectional study on 180 medical students to assess preference for specialty and factors responsible. Results: Out of total 190 medical students more or less everyone (97.89% wanted to pursue specialization and majority of them (96.84% wanted to pursue the same in Medical Field(p>0.05. majority of male students were interested to pursue their specialization in the field of medicine (37.63%, surgery (23.65% and pediatrics (13.97%. On the other hand female students were more interested in medicine (24.17%, pediatrics (32.96% and obstetrics & gynecology (24.17%(p<0.05. Interest, by far was found to be most common factor (76.63% responsible for the preference of particular medical specialty among all four groups of students (1st professional-25.27%, 2nd professional-75.92%, final professional-89.47%, interns-68.42%.Conclusion: It is thus concluded there are many factors playing role in the specialty selection and preference among the medical students and should be equally justified and addressed.
Lee, Jenny J.; Helm, Matthew
This study explores student affairs capitalism as the alteration of professional practice towards the financial interests of institutions. Student affairs capitalism has the potential to create dynamics in which the interests of students become secondary to the institution's economic needs. This study examined this phenomenon from the…
Chilton, Lance A.
A program at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine that involves medical students in a school health program is described. Students showed a perception of two major problems facing school nurses: inability to obtain communication with physicians, and limits imposed by community practice and school policy on nurses. (MLW)
Full Text Available Prior studies indicate that people’s perception have an important influence on their career decisions. This study explores the accounting students’ perceptions on professional examination and the factors that influence their decisions to take the exam. Questionnaires were distributed to final year accounting students of a public university in Malaysia. About 103 questionnaires were completed and usable for the purpose of the study. Regression analysis was employed to analyse the data. The results indicate that about 70% of the respondents plan to work immediately after graduating, and only about 28% of the respondents really have the intention to pursue professional qualification. Among others, the findings reveal that the job security and stability, and opportunities for advancement as well as the students’ perception towards the profession are the three main variables found to be significant in influencing the accounting students’ decision to pursue professional examination. The results of the study appear to suggest that the educators and universities must play their role to positively influence and motivate the students to pursue professional examination. The favourable information about the profession may attract the potential students to take the challenge.
The aim of this paper is twofold. First, to revise some European Communities' recommendations regarding qualification, education and training of professionals involved in ionisation radiation practices, to respond to the Directive 97/43 EURATOM. And then, as Medical Physicists are directly concerned with these practices, to describe how the Spanish Society of Medical Physics deals with the challenge of improving the competence of Medical Physicists in order to assure the best patient protection against ionisation radiation. Therefore, to achieve the first aim, the point of view of the European Federation of Organisations on Medical Physics (EFOMP) concerning the introduction of the 'Medical Physics Expert' and their guidelines for Continuous Professional Development are reviewed, as well as the point of view of European Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ESTRO) in professional education matters. Referring to the second aim, after succeeding in the recognition of the Medical Physics Speciality in Spain in 1997, the SEFM is now promoting the Continuous Education and Training of their specialists through its Education Committee (Comision de Docencia de la SEFM), so that they can cope with all new professional challenges. Moreover, a number of SEFM members are also involved in education matters to others professionals: Medicine students, nurses, Radiation Technologists, etc. In conclusion, the SEFM has always been aware of the importance of specialisation and continuous education of all professionals involved in radiation ionisation practices, as a way to contribute to guarantee the best radiation protection to the patients. (author)
Acciones metodológicas para incentivar el uso del inglés en estudiantes y profesionales de ciencias médicas / Methodological actions to incentivate the use of the English language in medical sciences students and professionals
Adela, Quesada Lima; Elizabeth, Finalet Marrero; Uvaldo, Recino Pineda; Yagima, Fleites García.
Full Text Available Fundamento: la enseñanza del inglés ha enfatizado en la importancia de conocer este idioma desde diferentes perspectivas; su dominio es requisito indispensable para el éxito en diversos ámbitos profesionales y académicos. Objetivo: elaborar acciones metodológicas para incentivar el uso del idioma in [...] glés en estudiantes y profesionales de las ciencias médicas. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en la Filial Universitaria "Lidia Doce Sánchez" de Sagua la Grande, Villa Clara, en el curso escolar 2012-2013. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos: análisis-síntesis, inductivo-deductivo; empíricos: análisis documental y encuesta en forma de cuestionario a estudiantes y de entrevista a los profesionales y el criterio de especialistas para la valoración de la propuesta. Resultados: los instrumentos aplicados demostraron insuficiencias en el tratamiento metodológico y carencias de conocimientos del idioma en los profesores de las asignaturas participantes para lograr la adecuada implementación de la estrategia curricular de inglés en cada carrera, y la innegable afirmación de que este idioma constituye una necesidad en los profesionales de las ciencias médicas del territorio. Se elaboraron acciones metodológicas. Conclusión: las acciones metodológicas fueron valoradas por especialistas como pertinentes, son factibles de aplicar por la disponibilidad de recursos humanos y materiales para llevarlas a vías de hecho y tienen calidad científico pedagógica para su implementación. Abstract in english Background: the teaching of English has emphasized the importance of knowing this language from different perspectives; its command is an indispensable requirement for the success in diverse professional and academic environments. Objective: to elaborate methodological actions to motivate the use of [...] the English language in the medical sciences students and professionals. Methods: it was carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study in "Lidia Doce Sánchez University site from" Sagua la Grande, Villa Clara, in the academic year 2012-2013. Theoretical methods were used: analysis-synthesis, inductive-deductive; empiric ones: documental analysis and an interview in questionnaire form was applied to the students and the professionals were also interviewed and the specialists´ criteria for the valuation of the proposal. Results: the applied instruments demonstrated inadequacies in the methodological treatment and lack of knowledge of the language in the participant professors of the subjects, to achieve the appropriate implementation of the English language curricular strategy in each career, and the undeniable statement that this language constitutes a necessity for the medical sciences professionals of the territory. Methodological actions were elaborated. Conclusion: the methodological actions were valued by specialists as pertinent, they are feasible to be applied for the availability of human resources and materials to put them into practice and they have pedagogic and scientific quality for their implementation.
Chaytor Andrew T; Spence Jacqueline; Armstrong Ann; McLachlan John C
Abstract Background Professionalism in medical students is not only difficult to define but difficult to teach and measure. As negative behaviour in medical students is associated with post-graduate disciplinary action it would be useful to have a model whereby unprofessional behaviour at the undergraduate level can easily be identified to permit appropriate intervention. We have previously developed a scalar measure of conscientiousness, the Conscientiousness Index (CI), which positively cor...
Bansal, Aarti; Swann, Jennifer; Smithson, William Henry
The ability to work with interpreters is a core skill for UK medical graduates. At the University of Sheffield Medical School, this teaching was identified as a gap in the curriculum. Teaching was developed to use professional interpreters in role-play, based on evidence that professional interpreters improve health outcomes for patients with limited English proficiency. Other principles guiding the development of the teaching were an experiential learning format, integration to the core cons...
Holden, Mark D; Buck, Era; Luk, John; Ambriz, Frank; Boisaubin, Eugene V; Clark, Mark A; Mihalic, Angela P; Sadler, John Z; Sapire, Kenneth J; Spike, Jeffrey P; Vince, Alan; Dalrymple, John L
The University of Texas System established the Transformation in Medical Education (TIME) initiative to reconfigure and shorten medical education from college matriculation through medical school graduation. One of the key changes proposed as part of the TIME initiative was to begin emphasizing professional identity formation (PIF) at the premedical level. The TIME Steering Committee appointed an interdisciplinary task force to explore the fundamentals of PIF and to formulate strategies that would help students develop their professional identity as they transform into physicians. In this article, the authors describe the task force's process for defining PIF and developing a framework, which includes 10 key aspects, 6 domains, and 30 subdomains to characterize the complexity of physician identity. The task force mapped this framework onto three developmental phases of medical education typified by the undergraduate student, the clerkship-level medical student, and the graduating medical student. The task force provided strategies for the promotion and assessment of PIF for each subdomain at each of the three phases, in addition to references and resources. Assessments were suggested for student feedback, curriculum evaluation, and theoretical development. The authors emphasize the importance of longitudinal, formative assessment using a combination of existing assessment methods. Though not unique to the medical profession, PIF is critical to the practice of exemplary medicine and the well-being of patients and physicians. PMID:25853688
Mazlina Mustapha; Mohammad Hasmawi Abu Hassan
Prior studies indicate that people’s perception have an important influence on their career decisions. This study explores the accounting students’ perceptions on professional examination and the factors that influence their decisions to take the exam. Questionnaires were distributed to final year accounting students of a public university in Malaysia. About 103 questionnaires were completed and usable for the purpose of the study. Regression analysis was employed to analyse the data. T...
Register, Shilpa J.
Society has high expectations of health care practitioners leaving the burden of proof on healthcare educational institutions. As educators, it is our responsibility to ensure that students acquire the cognitive and affective domains associated with professionalism through the acquisition of appropriate skills and knowledge leading to the…
Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perc...
Full Text Available BackgroundSelf-medication results in wastage of resources, increases resistance of pathogens and generally causes serious health hazards such as adverse drug reactions, prolonged suffering and drug dependence. This study was undertaken to determine the reasons for self-medication and the pattern of self-medication among medical students.MethodThis cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore. The participants were medical students from first to final year. Medical students were selected through convenience sampling. The data was collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. The data was analysed using SPSS version 16 and the results expressed as proportions.ResultsA total of 200 students, 121 (60.5% female and 79 (39.5% male, were included in the study. Of the medical students surveyed, self-medication was reported among 92%. The respondents who used self-medication found it to be time-saving in providing relief from minor ailments. The most common ailments for which self-medication were used were: the common cold (69%, fever (63% and headache (60%. The students consulted their textbooks (39% and seniors or classmates (38% for the medications. Antipyretics (71%, analgesics (65%, antihistamines (37% and antibiotics (34% were the most common self-medicated drugs. Of the respondents, 33% were unaware of the adverse effects of the medication and 5% had experienced adverse reactions. The majority (64% of students advised medications to others, more often to family and friends.ConclusionThe prevalence of self-medication among medical students is high, facilitated by the easy availability of drugs and information from textbooks or seniors. A significant number of students are unaware of the adverse effects of the medication that they themselves take and suggest to others. Therefore, potential problems of self-medication should be emphasised to the students.
Wolensky, Robert P.
The socialization of sociology graduate students is examined to determine why graduate students often lack professional confidence, promise, and maturity. A review of professional development literature indicates possible problems. The student who lacks professional and occupational objectives, commitment, and works at less than full potential is…
Purpose: Updating professional knowledge is a central tenet of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and professional reading is a common method health practitioners use to update their professional knowledge. This paper reports the level of professional reading by Medical Radiation Science (MRS) practitioners in Australia and examines organisational support for professional reading. Materials and Methods: Survey design was used to collect data from MRS practitioners. A questionnaire was sent to 1142 Australian practitioners, which allowed self-report data to be collected on the length of time practitioners engage in professional reading and the time workplaces allocate to practitioners for professional reading. Results: Of the 362 MRS practitioners who returned the survey, 93.9% engaged in professional reading on a weekly basis. In contrast, only 28.9% of respondents reported that their workplace allocates time for professional reading to practitioners. MRS practitioners employed in universities engaged in higher levels of reading than their colleagues employed in clinical workplaces (p < 0.01) and more university workplaces allocated time for professional reading to their employees than clinical workplaces (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences for clinical practitioners in level of reading across geographic, organisational and professional demographic factors. Significant differences in workplace allocation of time for professional reading in clinicaf time for professional reading in clinical workplaces were evident for health sector (p < 0.01); work environment (p < 0.01); geographic location (p < 0.01) and area of specialisation (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The vast majority of respondent MRS practitioners engage in professional reading to update their professional knowledge. This demonstrates an ongoing commitment at the individual practitioner level for updating professional knowledge. Updating professional knowledge is an organisational as well as an individual practitioner issue. Whilst the majority of organisations do not currently support MRS practitioners with time allocation for professional reading, there were organisations currently providing this form of support to their employees. Wider adoption of protected time for professional reading would provide much needed organisational support to practitioners and reduce the identified inequity that currently exists across the MRS profession.
Delprina de G. Rocha de Carvalho
Full Text Available Introduction: Self medication is a component of self care and it is considered as primary public health resource in health care system. It can be defined as use of non-prescription medicines by people on their own initiative. Dentists, together with doctors and veterinarians, comprise the professional classes that may and must prescribe medications for their patients. On the other hand, the nursing professionals are the ones who more administer drugs to patients in the ambulatory and hospital. Objective: This study was aimed to find out the frequency of self medication in selected university students, to find out the difference in the proportions of self medication between dentistry and nursing students, as well to evaluate the students’ knowledge of harmful effects of self medication and common problems of students that use the self medication. Material and methods: We were applied 209 questionnaires among dentistry students from the 3rd to 8th semesters at the Paulista University/Goiânia and 542 among nursing students from the 3rd to 8th semesters at the Estacio de Sa University of Goiás. Results and conclusion: In the present study was observed a high rate of self-medication among undergraduate students in the health area,particularly among the dentistry and nurse students. The result was alarming because the professional him/herself who should educate patients and dissuade them from this practice is a habitual user; it makes it more difficult to aspire to the future inhibition and reduction of this practice that is so harmful to health.
Shanahan, Madeleine, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [School of Medical Science, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia); Herrington, Anthony [Head, School of Regional, Remote and eLearning (RRE), Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Herrington, Jan [School of Education, Murdoch University, Perth (Australia)
Purpose: Updating professional knowledge is a central tenet of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and professional reading is a common method health practitioners use to update their professional knowledge. This paper reports the level of professional reading by Medical Radiation Science (MRS) practitioners in Australia and examines organisational support for professional reading. Materials and Methods: Survey design was used to collect data from MRS practitioners. A questionnaire was sent to 1142 Australian practitioners, which allowed self-report data to be collected on the length of time practitioners engage in professional reading and the time workplaces allocate to practitioners for professional reading. Results: Of the 362 MRS practitioners who returned the survey, 93.9% engaged in professional reading on a weekly basis. In contrast, only 28.9% of respondents reported that their workplace allocates time for professional reading to practitioners. MRS practitioners employed in universities engaged in higher levels of reading than their colleagues employed in clinical workplaces (p < 0.01) and more university workplaces allocated time for professional reading to their employees than clinical workplaces (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences for clinical practitioners in level of reading across geographic, organisational and professional demographic factors. Significant differences in workplace allocation of time for professional reading in clinical workplaces were evident for health sector (p < 0.01); work environment (p < 0.01); geographic location (p < 0.01) and area of specialisation (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The vast majority of respondent MRS practitioners engage in professional reading to update their professional knowledge. This demonstrates an ongoing commitment at the individual practitioner level for updating professional knowledge. Updating professional knowledge is an organisational as well as an individual practitioner issue. Whilst the majority of organisations do not currently support MRS practitioners with time allocation for professional reading, there were organisations currently providing this form of support to their employees. Wider adoption of protected time for professional reading would provide much needed organisational support to practitioners and reduce the identified inequity that currently exists across the MRS profession.
Behrens, Kevin Gary; Fellingham, Robyn
Many academic philosophers and ethicists are appointed to teach ethics to medical students. We explore exactly what this task entails. In South Africa the Health Professions Council's curriculum for training medical practitioners requires not only that students be taught to apply ethical theory to issues and be made aware of the legal and regulatory requirements of their profession, it also expects moral formation and the inculcation of professional virtue in students. We explore whether such expectations are reasonable. We defend the claim that physicians ought to be persons of virtuous character, on the grounds of the social contract between society and the profession. We further argue that since the expectations of virtue of health care professionals are reasonable, it is also sound reasoning to expect ethics teachers to try to inculcate such virtues in their students, so far as this is possible. Furthermore, this requires of such teachers that they be suitable role models of ethical practice and virtue, themselves. We claim that this applies to ethics teachers who are themselves not members of the medical profession, too, even though they are not bound by the same social contract as doctors. We conclude that those who accept employment as teachers of ethics to medical students, where as part of their contractual obligation they are expected to inculcate moral values in their students, ought to be prepared to accept their responsibility to be professionally ethical, themselves. PMID:23409954
Alghamdi, Khalid M; Moussa, Noura A; Alessa, Dana S; Alothimeen, Nermeen; Al-Saud, Adwa S
We aimed to explore perceptions, attitudes and practices toward research among medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among senior medical students at the King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Hundred and seventy two students participated in the study, with 97 males (65.5%). The majority of the students agreed that research is important in the medical field (97.1%, 167/172). A total of 67.4% (116/172) believed that conducting research should be mandatory for all medical students. During medical school, 55.3% (88/159) participated in research. The obstacles that prevented the students from conducting research included lack of professional supervisors (84.7%, 143/169), lack of training courses (88.8%, 151/170), lack of time (72.3%, 123/172) and lack of funding (54.1%, 92/170). Although the majority of students believe that research is important in the medical field, only around half of the students participated in research during medical school. PMID:24648822
Kan, R. W. M.; Au, K. P.; Chan, W. K.; Cheung, L. W. M.; Lam, C. Y. Y.; Liu, H. H. W.; Ng, L. Y.; Wong, M. Y.; Wong, W. C.
Homosexuality is now accepted as a normal variant of human sexuality, but homophobia among healthcare professionals is well documented. Establishment of trustful doctor-patient relationships is impossible in the presence of homophobia. We were interested to examine the extent of homophobia among medical students, the future doctors. This article…
Medical student selection is an important but difficult task. Three recent papers by McManus et al. in BMC Medicine have re-examined the role of tests of attainment of learning (A’ levels, GCSEs, SQA) and of aptitude (AH5, UKCAT), but on a much larger scale than previously attempted. They conclude that A’ levels are still the best predictor of future success at medical school and beyond. However, A’ levels account for only 65% of the variance in performance that is found. Therefore, mor...
Waghachavare, Vivek B.; Girish B. Dhumale; Kadam, Yugantara R.; Alka D. Gore
Objectives: Various studies across the globe have emphasised that students undertaking professional courses, such as medical and dental studies, are subjected to higher stress. Excessive stress could lead to psychological problems like depression and anxiety. The objective of the current study was to assess stress among students of various professional colleges and its association with various academic, social and health-related factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from ...
Njoku, C. O.; Ewunonu, E. O.; Eteudo, A. N.; Ugwu, A. C.; Egwu, O. A.
The emotional and sociocognitive aspects of human dissection are important aspects of professionalism in medical training and so should be critically evaluated in the present day changing society. Medical students of Ebonyi State University, Nigeria completed 390 questionnaires. The questionnaires included questions seeking demographic information; open-ended questions on their first experience of dissection and suggestions on improvements in training. The Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Burnout is caused by high-stress jobs and could induce somatic, psychological disorders and negative attitude to professional actives so that this condition causes poor relationship with the patient. This study aimed at investigating burnout in senior medical students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences.Methods: This research was a cross sectional study carried out on all senior medical students (N=56 in 2008. Data were obtained by two questionnaires including demographic questionnaire and Maslach burnout Inventory. They were then analyzed using SPSS software and Chi square Test. Results: The findings showed that the majority of medical students (91.1% had burnout and only 8.9% of them had not burnout. Severe burnout was in 16% of students. There was not any significant relationship between burnout and sex, age, smoking, duration of education, interest in medical course and marital status P<0.05.Conclusion: The results of the study showed that burnout is common problem in senior medical students and need special consideration. Therefore medical students should be encouraged to seek help and adequate facilities by holding workshops of life-skill training and coping with stress. However, burnout should be paid special attention in medical students by counseling centers of University for prevention of consequences.
Sarikaya, Ozlem; Civaner, Murat; Vatansever, Kevser
It is known that interaction between pharmaceutical companies and medical professionals may lead to corruption of professional values, irrational use of medicine, and negative effects on the patient-physician relationship. Medical students frequently interact with pharmaceutical company representatives and increasingly accept their gifts.…
Planeación estratégica para el fortalecimiento de la ética profesional de Enfermería en la filial Nuevitas / Strategic plan for strengthening professional ethics of nursing students from the affiliate medical school of Nuevitas
Niurkis, Milanés Céspedes; Alberto, Bujardón Mendoza; Odelaisy, Tamarit Castillo; Vilda Magalys, Valdés Cervantes.
Full Text Available Se comprobó que existe una deficiente aplicación y sistematización de los valores éticos profesionales en docentes y estudiantes de licenciatura en enfermería de la Filial de Ciencias Médicas de Nuevitas, por lo que se realizó un estudio descriptivo, cualitativo, fundamentado en la metodología de la [...] investigación-acción, con el objetivo de diseñar una propuesta de planeación estratégica que contribuya al fortalecimiento de los mismos. El universo de la investigación abarcó a todos los sujetos involucrados en el proceso de formación de esta especialidad, escogiendo como muestra al 100% de los estudiantes del nuevo modelo formativo y al 100% de los docentes categorizados. El estudio se realiza de forma retrospectiva y con un corte transversal, pues se enmarca en el período de los cursos 2008-2009. A través de encuestas, la observación a las evaluaciones realizadas en la educación en el trabajo, las entrevistas, y el análisis se pudo valorar la efectividad de la propuesta, que permitirá perfeccionar el fortalecimiento de valores éticos profesionales en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje, mediante acciones concretas diseñadas a partir de las debilidades y amenazas encontradas en el diagnóstico estratégico, lo que reforzará la labor educativa y la calidad de la atención de enfermería. Se concluye que el nivel de preparación del claustro de profesores y de los estudiantes de enfermería aún resulta insuficiente. Por lo tanto, es necesaria la actualización de este tema desde posiciones humanistas. Abstract in english During the academic year 2008-2009, a descriptive, qualitative study was carried out to design a strategic plan to contribute to strengthening the professional ethical values of both professors and nursing students from Nuevitas’s affiliate medical school. The universe comprised every subject involv [...] ed in the nursing formation process. The sample included 100 % of new-formative-model students, as well as 100 % of categorized professors. Results showed a deficient preparation of professors and students. The proposal’s effectiveness was assessed through evaluations, interviews, and analysis.
Planeación estratégica para el fortalecimiento de la ética profesional de Enfermería en la filial Nuevitas Strategic plan for strengthening professional ethics of nursing students from the affiliate medical school of Nuevitas
Niurkis Milanés Céspedes
Full Text Available Se comprobó que existe una deficiente aplicación y sistematización de los valores éticos profesionales en docentes y estudiantes de licenciatura en enfermería de la Filial de Ciencias Médicas de Nuevitas, por lo que se realizó un estudio descriptivo, cualitativo, fundamentado en la metodología de la investigación-acción, con el objetivo de diseñar una propuesta de planeación estratégica que contribuya al fortalecimiento de los mismos. El universo de la investigación abarcó a todos los sujetos involucrados en el proceso de formación de esta especialidad, escogiendo como muestra al 100% de los estudiantes del nuevo modelo formativo y al 100% de los docentes categorizados. El estudio se realiza de forma retrospectiva y con un corte transversal, pues se enmarca en el período de los cursos 2008-2009. A través de encuestas, la observación a las evaluaciones realizadas en la educación en el trabajo, las entrevistas, y el análisis se pudo valorar la efectividad de la propuesta, que permitirá perfeccionar el fortalecimiento de valores éticos profesionales en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje, mediante acciones concretas diseñadas a partir de las debilidades y amenazas encontradas en el diagnóstico estratégico, lo que reforzará la labor educativa y la calidad de la atención de enfermería. Se concluye que el nivel de preparación del claustro de profesores y de los estudiantes de enfermería aún resulta insuficiente. Por lo tanto, es necesaria la actualización de este tema desde posiciones humanistas.During the academic year 2008-2009, a descriptive, qualitative study was carried out to design a strategic plan to contribute to strengthening the professional ethical values of both professors and nursing students from Nuevitas’s affiliate medical school. The universe comprised every subject involved in the nursing formation process. The sample included 100 % of new-formative-model students, as well as 100 % of categorized professors. Results showed a deficient preparation of professors and students. The proposal’s effectiveness was assessed through evaluations, interviews, and analysis.
Shmarak, A. D.
"Spanish for Medical Professionals" is an application authored using the IBM InfoWindow Presentation System (IWPS). It consists of a double-sided videodisc featuring four doctor/patient dialogues interrupted by comprehension quizzes, plus a large visual and audio data base for drill and practice of Spanish words and phrases in the following classifications: Medical History, Review of Systems, Anatomy Vocabulary, General Vocabulary and Pronunciation Guide. These five broad headings yield easy ...
Animasaun, Emmanuel Dare
We now live in an era of experts on virtually everything, among which we have professional medical ethicists, who gained prominence in the late 60s due to dramatic advances in medical technology. Before then, medical ethics issues were not thought as separable from the warp and woof of the everyday life. Medical technology’s advancement cascades legions of moral problems in medicine and biomedical research. Series of innovative interventions in medicine raise throngs of ethical questions. I...
Santen, Sally A; Petrusa, Emil; Gruppen, Larry D
Studies have found unprofessional behavior in medical school was associated with disciplinary action by state medical boards. For medical schools, promotions committees are responsible for identifying which students do not demonstrate academic performance and professional behavior acceptable for promotion and graduation. The objective of this study was to determine if student identification by promotions committees during medical school was associated with disciplinary actions by state medical boards later in practice. We reviewed 20 years of promotions committees' records from a single institution and noted students identified by promotions committees for performance or behavioral issues. These were compared with disciplinary action reports from the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) for graduates. Over the two decades, 2,131 students matriculated and 2,078 of these graduated. The promotions committees identified 140 students for poor academic performance or behavioral problems (140/2,078, 6.7 %). Of these, 108 students graduated. FSMB records showed 29 of the 2,078 graduates had sanctions by state boards (29/2,078, 1.4 %). Only four students that had actions by state medical boards were among the 108 graduated students identified by medical school promotions committees (4/108, 3.7 %). Of the students not identified by promotions committees, 25 eventually had disciplinary actions (25/1,970, 1.3 %). The odds of having state medical board action if identified by promotions committees was 3.0 (CI 1.02-8.8, p board actions. However, most graduates with state medical board actions were not identified by medical school promotions committees. PMID:25134665
Catherine Harries; Julia Botha
Evidence suggests that healthcare professionals are not optimally able to calculate medicine doses and various strategies have been employed to improve these skills. In this study, the performance of third and fourth year medical students was assessed and the success of various educational interventions investigated. Students were given four types of dosing calculations typical of those required in an emergency setting. Full competence (at the 100% level) was defined as correctly answering al...
The goal of this paper is to study the collaboration possibilities between Russia and Finland in the field of professional training of highly-skilled medical professionals. With this objective in mind, the contemporary collaboration between Russia and Finland in medicine is being analyzed. As a result, it has been established that this collaboration is rather poorly organized today and is limited to separate internships and visits of Russian doctors to the Finnish hospitals. At the same ...
Margherita, Ferrante; Rosella, Saulle; Caterina, Ledda; Roberto, Pappalardo; Roberto, Fallico; Giuseppe, La Torre; Maria, Fiore.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GH [...] PSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p
Diers, Jane E.
The purpose of this research was to define professional communication in nursing and to develop a prototype to assess and appraise communication at a selected college. The research focused on verbal and nonverbal communication between the nurse and the client using a simulated environment. The first objective was to identify the major characteristics of professional communication in nursing. In this study, the characteristics of professional communication emerged from the constant comparison method of the results of research studies in the fields of healthcare and communication. These characteristics became the elements, representative properties, and descriptive dimensions to assess and appraise verbal and nonverbal communication at the college of study. The second objective was to develop a template to assess verbal and nonverbal communication at a selected college. Using a two-fold process, the researcher used the results from the first objective to begin template construction. First, specialists in the fields of communication and nursing established the content validity of the elements, representative properties, and descriptive dimensions. Second, the course educators determined the relevancy and importance of the elements, properties, and descriptive dimensions to the objectives of two courses at the college of study. The third objective was to develop a rubric to appraise nursing students' verbal and nonverbal communication in a videotaped communication review. An appraisal rubric was constructed from an extension of the template. This rubric was then tested by faculty at the selected college to appraise the communication of five students each in the junior and senior years of the nursing program.
Loewy, Erich H.
The evolution and goals of teaching medical ethics, the nature of medical ethics, and integrating such teaching into the curriculum are examined. Because moral considerations are as much a part of medical decisions as technical considerations, teaching is best done in the context of real cases. (Author/MLW)
The work of court experts, including those of medical profession, is ruled by Regulations on standing court experts. The Regulations determine requirements for performing the job of court expertise, rights and duties of court experts, awards and remuneration for their work. The ethical codex determines relation of experts to performance of expertise, to court and parties, to colleagues court experts and to the community. The expert must obey the rules on performance of the expertise, complete all his duties, protect respectability of all court experts, and justify trust of legal authorities. In relationship with the court, the expert must respond to court summons, give his finding and opinion, and come to hearing summons. PMID:19146190
Mohamad Asghari Jafar Abadi
Full Text Available Background: Regarding the importance of probiotics in prevention of different diseases, the knowledge ofpeople particularly health-related professionals about the beneficial effects and availability of probiotic productsis important. Considering the limited studies, the present study was conducted to assess the knowledge ofmedical sciences students as future provider of health information about probiotics in Tabriz, Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 296 medical sciences students from different facultymajors with mean age of 22 ± 4 years. The students completed two self-administered questionnaires; the onewas about the demographic characteristics and the other one with nine closed questions as for knowledge aswell as probiotics and their health effects and 2 questions related to availability of probiotic products. Scoringof 9 knowledge questions was divided to three sections 0-3, 4-6, 7-9 and classified as poor, acceptable andgood, respectively. The Chi-square test was used to examine the differences in knowledge of the studentsacross different gender, major and degree groups.Results: Six percent of students had poor, 43% acceptable, and 51% good knowledge. Total mean±(SD ofknowledge was 6.25 ±1.6 . Answers of students about the availability of probiotic products were 36.9% low,48.1% moderate, and 15% high. Comparison of knowledge result between different major and degree groupswas statistically significant (P<0.05.Conclusion: Although students had approximately acceptable level of knowledge about probiotics and theirhealth effects, their awareness about common available form of probiotic products was low. The use ofefficient co-educational materials such as teaching new findings for students may be beneficial.
Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Dornan, Tim; Koopmans, Raymond
Dealing with emotions is a critical feature of professional behaviour. There are no comprehensive theoretical models, however, explaining how medical students learn about emotions. We aimed to explore factors affecting their emotions and how they learn to deal with emotions in themselves and others. During a first-year nursing attachment in hospitals and nursing homes, students wrote daily about their most impressive experiences, explicitly reporting what they felt, thought, and did. In a subsequent interview, they discussed those experiences in greater detail. Following a grounded theory approach, we conducted a constant comparative analysis, collecting and then interpreting data, and allowing the interpretation to inform subsequent data collection. Impressive experiences set up tensions, which gave rise to strong emotions. We identified four 'axes' along which tensions were experienced: 'idealism versus reality', 'critical distance versus adaptation', 'involvement versus detachment' and 'feeling versus displaying'. We found many factors, which influenced how respondents relieved those tensions. Their personal attributes and social relationships both inside and outside the medical community were important ones. Respondents' positions along the different dimensions, as determined by the balance between attributes and tensions, shaped their learning outcomes. Medical students' emotional development occurs through active participation in medical practice and having impressive experiences within relationships with patients and others on wards. Tensions along four dimensions give rise to strong emotions. Gaining insight into the many conditions that influence students' learning about emotions might support educators and supervisors in fostering medical students' emotional and professional development. PMID:23949724
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine whether personality is related to medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills and self-ratings on communication skills. Methods: 524 first- and 507 second-year medical students completed the Communications Skills Attitudes Scale and rated their own communication skills. First-year students answered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and second-year students the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses, controlling for gender, were conducted to study the impact of personality on attitudes. Analysis of variance followed by post hoc Duncan test was used to compare differences in personality traits depending on students' self-ratings on communication skills. Results: After controlling for gender, personality traits predicted differences in attitudes and were significantly related to medical students' self-ratings. Medical students with higher scores on psychoticism or aggression-hostility showed worse attitudes. Students who tended to have a better self-image scored higher on extraversion, psychoticism, impulsive-sensation seeking, or aggression-hostility traits. Conclusions: Findings support the consideration of personality traits for better student career guidance and counselling. Some students could have more difficulties to internalize certain healthcare professional competencies and show more resistance to attitude change.
Propuesta de textos para orientar profesionalmente a los estudiantes diferidos del grupo de ciencias médicas / Proposal of texts for the professional orientation of the group of students of the medical sciences who are in the army
Blanca Rosa, Pérez Obregón; Yadamila de la Caridad, García Cedeño.
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, desde septiembre 2011 a mayo del 2012, para diagnosticar los conocimientos sobre orientación profesional y proponer textos para lograrla en los diferidos del grupo de las ciencias médicas. El universo son los 31 estudiantes de la Unidad Militar 3698. Se [...] utilizaron métodos de los niveles teórico: analítico-sintético e inducción-deducción y empíricos: el análisis documental, para revisar los programas y orientaciones metodológicas de las asignaturas del Curso de superación cultural; y encuesta a estudiantes, además se indagó el criterio de especialistas para valorar la calidad y pertinencia de la propuesta. Los resultados están relacionados con el bajo nivel de conocimientos de los alumnos sobre su futura labor, la cual no se intenciona desde las asignaturas. Se proponen 8 textos para ese empeño desde el Programa especial de la asignatura práctica de la lengua española, explicados metodológicamente. Fueron valorados como excelentes con algunas sugerencias ya asumidas en la propuesta. Abstract in english A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out, from September 2011 to May 2012, to diagnose the knowledge about professional orientation and to propose some texts to achieve this purpose in the group of students of the medical sciences who are in the army. The universe comprises 31 students wh [...] o are at the Army base 3698. Different methods were used, from the theoretical level: analytic-synthetic and induction _deduction and from the empirical level: analysis of documents to check the syllabus and methodological guidelines for cultural upgrading; a survey was applied to the students and the specialist´s criterion method was used to value the quality and pertinence of the proposal. The outcomes are related to the low level of knowledge of the students about their future work, which is not worked out through the subjects. Eight texts are proposed to achieve this goal through the special syllabus of the Spanish language, which are methodologically explained. They were valued as excellent with some suggestions that were taken into account in this proposal.
Medical student selection is an important but difficult task. Three recent papers by McManus et al. in BMC Medicine have re-examined the role of tests of attainment of learning (A' levels, GCSEs, SQA) and of aptitude (AH5, UKCAT), but on a much larger scale than previously attempted. They conclude that A' levels are still the best predictor of future success at medical school and beyond. However, A' levels account for only 65% of the variance in performance that is found. Therefore, more work is needed to establish relevant assessment of the other 35%. Please see related research articles http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/242, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/243 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/244. PMID:24229397
Stevens, Cheryl; Schneider, Paige P.; Johnson, Corey W.
This paper describes a process for guiding students through the writing of a Professional Philosophy of Recreation Paper and a one-page philosophy statement suitable for use in students' professional portfolios. The authors describe how the review of recreation education literature, scholarship on teaching and learning, and assessment of student…
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present specificities of the English language teaching necessary for successful education and professional training of medical students. In contemporary globalized world the English language has become the basic language of communication in all scientific fields including the field of medical science. It is well established that Medical English teaching should primarily focus on stable linguistic competence in English that is created by means of content and context based curriculum, thus preparing students for active use of English upon graduation. In order to achieve this it is very important that English language teaching be based on specific real situations in which the language is to be used. In addition, students should be encouraged to adapt practical skills applicable in specific future professional setting. Medical English teaching represents constant challenge for teachers because they need to be flexible, open to new approaches and methods, make decisions and adapt themselves to constant changes. In addition, long-term learning is at the core of higher education, and being equal partners, both students and teachers should be aware that education is a two-way process.
Lehrmann, Jon A.; Hoop, Jinger; Hammond, Katherine Green; Roberts, Laura Weiss
Objective: Despite the acknowledged importance of ethics education in medical school, little empirical work has been done to assess the needs and preferences of medical students regarding ethics curricula. Methods: Eighty-three medical students at the University of New Mexico participated in a self-administered written survey including 41 scaled…
Recently, so many medical institutions established and the increasing use of the high technological medical imaging equipment, it makes radiological technology become the main instrument for the medical diagnostic and radiation therapy. However, the medical radiological technologies play the important role to operate all the related radiological machines. If they do not use the machines adequately, it will increase the patients' radiation absorbed dose. Then, the whole society health may be influenced. Therefore, constructing the professional competence of the medical radiological technologists is an important course. The purpose of this research are: (1) to construct the index of professional competence with radiological technology students, (2) to discuss the professional competence for the graduates from the department of radiological technology to be the reference for the Ministry of Examination for the license test of radiological technologists, (3) to provide the direction of the radiological technology department development. (author)
Mafigiri David K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anecdotal evidence shows that unprofessional conduct is becoming a common occurrence amongst health workers in Uganda. The development of appropriate professional values, attitudes and behaviors is a continuum that starts when a student joins a health professional training institution and as such health professionals in training need to be exposed to the essence of professionalism. We sought to explore undergraduate health professions students' perceptions and experiences of learning professionalism as a preliminary step in addressing the problem of unprofessional conduct amongst health workers in Uganda. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted with 49 first to fifth year health professions undergraduate students of the 2008/2009 academic year at Makerere University College of Health Sciences. The focus group discussions were recorded and transcribed, and were analyzed using content analysis with emergent coding. Results The difference in the way first and fifth year students of Makerere University College of Health Sciences conceptualized professionalism was suggestive of the decline in attitude that occurs during medical education. The formal curriculum was described as being inadequate while the hidden and informal curricula were found to play a critical role in learning professionalism. Students identified role models as being essential to the development of professionalism and emphasized the need for appropriate role modeling. In our setting, resource constraints present an important, additional challenge to learning universal standards of health professionalism. Furthermore, students described practices that reflect the cultural concept of communalism, which conflicts with the universally accepted standard of individual medical confidentiality. The students questioned the universal applicability of internationally accepted standards of professionalism. Conclusions The findings call for a review of the formal professionalism curriculum at Makerere University College of Health Sciences to make it more comprehensive and to meet the needs expressed by the students. Role models need capacity building in professionalism as health professionals and as educators. In our setting, resource constraints present an additional challenge to learning universal standards of health professionalism. There is need for further research and discourse on education in health professionalism in the Sub-Saharan context of resource constraints and cultural challenges.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many chronic conditions and a leading cause of premature mortality. An increasing proportion of adults worldwide are not engaging in a level of physical activity sufficient to prevent or alleviate these adverse effects. Medical professionals have been identified as potentially powerful sources of influence for those who do not meet minimum physical activity guidelines. Health professionals are respected and expected sources of advice and they reach a large and relevant proportion of the population. Despite this potential, health professionals are not routinely practicing physical activity promotion. Discussion Medical professionals experience several known barriers to physical activity promotion including lack of time and lack of perceived efficacy in changing physical activity behaviour in patients. Furthermore, evidence for effective physical activity promotion by medical professionals is inconclusive. To address these problems, new approaches to physical activity promotion are being proposed. These include collaborating with community based physical activity behaviour change interventions, preparing patients for effective brief counselling during a consultation with the medical professional, and use of interactive behaviour change technology. Summary It is important that we recognise the latent risk of physical inactivity among patients presenting in clinical settings. Preparation for improving patient physical activity behaviours should commence before the consultation and may include physical activity screening. Medical professionals should also identify suitable community interventions to which they can refer physically inactive patients. Outsourcing the majority of a comprehensive physical activity intervention to community based interventions will reduce the required clinical consultation time for addressing the issue with each patient. Priorities for future research include investigating ways to promote successful referrals and subsequent engagement in comprehensive community support programs to increase physical activity levels of inactive patients. Additionally, future clinical trials of physical activity interventions should be evaluated in the context of a broader framework of outcomes to inform a systematic consideration of broad strengths and weaknesses regarding not only efficacy but cost-effectiveness and likelihood of successful translation of interventions to clinical contexts.
Bleakley, Alan; Bligh, John
Medical students must be prepared for working in inter-professional and multi-disciplinary clinical teams centred on a patient's care pathway. While there has been a good deal of rhetoric surrounding patient-centred medical education, there has been little attempt to conceptualise such a practice beyond the level of describing education of communication skills and empathy within a broad 'professionalism' framework. Paradoxically, while aiming to strengthen patient-student interactions, this approach tends to refocus on the role modelling of the physician, and opportunities for potentially deep collaborative working relationships between students and patients are missed. A radical overhaul of conventional doctor-led medical education may be necessary, that also challenges the orthodoxies of individualistic student-centred approaches, leading to an authentic patient-centred model that shifts the locus of learning from the relationship between doctor as educator and student to the relationship between patient and student, with expert doctor as resource. Drawing on contemporary poststructuralist theory of text and identity construction, and on innovative models of work-based learning, the potential quality of relationship between student and patient is articulated in terms of collaborative knowledge production, involving close reading with the patient as text, through dialogue. Here, a medical 'education' displaces traditional forms of medical 'training' that typically involve individual information reproduction. Students may, paradoxically, improve clinical acumen through consideration of silences, gaps, and contradictions in patients as texts, rather than treating communication as transparent. Such paradoxical effects have been systematically occluded or denied in traditional medical education. PMID:17075690
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to explore the structures for managing student fitness to practise hearings in medical schools in the UK. We surveyed by email the named fitness to practise leads of all full members of the UK Medical Schools Council with a medical undergraduate programme. We asked whether student fitness to practise cases were considered by a committee/panel dedicated to medicine, or by one which also considered other undergraduate health and social care students. Findings All 31 medical schools responded. 19 medical schools had a fitness to practise committee dealing with medical students only. Three had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and dentistry. One had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and veterinary medicine. Eight had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and two or more other programmes, such as dentistry, nursing, midwifery, physiotherapy, dietetics, social work, pharmacy, psychology, audiology, speech therapy, operating department practice, veterinary medicine and education. Conclusion All 31 UK medical schools with undergraduate programmes have a fitness to practise committee to deal with students whose behaviour has given rise to concern about their fitness to practise. The variation in governance structures for student fitness to practise committees/panels can in part be explained by variations in University structures and the extent to which Universities co-manage undergraduate medicine with other courses.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Migration and ethical recruitment of health care workers is receiving increased attention worldwide. Europe’s aging population is creating new opportunities for medical doctors for finding employment in other countries, particularly those of a better standard of living. Methods We conducted a survey among 1214 medical students in five out of eleven universities in Poland with medical schools in October 2008. A series of statistical tests was applied to analyse the characteristics of potential migrants. Projections were obtained using statistical analyses: descriptive, multifactorial logistic regression and other statistical methods . Results We can forecast that 26–36% of Polish medical students will emigrate over the next few years; 62% of respondents estimated the likelihood of emigration at 50%. Students in their penultimate year of study declared a stronger desire to migrate than those in the final year. At the same time, many students were optimistic about career opportunities in Poland. Also noted among students were: the decline in interest in leaving among final year students, their moderate elaboration of departure plans, and their generally optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland. Conclusions The majority of Polish students see the emigration as a serious alternative to the continuation of their professional training. This trend can pose a serious threat to the Polish health care system, however the observed decline of the interest in leaving among final year students, the moderate involvement in concrete departure plans and the optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland suggest that the actual scale of brain drain of young Polish doctors due to emigration will be more limited than previously feared.
Familiarize students affiliated with the Student National Medical Association with the National Library of Medicine's online resources that address medical conditions, health disparities, and public health preparedness needs.
Full Text Available Professional teacher’s ethics is a collection of moral codes of their professional work. It is significant that the teaching profession respects certain designated professional-ethical codes of conduct between the teachers and the students, with their colleagues and other people they professionally cooperate with. This study is focused on analysis of the professional ethical relation of teachers towards students, seen from student’s point of view. These are the results of student’s reported opinion of the eighth graders from six primary schools in the region of the city of Skopje. The obtained results show that teachers mainly keep in line with the moral codes of conduct with the students, but not always all teachers respect them.
Chaytor Andrew T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Professionalism in medical students is not only difficult to define but difficult to teach and measure. As negative behaviour in medical students is associated with post-graduate disciplinary action it would be useful to have a model whereby unprofessional behaviour at the undergraduate level can easily be identified to permit appropriate intervention. We have previously developed a scalar measure of conscientiousness, the Conscientiousness Index (CI, which positively correlates to estimates of professional behaviour in undergraduate medical students. By comparing CI points awarded in year 1 and year 2 of study we were able to use the CI model to determine whether teaching and clinical exposure had any effect on students’ conscientiousness. Methods CI points were collected by administrative staff from 3 successive cohorts of students in years 1 and 2 of study. Points were awarded to students for activities such as submission of immunisation status and criminal record checks, submission of summative assignments by a specified date and attendance at compulsory teaching sessions. CI points were then converted to a percentage of maximal possible scores (CI % to permit direct comparison between years 1 and 2 of study. Results CI % scores were generally high with each year of study for each cohort showing negatively skewed normal distributions with peaks > 89%. There was a high degree of correlation of CI % scores between year 1 and year 2 of study for each cohort alone and when cohort data was combined. When the change in CI % from year 1 to year 2 for all students was compared there was no significant difference in conscientiousness observed. Conclusions We have provided evidence that use of a CI model in undergraduate medical students provides a reliable measure of conscientiousness that is easy to implement. Importantly this study shows that measurement of conscientiousness by the CI model in medical students does not change between years 1 and 2 study suggesting that it is a stable characteristic and not modified by teaching and clinical exposure.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as “a “persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient”. Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0% of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.
Full Text Available Background: The choice of a medical specialty by a medical student is a complex process in which several factors play a contributory role, making the decision process an evolving one as the medical student undergoes different experiences in his/her professional journey. In our study, we attempted to identify factors that play a significant role in influencing medical students towards choosing a specialty and also to delineate the differences that exist amongst students’ priorities based on gender and year of study at a medical university.Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted on the medical students enrolled at Dow Medical College. Students from all five years of the medicine program were randomly selected. A self-administered questionnaire based on 16 questions was designed. The first part comprised of bio-data and specification of the choice of career by the participants. The second part comprised 13 factors influencing students’ choices, that were to be rated by the students in the order of their importance. Mann Whitney test, Kruskal Wallis test and Tukey’s test was performed for comparison.Results: Out of 400 candidates that successfully completed the study, all except one planned to specialize in one of the three major fields. 233 (58.4% students wanted to pursue medicine, 156 (39.1% surgery and only 10 (2.5% wanted to adopt research as their career. Significant differences were found in working hours, duration of residency and influence during clinical rotations between the two specialties.Conclusion: These findings re-enforce the recently evolving idea that all disparities existing between different specialties should be resolved so as to ensure an equal spread of doctors in all fields. There is also a need to introduce more female friendly legislations and more incentives need to be offered to medical graduates to prompt more of them to choose a future career in research.
Wang Md Ms, Henry E.; Singhal, Sara S.; Mangione Md, Michael P.; Tarasi Md, Paul G.
During the course of their training, medical students may receive introductory experience with advanced resuscitation skills. Endotracheal intubation (ETI – the insertion of a breathing tube into the trachea) is an example of an important advanced resuscitation intervention. Only limited data characterize clinical ETI skill acquisition by medical students. We sought to characterize medical student acquisition of ETI procedural skill.11Presented as a poster discussion on 17 October 2007 at t...
Jordan J; Jb, Brown; Russell G
OBJECTIVE: To explore factors that influence senior medical students to pursue careers in family medicine. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. SETTING: University of Western Ontario (UWO) in London. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven of 29 graduating UWO medical students matched to Canadian family medicine residency programs beginning in July 2001. METHOD: Eleven semistructured interviews were conducted with a maximum variation sample of medical students. Interviews were transcribed ...
Jo Cecil; Calum McHale; Jo Hart; Anita Laidlaw
Background: Burnout is prevalent in doctors and can impact on job dissatisfaction and patient care. In medical students, burnout is associated with poorer self-rated health; however, it is unclear what factors influence its development. This study investigated whether health behaviours predict burnout in medical students. Methods: Medical students (n=356) at the Universities of St Andrews and Manchester completed an online questionnaire assessing: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalisation ...
Full Text Available With the change of the concept of graduate enrollment, the recruiting proportion of clinical medicine professional degree graduate students is more and more, and the training of professional degree graduate students is increasingly focusing on practical. In our experience in clinical training for ophthalmology professional degree graduate students, increasing the ward clinical practice time is important. For particular emphasis on the guiding role of the typical cases, each professional group combined their professional characteristics of the typical cases to instruct the graduate students, training their clinical diagnosis and treatment ability, training their microsurgical techniques. From clinical medical writing, record summary, literature review, professional degree graduate students could expand their knowledge structure, practice their thesis writing ability. Based on the typical cases, expansion of knowledge coverage, they could improve the ability of diagnosis and treatment for special disease cases. In this rigorous training system, professional degree graduate students can learn by analogy, and focus on typical cases to get the most intuitive panoramic understanding of the diseases, with a minimum of time to master the most clinical knowledge, to enrich clinical experience, and to lay the foundation for future work in the assessment.
Full Text Available Background: Birth order is claimed to be linked with academic achievement. However, many scientists do not accept it. Objective: To assess the association of birth order in North Indian medical students with number of attempts to cross the competition bar. Study design: Cross sectional study. Setting and participation: M.B.B.S. 1st year students of L.L.R.M. Medical College, Meerut. Statistical analysis used: Chi Square test. Methods: Enquiry of Birth order and number of attempts to crack the medical entrance examination from responded 360 medical students among 494 students admitted during 2005 – 2010. Results: The study revealed insignificant relationship between ages of entrance in medical college in both sexes. of 360 students responded 37% students were of first Birth order. Among those admitted in first attempt, 67% students were of first birth order and proportion of success in first attempt reduced with increasing birth order. Conclusion: Birth Order strongly influences academic achievements.
Full text: The active process of technical equipment of radiation therapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology departments requires increased staffing of qualified medical physicists in Russia. To work with the radiotherapy equipment, treatment and diagnostic procedures available in Russian clinics today, it is necessary to have 1,000 medical radiation physics, 30% of which should have a high degree of professional excellence. To achieve the required high technology equipment and procedure level it is essential to have 5,000 specialists. Today Russia has only 280 medical radiation physicists, 25 of which have high qualification - less than 10%. The efficient exploitation of modern radiation therapeutic diagnostic technologies and equipment demands highly qualified medical radiation physicists. However, in Russia the medical physicist responsibilities in the clinic are carried out by the specialists who do not have the basic radiation physics education and the necessary basis of physical and technical knowledge. Medical and clinical physics knowledge is acquired at random through various courses, by self education or empirically without quality and thoroughness control. It is natural that it adversely affects the physical and technical maintenance of radiation therapy and, in the end, the cancer patient treatment quality. Medical physicists are required in different areas, such as: 1. clinics together with the physician to deliver procedures in radiotherapy, nuclo deliver procedures in radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology 2. scientific and engineering organizations involved in the new radiological equipment and technology development 3. universities and other educational institutions engaged in the system of continuing education and professional development of medical physicists and research activities 4. companies supplying medical radiological equipment 5. companies busy with the equipment maintenance, adjustment and certification 6. project organizations involved in scientific planning, design and development of the system equipment of radiation therapeutic and diagnostic centres. It is understood that the areas mentioned above demand specific knowledge and skills from the medical physicists and this should be taken into consideration when elaborating the educational programmes. There are several departments of 'medical physics' speciality in Russian universities. However, the approved student education programme does not meet the modern requirements. Practically, there are no qualified medical physics professors in universities. Therefore, as before, the majority of graduates and medical physicists in clinics do not fit the necessary qualification. The Association of Medical Physicists in Russia (AMPR) has developed and realized the programme on the system of continuing education and professional development of medical radiation physicists based on the cycle of special courses on different sections of radiation therapeutic and diagnostic physics. AMPR and the leading oncology centres in Russia regularly organize courses. The ESTRO teaching courses, supported by the IAEA, also contribute a lot to the professional education of Russian medical physicists. For the efficient organization of scientific and education activities, mainly in the field of the continuing education and professional development of medical physicists, AMPR has established a non-profit Institute of Medical Physics and Engineering (IMPE) which has united practically all leading scientists and professors in medical radiation physics. The group of highly skilled professors is chosen from the best Russian specialists and specially prepared for the training courses. Guidelines and recommendations are developed. Practical studies are conducted in the leading oncology centres. A viable education and training system allows to provide the necessary professional knowledge level, individual qualification control and certification of medical physicists. However, AMPR and IMPE are doing on their own without support from the government, sp
Marcus, E R
This study sought to identify the common stages in the development of capacities contributing to humanistic medical care in young physicians, as revealed by their dreams about medical school and training. Using a databank of approximately 400 dreams dreamt by non-patient students and housestaff at a major academic medical center, the author traces the development of the two components of humanistic medicine: empathy and humanistic attitudes. The "critical episodes" of medical education produce in young physicians emotional and psychological defenses affecting their ability to interact with patients in an empathic and altruistic manner. Medical educators need to reevaluate the traditional curricular milestones and pedagogic style to help foster the development of medical humanism. PMID:10587683
Bissonette, Raymond; And Others
A survey of 249 students at the State University of New York at Buffalo identified medical ethics issues arising during clinical training in professional norms, limits of intervention, defensive shielding of professional colleagues, respect toward patients, communication, and student boundaries. Concerns differed by student year, supporting…
Burgoyne, Louise N
Research training is essential in a modern undergraduate medical curriculum. Our evaluation aimed to (a) gauge students\\' awareness of research activities, (b) compare students\\' perceptions of their transferable and research-specific skills competencies, (c) determine students\\' motivation for research and (d) obtain students\\' personal views on doing research.
Linda R. Adkison
Full Text Available Medical students experience stress during medical education that can negatively impact performance. Typical curricula in U.S. medical schools are rigorously intense and provide little or no time off between courses in the first two years of training. This intensity contributes to increased stress for students accustomed to performing academically near the top of the class prior to matriculating in medical school. We describe an innovative new academic calendar that was modified to create a Professional Enrichment Program. Students can step back from the rigors of coursework and engage in several types of activities in order to decompress from recent studying and examinations. These activities include electives, service opportunities, independent study, and clinical experiences that are self-selected by students. Students and faculty complete surveys about the activities they completed and the usefulness of their choices. Results show broad approval of the program with the greatest results supporting an appreciation of time to decompress and an increase in time for family and personal activities.
Bruno Bezerril Andrade; Antonio José Souza Reis Filho; Vitor Rosa Ramos de Mendonça; Manoel Barral-Netto
Objective: Exposure to science education during college may affect a student’s profile, and research experience may be associated with better professional performance. We hypothesized that the impact of research experience obtained during graduate study differs among professional curricula and among graduate courses. Methods: A validated multiple-choice questionnaire concerning scientific concepts was given to students in the first and fourth years of medical and law school at a public Braz...
The aim of this thesis was to explore Swedish pharmacist students’ learning during pharmacy internship. Internships are meant to introduce students to professional practice. Education programs have to reflect changes in the professional role, and take into account that learning in a professional practice setting differs from organized formal education. This thesis includes both quantitative and qualitative research approaches and applies workplace learning theories. A scheme for measuring p...
Stephens, Mark B; Landers, Grace; Davis, Stephen W; Durning, Steven J; Crandall, Sonia J
This study examined a cohort of students attending the Uniformed Services University regarding their attitudes toward medical care in underserved populations. Using the previously validated Medical Student Attitudes Toward the Underserved (MSATU), repeated measures analysis of variance showed that student attitudes toward care in underserved populations was less favorable than limited national data at entry and declined over time (Mean MSATU total score Year 1: 46.2 [SD 10.95]; Year 4: 41.7 [SD 12.3] p student exposure to underserved populations and strengthen the social contract between community and institution. PMID:25850128
35 students have been participating in the program of educating Botswana medical students in Norway from 1995 until resent date. The purpose of this study has been to clarify the goal of the program and to find to what degree the program has been a success focusing on numbers of students having graduated, how many having returned home working as doctors, and the student’s experiences during their time of study. 11 of the Botswana medical students were participating in the study. It was done...
Bayne, Hannah Barnhill
Empathy is an important component of the doctor-patient relationship, yet previous studies point to its steady decline in medical students as they progress through medical school and residency programs. Empathy training has thus been identified as a goal of instruction, yet it is unclear how this training can best be implemented within the medical…
Sansoni, Julita; Mariani, Paola; De Caro, Walter; Sorrentino, Milena; Marucci, Anna Rita; Giammarco, Enrichetta; Di Foggia, Fernanda; Cristofaro, Domenico; van de Mortel, Thea
The main objective of the study is assessing knowledge, opinions and compliance with the procedures of health professionals (physician, nurses, medical and nursing students) about Hand Hygiene (HH). There is a number of research which indicates that physicians respect less than nurses Hand Hygiene, there are a smaller number which investigates the differences in the attitude of the aforementioned subjects during their studies. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 756 participants (252 doctors, 268 nurses, 117 nursing students and 119 students of medicine) at a large University Hospital in Rome, to determine their knowledge, compliance and procedures with Hand Hygiene. Knowledge of medical students is lower than that of nursing students, as well as they have lower values in adherence to practice. In both HH Beliefs Scale (HBS) and HH Practices Inventory (HHPI) questionnaires, nursing students have higher scores than nurses, doctors and medical students. The questions on the use of alcohol-based cleaners have been those where there was the lowest number of correct responses, across all professions. Physicians compared to nurses have a lower adherence to Hand Hygiene. Future research should clarify what the differences are in the construction of the study on the practice of washing hands, what are the barriers to health professionals and best methods for teaching habits, namely the effectiveness of hand washing. Professionals should be more involved in the fight against Healthcare-associated infections. PMID:22304723
Leese Morven; Glozier Nick; Kassam Aliya; Loughran Joanne; Thornicroft Graham
Abstract Background The evidence base for mental illness related stigma interventions in health care professionals and trainees is underdeveloped. This study aimed to examine the impact of mental illness related stigma training on third year medical students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour related to people with mental illness. Methods A non-randomised controlled trial was conducted with 110 third year medical students at a medical school in England to determine the effectiveness of a men...
Erueti Chrissy; Glasziou Paul; Mar Chris; van Driel Mieke L
Abstract Background The management of medical conditions is influenced by whether clinicians regard them as "disease" or "not a disease". The aim of the survey was to determine how medical students classify a range of conditions they might encounter in their professional lives and whether a different name for a condition would influence their decision in the categorisation of the condition as a 'disease' or 'not a disease'. Methods We surveyed 3 concurrent years of medical students to classif...
Harihar Chilukuri; Sowjanya Bachali; Nagaiah Jupalle Naidu; Ahmed Shaik Basha; Samuvel Verrapam Selvam
Background: Reports in the last decade have shown that healthcare students face a high degree of stress. Cumulative stress leads to depression and suicidal behaviour in some of them.Aims: This study was designed to identify levels of perceived stress amongst medical and dental students in a private institution of South India.Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey carried out on the first year undergraduate medical and dental students. Perceived stress was assessed using the Pe...
Bruno Bezerril Andrade
Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to science education during college may affect a student’s profile, and research experience may be associated with better professional performance. We hypothesized that the impact of research experience obtained during graduate study differs among professional curricula and among graduate courses. Methods: A validated multiple-choice questionnaire concerning scientific concepts was given to students in the first and fourth years of medical and law school at a public Brazilian educational institution. Results: Medical students participated more frequently in introductory scientific programs than law students, and this trend increased from the first to the fourth years of study. In both curricula, fourth-year students displayed a higher percentage of correct answers than first-year students. A higher proportion of fourth-year students correctly defined the concepts of scientific hypothesis and scientific theory. In the areas of interpretation and writing of scientific papers, fourth-year students, in both curricula, felt more confident than first-year students. Although medical students felt less confident in planning and conducting research projects than law students, they were more involved in research activities. Conclusion: Medical graduation seems to favor the development of critical scientific maturity than law graduation. Specific policy in medical schools is a reasonable explanation for medical students’ participation in more scientific activities.
McKendree Jean; Birks Yvonne; Watt Ian
Abstract Background Emotional intelligence (EI) is increasingly discussed as having a potential role in medicine, nursing, and other healthcare disciplines, both for personal mental health and professional practice. Stress has been identified as being high for students in healthcare courses. This study investigated whether EI and stress differed among students in four health professions (dental, nursing, graduate mental health workers, medical) and whether there was evidence that EI might ser...
Brunet, Pierre; Cuggia, Marc; Le Beux, Pierre
Information and communication technology (ICT) becomes an important way for the knowledge transmission, especially in the field of medicine. Podcasting (mobile broadcast content) has recently emerged as an efficient tool for distributing information towards professionals, especially for e-learning contents.The goal of this work is to implement software and hardware tools for collecting medical lectures at its source by direct recording (halls and classrooms) and provide the automatic delivery of these resources for students on different type of devices (computer, smartphone or videogames console). We describe the overall architecture and the methods used by medical students to master this technology in their daily activities. We highlight the benefits and the limits of the Podcast technologies for medical education. PMID:21893751
Devi Kittu, Rohan Patil
Full Text Available Background: Medical education across the globe is perceived as being inherently stressful. Studies on psychological problems such as stress, depression and anxiety among medical students have found that these disorders are under diagnosed and under treated. In this background the present study was undertaken with the objectives to assess the magni-tude of depression and its association with stress among medical students. Methods: A Cross sectional study was undertaken among 235 medical students in a private medical college, Pondicherry. Tools similar to General Health Questionaire (GHQ-12 and Beck depression Inventory (BDI was used to screen psychological stress and depression respectively. Results: The prevalence of depression was 71% among medical students. Psychological stress was associated with depression. Conclusion: Emphasize should be laid on the importance of screening for depression of medical students on a regular basis for early detection and rendering appropriate intervention like group counseling, stress management training etc. to protect the future professionals.
Siew Kheong Lum; Wei Rong Lee; Syn Dee Ch’ng; Navin Raj a/l Balachandran; Chee Kit Tee
Introduction: Undergraduate medical educationshould be broad-based, holistic, integrated andshould promote a framework for the developmentof higher order cognitive skills like communication,professionalism and teamwork to prepare the studentfor a life-long challenging medical career. Recent callsfor a competency-based medical education require, inaddition, competency in clinical and procedural skillsprior to graduation. This study investigates how oftenopportunities exist for medical students...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The value of ethics education have been questioned. Therefore we did a student survey on attitudes about the teaching of ethics in Swedish medical schools. Methods Questionnaire survey on attitudes to ethics education with 409 Swedish medical students participating. We analyzed > 8000 words of open-ended responses and multiple-choice questions using classic grounded theory procedures. Results In this paper we suggest that medical students take a proximity morality stance towards their ethics education meaning that they want to form physician morality "on the job". This involves comprehensive ethics courses in which quality lectures provide "ethics grammar" and together with attitude exercises and vignette reflections nurture tutored group discussions. Goals of forming physician morality are to develop a professional identity, handling diversity of religious and existential worldviews, training students described as ethically naive, processing difficult clinical experiences, and desisting negative role modeling from physicians in clinical or teaching situations, some engaging in "ethics suppression" by controlling sensitive topic discussions and serving students politically correct attitudes. Conclusion We found that medical students have a proximity morality attitude towards ethics education. Rather than being taught ethics they want to form their own physician morality through tutored group discussions in comprehensive ethics courses.
Full Text Available Background: Medical education can contribute to the development of depression in medical students which may have possible negative academic and professional consequences. The aims of this study were to explore the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their relationships to socio-demographic variables among a cross section of medical students of a private medical college in India. Methods: A cross-sectional anonymous questionnaire-based survey was conducted including all students from first to fourth year of a medical college in India. Beck depression inventory was used to assess the level of depression with a score of 12 or higher considered depressive. Additional questions regarding demographic variables were also included in the survey. Data analysis was done on Epi info version 6. Results: A total of 336 students participated giving a response rate of 88%. A total of 49.1% students reported depressive symptoms. It was significantly higher in 1st year (59.3% and 2nd year (65.6%, as compared to 3rd (34.4% and 4th year (37.2% students [p<0. 05]. Substance abuse(p<0.0001, first and second year of study, female sex and language of instruction other than English at 10+2 level were associated factors for the development of depressive symptoms [p<0.05]. A significant negative association was also found between regular exercise and depression (p<0.05. Conclusion: Depression may be a significant hidden problem in Indian medical students and mechanisms to identify and help students with mental health problems should be seriously considered.
Ho, Maria Theresa; Tani, Massimiliano
As Australian medical educators become more accustomed to the increasing pressures imposed upon them, there is a risk that the traditional educational relationship between a student and his or her teacher is replaced by a pure transactional relationship between a customer and his or her supplier. A large sample of medical students surveyed revealed that medical students seem to value directed rather than independent learning. New approaches to teaching, such as being innovative or entertaining, as well as facilitating participation, do not appear to be very important to medical students. Medical students do not seem to have strong preferences when it comes to assessment, contradicting some of the fundamental suggestions of the recent educational literature, in which assessment is often viewed as a key element in the formation and the direction of learning. The fact that medical students seem to reject many of the paradigms of the psychology-based educational literature, at least based on the large sample surveyed at the University of New South Wales, suggests that caution should be used in the development of training programs for teachers in medical faculties, and that learning and teaching should ensure that students' expectations and teachers' training do not mismatch. PMID:17669057
Full Text Available Background: The implementation of ICT in the academic curriculum is a part of the e-reform of the undergraduate education currently ongoing at the Moroccan medical school. In order to evaluate the efficiency of such reform, the authors have conducted a survey at the Marrakech school of medicine including 200 students. Materials and Methods: A comparison between the third year medical students and sixth year medical students was performed in our university Hospital. Results: The majority of the students have a personal computer and internet access. Our study shows no significant differences between third year medical students and sixth year medical students. In both students? groups the level of internet and computer access, the internet skills, the opinions on internet use and ICT implementation and the difficulties encountered when using internet for medical purpose were similar. This can be explained by the lack of no implementation of ICT in our university. Conclusion: The learning process is still based on traditional methods. Educational authorities have to train students to improve their internet skills.
Full Text Available [b]introduction.[/b] Care is seen as something that is peculiar to the medical sciences but its meaning and status for physicians and nurses differs. objectives. The aim of this research was to learn how nursing and medical students understand and define care, and how their definition and views on their practice of caring change as they advance through their studies. [b]material and methods[/b]. The study was conducted among two groups of students: before and after their first practicum (n=102. Analysis of the students’ answers was carried out using Colaizzi’s phenomenological descriptive methodology, which means that a qualitative approach was used. [b]results[/b]. The qualitative analysis shows that the medical and nursing students define care in the same way, using 9 main categories: compassion, commitment, competence, confidence, conscience, communication, patience, courage and support. The nursing students viewed their caring to be within both practical and emotional dimensions and this was a core feature of their identity as nurses. Medical students, on the other hand, viewed the practical dimension of care as an additional activity. All the students in the study underlined the importance of having time to care and showed that, for them, ‘time’ in this context has a moral meaning. What was interesting to the research team centered on the initial attitudes to ‘caring’ from both medical and nursing students. [b]conclusions[/b]. We found that students of both nursing and medicine do not begin their studies with different attitudes and concepts of care. However, after their initial exposure to practical placements a process begins which forges different identities around the concept of care. This implies trends in the division of professional roles during their initial education.
Almeida, Paulo Se?rgio; Novais, Paulo; Neves, Jose?
Professional Schools are in need to access technologies and tools that allow the monitoring of a student evolution course, in acquiring a given skill. Furthermore, they need to be able to predict the presentation of the students on a course before they actually sign up, to either provide them with the extra skills required to succeed, or to adapt the course to the students’ level of knowledge. Based on a knowledge base of student features, the Student Model, a Studen...
Davies, John W.; Rutherford, Ursula
This paper presents an investigation of how experience-led content in an engineering degree can be strengthened by creating opportunities for engineering students to benefit from the knowledge, skills and resources of students with current professional experience. Students who study civil engineering part-time at Coventry University (while also…
Eitel, Florian; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Tesche, Arthur
Reviews professionalization of medical education and elaborates on a conceptual framework for understanding reforms. Uses a concept map to demonstrate factors influencing professionalization. (Contains 74 references.) (Author/YDS)
Haugh, C; Doyle, B; O'Flynn, S
Internationally medical student debt is a cause of concern. A survey of medical students in UCC (response rate of 191 representing 35% of the EU student cohort) reveals that 34 (26%) of direct entry medicine (DEM) students and 36 (61%) graduate entrants (GEM) have a loan with an anticipated average debt of Euro17,300 and Euro80,000 on graduation respectively. Fifty-three (90%) graduate entrants and 75 (57%) direct entrants revealed that they often worry about their current financial situation. Fifty-three (28%) of students have a part-time job and many were concerned about the degree to which this conflicted with their academic workload. 118 (89%) of school leavers and 48 (81%) graduates received financial assistance from their families to fund their college expenses. Student responses recommended the introduction of a government supported low interest rate loan and other incentives to help service high levels of debt associated with medical education. PMID:24988840
Jonathan Mamo; Chantal Fenech
Objectives: To explore the lifestyle choices of international medical students attending a ?student conference. ?Study Design: Questionnaire-based census study.?Methods: A pre-tested structured questionnaire was given to the 481 delegates attending an ?international medical student conference in 2009 in Macedonia. The respondents were asked ?questions on their demographics, physical activity, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, sexual ?activity and nutritional intake. The results...
The extensive participation of German physicians in the atrocities of the Holocaust raises many questions concerning the potential for moral erosion in medicine. What circumstances and methods of rationalisation allowed doctors to turn from healers into accomplices of genocide? Are physicians still vulnerable to corruption of their guiding principles and, if so, what can be done to prevent this process from occurring? With these thoughts in mind, the author reflects on his experiences participating in the Fellowships at Auschwitz for the Study of Professional Ethics program and offers a medical student's perspective on the ethical issues encountered in clinical training and the practice of medicine. PMID:21508425
van Diggele, Christie; Burgess, Annette; Mellis, Craig
Introduction Skills in peer teaching, assessment, and feedback are increasingly documented internationally as required graduate attributes in medicine. Yet these skills are rarely taught in medical schools. We sought to design and deliver a short but effective teacher training (TT) program for medical students that could be easily integrated into the professional development curriculum. This study sought to evaluate such a pilot program, based on student perception. Methods The study took place at a major metropolitan teaching hospital, where 38 medical students were invited to attend a voluntary, newly designed four-module TT program. In total, 23/38 (61%) of invited students attended. Mixed methods were used for evaluation. Questionnaires were completed by 21/23 (91%) of students, and 6/23 (26%) of students participated in a focus group. Results Students reported that as a result of the program they felt more confident to facilitate small group teaching activities and to provide feedback to peers using the suggested frameworks. Students would like the program to contain more in-depth educational theory and to allow a more time for small group learning activities. They would also like to see opportunities for participation across all clinical schools. Conclusion The TT program was successful in increasing student awareness of educational theory and practice, thereby improving their confidence in teaching and assessing their peers and making them feel better prepared for their careers as medical practitioners. Key improvements to the program are needed in terms of more in-depth theory and more time spent on small group learning. This might be achieved by complementing the course with e-learning. PMID:25878520
Chester, A.; Kienhuis, M.; Pisani, H.; Shahwan-Akl, L.; White, K.
Social media now form a common part of university students' experience. Both at university and after graduation, in their personal and professional lives, social media offer opportunities for connection previously unavailable. The ubiquitous nature of social networking has brought with it professional and ethical issues that need to be…
Roberts, Kerry L.; Sampson, Pauline M.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on the issue of professional development education for school board members. The research question that guides this mixed study is: does school board member professional development have an effect on student achievement? Design/methodology/approach: The standardized protocol for this study was to send…
Susanne Kalén; Sari Ponzer; Astrid Seeberger; Anna Kiessling; Charlotte Silén
Objectives: The aim of the study was to increase under-standing of the meaning of continuous group and individual mentoring for medical students´ personal and professional development. Methods: A qualitative approach with individual student interviews and directed content analysis was chosen to investigate and interpret the meaning of mentorship. Results: Five themes emerged: psychosocial support by the mentor, a relationship with a physician beneath the professional surface, space for somet...
Cahill, Kevin C
There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this topic, there has been none in Ireland. Anatomy dissection can be a stressor to medical students-we investigate the attitudes of Irish students to organ donation and how they change with exposure to anatomy dissection. A questionnaire was administered to first year students in the School of Medicine in University College Dublin, Ireland, three times over a nine-week period at the commencement of classes in an academic year. The attitudes of the students were positive throughout regarding organ donation by a stranger, a family member, or themselves. There was, however, a significant decrease in support for the donation of a family member\\'s organs in a minority of students. Irish students\\' attitudes to postmortem organ donation are positive and are not changed by exposure to the dissecting room. There is support for the donation of organs, and willingness among students to donate their own organs and support donation by family members.
The Differential Impact of Various Assessment Parameters on the Medical Students Performance in the Professional Anatomy Examination in a New Medical School El Impacto Diferencial de Varios Parámetros de Evaluación del Desempeño de Estudiantes de Medicina en el Examen Profesional de Anatomía en una Nueva Escuela de Medicina
L. A. J. Shittu
Full Text Available There is a dearth of knowledge on the level of agreement between all the various assessment tasks on the same content area, in order to test this hypothesis we adopted the concept of convergent validity and also to isolate area of academic weakness among the students and to readjust the curriculum content to balance the weakness. A blinded cohort retrospective study was carried out on a total of sixty-six third year medical students who had sat for their first professional examination in anatomy in the new medical college of Lagos State University. Using records of their grades in the various assessments parameters- the average end-in course assessment, short essays question (SEQ, multiple-choice questions (MCQ, and practical (Steeple-chase. The mean + S.D. Pearson's correlation with students t-test (pExiste escasez de conocimiento sobre el nivel de concordancia entre todas las varias tareas de evalución sobre los contenidos de una misma área. En orden a evaluar esta hipótesis, adoptamos el concepto de validez convergente y también de área aislada, de falta de solidez académica entre los estudiantes y readecuar el contenido curricular para balancear esa falta de solidez. Se llevó a cabo un estudio retrospectivo al azar sobre un total de 66 alumnos de Medicina de Tercer Año, quienes tuvieron su primer examen profesional de Anatomía en la nueva Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad del Estado de Lagos, Nigeria. Usando registros de sus grados en varios parámetros de evaluación: promedio final de la evaluación del Curso, preguntas cortas de redacción, ítemes de selección múltiple y prácticas. La media + desviación estándar, correlación de Person con el t-test de Sudents (p< 0.05 fueron analizados con el programa SPSS 11 (SPSS inc. Chicago, Illinois. La parte práctica fue significativamente correlacionada con todo el rendimiento (r = 0.89, p< 0.01; con un valor del t-Students de 6.15 (p< 0.01. Aunque las preguntas cortas mostraron correlación significativa para la totalidad de lo hecho (r =0.72; p<0.01, el valor de t de 0,4 no fue significativo, pero estuvo dentro de un rango aceptable. La parte práctica, selección múltiple y preguntas cortas de redacción y final del curso, mostraron un orden de clasificación de relativo desempeño en las tareas de evaluación, lo que indica que, en general, la actividad de los estudiantes en el examen profesional fue mejor que en el examen del curso y de ahí, la necesidad de readecuar este patrón y enfatizar el rol de evaluación dentro del curso en el curriculum
Full Text Available Background: Worldwide tobacco is the second most common cause of death. It is the biggest enemy of public health, still people smoke knowing well the consequences. In addition to the high public health costs of treating tobacco-caused diseases, tobacco kills people at the height of their productivity, depriving families of bread winners and nations of a healthy workforce. Tobacco addiction mostly starts at adolescence. Various reasons cited by adolescents being; peer pressure, stress or for fun. Research Question: What is the level of awareness regarding tobacco use among medical students? Objectives: To assess awareness about tobacco abuse among medical students of Uttarakhand. Study Design: Cross-Sectional epidemiological study. Settings and Participants: Medical and Dental students of all professionals excluding Interns of two Medical and two Dental colleges of Uttarakhand were selected for survey. Study Period: May 2008 to October 2008 Sample Size: 400 Medical and Dental students. Sampling Technique: Simple stratified random sampling. Study Variable: A predesigned, pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting information on Age, Sex, Socio-demographic profile, Knowledge and awareness regarding Tobacco use, etc. Statistical Analysis: Standard statistical package i.e. SPSS, Microsoft Excel. Results: Life time prevalence of tobacco use was found to be 31.75%, the most common reasons cited by students was peer pressure 33.7%. The level of awareness regarding the harmful effects of tobacco smoking was found to be 91.8%. Majority 68.3% of tobacco users think that media plays an important source for creating awareness about harmful effects of tobacco. 83.25% students are against tobacco advertisements and support ban, 84.75% on tobacco use in public place. 83.75% students surveyed believed that the preventive measures taken up by the Government are not sufficient.
Daniel Cauchi; Julian Mamo
Tobacco is a major preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality. Health professionals are uniquely positioned to provide targeted interventions and should be empowered to provide cessation counselling that influence patient smoking. A cross-sectional national survey was administered to all third year students in four disciplines at the University of Malta. The Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) questionnaire was distributed to collect standardised demographic, smoking...
To provide the optimum level of healthcare, it is important that the supply of well-trained doctors meets the demand. However, despite many initiatives, Ireland continues to have a shortfall of physicians, which has been projected to persist. Our study aimed to investigate the migration intentions of Irish medical students and identify the factors that influence their decisions in order to design appropriate interventions to sustain the supply of trained doctors in order to maintain a viable medical system.
Sheehan, T. Joseph; Sanford, Keat
The theoretical model of medical student performance begins with 38 measures, reduced to 18 without loss of information. These measures are shown to reflect five underlying theoretical interrelated variables: medical knowledge; clinical performance; science aptitude; college achievement; and attitudes and values. Results should be useful in…
Jonathan Mamo; Raphael Buttigieg; Diana Vassallo; Laura Azzopardi
Introduction: The undergraduate medical course is known to be a stressful course within the ?University structure but there are no national studies available to review this.?Objective: To compare the levels psychological stress between medical and non-medical students ?and to distinguish stress levels over the five years of undergraduate study of the Bachelor of ?Medicine and Surgery Honours degree at the University of Malta.?Method: Two separate depression and stress related questi...
Ditte, Darja; Schulz, Wolfgang; Ernst, Gundula; Schmid-Ott, Gerhard
The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing in Europe as well as in the USA, but CAM courses are infrequently integrated into medical curricula. In Europe, but also especially in the USA and in Canada, the attitudes of medical students and health science professionals in various disciplines towards CAM have been the subject of investigation. Most studies report positive attitudes. The main aim of this study was to compare the attitudes towards CAM of medical and psychology students in Germany. An additional set of questions concerned how CAM utilisation and emotional and physical condition affect CAM-related attitudes. Two hundred thirty-three medical students and 55 psychology students were questioned concerning their attitudes towards CAM using the Questionnaire on Attitudes Towards Complementary Medical Treatment (QACAM). Both medical students and psychology students were sceptical about the diagnostic and the therapeutic proficiency of doctors and practitioners of CAM. Students' attitudes towards CAM correlated neither with their experiences as CAM patients nor with their emotional and physical condition. It can be assumed that German medical and psychology students will be reluctant to use or recommend CAM in their professional careers. Further studies should examine more closely the correlation between attitudes towards CAM and the students' worldview as well as their existing knowledge of the effectiveness of CAM. PMID:21154015
Henriksen, Ann-Helen; Ringsted, Charlotte
The aim of this study was to explore how medical students perceive the experience of learning from patient instructors (patients with rheumatism who teach health professionals and students) in the context of coupled faculty-led and patient-led teaching session. This was an explorative study with a qualitative approach based on focus group…
Full Text Available The author considers organizational and methodological terms of implementation of professional and applied physical training for maritime students subject to their motivation to physical self-perfection. The purpose of the research is to define organizational and pedagogical terms for professional and applied physical training of maritime students to improve their physical condition and special physical attainment. The applied methods were: anthropometric metrology, functional probes, tonometry, pulsometry, motion tests and mathematical analysis. 70 students of 17-18 years participated in the research. It was determined that organizational and pedagogical terms directed on acceleration of making necessary for students to self-improve physically, positively impact on development of special physical state that are fundamental for professional activities of maritime students.
This article describes a survey conducted among medical practitioners in India. The study's objective was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of whole body donation among medical professionals in India. Outcomes and results are discussed.
Elder, Ruth; Price, John; Williams, Gail
In this study we compared the ethical attitudes of a group of experienced, predominantly female, registered nurses (n = 67) with those of a group of final year, mixed sex, medical students (n = 125). The purpose was to determine the basis of differences in attitudes that could lead to ethical disagreements between these two groups when they came to work together. A questionnaire developed to explore ethical attitudes was administered and the responses of the two groups were compared using t-tests. Because of the preponderance of females among the nurses an analysis of variance of the gender-adjusted scores for each group was also carried out. On comparing the responses, the nurses differed significantly from the medical students in a number of ethical domains. A potential source of conflict between these two groups is that the nurses were inclined to adopt the perspective of patients but the medical students identified with their profession. When corrected for the effects of gender, the differences persisted, indicating that it was discipline that determined the differences. We recommend that students of nursing and medicine receive ethics education together, and that more open dialogue between doctors and nurses with respect to their different ethical viewpoints is needed in the work setting. This article will be of interest to educators of students of medicine and nursing, as well as to doctors and nurses who are eager to improve their professional relations and thereby improve patient care. PMID:12659486
Coombs, David W.; And Others
Factors that help determine physicians' practice locations and specialties were listed by students and medical school faculty at the University of Alabama School of Medicine. Students, while acknowledging the importance of clinical experiences, said faculty members had little influence on their specialty choices. (Author/MLW)
Shapiro, Johanna; Miller, Ron
A study in which 92 second-year medical students wrote essays on ethical dilemmas found most students were familiar with major ethical theories and principles currently in use and able to apply them appropriately. Gender differences were found in choice of topic, ethical principles used, and level of personal orientation. (Author/MSE)
Yusoff, Muhamad S. B.
Objectives: The demanding and intense environment of medical training can create excessive pressures on medical students that eventually lead to unfavorable consequences, either at a personal or professional level. These consequences can include poor academic performance and impaired cognitive ability. This study was designed to explore associations between pass-fail outcome and psychological health parameters (i.e. stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms). Methods: A cross-sectional study w...
Skye, Eric P; Wagenschutz, Heather; Steiger, Jeffrey A; Kumagai, Arno K
Creative arts have been increasingly implemented in medical education. This study investigated the use of interactive theater and role play with professional actors in teaching breaking bad news to medical students. The objectives were to explore the contexts, approaches, experiences, and reactions in giving and receiving bad news. Second-year medical students participated in a required educational session that utilized interactive theater which helps students learn about the issues of breaking bad news to a patient with cancer. Following the interactive theater piece, professional actors provided students role play experiences in small groups with breaking bad news. Anonymous evaluation surveys were given out to all second-year medical students at the conclusion of the breaking bad news session. Surveys contained quantitative and qualitative responses. Three years of evaluations were analyzed. A total of 451 (88 %) students completed the evaluations. Comments were thematically analyzed. Ninety-four percent agreed that the theater piece prompted reflection on patient-provider communications, and 89 % agreed that it stimulated discussion on complex issues with breaking bad news. The two most common themes in student comments concerned the importance of realism in the theater piece, and the value of experiencing multiple perspectives. Use of professional actors during the role play exercises enhances the realism and pushed the students out of their own "comfort zones" in ways that may more closely approximate real life clinical situations. Interactive theater can be a potentially powerful tool to teach breaking bad news during medical school. PMID:24683056
Taylor, C L; Grey, N J A
Critical incident reporting is widely used across healthcare and other sectors for reporting adverse events or behaviours. More recently it has been used in medical education as a means of assessing student professionalism. The aims of this study were to determine the usage of critical incident forms when reporting behaviours related to professionalism demonstrated by undergraduate dental students, and the types of behaviours exhibited. Three types of form could be awarded for highly professional (green), minor unprofessional (yellow) and serious unprofessional (red) behaviours. All forms completed over a two-year period were analysed recording the year of student, type of card and demographic of the member of staff reporting the incident. All text relating to the nature of the incident was entered into a qualitative data analysis software package and analysed thematically. In total, 583 cards were awarded, 55% green, 34% yellow and 11% red. Seventy-four percent of cards were awarded in a clinical environment, with administrative staff using them the most (29%). The overwhelming professional behaviours demonstrated related to altruism. The most common unprofessional behaviours related to a lack of conscientiousness, although a greater range of common unprofessional behaviours were reported. In conclusion, critical incidents forms were widely used for reporting both professional and unprofessional behaviours particularly in clinical environments by a range of staff. Such forms may be a valuable addition to the professionalism assessment portfolio, capturing behaviours not previously reported using traditional methods. PMID:25998353
Dollarhide, Colette T.; Gibson, Donna M.; Moss, Julie M.
The authors used grounded theory to explore professional identity transitions for 23 counselor education doctoral students in a cross-section sample based on nodal points in their programs. The transformational tasks that doctoral students face involve integration of multiple identities, evolution of confidence and legitimacy, and acceptance of…
Keshavarz, Mohsen; Baghdarnia, Mostafa
This article describes a method for the assessment of professional student outcomes (performance-type outcomes or soft skills). The method is based upon group activities, research on modern electrical engineering topics by individual students, classroom presentations on chosen research topics, final presentations, and technical report writing.…
Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.
The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…
Connolly, Sara; Diepenbrock, Amy
This exploratory research study utilized qualitative and quantitative research methods to determine how midlevel student affairs professionals perceive online education for preparation in the field. The participants noted that they do not perceive online education as equivalent to master's degree preparation programs for student affairs…
Mazon, Brad K.
Student affairs professionals can play a more prominent role in campus internationalization efforts. Unfortunately, they do not often view themselves as having the necessary knowledge, understanding, and tools to engage with international education matters, much less facilitate internationalization experiences on behalf of students. By rethinking…
Miller, Eliza; Balmer, Dorene; Hermann, Nellie; Graham, Gillian; Charon, Rita
Purpose To learn what medical students derive from training in humanities, social sciences, and the arts in a narrative medicine curriculum and to explore narrative medicine’s framework as it relates to students’ professional development. Method On completion of required intensive, half-semester narrative medicine seminars in 2010, 130 second-year medical students at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons participated in focus group discussions of their experiences. Focus group transcriptions were submitted to close iterative reading by a team who performed a grounded-theory-guided content analysis, generating a list of codes into which statements were sorted to develop overarching themes. Provisional interpretations emerged from the close and repeated readings, suggesting a fresh conceptual understanding of how and through what avenues such education achieves its goals in clinical training. Results Students’ comments articulated the known features of narrative medicine—attention, representation, and affiliation—and endorsed all three as being valuable to professional identity development. They spoke of the salience of their work in narrative medicine to medicine and medical education and its dividends of critical thinking, reflection, and pleasure. Critiques constituted a small percentage of the statements in each category. Conclusions Students report that narrative medicine seminars support complex interior, interpersonal, perceptual, and expressive capacities. Students’ lived experiences confirm some expectations of narrative medicine curricular planners while exposing fresh effects of such work to view. PMID:24362390
Heron, Sheryl L
Full Text Available Objective: To use 360-degree evaluations within an Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE to assess medical student comfort level and communication skills with intimate partner violence (IPV patients.Methods: We assessed a cohort of fourth year medical students’ performance using an IPV standardized patient (SP encounter in an OSCE. Blinded pre- and post-tests determined the students’ knowledge and comfort level with core IPV assessment. Students, SPs and investigators completed a 360-degree evaluation that focused on each student’s communication and competency skills. We computed frequencies, means and correlations.Results: Forty-one students participated in the SP exercise during three separate evaluation periods. Results noted insignificant increase in students’ comfort level pre-test (2.7 and post-test (2.9. Although 88% of students screened for IPV and 98% asked about the injury, only 39% asked about verbal abuse, 17% asked if the patient had a safety plan, and 13% communicated to the patient that IPV is illegal. Using Likert scoring on the competency and overall evaluation (1, very poor and 5, very good, the mean score for each evaluator was 4.1 (competency and 3.7 (overall. The correlations between trainee comfort level and the specific competencies of patient care, communication skill and professionalism were positive and significant (p<0.05.Conclusion: Students felt somewhat comfortable caring for patients with IPV. OSCEs with SPs can be used to assess student competencies in caring for patients with IPV. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:500-505.
Full Text Available In almost every country, the organ supply for transplantation does not match the increasing demand; health professionals may play an important role in eliminating barriers and increasing organ donation. Therefore, assessing medical students’ knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation is important for the future organ supply. Some 409 of 508 first- and second-year medical students answered an anonymous, multiple-choice questionnaire about demographic variables, knowledge about transplant issues, and willingness to donate organs. The mean age was 20.3±1.8 years (range: 17 to 29 years; 50.1% were male, 49.9% were female. Some 44.8% of the total respondents reported that they had sufficient knowledge about organ donation, and 40.1% reported knowledge about organ transplantation. The primary source of their knowledge was reported as the media (72.1%. Willingness to donate their own organs was 58.4% and willingness as to their relatives’ organs was 39.9%. The acceptance of live organ donation was higher (74.6% than cadaver donation. Only 1.2% had a organ donation card. Female students were more willing to donate their own and their relatives’ organs. Since medical students are prospective leaders of promoting organ donation action, these issues should be taught within the context of social medicine lessons, and desirable behavioral changes should be implemented.
Jurkat, H B; Richter, L; Cramer, M; Vetter, A; Bedau, S; Leweke, F; Milch, W
International studies have indicated a high prevalence of depression and a lack of coping with stress in medical students. Freshman and advanced medical students were investigated using a specific questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) with a response rate of 100%. Of the subjects studied 81.1% did not have any depression, 13.1% slight and 5.8% clinically relevant symptoms of depression. The severity of symptoms was highly associated with subjective appraisal of stressors. Coping skills of first year students significantly influenced the depression symptoms calling for preventative measures even in freshman medical students. PMID:21165590
Full Text Available Mads Dam Vildbrad, Johanne Marie Lyhne International Medical Cooperation Committee, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Background: To practice medicine, doctors must master leadership, communication, team management, and collaboration, in addition to medical knowledge. The CanMEDS framework describes seven roles of a doctor, but the six nonmedical expert roles are de-emphasized in the academic medical curriculum. Innovative opportunities are needed for medical students to develop as participants in a world of interdisciplinary health care. Methods: We founded a volunteer-based, interdisciplinary, student-run project called SUNDdag (HEALTHday with 60 students from 12 different educational backgrounds. To evaluate the learning outcomes of the project, we conducted a cross-sectional study using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. Results: Students joined the project due to it being health-promoting, volunteer-based, and interdisciplinary. The medical students reported a significant increase of skills in all seven roles except for “medical expert”. They reported an increased understanding of the non-health-related students' skills. Conclusion: In their future careers, medical students must collaborate with health care professionals in a team-based approach to patient care and with non-health-related professionals in administrative tasks. Interdisciplinary volunteer-based initiatives like SUNDdag are potential platforms for medical students to improve their CanMEDS competencies. We encourage students to initiate similar projects and we encourage faculties to support volunteer-based, interdisciplinary initiatives due to their favorable cost-benefit ratio. Keywords: medical education, voluntarism, interprofessional education, medical students
Garcia-Crespo, Angel; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Gomez-Berbis, Juan Miguel; Tovar-Caro, Edmundo
During last few years, the competential paradigm has become a standard for modern Human Resources Management. The importance and the impact of this concept have led higher education institutions to adopt this concept in the definition of educational resources. In this scenario, knowing which competencies and characteristics define professionals in…
Vera Alekseevna Araslanova
Full Text Available Present-day competency-based higher education places demands on the specialist’s professional knowledge and competence. Contemporary pedagogy is in search of new efficient ways of building various competencies in university students. The author studies the process of buil-ding professional competencies of the specialist in the field of document support of management through business games, a quasi-investigative activity, which involves both the student and the teacher. The article looks at the concepts of competence, professional competence and the business game and provides examples of joint group classes in various subjects involving business games. The study empirically proves the efficiency of the business game as a teaching technique and highlights specific professional and general competencies, which it helps to develop.
Full Text Available Background: The migration of health professionals can have a profound impact on health systems around the globe. The International Organization for Migration’s (IOM Mobility of Health Professionals Research Project (MoHProf aimed to improve knowledge about the migration of healthcare professionals and understand migration intentions and factorsinfluencing the migration of medical and nursing students.Objectives: The study aimed to determine the proportion of nursing and medical students who were intending to emigrate, their attitudes and beliefs about, and the factors influencing their decision to emigrate.Method: This study was conducted at three medical schools and one nursing school in South Africa (n = 298 amongst 260 medical and 38 nursing students. One hundred and twenty-five students were in the final year of their studies and 143 were in their prefinal year. Thirty students did not indicate the year of their studies. Every student present on the day of data collection completed a questionnaire comprising psychometric and survey-based questions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data.Results: More than a third (37% of the respondents intended to work or specialise abroad. The majority of medical (58.9% and nursing (66.6% students intended to leave SA within five years of completing their medical or nursing studies. The perception of poor working conditions within the health sector, such as long work hours, high patient loads, inadequate resources and occupational hazards, influenced medical students to consider emigrating fromSouth Africa.Conclusion: The high number of medical and nursing students intending to emigrate requires a reassessment of effectiveness of retention strategies for doctors and nurses in the South African healthcare system and actions to improve working conditions in the public healthcare sector.
Shanafelt Tait D; West Colin P
Abstract Background Professionalism is a critical quality for physicians to possess. Physician professionalism has received increased attention in recent years, with many authorities suggesting that professionalism is in decline. An understanding of the factors contributing to professionalism may allow the development of more effective approaches to promoting this quality in medical education. Discussion We propose a model of personal and environmental factors that contribute to physician pro...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore factors that influence senior medical students to pursue careers in family medicine. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. SETTING: University of Western Ontario (UWO in London. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven of 29 graduating UWO medical students matched to Canadian family medicine residency programs beginning in July 2001. METHOD: Eleven semistructured interviews were conducted with a maximum variation sample of medical students. Interviews were transcribed and reviewed independently, and a constant comparative approach was used by the team to analyze the data. MAIN FINDINGS: Family physician mentors were an important influence on participants' decisions to pursue careers in family medicine. Participants followed one of three pathways to selecting family medicine: from an early decision to pursue family medicine, from initial uncertainty about career choice, or from an early decision to specialize and a change of mind. CONCLUSION: The perception of a wide scope of practice attracts candidates to family medicine. Having more family medicine role models early in medical school might encourage more medical students to select careers in family medicine.
Seyhan H?d?ro?lu; Muhammed Fatih Önsüz; Ahmet Topuzo?lu; Melda Karavu?
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the perspectives of the academic medical staff and residents concerning continuing professional development in a medical faculty.Method: This descriptive research was performed on 152 academic medical staff and residents who was accepted to participate in the study in a medical faculty in August 2007. Study data was collected through face to face interviews by a questionnaire made up of three parts and 40 questions.Results: Sixty-seven point eig...
Vinay Agarwal; Sunil Kumar Garg; Megha Kulshreshtha Mishra; Lalita Chaudhary
Background: Birth order is claimed to be linked with academic achievement. However, many scientists do not accept it. Objective: To assess the association of birth order in North Indian medical students with number of attempts to cross the competition bar. Study design: Cross sectional study. Setting and participation: M.B.B.S. 1st year students of L.L.R.M. Medical College, Meerut. Statistical analysis used: Chi Square test. Methods: Enquiry of Birth order and number of attempts to crack the ...
Kathy, Holland; Lyn, Middleton; Leana, Uys.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While undergraduate training in South Africa places an emphasis on ensuring the competence of occupational therapy graduates, very little attention has been paid to exploring their professional confidence, despite the fact that this has been highlighted as an issue for students. The fo [...] undation for professional confidence is laid during student years, and is influenced by a number of determinants, which this study aimed to identify. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Qualitative methodology was used with a purposive sample of nineteen final year occupational therapy students. Students were invited to participate voluntarily in focus group interviews and/or submit their reflective journal. Five lecturers and six clinical supervisors at the University concerned also participated in focus group interviews. Deductive thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. RESULTS: Two broad themes emerged. The first theme, external determinants, included clinical experience, relationships with peers, staff and patients, and the changing environment in which they worked. The second theme, internal determinants, included certain identified personal characteristics and influencers. The external and internal sources of professional confidence beliefs were either within the control of the student, or the lecturer/clinical supervisor or the profession. DISCUSSION: A number of recommendations ranging from re-thinking clinical practicals and supervision are made. These findings have implications for student selection, teaching methodology and experiences, and the professional identity of the profession. Greater formal emphasis needs to be placed on confidence building during the undergraduate experience.
Full Text Available Kun Hwang,1 Huan Fan,1 Se Won Hwang2 1Department of Plastic Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea; 2Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, UK Abstract: Pathography is defined as “historical biography from a medical, psychological, and psychiatric viewpoint.” We thought that writing about an experience of illness might help students understand patients’ experience and in turn grow in terms of self-understanding. Participants included 151 medical students. Students wrote about their own experience of illness and were asked to answer questions from the Likert scale. Most students wrote about themselves (79.2%; however, some students (20.8% wrote about the illness of others. Among the 149 pathographies, ecopathography was most frequent (30.9%, followed by testimonial pathography (25.5%; angry pathography (13.4% and alternative pathography (12.1% were relatively less frequent. Eighty-eight pathographies (59.1% showed 120 expressions of family relationship. Among the 120 cases, worrying about family members was most frequent (47.5%, followed by reliance on a family member (32.5%. All students wrote about the enlightenment experienced on returning to daily life. The sense of belonging together was most frequent (38.3%, followed by gratitude for living (20.8%, resolution to be a good doctor (18.1%, and a will to live and be healthy (12.1%. Answers on the Likert scale (total 5 for pathography beneficence were very high in understanding desirable doctor image (4.46, attaining morals and personality as a health care professional (4.49, and understanding basic communication skills (4.46. Writing about an experience of illness allows students to better understand patients’ experience and to grow in self-understanding. Keywords: writing, disease, patients, narration, pathography
Full Text Available Abstract Background The British medical student population has undergone rapid diversification over the last decades. This study focuses on medical students' views about their experiences in relation to ethnicity and gender during their undergraduate training within the context of the hidden curriculum in one British medical school as part of a wider qualitative research project into undergraduate medical education. Method We interviewed 36 undergraduate medical students in one British Medical School, across all five years of training using a semi-structured interview schedule. We selected them by random and quota sampling, stratified by sex and ethnicity and used the whole medical school population as a sampling frame. Data analyses involved the identification of common themes, reported by means of illustrative quotations and simple counts. Results The students provided information about variations patterned by gender in their motivation and influences when deciding to study medicine. Issues in relation to ethnicity were: gaining independence from parents, perceived limitations to career prospects, incompatibility of some religious beliefs with some medical practices and acquired open-mindedness towards students and patients from different ethnic backgrounds. Despite claiming no experiences of gender difference during medical training, female and male students expressed gender stereotypes, e.g. that women bring particularly caring and sympathetic attitudes to medicine, or that surgery requires the physical strength and competitiveness stereotypically associated with men that are likely to support the continuation of gender differentiation in medical careers. Conclusion The key themes identified in this paper in relation to ethnicity and to gender have important implications for medical educators and for those concerned with professional development. The results suggest a need to open up aspects of these relatively covert elements of student culture to scrutiny and debate and to take an explicitly wider view of the influence of what has sometimes been called the hidden curriculum upon the training of medical professionals and the practice of medicine.
Hay, Alexandra; Smithson, Sarah; Mann, Karen; Dornan, Tim
An experience-based learning (ExBL) model proposes: Medical students learn in workplaces by ‘supported participation’; affects are an important dimension of support; many learning outcomes are affective; supported participation influences students’ professional identity development. The purpose of the study was to check how the model, which is the product of a series of earlier research studies, aligned with students’ experiences, akin to the ‘member checking’ stage of a qualitati...
Khan, Adeel A.M.; Dey, Subhojit; Taha, Alaa H.; Huq, Farhan S.; Moussawi, Ahmad H.; Omar, Omar S.; Soliman, Amr S.
Background Tobacco smoking rates are increasing in developing countries and so are tobacco-related chronic diseases. Reported figures from the WHO show rates of smoking in Egypt as high as 20% but limited information is available about smoking specifically among physicians and medical students. Materials and methods Final-year medical students of Cairo University were surveyed regarding their tobacco behavior and attitudes using a modified Global Health Professions Student Survey. We approached 220 students by randomly selecting clinical units into which they were assigned and requested completion of the survey. Results Ever users of some form of tobacco comprised 46.7% of students sampled, current users of cigarettes comprised 17.4%, and current users of water pipe ‘sheesha’ comprised 17.6%. The vast majority (87.7%) of students believed that smoking is a public health problem in Cairo and supported restriction of tobacco. Yet, only 58.5% stated that they were taught it is important for physicians to provide tobacco education materials to patients. Among ever users of cigarettes, 54.4% believed health professionals do not serve as health role models for patients, and only a small percentage of all students (34.2%) stated that they had received some form of training on smoking cessation in their medical curriculum to be able to instruct patients. Conclusion and recommendations A high rate of smoking was revealed among medical students in Cairo. Overall, approximately 23.4% of students were currently smoking cigarettes and/or sheesha, and 46.7% were ever users of some form of tobacco. A formal antitobacco program for medical students should be incorporated into their medical curriculum to change the attitudes of medical students and overcome the anticipated increase in chronic diseases in Egypt. PMID:22415329
Seay, Bryan L.
Although professional collaboration has achieved popularity as an element of public school reform efforts, most research on its impact is qualitative in nature or limited to small case studies. This research sought to provide a quantitative examination of the relationships among levels of implementation of five characteristics of professional…
Babaria, Palav; Abedin, Sakena; Berg, David; Nunez-Smith, Marcella
Although the number of women entering medical school has been steadily rising in the U.S.A., female medical students continue to report instances of sexual harassment and gender discrimination. The full spectrum of such experiences and their effect on the professional identity formation of female students over time remains largely unknown. To investigate these experiences, we interviewed 12 third year female medical students at a private New England medical school over several points during the 2006-2007 academic year. Using theoretical frameworks of gender performance and the centrality of student-patient and student-supervisor relationships, we were better able to understand how female medical students interpret the role of 'woman doctor' and the effect of negative and positive gendered interactions on the evolution of their professional identity. We found that participants quickly learned how to confront and respond to inappropriate behavior from male patients and found interactions with female patients and supervisors particularly rewarding. However, they did not feel equipped to respond to the unprofessional behavior of male supervisors, resulting in feelings of guilt and resignation over time that such events would be a part of their professional identity. The rapid acculturation to unprofessional behavior and resignation described by participants has implications for not only professional identity formation of female students but specialty choices and issues of future physician workforce. PMID:22341202
Al-Faris, Eiad; And Others
A survey of 253 final-year students at the four Saudi medical schools found the most frequently-chosen specialties were internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics/gynecology. Over one-fourth were unsure of career choice. Gender differences were found. Most common locations for postgraduate training were Saudi Arabia and Canada, and a…
Doukas, David J; Kirch, Darrell G; Brigham, Timothy P; Barzansky, Barbara M; Wear, Stephen; Carrese, Joseph A; Fins, Joseph J; Lederer, Susan E
Effectively developing professionalism requires a programmatic view on how medical ethics and humanities should be incorporated into an educational continuum that begins in premedical studies, stretches across medical school and residency, and is sustained throughout one's practice. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education National Conference on Medical Ethics and Humanities in Medical Education (May 2012) invited representatives from the three major medical education and accreditation organizations to engage with an expert panel of nationally known medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This article, based on the views of these representatives and their respondents, offers a future-tense account of how professionalism can be incorporated into medical education.The themes that are emphasized herein include the need to respond to four issues. The first theme highlights how ethics and humanities can provide a response to the dissonance that occurs in current health care delivery. The second theme focuses on how to facilitate preprofessional readiness for applicants through reform of the medical school admission process. The third theme emphasizes the importance of integrating ethics and humanities into the medical school administrative structure. The fourth theme underscores how outcomes-based assessment should reflect developmental milestones for professional attributes and conduct. The participants emphasized that ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that promote professionalism should be taught with accountability, flexibility, and the premise that all these traits are essential to the formation of a modern professional physician. PMID:25539516
Falkenbach, A; Blumenthal, E; Bühring, M
Massage courses for medical students have been held at Frankfurt University Medical School since 1987. To evaluate the motives for participation and to record possible changes in the attitude towards massage therapy, the students were asked to fill out a standardized questionnaire in 1990, 1993 and 1995/96. The results show that the motive for participation and the attitude towards massage therapy remained widely unchanged during these years. Summarizing all data (n = 199) the motives for participation were: (1) to practise massage therapy (86%), (2) to be better able to (later) prescribe massage therapy (66%), (3) to improve palpation skills (75%), (4) to do 'something practical' (56%), and (5) to (later) practise massage therapy as a medical doctor (23%). On average, the proportion of theory and practical instruction of 1:3.2 was considered suitable. PMID:10211294
Tolsgaard, Martin G; Rasmussen, Maria B; Bjørck, Sebastian; Gustafsson, Amandus; Ringsted, Charlotte V
Training in pairs (dyad practice) has been shown to improve efficiency of clinical skills training compared with single practice but little is known about students' perception of dyad practice. The aim of this study was to explore the reactions and attitudes of medical students who were instructed to work in pairs during clinical skills training. A follow-up pilot survey consisting of four open-ended questions was administered to 24 fourth-year medical students, who completed four hours of dyad practice in managing patient encounters. The responses were analyzed using thematic analysis. The students felt dyad practice improved their self-efficacy through social interaction with peers, provided useful insight through observation, and contributed with shared memory of what to do, when they forgot essential steps of the physical examination of the patient. However, some students were concerned about decreased hands-on practice and many students preferred to continue practising alone after completing the initial training. Dyad practice is well received by students during initial skills training and is associated with several benefits to learning through peer observation, feedback and cognitive support. Whether dyad training is suited for more advanced learners is a subject for future research. PMID:25073865
Tolsgaard, Martin G; Rasmussen, Maria B
Training in pairs (dyad practice) has been shown to improve efficiency of clinical skills training compared with single practice but little is known about students' perception of dyad practice. The aim of this study was to explore the reactions and attitudes of medical students who were instructed to work in pairs during clinical skills training. A follow-up pilot survey consisting of four open-ended questions was administered to 24 fourth-year medical students, who completed four hours of dyad practice in managing patient encounters. The responses were analyzed using thematic analysis. The students felt dyad practice improved their self-efficacy through social interaction with peers, provided useful insight through observation, and contributed with shared memory of what to do, when they forgot essential steps of the physical examination of the patient. However, some students were concerned about decreased hands-on practice and many students preferred to continue practising alone after completing the initial training. Dyad practice is well received by students during initial skills training and is associated with several benefits to learning through peer observation, feedback and cognitive support. Whether dyad training is suited for more advanced learners is a subject for future research.
Dr. Lajos Ángyán
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure selected anthropometrical characteris-tics, motor abilities and cardiorespiratory functions of medical students. Eighty-seven students were involved in this investigation. The students were categorized into five groups: (1 recreational, doing sport activities irregularly, (2 basketball and (3 handball players, having training at least two times per week, as well as men (4 and women (5 students entering medical school. In all groups the mean body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio were at the upper level of the normal range, while body fat percentage was similar to standards for sedentary subjects. Better motor per-formances were obtained from the basketball and handball players than from the other groups. Static strength for the sample was somewhat above the normal sedentary level. The resting blood pressure and heart rate for most subjects were in the normal. Cardiovascular risk factors were found in six students. Their systolic blood pressure was above 140 mm Hg. There were no sub-jects identified with low blood pressure. The heart rate was elevated for three students from the recreational group, and in the women. Bradycardia did not occur. The vital capacity and the ability to hold one?s breath was at the upper level of the normal range. The present results emphasis the need to improve the students` prevention oriented life style through participation in exercising.
Jensen, Anne Winther
The paper discusses students' process of acquiring a feeling of being professionals within a vocational education programme for elderly care in Denmark. The focus is on what seems to be a paradox within the programme: the future care helper being constructed within the overall term ‘the professional care helper’ in the school setting but the job being closely related to daily life's routine tasks; the paper points to difficulties for students in identifying the exact content of the term ‘professional’. Furthermore students seem to be uncertain about their ‘professionalism’ in relation to other health professionals, when they are in the work place setting. The analysis indicates that the care work programme still struggles to make a clear distinction between the former non-paid female domestic work and the current work carried out by the care workers. The analysis mobilises the concept ‘storyline’, c.f. Bronwyn Davies and the empirical material consists of observations and interviews in the theoretical periodsand in the traineeships.
Juan Pablo, Beca I; Francisca, Browne L; Paula, Repetto L; Armando, Ortiz P; Camila, Salas A.
Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: The relationship between medical students and patients has special characteristics that require to be well understood to prepare both students and tutors. Aim: To learn about medical students' thoughts and experiences once they start working with patients, how do they solve difficulties [...] or problems and their perceptions about professional roles and patient rights. Material and methods: Qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews applied to 30 volunteer third year medical students who were beginning their clinical practice. The answers to open questions were transcribed and then analized and grouped by topics and categories. Results: Helping others was the main motivation to go to medical school. Other reasons were scientific interest and social status. Students felt prepared to communicate with patients. However they felt anxious, stressful and fearful of not being competent or not being able to answer patients' questions. There were some differences between male and female students' feelings. Nevertheless students declared that they had rewarding experiences with patients. They all recognized that patients have the right to reject being treated by students. The answers also showed that the first clinical experiences led to significant changes in their views of the medical profession. Conclusions: Students are aware of their trainee condition, the benefits that they obtain being in contact with patients and of their limitations. Patients must voluntarily accept to be subject of the students' training program and informed consent procedures need to be developed
Full Text Available Background: Stress in medical students is not uncommon and is process orientated. Although minimal amount of stress is desirable and is necessary to spark in a healthy competitive spirit, the undue stress has undesirable impact on students.Objective: The present study was designed with an aim to evaluate different stress factors among the first MBBS students.Method: The participants were asked to complete a pre-tested and pre-designed questionnaire that included a list of sources of stress.Results: The most common stress factor reported by participants were high parental expectations (80.9%, vast syllabus (73%, worry about future (71.3%, long duration of course (67.3%, frequency of examinations (66.7%, performance in formative and summative examination (66%, low self esteem (62.3%, lack of sleep (54% and lack of emotional and social support (38%.Conclusion: The life of medical student is stressful. Our study highlights the need for interventions in to cope up stress in medical education. Student counselling and informal mentorship is need of hour.
Full Text Available The article presents the structure of personal features of students decided to devote their life to medical profession, their personal readiness for a profession of a doctor. 241 students going to enter the Saratov Medical University in 2013 serve as an object of research. Methods of research included psychology tests on a self-assessment of a mental state, ability to empathy, a motivation orientation. Result. It was revealed that the majority of respondents low level of uneasiness, low level of frustration, the average level of aggression, the average level of a rigidity, and also high rates on an empathy scale. The types of the personality in relation to work are emotive and intuitive. Prevalence of motive of achievement of success or motive of avoiding of failures directly depends on specifics of a situation. Conclusion. Students possess qualities which are necessary in professional activity for doctors, namely high resistance to stress, absence of fear before difficulties, low level of rigidity, high level of empathy, the average level of aggression. Students are motivated on success, in situations when they are fully confident.
Full Text Available Introduction: Reflection is considered as a critical characteristic in professional competitions. Despite propagation of reflection as an important educational issue and existence of several helpful patterns, instructions conducted by teachers to explaining and expanding of it, are very little. Studies related to this topic were mainly performed in the field of nursing. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the effects of reflection on medical students. Methods: In 2012, between July and December, one hundred medical students who were training in pediatric department of Tabriz children´ hospital, were included in this interventional (before and after study. At the beginning a questionnaire was filled by participants as “pretest”. Then, in a workshop, principles of reflection and learning domain were taught to them. A notebook entitled “What I have learned” was prepared by them and daily learning was recorded in three aspects of reflection (mirror, microscope and binocular. After three months the same questionnaires were filled as “posttest”. Results obtained from comparing pretest and posttest and information acquired from students notebook were the basis for statistical analyze. Results: There was statistically significant difference for each question (P < 0.05. Deepening the learning, reducing errors, organizing and integrating of individual knowledge, increasing confidence and responsibility, improved patient care and accuracy of interventions were some benefits of this method. Conclusion: Reflection is very helpful educational strategy and can help the students in their communication and increasing skill and knowledge. It also helps to organize and integrate their learning by guiding them in clinical situations.
Dr. Shahu Ingole
Full Text Available Purpose: Promotion by pharmaceutical company often takes advantage of mental shortcuts. Significant deficiencies have been found in student’s knowledge about pharmaceutical marketing expenditures, professional ethics and accuracy of drug information. The purpose of study was to assess the attitudes of medical students towards relationship with pharmaceutical companies and drug promotion by them. Methods: To assess the attitudes, a prevalidated questionnaire consisting of 18 questions was designed. Questionnaire was istributed when a series of lectures were scheduled for the entire medical class (253 medical students. Completed questionnaires werecollected at the end of the session and analysis was done using statistical methods. Results: Overall 81% of the medical students were of the opinion that pharmaceutical companies should be allowed to interact with them at the college level. About 95% believe that the information given by MRs is reliable and confirmation of the claims is not required (75% students. Overall 68% students believe that drug promotional offers never compromise the decision making of the physicians. About 70% students think that physicians should be compensated with gifts by medical representatives whenever their drugs are prescribed. Conclusion: The medical students are generally not opposed to interact with MR at some point of time or receive gifts from them. Also many students may not be conscious potential subconscious expectations of give-and-take relationship. Perhaps, the insight gained from our study will be used to reinforce the existing teaching curriculum with added emphasis on this issue.
Presents possible prevention and treatment strategies for combating burnout among college student affairs professionals. Includes definition of burnout, review of symptoms of burnout, discussion of causes of burnout, and suggestions for treatment and prevention of burnout. Interventions discussed include personal counseling, using stress…
Timostsuk, Inge; Ugaste, Aino
This paper presents findings of a qualitative interview study of the role of emotions in the professional identity of student teachers. Strong positive and negative emotions (mostly related to pupils and supervisors) were expressed about personal teaching experiences. The results confirm that emotions play an important role in social learning and,…
Choi-Pearson, Catherine; Castillo, Linda; Maples, Mary Finn
This study examined the impact of gender, race, intergroup contact, and diversity training on racial prejudice of student affairs professionals. Diversity training and race of participants were statistically significant contributors to change in racial prejudice. Findings suggest that racial prejudice decreases as diversity training increases.…
Wilkins, Keely; Caldarella, Paul; Crook-Lyon, Rachel E.; Young, K. Richard
Many authors regard education as a way of increasing civility in society, and some have implemented interventions to improve civility in schools. However, very little empirical data exist on the extent and nature of students' civil behavior. The present study systematically gathered data from 251 school professionals regarding their perceptions of…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education can affect medical students’ physical and mental health as well as their quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess medical students’ perceptions of their quality of life and its relationship with medical education. Methods First- to sixth-year students from six Brazilian medical schools were interviewed using focus groups to explore what medical student’s lives are like, factors related to increases and decreases of their quality of life during medical school, and how they deal with the difficulties in their training. Results Students reported a variety of difficulties and crises during medical school. Factors that were reported to decrease their quality of life included competition, unprepared teachers, excessive activities, and medical school schedules that demanded exclusive dedication. Contact with pain, death and suffering and harsh social realities influence their quality of life, as well as frustrations with the program and insecurity regarding their professional future. The scarcity of time for studying, leisure activities, relationships, and rest was considered the main factor of influence. Among factors that increase quality of life are good teachers, classes with good didactic approaches, active learning methodologies, contact with patients, and efficient time management. Students also reported that meaningful relationships with family members, friends, or teachers increase their quality of life. Conclusion Quality of teachers, curricula, healthy lifestyles related to eating habits, sleep, and physical activity modify medical students’ quality of life. Lack of time due to medical school obligations was a major impact factor. Students affirm their quality of life is influenced by their medical school experiences, but they also reframe their difficulties, herein represented by their poor quality of life, understood as necessary and inherent to the process of becoming doctors.
The summer season at CERN is known for the traditional visit of Summer Students coming from Member and non-Member States. This time, a total of 176 future scientists are spending part of their summer with us, learning and working in the laboratory. Summer Students enjoying a lecture on particle physics by Ronald Kleiss. Now that summer has finally arrived, you'll have noticed some changes at CERN: longer queues at the bar, faces you don't recognise in the corridors, and a breath of fresh air, but where is it coming from? The answer is easy: the Summer Students are here! Aged between 20 and 27, this group of 176 future scientists has been selected from 600 candidates to spend their summer at the Laboratory. This year, there are 24 more 'Summies' than last following a recommendation in the 2000 5-yearly review to increase the number of students. The Summies mainly come from Member States, but this year there are also 11 Americans, two Mexicans, an Armenian, a Turk, a Pakistani and two South Africans. Judith N...
Haggerty, Kevin D.
This article aims to demystify some of the realities of graduate education for the next generation of professors in the humanities and social sciences. Its "tell it like it is" orientation is designed to ensure that graduate students have a firm understanding of the institution they are entering, and will hopefully help them avoid any number of…
Rose, Gail L; Rukstalis, Margaret R; Schuckit, Marc A
Mentoring skills are valuable assets for academic medicine faculty, who help shape the professionalism of the next generation of physicians. Mentors are role models who also act as guides for students' personal and professional development over time. Mentors can be instrumental in conveying explicit academic knowledge required to master curriculum content. Importantly, they can enhance implicit knowledge about the "hidden curriculum" of professionalism, ethics, values and the art of medicine not learned from texts. In many cases, mentors also provide emotional support and encouragement. The relationship benefits mentors as well, through greater productivity, career satisfaction, and personal gratification. Maximizing the satisfaction and productivity of such relationships entails self-awareness, focus, mutual respect, and explicit communication about the relationship. In this article, the authors describe the development of optimal mentoring relationships, emphasizing the importance of experience and flexibility in working with beginning to advanced students of different learning styles, genders, and races. Concrete advice for mentor "do's and don'ts"is offered, with case examples illustrating key concepts. PMID:15793017
AlGhamdi, Khalid M; Moussa, Noura A.; AlEssa, Dana S.; AlOthimeen, Nermeen; Al-Saud, Adwa S.
We aimed to explore perceptions, attitudes and practices toward research among medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among senior medical students at the King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Lindenthal, JJ; DeLisa, JA; Heinrich, GF; Calderón Gerstein, WS
Physicians are required to advocate for and counsel patients based on the best science and the interests of the individual while avoiding discrimination, ensuring equal access to health and mental services. Nonetheless, the communication gap between physician and patients has long been observed. To this end, the Institute for the Public Understanding of Health and Medicine of the Rutgers University New Jersey Medical School has expanded its efforts. This report describes two new programs: a legacy lecture series for medical students and an international “experience”, in Huancayo, Peru, for medical students and faculty. The MiniMed outreach program, now in its ninth year and first described in this journal in 2012, was designed to empower the powerless to communicate more effectively with clinicians, thus improving both the effectiveness of the physician–patient relationship and health care outcomes. The approach of the two new programs and their effects on patients, particularly the underserved, and medical students and faculty, are outlined in the following article. PMID:25834472
G?siorowski, Jakub; Rudowicz, El?bieta; Safranow, Krzysztof
This longitudinal study aimed at investigating Polish medical students' career choice motivation, factors influencing specialty choices, professional plans and expectations. The same cohort of students responded to the same questionnaire, at the end of Year 1 and Year 6. The Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U tests and logistic regression were used in analyses. The results showed that altruistic and scientific reasons were the main motives for choosing a medical career. The motives remained stable over time. The effect of gender on altruistic motivation was stronger at the end of the study, with females' rating higher. The most favored career paths were associated with non-primary care specializations and work in a hospital. Results of the multivariate logistic regression showed that primary care specializations were more attractive to females, final year students, those from small agglomerations, and those less concerned about high earnings. Preferences regarding sector of work were formed at later stages of training. A preference shift was observed, between Year 1 and Year 6, towards favoring work in the public sector. Predictors of the desire to work in the public sector were: being a male and the final year student, paying less attention to high earnings, wanting certainty of finding work, having a stronger need for interesting and socially important work. A significant decline in the level of interest in seeking employment abroad was observed with the progress of studies. Our findings are likely to provide useful information for educators, policy planners and policy makers. PMID:25352498
Hunt, Jeffrey; Barrett, Rowland; Grapentine, W. Lex; Liguori, Gina; Trivedi, Harsh K.
Objectives: The ability to develop quality medical student exposures in child and adolescent psychiatry is critical to the professional development of these future physicians and to the growth of recruitment efforts into the field. This study identifies teaching perspectives among child and adolescent psychiatry faculty to determine whether there…
Full Text Available JJ Lindenthal,1,2 JA DeLisa,3 GF Heinrich,4 WS Calderón Gerstein,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Institute for the Public Understanding of Health and Medicine, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA; 3Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of New Mexico Health Science Center, Albuquerque, NM, USA; 4Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA; 5Hospital Nacional Ramiro Prialé, EsSalud, Huancayo, Peru Abstract: Physicians are required to advocate for and counsel patients based on the best science and the interests of the individual while avoiding discrimination, ensuring equal access to health and mental services. Nonetheless, the communication gap between physician and patients has long been observed. To this end, the Institute for the Public Understanding of Health and Medicine of the Rutgers University New Jersey Medical School has expanded its efforts. This report describes two new programs: a legacy lecture series for medical students and an international “experience”, in Huancayo, Peru, for medical students and faculty. The MiniMed outreach program, now in its ninth year and first described in this journal in 2012, was designed to empower the powerless to communicate more effectively with clinicians, thus improving both the effectiveness of the physician–patient relationship and health care outcomes. The approach of the two new programs and their effects on patients, particularly the underserved, and medical students and faculty, are outlined in the following article. Keywords: MiniMed program, equal access, underserved populations, Newark Renaissance House, Kintock Group, role modeling
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the perspectives of the academic medical staff and residents concerning continuing professional development in a medical faculty.Method: This descriptive research was performed on 152 academic medical staff and residents who was accepted to participate in the study in a medical faculty in August 2007. Study data was collected through face to face interviews by a questionnaire made up of three parts and 40 questions.Results: Sixty-seven point eight percent of the participants were informed about the continuing medical education and 7.9% of them were informed about continuing professional development. 45.4% participated in activities concerning continuing medical education. The factor negatively affecting participation in activities was lack of information (44.7%. Educational activities inside the department were found as the activities most frequented, 66.4% and courses in the congresses were found as the most effective educational activities (49.2%.Conclusion: The participants were well-informed about continuing medical education, while their knowledge about continuing professional development was low. Inducing and motivating doctors for participating in continuing professional development activities is critically important for both doctors and health care system.
Mihciokur, Sare; Akin, Ayse; Dogan, Bahar Guciz; Ozvaris, Sevkat Bahar
Abortion has been legal and safe in Turkey since 1983, but the unmet need for safe abortion services remains high. Many medical practitioners believe that the introduction of medical abortion would address this. However, since 2012 there has been political opposition to the provision of abortion services. The government has been threatening to restrict the law, and following an administrative change in booking of appointments, some hospital clinics that provided family planning and abortion services had to stop providing abortions. Thus, the availability of safe abortion depends not only on permissive legislation but also political support and the ability of health professionals to provide it. We conducted a study among university medical school students in three provinces on their knowledge of abortion and abortion methods, to try to understand their future practice intentions. Pre-tested, structured, self-administered questionnaires were answered by 209 final-year medical students. The students' level of knowledge of abortion and abortion methods was very low. More than three-quarters had heard of surgical abortion, but only 56% mentioned medical abortion. Although nearly 90% supported making abortion services available in Turkey, their willingness to provide surgical abortion (16%) or medical abortion (15%) was low, due to lack of knowledge. Abortion care, including medical abortion, needs to be included in the medical school curriculum in order to safeguard this women's health service. PMID:25702066
Background Emotional intelligence (EI) is increasingly discussed as having a potential role in medicine, nursing, and other healthcare disciplines, both for personal mental health and professional practice. Stress has been identified as being high for students in healthcare courses. This study investigated whether EI and stress differed among students in four health professions (dental, nursing, graduate mental health workers, medical) and whether there was evidence that EI might serve as a buffer for stress. Method The Schutte Emotional Intelligence and the Perceived Stress scale instruments were administered to four groups of healthcare students in their first year of study in both the autumn and summer terms of the 2005-6 academic year. The groups were undergraduate dental, nursing and medical students, and postgraduate mental health workers. Results No significant differences were found between males and females nor among professional groups for the EI measure. Dental students reported significantly higher stress than medical students. EI was found to be only moderately stable in test-retest scores. Some evidence was found for EI as a possible factor in mediating stress. Students in different health profession courses did not show significant differences in Emotional Intelligence. Conclusion While stress and EI showed a moderate relationship, results of this study do not allow the direction of relationship to be determined. The limitations and further research questions raised in this study are discussed along with the need for refinement of the EI construct and measures, particularly if Emotional Intelligence were to be considered as a possible selection criterion, as has been suggested by some authors. PMID:19761603
Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotional intelligence (EI is increasingly discussed as having a potential role in medicine, nursing, and other healthcare disciplines, both for personal mental health and professional practice. Stress has been identified as being high for students in healthcare courses. This study investigated whether EI and stress differed among students in four health professions (dental, nursing, graduate mental health workers, medical and whether there was evidence that EI might serve as a buffer for stress. Method The Schutte Emotional Intelligence and the Perceived Stress scale instruments were administered to four groups of healthcare students in their first year of study in both the autumn and summer terms of the 2005-6 academic year. The groups were undergraduate dental, nursing and medical students, and postgraduate mental health workers. Results No significant differences were found between males and females nor among professional groups for the EI measure. Dental students reported significantly higher stress than medical students. EI was found to be only moderately stable in test-retest scores. Some evidence was found for EI as a possible factor in mediating stress. Students in different health profession courses did not show significant differences in Emotional Intelligence. Conclusion While stress and EI showed a moderate relationship, results of this study do not allow the direction of relationship to be determined. The limitations and further research questions raised in this study are discussed along with the need for refinement of the EI construct and measures, particularly if Emotional Intelligence were to be considered as a possible selection criterion, as has been suggested by some authors.
Full Text Available The article discusses the positive and negative impact of the new Federal state educational standards of higher professional education on the quality of studying the discipline «Law» in medical schools
Hoang, Don; Kim T. Nguyen
Vietnam has had a long history of international mission teams that volunteer needed surgical care to underserved populations for various medical problems. As senior medical students, we joined a non-profit organization’s surgical mission trip led by a community practice surgeon and staffed by 32 health care professionals to provide cleft lip and palate reconstructions for 75 patients at a local hospital in Nha Trang, Vietnam. As a surgical mission team in a resource-poor country, we intende...
Tang, Tricia S.; Skye, Eric P.
Patients' receptivity towards medical student participation has been examined predominantly from the patient and/or the medical student perspective. Few studies have investigated the preceptor's perspective. The study examined preceptors' experience with patients declining medical student participation in clinical care and identified…
Mamatya, A; Prajapati, R; Yadav, R
College students form a large and important group of population eligible for blood donation. Studies report that students do not donate much, and medical students' blood donation rate is less as compared to non-medical students. To assess and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice of blood donation among medical and non-medical Nepalese students. A cross-sectional descriptive study using structured self-administered questionnaire was conducted in students of medical (MBBS) and non-medical programs of different colleges of Nepal. Total 456 students, 177 non-medical and 279 medical, participated; 28.5% students were donors. More medical students donated blood, more often, and were more knowledgeable in all aspects of blood and blood donation related knowledge (p values 0.01 or less). In both groups, proportionately more boys donated than girls. Common reasons for not donating included no request, medically unfit, no information about blood collection services, fear of weakness, and fear related to venepuncture. Moral satisfaction was the commonest reason to donate. Among Nepalese students, medical students donate more and are more knowledgeable than non-medical students. Lack of information and lack of direct requests are important causes of fewer donors in the non-medical group and girls. PMID:24579535
Ismail Mamudo; Fresta Mário; Severo Milton; Barbosa Joselina; Ferreira Maria; Barros Henrique
Abstract Background A global effort has been made in the last years to establish a set of core competences that define the essential professional competence of a physician. Regardless of the environment, culture or medical education conditions, a set of core competences is required for medical practice worldwide. Evaluation of educational program is always needed to assure the best training for medical students and ultimately best care for patients. The aim of this study was to determine in w...
Gholami-kordkheili, Fatemeh; Wild, Verina; Strech, Daniel
Background: The rising impact of social media on the private and working lives of health care professionals has made researchers and health care institutions study and rethink the concept and content of medical professionalism in the digital age. In the last decade, several specific policies, original research studies, and comments have been published on the responsible use of social media by health care professionals. However, there is no systematic literature review that analyzes the full s...
Garvey, Katharine C.; Kesselheim, Jennifer C.; Herrick, Daniel B.; Woolf, Alan D.; Leichtner, Alan M.
The deterioration of humanism and professionalism during graduate medical training is an acknowledged concern, and programs are required to provide professionalism education for pediatric fellows. We conducted a needs assessment survey in a national sample of 138 first- and second-year gastroenterology fellows (82% response rate). Most believed that present humanism and professionalism education met their needs, but this education was largely informal (eg, role modeling). Areas for formal edu...
Full Text Available This goal of this study is to present the levels of importance and knowledge that students of the UFSC Undergraduate Program in Accounting Sciences identify for the exercise of the professional practice. The study was conducted through a survey that used two questionnaires (A and B structured based on Likert scale. Questionnaire "A" sought to identify the importance of the course content to professional practice, and questionnaire "B" identified the level of perception that the students indicate to have of their ability for the professional practice. The contents of the two instruments were based on the dictionary of competencies developed by Cardoso (2006. Data were analyzed by means of national curriculum guidelines of Accounting Sciences, established by Resolution CNE / CES No 10/2004, which presents some caveats to the limits of the approach by competencies. The students in this study indicate how important it is to have knowledge on the language and orality inherent to the accounting practice, the state to have reasonable knowledge to work in the professional practice. Such data allow us to reflect and rethink the training organization model aimed at increasing more critical formative processes that will prioritize actions and knowledge in the articulation between accounting theory and practice.
Bjørneboe, John; Flørenes, Tonje Wåle; Bahr, Roald; Andersen, Thor Einar
Since the 2000 season, an injury surveillance system has been established to monitor injury risk and injury patterns in the Norwegian professional football league. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of routine injury registration performed by medical staff in professional football. The team medical staff completed injury registration forms on a monthly basis throughout the 2007 season (January-October). Players were interviewed at the end of the season (October/November) about a...
Full Text Available Learning results in gain of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Some like to learn by seeing, some by hearing and some by demonstration. Learning style influences the retention of information and depth of comprehension. Understanding their preferred learning styles as visual, auditory, read-write or kinesthetic learners will help improve the teaching methods adopted. Role of the educator necessitates making the most of each teaching opportunity by understanding the characteristics of the learning audience and incorporating demonstrated principles of adult educational design, with a focus on collaborative learning and variety in presentation techniques. The goal is to provide student oriented education, producing efficient doctors. A cross-sectional study among 92 medical students of the Govt. Medical College, Bhavnagar, conducted in 2009. VARK questionnaire was used to access their learning preference. Preference for different learning styles were, visual (V 1.08%, auditory (A 20.65%, reading/writing (R 2.17% and kinesthetic (K 17.39%. 41.30% of the total 92 students preferred a single mode of information presentation. Of the 92 students who preferred multiple modes of information presentation, some preferred two modes (bimodal, 31.52%, some preferred three modes (tri-modal, 27.13%, and only one student preferred quadri-modal.
Lewis, Kadriye O.; McVay-Dyche, Jennifer; Chen, Haiqin; Seto, Teresa L.
As the number of online degree programs continues to grow, one of the greatest challenges is developing a sense of community among learners who do not convene at the same time and place. This study examined the sense of community among medical professionals in an online graduate program for healthcare professionals. We took the sample from a fully…
The reengineering of nurse training implies the implementation of self-development, empowering tools and a reshaping of the function of accompaniment during training which becomes a shared function. This work is part of a psycho-socio-educational approach of the accompaniment to self-directed learning and also in the field of practices of health and social work. This study contributes to the identification of the conditions of efficiency of contracting between student nurses, tutors and instructors. It aims to explore the interest of a triangular steering of the learning contract centered on the student's individual project and also the interest of meetings during training as triggers to a process of self-construction of competences. Moreover, the study aims to identify the effects of contract on professionalization. Our study reverts to the basic question of learning by contract as a pillar for the self-directed learning in an alternating training context. The empirical approach takes into account a qualitative study carried out with 15 people (tutors, managers, student nurses and instructors) in 3 health care structures and a quantitative study based on 78 first year students, 106 second year students, and 47 third year students at the same nursing education institute. The study shows that learning by contract is empowering and professionalizing, if the student is placed in favorable conditions of learning and contractual relationship. PMID:23671991
Amalraj Edwin R; Chandrasekaran Nirmala; Solomon Sunithi; Sumbandam Raja P
Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had...
Full Text Available Background: In recent years there has been a rising optimistic reception on the stresses involved in professional examination as this may affect student’s wellbeing, learning and academic performance.Competitiveness in today’s world has made stress inevitable in life. Medical students face stress in all stages of their academic career, including pre-clinical, paraclinical, and clinical years. The students of first M.B.B.S. probably face a major stress especially during the first credit examination.Materials and Methods: Study was carried out among first year MBBS students of Sri Muthukumaran Medical College during November 2012. 108 first year MBBS students were randomly selected and first part of study captured personal data. The rest comprised anthropometric measurements [ht(cms , wt(kgs] and pulse rate and blood pressure recordings ten days before, on the day(one hour before the examination and ten days after first credit examination. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software version 2.0. Student’s t- test was used to compare the data and p value < 0.05 was considered significant.Result: The overall response rate was 72% (108 out of 150 students. It was observed that 29 males (60 % and 32 (53% females students were having increase in pulse rate and systolic blood pressure one hour before the examination compared to pulse rate(PR and systolic blood pressure(SBP ten days before and ten days after the examination. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP was also increased one hour before to examination compared to ten days before examination, though the difference was not statistically significant.Conclusion: It is evident that the first year MBBS students undergo stress during their academic examinations and need for the hour is to use interventions like social and psychological to improve the quality of life. Student advisors and counsellors can train students about stress management.
Claudia K. Sellers; Suvanka Pa
The cerebellum is central to normal motor function and co-ordination, and can be frequently affected in a number of common disease processes. However, medical student teaching relating to cerebellar anatomy and pathology is lacking, leaving many graduates with a significant knowledge gap. Junior doctors need to be able to recognize ‘cerebellar syndromes’ on presentation to hospitals, and to identify and manage reversible causes rapidly and effectively. After review of relevant literature,...
Srivastava, Kalpana; Joshi, Saumya; Raichaudhuri, Arkojyoti; Ryali, VSSR; Bhat, P. S.; Shashikumar, R.; Prakash, J.; Basannar, D.
Background: Emotional Intelligence has been associated with positive outcome process in varied professions. There is paucity of Indian literature on the subject; especially involving medical undergraduates; and presently there is no scale available to measure the same in the Indian scenario. Objective: To develop a scale to measure Emotional Intelligence among medical undergraduates. Materials and Methods: Four domains of Emotional intelligence were selected, viz. Self-Awareness, Self-Management, Social-Awareness & Social-Skills and these were included for the purpose of domains of the scale. On the basis of focused group discussions and in-depth deliberations with experts, undergraduate and postgraduate medical students a pool of 50 items was generated. The items were reduced to 27 based on expert consensus and on the basis of frequency of endorsement by expert reviews. It was followed by a pilot study of 50 undergraduates. This completed the preparation of the preliminary draft based on content analysis. The questionnaire was then administered in 480 students and the data was analyzed by appropriate statistical methods. For the purpose of concurrent validity, emotional intelligence scale developed by Dr. Ekta was used. Results: The Cronbach's Alpha for Internal Consistency Reliability was 0.68. The EIS had a significant correlation with social awareness domain of Emotional Intelligence Test (EIT) establishing Concurrent Validity. Conclusion: Emotional Intelligence Scale for medical undergraduates was constructed. Reliability and concurrent validity were also established for the same. PMID:22969179
Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep
Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…
Full Text Available Introduction:Clinical teachers have an important role in creating an environment for effective clinical teaching to students. In addition, the faculty has a significant impact on the students' feeling of success or failure in professional competence. This study was performed to determine the characteristics of an influential instructor according to the nursing students' viewpoints in Jahrom University of Medical Sciences.Material and Methods:In this cross-sectional survey, 75 nursing students of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences were selected by census sampling method. The data collection tool was a valid and reliable questionnaire consisting of 4 domains including professional competence, interpersonal relationship, personality characteristics, and teaching ability. The data were analyzed by SPSS.Results:The results showed that influential clinical teacher must be professionally competent (mean=4.4 ± 0.80, have interpersonal relationships (mean=4.2 ± 0.96 have good personality characteristics (mean=4.1 ± 0.95, and have high eaching ability (mean=4 ± 0.89. According to the students, the most important characteristics of an influential clinical instructor are having interest in patient care (98.4%, having sufficient professional knowledge (80%, explaining and demonstrating new nursing techniques (80%, performing nursing skills procedures (86.3%, being honest with the students and creating motivation in students (83%.Conclusion:The nursing students' viewpoints indicated that influential clinical instructor has an important role in promoting quality nursing experience and in getting knowledge, professional skills and attitude. Nursing faculty should plan for promoting professional competency in clinical instructors.
Koole Sebastiaan; Dornan Tim; Aper Leen; Scherpbier Albert; Valcke Martin; Cohen-Schotanus Janke; Derese Anselme
Abstract Background Reflection on professional experience is increasingly accepted as a critical attribute for health care practice; however, evidence that it has a positive impact on performance remains scarce. This study investigated whether, after allowing for the effects of knowledge and consultation skills, reflection had an independent effect on students’ ability to solve problem cases. Methods Data was collected from 362 undergraduate medical students at Ghent University solving vide...
Vibe, Michael; Solhaug, Ida; Tyssen, Reidar; Friborg, Oddgeir; Rosenvinge, Jan H.; Sørlie, Tore; Bjørndal, Arild
Background: Distress and burnout among medical and psychology professionals are commonly reported and have implications for the quality of patient care delivered. Already in the course of university studies, medicine and psychology students report mental distress and low life satisfaction. There is a need for interventions that promote better coping skills in students in order to prevent distress and future burnout. This study examines the effect of a seven-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduc...
Vibe, Michael; Solhaug, Ida; Tyssen, Reidar; Friborg, Oddgeir; Rosenvinge, Jan H.; Sørlie, Tore; Bjørndal, Arild
Background: Distress and burnout among medical and psychology professionals are commonly reported and have implications for the quality of patient care delivered. Already in the course of university studies, medicine and psychology students report mental distress and low life satisfaction. There is a need for interventions that promote better coping skills in students in order to prevent distress and future burnout. This study examines the effect of a seven-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduc...
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and behavior toward antibiotic self-medication among medical and non-medical university students in Iran. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 200 students randomly chosen from a medical and a non-medical university in Ahwaz, South of Iran in 2008. Data was collected using self administered questionnaires with open-ended and close-ended items. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 14 and the results were presented as the percentage 97.5% of respondents filled and returned the questionnaire. Self-medication with antibiotics was reported by 42.2% of the medical and 48% of the non-medical students during the last 3 months. Respiratory problems such as sore throat and common cold was the main indication for self-medication with antibiotics (73.3% and amoxicillin was the most commonly used antibiotic in both groups. The choice of self-medication was based on medical knowledge among medical students (50% and on a previous suggestion by a physician (32.6% for the non-medical ones. The prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics among medical and non-medical students was high. Educational programs are needed to teach university students about the potential problems of self-medication with antibiotics.
Frost, Katherine A; Metcalf, Elizabeth P; Brooks, Rachel; Kinnersley, Paul; Greenwood, Stephen R; Powell, Colin VE
Background Delivering effective clinical pediatric communication skills training to undergraduate medical students is a distinct and important challenge. Pediatric-specific communication skills teaching is complex and under-researched. We report on the development of a scenario-based pediatric clinical communication skills program as well as students’ assessment of this module. Methods We designed a pediatric clinical communication skills program and delivered it five times during one academic year via small-group teaching. Students were asked to score the workshop in eight domains (learning objectives, complexity, interest, competencies, confidence, tutors, feedback, and discussion) using 5-point Likert scales, along with free text comments that were grouped and analyzed thematically, identifying both the strengths of the workshop and changes suggested to improve future delivery. Results Two hundred and twenty-one of 275 (80%) student feedback forms were returned. Ninety-six percent of students’ comments were positive or very positive, highlighting themes such as the timing of teaching, relevance, group sizes, and the use of actors, tutors, and clinical scenarios. Conclusion Scenario-based teaching of clinical communication skills is positively received by students. Studies need to demonstrate an impact on practice, performance, development, and sustainability of communications training. PMID:25653569
Full Text Available Background: Sleep has a major role in daily cycles and reconstruction of physical and mental abilities. Regarding the importance of this feature, we decided to determine sleep quality in medical students.Methods: A questionnaire containing demographic data, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was prepared. We distributed the questionnaires using a census method to every student at the Zanjan Faculty of Medicine. The completed questionnaires were collected and the data was analyzed using SPSS.Results: A total of 224 students answered the questionnaire, with 133 (59.4% students evaluated to have good sleep quality and 91 (40.6% poor sleep quality. Of these 91 students, 38% were female and 44.8% were male (p=0.307. The prevalence of poor sleep quality according to the four stages of medical training was 24.6% of those in basic sciences, 42.9% of those in physiopathology, 41.7% of externs, and 53.5% of interns (p=0.008. According to residential status, the prevalence of poor sleep quality was 61.5% among students living with their spouse, 44.6% for students living in their own private homes, 37.6% among students living in the dormitory, and 20.8% for those living with their parents (p=0.024. According to marital status, 35.8% of singles and 64.9% of married students had poor sleep quality (p=0.001. According to financial status, 57.9%, 46.9%, and 33.9% of those from low, moderate and high economic classes, respectively, were sleep deprived (p=0.049. Among those with average grades of under 16 and over 16 out of 20, 47.5% and 32%, respectively, were suffering from poor sleep quality (p=0.047. There was no obvious relationship between sleep quality and BMI, sex, or history of depression or anxiety.Conclusion: Poor sleep quality was significantly associated with lower grades, economic status, living arrangement and type of training. A large number of students quality of life and work may suffer because sleep deprivation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS. Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE's in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE's and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5 and sixty four nursing students (Year 2/3 of 4 were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE's for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33/46; 72% and 81% of nursing students (56/64 passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.
Ryan, C Anthony
Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS). Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE\\'s) in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE\\'s and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5) and sixty four nursing students (Year 2\\/3 of 4) were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE\\'s for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33\\/46; 72%) and 81% of nursing students (56\\/64) passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.
VIDYAMAVILA CHATHOTH; BHAGYALAKSHMI KODAVANJI; NAYANATARA ARUNKUMAR; SHEILA RAMESH PAI
Considering the explosive growth in internet use among medical students in India, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of internet addiction in undergraduate medical students.This cross-sectional study involved 90 subjects (18-20 years of age) selected by random sampling from the first year undergraduate medical student population at Kasturba Medical College Mangalore. Young’s Internet addiction test questionnaire was administered. Based on the scoring, subjects were classified into...
Phillips, S P; Ferguson, K E
BACKGROUND: Medical school has historically reinforced traditional views of women. This cohort study follows implementation of a revitalized curriculum and examines students' attitudes toward women on entry into an Ontario medical school, and 3 years later. METHODS: Of the 75 students entering first year at Queen's University medical school 70 completed the initial survey in September 1994 and 54 were resurveyed in May 1997. First-year students at 2 other Ontario medical schools were also sur...
Wachholtz, Amy; Rogoff, Mailan
Medical student burnout has been associated with depression, loss of empathy, and suicidal ideation. Spirituality has been identified in previous studies as a protective factor in coping with the stress but has not been examined as a factor in medical student burnout. An internet link to an anonymous survey was sent via email to medical students at a public northeastern medical school; 259/469 (55.2%) completed it. The survey included measures of spirituality, burnout, psychological distress,...
Rawan Al-Fouzan; Sarah Al-Ajlan; Yousef Marwan; Mervat Al-Saleh
Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression wer...
Carrese, Joseph A; Malek, Janet; Watson, Katie; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Green, Michael J; McCullough, Laurence B; Geller, Gail; Braddock, Clarence H; Doukas, David J
This article-the Romanell Report-offers an analysis of the current state of medical ethics education in the United States, focusing in particular on its essential role in cultivating professionalism among medical learners. Education in ethics has become an integral part of medical education and training over the past three decades and has received particular attention in recent years because of the increasing emphasis placed on professional formation by accrediting bodies such as the Liaison Committee on Medical Education and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Yet, despite the development of standards, milestones, and competencies related to professionalism, there is no consensus about the specific goals of medical ethics education, the essential knowledge and skills expected of learners, the best pedagogical methods and processes for implementation, and optimal strategies for assessment. Moreover, the quality, extent, and focus of medical ethics instruction vary, particularly at the graduate medical education level. Although variation in methods of instruction and assessment may be appropriate, ultimately medical ethics education must address the overarching articulated expectations of the major accrediting organizations. With the aim of aiding medical ethics educators in meeting these expectations, the Romanell Report describes current practices in ethics education and offers guidance in several areas: educational goals and objectives, teaching methods, assessment strategies, and other challenges and opportunities (including course structure and faculty development). The report concludes by proposing an agenda for future research. PMID:25881647
Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study aims to examine knowledge and attitudes towards Complementary and Alternative Medicine among medical students in Turkey, and find out whether they want to be trained in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between October and December 2010 among medical students. Data were collected from a total of seven medical schools. Findings The study included 943 medical students. The most well known methods among the students were herbal treatment (81.2?%, acupuncture (80.8?%, hypnosis (78.8?%, body-based practices including massage (77?% and meditation (65.2?%, respectively. Acupuncture, aromatherapy, herbal treatment and meditation were better known among female participants compared to males (p? Conclusions Majority of the medical students were familiar with the CAM methods widely used in Turkey, while most of them had positive attitudes towards CAM as well as willingness to receive training on the subject, and they were likely to recommend CAM methods to their patients in their future professional lives. With its gradual scientific development and increasing popularity, there appears a need for a coordinated policy in integrating CAM into the medical curriculum, by taking expectations of and feedback from medical students into consideration in setting educational standards.
Khan, Rakhshaan; Rehman, Rehana; Baig, Mukhtiar; Hussain, Mehwish; Khan, Mariam; Syed, Fatima
Objectives: To determine adherence to dimensions of physical wellness among medical students of public and private medical colleges in Pakistan. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from January to July 2011 among 820 students of private and public medical colleges in Karachi, Pakistan. Results: Overall, medical students scored low in dimensions of physical wellness. Private medical colleges students were fond of vigorous activities such as aerobics and swimming, whereas public medical colleges students were involved in moderate intensity activities such as walking and use of stairs (pfast food (p=0.0001), had less sleep (p=0.0001), but attended regular annual medical checkups (p=0.009) as compared with their public institute counterparts. Safe practices such as avoidance of tobacco were almost the same. Conclusion: Comprehensive adherence to all dimensions of physical wellness was lacking among medical students. PMID:25987122
Arntfield, Shannon L.; Slesar, Kristen; Dickson, Jennifer; Charon, Rita
Objective This study sought to explore the perceived influence of narrative medicine training on clinical skill development of fourth-year medical students, focusing on competencies mandated by ACGME and the RCPSC in areas of communication, collaboration, and professionalism. Methods Using grounded-theory, three methods of data collection were used to query twelve medical students participating in a one-month narrative medicine elective regarding the process of training and the influence on clinical skills. Iterative thematic analysis and data triangulation occurred. Results Response rate was 91% (survey), 50% (focus group) and 25% (follow-up). Five major findings emerged. Students perceive that they: develop and improve specific communication skills; enhance their capacity to collaborate, empathize, and be patient-centered; develop personally and professionally through reflection. They report that the pedagogical approach used in narrative training is critical to its dividends but misunderstood and perceived as counter-culture. Conclusion/Practice implications Participating medical students reported that they perceived narrative medicine to be an important, effective, but counter-culture means of enhancing communication, collaboration, and professional development. The authors contend that these skills are integral to medical practice, consistent with core competencies mandated by the ACGME/RCPSC, and difficult to teach. Future research must explore sequelae of training on actual clinical performance. PMID:23462070
Full Text Available Abstract Background Portfolios, widely used in undergraduate and postgraduate medicine, have variable purposes, formats and success. A recent systematic review summarised factors necessary for successful portfolio introduction but there are no studies investigating the views of students inexperienced in portfolio use towards portfolio learning. This study's aim was to survey student views about a prospective Professional and Personal Development (PPD portfolio. Methods This was a qualitative, focus group study. All focus groups were taped and transcribed verbatim, and anonymised. The transcripts were analysed inductively, using framework analysis. Results Four focus groups were carried out with 32 undergraduate medical students naïve in portfolio use. Three themes relevant to portfolio introduction emerged. The first theme was the need for clear information and support for portfolio introduction, and anxieties about how this could be supported effectively. The second was that students had negative views about reflective learning and whether this could be taught and assessed, believing formal assessment could foster socially acceptable content. The third was that participants revealed little understanding of reflective learning and its potential benefits. Rather portfolios were seen as useful for concrete purposes (e.g., job applications not intrinsic benefits. Conclusion Undergraduate medical students without experience of portfolios are anxious about portfolio introduction. They require support in developing reflective learning skills. Care must be taken to ensure students do not see portfolios as merely yet another assessment hurdle.
Schaap, H.; Bruijn, E.; Schaaf, M. F.; Baartman, L. K. J.; Kirschner, P. A.
Students in competence-based vocational education are expected to actively construct a personal professional theory, in which they integrate different types of knowledge and beliefs. Students’ personal professional theories are seen as an important learning outcome of competence-based vocational education. However, it is unknown how personal professional theories can be measured. This study focused on measuring the content and nature of students’ personal professional theor...
Burgess A; Nestel D
Annette Burgess,1 Debra Nestel2 1Sydney Medical School – Central, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2School of Rural Health/HealthPEER, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing, and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Peer assisted learning (PAL) is well documented in the medical education literature. In this paper, the authors explored the role of PAL in a graduate entry medical program with respect to the development of professional identity. T...
Chen, H Carrie; van den Broek, W E Sjoukje; Ten Cate, Olle
Many graduate medical education (GME) programs have started to consider and adopt entrustable professional activities (EPAs) in their competency frameworks. Do EPAs also have a place in undergraduate medical education (UME)? In this Perspective article, the authors discuss arguments in favor of the use of EPAs in UME. A competency framework that aligns UME and GME outcome expectations would allow for better integration across the educational continuum. The EPA approach would be consistent with what is known about progressive skill development. The key principles underlying EPAs, workplace learning and trust, are generalizable and would also be applicable to UME learners. Lastly, EPAs could increase transparency in the workplace regarding student abilities and help ensure safe and quality patient care. The authors also outline what UME EPAs might look like, suggesting core, specialty-specific, and elective EPAs related to core clinical residency entry expectations and learner interest. UME EPAs would be defined as essential health care activities with which one would expect to entrust a resident at the beginning of residency to perform without direct supervision. Finally, the authors recommend a refinement and expansion of the entrustment and supervision scale previously developed for GME to better incorporate the supervision expectations for UME learners. They suggest that EPAs could be operationalized for UME if UME-specific EPAs were developed and the entrustment scale were expanded. PMID:25470310
Young, Joyce A.; Hawes, Jon M.
This paper describes an application of active learning within two different courses: professional selling and sales management. Students assumed the roles of sales representatives and sales managers for an actual fund-raiser--a golf outing--sponsored by a student chapter of the American Marketing Association. The sales project encompassed an…
Stark, Meredith; Fins, Joseph J
While the medical ethics literature has well explored the harm to patients, families, and the integrity of the profession in failing to disclose medical errors once they occur, less often addressed are the moral and professional obligations to take all available steps to prevent errors and harm in the first instance. As an expanding body of scholarship further elucidates the causes of medical error, including the considerable extent to which medical errors, particularly in diagnostics, may be attributable to cognitive sources, insufficient progress in systematically evaluating and implementing suggested strategies for improving critical thinking skills and medical judgment is of mounting concern. Continued failure to address pervasive thinking errors in medical decisionmaking imperils patient safety and professionalism, as well as beneficence and nonmaleficence, fairness and justice. We maintain that self-reflective and metacognitive refinement of critical thinking should not be construed as optional but rather should be considered an integral part of medical education, a codified tenet of professionalism, and by extension, a moral and professional duty. PMID:25033249
David Mogari; Jeanne Kriek; Gerrit Stols; Ogbonnaya U. Iheanachor
The study sought to obtain information on the relationship, if any, between students' achievement and teacher background as well as between students’ achievement and professional development. The respective correlation coefficient showed that there was a significant relationship between students’ achievement and teacher background and an insignificant relationship between students’ achievement and the extent of professional development. Of the three components of teacher background (viz...
Fariba Asghari; Aniseh Samadi; Taraneh Dormohammadi
Judgment This study was done in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the revisions made in the course of medical ethics for undergraduate medical students.Medical Students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences who took the course of medical ethics in a semester before the implementation of the revision and those who took the course after the implementation of the revision at the beginning and at the end of course responded to two questionnaires (one for evaluating knowledge and the other...
Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria
Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…
Tjia, Jennifer; Givens, Jane L.; Shea, Judy A.
The authors measured factors associated with undertreatment of medical students' depression. They administered a cross-sectional Beck Depression Inventory and sociodemographic questionnaire to students at 1 medical school, defining their outcome measure as the use of counseling services or antidepressant medication. Of an estimated 450 available…
Full Text Available Tobacco is a major preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality. Health professionals are uniquely positioned to provide targeted interventions and should be empowered to provide cessation counselling that influence patient smoking. A cross-sectional national survey was administered to all third year students in four disciplines at the University of Malta. The Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS questionnaire was distributed to collect standardised demographic, smoking prevalence, behavioural, and attitudinal data. 81.9% completed the questionnaire (n = 173/211. A positive significant association between tobacco smoke exposure at home and current smoking status was identified. Non-smokers regarded anti-tobacco policies more favourably than smokers, being more likely to agree with banning of tobacco sales to adolescents (OR 3.6; 95% CI: 2.5–5.3; p ? 0.001; and with a smoking ban in all public places (OR 8.9; 95% CI: 6.1–13.1; p ? 0.001. Non-smokers favoured a role for health professionals in promoting smoking cessation (OR 5.1; 95% CI: 3.1–8.5; p ? 0.001. Knowledge of antidepressants as tools for smoking cessation was also associated with a perceived role for skilled health professionals in cessation counselling (OR 4.9; 95% CI: 1.8–13.3; p = 0.002. Smoking negatively influences beliefs and attitudes of students toward tobacco control. There is a need to adopt a standard undergraduate curriculum containing comprehensive tobacco prevention and cessation training to improve their effectiveness as role models.
Jashodeep Datta; Miller, Bonnie M.
Background: Matriculation of international students to United States’ (US) medical schools has not mirrored the remarkable influx of these students to other US institutions of higher education. Methods: While these students’ numbers are on the rise, the visibility for their unique issues remains largely ignored in the medical literature. Results: These students are disadvantaged in the medical school admissions process due to financial and immigration-related concerns, and acade...
Seval Do?ruk Kaçar
Full Text Available Background and Design: Practical training of medical students, especially in specialties such as dermatology, is performed in outpatient clinics where mostly outpatients are encountered. The aim of this study was to compare patients’ perspectives on medical students in two university hospitals (X–Y situated in different regions of Turkey. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 patients, who visited outpatient clinics of X (group 1 and Y (group 2 university hospitals during practical training for fifth year medical students, were included in this study. A questionnaire composed of 16 items was filled by all patients. The first eight questions were about patients’ consent and preferences on the presence of medical students during their interview and the remaining eight questions inquired patients’ overall thoughts on medical students. Results: The patients in both groups were willing to be a part of the educational programme of medical students (39.8%, 53.5%, respectively. The patients were aware that they had the right to refuse the presence of medical students (61.0%, 62.3% and majority wanted to be informed on the presence of medical students during the interview (72.4%, 80.7%. While patients in group 1 evaluated being with medical students as pleasurable (43.1%, patients in group 2 did not agree (44.7%. In addition, both groups were not bothered to share personal information with medical students (50.4%, 44.7% and stated that they would recommend their friends and relatives to have a physical examination done by medical students (51.2%, 41.2%. Conclusion: The active role of medical students during dermatology training is positively viewed by patients in both western and eastern parts of our country. The patients’ request on being informed for the presence of medical students during clinical examination reveals the requirement of oral and written informed consent.
Verma, Rohit Kumar; Wong, Shirley; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Barua, Ankur
Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has become one of the most serious health problems in the world. Medical students awareness, attitudes and opinions must be assessed as they are leading health care professionals who provide treatment and care to the HIV and AIDS individuals. This survey was conducted to assess the level of awareness, attitudes and opinions of third year till fifth year medical students concerning HIV and ...
Jagmohni Kaur Sidhu
Full Text Available Stress amongst medical students is oftenoverlooked. Intelligent students are not always the mostcomposed. This study aimed to look at both male andfemale students of three different ethnic groups and theeffects of stress in areas such as academic, social,financial and their everyday life. The Chinese studentsreported significantly less “academic stress” than theMalay students, and the Malay students reportedsignificantly less “financial stress” compared to theChinese and Indian students. Medical education can bea health hazard for medical students
Gemmill, Erin; Peterson, Michael
The purposes of this study were to explore the extent to which technology disrupts and occupies the time of a college student and to determine the degree to which these disruptions contribute to perceived stress. A 71-item survey to assess perceived stress, technology use and disruptions, and social support was administered to 299 undergraduate …
Opheim, Arild; Andreasson, Sven; Eklund, Astri Brandell; Prescott, Peter
Objective: To explore the effects of brief training in Motivational interviewing (MI) for medical students. Design: Video recordings of consultations between 113 final-year medical students and simulated patients were scored blind by two independent raters with the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC). Half of the students participated in a…
Powers, Donald E.
A brief survey was conducted of nearly 900 first-year students in 14 U.S. veterinary medical schools in order to gather impressions of the first year of veterinary medical education. Although some students reported that conditions were stressful, the majority did not feel that they were inordinately so. Overall, most students were quite positive…
In recent years, rising numbers of medical students and an increasingly demanding clinical workload has put pressures on the educational systems for medical students in the hospital. Bedside teaching remains central to education, but tutorial delivery by registrars, tutors and consultants has proven to be increasingly difficult with the greater numbers of students now in the undergraduate system.
Blanca M Seijo Echevarría
Full Text Available Con el propósito de diagnosticar la interiorización de los valores éticos profesionales a los alumnos de medicina seleccionados, se realiza esta investigación descriptiva causal. Para ello se determina el Sistema de Valores Éticos de la profesión médica en Camagüey, luego de un estudio profundo de los Códigos de Ética Médica Internacionales y Nacionales y la utilización de diferentes métodos y procedimientos propios de las investigaciones psicológicas y pedagógicas, éstos últimos apoyaron también la realización del diagnóstico de la situación actual de los estudiantes, donde se evidencia una diferencia notoria entre la auto evaluación y la co-evaluación siendo necesario acercar estos criterios. Valores como responsabilidad, profesionalidad, ser culto, internacionalismo y honestidad tienen dificultades en su asimilación. Queda demostrado que la metodología empleada es factible de ser utilizada para el diagnóstico al responder los resultados con las expectativasWith the purpose of diagnostic the ins and outs of the ethical professional values to the selected medicine students this descriptive investigation was carried out. With that purpose the System of Ethical Values of the medical profession in Camaguey was set after a deep study of the International and National Codes of medical Ethics and the use of different methods and procedures of psychological and pedagogic investigations, these also supported the doing of the diagnosis of the current situation of the students, where a notorius difference is evidenced between the self evaluation and the coevaluation being necessary to bring near these approaches. Values as responsability, internacionalism and honesty have difficulties to be cultivated. It is demostrated that the used methodology is feasible of being used for the diagnosis when responding the resultswith expectations
Ness, Genevieve Lynn; Sheehan, Amy Heck; Snyder, Margie E.; Jordan, Joseph; Cunningham, Jean E.; Gettig, Jacob P.
Objective. To determine the use patterns of social media among graduating pharmacy students, characterize students’ views and opinions of professionalism on popular social media sites, and compare responses about social media behavior among students seeking different types of employment.
Amalraj Edwin R
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had misconception about transmission of HIV infection should not be allowed to work in the clinic or hospital. 36% of male and 9% of female students admitted indulging in safe sexual practices mostly with their friends.
Foucault, Amélie; Dubé, Serge; Fernandez, Nicolas; Gagnon, Robert; Charlin, Bernard
Abstract Context: Professionalism development entails learning to make judgments in ambiguous situations. A Concordance of Judgment Learning Tool (CJLT), comprised of 20 vignettes involving professionalism issues, was developed. Students obtained a measure of how concordant their judgments were with a panel of experts and learned from given explanations. Method: Twenty clinical vignettes implying professionalism issues were written including, for each, four possible courses of action. Expert panel, nominated by all clerkship students, was made up of attending physicians that best represented professionalism role models. Experts completed CJLT and gave explanations for their answers. All clerks were invited to answer each vignette, and then received automated expert feedback including explanations. Results: Seventy-nine students sat for the activity. The optimized test included 20 cases and 54 questions (Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.64). Student - expert concordance scores ranged from 54 to 77 with a mean at 64.6 (standard deviation 5.1). Satisfaction survey results indicated high satisfaction and relevance of tool despite some pitfalls. Post-test focus group data revealed relevant experiential learning on professionalism issues. Discussion: Students' scores and perceptions suggest pedagogic relevance of the CJLT in fostering professionalism development in clerkship. CJLT is user-friendly and shows promise as a situation experiential learning activity. PMID:25336258
Kaae, Susanne; SØrensen, Ellen Westh
Background Interprofessional collaboration between pharmacists and physicians to conduct joint home medication reviews (HMR) is important for optimizing the medical treatment of patients suffering from chronic illnesses. However, collaboration has proved difficult to achieve. The HMR programme "Medisam" was launched in 2009 at the University of Copenhagen with the aim of "developing, implementing and evaluating a collaboration model for HMRs and medicine reconciliations in Denmark". The Medisam programme involves patients, pharmacy internship students, the (pharmacist) supervisor of the pharmacy students and physicians. Objective To explore if it was possible through the Medisam programme to obtain a fruitful HMR collaboration between pharmacy internship students and physicians as a means to develop HMR collaboration between trained pharmacists and physicians further. Setting Ten matching pairs of student-physician collaboration were studied across Denmark. Method Semi-structured interviews about existing collaboration were conducted with pharmacy internship students in the HMR programme, their supervisors and physicians partners. The theoretical framework forming the analyses was derived especially from works of Bradley et al. (Res Soc Adm Pharm 8:36-46, 2012), and Snyder et al. (Res Soc Adm Pharm 6:307-23, 2010) on pharmacists/physician collaboration. Main outcome measure The development of inter-professional collaboration between students and physicians according to the three collaboration drivers: trustworthiness, role specification and professional interaction. Results Full collaboration was not achieved. Physicians found collaboration satisfactory, students however expressed the need of more interaction with physicians. The written collaboration contracts did not ensure a possible need of students to re-negotiate roles and tasks, and did therefore not entirely ensure role specification. Developing mutual professional interdependence through students being recognized by physicians to contribute to improved patient outcomes was also limited. Conclusion Some challenges to fruitful collaboration were identified. Solutions to these challenges include students and their pharmacist supervisors to find ways to present their collaborative needs to physicians and for students to illustrate more explicitly the benefits patient achieve if physicians implement the recommendations of students.
Full Text Available Romanian specialist`s studies show a harsh reality: Romanian universities programs have only theoretical value, creating specialists but not for real life, but for a more abstract environment. Our university graduates are doing very well in a stable economic and institutional environment that offers relatively easy material and financial resources, with a set of skills and professional skills which fail to meet harsh reality of the labor market. An effective solution for professional skills development is the accumulation of work experience during college in the environment and on the job we have in view by following an internship program. As a form of practical education through work, internship meets young people, particularly students keen to gain experience through practical work in a job within a company or institution chosen, giving them the opportunity to translate theoretical knowledge into practice and to develop skills and experience of labor market activities that waits for them. This paper is an original applied research conducted in the West University of Timisoara, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. It aims to identify whether there is a need for specialization Management students to acquire work experience before graduating, to what extent they are able to assess their skills and work in a company and especially the role of internship programs in professional and personal development of students. The results show that participation in an internship program is beneficial not only for students but also for employers. Leading to increased competences and to training and professional skills and personal development, internship becomes a more attractive alternative for young people because it gives them the opportunity to be â€œa ringer" of an employee on the position you have in view. Without being employed, students can gain practical experience in a certain position they sought in a company or institution on the labor market, practical experience they need so much and they can also learn what responsibilities and tasks the job entails and whether or not they are suitable for that position.
Thompson, Lindsay A; Black, Erik W
The AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs (CEJA) has written a position paper on how social medical use challenges medical professionalism. The report offers persuasive ethical and practical guidelines for nonclinical internet use, specifically for social networking. This commentary provides a framework from which to apply these guidelines, but adds that there may be important situations in which physicians are not able to act in accordance. The guidelines call for professional reporting of questionable online portrayals or behaviors, but this commentary argues that this may be not only cumbersome to implement, but may violate aspects of constitutional rights. While online social networking may in many ways be a new application of old challenges, there may be other aspects that require novel approaches to medical professionalism. PMID:21837891
Mostafa Amr , MD; Abdel Hady El Gilany, MD; Aly El-Hawary, MD
Background: Medical education is perceived as being stressful with negative effects on students’ mental health. However, few studies have addressed the influence of gender on stress in medical students.Aim: To compare male and female medical students in Egypt on sources of stress, perception of stress, anxiety, depression, physical symptomatology, and personality profile.Methods: Data were collected through an anonymous self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic data, stress...
Kearsley, John H; Lobb, Elizabeth A
We report upon the design, content and feedback from an interactive, experiential series of Workshops in Healing for senior medical students. Fifty-six final year medical students enrolled in 2×3?h workshops designed around the core themes of 'physician know thyself' (Workshop 1) and 'confronting suffering' (Workshop 2). Of the 56 students who initially enrolled, 48 students completed both workshops and provided a written open-ended reflection of their learning experience. The study, undertaken over a consecutive 5-year period (2008-2012), employed an emergent, qualitative design using thematic analysis of the reflective comments. We found that the design and content of both workshops promoted transformative learning for these final year medical students. Students identified the following benefits: (1) the opportunity to reaffirm their commitment to their chosen career path; (2) the value of listening to other students share their stories; (3) the importance of the timing of the workshops to occur after exams; (4) the use of various mediums such as art, poetry, music and contemporary/classic literature to present concepts of suffering and healing; and (5) the creation of a safe and confidential space. Students reported that these innovative workshops gave them a renewed sense of drive and enthusiasm for their chosen career. They highlighted the importance of addressing an aspect of medicine (healing) not covered in the traditional medical curriculum. Workshops in Healing helped them to rediscover a deeper meaning to medicine and their roles as future healthcare professionals. PMID:24473159
Iacobucci, Trisha A; Daly, Barbara J; Lindell, Debbie; Griffin, Mary Quinn
Professional identity and competent ethical behaviors of nursing students are commonly developed through curricular inclusion of professional nursing values education. Despite the enactment of this approach, nursing students continue to express difficulty in managing ethical conflicts encountered in their practice. This descriptive correlational study explores the relationships between professional nursing values, self-esteem, and ethical decision making among senior baccalaureate nursing students. A convenience sample of 47 senior nursing students from the United States were surveyed for their level of internalized professional nursing values (Revised Professional Nursing Values Scale), level of self-esteem (Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale), and perceived level of confidence in ethical decision making. A significant positive relationship (p nursing students' professional nursing values and levels of self-esteem. The results of this study can be useful to nursing educators whose efforts are focused on promoting professional identity development and competent ethical behaviors of future nurses. PMID:23166146
This paper considers the multiple discourses that influence medical education with a focus on the discourses of competence and caring. Discourses of competence are largely constituted through, and related to, biomedical and clinical issues whereas discourses of caring generally focus on social concerns. These discourses are not necessarily equal…
Ortiz Lejarazu Leonardo, R.; Jm, Eiros Bouza; Domi?nguez-gil Gonza?lez, M.; Curiel Lo?pez Arcaute, Aitor M.
SUMMARYIn Spain a million and a half blood transfusions by year are carried out, that supposes between 2 and 10 cases of infection of VIH by year. The present state of science invites to do something more with tests to detect other virological and immunological markers, in order to identify seronegative carriers and thus avoid HIV transmission by them. We must consider the possibility to incur in professional responsibilities if we do not report adequate of this risk or if we do not provide p...
Eileen P. Anderson-Fye
Full Text Available The number of college students who take psychiatric medication has dramatically increased. These students may be at risk for negative mental health outcomes because research shows that mental illness can delay the attainment of developmental milestones critical to adulthood. This article explores college students’ experience with psychiatric medication and how it impacts functioning and stigma. Perceptions of medication treatment could be crucial to understanding the factors that enable college students with mental illness to thrive in a university setting. Seventeen undergraduate college students in a private, Midwestern university who had a psychiatric illness and were taking prescribed psychiatric medication, were enrolled. A semi-structured interview queried college students about their perceptions of taking psychiatric medications and how the use of medication influences their functioning. Authors conducted thematic analysis by using the constant comparative method for coding data and sorting in-vivo codes by shared theme. Respondents generally reported positive attitudes toward medication and minimal stigma. Particular themes included: higher functioning; mitigation of symptoms; willingness to disclose; and positive long-term outlook regarding the use of medication. Students were empowered by their treatment because it positively impacted functioning and integration into the college setting. However, in contrast to the majority of study participants, one minority student reported experiencing significant external and internal stigma due to her use of psychiatric medication. Although the study’s qualitative nature, small sample size,and lack of ethnic diversity of respondents limit generalizability, important preliminary findings indicate that some college students are benefiting from the use of psychiatric medication with minimal stigma. More research is needed on college students’ experience of psychiatric medication, particularly the experience of minority students, since extant literature indicates their reluctance to utilize psychiatric medications, and a tendency toward negative perceptions of help-seeking for mental illness.
Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Yaacob, Mohd Jamil; Naing, Nyi Nyi; Esa, Ab Rahman
This study evaluated the convergent, discriminant, construct, concurrent and discriminative validity of the Medical Student Wellbeing Index (MSWBI) as well as to evaluate its internal consistency and optimal cut-off total scores to detect at least moderate levels of general psychological distress, stress, anxiety and depression symptoms. A cross sectional study was done on 171 medical students. The MSWBI and DASS-21 were administered and returned immediately upon completion. Confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis, ROC analysis and Pearson correlation test were applied to assess psychometric properties of the MSWBI. A total of 168 (98.2%) medical students responded. The goodness of fit indices showed the MSWBI had a good construct (?(2)=6.14, p=0.803, RMSEAstress, anxiety, and depression were 1.5, 2.5, 1.5 and 2.5 respectively with sensitivity and specificity ranged from 62 to 80% and the areas under ROC curve ranged from 0.71 to 0.83. This study showed that the MSWBI had good level of psychometric properties. The MSWBI score more than 2 can be considered as having significant psychological distress. The MSWBI is a valid and reliable screening instrument to assess psychological distress of medical students. PMID:23380320
Steven E. Pegalis
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to evaluate a hypothesis premised on the idea that if medical leaders in the United States support an unfettered access for patients injured by medical error to the American civil justice system, that approach would improve patient safety and be cost effective. Method: An analysis of the relevant legal and medical literature. Results: Medical liability in the American civil justice system derived from traditional tort law is based on accountability. Reforms applied to medical liability cases urged by healthcare providers limit and in some cases eliminate legal rights of patients injured by healthcare error which rights exist for all others in non-medical cases. Yet medical liability cases have promoted a culture of safety. Information learned from medical liability cases has been used to make care safer with a reduced incidence of adverse outcomes and lower costs. A just culture of safety can limit provider emotional stress. Using the external pressures to reduce the incidence of law suits and promoting ethical mandates to be safer and disclose the truth can promote provider satisfaction. Conclusions: An alliance between legal and medical professionals on the common ground of respect for the due process legal rights of patients in the American system of justice and the need for accountability can make care safer and can be cost effective.
Hong Minha; Lee Won; Park Jae; Yoon Tai; Moon Duk; Lee Sang; Bahn Geon
Abstract Background This study aims to determine the correlation between medical education systems, medical college (MC) and medical school (MS), and empathy by investigating the changes in empathy among students with each additional year of medical education. Methods The subjects were MC and MS students who had participated in the same study the previous year. All participants completed the same self-report instruments: a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, and the Korean edit...
Full Text Available Background: Usage of information technology is increasing among university students. The extent of usage among medical students is not studied well. The aim of the study is to assess the usage pattern of information technology by first year and second year medical students of government Kilpauk medical college. Chennai. Method : 200 students of first year and second year students were participated in this study. They were interviewed using pretested questionnaire to bring out the different pattern of the internet use and application knowledge of information technology in medical field. Results: Among 200 students 84% of second years and43% of first years access the internet using their mobile phones .The application knowledge of information technology (IT is 97% in second year students when compared to first year student45%.Majority of students(97% prefers computer classes to be included in medical curriculum. Conclusion: The usage of information technology by the second year medical students are increasing when compared to the newly admitted students and also the purpose of using IT and knowledge of IT in medical field also improving when they are entering second year.
Kron Frederick W; Gjerde Craig L; Sen Ananda; Fetters Michael D
Abstract Background Studies in K-12 and college students show that their learning preferences have been strongly shaped by new media technologies like video games, virtual reality environments, the Internet, and social networks. However, there is no known research on medical students' game experiences or attitudes towards new media technologies in medical education. This investigation seeks to elucidate medical student experiences and attitudes, to see whether they warrant the development of ...
BACKGROUND: It is usually observed that medical students undergo tremendous stress during various stages of the MBBS course. There is a high rate of suicide among them. METHODS: To determine incidence of stress and factors controlling stress in medical students at various stages of MBBS course at Seth G S Medical college, 238 students (First year 98, Second 76, Third 64) were asked to complete a questionnaire on personal data (gender, stay at hostel, mode of travel, time spent in travel every...
Sallin Karl; Thulesius Hans O; Lynoe Niels; Löfmark Rurik
Abstract Background The value of ethics education have been questioned. Therefore we did a student survey on attitudes about the teaching of ethics in Swedish medical schools. Methods Questionnaire survey on attitudes to ethics education with 409 Swedish medical students participating. We analyzed > 8000 words of open-ended responses and multiple-choice questions using classic grounded theory procedures. Results In this paper we suggest that medical students take a proximity morality stance t...
A didactic approach to develop professional skills in Elementary Physiology for Nursing students in Cienfuegos Medical School. Una propuesta didáctica de formación de habilidades profesionales en Fisiología Básica para los estudiantes de Enfermería de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos.
José Carlos Pérez González
Full Text Available Background: The present days demand a turn in the nursing formation process in the medical university which may satisfy the requirement of the present times. Objectives: to design a didactical proposal to educate the professional abilities in Basic Physiology for nursing students. Methods: a descriptive study with a universe of 117 nursing students from 3rd to 5th academic year who have already received Physiology; graduated students from academic year 1998 to 2003 who were actively working in health facilities in the province . 100% of professors from the physiology department and the nursing department who woked in the basic cycle were also part of the universe. The expertise selection was carried out according to the educational category, scientific category, more than 25 years of experience teaching this subject. Results: Students as well as professor consider that the contents received in this subject are not enough for their future job with the patient. The main difficulty identified in the students is the ability formation from this subject which responds to the final objectives of the nursing student.
Fundamento: Las condiciones actuales demandan de la universidad médica un giro en el proceso de formación de Enfermería que satisfaga las exigencias del momento actual. Objetivo: Diseñar una propuesta didáctica para la formación de habilidades profesionales en Fisiología Básica para los estudiantes de Enfermería. Métodos: Investigación de corte descriptivo, con un universo de 117 estudiantes de enfermería de tercero a quinto año que ya habían recibido la Fisiología; los graduados de los cursos académicos desde 1998 hasta 2003, que se encontraban activos trabajando en las instituciones de salud de la provincia y el 100 % de los profesores del colectivo de Fisiología y del departamento de Enfermería que laboran en el ciclo básico. La selección de expertos se realizó con criterios de categorías docentes, científicas y más de 25 años impartiendo la docencia. Resultados: Tanto alumnos como graduados consideran insuficientes los contenidos recibidos para su trabajo frente al paciente. La dificultad fundamental identificada en los estudiantes es la formación de habilidades desde Fisiología que respondan a los objetivos de salida del enfermero.
Saima Diderichsen; Jenny Andersson; Johansson, Eva E.; Petra Verdonk; Antoine Lagro-Janssen; Katarina Hamberg
Objectives: To investigate future life expectations among male and female medical students in their first and final year. Methods: The study was cross-sectional and conducted at a Swedish medical school. Out of 600 invited students, 507 (85%) answered an open-ended question about their future life, 298 (59%) first-year students and 209 (41%) last-year students. Women constituted 60% of the respondents. A mixed model design was applied; qualitative content analysis was utilized to create stati...
Wyber, Rosemary; Fancourt, Nicholas; Stone, Bradley
The relationships between doctors and drug companies have generated considerable global debate. Medical students are unique stakeholders in this discussion, although they are underrepresented in descriptive data. This article reviews international literature on the effects of drug company promotion, the effect on students, the New Zealand context and explores implications for New Zealand medical students. Creating an influence free environment to inform and involve students in the debate is a strong precursor to delivering gold standard patient care in the future. PMID:21959637
Mahmood D. Al-Mendalawi
OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of tobacco smoking, and understand the attitude, practice, and knowledge among medical students. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2009 to May 2010. An anonymous, self-administered, Global Adult Tobacco Survey based questionnaire was completed by the students attending the main Medical College of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. RESULTS Of the 643 students in the study, 90 students (14%)...
Beatriz Molinuevo; Rafael Torrubia
Objectives: To determine whether personality is related to medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills and self-ratings on communication skills. Methods: 524 first- and 507 second-year medical students completed the Communications Skills Attitudes Scale and rated their own communication skills. First-year students answered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and second-year students the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses, control...
Ashley, Vera Bruce
The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy, benefits and student perceptions of using Internet videoconferencing and a web camera to connect college and university fashion students with apparel industry professionals. A total of 70 college and university fashion students, three instructors, and three apparel industry professionals…
Li, Guang Ping; Zhang, Dewei
Improving the quality of training for no-fee preservice students is crucial in implementing the no-fee teacher education policy. This study used the Preservice Student Professional Growth Questionnaire to survey the level of professional knowledge of the first class (entering in 2007) of Northeast Normal University preservice students during the…
Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh
Shah Mohsin; Pereira Xavier V; Islam Md R; Rahman Mahbubur; Kumar HN Harsha; Menezes Ritesh G; Suri Sushil; Sreeramareddy Chandrashekhar T; Sathian Brijesh; Shetty Ullasa; Vaswani Vina R
Abstract Background Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. Methods...
Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai; Kurubaran Ganasegeran; Wilson Perianayagam; Krishna Gopal Rampal
This study was the first to explore factors associated with emotional burnout (EB) among medical residents in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 205 medical residents in a Malaysian general hospital. The self-administered questionnaire used consisted of questions on sociodemographics and work characteristics, sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, engagement, and EB. EB was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale, the Maslach Burnout In...
Cristiana Silveira, Silva; Murilo Barreto, Souza; Roberto Silveira, Silva Filho; Luciana Molina de, Medeiros; Paulo Ricardo, Criado.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dermatological disorders are common in medical practice. In medical school, however, the time devoted to teaching dermatology is usually very limited. Therefore, online educational systems have increasingly been used in medical education settings to enhance exposure to dermatology. OBJ [...] ECTIVE: The present study was designed to develop a e-learning program for medical students in dermatology and evaluate the impact of this program on learning. METHODS: This prospective study included second year medical students at the University of Technology and Science, Salvador, Brazil. All students attended discussion seminars and practical activities, and half of the students had adjunct online seminars (blended learning). Tests were given to all students before and after the courses, and test scores were evaluated. RESULTS: Students who participated in online discussions associated with face-to-face activities (blended learning) had significantly higher posttest scores (9.0 + 0.8) than those who only participated in classes (7.75+1.8, p
Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of medical conditions is influenced by whether clinicians regard them as "disease" or "not a disease". The aim of the survey was to determine how medical students classify a range of conditions they might encounter in their professional lives and whether a different name for a condition would influence their decision in the categorisation of the condition as a 'disease' or 'not a disease'. Methods We surveyed 3 concurrent years of medical students to classify 36 candidate conditions into "disease" and "non-disease". The conditions were given a 'medical' label and a (lay label and positioned where possible in alternate columns of the survey. Results The response rate was 96% (183 of 190 students attending a lecture: 80% of students concurred on 16 conditions as "disease" (eg diabetes, tuberculosis, and 4 as "non-disease" (eg baldness, menopause, fractured skull and heat stroke. The remaining 16 conditions (with 21-79% agreement were more contentious (especially obesity, infertility, hay fever, alcoholism, and restless leg syndrome. Three pairs of conditions had both a more, and a less, medical label: the more medical labels (myalgic encephalomyelitis, hypertension, and erectile dysfunction were more frequently classified as 'disease' than the less medical (chronic fatigue syndrome, high blood pressure, and impotence, respectively, significantly different for the first two pairs. Conclusions Some conditions excluded from the classification of "disease" were unexpected (eg fractured skull and heat stroke. Students were mostly concordant on what conditions should be classified as "disease". They were more likely to classify synonyms as 'disease' if the label was medical. The findings indicate there is still a problem 30 years on in the concept of 'what is a disease'. Our findings suggest that we should be addressing such concepts to medical students.
Waqas, Ahmed; Khan, Spogmai; Sharif, Waqar; Khalid, Uzma; Ali, Asad
Introduction. Medicine is one of the most stressful fields of education because of its highly demanding professional and academic requirements. Psychological stress, anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in medical students. Methods. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the Combined Military Hospital Lahore Medical College and the Institute of Dentistry in Lahore (CMH LMC), Pakistan. Students enrolled in all yearly courses for the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) degree were included. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: (1) demographics (2) a table listing 34 potential stressors, (3) the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14), and (4) the Pittsburgh Quality of Sleep Index (PSQI). Logistic regression was run to identify associations between group of stressors, gender, year of study, student's background, stress and quality of sleep. Results. Total response rate was 93.9% (263/280 respondents returned the questionnaire). The mean (SD) PSS-14 score was 30 (6.97). Logistic regression analysis showed that cases of high-level stress were associated with year of study and academic-related stressors only. Univariate analysis identified 157 cases with high stress levels (59.7%). The mean (SD) PSQI score was 8.1 (3.12). According to PSQI score, 203/263 respondents (77%) were poor sleepers. Logistic regression showed that mean PSS-14 score was a significant predictor of PSQI score (OR 1.99, P stress and poor sleep quality among medical students. Many medical students reported using sedatives more than once a week. Academic stressors contributed significantly to stress and sleep disorders in medical students. PMID:25802809
Weerakoon, Patricia; Jones, Mairwen Kathleen; Pynor, Rosemary; Kilburn-Watt, Elisabeth
This study examined the anticipated level of comfort of 1,132 higher education students enrolled across physical therapy, occupational therapy, medical radiation sciences, rehabilitation counseling, leisure and health sciences, and behavioral health science professional courses. Participants were asked to indicate their anticipated level of comfort for a range of clinical interactions that have sexual implications. More than half of the students anticipated that they would not feel comfortable in dealing with the issues raised in 9 of the 19 sexually themed items. Significant gender differences were identified for some of these items. These gender differences should be taken into account when developing sexuality curricula. Feelings of discomfort when interacting with clients could impede appropriate therapeutic interventions. Further research investigating the nature and cause of discomfort in clinical settings is required. Studies that examine the usefulness of sexuality education programs in increasing practitioner comfort also should be carried out. PMID:15503752
Full Text Available The experience of many countries with a well-educated workforce highlights the important role of vocational counselling services for advantageous youth professional orientation. Researchers manifest in their turn, a growing interest to study the role of vocational counselling, from the perspective of increasing the efficiency of investment in education and strengthening the capacity of enterprises to meet the challenges of the knowledge economy. In Romania, high school students have access to career guidance services, but there is little information on the extent to which they use or how useful they consider these services. Many times, there is a social conformism among high school graduates, which determines them to choose professions valued at a certain moment, without making a personal judgment. The aim of this paper is to analyse, as a good practice, the role of high school graduate vocational counselling in developing professional skills, in order to help them make the right career decision. In order to monitor the high school students` opinions on the vocational guidance and their perceptions of the integration in the labour market, a market research study has been conducted. This is a survey conducted on a sample of 2,364 high school students in their final year of study (twelve grade. The research has shown that a reduced percentage of the interviewed high school students have knowledge about the vocational guidance activity. From those who have used these services, most of them were satisfied. The study also highlighted the fact that the most important criteria for getting a job are the skills acquired during studies.
Orpha Kemunto Ongiti
Professional socialization of graduate students is a give-and-take process due to its complexity and dynamism. This paper, which falls under organizational behavior focuses on the three approaches to socialization of graduate students—functionalist, interpretive and critical. The author views professional socialization from the standpoint of interpretive approach, which argues that a student plays a significant role in the professional socialization process. While the department puts the st...
Dissing, Nete; Bak, Nanna Hasle
Studies show that university students are at risk for eating disorders. However, risk behaviour has not been studied among Danish medical students, nor have the gender differences in risk behaviour been described in a Danish context.
Patenaude, Johane; Niyonsenga, Theophile; Fafard, Diane
Introduction The requirements of professionalism and the expected qualities of medical staff, including high moral character, motivate institutions to care about the ethical development of students during their medical education. We assessed progress in moral reasoning in a cohort of medical students over the first 3 years of their education. Methods We invited all 92 medical students enrolled at the University of Sherbrooke, Que., to complete a questionnaire on moral reasoning at the start of their first year of medical school and at the end of their third year. We used the French version of Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview. Responses to the questionnaire were coded by stage of moral development, and weighted average scores were assigned according to frequency of use of each stage. Results Of the 92 medical students, 54 completed the questionnaire in the fall of the first year and again at the end of their third year. The average age of the students at the end of the third year was 21 years, and 79% of the students included in the study were women. Over the 3-year period, the stage of moral development did not change substantially (i.e., by more than half a stage) for 39 (72%) of the students, shifted to a lower stage for 7 (13%) and shifted to a higher stage for 8 (15%). The overall mean change in stage was not significant (from mean 3.46 in year 1 to 3.48 in year 3, p = 0.86); however, the overall mean change in weighted average scores showed a significant decline in moral development (p = 0.028). Interpretation Temporal variations in students' scores show a levelling process of their moral reasoning. This finding prompts us to ask whether a hidden curriculum exists in the structure of medical education that inhibits rather than facilitates the development of moral reasoning. PMID:12668541
Madjar Nir; Bachner Yaacov G; Kushnir Talma
Abstract Background Psychosocial competence and frustration tolerance are important characteristics of skilled medical professionals. In the present study we explored the usefulness of applying a comprehensive motivational theory (Goal orientations), for this purpose. According to goal orientation theory, learning motivation is defined as the general goals students pursue during learning (either mastery goals - gaining new knowledge; or performance goals - gaining a positive evaluation of com...
Van Staden, C W; Joubert, Pierre M.; Pickworth, G.E.; J.L. Roos; Bergh, Anne-Marie; Kruger, Christa; W. J. Schurink; Du Preez, R.R.; Grey, Somarie V.; Lindeque, B.G.
OBJECTIVE: This paper reports on the conceptualisation of "soft skills" as part of a study carried out among two groups of undergraduate medical students before and after curriculum reform at the School of Medicine of the University of Pretoria. Congruent with a call from the World Psychiatric Association, the curriculum reform that was undertaken aimed, inter alia, to place more emphasis on soft skills, including professional interpersonal and social skills, communication skills, an...
Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students? attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19% indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001 and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001. About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20% thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.
Robinson, Tim; Cronin, Thomas; Ibrahim, Haider; Jinks, Mark; Molitor, Timothy; Newman, Joshua; Shapiro, Jonathan
Smartphones are becoming increasingly common in both personal and professional spheres. These devices have many features which can be successfully harnessed in healthcare, including rapid access to information, instant communication and improved organisation. In particular, the smartphone's potential as an educational tool is an area which is starting to gain recognition, with a number of institutions providing the device to medical students. However, before more universities follow suit, a better understanding of students' ownership, usage and attitudes relating to smartphones is required. We therefore distributed a questionnaire to clinical medical students at the University of Birmingham, UK, which aimed to fill these gaps in knowledge. Data were obtained from 361 participants, representing a response rate of 32%. Fifty-nine per cent of students owned a smartphone; 37% of these reported using the device to support their learning. Generally students were positive towards the concept of smartphones as future educational aids, with 84% believing the devices would be useful or very useful. However, 64% thought smartphones would be too costly to implement and 62% felt such technology was not in the medical school's interest. Themes which emerged upon analysis of free text supported general findings, with students also mentioning issues such as potential for unprofessional behaviour and dependence upon smartphones. In conclusion, it appears most medical students believe a smartphone would be a useful addition to their education, although financial barriers must be overcome before the device is more universally accepted. PMID:23526127
Full Text Available The changing nature of teacher professionalism presents an important challenge to teachereducation programs. Teacher professionalism can be broadly defined as the set of teachers’professional knowledge, skills, and dispositions. However, with the increased accountabilityand standards movement, professionalism in education often overemphasizes accountabilityby prioritizing knowledge and skills over dispositions. The move in the field toward‘professionalization’ has generally resulted in systematic reform and professionaldevelopment rather than promoted ‘professionalism.’ This paper explored pre-serviceundergraduate students’ perceptions of teacher professionalism at a major university in NewJersey. The results indicated that the students focused more on ‘performance’ and‘external/outward aspects’ and less on recognizing the complexity and dynamics of theteaching and learning process. The study argues that teacher education programs must beredesigned so that pre-service students have the opportunity to discuss and develop properdispositions, reflect upon their perceptions, and enhance teacher professionalism.
Full Text Available We describe a training program on “Psychology of effective professional activity”, realized on the basis of the Ural College of the Beauty Industry. The purpose of this discipline is to improve the effectiveness of education and professional activities of college students acquiring professions of “Human-Human” type. To improve effectiveness of education and professional activities, this program provides formation of professionally important qualities of students. The results of the program can be: students’ acquisition of knowledge required for the effective performance of professional activities (ways to prevent burnout, increase self-confidence, etc.; mastery of professional skills (planning, simulation, etc.; formation of professionally important qualities (stress, tolerance, etc.; increasing the efficiency of their professional activities.
Full Text Available Bharpoor Singh,1 Natalie Ramjeeawon,2 Neil Shah,1 Shawmian Singagireson1 1Imperial College London, London, UK; 2University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UKThe UK medical school system has traditionally offered an intercalated science degree (iBSc to supplement their regular medical degree. However, in recent times with an increasing focus on leadership in the National Health Service (NHS, there has been a shift. More medical schools now offer the option to study an iBSc in Management.I have just spent a year completing an iBSc in Management at Imperial College Business School. Throughout the year I became more and more immersed in our intricate health care system, which is only really apparent to health care professionals whilst on the job. My question to the General Medical Council is – should an iBSc in Management be compulsory for all UK medical students?
Alberto, Perales; Alfonso, Mendoza; Elard, Sánchez.
Full Text Available Propósito: Estudiar la vocación médica desde una perspectiva científica. Objetivos: Analizar la vocación médica respecto a sus orígenes y factores asociados a su desarrollo en médicos considerados ejemplos de conducta profesional y vocación médica. Diseño: Investigación cualitativa, con muestreo de [...] caso típico y entrevistas en profundidad. Institución: Instituto de Ética en Salud, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Médicos. Metodología: La muestra estuvo conformada por 76 médicos seleccionados en base a criterios pre-establecidos, miembros de las cuatro instituciones médicas más prestigiadas del país: Academia Nacional de Medicina, Academia Peruana de Cirugía y Facultades de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos y Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Se obtuvo su consentimiento informado. Principales medidas de resultados: Orígenes y factores asociados a vocación médica. Resultados: El 82% correspondió al sexo masculino; edad promedio 71,6 años, con rango de edad 49 a 88 años; 8% era hijo/a de médico y 14% tenía otro familiar médico; 30% era el/la mayor de los hijos. La vocación médica no siguió un patrón único, pudiendo iniciarse en diferentes momentos del ciclo vital, incluso después de que el alumno hubo ingresado a la Facultad de Medicina. Entre los factores explicativos más frecuentemente asociados destacaron una dinámica personal y la influencia familiar, aunque hubo dos casos en los que no se encontró factor explicativo alguno. A base de los resultados se presenta definiciones de vocación y vocación médica. Conclusiones: El análisis de la información permite entender la vocación médica como un proceso que se genera en un ser humano en virtud de dos factores: uno individual y otro social (entorno que estimula su desarrollo). Su inicio puede ocurrir a edades y en formas variadas constituyéndose, finalmente, en parte del ‘proyecto de ser’ (se dan ejemplos específicos). Abstract in english Purpose: To study medical vocation from a scientific perspective. Objectives: To analyze origins and development-associated factors of medical vocation in physicians considered examples of high-level professional behavior and medical vocation. Design: Qualitative study, with typical case sampling an [...] d in-depth interviews. Setting: Institute on Ethics in Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Participants: Physicians. Methodology: The sample consisted in 76 physicians selected by pre-established criteria from the four more prestigious Peruvian medical institutions: National Academy of Medicine, Peruvian Academy of Surgery, San Marcos University’s and Peruvian Cayetano Heredia University’s Schools of Medicine. Informed consent was previously obtained. Main outcome measures: Medical vocation origins and associated factors. Results: Eighty-two per cent of physicians interviewed were male, 71.6 year-old average with range 49-88 years; only in 8% their father was MD also and in 14% a family member was MD. In 30% the physician was the oldest son/daughter. Medical vocation did not follow a unique pattern and begun in different periods of the vital cycle even after the student had been admitted to the School of Medicine. Most frequently associated factors were personal dynamics and family influence, and in two cases no explanation was found. Upon results vocation and medical vocation definitions are proposed. Conclusions: Data analysis allows understanding medical vocation as a process generated in a human being on account of two factors: individual (the subject) and social (the environment that stimulates its development). Its beginning may occur at different ages and in several ways, finally becoming part of the ‘oneself project’ (specific examples are given).
Babelli, Sumayah; Chandratilake, Madawa; Roff, Sue
The Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory I: Academic Integrity was administered to 219 medical students from three Egyptian medical schools. The results indicate a high level of congruence between the genders in Recommended Sanctions on a scale of 1-10 ranging from Ignore through Reprimand to Expulsion/Report to Regulatory Body. Some variations in Recommended Sanctions occurred among the age groups 17-19 years; 20-24 years, and 25 years and older. The Egyptian responses were more lenient than a Scottish medical school cohort on four lapses of professionalism and stricter on 5. The Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory I: Academic Integrity can be used as a 'diagnostic tool' to profile a cohort's recommended responses to 30 lapses of professionalism at undergraduate level in health professions education. That profile can be compared with another cohort to indicate parallels and differences in the importance with which different respondents (perhaps in different countries and cultures) place on generic elements of academic professionalism. This information in turn can be used to target further education in expected standards of professionalism. The process can be used as an e-learning programme as well as for needs analysis, including that for International Medical Graduates moving from one culture to work in another. PMID:25154447
Full Text Available In this article we study the social recruitment and professional image of students at the University of Debrecen. Social recruitment shows significant differences between the faculties and the branches. The students in the high prestige faculties come from highmiddle class and middle class families. The students of the faculties that were judged having average prestige are from the middle class and the rate of low-middle class students is significantly greater in branches with lower prestige. Important differences were found in the professional image of the students with an education major and not education majors and also in case of the „ideal professional” and the „practical, necessary knowledge”. Both are partly formed by the professional socialization of the students and partly by the stereotypes. As a consequence there are also big differences between the professional image and the future expectations of the students with an education major and with other majors attending the same faculty.
Tugumisirize Joshua; Sekimpi Patrick; Mwanika Andrew; Kaye Dan K; Sewankambo Nelson
Abstract Background Uganda has an acute problem of inadequate human resources partly due to health professionals' unwillingness to work in a rural environment. One strategy to address this problem is to arrange health professional training in rural environments through community placements. Makerere University College of Health Sciences changed training of medical students from the traditional curriculum to a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum in 2003. This curriculum is based on the SPI...
Gasiorek, Jessica; van de Poel, Kris
Little is known about how language-discordant mobile medical professionals (MMPs), defined as doctors who work in foreign countries, cultures, and languages, interact with their colleagues. The number of MMPs around the world is growing, and their interactions with colleagues have direct consequences for both patients' health and their own…
Nie, Jing-Bao; Smith, Kirk L; Cong, Yali; Hu, Linying; Tucker, Joseph D
As in other societies, medical professionalism in the Peoples' Republic of China has been rapidly evolving. One of the major events in this process was the endorsement in 2005 of the document, "Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter," by the Chinese Medical Doctor Association (hereafter, the Charter).1 More recently, a national survey, the first on such a large scale, was conducted on Chinese physicians' attitudes toward the fundamental principles and core commitments put forward in the Charter. Based on empirical findings from that study and comparing them to the published results of a similar American survey, the authors offer an in-depth interpretation of significant cross-cultural differences and important transcultural commonalities. The broader historical, socio-economic, and ethical issues relating to salient Chinese cultural practices such as family consent, familism (the custom of deferring decisions to family members), and the withholding of medical information, as well as controversial topics such as not respecting patients' autonomy, are examined. The Chinese Survey found that Chinese physicians supported the principles of the Charter in general. Here we argue that Chinese culture and traditional medical ethics are broadly compatible with the moral commitments demanded by modern medical professionalism. Methodologically and theoretically-recognizing the problems inherent in the hoary but still popular habit of dichotomizing cultures and in relativism-a transcultural approach is adopted that gives greater (due) weight to the internal moral diversity present within every culture, the common ground shared by different cultures, and the primacy of morality. Genuine cross-cultural dialogue, including a constructive Chinese-American dialogue in the area of medical professionalism, is not only possible, but necessary. PMID:25794294
Steggles, Allen W.
Discusses the teaching of biotechnology to medical students, undergraduate students and high school seniors. Suggests changes in how the basic sciences are taught in medical schools. Reviews the effects of teaching biotechnology at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine (NEOUCOM). (CW)
Four Native American first-year medical school students from Montana discuss their career choice and their goals for establishing medical practices in Native American communities. A regional program has enabled the students to take their first year of classes at Montana State University-Bozeman and to complete their studies at the University of…
Rabiner, David L.; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Costello, E. Jane; Hoyle, Rick H.; Swartzwelder, H. Scott
Objective: To identify the predictors of nonmedical ADHD medication use by college students. Participants: A total of 843 undergraduates attending one public or one private university in southeastern United States. Method: Students completed a Web-based survey inquiring about ADHD medication use during the first semester freshman of their year and…
Pickering, James D.
The traditional lecture remains an essential method of disseminating information to medical students. However, due to the constant development of the modern medical curriculum many institutions are embracing novel means for delivering the core anatomy syllabus. Using mobile media devices is one such way, enabling students to access core material…
Hidalgo, Jesús López-Torres; Pretel, Fernando Andrés; Bravo, Beatriz Navarro; Rabadan, Francisco Escobar; Serrano Selva, Juan Pedro; Latorre Postigo, Jose Miguel; Martínez, Ignacio Párraga
Objective: To examine the ability of medical students to identify hazardous drinkers using screening tools recommended in clinical practice. Design: Observational cross-sectional study. Setting: Faculty of Medicine of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. Method: The medical students learnt to use Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and…
Halliday, Amy C.; Devonshire, Ian M.; Greenfield, Susan A.; Dommett, Eleanor J.
Teaching pharmacology to medical students has long been seen as a challenge, and one to which a number of innovative approaches have been taken. In this article, we describe and evaluate the use of primary research articles in teaching second-year medical students both in terms of the information learned and the use of the papers themselves. We…
Rogers, Wendy A; Mansfield, Peter R; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; Jureidini, Jon N
Little research has been done on the extent of the relationship between the pharmaceutical industry and medical students, and the effect on students of receiving gifts. Potential harms to patients are documented elsewhere; we focus on potential harms to students. Students who receive gifts may believe that they are receiving something for nothing, contributing to a sense of entitlement that is not in the best interests of their moral development as doctors. Alternatively, students may be subject to recognised or unrecognised reciprocal obligations that potentially influence their decision making. Medical educators have a duty of care to protect students from influence by pharmaceutical companies. PMID:15089733
Khalid, A K
Teenagers and young adultshave the most risk of unplanned pregnancy, due to lack of awareness to see a family planning provider after unprotected sexual intercourse. In addition, nearly one in five physicians is reluctant to provide information regarding Emergency Contraception (EC) to women and this may contribute to their lack of awareness. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the use of EC between medical related students compared to non-medical related students. Data collection was done using questionnaires distributed among students in University College Cork (UCC). 93% of medically related students were aware of EC compared to only 73.5% of non-medically related students. Medical related students also were more aware about the mechanism of action and detailed knowledge of EC compared to the non-medical students. This study has proven that medically related students have more detailed knowledge regarding EC compared to non-medical related students. However, there was no significant difference noted regarding the attitude and practice between the two groups.
Full Text Available Background: Matriculation of international students to United States’ (US medical schools has not mirrored the remarkable influx of these students to other US institutions of higher education. Methods: While these students’ numbers are on the rise, the visibility for their unique issues remains largely ignored in the medical literature. Results: These students are disadvantaged in the medical school admissions process due to financial and immigration-related concerns, and academic standards for admittance also continue to be significantly higher compared with their US-citizen peers. Furthermore, it is simply beyond the mission of many medical schools – both public and private – to support international students’ education, especially since federal, state-allocated or institutional funds are limited and these institutions have a commitment to fulfill the healthcare education needs of qualified domestic candidates. In spite of these obstacles, a select group of international students do gain admission to US medical schools and, upon graduation, are credentialed equally as their US-citizen counterparts by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME. However, owing to their foreign citizenship, these students have visa requirements for post-graduate training that may adversely impact their candidacy for residency placement. Conclusion: By raising such issues, this article aims to increase the awareness of considerations pertinent to this unique population of medical students. The argument is also made to support continued recruitment of international students to US medical schools in spite of these impediments. In our experience, these students are not only qualified to tackle the rigors of a US medical education, but also enrich the cultural diversity of the medical student body. Moreover, these graduates could effectively complement the efforts to augment US physician workforce diversity while contributing to healthcare disparity eradication, minority health issues, and service in medically underserved areas.
Wachholtz, Amy; Rogoff, MaiLan
Medical student burnout has been associated with depression, loss of empathy, and suicidal ideation. Spirituality has been identified in previous studies as a protective factor in coping with the stress but has not been examined as a factor in medical student burnout. An internet link to an anonymous survey was sent via email to medical students at a public northeastern medical school; 259/469 (55.2%) completed it. The survey included measures of spirituality, burnout, psychological distress, coping, and general happiness. A Pearson-r correlation showed significant inverse correlations between measures of spirituality and measures of psychological distress/burnout (r's ranging from -.62 to -.14; p's relationships. PMID:25485165
Full Text Available Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results: Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7% decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2% students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%, 17 (11.8%, and 16 (11.1% students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4% of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8% and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3% were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065 more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002. Conclusion : A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.
Adelina, Alcorta; Jesús, Ancer; Donato, Saldívar; Santos, Guzmán; María V., Bermúdez; Juan, Montes; Juan F., González; Silvia, Tavitas; Francisco J., Rodríguez; Marco V., Gómez; Ana M., Salinas; Mohammadreza, Hojat; Stefan M., Fernández Zambrano.
Full Text Available Como la literatura consigna, los estudiantes y profesionales de la Medicina en comparación con la población general y de otras carreras conforman una población que resulta vulnerable frente a los trastornos de salud psicosocial. En la investigación psicosocial de la educación médica un punto clave c [...] orresponde a la identificación de medidas relevantes con cualidades psicométricas. En el presente trabajo se analiza la validez y confiabilidad de un conjunto de escalas psicosociales aplicadas a 3.603 alumnos de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (México). Las escalas administradas fueron: Soledad, Ansiedad ante los exámenes, Ansiedad general, Autoestima, Extroversión, Locus de control externo, Neuroticismo, Depresión, Eventos estresantes en la vida, Percepción de relaciones tempranas con los padres y amigos y Percepción de estado de salud general. Estas escalas fueron propuestas por investigadores de la Escuela de Medicina de Jefferson (Estados Unidos). Se confirmó la unidimensionalidad y la validez de constructo de las mediciones de Soledad, Ansiedad ante los exámenes, Ansiedad general, Autoestima y Extroversión. Así también, la magnitud y dirección de las correlaciones interescalas apoyaron la validez convergente y discriminante, con excepción de Locus de control externo y Neuroticismo. Los resultados confirman las propiedades psicométricas de las escalas, las cuales son útiles para proveer información a los educadores médicos y a profesionales de la salud mental en la detección temprana de problemas psicosociales quienes en conjunto pueden coadyuvar en la optimización de la salud mental de los estudiantes de escuelas de Medicina a través de programas académicos acordes a sus necesidades. Abstract in english The greater the psychosocial health, the greater is the well-being and the capacity for adaptation and overcoming problems and common life frustrations in family, relationships, and work. Medical students and practicing physicians, in comparison with the general population and that of other professi [...] ons, are exposed to academic and professional stress and therefore are vulnerable to psychosocial health problems and certain specific dysfunctions that may compromise their physical, mental, and social health. In the field of psychosocial research in medical education, the key issue is to find relevant and psychometrically sound measures. The Jefferson Medical College's Psychosocial Questionnaire contains abridged versions of nine personality tests, as well as questions about respondents' relationships with parents in the first five years of life and with classmates in the early schooling. The scales in the questionnaire have shown satisfactory internal consistency reliability and construct validity through factor analysis. To our knowledge, in Mexico, there is not a specific questionnaire that measures psychosocial profile in a non-clinical population such as medical students. The present study adapted and translated the questionnaire from English to Spanish in order to evaluate its validity and reliability in Mexican medical students, to further learn its predictive validity of academic performance. In this study, we compared the factor structure in Mexico to the results obtained in the United States research. Implications for predicting academic and clinical performance of medical students and physicians were discussed. Study participants consisted of 3,603 matriculates at the Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (Mexico). Psychosocial measures included Loneliness, Test anxiety, General anxiety, Self-esteem, Extroversion, External locus of control, Neuroticism, Depression, Stressful life events, Perceptions of early relationships with mother and father, Peer relationships and Perception of health, used by researchers at Jefferson Medical College in the United States. The items were translated into Spanish and back translated from Spanish to English, following the guidelines for adaptation of instrument
Full Text Available Abstract Many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medicines, especially those available over-the-counter, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals such as general practitioners and pharmacists. The primary aim of this review therefore, was to investigate the literature relating to health professionals' and women's knowledge, attitudes and practices towards medication use and safety in breastfeeding. The limited literature that was uncovered identified that general practitioners and pharmacists have poor knowledge, but positive attitudes, and variable practices that are mostly guided by personal experience. They tend to make decisions about the use of a medicine whilst breastfeeding based on the potential 'risk' that it poses to the infant in terms of possible adverse reactions, rather than its 'compatibility' with breast milk. The decision-making process between health professionals and women is usually not a negotiated process, and women are often asked to stop breastfeeding whilst taking a medicine. Women, in turn, are left dissatisfied with the advice received, many choosing not to initiate therapy or not to continue breastfeeding. Some directions for future research have been suggested to address the issues identified in this critical area. This review is important from a societal perspective because many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medications, especially those available without prescription, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals, which is ultimately influenced by their knowledge, attitudes and practices. However, there is an absence of high quality evidence from randomised controlled trials on the safety of medications taken during breastfeeding, which naturally would hinder health professionals from appropriately advising women. It is equally important to know about women's experiences of advice received from health professionals, and whether there is consistency between recommendations made across resources on medication safety in breastfeeding, in order to gain a full understanding of the issues prevalent in this area of practice.
Reilly, Jo Marie; Trial, Janet; Piver, Debra E.; Schaff, Pamela B.
Abstract: Developing and nurturing empathy in medical trainees has been recognized as an essential element of medical education. Theater may be a unique instructional modality to increase empathy training. Methods: A multi-disciplinary team developed a theater workshop for first year medical students. Through the use of theater games, art images…
Full Text Available Abstract Background As socioeconomic health inequalities persist and widen, the health effects of adversity are a constant presence in the daily work of physicians. Gruen and colleagues suggest that, in responding to important population health issues such as this, defining those areas of professional obligation in contrast to professional aspiration should be on the basis of evidence and feasibility. Drawing this line between obligation and aspiration is a part of the work of professional medical colleges and associations, and in doing so they must respond to members as well as a range of other interest groups. Our aim was to explore the usefulness of Gruen's model of physician responsibility in defining how professional medical colleges and associations should lead the profession in responding to socioeconomic health inequalities. Methods We report a case study of how the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners is responding to the issue of health inequalities through its work. We undertook a consultation (80 interviews with stakeholders internal and external to the College and two focus groups with general practitioners and program and policy review of core programs of College interest and responsibility: general practitioner training and setting of practice standards, as well as its work in public advocacy. Results Some strategies within each of these College program areas were seen as legitimate professional obligations in responding to socioeconomic health inequality. However, other strategies, while potentially professional obligations within Gruen's model, were nevertheless contested. The key difference between these lay in different moral orientations. Actions where agreement existed were based on an ethos of care and compassion. Actions that were contested were based on an ethos of justice and human rights. Conclusion Colleges and professional medical associations have a role in explicitly leading a debate about values, engaging both external stakeholder and practicing member constituencies. This is an important and necessary step in defining an agreed role for the profession in addressing health inequalities.
R. Ortiz de Lejarazu Leonardo
Full Text Available SUMMARYIn Spain a million and a half blood transfusions by year are carried out, that supposes between 2 and 10 cases of infection of VIH by year. The present state of science invites to do something more with tests to detect other virological and immunological markers, in order to identify seronegative carriers and thus avoid HIV transmission by them. We must consider the possibility to incur in professional responsibilities if we do not report adequate of this risk or if we do not provide patients all the cares that require, according to the state of the science so called lex artis.RESUMENEn España se realizan un millón y medio de transfusiones de sangre al año, lo que supone un riesgo de entre 2 y 10 casos de infección de VIH a través de las mismas. El estado actual de la ciencia invita a hacer algo más pudiéndose ampliar los estudios de marcadores víricos e inmunológicos, para identificar a portadores seronegativos y así tratar de evitar la transmisión del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana a través de ellos. Debemos considerar la posibilidad de incurrir en responsabilidades profesionales si no informamos adecuadamente de este riesgo o si no proporcionamos a los pacientes todos los cuidados que requieren, según el estado actual de la ciencia, lo que denominamos lex artis.
Ambrose, Adrian Jacques H; Andaya, January M; Yamada, Seiji; Maskarinec, Gregory G
In the current rapidly evolving healthcare environment of the United States, social justice programs in pre-medical and medical education are needed to cultivate socially conscious and health professionals inclined to interdisciplinary collaborations. To address ongoing healthcare inequalities, medical education must help medical students to become physicians skilled not only in the biomedical management of diseases, but also in identifying and addressing social and structural determinants of the patients' daily lives. Using a longitudinal Problem-Based Learning (PBL) methodology, the medical students and faculty advisers at the University of Hawai'i John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) developed the Social Justice Curriculum Program (SJCP) to supplement the biomedical curriculum. The SJCP consists of three components: (1) active self-directed learning and didactics, (2) implementation and action, and (3) self-reflection and personal growth. The purpose of introducing a student-driven SJ curriculum is to expose the students to various components of SJ in health and medicine, and maximize engagement by using their own inputs for content and design. It is our hope that the SJCP will serve as a logistic and research-oriented model for future student-driven SJ programs that respond to global health inequalities by cultivating skills and interest in leadership and community service. PMID:25157325
Nahid Kianmehr; Mani Mofidi; Reza Yazdanpanah; Marjan A. Ahmadi
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the perspectives of medical students and patients on bedside teaching (BST). METHODS A cross-sectional study was undertaken to elicit patients and learners opinions on BST in Hazrat Rasool Hospital, a university teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran. From June 2008 to September 2008, 100 fourth-year medical students and 100 adult patients admitted to the general medical service of a teaching hospital were chosen randomly. Patients who stayed for a minimum of 48 hou...
Hwang K; Fan H; Hwang SW
Kun Hwang,1 Huan Fan,1 Se Won Hwang2 1Department of Plastic Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea; 2Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, UK Abstract: Pathography is defined as “historical biography from a medical, psychological, and psychiatric viewpoint.” We thought that writing about an experience of illness might help students understand patients’ experience and in turn grow in terms of self-understanding. Participants included 151 medical students. Stu...
Digiovanni, Benedict F.; Chu, Jennifer Y.; Mooney, Christopher J.; Lambert, David R.
Purpose: Despite the prevalence of musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders, the degree to which medical schools are providing students the knowledge and confidence to treat these problems is unclear. This study evaluated MSK knowledge in second and fourth year medical students using a newly developed written assessment tool and examined the maturation of clinical confidence in treating core MSK disorders. Methods: Over a 3-year period, the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) MSK subject examin...
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of current study was to investigate breakfast consumption between rural and urban among Inner Mongolia Medical University students, China. Method: From December 2010 to January 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical students in the Inner Mongolia Medical University using a self-administered questionnaire. X2 was used to identify the differences between rural and urban. Result: The prevalence of breakfast consumption was 70.95%. The prevalence of breakfast in rural was higher than that in urban (72.09% vs. 69.78%. Breakfast consumption prevalence among male students in rural was higher 7.4% than those of students in urban. Students in Mongolian ethnic in rural were more likely to eat breakfast than Mongolian students in urban. The prevalence of breakfast decreases with grade increase both urban and rural. Students with good physical condition were more likely to eat breakfast compared with students with poor physical condition. Conclusion: The prevalence of regular breakfast consumption in rural was higher than that in urban. However, the prevalence of eating breakfast declined faster in rural than that in urban. Our study findings could help health care professionals develop targeted interventions designed to increase breakfast consumption.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Finland, public health care is the responsibility of primary health care centres, which render a wide range of community level preventive, curative and rehabilitative medical care. Since 1990's, medical studies have involved early familiarization of medical students with general practice from the beginning of the studies, as this pre-clinical familiarisation helps medical students understand patients as human beings, recognise the importance of the doctor-patient relationship and identify practicing general practitioners (GPs as role models for their professional development. Focused on doctor-patient relationship, we analysed the reports of 2002 first year medical students in the University of Kuopio. The students observed GPs' work during their 2-day visit to primary health care centres. Methods We analysed systematically the texts of 127 written reports of 2002, which represents 95.5% of the 133 first year pre-clinical medical students reports. The reports of 2003 (N = 118 and 2004 (N = 130 were used as reference material. Results Majority of the students reported GPs as positive role models. Some students reported GPs' poor attitudes, which they, however, regarded as a learning opportunity. Students generally observed a great variety of responsibilities in general practice, and expressed admiration for the skills and abilities required. They appreciated the GPs' interest in patients concerns. GPs' communication styles were found to vary considerably. Students reported some factors disturbing the consultation session, such as the GP staring at the computer screen and other team members entering the room. Working with marginalized groups, the chronically and terminally ill, and dying patients was seen as an area for development in the busy Finnish primary health care centres. Conclusion During the analysis, we discovered that medical students' perceptions in this study are in line with the previous findings about the importance of role model (good or bad in making good doctors. Therefore, medical students' pre-clinical primary health care centre visits may influence their attitudes towards primary health care work and the doctor-patient relationship. We welcome more European studies on the role of early pre-clinical general practice exposure on medical students' primary care specialty choice.
José Adolfo, Rodríguez P.
Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The essence of the medical profession resides in the medical act, whereupon a sick human being meets another with the power to heal him or her. The source of this power has evolved from the divinity itself through magic to science or acquired knowledge. This power implies acknowledgement of values t [...] hat are inherent to the profession as well as responsibility toward one's own conscience and toward society, elements considered constitutive of what we now call professionalism. From antiquity these principles have evolved into behavioral codes containing variable components according to the different ages and cultures, but also permenent core values such as respect for life, altruism, and honesty, among others. Scientific and technological advances have magnified medical power but at the same time they have required that the philosophical and ethical principles that ought to inform professional practice be made explicit. This happens at a time when certitudes are questioned or abandoned, relativism and secularism pervade culture, and traditional medical values are challenged. Therefore, consensus attainment appears for some as the only legitimation of the ethics of professional medical acts, while for others the ancestral principles and values of medicine have permanent validity as objective goods based on the dignity of the human person
Hung, Tawny; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra; Ford, Jason C
Pathology is an unpopular residency choice for medical students worldwide. In some countries, this has contributed to a crisis in pathologist human resources that has affected the quality of clinical laboratories. Several previous studies have used information from junior medical students and from residents to suggest ways of improving pathology recruitment. There are, however, no published studies of pathology residency choice that focus on the senior medical students who must be recruited. This study uses focus groups of senior medical students to explore both general and pathology-specific influences on residency choice. Several general influences are identified, including students' expectations for their future clinical practices, their own clinical rotation experiences, influences from other people including mentors, and their choice to reject certain fields. Several specific antipathology influences are also revealed, including negative stereotypes about pathologists, a perceived incompatibility of personality between most medical students (extroverted) and pathologists (introverted), and perceptions of pathologists as being in some ways nonmedical. The most important antipathology influence was that, from the students' perspective, pathology was utterly invisible in clinical practice. Most students did not consider and then reject a pathology residency: instead, pathology was completely ignored. Given the importance of clerkship electives in influencing medical student career choice, promoting clerkship experiences in pathology may improve recruitment. However, departments of pathology must first make pathology visible to students and teach them how pathologists contribute to clinical care. PMID:21292295
Full Text Available Background: Gadget holds the great importance in everyday life. Mobile phone and internet usage have become universal practice especially among the student community. Gadgets usage has both pros and cons. Objective: To assess the magnitude of gadget utilization among medical college students in Delhi and to estimate the burden of gadget dependency. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted in three medical colleges. The participants were 957 medical students selected by systematic random sampling, interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire. Result: The sample consisted of 485 (50.7% males and 472 (49.3% females, aged 17-25 years. Gadgets of at least one variety were uniformly used by all the students, 22.4% of the students surveyed were found to be gadget dependent. Conclusion: Our study shows high prevalence of gadget dependency among medical students. There is need to create awareness regarding the problem of gadget dependency and its social and health effects.
BACKGROUND: In recent years, rising numbers of medical students and an increasingly demanding clinical workload has put pressures on the educational systems for medical students in the hospital. Bedside teaching remains central to education, but tutorial delivery by registrars, tutors and consultants has proven to be increasingly difficult with the greater numbers of students now in the undergraduate system. AIMS: We have performed a pilot study to determine the feasibility of developing a Junior Tutor Programme, to assist in the delivery of tutorials to undergraduate medical students. METHODS: This was designed and delivered by interns under the supervision of the academic staff in the Departments of Medicine and Surgery in Connolly Hospital. The programme was evaluated by a questionnaire filled in by the students anonymously. RESULTS: A supervised programme of tutorials delivered by interns is a potentially useful way to ensure delivery of clinical teaching to undergraduate medical students.
Shorr, Andrew F.; And Others
A study of 110 first-year University of Virginia medical students taking a required course in medical ethics found that the curriculum had little effect on student attitudes toward certain ethical questions or on their factual knowledge regarding particular ethical and legal issues. (Author/MSE)
Full Text Available Abstract Background An integrated sense of professionalism enables health professionals to draw on relevant knowledge in context and to apply a set of professional responsibilities and ethical principles in the midst of changing work environments 12. Inculcating professionalism is therefore a critical goal of health professional education. Two multi-professional courses for first year Health Science students at the University of Cape Town, South Africa aim to lay the foundation for becoming an integrated health professional 3. In these courses a diagram depicting the domains of the integrated health professional is used to focus the content of small group experiential exercises towards an appreciation of professionalism. The diagram serves as an organising framework for conceptualising an emerging professional identity and for directing learning towards the domains of 'self as professional' 45. Objective This paper describes how a diagrammatic representation of the core elements of an integrated health professional is used as a template for framing course content and for organising student learning. Based on the assumption that all health care professionals should be knowledgeable, empathic and reflective, the diagram provides students and educators with a visual tool for investigating the subjective and objective dimensions of professionalism. The use of the diagram as an integrating point of reference for individual and small group learning is described and substantiated with relevant literature. Conclusion The authors have applied the diagram with positive impact for the past six years with students and educators reporting that "it just makes sense". The article includes plans for formal evaluation. Evaluation to date is based on preliminary, informal feedback on the value of the diagram as a tool for capturing the domains of professionalism at an early stage in the undergraduate education of health professional students.
Full Text Available Objective: To compare medical graduates with and without undergraduate research experience in relation to oral or poster presentations after graduation.Materials and Methods: Graduates of Marmara Medical School were enrolled in this cross-sectional study between 20th February and 19th May 2009. Students graduating in 2005 and 2006 were classified as student research exposed and those graduating in 2001 and 2002 were classified as student research naive groups. Two different questionnaires were prepared for the groups and analysed electronically. All graduates of the mentioned years were contacted by telephone (n=425. The reply rates for the questionnaires were 45% in the exposed and 25.5% in the naive groups.Results: Fifty one point six percent of the participants were female and 25.5% were residents. 90.1% of the exposed group were satisfied with their research experience and agreed that this experience had a positive influence on their professional life. There was no statistically significant difference between the study groups for oral or poster presentations during the first 2 years after graduation. Research experience was found to be useful for preparing questionnaires, defining research aims and collecting data.Conclusion: The satisfaction rate from the research experience and the motivation for new research were high in the exposed group. However, an added value of the research experience could not be shown quantitatively.
Strous, Rael D; Netta Shoenfeld; Avi Lehman; Aharon Wolf; Leah Snyder; Ori Barzilai
Objectives: To investigate the subjective presence of a range of subsyndromal and syndromal mental health conditions in medical students, and to compare the presence of these conditions between preclinical and clinical training. Methods: A cross sectional study was used among first-and fifth-year medical students. Student reported their mental health conditions using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, the fourth version (DSM-IV). Data analysis was based on 110...
ÖNAL, Ay?e Emel; GÜRTEK?N, Ba?ak; ÖZEL, Sevda; ERB?L, Suna; AYVAZ, Özkan; GÜNGÖR, Günay
ABSTRACTObjective: Medical faculty students may develop irregular eating habits for reasons such as their social – economic situations, adaptation to faculty life, dormitory or their new environment. As a result, some students eventually ignore their basic food requirements and have a diet that is cabohydrate, saturated fat and cholesterol rich. Our aim was to search the nutritional habits and food consumption of medical faculty students in order to provide a healthy diet advice.Material and...
Zhang, Hongkui; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Longlu
Explorating reform of the teaching evaluation method for vocational competency-based education (CBE) curricula for medical students is a very important process in following international medical education standards, intensify ing education and teaching reforms, enhancing teaching management, and improving the quality of medical education. This…
Background The views of medical professionals on efficiency of health system and needs for any changes are very critical and constitute a cornerstone for any health system improvement. This is particularly relevant to Iraqi Kurdistan case as the events of the last few decades have significantly devastated the national Iraqi health system while the necessity for adopting a new health care system is increasingly recognized since 2004. This study aims to examine the regional health system in Iraqi Kurdistan from medical professionals' perspectives and try to define its problems and priorities for improvement. Methods A survey questionnaire was developed and administered to a convenience sample of 250 medical professionals in Erbil governorate. The questionnaire included four items; rating of the quality of services and availability of resources in the health institutions, view on different aspects of the health system, the perceived priority needs for health system improvement and gender and professional characteristics of the respondents. Results The response rate to the survey was 83.6%. A high proportion of respondents rated the different aspects of services and resources in the health institutions as weak or very weak including the availability of the required quantity and quality of medicines (68.7%), the availability of sufficient medical equipment and investigation tools (68.7%), and the quality of offered services (65.3%). Around 72% of respondents had a rather negative view on the overall health system. The weak role of medical research, the weak role of professional associations in controlling the system and the inefficient health education were identified as important problems in the current health system (87.9%, 87.1% and 84.9%, respectively). The priority needs of health system improvement included adoption of social insurance for medical care of the poor (82%), enhancing the role of family medicine (77.2%), adopting health insurance system (76.1%) and periodic scientific evaluation of physicians and other health staff (69.8%). Conclusion Medical professionals were generally unsatisfied with the different aspects of the health system in Iraqi Kurdistan region. A number of problems and different priority needs for health system improvement have been recognized that require to be studied in more details. PMID:21118537
Saleh Abubakir M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The views of medical professionals on efficiency of health system and needs for any changes are very critical and constitute a cornerstone for any health system improvement. This is particularly relevant to Iraqi Kurdistan case as the events of the last few decades have significantly devastated the national Iraqi health system while the necessity for adopting a new health care system is increasingly recognized since 2004. This study aims to examine the regional health system in Iraqi Kurdistan from medical professionals' perspectives and try to define its problems and priorities for improvement. Methods A survey questionnaire was developed and administered to a convenience sample of 250 medical professionals in Erbil governorate. The questionnaire included four items; rating of the quality of services and availability of resources in the health institutions, view on different aspects of the health system, the perceived priority needs for health system improvement and gender and professional characteristics of the respondents. Results The response rate to the survey was 83.6%. A high proportion of respondents rated the different aspects of services and resources in the health institutions as weak or very weak including the availability of the required quantity and quality of medicines (68.7%, the availability of sufficient medical equipment and investigation tools (68.7%, and the quality of offered services (65.3%. Around 72% of respondents had a rather negative view on the overall health system. The weak role of medical research, the weak role of professional associations in controlling the system and the inefficient health education were identified as important problems in the current health system (87.9%, 87.1% and 84.9%, respectively. The priority needs of health system improvement included adoption of social insurance for medical care of the poor (82%, enhancing the role of family medicine (77.2%, adopting health insurance system (76.1% and periodic scientific evaluation of physicians and other health staff (69.8%. Conclusion Medical professionals were generally unsatisfied with the different aspects of the health system in Iraqi Kurdistan region. A number of problems and different priority needs for health system improvement have been recognized that require to be studied in more details.
Tregunno, Deborah; Ginsburg, Liane; Clarke, Beth; Norton, Peter
Background As efforts to integrate patient safety into health professional curricula increase, there is growing recognition that the rate of curricular change is very slow, and there is a shortage of research that addresses critical perspectives of faculty who are on the ‘front-lines’ of curricular innovation. This study reports on medical, nursing and pharmacy teaching faculty perspectives about factors that influence curricular integration and the preparation of safe practitioners. Methods Qualitative methods were used to collect data from 20 faculty members (n=6 medical from three universities; n=6 pharmacy from two universities; n=8 nursing from four universities) engaged in medical, nursing and pharmacy education. Thematic analysis generated a comprehensive account of faculty perspectives. Results Faculty perspectives on key challenges to safe practice vary across the three disciplines, and these different perspectives lead to different priorities for curricular innovation. Additionally, accreditation and regulatory requirements are driving curricular change in medicine and pharmacy. Key challenges exist for health professional students in clinical teaching environments where the culture of patient safety may thwart the preparation of safe practitioners. Conclusions Patient safety curricular innovation depends on the interests of individual faculty members and the leveraging of accreditation and regulatory requirements. Building on existing curricular frameworks, opportunities now need to be created for faculty members to act as champions of curricular change, and patient safety educational opportunities need to be harmonises across all health professional training programmes. Faculty champions and practice setting leaders can collaborate to improve the culture of patient safety in clinical teaching and learning settings. PMID:24299734
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to increase under-standing of the meaning of continuous group and individual mentoring for medical students´ personal and professional development. Methods: A qualitative approach with individual student interviews and directed content analysis was chosen to investigate and interpret the meaning of mentorship. Results: Five themes emerged: psychosocial support by the mentor, a relationship with a physician beneath the professional surface, space for something else, awareness of one´s own development and reflection and learning with peers. The mentorship created a space where one could talk about 'the other things'. The relationship with the mentor was more personal than relations to teachers or supervisors. During the group sessions the students could reflect and learn in interaction with others. Recurrent reflection about oneself and one´s competences led to awareness of one's own development. Conclusions: Combined group and individual mentoring creates space for reflection on the humanistic aspects of the professional role. A mentoring relationship can be supportive and personal without frequent meetings and knowing one another well. Continuity in mentorship helps students to reflect on and recognise their own professional development.
Juan Pablo Beca I
Full Text Available Background: Teaching hospitals include both undergraduate and postgraduate students, but the role of medical students in the health care team has not been clearly established. Aim: To know the opinion of different professionals about the role of medical students and how this opinion may have an influence in medical education. Material and Methods: A qualitative method was used, asking open questions to focus groups of physicians, nurses and midwives, technicians and undergraduate medical students of 4th and 5th grade. Results: Physicians believe that medical students have no special role in the health care team, nurses think that they may help in commu-nication with patients, and technicians (nurses’s aids value their companionship and closeness with patients. Medical students recognize that their main function is to learn but they are aware that they do help patients. They suggest increasing their integration with other students of other health related careers. Conclusions: Although medical students are usually not seen as part of the health care team, they may fulfll a role with patients during their clinical learning practice. This would improve the quality of their training and the multidisciplinary work of the health care team.
Juan Pablo, Beca I; María Inés, Gómez B; Francisca, Browne L; Jorge, Browne S.
Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Teaching hospitals include both undergraduate and postgraduate students, but the role of medical students in the health care team has not been clearly established. Aim: To know the opinion of different professionals about the role of medical students and how this opinion may have an infl [...] uence in medical education. Material and Methods: A qualitative method was used, asking open questions to focus groups of physicians, nurses and midwives, technicians and undergraduate medical students of 4th and 5th grade. Results: Physicians believe that medical students have no special role in the health care team, nurses think that they may help in commu-nication with patients, and technicians (nurses’s aids) value their companionship and closeness with patients. Medical students recognize that their main function is to learn but they are aware that they do help patients. They suggest increasing their integration with other students of other health related careers. Conclusions: Although medical students are usually not seen as part of the health care team, they may fulfll a role with patients during their clinical learning practice. This would improve the quality of their training and the multidisciplinary work of the health care team.
Hiteshkumar Muktilal Chauhan
Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Stress occurs when pressure is greater than resources available. Medical education has many factors causing stress among the medical students. This study was conducted to find out the prevalence of stress among medical students and to know the factors causing stress in them.Methods: This is a cross sectional study, conducted on the Ist MBBS to III/IInd MBBS students of B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad, using a semistructured self administered questionnaire, in October 2010. A total of 200 students both male & female were participated in this study.Results: Among all 200 students, who were responded the questionnaire, 174 (87% students felt stress at one or other time. Out of total 174 stressed students, 93 (53.45% were female, while 81 (46.55% were of male. Among which Ist & III/IInd MBBS students were more stressed 92% & 90% respectively. Vast medical course, language problems, frequent examinations, homesickness, improper mess food & high parental expectations are the main stressors.Conclusion: Medical students are highly affected with stress, which affect their academic performance as well as their health & day to day activities also. Review academic & exam schedules, changing the exam pattern, adding some recreational activities, better interaction with the faculty and proper guidance, will help them to cope up with stress.
Deressa Wakgari; Azazh Aklilu
Abstract Background The health care system of Ethiopia is facing a serious shortage of health workforce. While a number of strategies have been developed to improve the training and retention of medical doctors in the country, understanding the perceptions and attitudes of medical students towards their training, future practice and intent to migrate can contribute in addressing the problem. This study was carried out to assess the attitudes of Ethiopian medical students towards their trainin...
Shankar PR, ,
Full Text Available BackgroundKIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal conducts problem-basedpharmacology learning during small-group practical sessions.The present study was carried out to obtain student feedbackregarding the sessions and suggestions for improvement.MethodThe questionnaire-based study was carried out among firstyear medical students during July 2009. Respondents wereenrolled after explaining the aims and objectives of the studyand obtaining written, informed consent. Basic demographicinformation and student agreement with a set of 30statements using a modified Likert-type scale was noted.ResultsSixty-four of the 75 students (86% participated. The mediantotal score was 107 (maximum score 150 and was higheramong males, students from within the Kathmandu valley andself-financing students. The differences were not statisticallysignificant. The suggestions for improvement were improvingthe physical infrastructure of the lab and providing more timefor the practical exercises.ConclusionStudent opinion was favourable. The findings would be ofinterest to medical educators especially in developingcountries.
Spampinato, Christine M.; Wittich, Christopher M.; Beckman, Thomas J.; Cha, Stephen S.; Pawlina, Wojciech
Medical professionalism is a multifaceted paradigm and is an essential component of medical education. Gross anatomy is a laboratory to teach professionalism, and promoting critical reflection in medical students is a prerequisite to furthering professionalism. The aim of this study was to determine if professionalism case discussions during a…
Full Text Available The aspects of improvement are considered professionally - the applied physical preparation of students of economic specialities taking into account the features of pedagogical process. It is set that in the process of professional - the applied physical preparation the complex of psychophysiological qualities, necessary a worker in his professional activity is successfully formed. The analysis of publications of the Russian and Ukrainian scientists is resulted about the varieties of facilities of improvement professionally - the applied physical preparation of students of higher educational establishments. Some features of professional preparation of future economists are found out. The necessity of search of new technologies of perfection of process of physical education of students is well-proven higher educational establishments of economic specialities. Directions of education the harmoniously developed personality of student are recommended, which will allow to improve a health, form important psychophysical qualities professionally.
Erfan, Yeganeh-Arani; Madawa, Chandratilake; Adamson S, Muula.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The shortage of doctors in all specialties in Malawi is particularly severe in rural areas. Contributory factors are the low number of students graduating each year, migration of doctors, and the preference of new graduates for practising in urban areas. Attempts to increase the output f [...] rom Malawi's only medical school are insufficient to meet the country's healthcare needs. METHODS: We studied the factors influencing career choices of medical undergraduates of the College of Medicine in Blantyre, Malawi, who were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire (N=205) and individual interviews (N=17). RESULTS: Most respondents (89.4%) indicated that they intend to specialise abroad, predominantly to study in 'better institutions' and to get the 'experience' of a different country; 87.0% indicated that they intend to live in Malawi long-term. Although, in general, the rural lifestyle was unattractive to medical students, respondents from rural areas and small towns, and whose parents were 'non-professionals', were more likely to intend working in rural areas and small towns, and to settle in Malawi, than students from urban and professional families. CONCLUSIONS: The College of Medicine should consider increasing its intake of students with lower socio-economic backgrounds and from rural areas/small towns to increase the number of doctors working in rural areas and settling in Malawi. However, the Ministry of Health may need a multipronged approach to reduce the mismatch between doctors' career expectations and the country's healthcare needs.
Although professional staff comprise more than half the Australian higher education workforce, typically research has concentrated on the work of academic staff. Professional staff are increasingly researching the working lives of professional staff, adding to the understanding of the work of professional staff and the contributions they make…
Winer, Jenna Nicole; Nakagawa, Keisuke; Conrad, Patricia A; Brown, Lauren; Wilkes, Michael
This study evaluates whether medical and veterinary students' attitudes toward "One Health" and interprofessional education changed after participating in a joint small group learning exercise focused on risk factors associated with zoonotic disease. A survey was distributed to third-year medical students (n?=?98) and second-year veterinary students (n?=?140), each with a 95% response rate. Overall, 92% of veterinary students and 73% of medical students agreed or strongly agreed that "One Health" was relevant to their desired specialty. Students from both schools largely agreed that interprofessional education should be a goal of the curriculum for their school, and that interprofessional approaches strengthen their overall education. Students reported increased confidence in their communication skills and improved ability to contribute to One Health collaborative teams. This educational intervention, built around a patient case, focused on a variety of learning objectives including skills (such as communication), knowledge (of zoonotic toxoplasmosis) and attitudes (toward collaborative learning and practice). By sparking an interest in One Health during their early professional education, we sought to encourage a new generation of physicians and veterinarians to adopt a more collaborative spirit to their clinical practice, which will ultimately benefit human, animal and environmental health. PMID:25051087
Su, Yuling; Chung, Ya-hui
It remains ambiguous how college students form perceptions of professional development by identifying their emotional reactions and reflecting on their experiences in a situated setting. College students undergo professional development by participating in field experiences and reflecting on their experiential learning. In addition, researchers…
Schaap, H.; de Bruijn, E.; Van der Schaaf, M. F.; Baartman, L. K. J.; Kirschner, P. A.
Students in competence-based vocational education are expected to actively construct a personal professional theory, in which they integrate different types of knowledge and beliefs. Students' personal professional theories are seen as an important learning outcome of competence-based vocational education. However, it is unknown how personal…
Gettig, Jacob Patrick; Lee, Nancy; Fjortoft, Nancy
Objectives. To relate common online scenarios to tenets of professionalism, assess frequency of observed scenarios in 4 online domains, and compare second-year (P2) pharmacy students, fourth-year (P4) pharmacy students’, and faculty members’ perceptions of professionalism.
Literature indicated the need to include a variety of skills in architecture pedagogy to better enable students to establish their footing in professional practice. This study attempted to understand perceptions of fourth year architecture students at two programs regarding their preparation for professional practice. Observations in design…
Jagmohni Kaur Sidhu
Stress amongst medical students is oftenoverlooked. Intelligent students are not always the mostcomposed. This study aimed to look at both male andfemale students of three different ethnic groups and theeffects of stress in areas such as academic, social,financial and their everyday life. The Chinese studentsreported significantly less “academic stress” than theMalay students, and the Malay students reportedsignificantly less “financial stress” compared to theChinese and Indian studen...
This article describes a study of Nigerian medical students' perceptions of traditional didactic lectures and their overall learning environment. The results confirm declining interest in didactic lectures and practical sessions with preferences for peer-tutored discussion classes, which were considered more interactive and interesting. This study recommends more emphasis on student-centered learning with alternatives to passive lecture formats and repetitive cookbook practical sessions. The institutionalization of student feedback processes in Nigerian medical schools is also highly recommended.
Full Text Available Aim: This pilot study aimed to explore the perceptions of general medical practitioners (GPs towards the professional training and roles of community pharmacists. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all private clinics (n=160 run by GPs in a northern state of Malaysia. The instrument contained questions to evaluate the practitioners’ level of agreement using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Results: Of 160 GPs, 80 returned the questionnaire (response rate 50%. The respondents agreed that: GPs should consider the community pharmacists’ recommendations whenever there is/are any problem(s with the prescriptions given by them (46.3%; community pharmacists are the best healthcare professionals to educate patients about safe and appropriate use of medications (52.5%; the pharmacy profession had undergone a major metamorphosis from a product-oriented profession to a more patient-centred and outcome-oriented one (61.3%; if dispensing separation is implemented, they will work closely with the community pharmacists in monitoring patients’ pharmacotherapeutic outcomes (77.5%. Conclusion: The current findings suggest that GPs would support an extension of the role of the community pharmacists in number of activities of patient care activities such as medication counselling. Thus, suggesting potential collaborative care between GPs and community pharmacists towards patient care and the needs to develop and incorporate topics on inter-professional relationship in the current medical and pharmaceutical education curriculums.
In 2014, the Australian Capital Territory Civil and Administrative Appeals Tribunal (ACAT) made a finding of professional misconduct against a Canberra general practitioner working in two bulk-billing medical practices established by a corporate medical practice service company, Primary Health Care Limited (Medical Board of Australia v Tausif (Occupational Discipline)  ACAT 4). This column analyses that case, particularly in relation to the ACAT finding that the practitioner's professional misconduct was substantially contributed to by an unsafe system of care, specifically, the failure of Primary Health Care to provide supervision and mentoring for clinicians working at its medical centres. The case highlights the professional pressures carried by general practitioners who practise medicine within the framework of corporate bulk-billing business models. The column also examines the related issue of general practitioner co-payments in Australia and their impact on business models built around doctors purportedly characterised as independent contractors, bulk-billing large numbers of patients each day for short consultations. PMID:25980187
The application of radiation in the field of medicine is the most active area. Due to the rapid and strong development of intervention radiology at present near 20 years, particularly, the medical workers become a popularize group which most rapid increasing and also receiving the must high of professional exposure dose. Because, inter alias, radiation protection management nag training have not fully follow up, the aware of radioactive protection and appropriate approach have tot fully meet the development and need, the professional exposure dose received by medical workers, especially those being engaged in intervention radiology, are more higher, as well as have not yet fully receiving the complete personal dose monitoring, the medical workers become the population group which should be paid the most attention to. The writer would advice in this paper that all medical workers who being received a professional radiation exposure should pay more attention to the safety and healthy they by is strengthening radiation protection and receiving complete personal dose monitoring. (authors)
Priyanka Mahawar; Sameer Phadnis; Gargi Ghosh; Op, Kataria; Sanjay Dixit
Considering the importance of quality of life in medical students we have conducted a cross sectional & descriptive study on screening of mental illness of 60 medical students of prefinal year and comparing it with 60 students of third year of Science and Art College. Students were selected via random sampling. GHQ-12 was used as a screening tool and after obtaining scores students were graded in 3 categories - individuals screened positive for psychological morbidity were of Grades 2 and 3...
Full Text Available Questions are considered professionally-applied physical preparation of students of economic specialities with the prevailing use of facilities of football. The methodical receptions of development of professionally important qualities of future economists are presented. Expedience of application of the offered methodical receptions is certain. The elective component of on-line tutorial is improved on physical education. The experimental professionally oriented program of psychophysical preparation of students is developed.
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Prescription of drugs follows some principles about which the medical students should be aware, and they should practice them efficiently so that they become experienced in the field. This study aims to determine the practice and knowledge of drug prescription in senior medical students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 140 students from Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected using self administered questionnaires in the format of case study and essay questions. The questions were designed based on principles of drug prescription presented to the interns in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences on the subjects including drug indication, interaction and side effects; contraindication of drugs in pregnancy; maximum drugs prescribed in one prescription letter; and the rules of insurance organizations in Iran. The data analysis was performed using SPSS, version 15. Content validity of multiple choice questions was confirmed by expert opinion and the consensus of four reference texts. 120 students participated in this study with a response rate of 85.7%. As to the knowledge of medical students, only 34.18% of them were competent in prescribing drugs; however, no one got a full score in the exam. 27.73% of them answered the questions incompletely, and 30.09% of them showed wrong prescription. Most mistakes were related to drug interaction, antibiotics and analgesics drugs (68.3%. As to the reference books of pharmacology, 16.9% had complete knowledge, 54.8% moderate level of knowledge, 28.3% had no information about that. This study shows that the knowledge of medical students as to drug prescription is inadequate. Also, many studies have approved that effective education has a significant effect on improvement of drug prescription by physicians. We recommend interventions such as curriculum development to increase the students’ skills. This should be taken into account in further research and by public health professionals and health policy makers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Student Research Programme is a national education and grant scheme for medical students who wish to carry out research in parallel with their studies. The purpose of the programme is to increase recruitment of people with a standard medical degree to medical research. The Research Programme was established in 2002 and underwent a thorough evaluation during the spring of 2007. The evaluation should investigate if the programme had fulfilled its objectives of increased recruitment to medical research, in addition to the students' and supervisors' satisfaction of the programme, and unwanted differences between the universities. Methods Data was collected from students, supervisors and administrative staff via web-based questionnaires. Information about admission, implementation, results achieved and satisfaction was analysed and compared between the four Norwegian medical schools. In addition, the position of the scheme in relation to the national Quality Reform of Higher Education was analysed. Results At the end of 2006, the Medical Student Research Programme had recruited 265 medical students to research. These consisted of 214 active students, 35 who had completed their studies and only 17 who had dropped out. Both students and supervisors were generally very satisfied with the scheme, including the curriculum, the results achieved and the administrative service. The majority of students wanted to continue their research towards a PhD and, of those who had completed the Medical Student Research Programme, practically all had published one or several scientific papers. The survey showed only small differences between the four medical schools, despite their choice of somewhat different solutions in terms of administration and organisation. The Medical Student Research Programme satisfies the majority of the demands of the Quality Reform, however as an integrated research programme aimed at a PhD it presupposes access to PhD courses before the completion of medical studies, as well as the ability to include undergraduate scientific work in a PhD thesis. Conclusion The Medical Student Research Programme has led to an increase in the recruitment of graduated physicians to medical research in Norway. It will only be possible to evaluate whether this in turn will result in a larger number of PhDs in 3–5 years; this will also depend on the access to grants and fellowships.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal is a developing country in South Asia with a population of 29.8 million. In September 2011, there were 18 medical schools with 14 being in the private sector. KIST Medical College is a private school in Lalitpur district. The present study was conducted to obtain information on student perceptions about working in rural Nepal after graduation. Methods The study was conducted among first- and second-year undergraduate medical students using a semi-structured questionnaire developed by the authors using inputs from the literature and their experiences of teaching medical students. Year of study, gender, method of financing of medical education, place of family residence and occupation of parents were noted. Participant responses were analysed, grouped together and the number of respondents stating a particular response was noted. Results Of the 200 students, 185 (92.5% participated with 95 being from the first year and 90 from the second. Most students were self-financing and from urban areas. Regarding the question of working in rural Nepal after graduation, 134 (72.4% said they will work after their undergraduate course. Students preferred to work in the government or nongovernmental sector. Student felt doctors are reluctant to serve in rural Nepal due to inadequate facilities, low salary, less security, problems with their professional development, less equipment in health centres, decreased contact with family and difficulties in communicating with an illiterate, rural population. About 43% of respondents felt medical education does not adequately prepare them for rural service. Repeated rural exposure, postings in rural hospitals and health centres, and training students to diagnose and treat illness with less technology were suggested. The median monthly salary expected was 60 000 Nepalese rupees (US$ 820 and was significantly higher among first-year students. Conclusions The majority of respondents were in favour of working in rural Nepal after graduation. They wanted facilities in rural areas and health centres to be improved. Changes in the education system were suggested. Providing relatively better facilities for rural doctors compared with urban doctors and reorienting medical education for producing doctors for rural Nepal can be considered. Further studies are required in other private medical schools.
Rushi N. Pandya
Full Text Available Background: The use of self-medication is highly prevalent in the community more so amongst the medical students. Self-medication can be defined as the use of drugs to treat self-diagnosed disorders or symptoms, or the intermittent or continued use of a prescribed drug for chronic or recurrent disease or symptoms. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence and pattern of use of self-medication among medical students from first year to internship. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out among under graduate medical students including interns of Smt. NHL Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad during the period of March 2010 to May 2010. Results: Out of 747 students and interns enrolled, 685 responded (91.7%. Out of 685 respondents 564 (82.3% reported self-medication within one year of recall period. Most common conditions/symptoms for self-medication in students were fever (72.7%, headache (69.1%, upper respiratory tract infections (64.1% followed by others like body-ache, abdominal pain, diarrhoea etc. Over the counter drugs (84.2% was the most common category of drugs used by all the students except first year students who used prescription only drugs more frequently (48.5%. Herbal and Ayurvedic drugs were also used as self-medication (17.8%; most frequently by the first year students (22.7%. Conclusion: The pattern of self-medication practice changes with time and advancement of knowledge. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 275-280
Benson John A; Wood Diana F; Parker Richard A; Quince Thelma A
Abstract Background Empathy is important to patient care. The prevailing view is that empathy declines during university medical education. The significance of that decline has been debated. This paper reports the findings in respect of two questions relating to university medical education: 1. Do men and women medical students differ in empathy? 2. Does empathy change amongst men and women over time? Methods The medical course at the University of Cambridge comprises two components: Core Sci...
Huhn, D.; Junne, F.; Zipfel, S.; Duelli, R.; Resch, F.; Herzog, W.; Nikendei, C.
Introduction: Medical students with a non-German background face several challenges during their studies. Besides support given by foreign student offices further specific projects for international students have been developed and are offered by medical faculties. However, so far, neither a systematic survey of the faculties’ perceived problems nor of the offered support exists. Method: All study deaneries of medical faculties in Germany were contacted between April and October 2013 and asked for their participation in a telephone interview. Interview partners were asked about 1.) The percentage of non-German students at the medical faculty; 2.) The perceived difficulties and problems of foreign students; 3.) The offers for non-German students; and 4.) The specification of further possibilities of support. Given information was noted, frequencies counted and results interpreted via frequency analysis. Results: Only 39% of the medical faculties could give detailed information about the percentage of non-German students. They reported an average share of 3.9% of students with an EU migration background and 4.9% with a non-EU background. Most frequently cited offers are student conducted tutorials, language courses and tandem-programs. The most frequently reported problem by far is the perceived lack of language skills of foreign students at the beginning of their studies. Suggested solutions are mainly the development of tutorials and the improvement of German medical terminology. Discussion: Offers of support provided by medical faculties for foreign students vary greatly in type and extent. Support offered is seen to be insufficient in coping with the needs of the international students in many cases. Hence, a better coverage of international students as well as further research efforts to the specific needs and the effectiveness of applied interventions seem to be essential. PMID:25699112
Kir, Tayfun; Ogur, Recai; Kilic, Selim; Tekbas, Omer Faruk; Hasde, Metin
The aim of this study was to determine how medical students use the computer and World Wide Web at a Turkish military medical school and to discuss characteristics related to this computer use. The study was conducted in 2003 in the Department of Public Health at the Gulhane Military Medical School in Ankara, Turkey. A survey developed by the authors was distributed to 508 students, after pretest. Responses were analyzed statistically by using a computer. Most of the students (86.4%) could access a computer and the Internet and all of the computers that were used by students had Internet connections, and a small group (8.9%) had owned their own computers. One-half of the students use notes provided by attending stuff and textbooks as assistant resources for their studies. The most common usage of computers was connecting to the Internet (91.9%), and the most common use of the Internet was e-mail communication (81.6%). The most preferred site category for daily visit was newspaper sites (62.8%). Approximately 44.1% of students visited medical sites when they were surfing. Also, there was a negative correlation between school performance and the time spent for computer and Internet use (-0.056 and -0.034, respectively). It was observed that medical students used the computer and Internet essentially for nonmedical purposes. To encourage students to use the computer and Internet for medical purposes, tutors should use the computer and Internet during their teaching activities, and software companies should produce assistant applications for medical students. Also, medical schools should build interactive World Wide Web sites, e-mail groups, discussion boards, and study areas for medical students. PMID:15646190
Yuri M. Litovchin
Full Text Available The relevance of the problem how to form the high school students’ professional competences is due to the fact that professionals with "competencies", which have versatile abilities confirmed by practical experience of independent socio – professional problems are demanded. The results of the study indicate that didactic tasks become the most effective resources in this process, which transform the learning goals of the teacher into a productive construct for key professional competences developing in learning and professional activity. In this regard, this article is focused on the scientific and methodological justification of instructional tasks’ basic components’ structure and content aimed at the development of university students’ key professional competencies. The leading method to study this problem is monitoring of students’ key professional competencies’ formation in the process of didactic tasks’ realization. The article presents the theoretical and methodological bases of students’ key professional competencies’ formation in educational tasks systematic using as a set of knowledge, skills, qualities, experience, and operationally practical ways of activities necessary for professionally – oriented functions’ creative performing. The article can be useful to high school teachers, young scientists, graduate students, university Methodists, the students of the teachers’ advanced training and retraining system.
Kimberly M. Tartaglia
Full Text Available Introduction: As health systems find ways to improve quality of care, medical training programs are finding opportunities to prepare learners on principles of quality improvement (QI. The impact of QI curricula for medical students as measured by student learning is not well delineated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a QI curriculum for senior medical students as measured by student knowledge and skills. Methods: This study was an observational study that involved a self-assessment and post-test Quality Improvement Knowledge Application Tool (QIKAT for intervention and control students. A QI curriculum consisting of online modules, live discussions, independent readings and reflective writing, and participation in a mentored QI project was offered to fourth-year medical students completing an honor's elective (intervention group. Senior medical students who received the standard QI curriculum only were recruited as controls. Results: A total of 22 intervention students and 12 control students completed the self-assessment and QIKAT. At baseline, there was no difference between groups in self-reported prior exposure to QI principles. Students in the intervention group reported more comfort with their skills in QI overall and in 9 of the 12 domains (p<0.05. Additionally, intervention students performed better in each of the three case scenarios (p<0.01. Discussion: A brief QI curriculum for senior medical students results in improved comfort and knowledge with QI principles. The strengths of our curriculum include effective use of classroom time and faculty mentorship with reliance on pre-existing online modules and written resources. Additionally, the curriculum is easily expandable to larger groups of students and transferable to other institutions.
Diego García-Huidobro M
Full Text Available Background: During the last few years, multiple new medical schools have emerged in Chile, associated to the constant preoccupation to provide a good quality medical care. This created the need to evaluate medical training programs and to open a discussion about the attributes that a good physician should have. Aim: To evaluate the medical student's perception of the ideal medical doctor profile. Material and methods: An analytical, descriptive and cross sectional study was designed. Eleven second year, 11 third year, nine fourth year, 13 fifth year, 6 sixth year and 8 seventh year students were studied. Data collection was gathered by focus groups. Codes and triangulation were used for data analysis. Results: As attitudes and moral-ethical values, students valued the absence of discrimination a listening attitude and empathy. Among job related issues, they valued responsibility and punctuality. Emotional and legal self-care were valued as self related attitudes. Among skills, competences and capacities, a value was given to communicational skills, team work and professional easiness. Knowledge about medical and non medical topics was appraised. The valued attributes among duties and activities were patient diagnosis, treatment and education, team leadership and continuous medical training. Conclusions: These findings should help to design new curricula for medical schools (Rev Méd Chile 2006; 134: 947-54
Diego, García-Huidobro M; Felipe, Núñez V; Paula, Vargas I; Smiljan, Astudillo M; Mario, Hitschfeld A; Rubén, Gennero R; Loreto, Salvatierra L; Ángela, Benavente C.
Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: During the last few years, multiple new medical schools have emerged in Chile, associated to the constant preoccupation to provide a good quality medical care. This created the need to evaluate medical training programs and to open a discussion about the attributes that a good physician [...] should have. Aim: To evaluate the medical student's perception of the ideal medical doctor profile. Material and methods: An analytical, descriptive and cross sectional study was designed. Eleven second year, 11 third year, nine fourth year, 13 fifth year, 6 sixth year and 8 seventh year students were studied. Data collection was gathered by focus groups. Codes and triangulation were used for data analysis. Results: As attitudes and moral-ethical values, students valued the absence of discrimination a listening attitude and empathy. Among job related issues, they valued responsibility and punctuality. Emotional and legal self-care were valued as self related attitudes. Among skills, competences and capacities, a value was given to communicational skills, team work and professional easiness. Knowledge about medical and non medical topics was appraised. The valued attributes among duties and activities were patient diagnosis, treatment and education, team leadership and continuous medical training. Conclusions: These findings should help to design new curricula for medical schools (Rev Méd Chile 2006; 134: 947-54)
Full Text Available Objectives: There is general belief that empathy is crucial for the physician-patient relationship and thus an important issue in medical education. This comparative study was designed to establish the changing attitude in empathy and sympathy among the first year, second year and final year medical students. Methodology: A comparative study among 100 first year, 100 second year and 75 final year medical students was conducted in Government Kilpauk medical college Chennai from January 2012 to June 2012. The study subjects were selected using simple random sampling technique from the list of the students. Study participation was voluntary. Results: Out of the total 275 students, according to our analysis, we found 82.67% of final year students and 80.21% of second year students and 40% showing average or above average levels of empathy. Sympathy scores of final year, second year and first year students were 32%, 40%, and 80% respectively. Conclusion: The results of our study show that students in the first year have higher sympathy levels, students in their second year and final year had higher empathy levels compared to first year students and final year students had highest empathy levels.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial competence and frustration tolerance are important characteristics of skilled medical professionals. In the present study we explored the usefulness of applying a comprehensive motivational theory (Goal orientations, for this purpose. According to goal orientation theory, learning motivation is defined as the general goals students pursue during learning (either mastery goals - gaining new knowledge; or performance goals - gaining a positive evaluation of competence or avoiding negative evaluation. Perceived psychosocial abilities are a desirable outcome, and low frustration tolerance (LFT, is a negative feature of student behavior. The hypothesis was that the mastery goal would be positively associated with psychosocial abilities while performance goals would be positively associated with LFT. Methods 143 first-year medical students completed at the end of an annual doctor-patient communication course a structured questionnaire that included measures of learning goal orientations (assessed by Pattern of Adaptive Learning Scale - PALS, psychosocial abilities (assessed by Psychological Medicine Inventory- student version -PMI-S and Low Frustration Tolerance (LFT. Results All study variables were found reliable (Cronbach's ? ranged from .66 to .90 and normally distributed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations supporting the hypotheses. The mastery goal orientation was positively associated with perceived psychosocial abilities (PMI-S (? = .16, p Conclusions The results suggest that the goal orientations theory may be a useful theoretical framework for understanding and facilitating learning motivation among medical students. Limitations and suggestions for practice within medical education context are discussed.
Lera A. Kamalova
Full Text Available The relevance of this research is due to new approaches to higher vocational education, to the training of bachelors, specialists, students of primary education: from getting reproductive knowledge which is aimed to frontal forms of work with students, it is necessary a student-oriented approach, based on the ideas of personality-based semantic development priorities, regional experience personality, pedagogical support of individuality. The purpose of the article is to study and develop the science-based methods of professional competences formation among the undergraduate students of “Primary Education” profile, based on personality-centered approach, understanding the value of professional self-realization by students. A leading method of this problem study is a pedagogical experiment (ascertainment, formation and control stages as well as the method of expert estimations, statistical processing of the quantitative results of the study. The main results of the research are the formation technique of professional competences of undergraduate students, based on personality-centered approach; the definition of the concept “professional-pedagogical competence”. Model of a student-centered approach to teaching professionals of primary education is characterized by the relationship of the motivational, organizational-planning, content-activity, reflexive-evaluation, communication-organizational components. Their severity degree determines the levels of students’ professional competencies (low, medium, high. Materials of this article may be useful for teachers of higher educational institutions by the application of this methodology of professional and pedagogical competences’ formation of students in the educational process at the University.
Azeem Dad Gadi
Full Text Available Background: The north-east (NE region of Sri Lanka observed a critical health workers’ shortage after the long-lasting armed conflict. This study aimed to explore medical students’ attitudes towards working in the NE and to identify factors determining such attitudes. Methods: A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in two medical schools, one in the NE and the other near the capital, in October 2004. Data were qualitatively analysed using the framework approach. Results: Three main themes were identified: 1 Professional motives and career plans; 2 Students’ perceptions of the healthcare situation in the NE; and 3 Students’ choice of the NE as a future practice location. It was found that familiarity with the difficulties faced by the NE people was a major motivation for medical students to work in the NE in the future. For NE students, familiarity was linked to their sense of belonging. For non-NE students, their personal experience of the NE familiarized them with the difficult situation there, which positively influenced their willingness to work there. Demotivations to work in the NE were poor working and living conditions, fewer opportunities for postgraduate education, language differences, insecurity, and fear of an unpleasant social response from the NE communities. Conclusions: NE local medical students had a sense of belonging to the NE and compassion for the Tamil people as members of the ethnic group. They were willing to work in the NE if their concerns about difficult working and living conditions and postgraduate education could be solved. Non-NE students who were familiar with the NE situation through their personal experience also showed a willingness to work there; thus, early exposure programmes in medical education might help to increase the health workforce in the NE. It is also expected that non-NE physicians working for the NE people would facilitate reconciliation and the rebuilding of trust between two ethnic groups.
van Fenema, E M; van Geel, C C J
Musical education and the musical profession can be stressful, which may make musicians vulnerable for stress-related disorders. To determine if music students are particularly at risk for mental problems, we used the Standardised Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) and the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ48S) to compare symptoms in first-year conservatory students (n=33) and first-year medical students (n=43). On the SAPAS, we found that medical students have significantly more difficulty making and keeping friends (p=0.015). Also, we observed a trend that conservatory students lose their temper more easily (p=0.040). Both student groups showed high scores for the personality trait "perfectionism." On the SQ48, we observed a trend that both conservatory and medical students experience more psychological problems than the general population, but there were no significant differences between conservatory students and medical students in the total scores of both questionnaires. PMID:24925180
Bergh, Anne-marie; Van Staden, C W; Joubert, Pierre M.; Kruger, Christa; Pickworth, G.E.; J.L. Roos; W. J. Schurink; Du Preez, R.R.; Grey, Somarie V.; Lindeque, B.G.
BACKGROUND: This paper reports on medical students’ views on the ways in which their ‘soft skills’ were developed. It is the result of a study on soft skills among two groups of students before and after curriculum reform at the School of Medicine of the University of Pretoria. One of the aims of the reform was to provide more teaching and learning opportunities for the development of soft skills. Soft skills include professional interpersonal and social skills, communication skills,...
Enwere, O Okezie
Use and opinion of herbs among medical students of Imo State University Nigeria was assessed. Information on herb use, indication and opinion from returned self-administered questionnaire was analyzed. A total of 114 students (91.2%) of 125 responded. 32 (28.1%) students had used herbs before, a significant proportion being males (OR 3.7). Herbal tea was the most popular herb used; maintaining good health and treating malaria were the only indications (50% each). Most students (>90%) believe ...
Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate future life expectations among male and female medical students in their first and final year. Methods: The study was cross-sectional and conducted at a Swedish medical school. Out of 600 invited students, 507 (85 answered an open-ended question about their future life, 298 (59 first-year students and 209 (41 last-year students. Women constituted 60of the respondents. A mixed model design was applied; qualitative content analysis was utilized to create statistically comparable themes and categories. Results: Students' written answers were coded, categorized and clustered into four themes: "Work", "Family", "Leisure" and "Quality of personal life". Almost all students included aspects of work in their answers. Female students were more detailed than male ones in their family concerns. Almost a third of all students reflected on a future work-life balance, but considerations regarding quality of personal life and leisure were more common among last-year students. Conclusions: Today's medical students expect more of life than work, especially those standing on the doorstep of working life. They intend to balance work not only with a family but also with leisure activities. Our results reflect work attitudes that challenge the health care system for more adaptive working conditions. We suggest that discussions about work-life balance should be included in medical curricula.
Tavakol, Sina; Dennick, Reg; Tavakol, Mohsen
The importance of empathetic communication in the context of patient care has been suggested as a crucial element in the delivery of high-quality medical care. Although some countries have measured empathy among medical students, little is known formally about the state of affairs regarding empathy in the UK with regard to gender, medical years and speciality. This paper presents the results from a cross-sectional study that explored the relationship between undergraduate medical students' empathy scores relevant to gender, medical school year and future career ambitions. The Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy, a self-administered questionnaire, was used for collecting data. It was decided to incorporate the scale into a web application that was only accessible through a confidential hyperlink. A total of 853 (68.2%) medical students completed the survey. Female students (n=470) scored significantly (t((819))=-6.63; 95% CI=-0.30, -0.16) higher than male students (n=351). No significant differences were observed between empathy mean scores and medical school year. Students choosing people-oriented specialities had significantly higher mean scores in comparison to students preferring technology oriented specialities. Three hypotheses were tested in this study. The hypothesis that female students would score higher than male students was supported by the results. The findings did not support the hypothesis that empathy scores decline during the medical school years. Finally, the findings did support the hypothesis that those preferring peopleoriented specialities would score higher on the empathy scale than students choosing technology oriented specialities. Some recommendations are made and the limitations of study are discussed. PMID:22005486
The issue of mandatory continuing medical education (CME) is controversial. Traditional measures mandate only attendance, not learning, and have no measurable performance end points. There is no evidence that current approaches to CME, mandatory or voluntary, produce sustainable changes in physician practices or application of current knowledge. Ongoing educational development is an important value in a professional, and there is an ethical obligation to keep up to date. Mandating self-audit ...
SAEED MS; SHAFIE AA; AWAISU A; HASSALI MA
Aim: This pilot study aimed to explore the perceptions of general medical practitioners (GPs) towards the professional training and roles of community pharmacists. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all private clinics (n=160) run by GPs in a northern state of Malaysia. The instrument contained questions to evaluate the practitioners’ level of agreement using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Results: Of 160 GPs, 80 returned the questionnaire (response rate 50%). The r...
In the health care occupational sector powerful social changes have been involved in challenging two of its core features: the centrality of professionalism and medical dominance. This article proposes that factors internal to the health care system, such as health care reforms, can be explained by factors associated with large-scale social developments such as neo-liberalism and post-modernity. The most significant of these have been consumerism and managerialism. The impact of both is asses...
Thamir M. Alshammari; Adel A. Alrwisan; Majed I. Aljeraisy; Khaled W. Taher; Faisal M. Alissa; Mansour A. Mahmoud; Mohamad A. Hassali; Hisham S. Aljadhey
Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of healthcare professionals (HCPs) toward systems used in describing the safety of medications use during pregnancy. Methods: A cross-sectional self-administered survey was conducted in 4 tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between March and May 2012. The targeted HCPs were physicians and pharmacists. The survey was validated and contained 4 main sections. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses to the survey’s questions. ...
Moore, Rick A.; Berner, Eta S.
This poster expands on a methodology presented at the 2003 International Medical Informatics Association ( IMIA) Conference on Education by analyzing the match between four graduate informatics programs to both the IMIA Working Group for Education (WG1) recommendations and the Certified Professional in Healthcare Information Management Systems (CPHIMS) exam objectives published by the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS). Similarities and differences among the program...
Bramstedt, Katrina A; Prang, Melissa; Dave, Sameer; Shin, Paul Ng Hung; Savy, Amani; Fatica, Richard A
A novel patient-centered approach was used to deliver ethics curriculum to medical students. Two medical school clinicians designed a telemedicine session linking their facilities (across 2 continents). The session, Exploring the Patient Experience Through Telemedicine: Dialysis and End-Stage Renal Disease, allowed second-year medical students to explore various parameters of quality of life experienced by dialysis patients. A panel of 4 medical students interviewed a dialysis patient via Skype video connection between the medical school and the hospital's dialysis unit. Interview questions were adapted from the Kidney Disease Quality of Life instrument. During the live video-streamed interview, the remaining 23 second-year medical students observed the session. Afterward, the 23 were offered a voluntary anonymous online feedback survey (15 responded). The 4 panelists submitted narrative responses to 2 open-ended questions about their experience. All 15 responding students "Strongly agreed" or "Agreed" that the session was an aid to their professionalism skills and behaviors; 14 of 15 "Strongly agreed" or "Agreed" that telemedicine technology contributed to their understanding of the topic; 12 of 15 "Strongly agreed" that the session improved their understanding of the psychosocial burdens of dialysis, quality of life, and human suffering, and increased their empathy toward patients; and 12 of 15 "Strongly agreed" or "Agreed" that the session encouraged reflective thinking and was an aid to improving their communication skills. Telemedicine can be an effective and feasible method to deliver an ethics curriculum with a patient-centered approach. Additionally, the cross-cultural experience exposes students to additional contextual features of medicine. PMID:25193732
Full Text Available Considering the explosive growth in internet use among medical students in India, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of internet addiction in undergraduate medical students.This cross-sectional study involved 90 subjects (18-20 years of age selected by random sampling from the first year undergraduate medical student population at Kasturba Medical College Mangalore. Young’s Internet addiction test questionnaire was administered. Based on the scoring, subjects were classified into normal users (score 79 internet addiction groups.The prevalence of internet addiction (moderate and severe was determined to be 18.88%. Majority (57.77% conformed to mild addiction. The most common purpose for internet use was found to be social networking (97.8%, followed closely by e mailing (87.8%.The prevalence of moderate to severe internet addiction appeared to be low, a significant number of students conform to mild addiction.
Full Text Available Goal of the research was to study conditionality of overcoming strategies in difficult situations of social interaction by personal representations of attitude to others among medical students. Material and methods. 134 first-year students of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky took part in the comparative diagnostic study. Results. Comparison of average indices of various strategies evidence in coping behaviour allowed revealing statistically significant dependence of coping behaviour modi in difficult situations of social interaction upon types of personal representations of attitude toward others and gender features of forming effective strategies of coping behaviour among medical students. Conclusion. Correlation between coping behaviour modi in difficult situations of social interaction and typology of personal representations of attitudes toward others among medical students was marked.
Isabel CF da Cruz
The role of nurse with Master Degree represents an challenge career opportunity for professional nurses. The Professional Master in Nursing at Fluminense Federal University (RJ) - Brazil was approved by CAPES and will open a new class in March 2006.
Full Text Available The Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial and subsequent studies have had a tremendous impact on the treatment and prognosis of optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis in adults. The results of these studies have been extrapolated to children; however, pediatric data are sparse. Using the method of prospective preference assessment, the willingness of parents and medical professionals to enroll children in a hypothetical Pediatric Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial was assessed using a mock consent form and questionnaire. A 3-arm trial was proposed: 1 intravenous corticosteroids, 2 high-dose oral corticosteroids, and 3 an oral placebo. The forms were completed by 198 parents and 49 physicians. After reviewing the hypothetical scenario, trial design, risks and benefits, and alternatives to the study, 21% of parents would enroll their children in the trial whereas 98% of medical professionals would enroll their patients. With medical professional recommendation, 43% of parents would enroll their children. The manner in which this hypothetical trial was presented to parents, specifically with respect to the recommendation of their child’s health care team, influenced a parent’s willingness to participate.
Full text: Introduction: Every profession has a collection of principles and rules, which it is regulated. The professional behavior in medical activities is particularly importance due to their specific nature. The modern education of the X-ray technician strives to meet the need to create and shape the personalities to provide quality care and services. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among students of the Medical College ‘J. Filaretova’ at Sofia, specialty ‘X-ray Technician’ and mentors from the education- practical bases in different directions - diagnostic imaging, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy. The inquiry study included thirty-four students in the third course and twenty- two of their mentors. Following methods were used: sociological (direct anonymous inquiry); documentary (discussing and analyzed the curriculum and training programs for X-ray Technician); statistical method (survey data were processed with statistical computer program SATGRAPHICS PLUS and EXCEL). Results: The study found that 61% of students feel fully prepared theoretically to have a professional conduct in their practice, which is supported by 50% of their mentors. 50% believe that students are partly prepared as there is no one who claims that they are not well prepared. 94% of students say they keep the workplace discipline and actively participate in the activities carried out at the education- practical bases. A large percentage of mentors (77%) confirm this. The training enables them to acquire the skills to work in a team and communicate with patients and colleagues. Conclusion: College education creates conditions and prerequisites the students from the specialty ‘X-ray Technician’ to acquire professional knowledge and skills and to apply them in practice with providing a quality health care
Hudelson, Patricia; Perron, Noëlle Junod; Perneger, Thomas V
It is generally believed that culturally competent clinical practice depends in part on the development of positive attitudes toward the care of immigrant patients. However, few tools exist to measure such attitudes in physicians. The authors operationalized ''culturally competent attitudes'' to include a high level of interest in caring for immigrant patients, an acceptance of the responsibility of doctors and hospitals to adapt to immigrant patients' needs, and the opinion that understanding the patient's psychosocial context is particularly important when caring for immigrant patients. The authors then assessed these attitudes and opinions among a sample of 619 Geneva doctors and medical students using a self-administered questionnaire and explored their association to respondents' personal characteristics and professional experience. The authors found that both personal characteristics and professional experience were associated with attitudes toward caring for immigrant patients. In particular, the perceived importance of understanding the psychosocial context when caring for migrants was higher among medical students, women, Swiss nationals, those with greater interest in caring for immigrant patients and those who had received training in cultural competence. However, it is unclear whether cultural competence training and clinical context lead to the development of more positive attitudes or whether medical students and physicians who already have positive attitudes are more likely to participate in such training. PMID:20484060
Treadwell, Ina; Rooyen, Marietjie; Havenga, H.; Theron, M.
BACKGROUND. Teamwork as an outcome for graduates implies the understanding and appreciation of the roles, responsibilities and skills of other professions. An interprofessional education (IPE) event was initiated as a simulated management of a multiply traumatised patient in the acute phases of his injury, relevant to both medical and nursing students. The objective was to explore medical students’ reflections on the value of this clinical simulation. METHOD. A mixed-methods stu...
Issa Baba; Yussuf Abdullah; Olatinwo Abdul Waheed; Ighodalo Martin
Background/Objective: This study aimed at estimating the prevalence and associated factors of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) among medical students in a University in the North-Central State of Nigeria. PMDD is the severest form of premenstrual symptoms and is associated with impairment of social and role functioning. Methods: A cross-sectional study of female medical students of the University of Ilorin College of Health Sciences (n=208), which involves completing a questionnaire to...
McGeown, Helen Rosemary
This study investigated the impact of information on level of prototypicality of the ingroup ‘medical students’, comparing self-esteem effects for those primed as individuals with self-esteem effects for those primed as group members. Indication of prototypicality was given by false feedback on purported individual levels of empathy, an important group norm for medical students. As well as priming type having interactive effects with prototypicality information, it was hypothesized that i...
Gosselin-tardif, Alexandre; Butler-laporte, Guillaume; Vassiliou, Melina; Khwaja, Kosar; Ntakiyiruta, Georges; Kyamanywa, Patrick; Razek, Tarek; Deckelbaum, Dan L.
With surgical conditions being significant contributors to the global burden of disease, efforts aimed at increasing future practitioners’ understanding, interest and participation in global surgery must be expanded. Unfortunately, despite the increasing popularity of global health among medical students, possibilities for exposure and involvement during medical school remain limited. By evaluating student participation in the 2011 Bethune Round Table, we explored the role that global surge...
Quah, Ban Seng; Malik, Alam Sher; Simpson, Hamish
Experience of acute medical, surgical conditions, and clinical procedures of undergraduate students were assessed via a questionnaire survey during the final week of the 1993/1998 programme at the School of Medical Sciences, Univestiti Sains Malaysia. Individual performances were assessed by a scoring system. One hundred and twenty four students responded, (response rate 97%). More than 90% had seen myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, pneumonia, respiratory distress, gastroenteri...
Shankar PR, ,; Jha N; Bajracharya O; Shrestha R; Thapa HS
BackgroundKIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal conducts problem-basedpharmacology learning during small-group practical sessions.The present study was carried out to obtain student feedbackregarding the sessions and suggestions for improvement.MethodThe questionnaire-based study was carried out among firstyear medical students during July 2009. Respondents wereenrolled after explaining the aims and objectives of the studyand obtaining written, informed consent. Basic demographicinformation a...
Abbott, Ryan B.; Hui, Ka-kit; Hays, Ron D.; Mandel, Jess; Goldstein, Michael; Winegarden, Babbi; Glaser, Dale; Brunton, Laurence
While the use of complementary, alternative and integrative medicine (CAIM) is substantial, it continues to exist at the periphery of allopathic medicine. Understanding the attitudes of medical students toward CAIM will be useful in understanding future integration of CAIM and allopathic medicine. This study was conducted to develop and evaluate an instrument and assess medical students' attitudes toward CAIM. The Complementary, Alternative and Integrative Medicine Attitudes Questionnaire (CA...
Tempski Patricia; Bellodi Patricia L; Bms, Paro Helena; Enns Sylvia C; Martins Milton A; Schraiber Lilia B
Abstract Background Medical education can affect medical students’ physical and mental health as well as their quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess medical students’ perceptions of their quality of life and its relationship with medical education. Methods First- to sixth-year students from six Brazilian medical schools were interviewed using focus groups to explore what medical student’s lives are like, factors related to increases and decreases of their quality of life ...
The aims of this thesis were to gather insights and investigate the factors influencing, outcomes and applications of medical students' motivation. This thesis consists of three literature reviews, four research papers and two application papers. Two research studies investigated the relationships of student motivation with study strategy, effort and academic performance through structural equation modelling and cluster analysis. The relationships of age, maturity, gender and educational background with motivation were investigated through multiple regression analysis. The results of this thesis were 1. Developments in medical education appear to have undervalued student motivation. 2. Motivation is an independent variable in medical education; intrinsic motivation is significantly associated with deep study strategy, high study effort and good academic performance. 3. Motivation is a dependent variable in medical education and is significantly affected by age, maturity, gender, educational background; intrinsic motivation is enhanced by providing students with autonomy, feedback and emotional support. 4. Strength of motivation for medical school can be reliably measured by Strength of Motivation for Medical School questionnaire. The conclusion of this thesis was that it is important to give consideration to motivation in medical education because intrinsic motivation leads to better learning and performance and it can be enhanced through giving students autonomy in learning, feedback about competence and emotional support. PMID:23316471
Adina L. Kalet
Full Text Available Introduction: Special concerns often arise when medical students are themselves the subjects of education research. A recently completed large, multi-center randomized controlled trial of computer-assisted learning modules for surgical clerks provided the opportunity to explore the perceived level of risk of studies where medical students serve as human subjects by reporting on: 1 the response of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs at seven institutions to the same study protocol; and 2 the thoughts and feelings of students across study sites about being research subjects. Methods: From July 2009 to August 2010, all third-year medical students at seven collaborating institutions were eligible to participate. Patterns of IRB review of the same protocol were compared. Participation burden was calculated in terms of the time spent interacting with the modules. Focus groups were conducted with medical students at each site. Transcripts were coded by three independent reviewers and analyzed using Atlas.ti. Results: The IRBs at the seven participating institutions granted full (n=1, expedited (n=4, or exempt (n=2 review of the WISE Trial protocol. 995 (73% of those eligible consented to participate, and 207 (20% of these students completed all outcome measures. The average time to complete the computer modules and associated measures was 175 min. Common themes in focus groups with participant students included the desire to contribute to medical education research, the absence of coercion to consent, and the low-risk nature of the research. Discussion: Our findings demonstrate that risk assessment and the extent of review utilized for medical education research vary among IRBs. Despite variability in the perception of risk implied by differing IRB requirements, students themselves felt education research was low risk and did not consider themselves to be vulnerable. The vast majority of eligible medical students were willing to participate as research subjects. Participants acknowledged the time demands of their participation and were readily able to withdraw when those burdens became unsustainable.
Unlike the schools of old, where students spent two years focused on science and theory before they set foot in a hospital, new medical schools are integrating clinical care into the first two years. Existing schools have taken steps in this direction. But, says John E. Prescott, chief academic officer of the Association of American Medical…
Mueller, M H; Foreman, G.
The University of Minnesota Medical School has an innovative curriculum, called Didactic/Selective, which provides third- and fourth-year medical students with multidisciplinary and multispecialty courses. Within this framework, the Bio-Medical Library planned a course to teach the knowledge and skills necessary for library research and information management. It included (1) searching case-related topics in print indexes, (2) formulating and processing MEDLINE searches on BRS Colleague, (3) ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence base for mental illness related stigma interventions in health care professionals and trainees is underdeveloped. This study aimed to examine the impact of mental illness related stigma training on third year medical students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour related to people with mental illness. Methods A non-randomised controlled trial was conducted with 110 third year medical students at a medical school in England to determine the effectiveness of a mental illness related stigma training package that targeted their knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Results We detected a significant positive effect of factual content and personal testimonies training upon an improvement in knowledge, F(1, 61 = 16.3, p = 0.0002. No such difference was determined with attitudes or for behaviour. Conclusions Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour may need to be separately targeted in stigma reduction interventions, and separately assessed. The inter-relationships between these components in mental health promotion and medical education warrant further research. The study next needs to be replicated with larger, representative samples using appropriate evaluation instruments. More intensive training for medical students may also be required.
Md Anwarul Azim Majumder; Sayeeda Rahman; Urban JA D’Souza; et al, ...
Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sayeeda Rahman2, Urban JA D’Souza3, Gad Elbeheri4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, M Muzaherul Huq61,2Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 3School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; 4Centre for Child Evaluation and Teaching, Kuwait; 5College of Medicine, Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Centre for Medical Education (CME), Mohakhali, Dhaka, Ba...
Kunze, Ursula; Böhm, Gabriela; Ferstl, Florian; Groman, Ernest
Smoking behaviour and prevalence rates among medical students and medical professionals are important public health issues, as physicians' attitudes and interventions are decisive for the patients' success in quitting smoking. Studies dealing with prevalence rates of smoking usually use only face-to-face interviews or self-administered questionnaires, which may induce vague findings. Additional measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide is an objective, easy, immediate, non-invasive and inexpensive mode of indicating smoking behaviour and will complement and at some stage replace the usual question regarding the number of cigarettes consumed. CO-measurement of 260 medical students was taken during compulsory public health training at the Medical University Vienna. Definite indication of active smoking was found in 12% of the students, 9.5% showed CO-levels between 6 and 10 ppm and 78% were definitely non-smokers with a CO level between 0 and 5 ppm. The students had the opportunity to get to know an important diagnostic technique and additionally learned about their own smoking habits. PMID:19225730
Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is an important component of self-care. Though it is widely practiced globally, very few studies have evaluated its pattern and prevalence in dental students.Aim: The study was conducted to compare pattern of self-medication practices between junior and senior dental undergraduate students.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, anonymous, descriptive study with a six month illness recall that evaluated two groups of dental students- Group I: second year BDS students who were unexposed to pharmacology subject; Group 2: students pursuing internship (interns having a sound knowledge of pharmacology. A questionnaire consisting of both open and close ended questions related to various aspects of self-medication was handed to the students. Consenting students anonymously filled the questionnaire. Comparison between the two groups was done by two- tailed Chi-square test. P values<0.05 were considered as statistically significant.Results: A total of 167 students participated in the study.90% respondents in group 1 (second year and 94% respondents in group 2 (interns practiced self-medication. Illnesses for which self-medication was practiced included fever (76% vs. 78% and pain (46% vs.67%; p<0.05 followed by common cold and cough (37% vs. 47%. Lack of time (61% vs.72% and simplicity of illness (63% vs. 72% were two major factors resulting in self-medication. Parents (71% vs.54%, previous prescription records (21% vs.38% and pharmacists (24% vs.15% were the main guiding source of self-medication. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs were the most commonly used drug group followed by antihistamines (28% vs.38% and antibiotics (12%vs. 27%.Conclusion: Self-medication is widely practiced among dental students. Prevalence of self-medication was more in senior dental students than their juniors. However, practice of self-medication was inappropriate in both the groups. Therefore, there is a pressing need to create awareness about risks and adverse consequences of self-medication in order to ensure rational and safe use of drugs.
D. K. Apturkar
Full Text Available Introduction: There is acute shortage of teachers in medical field and very few new members are joining this noble profession. The shortage of medical teachers is resulting in decrease of teaching quality, decrease in number of medical seats and the country is losing its education standard worldwide.Aims: To find out the view and inclination of undergraduate medical students towards teaching as career.Objectives: It is an attempt to find possible reasons preventing or stimulating the undergraduates’ students to consider teaching as career. Many studies are available about the students view towards clinical specialties choice but literature hardly mentions medical teaching as choice. The objective is to attempt to collect undergraduate student’s view.Methods: A questionnaire based cross sectional descriptive study involving 315 undergraduate MBBS students of first year (115, second year (72 and third year part II (128. Their responses were recorded on Likert’s scale, tabulated and analyzed.Conclusion: This study shows a trend going against the option of teaching as career. The data collected does not give definite proof but indications are visible that as the students progresses from first to final year their positive attitude towards considering teaching as career show decline.
The University of Wisconsin-La Crosse offers the first online medical dosimetry program in the nation. There is no data to research a program of this type. This research consisted of the evaluation of other distance education programs including health profession programs in addition to face-to-face medical dosimetry programs. There was a need to collect and analyze student perceptions of online learning in medical dosimetry. This research provided a guide for future implementation by other programs as well as validated the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse program. Methodology used consisted of an electronic survey sent to all previous and currently enrolled students in the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse medical dosimetry program. The survey was both quantitative and qualitative in demonstrating attitudinal perceptions of students in the program. Quantitative data was collected and analyzed using a 5-point Likert scale. Qualitative data was gathered based on the open-ended responses and the identifying themes from the responses. The results demonstrated an overall satisfaction with this program, the instructor, and the online courses. Students felt a sense of belonging to the courses and the program. Considering that a majority of the students had never taken an online course previously, the students felt there were no technology issues. Future research should include an evaluation of board exam statistics for students enrolled in the online and face-to-face medicalled in the online and face-to-face medical dosimetry programs.
Zailinawati, A H; Teng, C L; Chung, Y C; Teow, T L; Lee, P N; Jagmohni, K S
Poor sleep quality and daytime somnolence is reported to be associated with cardiovascular events, road traffic accident, poor academic performance and psychological distress. Some studies documented that it is prevalent in most populations but its frequency among medical students has not been documented in Malaysia. This is a self-administered questionnaire survey of medical students from International Medical University, Malaysia. Daytime sleepiness of medical students was assessed using Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Student scoring ESS > 11 was regarded as having excessive daytime sleepiness. Psychological distress was measured using 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). A total of 799 medical students participated in this survey (response rate 69.5%). Daytime sleepiness occurred in 35.5%, psychological distress was present in 41.8% and 16.1% reported bad sleep quality. Daytime sleepiness was significantly more common among the clinical students, those with self-reported bad sleep quality and psychological distress; but unrelated to the number of hours sleep at night. We have documented high prevalence of daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality and psychological distress. Higher frequency among clinical students and the significant relationship with psychological distress suggest possible link to the stressful clinical training. PMID:20058567
Slovácková, Birgita; Slovácek, Ladislav
A cross-sectional study explored the moral judgement competence and moral attitudes of 310 Czech and Slovak and 70 foreign national students at the Medical Faculty of Charles University in Hradec Králové, Czech Republic. Lind's Moral Judgement Test was used to evaluate moral judgement competence and moral attitudes depending on factors such as age, number of semesters of study, sex, nationality and religion. Moral judgement competence decreased significantly in the Czech and Slovak medical students as they grew older; in medical students from other countries it did not significantly increase. The influence of other factors (sex, nationality and religion) on moral judgement competence was not proven in either the Czech and Slovak or the foreign national medical students. Moral attitudes do not change; the Czech and Slovak as well as the foreign students preferred the post-conventional levels of moral judgement (Kohlberg's 5th and 6th stages). The fact that the Czech and Slovak students' moral judgement competence decreased with age and number of semesters of study completed is not an optimistic sign: medical students who had undergone a lower number of semesters of study were morally more competent. PMID:17459816
Nkya Hassan M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT is a corner stone for successful implementation of prevention, care and support services among HIV negative and positive individuals. VCT is also perceived to be an effective strategy in risk reduction among sexually active young people.. This study aimed to assess the acceptability of VCT and its actual uptake among young health care professional students at KCM College of Tumaini University and Allied health schools. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. A structured questionnaire was used among health care professional students aged 18–25 years who were enrolled in degrees, diplomas and certificates courses at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College and all other Allied health schools Results A total of 309 students were recruited, among these 197 (63.8% were females. All respondents were aware of the benefits of VCT. Only 107 (34.6% of students have had VCT done previously. About 59 (19.1% of the students had negative for health care professional to attend VCT. Risk perception among the students was low (37.2% even though they were found to have higher risk behaviors that predispose them to get HIV infection. Conclusion Awareness of VCT services and willingness to test is high among students; however its uptake is low. In order to promote these services, a comprehensive training module on VCT needs to be included in their training curricula. In particular, more emphasis should focus on the benefits of VCT and to help the students to internalize the risk of HIV so that they can take preventive measures.
Chiu, Ya-Wen; Weng, Yi-Hao; Chen, Chih-Fu; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Lee, Ming-Liang
This study investigated the perceptions of short-term assignments of medical services among participating health care professionals dispatched from Taiwan to underdeveloped areas. Structured questionnaires were mailed to four groups of professionals (physicians, pharmacists, nurses, and public health personnel) who had participated in any of 88 medical missions dispatched to 24 allied nations. A total of 278 returns were valid for analysis. Among them, 222 respondents reported that they had participated in just one overseas medical mission (79.9%). The majority of physicians, pharmacists, and nurses listed humanitarianism as their foremost incentive for participation. In contrast, public health personnel most frequently reported that they had been assigned to the mission abroad. Pharmacists, nurses, and public health personnel most commonly stated that their top goal was health care; but physicians said that aiding Taiwan's diplomatic relations was their main motive. While all groups generally recognized language proficiency and cultural awareness as important for conducting successful short-term medical aid missions (STMMs), many members of groups did not rate their own capabilities in those area as sufficient, especially pharmacists (p < .001). Orientation for participants and training for local health workers were seen as relatively insufficient. In conclusion, there are considerable differences in the thoughts about STMMs across four key groups of heath personnel. The findings can help inform efforts to integrate evidence into the deployment of STMMs. PMID:23053403
Leffel, G Michael; Oakes Mueller, Ross A; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D
Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no consensus about the primary goals of ethics education. Two prevailing perspectives dominate the literature, constituting what is sometimes referred to as the "virtue/skill dichotomy". The first perspective argues that teaching ethics is a means of providing physicians with a skill set for analyzing and resolving ethical dilemmas. The second perspective suggests that teaching ethics is a means of creating virtuous physicians. The authors argue that this debate about medical ethics education mirrors the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate in contemporary moral psychology. In the following essay, the authors sketch the relevance of the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate to medical ethics and professionalism. They then outline a moral intuitionist model of virtuous caring that derives from but also extends the "social intuitionist model" of moral action and virtue. This moral intuitionist model suggests several practical implications specifically for medical character education but also for health science education in general. This approach proposes that character development is best accomplished by tuning-up (activating) moral intuitions, amplifying (intensifying) moral emotions related to intuitions, and strengthening (expanding) intuition-expressive, emotion-related moral virtues, more than by "learning" explicit ethical rules or principles. PMID:25319836
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Stress is a part of everyone’s life. It is normal f or everybody to experience stress to some extent, but too much stres s may be harmful. Attending college is a rewarding experience but it also can be a time of co nsiderable anxiety and stress for students. Students are subjected to different kinds of experie nces which make them vulnerable to undergo a lot of stress. Of late, there is a growin g appreciation of stress in medical professionals including medical students, who have very busy and demanding schedule. Sources of stress are classified into two main groups – academic pressures and non-academic sources including financial problems. There are different coping stra tegies used by students to manage stress. It is important to understand these strategies and encour age the healthy strategies and discourage the others which are potentially harmful. AIM: to determine the sources of stress in undergraduate medical students and the coping strate gies used by these students in managing their stress. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: An institutional cross sectional study among undergraduate students of a medical college in coas tal Andhra Pradesh. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After the study protocol was given clearance by the Institution Ethics Committee, consent was taken from the undergraduate medical st udents of Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Foundation, Amalapuram, and a predesigned and pretested questionnaire was given which captured information r elated to basic demographic details followed by questions related to stress and its sou rces and also the coping strategies used by these students to manage stress. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The data collected was entered into Microsoft Excel and analyzed using Epi Info 6 softwa re. Chi Square test was done wherever applicable. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Total 431 out of 550 medical students (78.4 percent participated in the study. There were 261 females and 170 males. ‘Academic work load’, ‘long hours of academic work’, ‘performance in examination s’, ‘competition for marks’ and ‘frequency of examinations’ were the leading academic sources of stress. ‘Quality of food’, ‘lack of entertainment in the institution’, ‘worry about fut ure’, ‘being away from home’ and ‘lack of time for recreation’ were the leading non-academic sourc es of stress in the students. ‘Emotional support from family/friends’, ‘listening to music/dan cing’, ‘going to place of worship’, ‘playing sports/games/physical exercises’, and ‘watching a mov ie’ were reported as the leading coping strategies used by the study subjects
Hosmer, Laura; Langston, G.; Heatherly, S.; Towner, A. P.; Ford, J.; Simon, R. S.; White, S.; O'Neil, K. L.; Haipslip, J.; Reichart, D.
The NRAO 20m telescope is now on-line as a part of UNC's Skynet worldwide telescope network. The NRAO is completing integration of radio astronomy tools with the Skynet web interface. We present the web interface and astronomy projects that allow students and astronomers from all over the country to become Radio Astronomers. The 20 meter radio telescope at NRAO in Green Bank, WV is dedicated to public education and also is part of an experiment in public funding for astronomy. The telescope has a fantastic new web-based interface, with priority queuing, accommodating priority for paying customers and enabling free use of otherwise unused time. This revival included many software and hardware improvements including automatic calibration and improved time integration resulting in improved data processing, and a new ultra high resolution spectrometer. This new spectrometer is optimized for very narrow spectral lines, which will allow astronomers to study complex molecules and very cold regions of space in remarkable detail. In accordance with focusing on broader impacts, many public outreach and high school education activities have been completed with many confirmed future activities. The 20 meter is now a fully automated, powerful tool capable of professional grade results available to anyone in the world. Drop by our poster and try out real-time telescope control!
Selva Olid Anna
Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decade medical students from most Western countries have shown little interest in family practice. Understanding the factors that influence medical students to choose family medicine is crucial. Objective To systematically review and synthesize published evidence about medical students’ attitudes and perceptions towards family practice. Methods A qualitative systematic review. The literature search was undertaken in July 2010 in PubMed, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index (SSCI, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. Two authors independently selected the studies for their inclusion and assessed their quality. The selected studies were thoroughly read. Key themes and categories were identified. A matrix was created for allowing the comparison of each theme across studies. Results Ten studies were finally included. Seven broad themes were identified across them: 1 Scope and context of practice was a broad theme comprising linked sub-themes: perception of a varied specialty, broad practice, holistic perspective and flexibility that allows having a family; 2 Lower interest or intellectually less challenging: treating common disease, repetitive, quasi administrative job; 3 Influence of role models, either positive and negative, and society: negative comments from other professionals, peers and family; 4 Lower prestige; 5 Poor remuneration; 6 Medical school influences, being important both the length and quality of the exposure; 7 Post graduate training, where the shorter duration and the lower intensity were perceived as positive aspects. After identifying these seven key themes, were also looked into patterns in the distribution of these themes among studies. Conclusions Our qualitative review provides a comprehensive picture of medical students’ attitudes towards family practice in the available literature. In general, although some students find family medicine appealing, it is regarded as a career of low interest and prestige. More research is needed on the influence of role models, medical school and post graduate training.
Full Text Available Background: Median indebtedness at graduation is now more than $170,000 for graduates of US Medical Schools. Debate still exists as to whether higher debt levels influence students to choose high paying non-primary care specialties. Notably, no previous research on the topic has taken into account cost of attendance when constructing a debt model, nor has any research examined the non-career major life decisions that medical students face. Methods: Medical students were surveyed using an anonymous electronic instrument developed for this study. The survey was delivered through a link included in a study email and students were recruited from school wide listservs and through snowball sampling (students were encouraged to share a link to the survey with other medical students. No incentives were offered for survey completion. Results: Responses were recorded from 102 US Allopathic medical schools (n=3,032, with 22 institutions (11 public, 11 private meeting inclusion criteria of 10% student body response proportion (n=1,846. Students with higher debt relative to their peers at their home institution reported higher frequencies of feeling callous towards others, were more likely to choose a specialty with a higher average annual income, were less likely to plan to practice in underserved locations, and were less likely to choose primary care specialties. Students with higher aggregate amounts of medical student loan debt were more likely to report high levels of stress from their educational debt, to delay getting married and to report disagreement that they would choose to become a physician again, if given the opportunity to revisit that choice. Increases in both aggregate and relative debt were associated with delaying having children, delaying buying a house, concerns about managing and paying back educational debt, and worrying that educational debt will influence one's specialty choice. Conclusions: Medical student debt and particularly debt relative to peers at the same institution appears to influence the way that students approach major life choices like when to start a family, when to buy a home, and what specialty to choose. Future research should take into account cost of attendance when looking for the impact of medical student debt on major life choices.
Tartaglia, Kimberly M.; Walker, Curt
Introduction As health systems find ways to improve quality of care, medical training programs are finding opportunities to prepare learners on principles of quality improvement (QI). The impact of QI curricula for medical students as measured by student learning is not well delineated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a QI curriculum for senior medical students as measured by student knowledge and skills. Methods This study was an observational study that involved a self-assessment and post-test Quality Improvement Knowledge Application Tool (QIKAT) for intervention and control students. A QI curriculum consisting of online modules, live discussions, independent readings and reflective writing, and participation in a mentored QI project was offered to fourth-year medical students completing an honor's elective (intervention group). Senior medical students who received the standard QI curriculum only were recruited as controls. Results A total of 22 intervention students and 12 control students completed the self-assessment and QIKAT. At baseline, there was no difference between groups in self-reported prior exposure to QI principles. Students in the intervention group reported more comfort with their skills in QI overall and in 9 of the 12 domains (pstudents performed better in each of the three case scenarios (pstudents results in improved comfort and knowledge with QI principles. The strengths of our curriculum include effective use of classroom time and faculty mentorship with reliance on pre-existing online modules and written resources. Additionally, the curriculum is easily expandable to larger groups of students and transferable to other institutions. PMID:25960052
Full Text Available Considering the importance of quality of life in medical students we have conducted a cross sectional & descriptive study on screening of mental illness of 60 medical students of prefinal year and comparing it with 60 students of third year of Science and Art College. Students were selected via random sampling. GHQ-12 was used as a screening tool and after obtaining scores students were graded in 3 categories - individuals screened positive for psychological morbidity were of Grades 2 and 3 and individuals screened negative for psychological morbidity were of Grade 1 and they were compared according to college, gender & residence. Students screened positive for psychological morbidity as per GHQ-12 were found higher in medical college (87% as compared to Science and Art College (45% and a statistically significant association was found between psychological morbidity and medical students. Psychological morbidity was not significantly associated with residence and gender.
Rael D. Strous
Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the subjective presence of a range of subsyndromal and syndromal mental health conditions in medical students, and to compare the presence of these conditions between preclinical and clinical training. Methods: A cross sectional study was used among first-and fifth-year medical students. Student reported their mental health conditions using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, the fourth version (DSM-IV. Data analysis was based on 110 questionnaires. Results: A total of 61 students (55.5 reported that they experienced symptoms of mental illness, albeit many with minimum severity. More than 50 of the students reported that they experienced Axis I and Axis II disorders, which mostly were mood disorders (38in year 1 and 35in year 5 and obsessive-compulsive traits (41in year 1 and 46in year 5, respectively. The least common disorders reported were psychotic disorders (5in year 1 and 0in year 5 and schizotypal traits (7in year 1 and 2in year 5. Fifth-year students reported more Axis I disorders than first-year students. Female students reported more Axis I disorders than their male peers. A further analysis indicated that there was no significant association between age and Axis disorders. Several conditions were comorbid with other mental illnesses. Conclusions: A great number of students reported that they experience mental health conditions with minimal severity. This implies a need for indispensable ongoing support programs for the special needs of medical students.
The attention is paid to the role of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in the support of the education on the pregraduate and postgraduate level. On pregraduate level the NRPI is engaged in education of the students of the Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering (FNSPE) in the field of radiation protection and radiological physics. On the postgraduate level there is an important role of NRPI in the postgraduate education of the health professionals. This education can take advantage of the more than the thirty years cooperation between NRPI and IPVZ (Institute for postgraduate medical education). In the presentation the important data and experience of the courses of radiation protection organized for health professionals will be ShOWll. In the presentation there are also presented activities of the division of medical exposures of the NRPI, which are pointing to the public information. Some typical questions, which have been addressed to NRPI are brought forward and discussed. (authors)
Block, Robert C.; Duron, Vincent; Creigh, Peter; McIntosh, Scott
Objective: We aimed to improve the education of medical students involved in a longitudinal perinatal health improvement project in Gowa, Malawi. Design: We conducted qualitative interviews with students who participated in the project, reviewed their quantitative reports, and assessed the application of methodologies consonant with the learning…
Henning, Marcus A.; Hawken, Susan J.; Krageloh, Christian; Zhao, Yipin; Doherty, Iain
Issues linked with the notions of quality of life (QOL) and motivation to learn among Asian medical students have not been well documented. This is true in both the international and the New Zealand contexts. Our paper addresses this lack of research by focusing on the QOL of international and domestic Asian students studying in New Zealand, where…
Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Anker, Ashley E.; Soriano, Rainier; Friedman, Erica
Medical students at Mount Sinai School of Medicine participated in an intervention designed to promote knowledge and improved communication skills related to cadaveric organ donation. The intervention required students to interact with a standardized patient for approximately 10 minutes and respond to questions posed about organ donation in a…
This paper describes the use of CASIP, an authoring language for CAI materials with unrestricted natural language input, to produce brief tests that assess in an objective and standardized manner a variety of aptitudes in medical students, residents or applicants to medical school. These aptitudes include decisiveness, methodical thinking, ethical values, crisis management ability, persistence, combativeness, and ease of frustration.
Henning, K; Ey, S; Shaw, D
Extensive attention has been paid over the past three decades to the stressors involved in training in the health professions. Although empirical studies have identified demographic subgroups of students most likely to become distressed during training, less research has been carried out to evaluate the impact of students' personality characteristics on their adjustment. Severe perfectionism is one such personality trait that has been shown to increase the risk for anxiety and depressive disorders in other populations. Another set of personality traits linked to increased psychological problems has been labelled the 'impostor phenomenon', which occurs when high achieving individuals chronically question their abilities and fear that others will discover them to be intellectual frauds. Both perfectionism and the impostor phenomenon would seem to be pertinent factors in the adjustment of health professional students; however, these character traits have not been empirically examined in this population. In the present study psychological distress, perfectionism and impostor feelings were assessed in 477 medical, dental, nursing and pharmacy students. Consistent with previous reports, the results showed that a higher than expected percentage of students (27.5%) were currently experiencing psychiatric levels of distress. Strong associations were found between current psychological distress, perfectionism and impostor feelings within each programme and these character traits were stronger predictors of psychological adjustment than most of the demographic variables associated previously with distress in health professional students. Implications for future research, limitations of this study and clinical recommendations are discussed. PMID:10211285
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is usually observed that medical students undergo tremendous stress during various stages of the MBBS course. There is a high rate of suicide among them. METHODS: To determine incidence of stress and factors controlling stress in medical students at various stages of MBBS course at Seth G S Medical college, 238 students (First year 98, Second 76, Third 64 were asked to complete a questionnaire on personal data (gender, stay at hostel, mode of travel, time spent in travel every day, medium of study in school, place of school education., Stress inducing factors, Zung?s depression scale, ways of coping, stress relievers, perceived social support and personality type. Statistical tests used were ANOVA, critical ratio and Student?s ?t? test. RESULTS: Majority of medical students (175/238--73% perceived stress. Stress was found to be significantly more in Second and Third MBBS students rather than First MBBS levels (p < 0.05. Stress was not found to differ significantly on the basis of sex, stay at hostel, model of travel, time spent in travel every day, medium of study in school, place of school education. Stress was found to be significantly more in students having more than 95% of marks at 12th Standard as compared to others. Academic factors were greater perceived cause of stress in medical students. There was no significant difference in the students at different levels of MBBS regarding academic factors and social factors as a stress inducing factors. Physical factors were found to be significantly more in Second and Third MBBS students as compared to First MBBS students. Emotional factors were found to be significantly more in First MBBS students as compared to Second & Third MBBS students. Stress was more common in medical students who have dominant strategy of coping as positive reappraisal, accepting responsibility and planful problem solving. Stress was less common in medical students at Seth G S Medical College who have dominant strategy of coping as escaping and distancing from difficult situation. Family and Friend as perceived social supports were more in Second MBBS than First MBBS medical students. Stress was not found to be significantly more in students having their personality factor contributing to stress (Type A--52/67 as compared to others (Type B--123/171. This indicates that the stress was not trait oriented but was process oriented (p = NS. CONCLUSION: Stress in medical students is common and is process oriented. It is more in second and third year. Academic factors are greater perceived cause of stress in medical students at Seth G S medical college. Emotional factors are found to be significantly more in First MBBS. It is dependent on person?s ways of coping and social support.
Full Text Available The Objective: research of regularities of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity and justification of the directions of optimization of management by this process. Material and Methods. Object of research included functioning of system of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity. Are carried out: The study of reports of the Saratov region for 2006-2012, documentation of 16 treatment-and-prophylactic medical organizations and 84 responses on graduates of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky; anonymous retrospective questioning of 164 doctors after professional retraining at the faculty of professional development; expert questionnaire of 15 persons of the faculty of organizational chairs have been carried out. Results. In the work "complex adaptation factor"; dynamics of level of social and psychological, psychophysiological, organizational and professional indicators of adaptation of graduates to conditions of independent professional activity; the characteristic of "lagging behind" doctors; purposes of management of adaptation, importance of stages of its organizational support have been established. The ways to evaluate the success of individual adaptation and management of this process have been worked out, which are designed on the basis of the corresponding authorized optimization technology. Conclusion. Results of the conducted research allowed to expand idea of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity and to solve a number of applied problems of its optimization.
Duke, Pamela; Grosseman, Suely; Novack, Dennis H; Rosenzweig, Steven
Abstract Background: Medical student professionalism education is challenging in scope, purpose, and delivery, particularly in the clinical years when students in large universities are dispersed across multiple clinical sites. We initiated a faculty-facilitated, peer small group course for our third year students, creating virtual classrooms using social networking and online learning management system technologies. The course emphasized narrative self-reflection, group inquiry, and peer support. Methods: We conducted this study to analyze the effects of a professionalism course on third year medical students' empathy and self-reflection (two elements of professionalism) and their perceptions about the course. Students completed the Groningen Reflection Ability Scale (GRAS) and the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) before and after the course and provided anonymous online feedback. Results: The results of the JSE before and after the course demonstrated preservation of empathy rather than its decline. In addition, there was a statistically significant increase in GRAS scores (p?0.001), suggesting that the sharing of personal narratives may foster reflective ability and reflective practice among third year students. Conclusion: This study supports previous findings showing that students benefit from peer groups and discussion in a safe environment, which may include the use of a virtual group video platform. PMID:25189277
Gosselin-Tardif, Alexandre; Butler-Laporte, Guillaume; Vassiliou, Melina; Khwaja, Kosar; Ntakiyiruta, Georges; Kyamanywa, Patrick; Razek, Tarek; Deckelbaum, Dan L.
Summary With surgical conditions being significant contributors to the global burden of disease, efforts aimed at increasing future practitioners’ understanding, interest and participation in global surgery must be expanded. Unfortunately, despite the increasing popularity of global health among medical students, possibilities for exposure and involvement during medical school remain limited. By evaluating student participation in the 2011 Bethune Round Table, we explored the role that global surgery conferences can play in enhancing this neglected component of undergraduate medical education. Study results indicate high rates of student dissatisfaction with current global health teaching and opportunities, along with high indices of conference satisfaction and knowledge gain, suggesting that global health conferences can serve as important adjuncts to undergraduate medical education. PMID:25078923
Natal’ya D. Koletvinova
Full Text Available The relevance of this problem is caused by insufficient degree of elaboration of the theoretical and practical foundations of practice-oriented professional training for students in teacher education universities. Currently, the labor market demands competitive teachers who have mastered the necessary and sufficient types of professional communicative activities with an adequate speech design. The purpose of the study is to develop framework-components to improve the efficiency of designing multi-level professional communication situations. The leading research technologies are designing, intellectual communication, implementation of integration relations, person-centered communication, and others. The article reflects the results of the work done, in which students have mastered a typical structure of professional designing, learned to choose the right forms of intellectual communication in accordance with their academic and educational orientation, mastered the competence of multi-level professional communication. The article submissions may be useful for practical professional activities of university and high school teachers.
AIM: To compare the attitudes of students towards the necropsy at different stages of their undergraduate career. METHOD: Students in the first, fourth and sixth academic years (n = 283) were asked to respond anonymously to a questionnaire comprised of 26 attitude statements. These statements dealt with the importance of the necropsy in medicine, rapport with the bereaved family and emotional reactions to the necropsy. RESULTS: Of the students, 226 (80%) completed the questionnaire. Overall, ...
Haber, Richard J.; Bardach, Naomi S.; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Gillum, Leslie A.; Haber, Lawrence A.; Dhaliwal, Gurpreet S.
Interns are expected to teach medical students, yet there is little formal training in medical school to prepare them for this role. To enhance the teaching skills of our graduating students we initiated a 4-hour “teaching to teach” course as part of the end of the fourth-year curriculum. Course evaluations demonstrate that students strongly support this program (overall ratings 2000 to 2005: mean = 4.4 [scale 1 to 5], n = 224). When 2004 course participants were surveyed during the last ...
Full Text Available Background: Computer is a part of our daily life. In Medical Science it has become an essential product in every hospital. Starting from open heart surgeries to X rays to various clinical tests all are carried out by the help of computer. They communicate with each other by email, live chatting and they also use to take full advantage of technology. They also use the computer and internet nearly as much for social communication as they do for their educational purposes.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to August 2010 at NMC, Birgunj, Nepal. The subjects of this survey were Undergraduate medical students.Results: Most of the students were in the age group of 21- 23yrs and 19 – 20 yrs. Males were more in number (62% compared with females. Among Ist yr students computer as a Source of information got priority but in IInd year students Source of information Preparing notes and reading Research articles were more important. Amusement and Preparing notes and reading Research articles were important factor for IIIrd & IVth Year students.Conclusion: The use of the laptop and personal computers along with internet connectivity is increasing. This is becoming a part of medical education in different parts of the globe. In this study on medical students we observed an association between the year of study and the purpose of computer and internet use. Computer assisted teaching learning activities should be encouraged for the improvement of medical science for the new generations.
McCready, Zachary R; Kanjirath, Preetha; Jham, Bruno C
Approximately 21,000 osteopathic medical students were enrolled in the USA in 2012-2013. These future physicians are being educated with an emphasis on a holistic or patient-centered approach, with a focus on preventive care. Considering the importance of preventive care and early diagnosis in the outcomes of oral malignancies, our goal in this study was to assess the knowledge, behavior, and attitude of osteopathic medical students in relation to oral cancer. To this end, 204 second-year (Y2) and 194 fourth-year (Y4) medical students were invited to participate in an electronic survey. Forty-one Y2 and 44 Y4 students agreed to participate (20 and 22 % response rate, respectively). The results showed that most Y2 and Y4 students were knowledgeable in certain areas (demographic features, important risk factors, and histologic feature), but deficient in others (clinical presentation, association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with oropharyngeal cancers, and screening recommendations). Head, neck, and oral examination habits were reported as being performed occasionally. Overall, students reported feeling uninformed about oral cancer and showed an interest in receiving further education on the subject. Our findings confirm that an overall improvement in oral cancer education in the medical curriculum is needed. Interprofessional collaboration between dental and medical schools may prove to be a valid approach to achieve this goal, which may possibly lead to increased detection of early oral cancerous lesions and, ultimately, improved mortality rates. PMID:24882439
Sm, Moslehuddin Ahmed; Md Anwarul Azim Majumdar; Rezina Karim; et al.
SM Moslehuddin Ahmed1, Md Anwarul Azim Majumdar2, Rezina Karim3, Sayeeda Rahman2, Nuzhat Rahman41Department of Community Medicine, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 3Department of Microbiology, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 4Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAIntroduction: Information regar...
Henderson, Emma; Berlin, Anita; Fuller, Jon
BACKGROUND: The stimuli for this work came from the need to identify and understand the origin of students' attitudes towards general practice in the context of undergraduate curriculum reform and concerns about recruitment. AIM: To evaluate attitudes of medical students towards general practice as a specialty and general practitioners (GPs) as doctors and explore factors influencing students' attitudes and intended career choice. DESIGN OF STUDY: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Final-year s...
Wald, Hedy S
A fundamental goal of medical education is the active, constructive, transformative process of professional identity formation (PIF). Medical educators are thus charged with designing standardized and personalized curricula for guiding, supporting, and challenging learners on the developmental professional identity pathway, including the process of socialization. The author of this Commentary provides an overview of foundational principles and key drivers of PIF supporting the being, relating, and doing the work of a compassionate and competent physician. Key elements of PIF including guided reflection, use of personal narratives, integral role of relationships and role modeling, and community of practice are viewed through various lenses of PIF theory and pedagogy. Questions informing the PIF discourse are raised, including interprofessional identity considerations. Central emergent themes of reflective practice, relationships, and resilience are described as supporting and reciprocally enhancing PIF. Overarching lessons include attending to learners' and faculty's PIF within a developmental trajectory of the professional life cycle; process and content within PIF curricula as well as learners' individual and collective voices; curricular/extracurricular factors contributing to socialization, self-awareness, development of core values, and moral leadership; integrating PIF domains within pedagogy; faculty development for skilled mentoring and reflective coaching; and implementing resilience-promoting skill sets as "protective" within PIF. Outcomes assessment including the impact of curricula on learners and on patient-centered care can be challenging, and potential next steps toward this goal are discussed. PMID:25881651
Full Text Available Judgment This study was done in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the revisions made in the course of medical ethics for undergraduate medical students.Medical Students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences who took the course of medical ethics in a semester before the implementation of the revision and those who took the course after the implementation of the revision at the beginning and at the end of course responded to two questionnaires (one for evaluating knowledge and the other for assessing their moral judgment. Response rate was between 70 to 93.1 percent.Students' knowledge was significantly higher in the semester after the course revision (mean ± SD: 6.12 1.3 in comparison with the semester before the reform (mean ± SD: 3.63 1.7 (P=0.001. Students' knowledge after taking this course showed an increase of about 60% when compared with their knowledge level before starting the course (P=0.001. There was no significant difference in the level of moral judgment before and after taking the revised course of medical ethics while moral judgment level of students in two semester[before (21.21 4.0 and after 15.25 2.87 reform] were significantly different (P=0.02. The revisions made in the course of medical ethics for medical students were effective in improving students' knowledge but could not improve their moral judgment. This could be due to the short length of this course and also the small sample size in this study. We suggest that this study should be repeated with larger sample size and also with other methods of a course evaluation.
Stewart, S M; Betson, C; Lam, T H; Marshall, I B; Lee, P W; Wong, C M
While there is ample documentation that medical training is stressful, less is known about predictive variables that might identify students who have the most difficulty in managing stress during medical training. Depression and anxiety in first year medical students were investigated in a longitudinal design. One-hundred and twenty-one medical students (81% of the class) were surveyed. The first survey took place immediately prior to the beginning of medical training (wave 1); the second survey was approximately 8 months after the beginning of classes (wave 2). Medical students who began their first year with relatively low 'A' level grades, high ratings of state anxiety and depression, high trait anxiety and low dispositional optimism, and reliance on avoidant coping strategies were found to be at higher risk for developing depression and anxiety symptoms at wave 2. Students reported increased concern about curriculum and environment, personal competence and endurance, and time to have a life outside medical school at wave 2, compared to their reports at wave 1. Increase in concerns correlated with an increase in depression and anxiety. At both surveys, use of avoidant coping strategies resulted in increased depression and anxiety; at wave 2, active coping and positive reinterpretation resulted in decreased depression and anxiety. These findings suggest characteristics of vulnerable students who might be identified early in their first year and provided with additional suppo