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Professional identity in medical students: pedagogical challenges to medical education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Professional identity, or how a doctor thinks of himself or herself as a doctor, is considered to be as critical to medical education as the acquisition of skills and knowledge relevant to patient care. Summary: This article examines contemporary literature on the development of professional identity within medicine. Relevant theories of identity construction are explored and their application to medical education and pedagogical approaches to enhancing students' professional identity are proposed. The influence of communities of practice, role models, and narrative reflection within curricula are examined. Conclusions: Medical education needs to be responsive to changes in professional identity being generated from factors within medical student experiences and within contemporary society. PMID:24112208

Wilson, Ian; Cowin, Leanne S; Johnson, Maree; Young, Helen

2013-01-01

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Professional identity in medical students: pedagogical challenges to medical education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Professional identity, or how a doctor thinks of himself or herself as a doctor, is considered to be as critical to medical education as the acquisition of skills and knowledge relevant to patient care. Summary: This article examines contemporary literature on the development of professional identity within medicine. Relevant theories of identity construction are explored and their application to medical education and pedagogical approaches to enhancing students' professional identity are proposed. The influence of communities of practice, role models, and narrative reflection within curricula are examined. Conclusions: Medical education needs to be responsive to changes in professional identity being generated from factors within medical student experiences and within contemporary society.

Wilson I; Cowin LS; Johnson M; Young H

2013-10-01

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[Medical students' attitudes regarding professional practice].  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the choice to study medicine implies some knowledge of the current working situation of practitioners, medical students' expectations regarding their future professional practice have been rarely investigated in Argentina. The aim of this work was to collect data about the expectations of senior medical students regarding their future professional practice. One hundred and twenty-five senior medical students were surveyed between September and December 2008. By using an anonymous survey, information regarding the expectations about their future professional practice was collected. The survey was answered by 82.4% (103/125) of the students and 98.0% (101/103) expressed their desire to enter a residence programme. Regarding specialty, pediatrics and psychiatry were the most chosen by women (27% vs. 8%, p=0.029 and 27% vs. 3%, p=0.004), and orthopedic surgery was the predominant choice in men (18% vs. 2%, p=0.019). Median of expected income at 5 years post graduation was $ 4.000 (minimum: $1,500, maximum: $10.000), at 10 years $7.000 (minimum: $3.000, maximum: $ 20.000) and at 20 years $10.000 (minimum: $3.000, maximum: $30,000), according to money value adjusted to December 2008 ($3.0 = US$ 1.0). In conclusion, chosen specialties seem to be dependent on the increasing number of female students, the expected income would exceed the current remuneration of physicians. Noteworthy finding out the students' willingness to be involved in teaching and the less interest in research. PMID:20053598

Borracci, Raúl A; Pittaluga, Roberto D; Manente, Diego; Giorgi, Mariano A; Rubio, Miguel

2009-01-01

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[Medical students' attitudes regarding professional practice].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although the choice to study medicine implies some knowledge of the current working situation of practitioners, medical students' expectations regarding their future professional practice have been rarely investigated in Argentina. The aim of this work was to collect data about the expectations of senior medical students regarding their future professional practice. One hundred and twenty-five senior medical students were surveyed between September and December 2008. By using an anonymous survey, information regarding the expectations about their future professional practice was collected. The survey was answered by 82.4% (103/125) of the students and 98.0% (101/103) expressed their desire to enter a residence programme. Regarding specialty, pediatrics and psychiatry were the most chosen by women (27% vs. 8%, p=0.029 and 27% vs. 3%, p=0.004), and orthopedic surgery was the predominant choice in men (18% vs. 2%, p=0.019). Median of expected income at 5 years post graduation was $ 4.000 (minimum: $1,500, maximum: $10.000), at 10 years $7.000 (minimum: $3.000, maximum: $ 20.000) and at 20 years $10.000 (minimum: $3.000, maximum: $30,000), according to money value adjusted to December 2008 ($3.0 = US$ 1.0). In conclusion, chosen specialties seem to be dependent on the increasing number of female students, the expected income would exceed the current remuneration of physicians. Noteworthy finding out the students' willingness to be involved in teaching and the less interest in research.

Borracci RA; Pittaluga RD; Manente D; Giorgi MA; Rubio M

2009-01-01

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Pretoria medical students' perspectives on the assessable attributes of professionalism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Professionalism forms an important aspect of medicine's contract with society, and it is therefore important that it should be assessed and developed in medical schools. For the effective assessment of medical students' professionalism, clear objectives, or outcomes based on a clear defi...

Van Rooyen, Marietjie; Treadwell, Ina

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Wanted: role models - medical students’ perceptions of professionalism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Transformation of medical students to become medical professionals is a core competency required for physicians in the 21st century. Role modeling was traditionally the key method of transmitting this skill. Medical schools are developing medical curricula which are explicit in ensuring students develop the professional competency and understand the values and attributes of this role. The purpose of this study was to determine student perception of professionalism at the University of Ottawa and gain insights for improvement in promotion of professionalism in undergraduate medical education. Methods Survey on student perception of professionalism in general, the curriculum and learning environment at the University of Ottawa, and the perception of student behaviors, was developed by faculty and students and sent electronically to all University of Ottawa medical students. The survey included both quantitative items including an adapted Pritzker list and qualitative responses to eight open ended questions on professionalism at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA). Chi-square and Fischer’s exact test (for cell count less than 5) were used to derive p-values for categorical variables by level of student learning. Results The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students) for all four years of the curriculum. 63% of the responses were from students in years 1 and 2 (preclerkship). Students identified role modeling as the single most important aspect of professionalism. The strongest curricular recommendations included faculty-led case scenario sessions, enhancing interprofessional interactions and the creation of special awards to staff and students to “celebrate” professionalism. Current evaluation systems were considered least effective. The importance of role modeling and information on how to report lapses and breaches was highlighted in the answers to the open ended questions. Conclusions Students identify the need for strong positive role models in their learning environment, and for effective evaluation of the professionalism of students and teachers. Medical school leaders must facilitate development of these components within the MD education and faculty development programs as well as in clinical milieus where student learning occurs.

Byszewski Anna; Hendelman Walter; McGuinty Caroline; Moineau Geneviève

2012-01-01

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Using movies to teach professionalism to medical students  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Professionalism topics are usually not covered as a separate lesson within formal curriculum, but in subtler and less officially recognized educational activities, which makes them difficult to teach and assess. Interactive methods (e.g. movies) could be efficient teaching methods but are rarely studied. The aims of this study were: 1) to test the relevance and usefulness of movies in teaching professionalism to fourth year medical students and, 2) to assess the impact of this teaching method on students' attitudes towards some professionalism topics. Method This was an education study with qualitative data analysis in a group of eleven fourth year medical students from the Medical School of University Maribor who attended an elective four month course on professionalism. There were 8 (66.7%) female students in the group. The mean age of the students was 21.9 ± 0.9 years. The authors used students' written reports and oral presentations as the basis for qualitative analysis using thematic codes. Results Students recognised the following dimensions in the movie: communication, empathy, doctors' personal interests and palliative care. It also made them think about their attitudes towards life, death and dying. Conclusions The controlled environment of movies successfully enables students to explore their values, beliefs, and attitudes towards features of professionalism without feeling that their personal integrity had been threatened. Interactive teaching methods could become an indispensible aid in teaching professionalism to new generations.

Klemenc-Ketis Zalika; Kersnik Janko

2011-01-01

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Developing professionalism in Italian medical students: an educational framework  

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Full Text Available Fabrizio Consorti, Mariagiovanna Notarangelo, Laura Potasso, Emanuele ToscanoDepartment of Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University Sapienza of Rome, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Developing and assessing professionalism in medical students is an international challenge. This paper, based on preliminary research at the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry of the University Sapienza of Rome, Italy, briefly summarizes the main issues and experiences in developing professionalism among Italian undergraduate medical students. It concludes with a proposed framework suited to the Italian medical curricula. In our educational system, professionalism is defined as the context of medical expertise, the combination of rules, conditions, and meanings in which the act of health care occurs, as well as the ability of critical reflection on technical expertise. It is a multidimensional construct of ethical, sociocultural, relational, and epistemological competencies, requiring a wide range of tools for assessment. With reference to Italian versions of validated tools of measure, vignettes, videos, and a student's portfolio of reflective writings, this paper outlines the manner in which education for professionalism is embedded in the existing curriculum and overall framework of assessment.Keywords: professionalism, undergraduate medical education, tools for assessment

Consorti F; Notarangelo M; Potasso L; Toscano E

2012-01-01

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Australian medical students' perceptions of professionalism and ethics in medical television programs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical television programs offer students fictional representations of their chosen career. This study aimed to discover undergraduate medical students' viewing of medical television programs and students' perceptions of professionalism, ethics, realism and role models in the programs. The purpose was to consider implications for teaching strategies. Methods A medical television survey was administered to 386 undergraduate medical students across Years 1 to 4 at a university in New South Wales, Australia. The survey collected data on demographics, year of course, viewing of medical television programs, perception of programs' realism, depiction of ethics, professionalism and role models. Results The shows watched by most students were House, Scrubs, and Grey's Anatomy, and students nominated watching 30 different medical programs in total. There was no statistical association between year of enrolment and perceptions of accuracy. The majority of students reported that friends or family members had asked them for their opinion on an ethical or medical issue presented on a program, and that they discussed ethical and medical matters with their friends. Students had high recall of ethical topics portrayed on the shows, and most believed that medical programs generally portrayed ideals of professionalism well. Conclusions Medical programs offer considerable currency and relevance with students and may be useful in teaching strategies that engage students in ethical lessons about practising medicine.

Weaver Roslyn; Wilson Ian

2011-01-01

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Swedish Medical Students' Views of the Changing Professional Role of Medical Doctors and the Organisation of Health Care  

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Medical students will influence future health care considerably. Their professional orientation while at medical school will be related to their future professional development. Therefore, it is important to study this group's view of the role of medical doctors, especially because Swedish health care is currently undergoing major changes and…

Holmstrom, Inger; Sanner, Margareta A.

2004-01-01

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The Utility of Reflective Writing after a Palliative Care Experience: Can We Assess Medical Students' Professionalism?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Background: Medical education leaders have called for a curriculum that proactively teaches knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for professional practice and have identified professionalism as a competency domain for medical students. Exposure to palliative care (PC), an often deeply moving clinical experience, is an optimal trigger for rich student reflection, and students' reflective writings can be explored for professional attitudes. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the merit of using student reflective writing about a PC clinical experience to teach and assess professionalism. Methods: After a PC patient visit, students wrote a brief reflective essay. We explored qualitatively if/how evidence of students' professionalism was reflected in their writing. Five essays were randomly chosen to develop a preliminary thematic structure, which then guided analysis of 30 additional, randomly chosen essays. Analysts coded transcripts independently, then collaboratively, developed thematic categories, and selected illustrative quotes for each theme and subtheme. Results: Essays revealed content reflecting more rich information about students' progress toward achieving two professionalism competencies (demonstrating awareness of one's own perspectives and biases; demonstrating caring, compassion, empathy, and respect) than two others (displaying self-awareness of performance; recognizing and taking actions to correct deficiencies in one's own behavior, knowledge, and skill). Conclusions: Professional attitudes were evident in all essays. The essays had limited use for formal summative assessment of professionalism competencies. However, given the increasing presence of PC clinical experiences at medical schools nationwide, we believe this assessment strategy for professionalism has merit and deserves further investigation.

Braun UK; Gill AC; Teal CR; Morrison LJ

2013-08-01

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Substance use and attitudes on professional conduct among medical students: a single-institution study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine how specific substance-use behavior, including nonmedical prescription stimulant (NPS) use, among U.S. medical students correlates with their attitudes and beliefs toward professionalism. METHOD: An anonymous survey was distributed to all medical students at a private medical university (46% response rate). Participants were asked to report alcohol and marijuana use patterns, NPS use, stress levels, and history of suicidal ideation. RESULTS: Over one-third of medical students reported excessive drinking during the past month, and 5% reported NPS use during the past year. Students who endorsed such behavior were significantly less likely to view it as unprofessional and warranting intervention. A large number of students seemed unfamiliar with how to help a classmate with an NPS use problem. CONCLUSIONS: Medical students' substance use behaviors appear to influence attitudes and beliefs toward professional issues regarding substance use.

Choi D; Tolova V; Socha E; Samenow CP

2013-05-01

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The association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and medical students' personal and professional development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: In order to commit to their mission and placement requirements, medical education policy-makers are required to understand the background and character of students in order to admit, cultivate and support them efficiently and effectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study sample consisted of 408 homogeneous medical students with the same level of education, occupation, school and societal environment. They differed mainly in their family background. Therefore, this study used part of a multidimensional "student portfolio system" database to assess the correlation between family status (indexed by parental education and occupation) and medical students' mental health status and characters. The controls were a group of 181 non-medical students in another university. RESULTS: The parents of the medical students were from a higher socioeconomic status (SES) than the parents of those in the control group. This showed the heritability of genetic and environment conditions as well as the socioeconomic forces at play in medical education. Students' personal and professional development were associated with their parents' SES. The mother's SES was associated with the student's selfreported stress, mental disturbances, attitude towards life, personality, health, discipline, internationalisation and professionalism. The fathers' SES did not show a statistically significant association with the above stress, physical and mental health factors, but showed an association with some of the personality factors. The greater the educational difference between both parents, the more stress, hopelessness and pessimism the student manifested. CONCLUSIONS: Medical educators need to be aware that socioeconomic factors have meaningful patterns of association with students' mental and physical health, and their characters relating to personal and professional development. Low maternal SES negatively influences medical students' personal and professional development, suggesting that medical education policy-makers need to initiate support mechanisms for those with latent vulnerability.

Fan AP; Chen CH; Su TP; Shih WJ; Lee CH; Hou SM

2007-09-01

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Evaluating Medical Student Communication/Professionalism Skills from a Patient’s Perspective  

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Objective: Evaluate medical students’ communication and professionalism skills from the perspective of the ambulatory patient and later compare these skills in their first year of residency. Methods: Students in third year neurology clerkship clinics see patients alone followed by a revisit with an ...

Davis, Larry E.; King, Molly K.; Wayne, Sharon J.; Kalishman, Summers G.

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"They liked it if you said you cried": how medical students perceive the teaching of professionalism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To discover what Australian medical students think about the way professionalism is taught in their medical curriculum. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Qualitative study including five focus groups between 2 June 2010 and 30 September 2010, comprised of medical students from both undergraduate and postgraduate entry programs who were in the last 1-2 years of the medical program and had undertaken rural longitudinal integrated clinical placements. RESULTS: The five focus groups ran for a total of 5.5 hours. Participants (16 women and 24 men; mean age, 26 years [range 23-32 years]) expressed a low regard for the ways in which professionalism had been taught and assessed in their learning programs. They "gamed the system", giving assessors the results on reflective writing assignments that they believed would gain them a pass. They considered experiential learning - observing good professional practice - to be the best way (some view it as the only way) to learn professionalism and consolidate what they learned, and formed their individual mental model of professionalism through group reflection with their peers in medical school. CONCLUSIONS: While students will always be critical of their curriculum, the universal negative views we captured indicate that current teaching would benefit from review. We suggest a less didactic approach in early years, with more evaluation and feedback from students to assure relevance; an emphasis on true reflection, as opposed to guided reflections linked to overformalised requirements; and more attention devoted to role-modelling and mentoring in the clinical years of training.

Birden HH; Usherwood T

2013-09-01

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Exploring professional identification and reputation of family medicine among medical students: a Canadian case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We aim to shed light on medical students' professional identification with family medicine by means of a qualitative case study examining the reputation of, and professional identification processes with, family medicine among students enrolled in a Canadian medical school, where a consistently low number of students choose family medicine as first choice for postgraduate training. Six focus groups, three for second year students and three for fourth year students, were conducted in 2007 and 2008. Transcripts from group discussions were submitted to a thematic analysis, while documentary sources supported contextualisation. All the students participating in the investigation had a clear idea about the traditional role of general practitioners (GPs). Those students who seemed to better identify with a family medicine career path were characterised by feeling comfortable with the broad scope of general medical knowledge, and with requesting a second opinion, by valuing the possibility of a diversified profile of practice, and holding strong humanistic values, as well as by being more concerned about lifestyle issues. This was observed despite an academic context that strongly encouraged medical specialisation, as students unanimously pointed out. In such circumstances, identification with family medicine by undecided medical students was hampered. In order to embed family medicine in the academic discourse of excellence, and therefore encourage students' identification with this profession, more attention should be paid to family physicians' identity formation in academic centres.

Rodríguez C; Tellier PP; Bélanger E

2012-05-01

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Does the inclusion of 'professional development' teaching improve medical students' communication skills?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated whether the introduction of professional development teaching in the first two years of a medical course improved students' observed communication skills with simulated patients. Students' observed communication skills were related to patient-centred attitudes, confidence in communicating with patients and performance in later clinical examinations. Methods Eighty-two medical students from two consecutive cohorts at a UK medical school completed two videoed consultations with a simulated patient: one at the beginning of year 1 and one at the end of year 2. Group 1 (n = 35) received a traditional pre-clinical curriculum. Group 2 (n = 47) received a curriculum that included communication skills training integrated into a 'professional development' vertical module. Videoed consultations were rated using the Evans Interview Rating Scale by communication skills tutors. A subset of 27% were double-coded. Inter-rater reliability is reported. Results Students who had received the professional development teaching achieved higher ratings for use of silence, not interrupting the patient, and keeping the discussion relevant compared to students receiving the traditional curriculum. Patient-centred attitudes were not related to observed communication. Students who were less nervous and felt they knew how to listen were rated as better communicators. Students receiving the traditional curriculum and who had been rated as better communicators when they entered medical school performed less well in the final year clinical examination. Conclusions Students receiving the professional development training showed significant improvements in certain communication skills, but students in both cohorts improved over time. The lack of a relationship between observed communication skills and patient-centred attitudes may be a reflection of students' inexperience in working with patients, resulting in 'patient-centredness' being an abstract concept. Students in the early years of their medical course may benefit from further opportunities to practise basic communication skills on a one-to-one basis with patients.

Joekes Katherine; Noble Lorraine M; Kubacki Angela M; Potts Henry WW; Lloyd Margaret

2011-01-01

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Mentoring medical students during clinical courses: a way to enhance professional development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Mentoring is known to develop professional attributes and facilitate socialization into a profession. Only a few structured mentoring programmes for medical students have been reported in the literature. AIM: The objective of this study was to investigate undergraduate medical students' experiences and perceptions of one-to-one mentoring and whether they felt that the mentorship promoted their personal and professional development. METHODS: Medical students (n = 118) during their third and fourth years of their studies were offered a personal mentor for 2 years and followed up via a questionnaire when the mentoring programme was completed. Statistical software was used to compute data. Open-ended questions were analyzed by content analysis. RESULTS: Most of the respondents experienced that the mentoring programme had facilitated their professional and personal development. The role of the mentor was experienced as being more supportive than supplying knowledge. The students appreciated talking to a faculty not connected with their courses. The few barriers to a successful mentorship were mainly related to timing logistics and 'personal chemistry'. CONCLUSIONS: One-to-one mentoring during clinical courses seems to enhance the medical student's professional and personal development. Future studies are needed to get a deeper understanding and knowledge about factors of importance for successful mentorship.

Kalén S; Stenfors-Hayes T; Hylin U; Larm MF; Hindbeck H; Ponzer S

2010-01-01

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Development of a method to investigate medical students' perceptions of their personal and professional development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Personal and Professional Development (PPD) is now key to the undergraduate medical curriculum and requires provision of appropriate learning experiences. In order to achieve this, it is essential that we ascertain students' perceptions of what is important in their PPD. We required a methodological approach suitable for a large medical school, which defines constructs used by the students to describe their PPD, and is not constrained by a researcher's predetermined line of questioning. It should also quantify the saliencies of these constructs in the student population and indicate how they gauge their own PPD. The instrument should also be suitable for administration at key stages of the students' learning experience. Here we describe the first stages in developing a novel method, which fulfils these requirements. It is based on a modified self repertory grid, the "Ideal Self" Inventory. All first year students (N = 379), provided five descriptors of a "good medical student" and of a not very good medical student, which generated 1,531 'ideal' qualities. To define underlying themed constructs, 49 randomly selected descriptors, were grouped together by self selected students (n = 55), using commonly held assumptions. Frequency of item co-occurrence was tabulated by multidimensional scaling. Themed clusters of 'ideal' qualities, defined by hierarchical cluster analysis, were overlaid onto the multidimensional scaling to generate a concept map. This revealed seven themed constructs; Personal Welfare, Time and Self Management Committed Work Ethic, Learning Skills, Personal Development/Reflection, Personal and Professional Conduct and Teamwork. We then analysed the 1,531 'ideal' qualities, by determining the frequency with which students used each construct and the proportion of students who used a construct at least once. Personal and Professional Conduct, Committed Work Ethic and Time and Self Management were the most frequently used, implying that they were the most salient for the first year students. PMID:18633725

Lown, Nick; Davies, Ioan; Cordingley, Lis; Bundy, Chris; Braidman, Isobel

2008-07-17

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Development of a method to investigate medical students' perceptions of their personal and professional development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Personal and Professional Development (PPD) is now key to the undergraduate medical curriculum and requires provision of appropriate learning experiences. In order to achieve this, it is essential that we ascertain students' perceptions of what is important in their PPD. We required a methodological approach suitable for a large medical school, which defines constructs used by the students to describe their PPD, and is not constrained by a researcher's predetermined line of questioning. It should also quantify the saliencies of these constructs in the student population and indicate how they gauge their own PPD. The instrument should also be suitable for administration at key stages of the students' learning experience. Here we describe the first stages in developing a novel method, which fulfils these requirements. It is based on a modified self repertory grid, the "Ideal Self" Inventory. All first year students (N = 379), provided five descriptors of a "good medical student" and of a not very good medical student, which generated 1,531 'ideal' qualities. To define underlying themed constructs, 49 randomly selected descriptors, were grouped together by self selected students (n = 55), using commonly held assumptions. Frequency of item co-occurrence was tabulated by multidimensional scaling. Themed clusters of 'ideal' qualities, defined by hierarchical cluster analysis, were overlaid onto the multidimensional scaling to generate a concept map. This revealed seven themed constructs; Personal Welfare, Time and Self Management Committed Work Ethic, Learning Skills, Personal Development/Reflection, Personal and Professional Conduct and Teamwork. We then analysed the 1,531 'ideal' qualities, by determining the frequency with which students used each construct and the proportion of students who used a construct at least once. Personal and Professional Conduct, Committed Work Ethic and Time and Self Management were the most frequently used, implying that they were the most salient for the first year students.

Lown N; Davies I; Cordingley L; Bundy C; Braidman I

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
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The Medical Migration: Experiences and Perspectives of Medical Students for the Professional Career  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a short overview over the determinants and implications of medics’ international migration and to determine if the international migration of medics can be considered a predictable phenomenon, from the Romanian medical student’s perspective. The study has been conducted on a group of students from the University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Gr. T. Popa” from Ia?i, Romania. The research was conducted on an availability sample of 158 students from the 3rd to 6th year of study, which responded to an auto-administrated questionnaire. The results are in accordance with the results of other similar studies, namely that students are considering international migration to more developed countries as an option for their career development.

Elena TOADER; Lucian SFETCU

2013-01-01

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Medical Professional Values and Education: A Survey on Italian Students of the Medical Doctor School in Medicine and Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The values such as participation/empathy, communication/sharing, self-awareness, moral integrity, sensitivity/trustfulness, commitment to ongoing professional development, and sense of duty linked to the practice of the medical professionalism were defined by various professional oaths. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate how these values are considered by the students of the degree course of medicine. Materials and Methods: Four hundred twenty three students (254 females, 169 males) taking part of the first, fourth, and fifth years of the degree course in medicine were asked to answer seven questions. Pearson's Chi-square, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Kruskal–Wallis test were used for the statistical analysis. Results: The survey showed a high level of knowledge and self-awareness about the values and skills of medical profession. In particular, the respect, accountability, and the professional skills of competence were considered fundamental in clinical practice. However, the students considered that these values not sufficiently present in their educational experience. Conclusions: Teaching methods should be harmonized with the contents and with the educational needs to ensure a more complex patient-based approach and the classical lectures of teachers should be more integrated with learning through experience methods.

Montemurro, Domenico; Vescovo, Giorgio; Negrello, Michele; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Cirillo, Tommaso; Picardi, Edgardo; Chiminazzo, Caterina; El Mazloum, Dania; De Caro, Raffaele; Benato, Maurizio; Ferretti, Alice; Mazza, Alberto; Marcolongo, Adriano; Rubello, Domenico

2013-01-01

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Medical professional values and education: a survey on italian students of the medical doctor school in medicine and surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The values such as participation/empathy, communication/sharing, self-awareness, moral integrity, sensitivity/trustfulness, commitment to ongoing professional development, and sense of duty linked to the practice of the medical professionalism were defined by various professional oaths. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate how these values are considered by the students of the degree course of medicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred twenty three students (254 females, 169 males) taking part of the first, fourth, and fifth years of the degree course in medicine were asked to answer seven questions. Pearson's Chi-square, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: The survey showed a high level of knowledge and self-awareness about the values and skills of medical profession. In particular, the respect, accountability, and the professional skills of competence were considered fundamental in clinical practice. However, the students considered that these values not sufficiently present in their educational experience. CONCLUSIONS: Teaching methods should be harmonized with the contents and with the educational needs to ensure a more complex patient-based approach and the classical lectures of teachers should be more integrated with learning through experience methods.

Montemurro D; Vescovo G; Negrello M; Frigo AC; Cirillo T; Picardi E; Chiminazzo C; El Mazloum D; De Caro R; Benato M; Ferretti A; Mazza A; Marcolongo A; Rubello D

2013-02-01

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MEDICAL PROVISION OF MILITARY SERVICE SAFETY: PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF MILITARY MEDICAL STUDENTS  

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Full Text Available The analysis of military troop probation period of 194 students of Saratov Military Medical Institute has demonstrated the common drawbacks and defects in the military service activity on provision of military service safely. The determination of these drawbacks allows to plan concrete measures for improvement of this process.

N.G. Korshever; S.O. Zhilenko

2009-01-01

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Medical students' and facilitators' experiences of an Early Professional Contact course: active and motivated students, strained facilitators.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences.In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1-4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators.The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. METHODS: Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. RESULTS: Sixty students (70%) and 15 facilitators (71%) completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. CONCLUSION: In this project, a new Early Professional Contact course was analysed from both student and facilitator perspectives. The students experienced the course as providing them with a valuable introduction to the physician's professional role in clinical practice. In contrast, course facilitators often experienced a heavy workload and lack of support, despite thorough preparatory education. A possible conflict between the clinical facilitator's task as educator and member of the workplace is suggested. More research is needed on how doctors combine their professional tasks with work as facilitators.

von Below B; Hellquist G; Rödjer S; Gunnarsson R; Björkelund C; Wahlqvist M

2008-01-01

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Medical students' and facilitators' experiences of an Early Professional Contact course: Active and motivated students, strained facilitators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences. In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1–4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators. The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Methods Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Results Sixty students (70%) and 15 facilitators (71%) completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. Conclusion In this project, a new Early Professional Contact course was analysed from both student and facilitator perspectives. The students experienced the course as providing them with a valuable introduction to the physician's professional role in clinical practice. In contrast, course facilitators often experienced a heavy workload and lack of support, despite thorough preparatory education. A possible conflict between the clinical facilitator's task as educator and member of the workplace is suggested. More research is needed on how doctors combine their professional tasks with work as facilitators.

von Below Bernhard; Hellquist Gunilla; Rödjer Stig; Gunnarsson Ronny; Björkelund Cecilia; Wahlqvist Mats

2008-01-01

27

"I have the right to a private life": Medical students' views about professionalism in a digital world.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Social media site use is ubiquitous, particularly Facebook. Postings on social media can have an impact on the perceived professionalism of students and practitioners. Aims: In this study, we explored the attitudes and understanding of undergraduate medical students towards professionalism, with a specific focus on online behaviour. Methods: A volunteer sample of students (n?=?236) responded to an online survey about understanding of professionalism and perceptions of professionalism in online environments. Respondents were encouraged to provide free text examples and to elaborate on their responses through free text comments. Descriptive analyzes and emergent themes analysis were carried out. Results: Respondents were nearly unanimous on most questions of professionalism in the workplace, while 43% felt that students should act professionally at all times (including free time). Sixty-four free text comments revealed three themes: "free time is private time";" professionalism is unrealistic as a way of life"; and "professionalism should be a way of life". Conclusions: Our findings indicate a disconnect between what students report of what they understand of professionalism, and what students feel is appropriate and inappropriate in both online and real life behaviour. Curriculum needs to target understanding of professionalism in online and real environments and communicate realistic expectations for students. PMID:23826730

Ross, Shelley; Lai, Krista; Walton, Jennifer M; Kirwan, Paul; White, Jonathan S

2013-07-05

28

Percepções de alunos de medicina sobre marketing médico/ Undergraduate medical student's perceptions regarding professional marketing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Marketing médico é um assunto controverso, principalmente no que concerne a princípios éticos. Portanto, frente à competição acirrada de mercado, é necessário o preparo profissional. Conhecer a percepção dos alunos de Medicina pode auxiliar na estruturação de alternativas de capacitação. METODOLOGIA: Inicialmente, identificaram-se crenças sobre marketing médico através de grupo focal composto por 12 alunos. Com base nesses dados, dez afirma (more) ções para avaliar atitudes foram aplicadas aos alunos de uma Faculdade de Medicina pública brasileira. RESULTADOS: Observou-se falta de clareza sobre o conceito de marketing, preocupação com princípios éticos e necessidade de marketing no mercado competitivo. Na fase de aplicação, foram obtidas 280 respostas de diversos estágios do curso. Apenas 16,8% admitiram contato com o tema. Houve clareza sobre ética em relação ao paciente, influenciada positivamente pela progressão no curso, mas houve divergência na ética entre profissionais. CONCLUSÕES: Marketing médico é uma área pouco compreendida e relegada ao currículo oculto, sendo influenciada por transposições inadequadas de métodos didáticos destinados à comunicação profissional para a população leiga. Novos métodos de ensino, como a educação tutorial, podem ser uma alternativa para lidar com essas situações. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Professional marketing is a controversial topic, mainly regarding ethical principles. Therefore, increasing market competion turns professional capacitation mandatory. To know under graduation medical student's perceptions could help to develop educational alternatives to face this problem. METODOLOGY: First, professional marketing believes were identified through focus group methodology including twelve students. Based on these results, ten affirmatives were (more) constructed to evaluate attitudes and applied to the students of a Brazilian public medicine school. RESULTS: It was observed lack of a clear definition of marketing, preoccupation regarding ethical principles and need to employ marketing strategies in a competitive market. At the survey stage, 280 answers from different stages of the course were obtained. Only 16.8% admitted to have had previous contact with the topic. Clear ethical standards for medical-patient relationship were determined, increasing with course progression. However inter-professional ethical principles was more subject to confusion. CONCLUSION: Professional marketing is poorly understood and it is relegated to the occult curricula, being influenced by didactic methods inadequately transposed for marketing strategies. Newer educational methods, like mentoring, could be an alternative to deal with these situations.Tutoria.

Alves, Fernando Henrique Canhoto; Torres, Fernanda Pedrosa; Suto, Hilda Satie; Azevedo, Lunia Sofia Lima; Barbosa, Marcell Maduro; Pedro, Renato Martins; Santana, Ana Carolina Delazia Albuquerque; Rantin, Daniella; Leonardo, Fábio Henrique Luiz; Andrade, Marina Gomes de; Ferreira, Natasha Nicos; Pazin Filho, Antonio

2012-09-01

29

Being a mentor for undergraduate medical students enhances personal and professional development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence of the positive effects of mentoring in medical undergraduate programmes, but as far as we know, no studies on the effects for the mentors have yet been described in the field of medicine. AIM: This study aims to evaluate an undergraduate mentor programme from the mentors' perspective, focusing particularly on the effect of mentorship, the relationships between mentoring and teaching and the mentors' perceived professional and personal development. METHODS: Data was gathered through a questionnaire to all 83 mentors (response rate 75%) and semi-structured interviews with a representative sample of 10 mentors. RESULTS: Findings show, for example, that a majority of respondents developed their teaching as a result of their mentorship and improved their relations with students. Most respondents also claimed that being a mentor led to an increased interest in teaching and increased reflections regarding their own values and work practices. CONCLUSION: Being a mentor was perceived as rewarding and may lead to both personal and professional development.

Stenfors-Hayes T; Kalén S; Hult H; Dahlgren LO; Hindbeck H; Ponzer S

2010-01-01

30

Willingness and professional motivations of medical students to work in rural areas: a study in Alexandria, Egypt  

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Full Text Available Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, e.g. personal preferences, difficult work conditions and low remuneration. Our aim was to determine the effect of motivational factors on willingness to accept postings to rural underserved areas in Alexandria, Egypt and to identify perceived attributes of rural service.,A cross-sectional survey involving 302 4th-year medical students was conducted in March-July 2012. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between students’ willingness to accept rural postings and their professional motivations, rural exposure and family parental professional and educational status (PPES). Perceived attributes to rural service were also assessed. Over 85% students were born in urban areas and 41.4% came from affluent backgrounds. More than half students reported strong intrinsic motivation to study medicine. After controlling for demographic characteristics and rural exposure, motivational factors significantly influenced willingness to practice in rural areas. High-family PPES was consistently associated with lower willingness to work in rural areas. A sizable portion of medical students are motivated to study and practice medicine in rural areas. Efforts should be made to build on motivation during medical training and designing rural postings, as well as favor lower PPES students for admission and improving organizational and contextual issues of rural service.

Aida M. Mohamed

2013-01-01

31

Can personal qualities of medical students predict in-course examination success and professional behaviour? An exploratory prospective cohort study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Over two-thirds of UK medical schools are augmenting their selection procedures for medical students by using the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT), which employs tests of cognitive and non-cognitive personal qualities, but clear evidence of the tests' predictive validity is lacking. This study explores whether academic performance and professional behaviours that are important in a health professional context can be predicted by these measures, when taken before or very early in the medical course. METHODS: This prospective cohort study follows the progress of the entire student cohort who entered Hull York Medical School in September 2007, having taken the UKCAT cognitive tests in 2006 and the non-cognitive tests a year later. This paper reports on the students' first and second academic years of study. The main outcome measures were regular, repeated tutor assessment of individual students' interpersonal skills and professional behaviour, and annual examination performance in the three domains of recall and application of knowledge, evaluation of data, and communication and practical clinical skills. The relationships between non-cognitive test scores, cognitive test scores, tutor assessments and examination results were explored using the Pearson product-moment correlations for each group of data; the data for students obtaining the top and bottom 20% of the summative examination results were compared using Analysis of Variance. RESULTS: Personal qualities measured by non-cognitive tests showed a number of statistically significant relationships with ratings of behaviour made by tutors, with performance in each year's objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), and with themed written summative examination marks in each year. Cognitive ability scores were also significantly related to each year's examination results, but seldom to professional behaviours. The top 20% of examination achievers could be differentiated from the bottom 20% on both non-cognitive and cognitive measures. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows numerous significant relationships between both cognitive and non-cognitive test scores, academic examination scores and indicators of professional behaviours in medical students. This suggests that measurement of non-cognitive personal qualities in applicants to medical school could make a useful contribution to selection and admission decisions. Further research is required in larger representative groups, and with more refined predictor measures and behavioural assessment methods, to establish beyond doubt the incremental validity of such measures over conventional cognitive assessments.

Adam J; Bore M; McKendree J; Munro D; Powis D

2012-01-01

32

Can personal qualities of medical students predict in-course examination success and professional behaviour? An exploratory prospective cohort study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Over two-thirds of UK medical schools are augmenting their selection procedures for medical students by using the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT), which employs tests of cognitive and non-cognitive personal qualities, but clear evidence of the tests’ predictive validity is lacking. This study explores whether academic performance and professional behaviours that are important in a health professional context can be predicted by these measures, when taken before or very early in the medical course. Methods This prospective cohort study follows the progress of the entire student cohort who entered Hull York Medical School in September 2007, having taken the UKCAT cognitive tests in 2006 and the non-cognitive tests a year later. This paper reports on the students’ first and second academic years of study. The main outcome measures were regular, repeated tutor assessment of individual students’ interpersonal skills and professional behaviour, and annual examination performance in the three domains of recall and application of knowledge, evaluation of data, and communication and practical clinical skills. The relationships between non-cognitive test scores, cognitive test scores, tutor assessments and examination results were explored using the Pearson product–moment correlations for each group of data; the data for students obtaining the top and bottom 20% of the summative examination results were compared using Analysis of Variance. Results Personal qualities measured by non-cognitive tests showed a number of statistically significant relationships with ratings of behaviour made by tutors, with performance in each year’s objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), and with themed written summative examination marks in each year. Cognitive ability scores were also significantly related to each year’s examination results, but seldom to professional behaviours. The top 20% of examination achievers could be differentiated from the bottom 20% on both non-cognitive and cognitive measures. Conclusions This study shows numerous significant relationships between both cognitive and non-cognitive test scores, academic examination scores and indicators of professional behaviours in medical students. This suggests that measurement of non-cognitive personal qualities in applicants to medical school could make a useful contribution to selection and admission decisions. Further research is required in larger representative groups, and with more refined predictor measures and behavioural assessment methods, to establish beyond doubt the incremental validity of such measures over conventional cognitive assessments.

Adam Jane; Bore Miles; McKendree Jean; Munro Don; Powis David

2012-01-01

33

Relationship of creative projects in anatomy to medical student professionalism, test performance and stress: an exploratory study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The anatomy course offers important opportunities to develop professionalism at an early stage in medical education. It is an academically significant course that also engenders stress in some students. Methods Over a three-year period, 115 of 297 students completed creative projects. Thirty-four project completers and 47 non-completers consented to participate in the study. Projects were analyzed for professionalism themes using grounded theory. A subset of project completers and non-completers were interviewed to determine their views about the stress of anatomy and medical school, as well as the value of the creative projects. We also compared test performance of project completers and non-completers. Results Projects completed early in the course often expressed ambivalence about anatomy, whereas later projects showed more gratitude and sense of awe. Project completers tended to report greater stress than noncompleters, but stated that doing projects reduced stress and caused them to develop a richer appreciation for anatomy and medicine. Project completers performed significantly lower than non-completers on the first written exam (pre-project). Differences between groups on individual exams after both the first and second creative project were nonsignificant. Conclusion For some students, creative projects may offer a useful way of reflecting on various aspects of professionalism while helping them to manage stress.

Shapiro Johanna; Nguyen Vincent P; Mourra Sarah; Boker John R; Ross Marianne; Thai Trung M; Leonard Robert J

2009-01-01

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The effects of pre-professional and professional socialization and intergenerational solidarity on podiatric medical students' negative stereotypes and attitudes toward treating the elderly.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Doctors of Podiatric Medicine (or podiatrists) play a decisive role in the disease prevention and health maintenance of older Americans. As health care professionals who examine, diagnose, and treat the human foot, podiatrists aid in alleviating pain and maintaining the mobility of geriatric patients. No sociological studies have examined podiatrists' or podiatry students' orientations toward the elderly in general and as patients in particular. Accordingly, this dissertation examines precursors of two dependent variables – podiatry students' stereotypes of older people and attitudes toward treating elderly patients. Among the set of predictor variables, this dissertation examines podiatry students' social background traits, intergenerational solidarity with grandparents, motivations for entering podiatry, and professional socialization. Moreover, four theoretical perspectives – socialization theory, cognitive dissonance theory, Allport's theory of prejudice, and social exchange theory – provide frameworks for interpreting the effects of the predictor variables. The data included a random and nationally representative sample of podiatry stude nts. One-third of the total population of podiatry students were used as the sampling frame. Of the questionnaires distributed to the students, 533 were returned, yielding a total response rate of 77.5 percent. Multiple regression analysis indicated that entering podiatry for extrinsic rewards was a strong predictor of negative stereotypes of the elderly. That is, extrinsic rewards has a statistically significant direct effect on two of the four outcome variables representing negative stereotypes of the elderly – specifically, older people's personality and health behavior. Similarly, there are two strong predictors of negative attitudes toward treating elderly patients: entering podiatry for intrinsic rewards and close bonds with grandparents. That is, podiatry students who reported close relationships with their grandparents and who entered podiatry for intrinsic rewards were less likely to have both negative stereotypes toward older people and negative attitudes toward treating elderly patients. Implications of the findings are discussed in regards to podiatric medical education, such as recruitment and criteria in admitting prospective students.

Chumbler NR

35

Medical student-mothers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medical training is challenging and parenting is a full-time responsibility. Balancing a family with the significant demands of medical school is a daunting endeavor. Yet there is little research available to guide students, faculty, or administrators. Using one U.S. medical school as a case study, this article provides a comprehensive overview of the common personal and professional challenges that medical students who are also mothers face during their undergraduate medical education, and practical strategies and resources useful in navigating such challenges. This article is also a resource guide for the faculty and administrators who teach, advise, and mentor medical-student parents. For leaders in medical education, the article concludes with suggestions to better support the health and educational experience of medical student-parents: 1) a systematic network of career advisors, 2) scheduling flexibility, 3) formal breastfeeding policies and workplace support, 4) institutionally supported childcare, and 5) how student-parents may foster the educational health mission of medical schools.

Taylor J; Macnamara M; Groskin A; Petras L

2013-01-01

36

Psychological health of first-year health professional students in a medical university in the United arab emirates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the psychological health of first-year health professional students and to study sources of student stress. METHODS: All first-year students (N = 125) of the Gulf Medical University (GMU) in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE), were invited to participate in a voluntary, anonymous, self-administered, questionnaire-based survey in January 2011. Psychological health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire, with items related to academic, psychosocial and health domains was used to identify sources of stress. Pearson's chi-squared test and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used for testing the association between psychological morbidity and sources of stress. RESULTS: A total of 112 students (89.6%) completed the survey and the overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was found to be 33.6%. The main academic-related sources of stress were 'frequency of exams', 'academic workload', and 'time management'. Major psychosocial stressors were 'worries regarding future', 'high parental expectations', 'anxiety', and 'dealing with members of the opposite sex'. Health-related issues were 'irregular eating habits', 'lack of exercise', and 'sleep-related problems'. Psychological morbidity was not significantly associated with any of the demographic factors studied. However, total stress scores and academics-related domain scores were significantly associated with psychological morbidity. CONCLUSION: Psychological morbidity was seen in one in three first-year students attending GMU. While worries regarding the future and parental expectations were sources of stress for many students, psychological morbidity was found to be significantly associated with only the total stress and the academic-related domain scores.

Gomathi KG; Ahmed S; Sreedharan J

2012-05-01

37

Professional-cultural humanitarian values and psychology-pedagogical support of their development in medical students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the data of the experimental model of the psychology-pedagogical conditions providing the effectiveness of the professional-cultural humanitarian values' development in future doctors within the course of foreign language

Veretelnikova Y.Y.

2011-01-01

38

Pharmaceutical enhancement and medical professionals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Emerging data indicates the prevalence and increased use of pharmaceutical enhancements by young medical professionals. As pharmaceutical enhancements advance and become more readily available, it is imperative to consider their impact on medical professionals. If pharmaceutical enhancements augment a person's neurological capacities to higher functioning levels, and in some situations having higher functioning levels of focus and concentration could improve patient care, then might medical professionals have a responsibility to enhance? In this paper, I suggest medical professionals may have a responsibility to use pharmaceutical enhancements. In some situations, having higher functioning levels of focus and concentration is conducive to providing the best possible care to a patient. In these circumstances medical professionals should use pharmaceutical cognitive enhancements. I conclude by examining the limitations and implications of this responsibility in the practice of medicine and areas for future research.

Enck GG

2013-08-01

39

Get on your boots: preparing fourth-year medical students for a career in surgery, using a focused curriculum to teach the competency of professionalism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Few educational programs exist for medical students that address professionalism in surgery, even though this core competency is required for graduate medical education and maintenance of board certification. Lapses in professional behavior occur commonly in surgical disciplines, with a negative effect on the operative team and patient care. Therefore, education regarding professionalism should begin early in the surgeon's formative process, to improve behavior. The goal of this project was to enhance the attitudes and knowledge of medical students regarding professionalism, to help them understand the role of professionalism in a surgical practice. METHODS: We implemented a 4-h seminar, spread out as 1-h sessions over the course of their month-long rotation, for 4th-year medical students serving as acting interns (AIs) in General Surgery, a surgical subspecialty, Obstetrics/Gynecology, or Anesthesia. Teaching methods included lecture, small group discussion, case studies, and journal club. Topics included Cognitive/Ethical Basis of Professionalism, Behavioral/Social Components of Professionalism, Managing Yourself, and Leading While You Work. We assessed attitudes about professionalism with a pre-course survey and tracked effect on learning and behavior with a post-course questionnaire. We asked AIs to rate the egregiousness of 30 scenarios involving potential lapses in professionalism. RESULTS: A total of 104 AIs (mean age, 26.5 y; male to female ratio, 1.6:1) participated in our course on professionalism in surgery. Up to 17.8% of the AIs had an alternate career before coming to medical school. Distribution of intended careers was: General Surgery, 27.4%; surgical subspecialties, 46.6%; Obstetrics/Gynecology, 13.7%; and Anesthesia, 12.3%. Acting interns ranked professionalism as the third most important of the six core competencies, after clinical skills and medical knowledge, but only slightly ahead of communication. Most AIs believed that professionalism could be taught and learned, and that the largest obstacle was not enough time in the curriculum. The most effective reported teaching methods were mentoring and modeling; lecture and journal club were the effective. Regarding attitudes toward professionalism, the most egregious examples of misconduct were substance abuse, illegal billing, boundary issues, sexual harassment, and lying about patient data, whereas the least egregious examples were receiving textbooks or honoraria from drug companies, advertising, self-prescribing for family members, and exceeding work-hour restrictions. The most important attributes of the professional were integrity and honesty, whereas the least valued were autonomy and altruism. The AIs reported that the course significantly improved their ability to define professionalism, identify attributes of the professional, understand the importance of professionalism, and integrate these concepts into practice (all P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Although medical students interested in surgery may already have well-formed attitudes and sophisticated knowledge about professionalism, this core competency can still be taught to and learned by trainees pursuing a surgical career.

Hultman CS; Connolly A; Halvorson EG; Rowland P; Meyers MO; Mayer DC; Drake AF; Sheldon GF; Meyer AA

2012-10-01

40

Exploring the Spiritual/Religious Dimension of Patients: A Timely Opportunity for Personal and Professional Reflection for Graduating Medical Students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Teaching about spirituality in medical school training is lacking. Spirituality is a dimension of humanity that can put experiences of health and illness into a meaningful context. Medical students might benefit from understanding how spirituality is an important element in learning to care for patients. Spirituality also provides a context for medical students to explore their own motivations for doctoring. This article describes a longitudinal senior elective course at the end of their medical school training to delve into matters of religion/spirituality surrounding patient care. The authors pose their own perspectives on what both students and faculty gained from the experience.

McEvoy M; Gorski V; Swiderski D; Alderman E

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

Exploring the spiritual/religious dimension of patients: a timely opportunity for personal and professional reflection for graduating medical students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching about spirituality in medical school training is lacking. Spirituality is a dimension of humanity that can put experiences of health and illness into a meaningful context. Medical students might benefit from understanding how spirituality is an important element in learning to care for patients. Spirituality also provides a context for medical students to explore their own motivations for doctoring. This article describes a longitudinal senior elective course at the end of their medical school training to delve into matters of religion/spirituality surrounding patient care. The authors pose their own perspectives on what both students and faculty gained from the experience. PMID:23625171

McEvoy, Mimi; Gorski, Victoria; Swiderski, Deborah; Alderman, Elizabeth

2013-12-01

42

[The burnout of medical students].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

According to several English, Canadian and American surveys, burn-out syndrom can affect up to half of medical students during their studies, with the occurrence rate varying with the year of study. As is case for health professionals, a number of factors, be they individual-related, intrinsic to the job, or external, have been highlighted by this research. Burn-out can lead to serious personal, academic or professional consequences. Furthermore, there is an apparent correlation between burnout and a lack of professionalism, as well as between burn-out and a low [corrected] capacity for empathy. Medical schools should play a central role in detecting and addressing psychological hardship among their students, but the simple recognition of burn-out syndrom as a real problem faced by medical students currently constitutes a major challenge.

Kains E; Piquard D

2011-09-01

43

PREPARING MEDICAL STUDENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Pakistan there are 3.3 Million child laborers without healthcare services and educational opportunities, whichaffect our social fabric. We report how structured ‘Service Experience’ helped broaden medical students understanding of social justice.Objective: To produce health professionals who are ready to work for a cause without voracity. Study design: A Cross sectional survey througha focal group discussion. Research question: Do opportunities for structured Service Learning help modify student’s perception of their role asdoctors in society? Place of Study: Foundation University Medical College, Islamabad. Study Period: Fifteen months, from January2008–April 2009. Methods: Fifteen students interviewed 700 child laborers using a piloted interview form during a fifteen months period. Focusgroup discussions were held with these students to discuss their experiences. Qualitative analysis of the discussion is reported. Results:Students empathized that children worked on a contractual basis averaging $1 per 10 hours with no meals. Parents encouraged them to earnmoney and they felt more satisfied pleasing them. Children didn’t attend school because of the school quality and fear of abuse. “Our exposureto child labor had been limited; this has taken us to the core of the issue. We now feel responsible as a physician and a leader to ensure ‘securityof children in every respect’ as part of their health.” “We will avoid employing children at our homes and will council parents, trying to be rolemodels for others.” “As future leaders we will propose measures including establishment of free quality educational systems with paidvocational tracks.” Conclusions: Service learning will inculcate empathy for the oppressed groups of the community and also develop a socialand civic responsibility in medical students.

NOSHEEN ZAIDI; MAHMOOD AHMED

2011-01-01

44

Making the professionalism curriculum for undergraduate medical education more relevant.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: This study was an assessment of the professionalism curriculum at a community-based medical school from the perspective of undergraduate medical students. Aims: The goal of this study was to ascertain the perspectives of faculty and students on their interpretations of professionalism and its role in medical education to improve and expand existing professionalism curricula. Method: An online survey was created and sent to all students (n?=?245) and selected faculty (n?=?41). The survey utilized multiple choice and open-ended questions to allow responders to provide their insights on the definition of professionalism and detail how professionalism is taught and evaluated at their institution. A content analysis was conducted to categorize open-ended responses and the resulting themes were further examined using SPSS 20.0 for Windows (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY) frequency analyses. Results: Students and faculty respondents were similar in their definitions of medical professionalism and their perceptions of teaching methods. Role modeling was the most common and preferred method of professionalism education. Responses to whether evaluations of professional behavior were effective suggested both students and faculty are unclear about current professionalism assessments. Conclusion: This study showed that a cohesive standardized definition of professionalism is needed, as well as clearer guidelines on how professionalism is assessed.

Morihara SK; Jackson DS; Chun MB

2013-08-01

45

Making the professionalism curriculum for undergraduate medical education more relevant.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: This study was an assessment of the professionalism curriculum at a community-based medical school from the perspective of undergraduate medical students. Aims: The goal of this study was to ascertain the perspectives of faculty and students on their interpretations of professionalism and its role in medical education to improve and expand existing professionalism curricula. Method: An online survey was created and sent to all students (n?=?245) and selected faculty (n?=?41). The survey utilized multiple choice and open-ended questions to allow responders to provide their insights on the definition of professionalism and detail how professionalism is taught and evaluated at their institution. A content analysis was conducted to categorize open-ended responses and the resulting themes were further examined using SPSS 20.0 for Windows (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY) frequency analyses. Results: Students and faculty respondents were similar in their definitions of medical professionalism and their perceptions of teaching methods. Role modeling was the most common and preferred method of professionalism education. Responses to whether evaluations of professional behavior were effective suggested both students and faculty are unclear about current professionalism assessments. Conclusion: This study showed that a cohesive standardized definition of professionalism is needed, as well as clearer guidelines on how professionalism is assessed.

Morihara SK; Jackson DS; Chun MB

2013-11-01

46

Developing medical professionalism in future doctors: a systematic review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: There are currently no guidelines on the most effective ways of supporting medical students to develop high standards of medical professionalism. The aim of this review is to summarise the evidence currently available on methods used by medical schools to promote medical professionalism. Methods: We performed a systematic search of electronic databases (Medline, PsychInfo, British Education Index, Educational Resources Information Centre, Sociological Abstracts and Topics in Medical Education) from January 1998 to October 2008. Outcomes studied were methods used to support and promote the development of professionalism in medical students. Results: We identified 134 papers and five main themes for supporting the development of professionalism in medical students: curriculum design, student selection, teaching and learning methods, role modelling and assessment methods. However, the level of empirical evidence supporting each of these methods is limited. Conclusions: Identification of these five areas helps medical schools to focus the emphasis of their approaches to developing professionalism and identifies future research areas. This review offers a preliminary guide to future discovery and progress in the area of medical professionalism.

Vimmi Passi; Manjo Doug; Ed Peile; Jill Thistlethwaite; Neil Johnson

2010-01-01

47

Cynicism among medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The thesis that medical students become more cynical than students of other professions seems justified in light of psychological studies and reports from medical students. This article explores whether this might be due, in part, to disappointment about how important ideals are followed. Psychological tests themselves offer an opportunity to examine this, because the medical profession espouses the goals of gaining proper consent from all subjects, including students, and of giving appropriate attention to excellence of research design and method. When studies used to evaluate medical students' attitudes are viewed from this perspective, however, weaknesses on both scores seem apparent. Students seem well aware of some of these flaws. Although such testing is a small part of medical education, it confirms students' views that there is cause for disillusionment about how certain goals are realized. It also suggests a way to cure some students' cynicism. Students should be taught consistently, both by example as well as by precept of their profession's sincere commitment to professed goals. In practical terms this means, for example, that studies using students as subjects should have a proper review by the institutional review board, with adequate attention given to excellence of design, confidentiality, and methods of gaining informed and unpressured consent. Such studies could then serve as paradigms to students. Other goals of the profession should also be applied to students, and applied for students.

Kopelman L

1983-10-01

48

How students experience professional socialisation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The question of how a nurse becomes socialised into the nursing profession remains of critical importance. An exploration of the literature relating to professional socialisation reveals a shift from the notion that it is a reactive process, to proactive. Our research explores this issue from a personal constructivist perspective using the repertory grid technique. Our findings show that the professional socialisation process is complex and diverse. During their educational preparation community nursing students make a radical reappraisal of their role perceptions. In their transition to becoming a graduate practitioner they gain a greater understanding of their specialist role whilst becoming less rigid in their thinking. We conclude that the impact nurse education has on professional socialisation will depend on the students' past experiences, the reflective nature of the process and the beliefs and values promoted in the course. PMID:10375065

Howkins, E J; Ewens, A

1999-02-01

49

Making medical records professional(s).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 1986 a joint medical records project group was set up by the Institute of Health Services Management, the Association of Health Care Information and Medical Records Officers and the NHS Training Authority, with Mr Vic Peel as chairman. The group was supported by Arthur Andersen & Co, management consultants. The following is a shortened and edited version of an interim report drafted for the group by Dr Alastair Mason. It is intended for discussion and does not yet represent the definitive views of the sponsoring bodies.

Mason A

1987-07-01

50

Career Services for Graduate and Professional Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Career services tailored to the needs of graduate and professional students constitute an important strategy for fostering student success. Career services can help graduate and professional students explore careers outside academe, prepare for academic and nonacademic job searches, and make the transition from graduate school to professional

Lehker, Tom; Furlong, Jennifer S.

2006-01-01

51

Expectativas de los estudiantes de medicina de la Universidad de Buenos Aires sobre su práctica profesional/ Medical students' attitudes regarding professional practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Aunque la elección de la carrera de medicina por los jóvenes implica algún grado de conocimiento de las condiciones laborales actuales del médico, las expectativas de los estudiantes de medicina con respecto a su práctica profesional futura rara vez han sido estudiadas en la Argentina. El objetivo fue recabar información sobre las expectativas que tienen los estudiantes de medicina próximos a graduarse, con respecto a su práctica profesional futura. Entre septiemb (more) re y diciembre de 2008 se encuestaron 125 estudiantes que cursaban el Internado Anual Rotatorio. Por medio de una encuesta anónima se recolectó información sobre las expectativas que tenían con respecto a su futura práctica profesional. Respondieron la encuesta 82.4% (103/125) de los encuestados. El 98.0% (101/103) expresó que deseaba ingresar a un programa de residencias. Con respecto a la elección de la especialidad, pediatría y psiquiatría fueron preferentes entre las mujeres (27% vs. 8%, p = 0.029 y 27% vs. 3%, p = 0.004), mientras que traumatología fue preponderante entre los varones (18% vs. 2%, p = 0.019). La mediana de ingresos esperados a 5 años fue $4.000 (mínimo: $1.500, máximo: $10.000), a 10 años $7.000 (mínimo: $3,000, máximo: $20.000) y a 20 años $10.000 (mínimo: $3 000, máximo: $30.000), según valores ajustados a diciembre de 2008 ($3.0 = US$ 1.0). En conclusión, las especialidades elegidas parecen depender del proceso de feminización de la carrera; mientras que los ingresos esperados podrían exceder la verdadera renta actual de los médicos. Se destaca la intención de participar en la docencia y el escaso interés por la investigación. Abstract in english Although the choice to study medicine implies some knowledge of the current working situation of practitioners, medical students' expectations regarding their future professional practice have been rarely investigated in Argentina. The aim of this work was to collect data about the expectations of senior medical students regarding their future professional practice. One hundred and twenty-five senior medical students were surveyed between September and December 2008. By u (more) sing an anonymous survey, information regarding the expectations about their future professional practice was collected. The survey was answered by 82.4% (103/125) of the students and 98.0% (101/103) expressed their desire to enter a residence programme. Regarding specialty, pediatrics and psychiatry were the most chosen by women (27% vs. 8%, p=0.029 and 27% vs. 3%, p=0.004), and orthopedic surgery was the predominant choice in men (18% vs. 2%, p=0.019). Median of expected income at 5 years post graduation was $ 4.000 (minimum: $1,500, maximum: $10.000), at 10 years $7.000 (minimum: $3.000, maximum: $ 20.000) and at 20 years $10.000 (minimum: $3.000, maximum: $30 000), according to money value adjusted to December 2008 ($3.0 = US$ 1.0). In conclusion, chosen specialties seem to be dependent on the increasing number of female students, the expected income would exceed the current remuneration of physicians. Noterworthy finding out the students' willingness to be involved in teaching and the less interest in research.

Borracci, Raúl A.; Pittaluga, Roberto D.; Manente, Diego; Giorgi, Mariano A.; Rubio, Miguel

2009-12-01

52

Expectativas de los estudiantes de medicina de la Universidad de Buenos Aires sobre su práctica profesional Medical students' attitudes regarding professional practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aunque la elección de la carrera de medicina por los jóvenes implica algún grado de conocimiento de las condiciones laborales actuales del médico, las expectativas de los estudiantes de medicina con respecto a su práctica profesional futura rara vez han sido estudiadas en la Argentina. El objetivo fue recabar información sobre las expectativas que tienen los estudiantes de medicina próximos a graduarse, con respecto a su práctica profesional futura. Entre septiembre y diciembre de 2008 se encuestaron 125 estudiantes que cursaban el Internado Anual Rotatorio. Por medio de una encuesta anónima se recolectó información sobre las expectativas que tenían con respecto a su futura práctica profesional. Respondieron la encuesta 82.4% (103/125) de los encuestados. El 98.0% (101/103) expresó que deseaba ingresar a un programa de residencias. Con respecto a la elección de la especialidad, pediatría y psiquiatría fueron preferentes entre las mujeres (27% vs. 8%, p = 0.029 y 27% vs. 3%, p = 0.004), mientras que traumatología fue preponderante entre los varones (18% vs. 2%, p = 0.019). La mediana de ingresos esperados a 5 años fue $4.000 (mínimo: $1.500, máximo: $10.000), a 10 años $7.000 (mínimo: $3,000, máximo: $20.000) y a 20 años $10.000 (mínimo: $3 000, máximo: $30.000), según valores ajustados a diciembre de 2008 ($3.0 = US$ 1.0). En conclusión, las especialidades elegidas parecen depender del proceso de feminización de la carrera; mientras que los ingresos esperados podrían exceder la verdadera renta actual de los médicos. Se destaca la intención de participar en la docencia y el escaso interés por la investigación.Although the choice to study medicine implies some knowledge of the current working situation of practitioners, medical students' expectations regarding their future professional practice have been rarely investigated in Argentina. The aim of this work was to collect data about the expectations of senior medical students regarding their future professional practice. One hundred and twenty-five senior medical students were surveyed between September and December 2008. By using an anonymous survey, information regarding the expectations about their future professional practice was collected. The survey was answered by 82.4% (103/125) of the students and 98.0% (101/103) expressed their desire to enter a residence programme. Regarding specialty, pediatrics and psychiatry were the most chosen by women (27% vs. 8%, p=0.029 and 27% vs. 3%, p=0.004), and orthopedic surgery was the predominant choice in men (18% vs. 2%, p=0.019). Median of expected income at 5 years post graduation was $ 4.000 (minimum: $1,500, maximum: $10.000), at 10 years $7.000 (minimum: $3.000, maximum: $ 20.000) and at 20 years $10.000 (minimum: $3.000, maximum: $30 000), according to money value adjusted to December 2008 ($3.0 = US$ 1.0). In conclusion, chosen specialties seem to be dependent on the increasing number of female students, the expected income would exceed the current remuneration of physicians. Noterworthy finding out the students' willingness to be involved in teaching and the less interest in research.

Raúl A. Borracci; Roberto D. Pittaluga; Diego Manente; Mariano A. Giorgi; Miguel Rubio

2009-01-01

53

Medical students' experiences with medical errors: an analysis of medical student essays.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine medical students' experiences with medical errors. METHODS: In 2001 and 2002, 172 fourth-year medical students wrote an anonymous description of a significant medical error they had witnessed or committed during their clinical clerkships. The assignment represented part of a required medical ethics course. We analysed 147 of these essays using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: Many medical students made or observed significant errors. In either situation, some students experienced distress that seemingly went unaddressed. Furthermore, this distress was sometimes severe and persisted after the initial event. Some students also experienced considerable uncertainty as to whether an error had occurred and how to prevent future errors. Many errors may not have been disclosed to patients, and some students who desired to discuss or disclose errors were apparently discouraged from doing so by senior doctors. Some students criticised senior doctors who attempted to hide errors or avoid responsibility. By contrast, students who witnessed senior doctors take responsibility for errors and candidly disclose errors to patients appeared to recognise the importance of honesty and integrity and said they aspired to these standards. CONCLUSIONS: There are many missed opportunities to teach students how to respond to and learn from errors. Some faculty members and housestaff may at times respond to errors in ways that appear to contradict professional standards. Medical educators should increase exposure to exemplary responses to errors and help students to learn from and cope with errors.

Martinez W; Lo B

2008-07-01

54

Professional behaviour of medical school graduates: an analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent graduates (1989-1990) of a traditional school of Chinese medicine were assessed by observers using a 10-item scale for professional behaviour in the non-cognitive realm. Overall, 10.7% of the graduates had low ratings on this scale. Of those who scored in the top two quartiles on this scale, 71.4% reported that 'Professional ethics' was the key determinant of their professional behaviour, whereas legal concerns were the prime motivator for only 3.6% of the top scorers. It was also found that students' scores in the medical ethics course correlated with their professional behaviour score to a statistically significant degree. PMID:7862000

Lu, Y H; Meng, X Y; Liu, X

1994-07-01

55

Professional behaviour of medical school graduates: an analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent graduates (1989-1990) of a traditional school of Chinese medicine were assessed by observers using a 10-item scale for professional behaviour in the non-cognitive realm. Overall, 10.7% of the graduates had low ratings on this scale. Of those who scored in the top two quartiles on this scale, 71.4% reported that 'Professional ethics' was the key determinant of their professional behaviour, whereas legal concerns were the prime motivator for only 3.6% of the top scorers. It was also found that students' scores in the medical ethics course correlated with their professional behaviour score to a statistically significant degree.

Lu YH; Meng XY; Liu X

1994-07-01

56

Student plagiarism and professional practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the ever-increasing availability and accessibility of the Internet, students are able to access a multitude of resources in support of their studies. However, this has also led to an increase in their ability to cheat through plagiarising text and claiming it as their own. Increased pressures of balancing work and study have contributed to this rise. Not only confined to the student population, some academics are also guilty of engaging in this practice providing a less than favourable role model for their students. Of increasing concern is the links of this practice to professionalism or indeed in this case unprofessionalism. Both pre- and post-registration nursing students who plagiarise risk bringing the reputation of the profession into disrepute. There are a number of methods that may be used to detect plagiarism but often the penalties are menial and inconsistently applied. Overall it is essential that academic institutions foster a culture of honesty and integrity amongst its academic community. A culture that clearly emphasises that plagiarism in any form is unacceptable. PMID:16624455

Kenny, Deborah

2006-04-18

57

Student plagiarism and professional practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With the ever-increasing availability and accessibility of the Internet, students are able to access a multitude of resources in support of their studies. However, this has also led to an increase in their ability to cheat through plagiarising text and claiming it as their own. Increased pressures of balancing work and study have contributed to this rise. Not only confined to the student population, some academics are also guilty of engaging in this practice providing a less than favourable role model for their students. Of increasing concern is the links of this practice to professionalism or indeed in this case unprofessionalism. Both pre- and post-registration nursing students who plagiarise risk bringing the reputation of the profession into disrepute. There are a number of methods that may be used to detect plagiarism but often the penalties are menial and inconsistently applied. Overall it is essential that academic institutions foster a culture of honesty and integrity amongst its academic community. A culture that clearly emphasises that plagiarism in any form is unacceptable.

Kenny D

2007-01-01

58

Detection of addiction in medical professionals an eye opener  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The medical professionals are vulnerable to substances of abuse/addiction due to their ready accessibility to the substances of abuse. Of particular concern is the finding of a lack of gender differences in problematic drinking with the pattern of female addicts drinking rates for women approximating that of men by the end of medical school. There is higher percentage use of alcohol, tranquillizers and narcotics among medical students. Majority of the substance-abusing doctors are graduates, belong to medicine specialty (21%) and majority of them prescribe drugs to themselves (37%). Medical student abuse is the major risk factors. Despite paucity of studies in Indian population, substance use is reported between 32.5% to as high as 81.2% among medical students, interns and house physicians. In spite of the treatment dilemmas, the physicians do respond favorably to treatment. These findings have implications in planning preventive and interventional strategies for this professional group. This study explores the attitudes and perceptions of medical students concerning patients with addictions and policy issues related to drugs. Over 100 students from PGIMER students responded to an anonymous survey concerning their experience and training regarding addictions, and their level of support or opposition for various drug policy approaches. Quantitative and qualitative epidemiological investigation of substance use within a student population was seen during their mandatory preventive health visit at the OPD medical facility. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychotropic (Narcotics) & tranquilizers drug consumption by students undergoing medical courses of Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh India to verify aspects related to those addictions.

ANIL BATTA

2011-01-01

59

Designing an Electronic Medical Case Simulator for Health Professional Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes an implementation of an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) which has been adapted for the purposes of teaching health professional students, including medical and nursing students. Off-the-shelf EMR software, while suited for physicians in practice settings does not completely satisfy the needs of these students and educators. There are many unique requirements of a teaching EMR compared to one used in a production environment. This paper describes the specific architecture and unique features of an EMR that was employed in the University of British Columbia Medical School teaching program in December, 2007 with 200 participating medical students distributed across three physical sites in the Province of British Columbia.

Ronald S. Joe; Anthony Otto; Elizabeth Borycki

2011-01-01

60

Effective e-learning for health professional and medical students: the experience with SIAS-Intelligent Tutoring System.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Current e-learning systems are still inadequate to support the level of interaction, personalization and engagement demanded by clinicians, care givers, and the patient themselves. For effective e-learning to be delivered in the health context, collaboration between pedagogy and technology is required. Furthermore, e-learning systems should be flexible enough to be adapted to the students' needs, evaluated regularly, easy to use and maintain and provide students' feedback, guidelines and supporting material in different formats. This paper presents the implementation of an Intelligent Tutoring System (SIAS-ITS), and its evaluation compared to a traditional virtual learning platform (Moodle). The evaluation was carried out as a case study, in which the participants were separated in two groups, each group attending a virtual course on the WHO Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy supported by one of the two e-learning platforms. The evaluation demonstrated that the participants' knowledge level, pedagogical strategies used, learning efficiency and systems' usability were improved using the Intelligent Tutoring System.

Muñoz DC; Ortiz A; González C; López DM; Blobel B

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Effective e-learning for health professional and medical students: the experience with SIAS-Intelligent Tutoring System.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current e-learning systems are still inadequate to support the level of interaction, personalization and engagement demanded by clinicians, care givers, and the patient themselves. For effective e-learning to be delivered in the health context, collaboration between pedagogy and technology is required. Furthermore, e-learning systems should be flexible enough to be adapted to the students' needs, evaluated regularly, easy to use and maintain and provide students' feedback, guidelines and supporting material in different formats. This paper presents the implementation of an Intelligent Tutoring System (SIAS-ITS), and its evaluation compared to a traditional virtual learning platform (Moodle). The evaluation was carried out as a case study, in which the participants were separated in two groups, each group attending a virtual course on the WHO Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy supported by one of the two e-learning platforms. The evaluation demonstrated that the participants' knowledge level, pedagogical strategies used, learning efficiency and systems' usability were improved using the Intelligent Tutoring System. PMID:20543344

Muñoz, Diana C; Ortiz, Alexandra; González, Carolina; López, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd

2010-01-01

62

Pay for performance and medical professionalism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health care delivery systems are widely studying and implementing physician pay for performance (P4P) initiatives to improve quality and control costs. However, the increasing focus on quality-driven financial incentives has some troubling implications for medical professionalism. This article examines the P4P concept in light of a notion of medical fiduciary professionalism that dates back to the 18th-century Scottish physician John Gregory. Gregory's principles serve as a framework to assess the appropriateness of P4P initiatives in disseminating the principles of high-quality care without damage to professionalism, the patient-physician relationship, and access to care for all patients.

Hendrickson MA

2008-01-01

63

A study of scurce traits : medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medical profession is one of the prestigious and esteemed professions amidst the professional opportunities available to young aspirants. Armed Forces Medical College by its virtue of selective admission procedures, training and induction becomes the primary focus of such research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate source traits of 300 medical students, 150 each from AFMC and civil medical college. 16 PF was administered to evaluate the source traits of study groups. Findings revealed significant differences between two colleges. The students from two colleges differed significantly on factors 'B', 'F', 'G', 'I', 'O', Q1, Q3, Q4.

Srinivastava K; Chakraborty PK; Valdiya PS; Raju MS; Basannar D

2000-01-01

64

A study of scurce traits : medical students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical profession is one of the prestigious and esteemed professions amidst the professional opportunities available to young aspirants. Armed Forces Medical College by its virtue of selective admission procedures, training and induction becomes the primary focus of such research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate source traits of 300 medical students, 150 each from AFMC and civil medical college. 16 PF was administered to evaluate the source traits of study groups. Findings revealed significant differences between two colleges. The students from two colleges differed significantly on factors 'B', 'F', 'G', 'I', 'O', Q1, Q3, Q4. PMID:21407913

Srinivastava, K; Chakraborty, P K; Valdiya, P S; Raju, M S; Basannar, D

2000-01-01

65

COLLABORATION AMONG MEDICAL AND NURSING SCHOOL STUDENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term of management characterises the process of leading and directing all or part of an organization, often a business, through the manipulation of resources (human, financial, material, intellectual or intangible). Inter-professional collaboration, contribution, between nurses and physicians is an effective example of the management. The purpose of this study was to measure and compare collaboration between nursing and medical student. ?The Jefferson Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration? scale developped by Hojat et al. was used. The study included a total of 431 students from three medical faculties and three nursing colleges in Istanbul. Mean age of the students is 21.21?2.66. Among 431 students 42.9% (185) were male, 57.1% (246) were female. Nursing school students? mean collaboration score was significantly higher than medical school students (p< 0.05 and t= 3.88). Comprising collaborative learning opportunities for nursing and medical students in their curriculum is feasible. Learning in multi-professional groups will help to increase understanding of others' professional roles by improving patient care and personal development. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(3.000): 166-175

Aysegul YILDIRIM; Tulay AKTAS; Atif AKDAS

2006-01-01

66

Viewpoint: the elephant in medical professionalism's kitchen.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rise of the corporation within health care during the 1980s and early 1990s was met by organized medicine with a deluge of editorials, articles, and books that identified a singular enemy--commercialism--and depicted it as corrosive of, and antithetical to, medical professionalism. Medicine's ire proved prognostic as scores of highly publicized corporate-medical scandals began to crater the landscape of a rapidly emerging "medical marketplace." Medicine's main weapon in this counteroffensive was a renewed call to medical professionalism. Numerous organizations hosted conferences and underwrote initiatives to define, measure, and ultimately inculcate professionalism as a core medical competency. Nonetheless, an examination of medicine's overall response to the threat of commercialism reveals inconsistencies and schisms between these praiseworthy efforts and a parallel absence of action at the community practitioner and peer-review levels. The most recent salvo in this war on commercialism is a policy proposal by influential medical leaders who call for an end to the market incentives linking academic health centers and medical schools with industry. These forthright proposals nevertheless appear once again not to address the heartbeat of professional social control: community-based peer review, including a vigorous and proactive role by state medical boards. The author concludes by examining the implications of a professionalism bereft of peer review and explores the societal-level responsibilities of organized medicine to protect, nurture, and expand the role of the physician to maintain the values and ideals of professionalism against the countervailing social forces of the free market and bureaucracy.

Hafferty F

2006-10-01

67

Factors causing exam anxiety in medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: To assess examination related anxiety among final professional medical students by VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) and to determine the factors contributing to exam anxiety among final professional medical students METHODS: A cross sectional study using structured self-administered questionnaire was carried out over four weeks in Dow Medical College using sample size of 120 students. Duration of study was four weeks in May 2006. Survey questionnaire consisted of VAS to measure exam anxiety and seventeen questions regarding life style, study style, psychological problems, and examination system. RESULT: A total of 120 students out of 200 (60%) filled in the questionnaire. There were 25.8% male and 74.2% female students. The average maximum Exam Anxiety marked on VAS was 64+/-28. Among different factors contributing to exam anxiety, extensive course loads (90.8%), lack of physical exercise (90%) and long duration of exams (77.5%) were the most important factors reported by the students. Most of the students had no knowledge of exam-taking and anxiety-reduction techniques and majority of those who knew these strategies did not implement them. CONCLUSION: This study indicates moderate level of exam anxiety based on a Visual Analogue Scale in students of a medical college and also highlights factors such as extensive course load, lack of exercise and long duration of exams which contribute to Exam Anxiety.

Hashmat S; Hashmat M; Amanullah F; Aziz S

2008-04-01

68

[New professionalism, medical education and healthcare systems].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The scope of this paper is to discuss how so-called "new professionalism" can help in how the education of physicians is conducted, by taking into account the effects of globalization both on the situation of health and on the needs of health professionals with particular emphasis on European Union countries, which are engaged in a profound process of reform in university education. To achieve this, first we present the basic concepts of "new professionalism" and the key strategies of current medical education, which is to train physicians capable of dealing with ethical, scientific and professional challenges that are arising at the beginning of this century. The interdependence of reforms in the undergraduate, graduate and ongoing training areas is then emphasized. The challenges and difficulties to be faced when switching to different stages of medical education are then outlined. It was concluded that, notwithstanding recent reforms in medical education, their great complexity and the still limited availability of contrasting assessments of their results, there are strong synergies between the principles and values of the "new professionalism" and the objectives of the reforms.

Campos AI

2011-06-01

69

Educating on professional habits: attitudes of medical students towards diverse strategies for promoting influenza vaccination and factors associated with the intention to get vaccinated.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination coverage in medical students is usually low. Unlike health care workers, there is little information on the attitudes to and predictors of vaccination among medical students, and their attitudes towards institutional strategies for improving rates are unknown. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated the effect of three influenza vaccination promotional strategies (Web page, video and tri-fold brochure) on medical students' intention to get vaccinated and associated factors. A total of 538 medical students were asked to answer an anonymous questionnaire assessing the intention to get vaccinated after exposure to any of the promotional strategies. Sociodemographic data collected included: sex, age, university year, influenza risk group and cohabiting with member of a risk group. RESULTS: Four hundred twenty-one students answered the questionnaire, of whom 312 (74.1%) were female, 113 (26.8%) had done clinical rotations, and 111 (26.6%) reported intention to get the flu shot. Logistic regression showed the web group had a greater intention to get vaccinated than the reference group (OR: 2.42 95% CI: 1.16-5.03). Having done clinical rotations (OR: 2.55 95% CI: 1.36-4.38) and having received the shot in previous flu seasons (OR: 13.69 95% CI: 7.86-23.96) were independently associated with the intention to get vaccinated. CONCLUSION: Given that previous vaccination is a factor associated with the intention to get vaccinated, education on vaccination of health care workers should begin while they are students, thereby potentiating the habit. In addition, the intention to get vaccinated was greater during the clinical phase of the university career, suggesting this is a good time to introduce promotion strategies. Online promotional campaigns, such as a thematic Web to promote vaccination of health workers, could improve the intention to get vaccinated.

Mena G; Llupià A; García-Basteiro AL; Sequera VG; Aldea M; Bayas JM; Trilla A

2013-01-01

70

Rethinking professionalism in medical education through formation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Contemporary educational approaches to professionalism do not take into account the dominant influence that the culture of academic medicine has on the nascent professional attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of medical learners. This article examines formation as an organizing principle for professionalism in medical education. Virtue, the foundation to understanding professionalism, is the habits and dispositions that are fostered in individuals but that are embedded in learning environments. Formation, the ongoing integration of an individual, growing in self-awareness and in recognition of a life of service, with others who share in the common mission of a larger group, depicts this process. One model of formation considers a continuum from novice to more advance stages that is predicated on rules that must be applied in greater contextually shaped situations. Within medical education, formation is the process by which lives of service are created and sustained by learning communities that promote human capacities for intuition, empathy, and compassion. An imagined curriculum in formation would link the lived experiences of mentors and learners with an interdisciplinary set of didactic materials in an intentionally progressive fashion.

Daaleman TP; Kinghorn WA; Newton WP; Meador KG

2011-05-01

71

Physical education as a basis of professional formation of the specialists of the medical institutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Meaningful character traits and physical qualities of workers of medical establishments are certain professionally. Rating is presented spiritually-physical signs. On the basis of signs the main are selected spiritually-physical qualities. They are inherent highly skilled specialists in a medical area. The structure of forming professionally of important qualities of students-physicians is developed in the process of physical education. Influence of facilities of physical culture is grounded on professionally necessary qualities of students of higher medical educational establishments.

Vlasov G.V.

2010-01-01

72

Resuscitation training for medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes the systematic training of undergraduate medical students in resuscitation skills, aimed at overcoming the well known deficiencies in the resuscitation skills of junior doctors. This training can be integrated with the medical curriculum, but takes a considerable commitment in teaching time. To give each of our 240 medical students 36 h of resuscitation training, including an advanced life support (ALS) course for all students, 2442 h of teacher's time is required each year. It is important that teaching is continued on the wards as part of the training of pre-registration house officers. The amount of teaching time required justifies the appointment of Medical School Resuscitation Officers, dedicated to teaching medical students, dental students and pre-registration house officers.

Leah V; Whitbread M; Coats TJ

1998-10-01

73

What students learn about professionalism from faculty stories: an "appreciative inquiry" approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To develop a method for teaching professionalism by enabling students and faculty members to share positive examples of professionalism in a comfortable environment that reflects the authentic experiences of physicians. Medical educators struggle with the teaching of professionalism. Professionalism definitions can guide what they teach, but they must also consider how they teach it, and constructs such as explicit role modeling, situated learning, and appreciative inquiry provide appropriate models. METHOD: The project consisted of students interviewing faculty members about their experiences with professionalism and then reflecting on and writing about the teachers' stories. In 2004, 62 students interviewed 33 faculty members, and 193 students observed the interviews. Using a project Web site, 36 students wrote 132 narratives based on the faculty's stories, and each student offered his or her reflections on one narrative. The authors analyzed the content of the narratives and reflections via an iterative process of independent coding and discussion to resolve disagreements. RESULTS: Results showed that the narratives were rich and generally positive; they illustrated a broad range of the principles contained in many definitions of professionalism: humanism, accountability, altruism, and excellence. The students' reflections demonstrated awareness of the same major principles of professionalism that the faculty conveyed. The reflections served to spark new ideas about professionalism, reinforce the values of professionalism, deepen students' relationships with the faculty, and heighten students' commitment to behaving professionally. CONCLUSIONS: Narrative storytelling, as a variant of appreciative inquiry, seems to be effective in deepening students' understanding and appreciation of professionalism.

Quaintance JL; Arnold L; Thompson GS

2010-01-01

74

Burnout in medical students: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Burnout is a state of mental and physical exhaustion related to work or care-giving activities. Distress during medical school can lead to burnout, with significant consequences, particularly if burnout continues into residency and beyond. The authors reviewed literature pertaining to medical student burnout, its prevalence, and its relationship to personal, environmental, demographic and psychiatric factors. We ultimately offer some suggestions to address and potentially ameliorate the current dilemma posed by burnout during medical education. METHODS: A literature review was conducted using a PubMed/Medline, and PsycInfo search from 1974 to 2011 using the keywords: 'burnout', 'stress', 'well-being', 'self-care', 'psychiatry' and 'medical students'. Three authors agreed independently on the studies to be included in this review. RESULTS: The literature reveals that burnout is prevalent during medical school, with major US multi-institutional studies estimating that at least half of all medical students may be affected by burnout during their medical education. Studies show that burnout may persist beyond medical school, and is, at times, associated with psychiatric disorders and suicidal ideation. A variety of personal and professional characteristics correlate well with burnout. Potential interventions include school-based and individual-based activities to increase overall student well-being. DISCUSSION: Burnout is a prominent force challenging medical students' well-being, with concerning implications for the continuation of burnout into residency and beyond. To address this highly prevalent condition, educators must first develop greater awareness and understanding of burnout, as well as of the factors that lead to its development. Interventions focusing on generating wellness during medical training are highly recommended.

Ishak W; Nikravesh R; Lederer S; Perry R; Ogunyemi D; Bernstein C

2013-08-01

75

Role modelling and students' professional development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients expect to be cared for by nurses who are not only competent but also behave professionally, so students must be educated to develop professional qualities. The Nursing and Midwifery Council stipulates that professional values must underpin education as well as practice (NMC, 2010a). Much has been written on the qualities of an effective role model and the potential barriers to becoming one. This article focuses on preregistration adult nursing education and role modelling, with a slant towards the development of professionalism, as opposed to skills competence. Attention is paid to the identity of students' role models and strategies for role modelling linked to teaching and the curriculum. Practice and academic staff have an equal stake in nurse education; for them to be seen equally as role models, there has to be a partnership approach to that education. Both practice and academic staff are able to exemplify behaviours and attitudes that directly influence the development of professionalism. This article is intended to stimulate discussion within and between nurse educators and practice-based staff about the impact their role modelling has on the development of adult nursing students' professional practice. PMID:23448985

Felstead, Ian

76

Role modelling and students' professional development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients expect to be cared for by nurses who are not only competent but also behave professionally, so students must be educated to develop professional qualities. The Nursing and Midwifery Council stipulates that professional values must underpin education as well as practice (NMC, 2010a). Much has been written on the qualities of an effective role model and the potential barriers to becoming one. This article focuses on preregistration adult nursing education and role modelling, with a slant towards the development of professionalism, as opposed to skills competence. Attention is paid to the identity of students' role models and strategies for role modelling linked to teaching and the curriculum. Practice and academic staff have an equal stake in nurse education; for them to be seen equally as role models, there has to be a partnership approach to that education. Both practice and academic staff are able to exemplify behaviours and attitudes that directly influence the development of professionalism. This article is intended to stimulate discussion within and between nurse educators and practice-based staff about the impact their role modelling has on the development of adult nursing students' professional practice.

Felstead I

2013-02-01

77

Medication Use among University Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: This study has been carried out descriptively to determine the status of medication use among students of Erzincan University which is located in central Erzincan, Turkey. METHODS: The universe of the study comprised 4506 students and the sample involved 885 (19.6% of the universe) students who...

Papatya Karakurt; Rabia Hacihasanoglu; Arzu Yildirim; Rabia Saglam

78

Depression among undergraduate medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Psychological stress is common in medical school and associated with depression. Medical education is grooming in Nepal, but only few studies are done concerning mental health of medical students. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of depression among medical students at different levels of education and find about their stressors. METHODS: A cross sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of B.P.Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Nepal. 50 students each from Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) first and third year were enrolled in the study conducted between November 2008 to January 2009. The depression levels were assessed using Zung depression scale. Students were asked to complete the questionnaire and then the depression levels calculated .The stress inducing factors during their course of medical education were also assessed. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of depression among the students was 29.78 percent. The prevalence of depression in first and third year was 36.74and 22.22 percent respectively. The prevalence of depression was 32.43 percent among female students versus 28.07 percent in male students. Both first and third year students gave high ratings to academic stress and hectic lifestyle as the main stress inducing factors. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depression is seen especially in the first year medical students. So, attempts should be made to alleviate the stressors right from the time they join medical school. Since academic stress proved to be one of the major factors, measures to make the academic curriculum more student-friendly are suggested.

Basnet B; Jaiswal M; Adhikari B; Shyangwa PM

2012-07-01

79

Intercultural training of medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Until recently the Utrecht Medical School had a traditional curriculum with a predominantly biomedical orientation and strong emphasis on curative medicine. In 1997 an experimental 'Multi-cultural Family Attachment Course' started at the Utrecht Medical School with 20 second-year medical students. Each student was attached to a native Dutch and an ethnic minority family with a newborn or chronically ill child. In a period of 1.5 years students had to visit each family at home four times. The students monitored growth and development of the child and discussed several aspects of health and disease with the parents according to a structured schedule. In regular group sessions students reported back their experiences. In this way, the influence of socioeconomic circumstances, culture and environment on health becomes a real-life experience. This paper aims to describe some aspects of this pilot-course and the reactions of the students.

van Wieringen JC; Schulpen TW; Kuyvenhoven MM

2001-01-01

80

Intercultural training of medical students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Until recently the Utrecht Medical School had a traditional curriculum with a predominantly biomedical orientation and strong emphasis on curative medicine. In 1997 an experimental 'Multi-cultural Family Attachment Course' started at the Utrecht Medical School with 20 second-year medical students. Each student was attached to a native Dutch and an ethnic minority family with a newborn or chronically ill child. In a period of 1.5 years students had to visit each family at home four times. The students monitored growth and development of the child and discussed several aspects of health and disease with the parents according to a structured schedule. In regular group sessions students reported back their experiences. In this way, the influence of socioeconomic circumstances, culture and environment on health becomes a real-life experience. This paper aims to describe some aspects of this pilot-course and the reactions of the students. PMID:11260746

van Wieringen, J.C.M.; Schulpen, T.W.J.; Kuyvenhoven, M.M.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

The Professional Socialization of Social Work Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this dissertation is to explore some effects of graduate social work education on the students' attitudes and expectations towards their chosen field, as compared to medical students -- a group expected to enter a field at the opposite end ...

T. H. Shey

1968-01-01

82

Teaching recovery to medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Community mental health services are evolving toward more holistic, patient-centered, recovery-based practices. This change necessitates an attitudinal shift from mental health workers, and training in recovery principles is helpful in achieving this change. Medical students often have narrow, doctor-centered concepts of mental health care. Traditional clinical placements in psychiatry do little to address this. We evaluated a recovery-focused teaching program for medical students in psychiatry. METHOD: Medical students' knowledge of recovery from mental illness was assessed before and after either a 6-week traditional or recovery-focused clinical placement in psychiatry, using the Recovery Knowledge Inventory. A validated questionnaire was used to assess attitudes toward mental illness before and after the placements. Focus groups were conducted before and after the recovery teaching. RESULTS: One hundred nineteen medical students participated; 23 experienced the recovery teaching program while 96 had a traditional placement (23 in the same center as the recovery teaching program and 73 in other centers). There were no significant differences between groups at baseline. After recovery teaching, medical students significantly increased their recovery knowledge and had more positive attitudes toward mental illness and psychiatry when compared with those who had a traditional placement. The focus groups revealed greater optimism and more holistic concepts of recovery from mental illness. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The recovery teaching program was associated with increased knowledge of recovery principles and more positive attitudes toward mental illness. Psychiatric clinical placements for medical students should include an explicit recovery focus.

Feeney L; Jordan I; McCarron P

2013-03-01

83

Die angestrebte oder befürchtete berufliche Zukunft von Wittener Medizinstudierenden [The aimed or feared professional future of medical students at the Univesity of Witten/Herdecke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] The current challenges of educational policy seem to be associated to changes of the health care system, to counteract concerns regarding the lack of physicians, supply shortage and migration of specialists. Therefore, expectations, wishes and concerns relevant to the anticipated everyday life as a physician of medical students at the Witten/Herdecke University (UWH) were acquired with an online questionnaire. Useful for a direct comparison the results of the online survey ‘Medical Study and Future’ throughout Germany have been used. Findings from this survey are common characteristics regarding the choice of the profession and planning of an establishment as a general practitioner and clear differences in reflecting on future issues in the occupational field.[german] Die aktuellen bildungspolitischen Herausforderungen scheinen sich als direkte Reaktion auf Änderungen im Gesundheitssystem zu manifestieren, um den Befürchtungen von Ärztemangel, Versorgungsengpass und Abwanderung von qualifizierten Fachärzten entgegen zu wirken. Deshalb wurden mit einer Online-Befragung die Erwartungen, Wünsche und Befürchtungen von Wittener Medizinstudierenden bzgl. des antizipierten beruflichen Alltags als Ärztin oder Arzt erfasst. Zum direkten Vergleich standen die Ergebnisse einer bundesweiten Online-Umfrage zur Zukunft von Medizinstudierenden zur Verfügung. Dabei zeigen sich Gemeinsamkeiten zwischen den beiden Gruppen bzgl. der angestrebten Fachrichtung und der Planung einer Niederlassung, aber auch deutliche Unterschiede in der Einschätzung zukünftiger beruflicher Problemfelder.

Zupanic, Michaela; Hofmann, Marzellus; Osenberg, Dorothea; Gardeik, Kerstin; Jansen, Paul; Fischer, Martin R.

2011-01-01

84

Medical Student Health Promotion: The Increasing Role of Medical Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

|Objective: The author proposes courses of action for medical schools to increase positive health promotion among medical students. Method: This article will review the current literature on medical student health care. Strategies of action for medical schools are proposed for increasing student wellness. Results: Medical schools can positively…

Estabrook, Kristi

2008-01-01

85

Medication Use among University Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: This study has been carried out descriptively to determine the status of medication use among students of Erzincan University which is located in central Erzincan, Turkey. METHODS: The universe of the study comprised 4506 students and the sample involved 885 (19.6% of the universe) students who attended faculties, associate programs, and vocational schools of Erzincan University. Data were collected between April-May 2008 through a questionnaire form that included students’ identifying characteristics and their status of medication use. For statistical analyses, percentage and chi-square test were used. RESULTS: It was found that 39.3% of participants were 2nd grade students, 59.8% were between 20-22 years, and 34.7% were attending the Faculty of Education. It was established that 64.6% of students used medication for headache and/or cold-influenza, 83.6% read the respective package insert before using a drug, 47.9% discontinued medicaten after cessation of complaints, 50.5% used a medication within the last couple of months and that 23.2% of them took these medications without prescription. It was also found that 70.3% of participants had used a medication without prescription whenever they had a headache; 61.5% of non-prescription medication used were analgesics; and 64.1% used a non-prescription drug due to prior use of the same drug. A significant difference was established between the gender of the students and their medication use within the last couple of months. It was also found that there is a statistically significant difference between students’ gender and the faculty they attend and rates of package insert reading. CONCLUSION: As a conclusion, it was determined that more than half of the students used a medication within the last one month and 23.2% of these medications were bought without prescription. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000): 505-512

Papatya Karakurt; Rabia Hacihasanoglu; Arzu Yildirim; Rabia Saglam

2010-01-01

86

Medical Informatics For Medical Students And Medical Practitioners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The importance of incorporating medical (or health)informatics into the education of medical students andmedical practitioners is being increasingly recognised.The advances in information and communicationtechnology and the pervasion of the Internet intoeveryday life have important implications forhealthcare services and medical education.Students and practitioners should learn to utilisebiomedical information for problem solving anddecision making based on evidence. The extensiveintroduction of electronic health information systemsinto hospitals and clinics and at the enterprise level inMalaysia and elsewhere is driving a demand for healthprofessionals who have at least basic skills in andappreciation of the use of these technologies.The essential clinical informatics skills have beenidentified and should be incorporated into theundergraduate medical curriculum. It is recommendedthat these be introduced in stages and integrated intoexisting programmes rather than taught as a separatemodule. At the same time, medical schools shouldsupport the integration of e-learning in the educationalprocess in view of the numerous potential benefits.

Jai MOHAN

2010-01-01

87

Professional reading and the Medical Radiation Science Practitioner  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Updating professional knowledge is a central tenet of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and professional reading is a common method health practitioners use to update their professional knowledge. This paper reports the level of professional reading by Medical Radiation Science (MRS) practitioners in Australia and examines organisational support for professional reading. Materials and Methods: Survey design was used to collect data from MRS practitioners. A questionnaire was sent to 1142 Australian practitioners, which allowed self-report data to be collected on the length of time practitioners engage in professional reading and the time workplaces allocate to practitioners for professional reading. Results: Of the 362 MRS practitioners who returned the survey, 93.9% engaged in professional reading on a weekly basis. In contrast, only 28.9% of respondents reported that their workplace allocates time for professional reading to practitioners. MRS practitioners employed in universities engaged in higher levels of reading than their colleagues employed in clinical workplaces (p

2010-01-01

88

Achievement motivation in medical students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical students were assessed by questionnaire in their third and fourth years regarding attitudes about sex role, medical school, and career plans and in the third year about fear of success. Nine percent of each sex were judged to fear success. Stereotypical responses were reported by the students. Males, anticipating that they would work more than 60 hours per week, looked forward to academic careers, while females more often desired the sharing of financial and child care responsibilities with spouses. Attitudes toward chores were egalitarian, but in reality women performed most routine household activities. Both sexes agreed upon the characteristics that are necessary to be a good student as well as to succeed in later life. Women were more inclined toward artistic and domestic interests and helping others, while men were more interested in scientific investigation, athletics, and adventure. The implications of these similarities and differences for the students' future careers are discussed. PMID:6631923

Robbins, L; Robbins, E S; Katz, S E; Geliebter, B; Stern, M

1983-11-01

89

Achievement motivation in medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medical students were assessed by questionnaire in their third and fourth years regarding attitudes about sex role, medical school, and career plans and in the third year about fear of success. Nine percent of each sex were judged to fear success. Stereotypical responses were reported by the students. Males, anticipating that they would work more than 60 hours per week, looked forward to academic careers, while females more often desired the sharing of financial and child care responsibilities with spouses. Attitudes toward chores were egalitarian, but in reality women performed most routine household activities. Both sexes agreed upon the characteristics that are necessary to be a good student as well as to succeed in later life. Women were more inclined toward artistic and domestic interests and helping others, while men were more interested in scientific investigation, athletics, and adventure. The implications of these similarities and differences for the students' future careers are discussed.

Robbins L; Robbins ES; Katz SE; Geliebter B; Stern M

1983-11-01

90

Teaching surgery to medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Teaching the discipline of surgery to medical students depends on the practicing clinical surgeon assuming the role of educator. The amount of surgical knowledge to impart and technical skill to train are ever increasing as the duration of time students spend on surgical rotations is decreasing. The intent of this article is to assist those surgeons with minimal formal training in educational methods to enhance their teaching skills. Traditional large-group lecture, small-group sessions, and mentoring are reviewed with special emphasis on medical simulation.

Sweeney WB

2012-09-01

91

Teaching surgery to medical students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching the discipline of surgery to medical students depends on the practicing clinical surgeon assuming the role of educator. The amount of surgical knowledge to impart and technical skill to train are ever increasing as the duration of time students spend on surgical rotations is decreasing. The intent of this article is to assist those surgeons with minimal formal training in educational methods to enhance their teaching skills. Traditional large-group lecture, small-group sessions, and mentoring are reviewed with special emphasis on medical simulation. PMID:23997667

Sweeney, W Brian

2012-09-01

92

[Perspectives of studies about physicians and medical students].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The fundamental purpose of sociological studies is to explore social problems which should be also in focus when examining doctors and medical students. In addition to fact findings, published reports may raise awareness toward these issues. AIM: The authors formulate a possible change of the research approach exploring possibilities to move forward with special focus on the health status among doctors, the role-conflict among female doctors and the professional socialisation among medical students. METHODS: Secondary analysis of published studies among health care professionals. RESULTS: Almost all published papers convey the conflict of being a physician in some aspect, but they fail to explore issues related to professional success, protective factors, resources and conflict management modes. Conclusion: In addition to exploration of risk factors, future studies should promote medical identity, should call attention to existing positive examples and should provide hints to cope with challenging issues in order to achieve a successful medical career.

Molnár R; Gy?rffy Z

2012-11-01

93

Teaching toolkit for medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: From teaching juniors and peers to educating patients, it is imperative for all doctors to have basic core teaching skills. The Junior Association for the Study of Medical Education (JASME) felt that a short course in the fundamentals of teaching would be well received by students. CONTEXT: This article shares the lessons from a one-day teaching course aimed at senior medical students. Qualitative feedback helped decide which aspects of the course were most valued. INTERVENTION: The course was piloted in London. It combined interactive plenary sessions on teaching theory with practical teaching sessions. Each student taught a small group of others a basic clinical skill, and the student teacher then received extensive feedback from their peers and an experienced clinician with a special interest in medical education. There was an opportunity to re-teach part of the skill after having taken the feedback on board. IMPLICATIONS: Students completed questionnaires at the start and end of the day to ascertain their expectations of the course and what they found most useful. Expectations can be grouped into three main areas: students wanted to improve their teaching skills; gain teaching experience; and receive feedback on their teaching. The most valuable part of the course was being able to practise teaching and receive feedback. Keywords used to describe the feedback included 'individual', 'valuable', 'constructive', 'instant' and 'in depth'. By continuing to run similar workshops we hope that we can further encourage the teachers of tomorrow.

Newton A; Wright L

2011-12-01

94

Assessing and appraising nursing students' professional communication  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to define professional communication in nursing and to develop a prototype to assess and appraise communication at a selected college. The research focused on verbal and nonverbal communication between the nurse and the client using a simulated environment. The first objective was to identify the major characteristics of professional communication in nursing. In this study, the characteristics of professional communication emerged from the constant comparison method of the results of research studies in the fields of healthcare and communication. These characteristics became the elements, representative properties, and descriptive dimensions to assess and appraise verbal and nonverbal communication at the college of study. The second objective was to develop a template to assess verbal and nonverbal communication at a selected college. Using a two-fold process, the researcher used the results from the first objective to begin template construction. First, specialists in the fields of communication and nursing established the content validity of the elements, representative properties, and descriptive dimensions. Second, the course educators determined the relevancy and importance of the elements, properties, and descriptive dimensions to the objectives of two courses at the college of study. The third objective was to develop a rubric to appraise nursing students' verbal and nonverbal communication in a videotaped communication review. An appraisal rubric was constructed from an extension of the template. This rubric was then tested by faculty at the selected college to appraise the communication of five students each in the junior and senior years of the nursing program.

Diers, Jane E.

95

Puzzle based teaching versus traditional instruction in electrocardiogram interpretation for medical students – a pilot study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Most medical professionals are expected to possess basic electrocardiogram (EKG) interpretation skills. But, published data suggests that residents' and physicians' EKG interpretation skills are suboptimal. Learning styles differ among medical students; individua...

Rubinstein Jack; Dhoble Abhijeet; Ferenchick Gary

96

Professional formation and deformation: repression of personal values and qualities in medical education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During medical training, students gain professional competence but may lose elements of personal humanity. Little is known about what personal qualities or values students themselves experience to be at risk or surrendered during medical school. METHODS: Medical students participating in the Healer's Art elective in the United States and internationally during 2008--2009 were asked to reflect, identify, and draw a part of themselves that they were wary about revealing, not comfortable showing, or felt may be diminished in medical school and label this part with a word. Using a team-based qualitative approach, these words were categorized into common themes and the themes analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. RESULTS: Words from 673 students from 31 medical schools were analyzed. Most students were female (58.7%) and in their first year (86.3%). Eleven themes were identified: spirituality, emotional engagement, identity/self-expression, freedom/spontaneity, relationships, self-care, creativity, negative emotions, values, other, and joy/happiness. The most common individual words used were creativity, family, balance, freedom, love, peace, compassion, relationships, and reflection. There were only rare differences in distributions of themes across gender, year in school, school size, or school nationality. CONCLUSIONS: An international cadre of Healer's Art students identified core personal qualities and values that they may not reveal or feel may be diminished in medical school. Medical training involves not only professional formation but exposure to professional deformation as well. Educators must attend to both gains in professional competence and the personal qualities and values that are at risk in the course of professional development.

Rabow MW; Evans CN; Remen RN

2013-01-01

97

Health professionals' and students' perceptions of elder abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This study aimed to compare perceptions about elder abuse among health professionals and students in the same health disciplines. METHODS: The Caregiving Scenario Questionnaire (CSQ) was disseminated to Australian health professionals from two metropolitan health services and to university health care students. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty health professionals and 127 students returned surveys. Significantly more students than health professionals identified locking someone in the house alone all day and restraining someone in a chair as abusive. CONCLUSION: There is a need for further definition clarification and education about detection and management of elder abuse for health students and professionals in Australia. Student education should include consideration of the real-life situations likely to be encountered in practice. Education for both students and health professionals should include strategies for carers to manage difficult situations such as the one described in the CSQ.

Dow B; Hempton C; Cortes-Simonet EN; Ellis KA; Koch SH; Logiudice D; Mastwyk M; Livingston G; Cooper C; Ames D

2013-03-01

98

Medical student appraisal: searching on smartphones.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The rapidly growing industry for mobile medical applications provides numerous smartphone resources designed for healthcare professionals. However, not all applications are equally useful in addressing the questions of early medical trainees. METHODS: Three popular, free, mobile healthcare applications were evaluated along with a Google(TM) web search on both Apple(TM) and Android(TM) devices. Six medical students at a large academic hospital evaluated each application for a one-week period while on various clinical rotations. RESULTS: Google(TM) was the most frequently used search method and presented multimedia resources but was inefficient for obtaining clinical management information. Epocrates(TM) Pill ID feature was praised for its clinical utility. Medscape(TM) had the highest satisfaction of search and excelled through interactive educational features. Micromedex(TM) offered both FDA and off-label dosing for drugs. DISCUSSION: Google(TM) was the preferred search method for questions related to basic disease processes and multimedia resources, but was inadequate for clinical management. Caution should also be exercised when using Google(TM) in front of patients. Medscape(TM) was the most appealing application due to a broad scope of content and educational features relevant to medical trainees. Students should also be cognizant of how mobile technology may be perceived by their evaluators to avoid false impressions.

Khalifian S; Markman T; Sampognaro P; Mitchell S; Weeks S; Dattilo J

2013-01-01

99

Medication non-adherence: a role for the dental professional.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medication non-adherence is a multifactorial and complex problem that poses an enormous health and economic burden. Medication non-adherence related to medication side effects, referred to as rational non-adherence, is increasingly seen in patients. This article discusses rational non-adherence with an exemplar of osteoporosis patients discontinuing their medication, mainly bisphosphonates, for fear of complications such as osteonecrosis of jaw. Also, the possible role of dental professionals in overcoming medication non-adherence in general is outlined.

Kumar SK

2013-05-01

100

Course in basic sexology for medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present article describes the pilot course in basic sexology for medical students. The duration of the course was 5 days (35 hours). The themes-sex and gender, sexual physiology, contraception, sexual inadequacy, sexual deviations, and sexual counselling-were approached from many different angles. The teaching procedure comprised lectures, group work, and group discussions, internal television, films, plenary discussions, and debates. The course was evaluated by means of the sex knowledge and attitude test (SKAT) given before and after the course. Furthermore an evaluation was given by the students, by a professional teacher, and by a paramedical evaluator at the end of the course. The results showed significant changes in attitudes and knowledge.

Beckmann J; Hertoft P; Larsen JF; Laursen AM; Wagner G

1975-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Course in basic sexology for medical students.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present article describes the pilot course in basic sexology for medical students. The duration of the course was 5 days (35 hours). The themes-sex and gender, sexual physiology, contraception, sexual inadequacy, sexual deviations, and sexual counselling-were approached from many different angles. The teaching procedure comprised lectures, group work, and group discussions, internal television, films, plenary discussions, and debates. The course was evaluated by means of the sex knowledge and attitude test (SKAT) given before and after the course. Furthermore an evaluation was given by the students, by a professional teacher, and by a paramedical evaluator at the end of the course. The results showed significant changes in attitudes and knowledge. PMID:1170873

Beckmann, J; Hertoft, P; Larsen, J F; Laursen, A M; Wagner, G

1975-06-01

102

Psychostimulant drug abuse and personality factors in medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Psychostimulants have a high abuse potential and are appealing to college students for enhancing their examination performance. AIM: This study was designed to examine the prevalence of psychostimulant drug abuse among medical students and to test the hypothesis that medical students who use psychostimulant drugs for non-medical reasons are characterized by a sensation seeking and aggressive-hostility personality and exhibit lower empathy. METHODS: The Zuckerman-Kuhlman personality questionnaire and the Jefferson scale of empathy were completed anonymously on-line by 321 medical students in 2010-2011 academic year. RESULTS: A total of 45 students (14%) reported that they had abused psychostimulant medications either before or during medical school. RESULTS of multivariate analysis of variance provided support for one of our research hypothesis: students who reported using psychostimulant compared to the rest, obtained a significantly higher average score on the aggressive-hostility personality factor. No other significant differences were observed. CONCLUSION: Further research is needed to confirm the rate of psychostimulant drug abusers among medical students in other medical schools. In particular, it is desirable to examine if such psychostimulant drug abusers are likely to abuse other substances in medical school and later in their professional career.

Bucher JT; Vu DM; Hojat M

2013-01-01

103

Smoking Status of Medical Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the status of smoking habits and quitting behaviors of the students of Trakya University Medical Faculty.Patients and Methods: Smoking habits, nicotine addiction, quitting motivation and behaviors were investigated in the 5th and 6th year students of Trakya University Medical Faculty in 2003-2004 academic year by a self reported questionnaire. Out of 336 students 200 (59.5%) (90 males, 110 females, mean age 24.11±1.87 years; range 21 to 34 years) were included in the study.Results: There were 129 (64.5%) never smokers, 18 (9%) ex-smokers and 53 (26.5%) current smokers. Smoking rate was increasing with age. Nicotine addiction test scores corresponded to the least addiction. The most frequently declared reason to quit smoking were worries related to health. The most frequently declared reasons to restart smoking were stress and smoking friends. Counseling to quit smoking, nicotine replacement and drug use were very limited.Conclusion: Counseling to quit smoking was insufficient even in this advantageous group of medical students. Action planning targeting physician candidates is immediately required to enhance national movement against smoking.

Erkan Melih SAHIN; Cahit OZER; Huriye CAKMAK; Zafer TUNC; Kenan TASTAN; Fatma Nur ENEC CAN

2007-01-01

104

Keeping Dissection Alive for Medical Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes an experiential course with the goal of immersing medical students in a cadaver dissection course abroad. The course was developed because of a reduction in cadaver opportunities and a desire by medical students to gain dissection skills.

2009-11-01

105

The education and training of professionals. The perspective of the Spanish Society of Medical Physics (SEFM)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper is twofold. First, to revise some European Communities' recommendations regarding qualification, education and training of professionals involved in ionisation radiation practices, to respond to the Directive 97/43 EURATOM. And then, as Medical Physicists are directly concerned with these practices, to describe how the Spanish Society of Medical Physics deals with the challenge of improving the competence of Medical Physicists in order to assure the best patient protection against ionisation radiation. Therefore, to achieve the first aim, the point of view of the European Federation of Organisations on Medical Physics (EFOMP) concerning the introduction of the 'Medical Physics Expert' and their guidelines for Continuous Professional Development are reviewed, as well as the point of view of European Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ESTRO) in professional education matters. Referring to the second aim, after succeeding in the recognition of the Medical Physics Speciality in Spain in 1997, the SEFM is now promoting the Continuous Education and Training of their specialists through its Education Committee (Comision de Docencia de la SEFM), so that they can cope with all new professional challenges. Moreover, a number of SEFM members are also involved in education matters to others professionals: Medicine students, nurses, Radiation Technologists, etc. In conclusion, the SEFM has always been aware of the importance of specialisation and continuous education of all professionals involved in radiation ionisation practices, as a way to contribute to guarantee the best radiation protection to the patients. (author)

2001-01-01

106

Planeación estratégica para el fortalecimiento de la ética profesional de Enfermería en la filial Nuevitas Strategic plan for strengthening professional ethics of nursing students from the affiliate medical school of Nuevitas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se comprobó que existe una deficiente aplicación y sistematización de los valores éticos profesionales en docentes y estudiantes de licenciatura en enfermería de la Filial de Ciencias Médicas de Nuevitas, por lo que se realizó un estudio descriptivo, cualitativo, fundamentado en la metodología de la investigación-acción, con el objetivo de diseñar una propuesta de planeación estratégica que contribuya al fortalecimiento de los mismos. El universo de la investigación abarcó a todos los sujetos involucrados en el proceso de formación de esta especialidad, escogiendo como muestra al 100% de los estudiantes del nuevo modelo formativo y al 100% de los docentes categorizados. El estudio se realiza de forma retrospectiva y con un corte transversal, pues se enmarca en el período de los cursos 2008-2009. A través de encuestas, la observación a las evaluaciones realizadas en la educación en el trabajo, las entrevistas, y el análisis se pudo valorar la efectividad de la propuesta, que permitirá perfeccionar el fortalecimiento de valores éticos profesionales en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje, mediante acciones concretas diseñadas a partir de las debilidades y amenazas encontradas en el diagnóstico estratégico, lo que reforzará la labor educativa y la calidad de la atención de enfermería. Se concluye que el nivel de preparación del claustro de profesores y de los estudiantes de enfermería aún resulta insuficiente. Por lo tanto, es necesaria la actualización de este tema desde posiciones humanistas.During the academic year 2008-2009, a descriptive, qualitative study was carried out to design a strategic plan to contribute to strengthening the professional ethical values of both professors and nursing students from Nuevitas’s affiliate medical school. The universe comprised every subject involved in the nursing formation process. The sample included 100 % of new-formative-model students, as well as 100 % of categorized professors. Results showed a deficient preparation of professors and students. The proposal’s effectiveness was assessed through evaluations, interviews, and analysis.

Niurkis Milanés Céspedes; Alberto Bujardón Mendoza; Odelaisy Tamarit Castillo; Vilda Magalys Valdés Cervantes

2010-01-01

107

Self?medication patterns among medical students in South India  

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Full Text Available BackgroundSelf-medication results in wastage of resources, increases resistance of pathogens and generally causes serious health hazards such as adverse drug reactions, prolonged suffering and drug dependence. This study was undertaken to determine the reasons for self-medication and the pattern of self-medication among medical students.MethodThis cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore. The participants were medical students from first to final year. Medical students were selected through convenience sampling. The data was collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. The data was analysed using SPSS version 16 and the results expressed as proportions.ResultsA total of 200 students, 121 (60.5%) female and 79 (39.5%) male, were included in the study. Of the medical students surveyed, self-medication was reported among 92%. The respondents who used self-medication found it to be time-saving in providing relief from minor ailments. The most common ailments for which self-medication were used were: the common cold (69%), fever (63%) and headache (60%). The students consulted their textbooks (39%) and seniors or classmates (38%) for the medications. Antipyretics (71%), analgesics (65%), antihistamines (37%) and antibiotics (34%) were the most common self-medicated drugs. Of the respondents, 33% were unaware of the adverse effects of the medication and 5% had experienced adverse reactions. The majority (64%) of students advised medications to others, more often to family and friends.ConclusionThe prevalence of self-medication among medical students is high, facilitated by the easy availability of drugs and information from textbooks or seniors. A significant number of students are unaware of the adverse effects of the medication that they themselves take and suggest to others. Therefore, potential problems of self-medication should be emphasised to the students.

Sanjeev Badiger; Rashmi Kundapur; Animesh Jain; Ashwini Kumar; Sanjay Pattanshetty; Nimmy Thakolkaran; Nitasha Bhat; Nowshin Ullal

2012-01-01

108

Insurance of professional responsibility at medical aid rendering  

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Full Text Available The article discusses the necessity of adoption of professional responsibility insurance act into the public health service. It is considered as the basic mechanism of compensation in case of damage to a patient at medical aid rendering

Erugina M.V.; Vlasova M.V.; Zavyalov A.I.; Dolgova E.M.; Sazanova G.U.; Abyzova N.V.

2011-01-01

109

[Medication systems in hospitals and their evaluation by professional groups].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was aimed at analyzing the medication systems in hospitals based on the opinions of 107 professionals. With regard to medical prescriptions in the institutions, 74.8 percent were handwritten and 50.4 percent of the medication distribution systems were in individualized doses. Concerning the causes of medication errors, 91 percent were associated with the professionals. For 61.7 percent, the system was adequate, but had shortcomings. Few professionals suggested changes that would favor their work. The conclusion is that the culture of attributing responsibility to the professional for the error, as well as the practice of punishment without a substantial change of the cause that led to it, persists. PMID:16323598

Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli; Teixeira, Thalyta Cardoso Alux; Opitz, Simone Perufo; Linhares, Josilene Cristina

2005-09-01

110

[Medication systems in hospitals and their evaluation by professional groups].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was aimed at analyzing the medication systems in hospitals based on the opinions of 107 professionals. With regard to medical prescriptions in the institutions, 74.8 percent were handwritten and 50.4 percent of the medication distribution systems were in individualized doses. Concerning the causes of medication errors, 91 percent were associated with the professionals. For 61.7 percent, the system was adequate, but had shortcomings. Few professionals suggested changes that would favor their work. The conclusion is that the culture of attributing responsibility to the professional for the error, as well as the practice of punishment without a substantial change of the cause that led to it, persists.

Cassiani SH; Teixeira TC; Opitz SP; Linhares JC

2005-09-01

111

Accessing health care professionals about antipsychotic medication related concerns.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to describe mental health service users' access to and satisfaction with health care professionals, including nurses, as related to users' antipsychotic medication concerns. Eighty-one service users were interviewed using a questionnaire. Participants stated that case managers were the most accessible, while psychiatrists were the least accessible. It was perceived that most professionals, apart from general practitioners, had adequate knowledge of medications. Most participants were satisfied with the way health care professionals dealt with the service users' concerns about medications, but almost 16% were dissatisfied with general practitioners. The findings emphasize that access to and satisfaction with health care professionals is an important factor in medication adherence. PMID:18592424

Boardman, Gayelene H; McCann, Terence V; Clark, Eileen

2008-07-01

112

Stress among medical students in a Thai medical school.  

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This study aimed to determine the prevalence and sources of stress among Thai medical students. The questionnaires,which consisted of the Thai Stress Test (TST) and questions asking about sources of stress, were sent to all medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Thailand. A total of 686 students participated. The results showed that about 61.4% of students had some degree of stress. Seventeen students (2.4%) reported a high level of stress. The prevalence of stress is highest among third-year medical students. Academic problems were found to be a major cause of stress among all students. The most prevalent source of academic stress was the test/exam. Other sources of stress in medical school and their relationships are also discussed. The findings can help medical teachers understand more about stress among their students and guide the way to improvement in an academic context, which is important for student achievement. PMID:14522672

Saipanish, Ratana

2003-09-01

113

Stress among medical students in a Thai medical school.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to determine the prevalence and sources of stress among Thai medical students. The questionnaires,which consisted of the Thai Stress Test (TST) and questions asking about sources of stress, were sent to all medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Thailand. A total of 686 students participated. The results showed that about 61.4% of students had some degree of stress. Seventeen students (2.4%) reported a high level of stress. The prevalence of stress is highest among third-year medical students. Academic problems were found to be a major cause of stress among all students. The most prevalent source of academic stress was the test/exam. Other sources of stress in medical school and their relationships are also discussed. The findings can help medical teachers understand more about stress among their students and guide the way to improvement in an academic context, which is important for student achievement.

Saipanish R

2003-09-01

114

Are medical school students ready for e-readers?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

College textbook publishers are planning to make college and professional education textbooks available online to be downloaded to personal communication devices (e.g., smartphones), digital audio players (e.g., iPods), and digital readers (e.g., Kindles). The current literature on the attitudes of current students to this technological change, especially as it relates to medical school students is reviewed. A short survey attempted to determine how ready the first-year medical students at the University of Louisville are to accept this change in their study habits.

Atlas MC

2013-01-01

115

Homophobia in Medical Students of the University of Hong Kong  

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Homosexuality is now accepted as a normal variant of human sexuality, but homophobia among healthcare professionals is well documented. Establishment of trustful doctor-patient relationships is impossible in the presence of homophobia. We were interested to examine the extent of homophobia among medical students, the future doctors. This article…

Kan, R. W. M.; Au, K. P.; Chan, W. K.; Cheung, L. W. M.; Lam, C. Y. Y.; Liu, H. H. W.; Ng, L. Y.; Wong, M. Y.; Wong, W. C.

2009-01-01

116

Ethical issues confronted by medical students during clinical rotations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the most common and important ethical issues confronting medical students during clinical rotations so that ethics-related topics can be prioritised according to students' needs and this information used to develop a curriculum for the ethics course. METHODS: In a cross-sectional approach, we reviewed the medical ethics-related cases recorded in the logbooks of all medical students (n=241) at Tehran University of Medical Sciences who attended the medical ethics course during October 2006 to July 2007. As part of a graded assignment, each student was required to record three encounters with ethics-related issues in his or her logbook. A total of 713 cases were assessed. Information related to the ethical issues and the conditions in which ethical issues arose was extracted and recorded by two experts, whose analysis showed agreement of kappa 0.77. In cases of discrepancy, both experts reviewed and discussed the record until they achieved agreement. RESULTS: A total of 713 cases were analysed. The most common issues reported by students related to ethics in medical education (20.1%, n=143), professionalism (18.8%, n=134), confidentiality (7.6%, n=54), the doctor-patient relationship (7.3%, n=52), informed consent (7.0%, n=50) and the doctor-peer relationship (7.0%, n=50). After adjusting for length of rotation, the highest numbers of ethics-related incidents were reported from urology, general surgery, orthopaedics, internal medicine, neurology, and obstetrics and gynaecology wards. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that professionalism and related elements represent one of the most important areas of concern that need to be addressed when planning courses for medical students. The other significant area of concern is that of ethics in medical education, which, although the subject is not considered essential for medical practitioners, should be taught and respected so that student sensitivity to medical ethics is maintained and even increased.

Fard NN; Asghari F; Mirzazadeh A

2010-07-01

117

National Library of Medicine Web Resources for Student Health Professionals  

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Familiarize students affiliated with the Student National Medical Association with the National Library of Medicine's online resources that address medical conditions, health disparities, and public health preparedness needs.

Womble, R.

2010-04-02

118

Medical students and AIDS: knowledge, attitudes and implications for education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Second year medical students at a large midwestern university were surveyed about their attitudes regarding AIDS. Results indicated: (1) students with homosexual and/or HIV-positive friends were significantly more tolerant toward AIDS patients, (2) over half the students believed that treating AIDS patients may be hazardous and that their education had not prepared them to treat these patients safely, (3) one-third believed they had the right to refuse to treat AIDS patients, and (4) AIDS-phobia was significantly associated with homophobia. These data suggest that medical educators may need to help students overcome AIDS-phobia before some students will be able to incorporate instruction about AIDS since AIDS-phobia may inhibit this learning. Didactic instruction must be coupled with modeling by educators of non-prejudicial attitudes and strict adherence to medical professionalism.

Kopacz DR; Grossman LS; Klamen DL

1999-02-01

119

Perceptions of Medical Sciences Students Towards Probiotics  

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Full Text Available Background: Regarding the importance of probiotics in prevention of different diseases, the knowledge ofpeople particularly health-related professionals about the beneficial effects and availability of probiotic productsis important. Considering the limited studies, the present study was conducted to assess the knowledge ofmedical sciences students as future provider of health information about probiotics in Tabriz, Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 296 medical sciences students from different facultymajors with mean age of 22 ± 4 years. The students completed two self-administered questionnaires; the onewas about the demographic characteristics and the other one with nine closed questions as for knowledge aswell as probiotics and their health effects and 2 questions related to availability of probiotic products. Scoringof 9 knowledge questions was divided to three sections 0-3, 4-6, 7-9 and classified as poor, acceptable andgood, respectively. The Chi-square test was used to examine the differences in knowledge of the studentsacross different gender, major and degree groups.Results: Six percent of students had poor, 43% acceptable, and 51% good knowledge. Total mean±(SD) ofknowledge was 6.25 ±1.6 . Answers of students about the availability of probiotic products were 36.9% low,48.1% moderate, and 15% high. Comparison of knowledge result between different major and degree groupswas statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion: Although students had approximately acceptable level of knowledge about probiotics and theirhealth effects, their awareness about common available form of probiotic products was low. The use ofefficient co-educational materials such as teaching new findings for students may be beneficial.

Laleh Payahoo; Zeinab Nikniaz; Reza Mahdavi; Mohamad Asghari Jafar Abadi

2012-01-01

120

Prevention of Hepatitis B; knowledge and practices among Medical students  

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Full Text Available Hepatitis B is the major infectious disease of mankind. It is the most common cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepato-cellular carcinoma World wide. The health professionals are at the maximum risk. Vaccination against Hepatitis B can prevent this deadly disease. This survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and status of Hepatitis B vaccination among the medical students of B.J.Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

Anjali Singh; Shikha Jain

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

The impact of social media and technology on professionalism in medical education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of social media is the norm among the digital native generation, with 75% of the Millennial Generation connected through Facebook. For students in medical education who struggle to distinguish between personal and professional boundaries, social media provides yet another challenge. Incidents of unprofessional conduct and academic dismissal have been reported. Administration, faculty, and students would benefit from clear policies and procedures, case scenarios of social media violations, and suggestions for using social media wisely.

Essary AC

2011-01-01

122

Benefits of professional organization membership and participation in national conferences: considerations for students and new professionals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The focus of this manuscript is on the next generation of health education professionals and is written by those who are part of that next generation. This manuscript serves as a good reminder to all health educators regarding the importance of professional association membership and attending professional conferences. The co-editors hope that established health education professionals-whether serving as faculty members teaching in professional preparation programs or those practitioners mentoring the next generation-will share this article with students and/ or colleagues regarding the benefits of attending professional conferences and joining professional organizations. Joining professional organizations like the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) and attending professional conferences can provide tremendous career development, skill-building, and professional networking opportunities.

Mata H; Latham TP; Ransome Y

2010-07-01

123

Relationship between medical student perceptions of mistreatment and mistreatment sensitivity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: National statistics reveal that efforts to reduce medical student mistreatment have been largely ineffective. Some hypothesize that as supervisors gain skills in professionalism, medical students become more sensitive. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine if medical student perceptions of mistreatment are correlated with mistreatment sensitivity. METHOD: At the end of their third year, 175 medical students completed an Abuse Sensitivity Questionnaire, focused on student assessment of hypothetical scenarios which might be perceived as abusive, and the annual Well-Being Survey, which includes measurement of incident rates of mistreatment. It was hypothesized that those students who identified the scenarios as abusive would also be more likely to perceive that they had been mistreated. RESULTS: Student perceptions of mistreatment were not statistically correlated with individual's responses to the scenarios or to a statistically derived abuse sensitivity variable. There were no differences in abuse sensitivity by student age or ethnicity. Women were more likely than men to consider it "harsh" to be called incompetent during rounds (p?medical students who perceive mistreatment by their superiors are simply more sensitive.

Bursch B; Fried JM; Wimmers PF; Cook IA; Baillie S; Zackson H; Stuber ML

2013-01-01

124

Assessing professionalism in early medical education: experience with peer evaluation and self-evaluation in the gross anatomy course.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: As today's healthcare model moves toward more streamlined and corporate industrialism, it is our responsibility, as doctors, to ensure the integrity of medicine's foundation in professionalism. The erosion of professional values not only creates a climate of animosity, but reverberates negatively to impact the development of students, who model their behaviour after those they most respect. This hazard has spurred an evaluation of medical school curricula, with a new emphasis on professionalism in the philosophy of medical education. Courses such as Gross Anatomy that, in the past, offered "pure content," are now being used to teach and evaluate professionalism. The goal of this study was to determine if peer evaluation and self-evaluation used in conjunction and implemented early in the medical curriculum, can serve as useful tools to assess and provide feedback regarding professional behaviour in first-year medical students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1999 to 2003, students at Mayo Clinic College of Medicine evaluated themselves and their peers during the Gross and Developmental Anatomy Course. Numerical evaluations and written comments were statistically analysed within established categories of professionalism and correlated with academic performance, gender, and peer rating and self-rating. RESULTS: The majority of written comments pertained to inter-professional respect, responsibility, and excellence. Students who gave higher peer evaluation and self-evaluation scores provided more positive comments, and students performing well in the course provided more positive comments about their peers and themselves than did those struggling academically. Students consistently rated their peers higher than themselves, and male students rated themselves higher than did female students. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing peer evaluation and self-evaluation early in the medical curriculum is a valuable exercise in teaching first-year medical students assessment skills when evaluating their behaviour, as well as the behaviour of their colleagues.

Bryan RE; Krych AJ; Carmichael SW; Viggiano TR; Pawlina W

2005-09-01

125

Prevalence of Burnout in Senior Medical Students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in 2008  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Burnout is caused by high-stress jobs and could induce somatic, psychological disorders and negative attitude to professional actives so that this condition causes poor relationship with the patient. This study aimed at investigating burnout in senior medical students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences.Methods: This research was a cross sectional study carried out on all senior medical students (N=56) in 2008. Data were obtained by two questionnaires including demographic questionnaire and Maslach burnout Inventory. They were then analyzed using SPSS software and Chi square Test. Results: The findings showed that the majority of medical students (91.1%) had burnout and only 8.9% of them had not burnout. Severe burnout was in 16% of students. There was not any significant relationship between burnout and sex, age, smoking, duration of education, interest in medical course and marital status P<0.05.Conclusion: The results of the study showed that burnout is common problem in senior medical students and need special consideration. Therefore medical students should be encouraged to seek help and adequate facilities by holding workshops of life-skill training and coping with stress. However, burnout should be paid special attention in medical students by counseling centers of University for prevention of consequences.

Akkasheh G.; Sepehrmanesh Z.; Ahmadvand A.

2010-01-01

126

Doctors in society. Medical professionalism in a changing world.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medicine bridges the gap between science and society. Indeed, the application of scientific knowledge to human health is a crucial aspect of clinical practice. Doctors are one important agent through which that scientific understanding is expressed. But medicine is more than the sum of our knowledge about disease. Medicine concerns the experiences, feelings, and interpretations of human beings in often extraordinary moments of fear, anxiety, and doubt. In this extremely vulnerable position, it is medical professionalism that underpins the trust the public has in doctors. This Working Party was established to define the nature and role of medical professionalism in modern society. Britain's health system is undergoing enormous change. The entry of multiple health providers, the wish for more equal engagement between patients and professionals, and the ever-greater contribution of science to advances in clinical practice all demand a clear statement of medicine's unifying purpose and doctors' common values. What is medical professionalism and does it matter to patients? Although evidence is lacking that more robust professionalism will inevitably lead to better health outcomes, patients certainly understand the meaning of poor professionalism and associate it with poor medical care. The public is well aware that an absence of professionalism is harmful to their interests. The Working Party's view, based on the evidence it has received, is that medical professionalism lies at the heart of being a good doctor. The values that doctors embrace set a standard for what patients expect from their medical practitioners. The practice of medicine is distinguished by the need for judgement in the face of uncertainty. Doctors take responsibility for these judgements and their consequences. A doctor's up-to-date knowledge and skill provide the explicit scientific and often tacit experiential basis for such judgements. But because so much of medicine's unpredictability calls for wisdom as well as technical ability, doctors are vulnerable to the charge that their decisions are neither transparent nor accountable. In an age where deference is dead and league tables are the norm, doctors must be clearer about what they do, and how and why they do it. We define medical professionalism as a set of values, behaviours, and relationships that underpin the trust the public has in doctors. We go on to describe what those values, behaviours, and relationships are, how they are changing, and why they matter. This is the core of our work. We have also identified six themes where our definition has further implications: leadership, teams, education, appraisal, careers, and research. The Working Party's definition and description of medical professionalism, and the recommendations arising from them, can be found in Section 5 of this report. If our recommendations are acted upon, we believe that professionalism could flourish and prosper to the benefit of patients and doctors alike. However, the exercise of medical professionalism is hampered by the political and cultural environment of health, which many doctors consider disabling. The conditions of medical practice are critical determinants for the future of professionalism. We argue that doctors have a responsibility to act according to the values we set out in this report. Equally, other members of the healthcare team--notably managers--have a reciprocal duty to help create an organisational infrastructure to support doctors in the exercise of their professional responsibilities. Just as the patient-doctor partnership is a pivotal therapeutic relationship in medicine, so the interaction between doctor and manager is central to the delivery of professional care. High-quality care depends on both effective health teams and efficient health organisations. Professionalism therefore implies multiple commitments--to the patient, to fellow professionals, and to the institution or system within which healthcare is provided, to the extent that the system supports patients collectively. A doctor's corporate

2005-11-01

127

Medical student experience as simulated patients in the OSCE.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Sydney Medical School has recently introduced a practise, formative five-station Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) for junior medical students, where senior medical students act as simulated patients (SPs). We sought to evaluate students' experiences and perceptions of acting as SPs in the practise OSCE. METHODS: The study took place over 3 years from 2010 to 2012, with three cohorts of year-3 students invited to participate as SPs (n = 172). Student SPs took part in the OSCE, where stage-2 students (n = 169) were examined, and year-4 students acted as examiners. The student SPs completed a questionnaire regarding their experiences. RESULTS: Over the 3-year period, a total of 43/172 (25%) of all year-3 students took part in the programme. Student questionnaire results indicated a high level of engagement with their SP experience. Students perceived the activity to reinforce knowledge, provide insight into examination technique and develop professional attributes. CONCLUSIONS: Acting as SPs was perceived by students to provide a useful and engaging learning experience. It also has the potential to reduce logistical demands and costs on clinical schools with limited resources to run practise examinations.

Burgess A; Clark T; Chapman R; Mellis C

2013-08-01

128

Perceptions towards private medical practitioners' attachments for undergraduate medical students in Malawi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe perceptions of medical students, recent medical graduates, faculty of the College of Medicine, University of Malawi and private medical practitioners (PMPs) towards an attachment of undergraduate medical students in private medical doctors' offices. METHOD: Qualitative cross sectional study conducted in Blantyre, Malawi in 2004 using in-depth key informant interviews and content analysis. RESULTS: In general, private medical practitioners were favourable to the idea of having medical students within their consulting offices while the majority of students, recent graduates and faculty opposed, fearing compromising teaching standards. The lack of formal post-graduate qualifications by most private medical practitioners, and nationally-approved continued medical education programs were mentioned as reasons to suspect that private medical practitioners (PMPs) could be outdated in skills and knowledge. Private medical practitioners however reported participation in credible continued professional development (CPD) programs although these were not necessary for re-registration. Students and faculty suggested that the need for privacy in private institutions unlike in the public teaching hospitals as one reason why patients may not be willing to participate in the teaching in PMPs facilities. The fact that the patients profiles with regard to disease presentation (mostly ambulatory) and higher socio-economic status may be different from patients attending the public, free for service teaching hospital was not seen as a desirable attribute to allocate students to PMPs clinics. CONCLUSION: Faculty, medical students and recent graduates of the Malawi College of Medicine do not perceive PMPs as a resource to be tapped for the training of medical students.

Matchaya M; Muula AS

2009-03-01

129

Does personality predict medical students' attitudes to learning communication skills?  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To determine whether personality is related to medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills and self-ratings on communication skills. Methods: 524 first- and 507 second-year medical students completed the Communications Skills Attitudes Scale and rated their own communication skills. First-year students answered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and second-year students the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses, controlling for gender, were conducted to study the impact of personality on attitudes. Analysis of variance followed by post hoc Duncan test was used to compare differences in personality traits depending on students' self-ratings on communication skills. Results: After controlling for gender, personality traits predicted differences in attitudes and were significantly related to medical students' self-ratings. Medical students with higher scores on psychoticism or aggression-hostility showed worse attitudes. Students who tended to have a better self-image scored higher on extraversion, psychoticism, impulsive-sensation seeking, or aggression-hostility traits. Conclusions: Findings support the consideration of personality traits for better student career guidance and counselling. Some students could have more difficulties to internalize certain healthcare professional competencies and show more resistance to attitude change.

Beatriz Molinuevo; Rafael Torrubia

2013-01-01

130

Exposure of Medical Students to Pharmaceutical Marketing in Primary Care Settings: Frequent and Influential  

Science.gov (United States)

|It is known that interaction between pharmaceutical companies and medical professionals may lead to corruption of professional values, irrational use of medicine, and negative effects on the patient-physician relationship. Medical students frequently interact with pharmaceutical company representatives and increasingly accept their gifts.…

Sarikaya, Ozlem; Civaner, Murat; Vatansever, Kevser

2009-01-01

131

Blogging medical students: a qualitative analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Purpose: Blogging is an increasingly popular method of sharing and reflecting on experiences of medical students in the World Wide Web with a potentially global learning community. The authors are not aware of studies that specifically examined blogs by medical students and thus for the first time investigated the type of experiences and impressions that emerged from these blogs with relevance for medical students and medical educators. Method: This was a qualitative study. Initially 75 blogs were identified. 33 blogs with a total of 1228 English and 337 German blog entries met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. We started with line-by-line coding and switched to focused coding using constant comparative analysis to create a categorical framework for blogs. Results: Medical students use blogs to write and reflect about a large variety of issues related to medical school. Major emerging themes included the preparation for written and oral high-stakes exams, experiences during clinical rotations, dealing with distressing situations during medical school, and social life of students beyond medical school. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that blogs are a potentially useful tool for medical students to reflect on their experiences during medical school as well as for medical educators to better understand how students perceive their time in medical school. The educational benefit of blogging might even be increased if trained medical educators would help to facilitate meaningful and targeted discussions emerging from blog entries and comment on students' learning challenges with the chance to reach a large community of learners.

Pinilla S; Weckbach LT; Alig SK; Bauer H; Noerenberg D; Singer K; Tiedt S

2013-01-01

132

Medical students' emotional development in early clinical experience: a model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dealing with emotions is a critical feature of professional behaviour. There are no comprehensive theoretical models, however, explaining how medical students learn about emotions. We aimed to explore factors affecting their emotions and how they learn to deal with emotions in themselves and others. During a first-year nursing attachment in hospitals and nursing homes, students wrote daily about their most impressive experiences, explicitly reporting what they felt, thought, and did. In a subsequent interview, they discussed those experiences in greater detail. Following a grounded theory approach, we conducted a constant comparative analysis, collecting and then interpreting data, and allowing the interpretation to inform subsequent data collection. Impressive experiences set up tensions, which gave rise to strong emotions. We identified four 'axes' along which tensions were experienced: 'idealism versus reality', 'critical distance versus adaptation', 'involvement versus detachment' and 'feeling versus displaying'. We found many factors, which influenced how respondents relieved those tensions. Their personal attributes and social relationships both inside and outside the medical community were important ones. Respondents' positions along the different dimensions, as determined by the balance between attributes and tensions, shaped their learning outcomes. Medical students' emotional development occurs through active participation in medical practice and having impressive experiences within relationships with patients and others on wards. Tensions along four dimensions give rise to strong emotions. Gaining insight into the many conditions that influence students' learning about emotions might support educators and supervisors in fostering medical students' emotional and professional development.

Helmich E; Bolhuis S; Laan R; Dornan T; Koopmans R

2013-08-01

133

Medical Students Can Help Avoid the Expert Bias in Medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Applying the principles of Evidence Based Health Care (EBHC) in an academic environment we became aware of important differences between medical students and the users of clinical research. The latter may be clinicians, educators, guideline developers, or industry managers. These users are adapted to the system and have some kind of conflict of interest: they are either biased by patients’ demands, by main stream thinking, by medical standards and/or by economic interests. All are under time pressure, want to avoid conflicts with their employer and the analysis of scientific reports may not really be their main focus. Medical students were not exposed to these confounders. Methods: Medical students under professional supervision completed critical assessments of more than 100 published studies. Their analyses were limited to identification of mistakes, bias and errors using a check list of potential weaknesses in design and conduct but included the feedback to the academic supervisors. Results: Medical students trained in Evidence Based Medicine are capable of identifying problems in clinical trials by the systematic application of an assessment checklist. Conclusion: In our approach we demonstrate that students can assist health care professionals and academic teachers with the assessment of clinical evidence. The premise of the approach is that the final appraisals, which involve consideration of clinical, practical and value issues, necessarily reside with the academic teachers, writers of guidelines or industry managers who constitute the active users of research.

Franz Porzsolt; Peter Braubach; Petra Inge Flurschütz; Alex Göller; Maria Barbara Sailer; Manfred Weiss; Peter Wyer

2012-01-01

134

A study of professional competence for radiological technology department students in Taiwan area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, so many medical institutions established and the increasing use of the high technological medical imaging equipment, it makes radiological technology become the main instrument for the medical diagnostic and radiation therapy. However, the medical radiological technologies play the important role to operate all the related radiological machines. If they do not use the machines adequately, it will increase the patients' radiation absorbed dose. Then, the whole society health may be influenced. Therefore, constructing the professional competence of the medical radiological technologists is an important course. The purpose of this research are: (1) to construct the index of professional competence with radiological technology students, (2) to discuss the professional competence for the graduates from the department of radiological technology to be the reference for the Ministry of Examination for the license test of radiological technologists, (3) to provide the direction of the radiological technology department development. (author)

2005-01-01

135

The impact of professional-applied physical training to develop students' performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is reviewed publications on physical education of youth and professional-applied physical training of students of economic universities. The experiment involved 256 students. Determined by means of professional-applied physical training to develop physical fitness and health. The article traces the changes that occur in the body as a result of systematic and substantial physical exercise. Shows the dynamics of development of motor abilities of students of basic medical offices I-II courses for two years of training.

Kirko Gennadij Aleksandrovich

2011-01-01

136

Characteristics of mentoring relationships formed by medical students and faculty  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the characteristics of mentoring relationships formed between faculty and medical students. Individual mentoring relationships of clinical medical students at Munich Medical School were characterized quantitatively and qualitatively. Methods: All students signing up for the mentoring program responded to a questionnaire on their expectations (n = 534). Mentees were asked to give feedback after each of their one-on-one meetings (n = 203). A detailed analysis of the overall mentoring process and its characteristics was performed. For qualitative text analysis, free-text items were analyzed and categorized by two investigators. Quantitative analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon-test to assess differences in grades between students with and without mentors. Results: High-performing students were significantly more likely to participate in the mentoring program (p<0.001). Topics primarily discussed include the mentee's personal goals (65.5%), career planning (59.6%), and experiences abroad (57.6%). Mentees mostly perceived their mentors as counselors (88.9%), providers of ideas (85.0%), and role models (73.3%). Mentees emphasized the positive impact of the mentoring relationship on career planning (77.2%) and research (75.0%). Conclusions: Medical students with strong academic performance as defined by their grades are more likely to participate in formal mentoring programs. Mentoring relationships between faculty and medical students are perceived as a mutually satisfying and effective instrument for key issues in medical studentsprofessional development. Practical implications: Mentoring relationships are a highly effective means of enhancing the bidirectional flow of information between faculty and medical students. A mentoring program can thus establish a feedback loop enabling the educational institution to swiftly identify and address issues of medical students.

Konstantinos Dimitriadis; Philip von der Borch; Sylvère Störmann; Felix G. Meinel; Stefan Moder; Martin Reincke; Martin R. Fischer

2012-01-01

137

Professional reading and the Medical Radiation Science Practitioner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Updating professional knowledge is a central tenet of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and professional reading is a common method health practitioners use to update their professional knowledge. This paper reports the level of professional reading by Medical Radiation Science (MRS) practitioners in Australia and examines organisational support for professional reading. Materials and Methods: Survey design was used to collect data from MRS practitioners. A questionnaire was sent to 1142 Australian practitioners, which allowed self-report data to be collected on the length of time practitioners engage in professional reading and the time workplaces allocate to practitioners for professional reading. Results: Of the 362 MRS practitioners who returned the survey, 93.9% engaged in professional reading on a weekly basis. In contrast, only 28.9% of respondents reported that their workplace allocates time for professional reading to practitioners. MRS practitioners employed in universities engaged in higher levels of reading than their colleagues employed in clinical workplaces (p < 0.01) and more university workplaces allocated time for professional reading to their employees than clinical workplaces (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences for clinical practitioners in level of reading across geographic, organisational and professional demographic factors. Significant differences in workplace allocation of time for professional reading in clinical workplaces were evident for health sector (p < 0.01); work environment (p < 0.01); geographic location (p < 0.01) and area of specialisation (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The vast majority of respondent MRS practitioners engage in professional reading to update their professional knowledge. This demonstrates an ongoing commitment at the individual practitioner level for updating professional knowledge. Updating professional knowledge is an organisational as well as an individual practitioner issue. Whilst the majority of organisations do not currently support MRS practitioners with time allocation for professional reading, there were organisations currently providing this form of support to their employees. Wider adoption of protected time for professional reading would provide much needed organisational support to practitioners and reduce the identified inequity that currently exists across the MRS profession.

Shanahan, Madeleine, E-mail: mshanahan@rmit.edu.a [School of Medical Science, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia); Herrington, Anthony [Head, School of Regional, Remote and eLearning (RRE), Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Herrington, Jan [School of Education, Murdoch University, Perth (Australia)

2010-11-15

138

Planeación estratégica para el fortalecimiento de la ética profesional de Enfermería en la filial Nuevitas/ Strategic plan for strengthening professional ethics of nursing students from the affiliate medical school of Nuevitas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se comprobó que existe una deficiente aplicación y sistematización de los valores éticos profesionales en docentes y estudiantes de licenciatura en enfermería de la Filial de Ciencias Médicas de Nuevitas, por lo que se realizó un estudio descriptivo, cualitativo, fundamentado en la metodología de la investigación-acción, con el objetivo de diseñar una propuesta de planeación estratégica que contribuya al fortalecimiento de los mismos. El universo de la invest (more) igación abarcó a todos los sujetos involucrados en el proceso de formación de esta especialidad, escogiendo como muestra al 100% de los estudiantes del nuevo modelo formativo y al 100% de los docentes categorizados. El estudio se realiza de forma retrospectiva y con un corte transversal, pues se enmarca en el período de los cursos 2008-2009. A través de encuestas, la observación a las evaluaciones realizadas en la educación en el trabajo, las entrevistas, y el análisis se pudo valorar la efectividad de la propuesta, que permitirá perfeccionar el fortalecimiento de valores éticos profesionales en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje, mediante acciones concretas diseñadas a partir de las debilidades y amenazas encontradas en el diagnóstico estratégico, lo que reforzará la labor educativa y la calidad de la atención de enfermería. Se concluye que el nivel de preparación del claustro de profesores y de los estudiantes de enfermería aún resulta insuficiente. Por lo tanto, es necesaria la actualización de este tema desde posiciones humanistas. Abstract in english During the academic year 2008-2009, a descriptive, qualitative study was carried out to design a strategic plan to contribute to strengthening the professional ethical values of both professors and nursing students from Nuevitas?s affiliate medical school. The universe comprised every subject involved in the nursing formation process. The sample included 100 % of new-formative-model students, as well as 100 % of categorized professors. Results showed a deficient preparat (more) ion of professors and students. The proposal?s effectiveness was assessed through evaluations, interviews, and analysis.

Milanés Céspedes, Niurkis; Bujardón Mendoza, Alberto; Tamarit Castillo, Odelaisy; Valdés Cervantes, Vilda Magalys

2010-12-01

139

Medical professionalism among clinical physicians in two tertiary hospitals, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to investigate medical professional attitudes and behaviors in China and explore the influencing factors with a focus on hospital internal management, we developed a 13-item professional attitudes and 11-item behaviors inventory. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 390 physicians mainly in four specialties in two tertiary Chinese hospitals in 2011. 306 completed questionnaires were collected. More than 90% of respondents agreed with at least nine of the 13 specific statements about principles. However, responses on behaviors were not necessarily consistent with those on attitudes. 80.3% of respondents reported that they usually or always participated in quality improvement activities and 48.2% reported that they usually or always participated in peer evaluations of colleagues' quality of care. Some 47.8% had encountered incompetent colleagues and 17.7% had encountered significant medical errors caused by colleagues. Among those who had encountered incompetence or significant medical errors, almost two thirds had never reported their concerns to the hospital or other relevant authorities. Half of the physicians did not obtain enough continuing medical education credits. Physicians' professional reported behaviors were influenced by their personal and professional characteristics, professional attitudes, and assessment of hospital internal management constitutions. For example, participation in decision-making had a significant role in professional reported behaviors of protecting patient confidentiality, improving quality of care, and self-regulation, with those sometimes or often participating in decision-making indicating higher levels of reported behaviors than those who seldom participated (odds ratios: 1.84; 4.31, 2.44; 3.31). The results showed Chinese physicians demonstrated positive attitudes to professionalism principles. However, their reported behaviors were at times inconsistent with their attitudes, especially in the areas of competence, quality improvement, and self-regulation. One of effective strategies to facilitate Chinese physicians' professionalism may be to improving hospital management. PMID:23102754

Chen, Jing; Xu, Juan; Zhang, Chunmei; Fu, Xinqiao

2012-10-17

140

Medical professionalism among clinical physicians in two tertiary hospitals, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to investigate medical professional attitudes and behaviors in China and explore the influencing factors with a focus on hospital internal management, we developed a 13-item professional attitudes and 11-item behaviors inventory. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 390 physicians mainly in four specialties in two tertiary Chinese hospitals in 2011. 306 completed questionnaires were collected. More than 90% of respondents agreed with at least nine of the 13 specific statements about principles. However, responses on behaviors were not necessarily consistent with those on attitudes. 80.3% of respondents reported that they usually or always participated in quality improvement activities and 48.2% reported that they usually or always participated in peer evaluations of colleagues' quality of care. Some 47.8% had encountered incompetent colleagues and 17.7% had encountered significant medical errors caused by colleagues. Among those who had encountered incompetence or significant medical errors, almost two thirds had never reported their concerns to the hospital or other relevant authorities. Half of the physicians did not obtain enough continuing medical education credits. Physicians' professional reported behaviors were influenced by their personal and professional characteristics, professional attitudes, and assessment of hospital internal management constitutions. For example, participation in decision-making had a significant role in professional reported behaviors of protecting patient confidentiality, improving quality of care, and self-regulation, with those sometimes or often participating in decision-making indicating higher levels of reported behaviors than those who seldom participated (odds ratios: 1.84; 4.31, 2.44; 3.31). The results showed Chinese physicians demonstrated positive attitudes to professionalism principles. However, their reported behaviors were at times inconsistent with their attitudes, especially in the areas of competence, quality improvement, and self-regulation. One of effective strategies to facilitate Chinese physicians' professionalism may be to improving hospital management.

Chen J; Xu J; Zhang C; Fu X

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
141

An evolving perspective on physical activity counselling by medical professionals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many chronic conditions and a leading cause of premature mortality. An increasing proportion of adults worldwide are not engaging in a level of physical activity sufficient to prevent or alleviate these adverse effects. Medical professionals have been identified as potentially powerful sources of influence for those who do not meet minimum physical activity guidelines. Health professionals are respected and expected sources of advice and they reach a large and relevant proportion of the population. Despite this potential, health professionals are not routinely practicing physical activity promotion. DISCUSSION: Medical professionals experience several known barriers to physical activity promotion including lack of time and lack of perceived efficacy in changing physical activity behaviour in patients. Furthermore, evidence for effective physical activity promotion by medical professionals is inconclusive. To address these problems, new approaches to physical activity promotion are being proposed. These include collaborating with community based physical activity behaviour change interventions, preparing patients for effective brief counselling during a consultation with the medical professional, and use of interactive behaviour change technology. SUMMARY: It is important that we recognise the latent risk of physical inactivity among patients presenting in clinical settings. Preparation for improving patient physical activity behaviours should commence before the consultation and may include physical activity screening. Medical professionals should also identify suitable community interventions to which they can refer physically inactive patients. Outsourcing the majority of a comprehensive physical activity intervention to community based interventions will reduce the required clinical consultation time for addressing the issue with each patient. Priorities for future research include investigating ways to promote successful referrals and subsequent engagement in comprehensive community support programs to increase physical activity levels of inactive patients. Additionally, future clinical trials of physical activity interventions should be evaluated in the context of a broader framework of outcomes to inform a systematic consideration of broad strengths and weaknesses regarding not only efficacy but cost-effectiveness and likelihood of successful translation of interventions to clinical contexts.

McPhail S; Schippers M

2012-01-01

142

Analysis of Student¢s Errors in English for Medical Purposes  

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Full Text Available Medical students need to be aware not only of their present and future needs during the course of medical English but also of difficulties and problems they possess concerning the knowledge of general English. The aim of the study was to collect and analyze students’ errors as markers that would point to the areas of English where additional teaching and instruction is needed in order to be able to participate in the course of medical English. The study was carried out in 2009 at the Faculty of Medicine in Niš and included 200 second-year medical students. It relies on data obtained from grammar-based placement test and from conversations with the students. Although an intermediate level of general English is necessary for participating in the course of medical English, the results show that there are areas of language which present problems to the students and need to be particularly emphasized and practiced. Students’ errors and comments on their problems may serve as useful diagnostic markers. Using these data, along with information obtained in direct communication with the students, the teachers may develop a plan which would help broaden the knowledge and enable the students to become more confident in professional communication in English. It is very important and useful to take advantage of the medical context because it presents a source of great motivation for the students.

Zorica Anti?

2010-01-01

143

BIRTH ORDER AMONG NORTHERN INDIAN MEDICAL STUDENTS  

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Full Text Available Background: Birth order is claimed to be linked with academic achievement. However, many scientists do not accept it. Objective: To assess the association of birth order in North Indian medical students with number of attempts to cross the competition bar. Study design: Cross sectional study. Setting and participation: M.B.B.S. 1st year students of L.L.R.M. Medical College, Meerut. Statistical analysis used: Chi Square test. Methods: Enquiry of Birth order and number of attempts to crack the medical entrance examination from responded 360 medical students among 494 students admitted during 2005 – 2010. Results: The study revealed insignificant relationship between ages of entrance in medical college in both sexes. of 360 students responded 37% students were of first Birth order. Among those admitted in first attempt, 67% students were of first birth order and proportion of success in first attempt reduced with increasing birth order. Conclusion: Birth Order strongly influences academic achievements.

Vinay Agarwal; Sunil Kumar Garg; Megha Kulshreshtha Mishra; Lalita Chaudhary

2011-01-01

144

Evolution of Professional Training Forms in Medical Institution of Higher Education  

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Full Text Available Training methodology of medical students has been a subject for profound reforms during the recent years. Revolutionary technological progress is one of the reasons for this process; another reason is a constant search for the most efficient educational ideology. The article presents a historical review of medical education systems in Russia and in Europe. Innovational methods of problem-oriented training, involving use of recent electronic and technical achievements significantly differs traditional scheme, described as a «tutor-student» system. The present work focuses particularly on scientific research as a part of medical training, and its role in preparation of modern medical practitioners. It is stated that doctor is a person who combines professional skills and personal qualities. Therefore complex of technocratic and humanitarian aspects in medical education assists in development of successful training system.

Lebedeva M.N.

2012-01-01

145

Smoke-free medical students' meetings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Medical students of the world have signalled their commitment to health promotion by prohibiting smoking at the semiannual general assembly meetings of the International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA). Although initially adopted in 2000, the smoke-free bylaw took 5 years to come into force. This year finally saw compliance with the bylaw on March 1, 2005, at the IFMSA General Assembly in Antalya, Turkey, when medical students who wanted to smoke had to do so outside.

Brown, Colin; RudkjØbing, Andreas

2005-01-01

146

The medicalization of addiction treatment professionals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a previous article, the authors described the changes initiated by recent health care legislation, and how those changes might affect the practice of medicine and the delivery of addiction services. This article reviews the same changes with respect to how they have the potential to change the practice activities of addiction physicians, addiction therapists, addiction counselors and addiction nurses, as well as the activities of administrators and service delivery financial personnel. Developments in delivery systems and the impact of those developments on professionals who work in addiction treatment are considered; current problems, potential solutions, and opportunities for clinicians under health reform are addressed. The goals envisioned for health system reform and the potential for realization of those goals via changes in addiction service delivery design and clinical practice are discussed.

Roy AK; Miller MM

2012-04-01

147

The medicalization of addiction treatment professionals.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous article, the authors described the changes initiated by recent health care legislation, and how those changes might affect the practice of medicine and the delivery of addiction services. This article reviews the same changes with respect to how they have the potential to change the practice activities of addiction physicians, addiction therapists, addiction counselors and addiction nurses, as well as the activities of administrators and service delivery financial personnel. Developments in delivery systems and the impact of those developments on professionals who work in addiction treatment are considered; current problems, potential solutions, and opportunities for clinicians under health reform are addressed. The goals envisioned for health system reform and the potential for realization of those goals via changes in addiction service delivery design and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:22880538

Roy, A Kenison; Miller, Michael M

148

Medical students' attitudes : attitude development in a medical school  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Attitudes of medical students towards patients, psychosocial factors in illness, and care-delivery have been assessed. The influence of (parts of) the medical curriculum has been studied. Students' evaluations of attitude and communication courses have been investigated. The main results were: t...

Batenburg, Vera

149

Medical student fitness to practise committees at UK medical schools  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to explore the structures for managing student fitness to practise hearings in medical schools in the UK. We surveyed by email the named fitness to practise leads of all full members of the UK Medical Schools Council with a medical undergraduate programme. We asked whether student fitness to practise cases were considered by a committee/panel dedicated to medicine, or by one which also considered other undergraduate health and social care students. Findings All 31 medical schools responded. 19 medical schools had a fitness to practise committee dealing with medical students only. Three had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and dentistry. One had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and veterinary medicine. Eight had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and two or more other programmes, such as dentistry, nursing, midwifery, physiotherapy, dietetics, social work, pharmacy, psychology, audiology, speech therapy, operating department practice, veterinary medicine and education. Conclusion All 31 UK medical schools with undergraduate programmes have a fitness to practise committee to deal with students whose behaviour has given rise to concern about their fitness to practise. The variation in governance structures for student fitness to practise committees/panels can in part be explained by variations in University structures and the extent to which Universities co-manage undergraduate medicine with other courses.

Aldridge Jocelyne; Bray Sally A; David Timothy J

2009-01-01

150

Preference for detail in medical illustrations amongst professionals and laypersons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the preferences of medical professionals and laypersons with respect to the level of detail shown in medical illustrations (i.e. graphic art shown in patient education materials) and the complexity of the subject being depicted (i.e. a visually simple versus a visually complex subject). Additionally, respondent's age, gender, and art background were recorded to yield further insight. The results showed that generally there was preference for high-detail (complex) illustrations between the two groups, though the professionals group was somewhat more diverse in their choices. The other variables had no impact on illustration preference.

Strong J; Erolin C

2013-06-01

151

A Student's Perspective on Medical Ethics Education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite many efforts to increase ethics education in US medical schools, barriers continue to arise that impede the production of morally driven physicians who practice medicine with ideal empathy. Research has shown that, particularly during the clinical years, medical students lose the ability both to recognize ethical dilemmas and to approach such situations with compassionate reasoning. This article summarizes the current status of ethics education in US medical schools, described through the eyes of and alongside the story of a graduating medical student.

Terndrup C

2013-12-01

152

A Student's Perspective on Medical Ethics Education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite many efforts to increase ethics education in US medical schools, barriers continue to arise that impede the production of morally driven physicians who practice medicine with ideal empathy. Research has shown that, particularly during the clinical years, medical students lose the ability both to recognize ethical dilemmas and to approach such situations with compassionate reasoning. This article summarizes the current status of ethics education in US medical schools, described through the eyes of and alongside the story of a graduating medical student.

Terndrup C

2013-06-01

153

Medical students' tobacco use and attitudes towards tobacco control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Despite their important roles as future doctors in tobacco cessation counselling, the high prevalence of tobacco use among medical students may hinder them from advocating tobacco control policies and providing cessation counselling. Promoting this role among medical students is especially important in low- and middle-income countries with high burdens of tobacco use but limited resources for cessation programmes. This study examined the associations between medical students' tobacco use and their attitudes towards tobacco control policies and the roles of health professionals in the provision of tobacco cessation advice. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included data from the large multi-country dataset generated by the Global Health Professions Student Survey, 2005-2008 (n = 36,533 medical students). Thirteen binary dependent variables related to medical students' attitudes towards tobacco control policies and the health professional's role in cessation counselling were examined using random-effects logistic regression, with tobacco use status as the key explanatory variable. Covariates included gender, receipt of cessation training, country-level and gender-specific smoking prevalence, region, and country income group. RESULTS: Current tobacco use was consistently associated with less favourable attitudes towards tobacco control policy and cessation advice. Compared with never users, daily users were less likely to agree that the sale of tobacco products to adolescents should be banned (odds ratio [OR] 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-0.58) and that health professionals should routinely advise patients to quit smoking (OR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.41-0.52) or other forms of tobacco use (OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.72-0.97). Daily users were less likely to agree that health professionals who smoke are less likely to advise patients to stop smoking (OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.39-0.41). CONCLUSIONS: Medical schools may benefit from a thorough re-evaluation of the scope of tobacco cessation training in their curricula in order to support students in smoking cessation and to shape their attitudes towards tobacco control. Targeting medical students who are current tobacco users in tobacco control efforts may be beneficial, given the cost-effectiveness of providing cessation advice.

Do YK; Bautista MA

2013-06-01

154

Professional Medical Ethicist: A Weed or Desired Member in Medical Ethics Debates?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We now live in an era of experts on virtually everything, among which we have professional medical ethicists, who gained prominence in the late 60s due to dramatic advances in medical technology. Before then, medical ethics issues were not thought as separable from the warp and woof of the everyday ...

Animasaun, Emmanuel Dare

155

Perceived stress amongst medical and dental students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Reports in the last decade have shown that healthcare students face a high degree of stress. Cumulative stress leads to depression and suicidal behaviour in some of them.Aims: This study was designed to identify levels of perceived stress amongst medical and dental students in a private institution of South India.Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey carried out on the first year undergraduate medical and dental students. Perceived stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale. The students were given a questionnaire to be completed by them individually during January-February 2011.Results: A total of 234 students (144 medical and 90 dental students) were studied. The mean PSS score was 16.74(SD 5.99) for medical students and 18.23(SD 5.52) for dental students. While girls perceived greater stress amongst medical students, boys perceived greater stress amongst dental students though the difference did not reach statistical significance. Univariate analysis as well as Pearson's correlations identified interpersonal problems with their friends as well as their course load as the most significant stressors amongst the students.Conclusion: Levels of perceived stress are high in medical students and even higher in dental students. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. Such students blamed reasons such as their course overload, pressure from teachers as well as parents, and problems related to their interpersonal issues.Key Messages: Perceived stress levels were found to be significantly higher amongst dental students than amongst medical students comparable to reports from other parts of the world. If monitored periodically during their student life, they can be helped to tackle their stress levels effectively and be saved from slipping into depressions.

Harihar Chilukuri; Sowjanya Bachali; Nagaiah Jupalle Naidu; Ahmed Shaik Basha; Samuvel Verrapam Selvam

2012-01-01

156

Burnout syndrom as a mental health problem among medical students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Mental health problems of adolescents are among the prevailing problems of public health. While studying for their future medical profession, the students of medicine have to exchange emotions with the patients intensively, and the empathic relationship itself bears a risk of eventual ”emotional depletion”, which leads to ”professional lack of emotions”. The study was aimed at presenting burnout syndrome as a challenge for mental health of medical students, its importance for the future professional engagement of doctors and the possibilities of its prevention. Methods. The authors of this paper review and analyze data and conclusions of previous national and international studies from this field and suggest possibilities of overcoming the condition of burnout. Results. The frequency of burnout syndrome, which is the synonym for the above mentioned condition of emotional exhaustion, is twice as high in medical professionals, particularly young ones, as in other professions on average. Burnout syndrome is nowadays regarded as a psychological distress experienced during the educational process and it has been observed in as many as 50% of medical students. The most significant factors independently associated with student burnout are: personality traits, stressful personal life events and learning and training conditions at their faculties. Conclusions. It is of utmost importance to understand the causes and consequences of psychological distress in students, and the faculties should not only identify these problems, but also endeavor to promote health by developing strategies for improving personal well-being, which are important for future doctors to achieve professional success and develop resistance to stress.

Backovi? Dušan; Jevti? Marija

2012-01-01

157

Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. FINDINGS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years' medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as "a "persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient". Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0%) of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.

Alzahrani HA

2012-01-01

158

Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as “a “persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient”. Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0%) of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.

Alzahrani Hasan

2012-01-01

159

Emotionally challenging learning situations: medical students' experiences of autopsies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To explore medical students' experiences of an emotionally challenging learning situation: the autopsy. Methods: Qualitative data were collected by means of written accounts from seventeen students after their first and third autopsies and a group interview with seven students after their first autopsy. Data was interpreted using inductive thematic analysis. Results: Students experienced the autopsy in three ways: as an unnatural situation, as a practical exercise, and as a way to learn how pathologists work. Most students found the situation unpleasant, but some were overwhelmed. Their experiences were characterised by strong unpleasant emotions and closeness to the situation. The body was perceived as a human being, recently alive. Students who experienced the autopsy as a practical exercise saw it mainly as a part of the course and their goal was to learn anatomy and pathology. They seemed to objectify the body and distanced themselves from the situation. Students who approached the autopsy as a way to learn how pathologists work concentrated on professional aspects of the autopsy. The body was perceived as a patient rather than as a biological specimen. Conclusions: Autopsies are emotionally challenging learning situations. If students attend autopsies, they need to participate in several autopsies in order to learn about procedures and manifestations of pathological changes. Students need opportunities to discuss their experiences afterwards, and teachers need to be aware of how different students perceive the autopsies, and guide students through the procedure. Our findings emphasize the importance of investigating emotional aspects of medical education.

Maria Weurlander; Max Scheja; Håkan Hult; Annika Wernerson

2012-01-01

160

Identifying professional characteristics of the ideal medical doctor: the laddering technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine the utility of the laddering interview technique to investigate complex issues in medical education, such as professionalism. METHOD: The laddering technique was used to identify examples of professional behaviour associated with the ideal medical doctor, and to explain why participants thought these behaviours were important. Three groups were interviewed: doctors (n = 30), first-year medical students (n = 31) and patients (n = 33). RESULTS: All groups identified characteristics associated with a 'communication and interpersonal skills' theme. Data suggested the essence of the doctor-patient interaction was shared by the groups, with varying later emphases due to their different perspectives. Additionally, Doctors and Students generated characteristics associated with 'team-working' and 'competence' themes; Doctors' conceptualization of each theme was more detailed. Positive and negative impacts of Doctor's professional behaviour on the patient, doctor and the wider medical arena were also identified. CONCLUSION: Use of laddering resulted in data-rich results for each of the three stakeholder groups, illustrating shared and divergent preferences as to the preferred characteristics of a medical doctor and effects of successful and less-successful doctor-patient interactions. The identified characteristics are relevant to the area under investigation and salient to these key stakeholders.

Miles S; Leinster SJ

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Burnout and career choice motivation in medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Burnout is a stress-induced syndrome, which affects medical students. Some environmental and personal factors can favor burnout onset and its serious consequences as dropping out, sleep disorders, depression, and suicide. The motivation for choosing medicine is a personal aspect that can modulate the distress with academic demands. METHODS: We applied self-administered questionnaires in 277 medical students to investigate the predictive role of career choice motivations on burnout dimensions. Specifically, we studied the influence of the main reasons for choosing medicine on emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and academic efficacy. RESULTS: Intellectual curiosity, professional autonomy, altruism, and interest in human relationships were the most common reasons for choosing medicine. However, the medical students motivated by personal illness or family member's illness or death revealed a significant greater emotional exhaustion when compared with the students with other motivations. CONCLUSION: The students who apply for medical school motivated by illness/death experiences are at a great risk for burnout. We suggest that students who are at risk for emotional exhaustion can be identified at the admission of medical school. Primary prevention strategies for burnout should consider this risk group.

Pagnin D; De Queiroz V; De Oliveira Filho MA; Gonzalez NV; Salgado AE; Cordeiro e Oliveira B; Lodi CS; Melo RM

2013-05-01

162

United States medical students' knowledge of Alzheimer disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: A knowledge gap exists between general physicians and specialists in diagnosing and managing Alzheimer disease (AD). This gap is concerning due to the estimated rise in prevalence of AD and cost to the health care system. Medical school is a viable avenue to decrease the gap, educating future physicians before they specialize. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge level of students in their first and final years of medical school. METHODS: Fourteen participating United States medical schools used e-mail student rosters to distribute an online survey of a quantitative cross-sectional assessment of knowledge about AD; 343 students participated. Knowledge was measured using the 12-item University of Alabama at Birmingham AD Knowledge Test for Health Professionals. General linear models were used to examine the effect of demographic variables and previous experience with AD on knowledge scores. RESULTS: Only 2.5% of first year and 68.0% of final year students correctly scored ten or more items on the knowledge scale. Personal experience with AD predicted higher knowledge scores in final year students (P= 0.027). CONCLUSION: Knowledge deficiencies were common in final year medical students. Future studies to identify and evaluate the efficacy of AD education programs in medical schools are warranted. Identifying and disseminating effective programs may help close the knowledge gap.

Nagle BJ; Usita PM; Edland SD

2013-01-01

163

Medical Teachers' Professional Development--Perceived Barriers and Opportunities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores medical teachers' perceived barriers and opportunities for educational and professional development. Data has been gathered through 19 semi-structured interviews with participants on a staff development course 1 year after their participation. The analysis shows that most perceived barriers are found on an organisational level,…

Stenfors-Hayes, Terese; Weurlander, Maria; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan

2010-01-01

164

Perceptions of professionalism among nursing faculty and nursing students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although there is no consensus about the definition of professionalism, some generally recognized descriptors include knowledge, specialization, intellectual and individual responsibility, and well-developed group consciousness. In this study, Q-methodology was used to identify common viewpoints about professionalism held by nursing faculty and students, and four viewpoints emerged as humanists, portrayers, facilitators, and regulators. The humanists reflected the view that professional values include respect for human dignity, personal integrity, protection of patient privacy, and protection of patients from harm. The portrayers believed that professionalism is evidenced by one's image, attire, and expression. For facilitators, professionalism not only involves standards and policies but also includes personal beliefs and values. The regulators believed that professionalism is fostered by a workplace in which suitable beliefs and standards are communicated, accepted, and implemented by its staff. The differences indicate that there may be numerous contextual variables that affect individuals' perceptions of professionalism.

Akhtar-Danesh N; Baumann A; Kolotylo C; Lawlor Y; Tompkins C; Lee R

2013-02-01

165

[Professional competencies of nursing, medical, and dental interns performing social service in Mexico].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: determine the degree to which nursing, medical, and dental interns performing social service in Mexico have the professional competencies required to practice the profession. METHODS: the results of the general examinations for completion of the undergraduate degree, administered between 2006 and 2008 to students in the nursing, medical, and dentistry programs by the National Center for Higher Education Assessment, were reviewed. RESULTS: of the 39 824 graduates in the three programs who were tested during the period in question, 12 845 did not exhibit the minimum professional competencies. In nursing, out of the total students tested in the three-year period, 3 765 (30.2%) performed inadequately; in medicine, the figure was 6 704 (32.7%), and in dentistry, 2 376 (34.1%). Notwithstanding, backed by the respective regulations, all them were practicing, or had practiced, as professionals, serving as members of the health team in health institutions (approximately 11% of the Ministry of Health workforce in those professions). CONCLUSIONS: interns are the bedrock of health care for the rural population, but approximately one-third of them lack the basic competencies to practice their profession. It is imperative that they demonstrate professional competence before beginning their social service and that they be closely supervised, both academically and professionally, during their internship.

Vázquez Martínez FD

2010-10-01

166

Predicting physician assistant students' professionalism by personality attributes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine whether personality characteristics, both positive and negative, predict the level of professionalism in physician assistant (PA) students. METHODS: Both the Millon College Counseling Inventory (MCCI) and a physician assistant professionalism scale (PA Professional Scale) were administered to 82 PA students in 5 multiple years at University of Detroit Mercy, a private-university PA program with an end point of a master's degree. Cluster analysis determined natural groupings of healthy and unhealthy personality characteristics, and the two personality clusters were compared to each of 15 professionalism parameters. Significant correlations were determined using a two-tailed Pearson correlation. RESULTS: The "healthy" personality clusters characterized by conscientiousness and outward directedness were significantly predictive for the professionalism attributes of taking full responsibility for self, volunteering for others, dressing professionally, punctuality, participating in class, ability to give and receive criticism, and seeking out new challenges. The "unhealthy" cluster was negatively correlated to taking full responsibility, volunteerism, trustworthiness, dressing professionally, being punctual, giving and receiving criticism, and taking on new challenges. CONCLUSION: Healthy personality characteristics do predict high levels of self-reported professionalism according to this study. Conversely, unhealthy personality characteristics will predict a low level of self-reported professionalism. Personality profiles can be incorporated into the admission process to select a higher percentage of candidates who value and emulate professionalism, producing better practitioners.

Moser S; Dereczyk A

2012-01-01

167

KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF FIRST YEAR ?MEDICAL STUDENTS ABOUT SMOKING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Myanmar is one of South East Asian countries and tobacco consumption and ?exposure to environmental smoking in Myanmar youth is high from the report of Global Youth ?Tobacco Survey. Tobacco control experts and Global Health Professional Survey on youth ?reports have emphasized the importance of training medical students about tobacco smoking. ?This study examined cigarette smoking among a sample of newly intake medical students of ?famous medical university in Myanmar. The knowledge and practice and factors associated with ?cigarette smoking in students were discussed and issues which need to be implemented to control ?the smoking among them in the future are presented.?Objective: To find out the knowledge upon tobacco smoking among first year medical students, ?to determine the smoking practice of first year medical student and To determine the gender ?difference of smoking among the studentsMethod: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was done among first year medical ?students of the University of Medicine-1, Yangon, during August 2007. Data were collected ?using a pretested structured self-administered questionnaire. Questionnaire included sections ?about socio-demographic information, smoking behaviour and knowledge. Current smoker was ?defined as a person who practiced tobacco smoking at the time of data collection. Ex-smoker ?was defined as a person who quit smoking more than a year ago. ?Result: There were total 400 first year medical students were participated in the survey. Median ?age of the students was 17 years, 53.3% were males and 45.8% females. Overall prevalence of ?current smokers and ex-smokers was 5.8% and 3.5% respectively. Median age at initiation of ?smoking was 14.5 years. The difference in rates smokers between male (8.9%) and female (2.1%) ?students was statistically significant. Most of the students aware of the health hazard of smoking ?but nearly half the students had poor knowledge about prevention and control of smoking.?Conclusion: Smoking among medical students was less frequent than youth in Myanmar. ?Medical educators may utilize this positive mindset of future doctors to train them about ?prevention and control of tobacco smoking.?

Kye Mon Min Swe; Amit Bhardwaj

2012-01-01

168

Psychological Stress amongst Maltese Undergraduate ?Medical Students  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The undergraduate medical course is known to be a stressful course within the ?University structure but there are no national studies available to review this.?Objective: To compare the levels psychological stress between medical and non-medical students ?and to distinguish stress levels over the five years of undergraduate study of the Bachelor of ?Medicine and Surgery Honours degree at the University of Malta.?Method: Two separate depression and stress related questionnaires were distributed to a medical ?and non-medical student population. The results obtained of the two questionnaires where ?compared and analysed using SPSS version 16.?Result: A total number of 561 students completed the questionnaires including 208 medical and ??253 non-medical students. The medical students scored an average of 32.71 (Q-1) and 16.30 (Q-??2) whereas the non-medical students scored lower with a 29.17 (Q-1) and 14.70 (Q-2). This ?indicated a statistically significant difference in scores between medical and non-medical ?students (p<0.05). Female students were also noted to be statistically more stressed than male ?students (p<0.05). When comparing the different grades of student the third year students were ?noted to be the least stressed cohort (p<0.05) whereas the 2nd (Q-2) and 5th (Q-1 & Q-2) year ?students were the most stressed groups (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between ?the 2nd and 5th year students with regards to their scores of Q-2 but there was a difference noted ?when comparing the Q-1 scores.?Conclusion: The results confirm the need for a framework to support medical students during ?their course, especially during the two more demanding years (2nd and 5th year). Further scope for ?investigation may be the manner with which males cope as the stress levels appear to be generally ?lower and also to compare with future groups of students following a move from one venue to a ?newer medical school.?

Jonathan Mamo; Raphael Buttigieg; Diana Vassallo; Laura Azzopardi

2012-01-01

169

Log analysis to understand medical professionals' image searching behaviour.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reports on the analysis of the query logs of a visual medical information retrieval system that provides access to radiology resources. Our analysis shows that, despite sharing similarities with general Web search and also with biomedical text search, query formulation and query modification when searching for visual biomedical information have unique characteristics that need to be taken into account in order to enhance the effectiveness of the search support offered by such systems. Typical information needs of medical professionals searching radiology resources are also identified with the goal to create realistic search tasks for a medical image retrieval evaluation benchmark.

Tsikrika T; Müller H; Kahn CE Jr

2012-01-01

170

Reconciling the professional and student identities of clinical psychology trainees.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study explored the ways in which qualified and trainee clinical psychologists perceived professional behaviour, as illustrated in a series of short vignettes, in student and clinical practice contexts. Comparisons were made to identify the extent to which ideas of professionalism differed across different learning contexts and between qualified and unqualified staff, with the aim of adding to the literature on which factors influence the development of professional identity in health professionals. An online questionnaire depicting a range of potentially unprofessional behaviours was completed by 265 clinical psychology trainees and 106 qualified clinical psychologists. The data were analysed using a general linear model with simultaneous entry in which rater (trainee vs qualified clinical psychologist), setting (student vs placement) and their interaction predicted acceptability ratings. We found that, in general, trainees and qualified staff agreed on those behaviours that were potentially unprofessional, although where significant differences were found, these were due to trainees rating the same behaviours as more professionally acceptable than qualified clinical psychologists. Despite trainees identifying a range of behaviours as professionally unacceptable, some percentage reported having engaged in a similar behaviour in the past. Irrespective of the status of the rater, the same behaviours tended to be viewed as more professionally unacceptable when in a placement (clinical) setting than in a student (university) setting. Generally, no support was found for a rater by setting interaction. The study suggests that trainee clinical psychologists are generally successful at identifying professional norms, although they do not always act in accordance with these. Conflicting student and professional norms may result in trainees viewing some potentially unprofessional behaviour as less severe than qualified staff. Health professional educators should be aware of this fact and take steps to shape trainee norms to be consistent with that of the professional group. PMID:23053871

McKenzie, Karen; Cossar, Jill A; Fawns, Tim; Murray, Aja L

2012-10-02

171

Innovative conditions of professionally applied training for maritime-students.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author considers organizational and methodological terms of implementation of professional and applied physical training for maritime students subject to their motivation to physical self-perfection. The purpose of the research is to define organizational and pedagogical terms for professional and applied physical training of maritime students to improve their physical condition and special physical attainment. The applied methods were: anthropometric metrology, functional probes, tonometry, pulsometry, motion tests and mathematical analysis. 70 students of 17-18 years participated in the research. It was determined that organizational and pedagogical terms directed on acceleration of making necessary for students to self-improve physically, positively impact on development of special physical state that are fundamental for professional activities of maritime students.

Podlesny A.I.

2011-01-01

172

Behavior, knowledge, and attitudes towards khat among Yemeni medical students and effects of a seminar.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study describes khat behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among Yemeni medical students (MS) and the effects of a seminar. The students completed a survey (n = 62); a subgroup participated in a discussion-based seminar and follow-up survey (n = 18). Although the students demonstrated knowledge about khat's health effects and considered it unacceptable for health professionals to chew khat, they disagreed that health professionals should advise patients to quit. Knowledge and attitudes improved post-seminar (not significant, except for a borderline significant increase in students correctly identifying khat as addictive; P = 0.063). Although effects were small, seminars may help health professionals address khat use in Yemen.

Yi PH; Kim JS; Hussein KI; Saitz R

2012-01-01

173

Career choices of undergraduate medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Many factors influence the career choices of undergraduate medical students. We sought to identify the career choices of medical students in an Indian medical college and what influenced these choices. METHODS: We conducted a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey. We included medical students of all semesters at a medical college. The sociodemographic data, first choice of career on the day of the questionnaire and rating of 34 factors influencing choices were recorded. RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty-two questionnaires were analysed. The most preferred career choices were medicine and surgery, followed by orthopaedics; 3 students each chose obstetrics and gynaecology, and anaesthesia; none chose community medicine. Second-semester students made choices before and the rest after joining medical college. Significantly, senior students were disinclined to take up surgery (p=0.003), preferring orthopaedics instead (p=0.017). 'Personal interest' was rated by 80% of students as important in influencing their choice, followed by stability (58%), reputation of the specialty (56%) and lifestyle (55%). CONCLUSION: The career choices of medical students at our institution were biased against some subjects. Often, choices develop during the course. Role modelling by faculty during departmental postings could be a factor influencing choice.

Kumar R; Dhaliwal U

2011-05-01

174

Medical education and moral segmentation in medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Many studies indicate that increases in cognitive ability, maturity and educational experience lead to a general increase in moral reasoning skills. However, research has shown that moral development does not occur during medical school and that it may, in fact, plateau or even regress. There is no empirical evidence as to what might be the cause of such a result. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to assess moral judgement competence in medical students and to investigate trends in moral judgement competence in relation to age, gender, culture, religion, year of medical course and different programmes within the medical curriculum. METHODS: We employed a cross-sectional and descriptive design over two consecutive years (2011 and 2012). Students completed Lind's Moral Judgement Test (MJT), which is based on Kohlberg's stages of moral development and is used to measure moral judgement competence (C-INDEX). C-INDEX results were analysed in relation to age, gender, cultural background, religion, cohort and specific programmes within the medical curriculum. RESULTS: The numbers of students who completed the MJT in 2011 and 2012 were 394 and 486, respectively. The two studies showed a significant difference and negative correlations between the moral judgement competence of medical students and both age and year of medical course (p < 0.001). The findings suggested the existence of a phenomenon known as 'moral segmentation', which increased significantly as students progressed through medical education, and were significantly linear between cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Students show a decline in moral judgement competence during medical education. This probably reflects an increase in moral segmentation rather than an inhibition in moral development. The challenge is to develop a curriculum that will enable medical students to maintain, or better, increase their moral judgement competence.

Hegazi I; Wilson I

2013-10-01

175

Caffeine consumption among medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recently, caffeine consumption in Japan is thought to have increased. Although caffeine had been considered to be harmless, there have been studies which suggests an association between caffeine and health and give rise to vigorous discussion. However, in Japan, there have been few epidemiological studies on caffeine consumption among a general population. A questionnaire survey was conducted among medical students and the results were as follows: 1) High dose users (estimated daily caffeine use is 250 mg or more) were observed in 15.2% and the proportion was higher in males than in females. 2) The respondents gave sleepiness, dry mouth and so on, as reasons for taking caffeine beverages, and gave, as the effects of caffeine, becoming clear-headed, shaking off sleepiness, and epigastric discomfort or pain. 3) A third of respondents have experienced taking caffeine tablets and ampules to shake off sleepiness and, in males, the more caffeine they had daily, the more who reported the experience. 4) Caffeine consumption has an association with alcohol use and smoking habit among males.

Mino Y; Yasuda N; Fujimura T; Ohara H

1990-12-01

176

Professional doctorate supervision: exploring student and supervisor experiences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper discusses research supervision within one professional doctorate programme; focusing on the processes and issues students and supervisors gave priority. An exploratory, descriptive approach was used to develop a pilot study. Data was collected from three sources. First student perceptions and experiences of supervision were obtained during a group workshop. Observations and field notes were gathered during this event. A second, similar event was undertaken with professional doctorate research supervisors. Finally a convenience sample of students and supervisors (two of each) participated in open ended one to one discussions regarding supervision. The discussions were tape recorded, transcribed and analysed, along with the workshop field notes and observations. There are implied differences between professional doctorates and the PhD relating to process, purpose and outcome [Yam, B., 2005. Professional doctorate and nursing practice. Nurse Education Today 25 (7), 564-572; Laing, S., 2000. Linking research to practice. Physiotherapy 86 (7), 371]. Given such implications professional doctorate research supervision could, or should, embrace critical engagement with issues related to the leadership of research in professional practice; moving beyond research and methodological issues. Indeed it had been presupposed such issues would emerge in this study. For example it had been anticipated that students would want a supervisor or adviser from within their practice setting, to provide insight and support in relation to leading research in practice and to complement the role of their research supervisor. Such complementary supervisory roles within the practice context are given credence in the literature [Kemp, S., 2004. Professional doctorates and doctoral education. International Journal of Organisational Behaviour 7 (4), 401-410]. However students preferred to utilise support networks within the professional doctorate itself to address professional issues.

Lee NJ

2009-08-01

177

Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

|The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

2006-01-01

178

Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

2006-01-01

179

ESL Students in the Disciplines: Negotiating the Professional Program Track  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report on three case studies of ESL students who are taking courses to enter professional programs. The goal of the study reported in this article is to examine ESL students' language and general academic performance in content-area classes at one open-access college of a large midwestern university. The authors were particularly…

Becket, Diana; Benander, Ruth; Kumar, Rita

2007-01-01

180

Interprofessional education between nurse prescribing and medical students: a qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prescriptive authority has been extended in the UK to include non-medical healthcare professionals. However, uptake and use of prescribing by these professionals are inconsistent. Collaborative practice is key for its successful implementation, and such practice is a benefit of interprofessional education (IPE). This study explored the feasibility of IPE between nurse prescribers at Anglia Ruskin University and 3rd year medical students at the University of Cambridge. Three focus groups and three individual interviews were undertaken with nurse and medical prescribing students, following shared learning sessions on drug interactions, prescription writing and legal issues and accountability. Benefits included the opportunity for mutual understanding of prescribing training and role. Medical students valued the opportunity to be able to gain an insight into nurses' views about prescribing. The level and breadth of pharmacology knowledge of medical and nursing students differed. Location of sessions, scheduling of classes and balancing of students acted as barriers to learning.

Courtenay M

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Ethics in engineering: Student perceptions and their professional identity development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Professional ethics instruction in engineering is commonly conducted by examining case studies in light of the code of conduct of a suitable professional body. Although graphical presentations of spectacular failures, sobering stories of the repercussions and the solid framework provided by the tenets of a code of ethics may leave a lasting impression, students generally gain their professional identity from relatives and colleagues. Their professional ethics tend to be mostly an extension of their personal ethics. Instruction on ethics generally serves only to reinforce students’ inclination to act ethically and provides encouragement to act on these beliefs. In this study a survey based on previous investigations was conducted (n=1136) to examine the personal ethical perceptions of engineering students. The survey measured how engineering students perceive their own ethical beliefs and how they perceive the ethical beliefs and actions of their peers. As a learning exercise, students were then challenged by examining their personal ethical beliefs in light of the professional ethics requirements of the Institute of Engineers Australia (IEAust) code of conduct. After familiarisation with the Engineers Australia code of ethics, students were also invited to comment regarding their beliefs regarding adherence to this code.

Brad Stappenbelt

2013-01-01

182

Analysis of test anxiety in medical students  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Most students experience some level of anxiety during the exam. However, when anxiety affects the exam performance, it represents a problem. Test anxiety is a special form of anxiety, which is characterized with somatic, cognitive and behavioral symptoms of anxiety in situations of preparing and performing tests and exams. Test anxiety turns into a problem when it becomes so high that it interferes with test preparation and performance. The objective of this study was to ascertain the presence of test anxiety in medical students and to analyze some aspects of test anxiety in medical students of different gender, at different years of studying and possibility of failing a year. Material and methods. The study sample consisted of 198 students of Belgrade University School of Medicine of all years. Test anxiety was assessed by the Test Anxiety Inventory. Results. The following results have been obtained in the study: 1. Medical students generally present moderate level of test anxiety; 2. female students have statistically significant more intense symptoms of test anxiety than male students; 3. the most intense symptoms are in the 3rd year and the least are in the 4th year of studies; 4. there is no statistically significant difference in the presence of symptoms of test anxiety among the students who have repeated one of the years of studies and regular students. Conclusion. There is a considerable number of medical students who have intense symptoms of test anxiety and these students require help and support.

Latas Milan; Panti? Marina; Obradovi? Danilo

2010-01-01

183

Internet and medical student in Marrakech  

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Full Text Available Background: The implementation of ICT in the academic curriculum is a part of the e-reform of the undergraduate education currently ongoing at the Moroccan medical school. In order to evaluate the efficiency of such reform, the authors have conducted a survey at the Marrakech school of medicine including 200 students. Materials and Methods: A comparison between the third year medical students and sixth year medical students was performed in our university Hospital. Results: The majority of the students have a personal computer and internet access. Our study shows no significant differences between third year medical students and sixth year medical students. In both students? groups the level of internet and computer access, the internet skills, the opinions on internet use and ICT implementation and the difficulties encountered when using internet for medical purpose were similar. This can be explained by the lack of no implementation of ICT in our university. Conclusion: The learning process is still based on traditional methods. Educational authorities have to train students to improve their internet skills.

Hattab Nadia; Lahmiti Saad; Abdelaziz Ahmed; Saidi Halim; Fikry Tarik

2010-01-01

184

Internet and medical student in Marrakech.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The implementation of ICT in the academic curriculum is a part of the e-reform of the undergraduate education currently ongoing at the Moroccan medical school. In order to evaluate the efficiency of such reform, the authors have conducted a survey at the Marrakech school of medicine including 200 students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comparison between the third year medical students and sixth year medical students was performed in our university Hospital. RESULTS: The majority of the students have a personal computer and internet access. Our study shows no significant differences between third year medical students and sixth year medical students. In both students' groups the level of internet and computer access, the internet skills, the opinions on internet use and ICT implementation and the difficulties encountered when using internet for medical purpose were similar. This can be explained by the lack of no implementation of ICT in our university. CONCLUSION: The learning process is still based on traditional methods. Educational authorities have to train students to improve their internet skills.

Hattab NM; Lahmiti S; Ben Abdelaziz A; Saidi H; Fikry T

2010-04-01

185

Endocrinology Concepts for Medical Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical education is constantly undergoing revision and renewal in attempts to ensure appropriate depth and breadth of knowledge of basic and clinical sciences as well as provide an environment that encourages life-long learning and integrative reasoning skills. An overview of the most recent comprehensive (130/141 accredited medical schools in the United States and Canada) report on medical education (1) compiled by M. B. Anderson, Associate Vice President - Division of Medical Education, Association of American Medical Colleges, reveals several important observations concerning the "state of modern medical education."

PhD H. Maurice Goodman (Univ of Massachusetts Med. Sch. Department of Physiology)

2001-12-01

186

How we designed and implemented teaching, training, and assessment of professional behaviour at VUmc School of Medical Sciences Amsterdam.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Training of doctors in The Netherlands seeks to develop clinical competences including professional behaviour. Behaving as a professional is not just a desirable trait but a clearly stated requirement for doctors and medical students. Results: We designed an educational theme, Professional Behaviour (PB), as a longitudinal thread throughout our six-year curriculum after defining PB as "The observable aspects of practising professionalism". This definition was translated into a set of practical skills that can be observed: "The ability to deal with tasks, to deal with others and to deal with oneself". We assess PB 29 times in the course of the medical curriculum. Students with an unsatisfactory PB do not get their degree irrespective of their medical knowledge. We train teachers to identify and report unprofessional student behaviour, and we offer these students interventions and support. Conclusions: With the educational theme "Professional Behaviour" we have defined PB for our institute and firmly embedded it in the medical curriculum. We use workplace learning and role models for teaching PB. Different teachers carry out multiple formative and summative assessments, using standardized assessment scales. With these measures we intend to promote a culture of excellence in PB in our institute. PMID:23782044

Mak-van der Vossen, Marianne; Peerdeman, Saskia; Kleinveld, Johanna; Kusurkar, Rashmi

2013-06-19

187

How we designed and implemented teaching, training, and assessment of professional behaviour at VUmc School of Medical Sciences Amsterdam.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Training of doctors in The Netherlands seeks to develop clinical competences including professional behaviour. Behaving as a professional is not just a desirable trait but a clearly stated requirement for doctors and medical students. Results: We designed an educational theme, Professional Behaviour (PB), as a longitudinal thread throughout our six-year curriculum after defining PB as "The observable aspects of practising professionalism". This definition was translated into a set of practical skills that can be observed: "The ability to deal with tasks, to deal with others and to deal with oneself". We assess PB 29 times in the course of the medical curriculum. Students with an unsatisfactory PB do not get their degree irrespective of their medical knowledge. We train teachers to identify and report unprofessional student behaviour, and we offer these students interventions and support. Conclusions: With the educational theme "Professional Behaviour" we have defined PB for our institute and firmly embedded it in the medical curriculum. We use workplace learning and role models for teaching PB. Different teachers carry out multiple formative and summative assessments, using standardized assessment scales. With these measures we intend to promote a culture of excellence in PB in our institute.

Mak-van der Vossen M; Peerdeman S; Kleinveld J; Kusurkar R

2013-09-01

188

Proximity morality in medical school – medical students forming physician morality "on the job": Grounded theory analysis of a student survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The value of ethics education have been questioned. Therefore we did a student survey on attitudes about the teaching of ethics in Swedish medical schools. Methods Questionnaire survey on attitudes to ethics education with 409 Swedish medical students participating. We analyzed > 8000 words of open-ended responses and multiple-choice questions using classic grounded theory procedures. Results In this paper we suggest that medical students take a proximity morality stance towards their ethics education meaning that they want to form physician morality "on the job". This involves comprehensive ethics courses in which quality lectures provide "ethics grammar" and together with attitude exercises and vignette reflections nurture tutored group discussions. Goals of forming physician morality are to develop a professional identity, handling diversity of religious and existential worldviews, training students described as ethically naive, processing difficult clinical experiences, and desisting negative role modeling from physicians in clinical or teaching situations, some engaging in "ethics suppression" by controlling sensitive topic discussions and serving students politically correct attitudes. Conclusion We found that medical students have a proximity morality attitude towards ethics education. Rather than being taught ethics they want to form their own physician morality through tutored group discussions in comprehensive ethics courses.

Thulesius Hans O; Sallin Karl; Lynoe Niels; Löfmark Rurik

2007-01-01

189

Characteristics of mentoring relationships formed by medical students and faculty  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Little is known about the characteristics of mentoring relationships formed between faculty and medical students. Individual mentoring relationships of clinical medical students at Munich Medical School were characterized quantitatively and qualitatively. Methods: All students signing up...

Konstantinos Dimitriadis; Philip von der Borch; Sylvère Störmann; Felix G. Meinel; Stefan Moder

190

Physiotherapy students' professional identity on the edge of working life.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Market expectations of physiotherapists reflect changing demands of health care for client centred, community based management of chronic disease in an ageing population. This study forms a component part of a longitudinal study of students' socialization throughout their education programme examining the outcome of professional identity throughout professional socialization processes. The aim of this study was to explore characteristics of graduating physiotherapy students' professional identity before leaving the University. An interview guide, agreed between the Swedish and UK researchers, was used to focus the semi-structured interviews. The phenomenon of professional identity of 18 students was studied through their perceptions of their role, practice, vision, beliefs and scope of practice as physiotherapists. A phenomenographic approach was taken to analysis and identified three qualitatively different categories of professional identity as a physiotherapist which are described as the Empowerer, the Educator and the Treater. A variation of concepts in professional identity at graduation questions the extent to which educators consider how they guide the development of professional identities which fit the expectations of stakeholders and which are able to respond to promotion and development of the profession of physiotherapy in the changing fields of health care over future years.

Lindquist I; Engardt M; Garnham L; Poland F; Richardson B

2006-05-01

191

Endotracheal intubation skill acquisition by medical students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the course of their training, medical students may receive introductory experience with advanced resuscitation skills. Endotracheal intubation (ETI – the insertion of a breathing tube into the trachea) is an example of an important advanced resuscitation intervention. Only limited data characterize clinical ETI skill acquisition by medical students. We sought to characterize medical student acquisition of ETI procedural skill.11Presented as a poster discussion on 17 October 2007 at the annual meeting of the American Society of Anesthesiologists in San Francisco, CA.The study included third-year medical students participating in a required anesthesiology clerkship. Students performed ETI on operating room patients under the supervision of attending anesthesiologists. Students reported clinical details of each ETI effort, including patient age, sex, Mallampati score, number of direct laryngoscopies and ETI success. Using mixed-effects regression, we characterized the adjusted association between ETI success and cumulative ETI experience.ETI was attempted by 178 students on 1,646 patients (range 1–23 patients per student; median 9 patients per student, IQR 6–12). Overall ETI success was 75.0% (95% CI 72.9–77.1%). Adjusted for patient age, sex, Mallampati score and number of laryngoscopies, the odds of ETI success improved with cumulative ETI encounters (odds ratio 1.09 per additional ETI encounter; 95% CI 1.04–1.14). Students required at least 17 ETI encounters to achieve 90% predicted ETI success.In this series medical student ETI proficiency was associated with cumulative clinical procedural experience. Clinical experience may provide a viable strategy for fostering medical student procedural skills.

Paul G. Tarasi MD; Michael P. Mangione MD; Sara S. Singhal; Henry E. Wang MD MS

2011-01-01

192

78 FR 38718 - Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage Areas AGENCY...primary medical care, mental health, and dental health professional shortage areas (HPSAs...provide primary care, [[Page 38719

2013-06-27

193

The education of medical students: sounds, alarums, and excursions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The core of good doctoring--what everyone must learn in medical school--is a set of behaviors that link the physician's professional, scholarly, and personal preparation with patients and society. Five general criticisms concern the academic medicine community. These criticisms concern the complexity of the health care system; the difficulty of integrating advances in science and technology into medicine; ethics; the doctor-patient relationship; and the importance of the individual student. Several medical schools use innovative curricula and organization in responding to these concerns, and other schools should study the assessments of these efforts and borrow anything useful. The problems of cost, access, and quality of care in the U.S. system are not primarily the fault of academic medicine and cannot be solved readily by it, but medical education can contribute to the solutions by preparing students to engage the problems.

Federman DD

1990-04-01

194

A Student's Perspective on Medical Ethics Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite many efforts to increase ethics education in US medical schools, barriers continue to arise that impede the production of morally driven physicians who practice medicine with ideal empathy. Research has shown that, particularly during the clinical years, medical students lose the ability both to recognize ethical dilemmas and to approach such situations with compassionate reasoning. This article summarizes the current status of ethics education in US medical schools, described through the eyes of and alongside the story of a graduating medical student. PMID:23793349

Terndrup, Christopher

2013-12-01

195

An exploratory study: student nurses' perceptions of professionalism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore final year nursing students' perceptions of professionalism using a reflective approach. DESIGN: A phenomenological approach informed the study, and data was collected by a focus group and five individual semi-structured interviews. SUBJECTS: Participants were ten final year student nurses studying on the adult nursing education programme in the United Kingdom. DATA ANALYSIS: Thematic analysis resulted in an extensive list of general statements or 'units of meaning', from which meaningful categories describing a phenomenon evolved. RESULTS: The findings revealed that student nurse's perceived vulnerability, symbolic representation, role modelling, discontent and professional development as elements that informed their own professionalism. Additionally, being able to observe the behaviours of registered nurses appeared to be significant to the student in the development of their own sense of professional identity, using positive and negative role models constructively. CONCLUSIONS: It appears that final year student nurses are cognisant of the impact of practice scenarios and observational influences, affecting their own perceptions of professionalism. They are able to clearly identify and make sense of experiences in practice, and constructively use this knowledge to positively inform their practice.

Keeling J; Templeman J

2013-01-01

196

Curriculum factors influencing knowledge of communication skills among medical students  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication training builds on the assumption that understanding of the concepts related to professional communication facilitates the training. We know little about whether students' knowledge of clinical communication skills is affected by their attendance of communication training courses, or to what degree other elements of the clinical training or curriculum design also play a role. The aim of this study was to determine which elements of the curriculum influence acquisition of knowledge regarding clinical communication skills by medical students. Methods The study design was a cross-sectional survey performed in the four Norwegian medical schools with different curricula, spring 2003. A self-administered questionnaire regarding knowledge of communication skills (an abridged version of van Dalen's paper-and-pencil test) was sent to all students attending the four medical schools. A total of 1801 (59%) students responded with complete questionnaires. Results At the end of the 1st year of study, the score on the knowledge test was higher in students at the two schools running communication courses and providing early patient contact (mean 81%) than in the other two medical schools (mean 69–75%, P ? 0.001), with students studying a traditional curriculum scoring the lowest. Their scores increased sharply towards the end of the 3rd year, during which they had been subjected to extensive patient contact and had participated in an intensive communication course (77% vs. 72% the previous year, P ? 0.01). All students scored generally lower in academic years in which there was no communication training. However, at the end of the final year the difference between the schools was only 5% (81% vs. 86%, P ? 0.001). Conclusion The acquisition of knowledge regarding communication skills by medical students may be optimised when the training is given together with extensive supervised patient contact, especially if this teaching takes place in the initial years of the curriculum.

Baerheim Anders; Hjortdahl Per; Holen Are; Anvik Tor; Fasmer Ole; Grimstad Hilde; Gude Tore; Risberg Terje; Vaglum Per

2007-01-01

197

Implementation of a professional enrichment program to enhance medical school experience  

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Full Text Available Medical students experience stress during medical education that can negatively impact performance. Typical curricula in U.S. medical schools are rigorously intense and provide little or no time off between courses in the first two years of training. This intensity contributes to increased stress for students accustomed to performing academically near the top of the class prior to matriculating in medical school. We describe an innovative new academic calendar that was modified to create a Professional Enrichment Program. Students can step back from the rigors of coursework and engage in several types of activities in order to decompress from recent studying and examinations. These activities include electives, service opportunities, independent study, and clinical experiences that are self-selected by students. Students and faculty complete surveys about the activities they completed and the usefulness of their choices. Results show broad approval of the program with the greatest results supporting an appreciation of time to decompress and an increase in time for family and personal activities.

Linda R. Adkison; Andrea L. Hanson

2013-01-01

198

Peer evaluation of the professional behaviors of emergency medical technicians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Professional behavior is one of the cornerstones of effective emergency medical services (EMS) practice and is a required part of the National Standard Curricula for advanced levels of EMS education. However, peer rating of emergency medical technicians with respect to the 11 categories of professional behavior never has been quantified. This study uses a peer evaluation methodology to assess the affective competencies of practicing EMS providers. METHODS: A professional behavior evaluation form was included as part of a survey that was sent to 2,443 randomly selected, nationally registered emergency medical technicians (EMTs). Participants were asked to rate the EMT partner with whom they worked most closely in the past year using 11 different categories of professional behavior using a Likert scale. RESULTS: One thousand, five hundred, ten (61.8%) surveys were returned and analyzed. Both nationally registered EMTs at the Basic and Paramedic levels rated their partners with respect to 11 categories of professional behavior. The overall average score was 0.68 on a 0-1 scale, with one being the highest. The rating of each of the categories was: (1) integrity (0.77); (2) appearance/personal hygiene (0.74); (3) patient advocacy (0.73); (4) empathy (0.72); (5) self-confidence (0.70); (6) careful delivery of service (0.70); (7) respect (0.65); (8) communication skills (0.64); (9) time management skills (0.63); (10) teamwork/diplomacy skills (0.62); and (11) self-motivation (0.61). Overall, the NREMT-Paramedics rated their partners significantly lower than did the NREMT-Basics (p = 0.0156) and experienced EMT-Basics rated their partners significantly lower than did the newer EMT-Basics (p = 0.0002). Those EMTs who indicated high satisfaction with their current EMS assignment rated their partner more highly on professional behaviors than did those EMTs who were not as satisfied. CONCLUSION: Overall, EMTs peer evaluation of professional behavior was "good." The behaviors most highly rated were integrity and appearance/personal hygiene. The behaviors rated lowest were self-motivation and team work/diplomacy. It appears that paramedics are more critical of their colleagues than are EMT-Basics, that experienced EMT-Basics are harsher critics than are newer EMT-Basics, and that there is a relationship between job satisfaction and peer evaluation.

Brown WE Jr; Margolis G; Levine R

2005-03-01

199

Trying on the professional self: nursing students' perceptions of learning about roles, identity and teamwork in an interprofessional clinical placement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This study aims to describe how senior nursing students viewed the clinical learning environment and matured their professional identity through interprofessional learning in a student-led hospital 'ward'. BACKGROUND: Undergraduate nursing and medical student teams participated in a trial of ward-based interprofessional clinical learning, managing patients over 2weeks in a rehabilitation ward. METHODS: Qualitative and quantitative program evaluation was conducted using exit student focus groups and a satisfaction survey. RESULTS: Twenty-three nursing and medical students in three placement rounds provided positive feedback. Five main themes emerged describing their engagement in 'trying on' a professional role: 'experiencing independence and autonomy'; 'seeing clearly what nursing's all about'; 'altered images of other professions'; 'ways of communicating and collaborating' and 'becoming a functioning team'. CONCLUSIONS: Ward-based interprofessional clinical placements offer senior students authentic ideal clinical experiences. We consider this essential learning for future interprofessional collaboration which should be included in senior nursing students' education.

Hood K; Cant R; Leech M; Baulch J; Gilbee A

2013-09-01

200

Prevalence of Depression Among Medical Students of a Private Medical College in India  

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Full Text Available Background: Medical education can contribute to the development of depression in medical students which may have possible negative academic and professional consequences. The aims of this study were to explore the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their relationships to socio-demographic variables among a cross section of medical students of a private medical college in India. Methods: A cross-sectional anonymous questionnaire-based survey was conducted including all students from first to fourth year of a medical college in India. Beck depression inventory was used to assess the level of depression with a score of 12 or higher considered depressive. Additional questions regarding demographic variables were also included in the survey. Data analysis was done on Epi info version 6. Results: A total of 336 students participated giving a response rate of 88%. A total of 49.1% students reported depressive symptoms. It was significantly higher in 1st year (59.3%) and 2nd year (65.6%), as compared to 3rd (34.4%) and 4th year (37.2%) students [p<0. 05]. Substance abuse(p<0.0001), first and second year of study, female sex and language of instruction other than English at 10+2 level were associated factors for the development of depressive symptoms [p<0.05]. A significant negative association was also found between regular exercise and depression (p<0.05). Conclusion: Depression may be a significant hidden problem in Indian medical students and mechanisms to identify and help students with mental health problems should be seriously considered.

Ajit Singh,; Amar Lal,; Shekhar,

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Emotion recognition by mental health professionals and students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To examine the ability of mental health professionals and mental health nursing students from a London university and a nursing institute in the Sultanate of Oman to identify emotions correctly. METHOD: Categorical data were collected using the Dynamic Emotion Recognition Instrument (DERI) (Minardi 2012). DERI scores were converted to proportions of correct responses for each participant to produce ratio data. Results were analysed using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test because data were not normally distributed. FINDINGS: Mental health professionals were significantly better than nursing students from the London university at identifying emotions from non-verbal communication; however, there was no significant difference between mental health professionals and nursing students from the nursing institute. Nursing students from the nursing institute were significantly better at identifying emotions than nursing students from the London university. Nursing students from the nursing institute who were in their third term of study were better at identifying emotions than nursing institute students in their first term. CONCLUSION: Training can improve the ability of nurses to identify emotions from non-verbal communication. The DERI could be used in nurse education to quantify the ability of nurses pre and post-registration to identify emotions and to help nursing students learn this skill.

Minardi H

2013-02-01

202

Learning to be a Nurse. Professional Identity in Nursing Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to present particular aspects which have been referred to by research-based literature as being important to the understanding of how nursing students structure their professional identity. These elements have emerged from a theoretical research study, prior to the current investigation, (under the PhD in Education Sciences, in the specialized Adult Education area of the FPCE-UL) on the professional identity construction process experienced and described by nursing students throughout their basic training. Up to now, three main theoretical dimensions have emerged: The professional identities of the nursing profession itself and its construction process from a historical perspective; the discourses and practices in the context of teaching nursing and the experience of the nursing students. Finally, some aspects related to the methodology and carrying out of the study have also been mentioned.

Miguel Nunes Serra

2008-01-01

203

Career choices among medical students in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available SM Moslehuddin Ahmed1, Md Anwarul Azim Majumdar2, Rezina Karim3, Sayeeda Rahman2, Nuzhat Rahman41Department of Community Medicine, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 3Department of Microbiology, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 4Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAIntroduction: Information regarding career choices of medical students is important to plan human resources for health, design need-based educational programs, and ensure equitable and quality health care services in a country.Aim: The aim of the study is to identify career choices, nature of career, intended practice locations, and reasons for career choices of Bangladesh medical students.Method: First-, third-, and fifth-year students of Bangladesh Medical College and Uttara Adhunik Medical College completed a self-report questionnaire on career choices, nature of career, intended practice locations, and reasons for career choices. The students were requested to choose three long-term choices from the given specialties.Results: A total of 132 students responded (46 males and 86 females) and response rate was 75%. The popular choices (first choice) among males and females were medical specialty, surgical specialty, obstetrics and gynecology, and general practice. For first, second, and third choices altogether, male students chose surgical specialties and female students preferred medical specialties. The leading reasons for selecting a specialty were personal interest and wide job opportunity. More than 67% of respondents wanted to join private services and about 90% chose major cities as practice locations. About 43% of respondents expressed willingness to practice medicine in Bangladesh, whereas 51% of total respondents wanted to practice abroad.Discussion: Majority of students intended to specialize in established clinical specialties and subsequently practice in major cities, and more than half wanted to immigrate to other countries. Basic medical subjects and service-oriented (lifestyle-related) and preventive/social medical specialties were found to be less attractive. If this pattern continues, Bangladesh will suffer a chronic shortage of health personnel in certain specialties and in rural areas.Conclusions: Reorientation of health care and medical education is needed along with policy settings to attract doctors to the scarcity and high-priority disciplines so that imbalances encountered would be minimal in future.Keywords: career choices, medical students, Bangladesh 

SM Moslehuddin Ahmed; Md Anwarul Azim Majumdar; Rezina Karim; et al

2011-01-01

204

Stress management for clinical medical students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluates a new stress management course for medical students offered through the Occupational Health Unit, Royal Free Hospital, London. It was offered to students in their first clinical year, which has been shown to be a highly stressful time. The course took place over 3 weeks, with on...

Michie, S; Sandhu, S.

205

Foreign Students in Medical Schools, Statistical Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In November 1973, Unesco's Office of Statistics launched a survey to find out how many full-time students were enrolled during the academic years 1972/73 and 1973/74 in all the medical schools listed in the World Directory of Medical Schools published by ...

H. Zeiler

1974-01-01

206

The Differential Impact of Various Assessment Parameters on the Medical Students Performance in the Professional Anatomy Examination in a New Medical School El Impacto Diferencial de Varios Parámetros de Evaluación del Desempeño de Estudiantes de Medicina en el Examen Profesional de Anatomía en una Nueva Escuela de Medicina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a dearth of knowledge on the level of agreement between all the various assessment tasks on the same content area, in order to test this hypothesis we adopted the concept of convergent validity and also to isolate area of academic weakness among the students and to readjust the curriculum content to balance the weakness. A blinded cohort retrospective study was carried out on a total of sixty-six third year medical students who had sat for their first professional examination in anatomy in the new medical college of Lagos State University. Using records of their grades in the various assessments parameters- the average end-in course assessment, short essays question (SEQ), multiple-choice questions (MCQ), and practical (Steeple-chase). The mean + S.D. Pearson's correlation with students t-test (pExiste escasez de conocimiento sobre el nivel de concordancia entre todas las varias tareas de evalución sobre los contenidos de una misma área. En orden a evaluar esta hipótesis, adoptamos el concepto de validez convergente y también de área aislada, de falta de solidez académica entre los estudiantes y readecuar el contenido curricular para balancear esa falta de solidez. Se llevó a cabo un estudio retrospectivo al azar sobre un total de 66 alumnos de Medicina de Tercer Año, quienes tuvieron su primer examen profesional de Anatomía en la nueva Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad del Estado de Lagos, Nigeria. Usando registros de sus grados en varios parámetros de evaluación: promedio final de la evaluación del Curso, preguntas cortas de redacción, ítemes de selección múltiple y prácticas. La media + desviación estándar, correlación de Person con el t-test de Sudents (p< 0.05) fueron analizados con el programa SPSS 11 (SPSS inc. Chicago, Illinois). La parte práctica fue significativamente correlacionada con todo el rendimiento (r = 0.89, p< 0.01); con un valor del t-Students de 6.15 (p< 0.01). Aunque las preguntas cortas mostraron correlación significativa para la totalidad de lo hecho (r =0.72; p<0.01), el valor de t de 0,4 no fue significativo, pero estuvo dentro de un rango aceptable. La parte práctica, selección múltiple y preguntas cortas de redacción y final del curso, mostraron un orden de clasificación de relativo desempeño en las tareas de evaluación, lo que indica que, en general, la actividad de los estudiantes en el examen profesional fue mejor que en el examen del curso y de ahí, la necesidad de readecuar este patrón y enfatizar el rol de evaluación dentro del curso en el curriculum

L. A. J. Shittu; M. P. Zachariah; M. C. Izegbu; O. A. Adesanya; O. A. Ashiru

2006-01-01

207

Perceptions of medical students undergoing cadaveric training: a sociocognitive perspective  

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Full Text Available The emotional and sociocognitive aspects of human dissection are important aspects of professionalism in medical training and so should be critically evaluated in the present day changing society. Medical students of Ebonyi State University, Nigeria completed 390 questionnaires. The questionnaires included questions seeking demographic information; open-ended questions on their first experience of dissection and suggestions on improvements in training. The Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to assess anxiety and satisfaction levels. The questionnaires were analyzed statistically with P<0.05 indicating level of significance. Majority (35.7%) of the students was excited/fulfilled after their first experience and 41.5% were of the opinion that life in humans is more appreciated by dissection. Their mean anxiety level was 3.42 while satisfaction rating was 7.13 on a scale of 1-10. A greater number of students suggested that conducive learning environment and improved preservation techniques would improve satisfaction (30.3% and 33.1% respectively). A Conducive environment and better preservation of cadavers are the major factors that improve satisfaction. Psychosocial factors should be assessed constantly to ascertain attitudinal changes of students, which will be helpful in quality of professional formation.

Mr. O. A. Egwu; Mr. A. C. Ugwu; Mr. A. N. Eteudo; Mr. E. O. Ewunonu; Mr. C. O. Njoku

2008-01-01

208

Physiological assessment of military professional adaptation and organism functional status of higher military schools resident students  

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Full Text Available The results of the study of organism functional status of resident students of military medical higher schools in different situations and modes of professional education (during their study day, round-the clock shifts in a clinic, duties, and an examination period) in the process of military professional adaptation have been analyzed. The technique of functional body status optimization which takes into account both psycho-physiological specificity of military professional training as well as the regularities of psycho-physiologic reserve-capacity changes and military professional adaptation has been worked out. It constitutes the sum total of physiologically proved structural and functional components such as adaptation improvements, correction and recreation of functional body status

Kondrashov V.V.; Onishchenko A.N.

2010-01-01

209

Summer Students: getting professional at CERN  

CERN Multimedia

The summer season at CERN is known for the traditional visit of Summer Students coming from Member and non-Member States. This time, a total of 176 future scientists are spending part of their summer with us, learning and working in the laboratory. Summer Students enjoying a lecture on particle physics by Ronald Kleiss. Now that summer has finally arrived, you'll have noticed some changes at CERN: longer queues at the bar, faces you don't recognise in the corridors, and a breath of fresh air, but where is it coming from? The answer is easy: the Summer Students are here! Aged between 20 and 27, this group of 176 future scientists has been selected from 600 candidates to spend their summer at the Laboratory. This year, there are 24 more 'Summies' than last following a recommendation in the 2000 5-yearly review to increase the number of students. The Summies mainly come from Member States, but this year there are also 11 Americans, two Mexicans, an Armenian, a Turk, a Pakistani and two South Africans. Judith N...

2001-01-01

210

The child sexual abuser: perceptions of college students and professionals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

College students and members of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (ATSA) were compared as to their beliefs and attitudes concerning perpetrators of child sexual abuse. Analyses of a 44-item inventory (assessing beliefs about an abuser's demographics and attitudes concerning an abuser's cognitions and behaviors) indicated that the groups differed on perceived demographic descriptors (e.g., students believed perpetrators to be older when they first begin offending, more educated, and more likely to be gay than the professionals) and behaviors (e.g., students believed that the perpetrator was more likely to use force to gain the child's compliance). In addition, 2 subscales (Cognitive Distortions and Perceived Social Functioning) were identified. Compared to professionals, students were less likely to believe perpetrators use cognitive distortions and were more likely to believe perpetrators function at a lower interpersonal level. Results are discussed in terms of the efforts to educate the public about the characteristics of child sexual abusers.

Fuselier DA; Durham RL; Wurtele SK

2002-07-01

211

The child sexual abuser: perceptions of college students and professionals.  

Science.gov (United States)

College students and members of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (ATSA) were compared as to their beliefs and attitudes concerning perpetrators of child sexual abuse. Analyses of a 44-item inventory (assessing beliefs about an abuser's demographics and attitudes concerning an abuser's cognitions and behaviors) indicated that the groups differed on perceived demographic descriptors (e.g., students believed perpetrators to be older when they first begin offending, more educated, and more likely to be gay than the professionals) and behaviors (e.g., students believed that the perpetrator was more likely to use force to gain the child's compliance). In addition, 2 subscales (Cognitive Distortions and Perceived Social Functioning) were identified. Compared to professionals, students were less likely to believe perpetrators use cognitive distortions and were more likely to believe perpetrators function at a lower interpersonal level. Results are discussed in terms of the efforts to educate the public about the characteristics of child sexual abusers. PMID:12087687

Fuselier, Daniel A; Durham, Robert L; Wurtele, Sandy K

2002-07-01

212

Continuous mentoring of medical students provides space for reflection and awareness of their own development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: The aim of the study was to increase under-standing of the meaning of continuous group and individual mentoring for medical students´ personal and professional development. Methods: A qualitative approach with individual student interviews and directed content analysis was chosen to inve...

Susanne Kalén; Sari Ponzer; Astrid Seeberger; Anna Kiessling; Charlotte Silén

213

Attitude towards psychiatry among medical students.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proportion of medical graduates opting for psychiatry in career has been observed to be distinctly less compared to those choosing other specialties. The study was undertaken to find out the attitudes of newly entrant medical students towards psychiatry in comparison to other specialties. Sixty-two students of first year MBBS were administered a questionnaire to assess their attitudes towards various specialties. Only 1 student (1.5%) opted for psychiatry as a career choice, another 2 students (3%) considered it as a strong possibility, 71.5% negated psychiatry as a career choice. Students rated psychiatry significantly lower than other specialties in regards to financially rewarding, enjoyable and satisfying work, intellectually challenging, scientific basis, prestige among others, lifestyle. Psychiatry was also rated as poor on prospects of having a bright and interesting future. The present study suggests that new entrants in medical college harbour a negative attitude towards psychiatry, which has not changed over the last three to four decades. A conscious effort in trying to make psychiatry an active and interesting component of medical education and an improved portrayal of this field in society thereby reducing stigma associated with it would be of immense importance in generating interest in this field among newly entrant medical students. PMID:23738403

Srivastava, Ashish

2012-10-01

214

Advising adolescents on the use of psychotropic medication: attitudes among medical and psychology students  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that medical students are more aware of the benefits of psychotropic treatment than are members of the general public, and that the more knowledge students acquire about psychiatry and pharmacology, the more favorable their attitudes become towards psychotropic drugs and other treatments. Objectives This study among students investigates the relationship between certain aspects of personality and attitudes towards advising adolescents with psychosocial problems about the use of psychotropic medication. Methods Two groups of healthcare students were recruited from universities in Eastern France. 41 fourth-year medical students (MS) who had completed their psychiatry course, and 76 third-year psychology students (PS) in the faculty of human sciences. Respondents completed a self-administered instrument (20 brief case studies, and a personality inventory) at the end of a lecture. Participation was voluntary and unpaid. Results MS would recommend psychotropic drugs in 40% of the 20 cases, PS in 27%. MS who would prescribe psychotropic medication differed in personality profile from PS. MS with a tendency to experience anger and related states such as frustration, and who did not see fulfilling moral obligations as important were more likely to prescribe psychotropic drugs. Also more likely to recommend psychotropic drugs, but for different reasons, were PS who were susceptible to stress but not shy or socially anxious, who showed friendliness but little interest in others, and who lacked distance in their decision-making. Conclusion Health promotion is not simply a matter of educating those young people who take psychotropic drugs – health professionals must also question the criteria that inform their decisions. It is as important to investigate the attitudes of the future health professionals (advisers or prescribers) as it is to focus on consumer-related issues.

Baumann Michèle; Spitz Elisabeth

2007-01-01

215

Impact of an Oncology Course on the Attitudes of Freshman Medical Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Previous attempts to change the prevailing negative attitudes of health professionals toward cancer and cancer patients have consisted mainly of elective courses for small groups of students at advanced levels of medical training. In order to develop more positive attitudes, the Cancer Coordinating Committee at the Medical College of Pennsylvania…

Appel, Marilyn H.; And Others

216

Stress among Isfahan medical sciences students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of psychological stress among Isfahan medical sciences students. METHODS: Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the 387 medical sciences students (medicine, pharmacy, and dentistry) of Isfahan, Iran through census. In academic year 2010-2011, Kessler-10 questionnaire was given to the students a month before semester examinations. Scores ?20 were considered as indicative of positive stress symptoms. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of stress among medical sciences students was found to be about 76.1%. The prevalence of stress among medicine students was 22.7% mild, 23% moderate and 21.4% severe while 32.8% showed no stress. The prevalence of stress among pharmacy students was 22.22%, 22.22%, 26.19%, and 29.36% mild, moderate, and severe and no stress, respectively. The prevalence of stress among dentistry students was 25% mild, 27% moderate, and 10% severe while 37.5% showed no stress. The prevalence of stress was higher (70.6%) in pharmacy students when compared with medicine (66.1%) and dentistry (62.5%) students. The odds of student having stress is higher in dentistry students (OR: 1.44, P= 0.33), where as the odds are decreasing in pharmacy student (OR: 1.16, P=0.66). There is no statistically significant association between gender, ages, and term and having stress symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The high level of stress necessitates interventions like social and psychological support to improve the student's well-being. A prospective study is needed to study the association of psychological morbidity with sources of stress and coping strategies.

Sharifirad G; Marjani A; Abdolrahman C; Mostafa Q; Hossein S

2012-04-01

217

Depression in medical students: Cluster symptoms and management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Rates of depression among medical students have been shown to be high and related to year of study and other factors. We report on cluster of symptoms related to depression and their association with other difficulties in specific domains. METHODS: 481 (Response rate=79.8%) medical students completed a questionnaire about areas of difficulty in the medical school (studies, leisure, colleagues, professors, and patients), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We studied correlation among areas of difficulty and clusters of BDI along with year in the course. RESULTS: Two areas which contributed most difficulty were studies and leisure. The significant associations for studies were seen between somatic cluster of depressive symptoms and the level of the course. Difficulties associated with leisure activities and with colleagues were correlated with the affective cluster of symptoms of depression. Activities related to clinical matters especially working with patients in the internship year were associated with somatic clusters. The different associations confirmed that rather than relying on scores emphasis should be placed on clusters of symptoms. LIMITATIONS: Sample from a single medical school. CONCLUSIONS: Although the clusters are associated with specific difficulties, it is important that educators and health professionals are aware of streesors the medical students face. The correlations if confirmed in future studies with qualitative factors could guide the development of more specific therapeutic or curriculum interventions.

Baldassin S; Silva N; de Toledo Ferraz Alves TC; Castaldelli-Maia JM; Bhugra D; Nogueira-Martins MC; de Andrade AG; Nogueira-Martins LA

2013-08-01

218

Standardized Patients to Teaching Medical Students about Intimate Partner Violence  

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Full Text Available Objective: To use 360-degree evaluations within an Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to assess medical student comfort level and communication skills with intimate partner violence (IPV) patients.Methods: We assessed a cohort of fourth year medical students’ performance using an IPV standardized patient (SP) encounter in an OSCE. Blinded pre- and post-tests determined the students’ knowledge and comfort level with core IPV assessment. Students, SPs and investigators completed a 360-degree evaluation that focused on each student’s communication and competency skills. We computed frequencies, means and correlations.Results: Forty-one students participated in the SP exercise during three separate evaluation periods. Results noted insignificant increase in students’ comfort level pre-test (2.7) and post-test (2.9). Although 88% of students screened for IPV and 98% asked about the injury, only 39% asked about verbal abuse, 17% asked if the patient had a safety plan, and 13% communicated to the patient that IPV is illegal. Using Likert scoring on the competency and overall evaluation (1, very poor and 5, very good), the mean score for each evaluator was 4.1 (competency) and 3.7 (overall). The correlations between trainee comfort level and the specific competencies of patient care, communication skill and professionalism were positive and significant (p<0.05).Conclusion: Students felt somewhat comfortable caring for patients with IPV. OSCEs with SPs can be used to assess student competencies in caring for patients with IPV. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5):500-505.

Heron, Sheryl L; Ander, Douglas S; Houry, Debra; Hassani, Dahlia M; Quest, Tammie

2010-01-01

219

Faculty and students perceive common tenets associated with medical student curriculum reform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Medical school faculty and students actively engaged in curriculum reform often experience angst. Change management literature emphasizes that grounding change in common values is critical to managing stakeholder angst and ultimately successful change. However the literature provides only limited descriptions of the shared underlying features as perceived by faculty and students associated with curriculum reform. This study sought to bridge this gap by identifying the underlying student and faculty beliefs associated with success in medical student education programs and reform. Methods: A qualitative study approach using an appreciative inquiry interview methodology was selected given its proven success as an inquiry technique for change management. To identify cross-cutting curriculum success tenets, a purposeful sample of 24 stakeholders participating in an established curriculum and/or new integrated curriculum were selected: 12 students and 12 faculty seven of whom were curriculum/college leaders. Two rounds of appreciative inquiry interviews focusing on successes associated with medical student education were conducted. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, coded, and then analyzed to delineate common themes and cross-cutting tenets using constant comparative methodology. Results: Analysis revealed six underlying themes associated with success for students and faculty: engagement of students and faculty in education, sense of community and collaboration, faculty/student relationships, active learning, faculty excitement/willingness to teach leads to impactful student learning, and identity/professional formation. Conclusions: The identified tenets associated with successful medical student education programs can be used to manage a critical element of curriculum form: stakeholder change angst.

Alexandria J. Bear; Deborah Simpson; Diane Brown; Dawn Bragg; Karen Marcdante

2013-01-01

220

Being Professional : Students Struggling in School and Traineeship  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper discusses students' process of acquiring a feeling of being professionals within a vocational education programme for elderly care in Denmark. The focus is on what seems to be a paradox within the programme: the future care helper being constructed within the overall term ‘the professional care helper’ in the school setting but the job being closely related to daily life's routine tasks; the paper points to difficulties for students in identifying the exact content of the term ‘professional’. Furthermore students seem to be uncertain about their ‘professionalism’ in relation to other health professionals, when they are in the work place setting. The analysis indicates that the care work programme still struggles to make a clear distinction between the former non-paid female domestic work and the current work carried out by the care workers. The analysis mobilises the concept ‘storyline’, c.f. Bronwyn Davies and the empirical material consists of observations and interviews in the theoretical periodsand in the traineeships.

Jensen, Anne Winther

 
 
 
 
221

Assessment of pharmacy student professionalism across a curriculum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate changes in professionalism across the curriculum among pharmacy students in different classes. METHODS: A professionalism instrument was administered early in the first (P1) year, upon completing the introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPE) near the end of the second (P2) year, and upon completing the advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE) at the end of the fourth (P4) year. RESULTS: The professionalism scale and its subscales were compared for the 3 time points for the class of 2009. Significant differences were noted in professionalism scores between the P1 and P4 years and for altruism, accountability, and honor/integrity subscale scores for the class of 2009. No significant differences were noted when the scores for 4 P1 classes, and 3 P2 classes were compared. CONCLUSION: An increase in professionalism scores and altruism, accountability, and honor/integrity scores was demonstrated, providing evidence that the curricular and co-curricular activities in the school of pharmacy helped develop professionalism in the class of 2009 students.

Poirier TI; Gupchup GV

2010-05-01

222

Prevalence of plagiarism among medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To determine the prevalence of plagiarism among medical students in writing essays. METHODS: During two academic years, 198 second year medical students attending Medical Informatics course wrote an essay on one of four offered articles. Two of the source articles were available in an electronic form and two in printed form. Two (one electronic and one paper article) were considered less complex and the other two more complex. The essays were examined using plagiarism detection software "WCopyfind," which counted the number of matching phrases with six or more words. Plagiarism rate, expressed as the percentage of the plagiarized text, was calculated as a ratio of the absolute number of matching words and the total number of words in the essay. RESULTS: Only 17 (9%) of students did not plagiarize at all and 68 (34%) plagiarized less than 10% of the text. The average plagiarism rate (% of plagiarized text) was 19% (5-95% percentile=0-88). Students who were strictly warned not to plagiarize had a higher total word count in their essays than students who were not warned (P=0.002) but there was no difference between them in the rate of plagiarism. Students with higher grades in Medical Informatics exam plagiarized less than those with lower grades (P=0.015). Gender, subject source, and complexity had no influence on the plagiarism rate. CONCLUSIONS: Plagiarism in writing essays is common among medical students. An explicit warning is not enough to deter students from plagiarism. Detection software can be used to trace and evaluate the rate of plagiarism in written student assays.

Bili?-Zulle L; Frkovi? V; Turk T; Azman J; Petrovecki M

2005-02-01

223

Students Enrolment in Professional Education: A Study of Karnataka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India today has one of the largest educational systems in theworld. The total enrolment exceeds 70 million, there are two millionstudents in higher education, and the number engaged in research is about 10,000. Teachers total over two million. There has been a great upsurge in Indian education since independence, but it is only the beginning of an educational revolution crucial to the economic and social development of the country. Professional education has occupied a dominant position in independent India since it was perceived as a promoter of economic growth, technological development and also as an instrument of equal opportunity and upward social mobility. The present paper will discussvarious commissions and committees deliberated on its criticality to the social and economic development of the country. Further, the paper will find out, the gender parity of professional education, at Under Graduate Level in Karnataka particularly and analyze the student’s enrolment in different professional courses.

Mallikarjun Nagashetty; Nusrat Fatima

2009-01-01

224

The Sound of Music: Transforming Medical Students into Reflective Practitioners  

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Full Text Available There is a growing focus on the introduction of courses in humanities in medical education. Music is not a widely-used tool in medical education. It has unique features that make it an excellent educational resource for the possibility to express emotions. Within minutes, topics of interest in learning medicine, such as loss, compassion, sorrow, and solidarity can be identified and used in pedagogical processes. Music—like other art forms—can deal with the emotional universe of the student. Promoting a reflective attitude within an academic discipline requires the creation of space to make it formal. The Public Health Department of Jundiai Medical School (Sao Paulo, Brazil) offers a special course on family medicine core values, led by a SOBRAMFA Medical Education & Humanism faculty member. The process of understanding a student’s experience has allowed for the unveiling of a phenomenon that encompasses the student’s inner world as he/she attends to his/her medical training. The music is played on the outside resonates with the story and emotions of the student. Students realize that the pace imposed by the medical school does not allow them to reflect on either their own lives or their formation. The musical experience allows students to hear their feelings and share them with the professor and peers. They are surprised by memories and feelings that surface that they were unaware of or could not remember. These feelings are presented in themes that organize the affective experience of students, mobilized by the music. Several themes have emerged, such as the search for the self; family; vocational doubts; relationships with peers, professors, and patients. The findings of the experience of the music spectrum come in, offering numerous prospects for development in the context of medical education, as noted in the themes that emerged. As the basic experience we have of the world is emotional, the music—this form of human knowledge of affective tone—also becomes educational force, because the teaching process is not limited to transmission of content. Instead, more importantly, it implies that the teacher in development processes of meaning and significance enable the learner to reflect and transform the everyday practice, especially in medicine, where the interpersonal relationship is the basis for the full realization of future professional action.

Marco Aurelio Janaudis; Michelle Fleming; Pablo González Blasco

2013-01-01

225

Reduction of Racial Prejudice in Student Affairs Professionals  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study examined the impact of gender, race, intergroup contact, and diversity training on racial prejudice of student affairs professionals. Diversity training and race of participants were statistically significant contributors to change in racial prejudice. Findings suggest that racial prejudice decreases as diversity training increases.…

Choi-Pearson, Catherine; Castillo, Linda; Maples, Mary Finn

2004-01-01

226

Chest radiograph interpretation by medical students  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AIM: To assess the ability of final year medical students to interpret conventional chest radiographs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten conventional chest radiographs were selected from a teaching hospital radiology department library that were good radiological examples of common conditions. All were conditions that a medical student should be expected to recognize by the end of their training. One normal radiograph was included. The radiographs were shown to 52 final year medical students who were asked to describe their findings. RESULTS: The median score achieved was 12.5 out of 20 (range 6-18). There was no difference between the median scores of male and female students (12.5 and 12.3, respectively, p=0.82) but male students were more likely to be certain of their answers than female students (median certainty scores 23.0 and 14.0, respectively). The overall degree of certainty was low. On no radiograph were more than 25% of students definite about their answer. Students had received little formal radiology teaching (2-42 h, median 21) and few expressed an interest in radiology as a career. Only two (3.8%) students thought they were good at interpreting chest radiographs, 17 (32.7%) thought they were bad or awful. CONCLUSION: Medical students reaching the end of their training do not perform well at interpreting simple chest radiographs. They lack confidence and have received little formal radiological tuition. Perhaps as a result, few are interested in radiology as a career, which is a matter for concern in view of the current shortage of radiologists in the UK.

Jeffrey, D.R. E-mail: danyajeffrey@ukgateway.net; Goddard, P.R.; Callaway, M.P.; Greenwood, R

2003-06-01

227

Chest radiograph interpretation by medical students  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AIM: To assess the ability of final year medical students to interpret conventional chest radiographs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten conventional chest radiographs were selected from a teaching hospital radiology department library that were good radiological examples of common conditions. All were conditions that a medical student should be expected to recognize by the end of their training. One normal radiograph was included. The radiographs were shown to 52 final year medical students who were asked to describe their findings. RESULTS: The median score achieved was 12.5 out of 20 (range 6-18). There was no difference between the median scores of male and female students (12.5 and 12.3, respectively, p=0.82) but male students were more likely to be certain of their answers than female students (median certainty scores 23.0 and 14.0, respectively). The overall degree of certainty was low. On no radiograph were more than 25% of students definite about their answer. Students had received little formal radiology teaching (2-42 h, median 21) and few expressed an interest in radiology as a career. Only two (3.8%) students thought they were good at interpreting chest radiographs, 17 (32.7%) thought they were bad or awful. CONCLUSION: Medical students reaching the end of their training do not perform well at interpreting simple chest radiographs. They lack confidence and have received little formal radiological tuition. Perhaps as a result, few are interested in radiology as a career, which is a matter for concern in view of the current shortage of radiologists in the UK.

2003-01-01

228

Professional ethics and cynicism amongst Dutch dental students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Some 40 years ago, Morris and Sherlock concluded that dental students are very cynical about their future profession, and indeed become more cynical as they progress through dental school. Later studies continued to report cynicism among dental students, but some studies did not confirm the reported increase. However, any degree of cynicism among matriculating students and even more so among graduating students should be of grave concern to dental educators. METHOD: This study used a survey modeled after the instrument used by Morris and Sherlock. First and fifth year students at one of the dental schools in The Netherlands were presented with 10 vignettes and asked to indicate how they themselves would respond, how practising dentists would respond and how any dentist should respond. RESULTS: We did not find a rise in cynicism. However, we did find that both freshmen and graduating dental students in The Netherlands are rather cynical, as a group, about the ethics of their future profession. Even students who believe that the professional norms themselves are sound (as evidenced by their own willingness to abide by those norms) tend to believe that many practising dentists regularly violate those norms. CONCLUSIONS: As was already reported some 40 years ago, dental students appear to harbour a widespread and persistent cynicism about the ethics of their future profession. The professionalism courses that are emerging in many dental schools around the world should take note of this challenging statistic.

Brands WG; Bronkhorst EM; Welie JV

2011-11-01

229

Motivation and academic achievement in medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Despite their ascribed intellectual ability and achieved academic pursuits, medical students' academic achievement is influenced by motivation. This study is an endeavor to examine the role of motivation in the academic achievement of medical students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional correlational study, out of the total 422 medical students, from 4th to final year during the academic year 2007-2008, at School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 344 participated in completion of the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM), comprising 43 items and measuring eight aspects of motivation. The gold standard for academic achievement was their average academic marks at pre-clinical and clinical levels. Data were computer analyzed by running a couple of descriptive and analytical tests including Pearson Correlation and Student's t-student. RESULTS: Higher motivation scores in areas of competition, effort, social concern, and task were accompanied by higher average marks at pre-clinical as well as clinical levels. However, the latter ones showed greater motivation for social power as compared to the former group. Task and competition motivation for boys was higher than for girls. CONCLUSION: In view of our observations, students' academic achievement requires coordination and interaction between different aspects of motivation.

Yousefy A; Ghassemi G; Firouznia S

2012-01-01

230

"D.O. or die": identity negotiation among osteopathic medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Doctors of osteopathic medicine (D.O.s) have historically faced an uphill battle to gain professional legitimacy and credibility in a U.S. medical culture dominated by allopathic medicine. Today, struggles surrounding the negotiation of a professional osteopathic identity can be found among osteopathic medical students who actively debate the merits of a potential change in the D.O. designation. This study examines identity construction by analyzing osteopathic medical students' accounts of identity that reveal certain ways they negotiate their emerging professional selves. By merging current literature on identity negotiation from health and organizational communication, we highlight the complex relationship between the discursive construction of professional identity and the embodied and material consequences of becoming a D.O.

Norander S; Mazer JP; Bates BR

2011-01-01

231

[Depression and stress management in medical students. A comparative study between freshman and advanced medical students].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

International studies have indicated a high prevalence of depression and a lack of coping with stress in medical students. Freshman and advanced medical students were investigated using a specific questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) with a response rate of 100%. Of the subjects studied 81.1% did not have any depression, 13.1% slight and 5.8% clinically relevant symptoms of depression. The severity of symptoms was highly associated with subjective appraisal of stressors. Coping skills of first year students significantly influenced the depression symptoms calling for preventative measures even in freshman medical students.

Jurkat HB; Richter L; Cramer M; Vetter A; Bedau S; Leweke F; Milch W

2011-05-01

232

A comparison of medical students from medical and nonmedical families.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 1,195 students from 11 classes at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine was studied. Of these, 162 were from medical and 1,033 from nonmedical families. Those from medical families were insignificantly different from their classmates on premedical scholastic achievement and Medical College Admission Test scores, but they were slightly younger and attended more prestigious undergraduate colleges. Academic and clinical performance in medical school was equivalent for the two groups. However, long-range consequences in regard to choice of specialty were observable. Psysicians from medical families were more likely than their peers to be in ophthalmology and otorhinolarngoloy, dermatology, and surgery and less likely to be in psychiatry, pediatrics, and obstericsgynecology.

Gough HG; Hall WB

1977-07-01

233

[The Professional and Private Situation of Male and Female Physicians Entering Postgraduate Medical Education in Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the professional and the private situation of medical interns at the onset of their postgraduate training in Germany. We analysed the contractual situation and the working hours in the hospital, the professional situation of the partner and the number of hours invested in private life with special reference to gender and children.A standardised postal survey was conducted among all last year medical students in the medical faculties of Erlangen, Giessen, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Cologne, Leipzig and Magdeburg after entering postgraduate training. 1 009 were contacted for a first follow-up one year later and 87% responded. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were performed.The analysis shows that female physicians are disadvantaged compared to males with regard to various professional and private conditions relevant for career development, especially when children are present. We found a large number of hints pointing towards a persistence of traditional role patterns within the couple relationship. These conditions differed substantially between the regions of former German Federal and former German Democratic Republic.A growing number of children in the study population in the course of the longitudinal analysis will show if these gender-related differences persist in the course of the training period and which influences on career development can be observed.

van den Bussche H; Wonneberger C; Birck S; Schultz JH; Robra BP; Schmidt A; Stosch C; Wagner R; Scherer M; Pöge K; Rothe K; Gedrose B

2013-08-01

234

Biomedical research competencies for osteopathic medical students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Without systematic exposure to biomedical research concepts or applications, osteopathic medical students may be generally under-prepared to efficiently consume and effectively apply research and evidence-based medicine information in patient care. The academic literature suggests that although medical residents are increasingly expected to conduct research in their post graduate training specialties, they generally have limited understanding of research concepts. With grant support from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, and a grant from the Osteopathic Heritage Foundation, the University of North Texas Health Science Center (UNTHSC) is incorporating research education in the osteopathic medical school curriculum. The first phase of this research education project involved a baseline assessment of students' understanding of targeted research concepts. This paper reports the results of that assessment and discusses implications for research education during medical school. Methods Using a novel set of research competencies supported by the literature as needed for understanding research information, we created a questionnaire to measure students' confidence and understanding of selected research concepts. Three matriculating medical school classes completed the on-line questionnaire. Data were analyzed for differences between groups using analysis of variance and t-tests. Correlation coefficients were computed for the confidence and applied understanding measures. We performed a principle component factor analysis of the confidence items, and used multiple regression analyses to explore how confidence might be related to the applied understanding. Results Of 496 total incoming, first, and second year medical students, 354 (71.4%) completed the questionnaire. Incoming students expressed significantly more confidence than first or second year students (F = 7.198, df = 2, 351, P = 0.001) in their ability to understand the research concepts. Factor analyses of the confidence items yielded conceptually coherent groupings. Regression analysis confirmed a relationship between confidence and applied understanding referred to as knowledge. Confidence scores were important in explaining variability in knowledge scores of the respondents. Conclusion Medical students with limited understanding of research concepts may struggle to understand the medical literature. Assessing medical students' confidence to understand and objectively measured ability to interpret basic research concepts can be used to incorporate competency based research material into the existing curriculum.

Cruser des Anges; Dubin Bruce; Brown Sarah K; Bakken Lori L; Licciardone John C; Podawiltz Alan L; Bulik Robert J

2009-01-01

235

Validated instruments used to measure attitudes of healthcare students and professionals towards patients with physical disability: a systematic review  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Instruments to detect changes in attitudes towards people with disabilities are important for evaluation of training programs and for research. While we were interested in instruments specific for medical students, we aimed to systematically review the medical literature for validated survey instruments used to measure attitudes of healthcare students and professionals towards patients with physical disability. Methods We electronically searched Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Health and Psychosocial Instruments. We included papers reporting on the development and/or validation of survey instruments to measure attitudes of healthcare students and professionals towards patients with physical disability. We excluded papers in which the attitudes were not measured in a provider-patient context. Two reviewers carried out titles and abstracts screening, full texts screening, and data abstraction in a duplicate and independent manner using standardized and pilot tested forms. Results We identified seven validated survey instruments used for healthcare students and professionals. These instruments were originally developed for the following target populations: general population (n = 4); dental students (n = 1); nursing students (n = 1); and rehabilitation professionals (n = 1). The types of validity reported for these instruments were content validity (n = 3), criterion-related validity (n = 1), construct validity (n = 2), face validity (n = 1), discriminant validity (n = 1), and responsiveness (n = 1). The most widely validated and used tool (ATDP) was developed in the late 1960s while the most recent instrument was developed in the early 1990s. Conclusion Of the seven identified validated instruments, less than half were specifically designed for healthcare students and professionals and none for medical students. There is a need to develop and validate a contemporary instrument specifically for medical students.

Lam Wai; Gunukula Sameer K; McGuigan Denise; Isaiah New; Symons Andrew B; Akl Elie A

2010-01-01

236

[Contract learning: effects of professionalization on the student nurse].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The reengineering of nurse training implies the implementation of self-development, empowering tools and a reshaping of the function of accompaniment during training which becomes a shared function. This work is part of a psycho-socio-educational approach of the accompaniment to self-directed learning and also in the field of practices of health and social work. This study contributes to the identification of the conditions of efficiency of contracting between student nurses, tutors and instructors. It aims to explore the interest of a triangular steering of the learning contract centered on the student's individual project and also the interest of meetings during training as triggers to a process of self-construction of competences. Moreover, the study aims to identify the effects of contract on professionalization. Our study reverts to the basic question of learning by contract as a pillar for the self-directed learning in an alternating training context. The empirical approach takes into account a qualitative study carried out with 15 people (tutors, managers, student nurses and instructors) in 3 health care structures and a quantitative study based on 78 first year students, 106 second year students, and 47 third year students at the same nursing education institute. The study shows that learning by contract is empowering and professionalizing, if the student is placed in favorable conditions of learning and contractual relationship.

Jubin P

2013-03-01

237

Medical student retention of intubation skills.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medical students are trained in airway management by endotracheal intubation in most medical schools. Unfortunately, little data exist examining retention, and no data exist that actually break down the steps of intubation to determine where students encounter problems. We studied 64 medical students trained to intubate as part of an American Heart Association advanced cardiac life support course and their performance two to three months after training. The rate of successful intubation (confirmed by visualization) was 70 +/- 12%. The most frequent errors during intubation were failure to check the light before intubation, use of the teeth as a fulcrum, and failure to check the cuff on the endotracheal tube. Knowledge of the most common errors will allow instructors to place greater emphasis on those areas during the initial instruction period with a focus on decreasing their occurrence in the future.

Nelson MS

1989-10-01

238

Medical students’ anxiety on beginning clinical studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The switch to the hospital-based course represents a significant stressful change in medical students’ experience. Objective: To investigate the anxiety levels in students in various clinical situations. Method: A 40-item questionnaire based study was conducted to assess students’ anxieties about potential anxiety provoking clinical situations and respondent ratings were requested for each of the 40 items on the list. Results: ‘Getting diagnoses wrong’ was the biggest worry overall and of male students whereas female students were most anxious about ‘talking with dying patients’. The overall mean anxiety scores for males and females were not different. Females compared to males had statistically higher anxiety scores in only 2/40 situations. Conclusions: Pre-clinical students should have early introduction to clinical and community settings.

Syed Imran Ali Shah; Mukhtar Ahmed

2013-01-01

239

Is Medication Information for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Monitored and Coordinated Across Professionals? Findings from a Teacher Survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prescription medications are commonly used for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), however, there is little research regarding how the effect of medication is monitored across settings once prescribed. The present study addressed this issue for children with ASD in school by administering a questionnaire to teachers of students with ASD who were and were not being given medication. Specifically, the questionnaire assessed the teachers' knowledge about whether the child was being given medication, and whether behavior changes or side effects were being communicated in any way to the child's family and prescribing physician. The results showed that for children who were being given medication, fewer than half of the teachers reported knowing the child was being given medication. For those children who were not being given medication, only 53% of the teachers reported correct information for their students. Of the teachers who knew their students were being given medication, all reported that they were not conferring with the child's prescribing physician regarding behavioral observations or side effects. Whether teachers are blind to the medication types and dosage the students are being given or not, some type of communication to physicians about the children's behavior at school is important. Given the importance of monitoring medication for children with ASD, implications for system change, for professionals and for funding agencies are discussed.

Koegel LK; Krasno AM; Taras H; Koegel RL; Frea W

2013-03-01

240

Phenomenological analysis of patient experiences of medical student teaching encounters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: It is important to know how patients are affected by becoming opportunistically involved in medical student education. In previous studies, researchers rather than patients set the research agenda and expert patients or people well known to teachers were more often involved than ordinary people. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore how ordinary patients experience undergraduate medical teaching when they become involved in it opportunistically and to derive practical insights from the lived experiences of these patients. METHODS: The research was conducted in line with a conceptual orientation towards communities of practice theory and used phenomenology as a way of exploring patients' lived experiences in depth. Minimally structured interviews were carried out with 10 patients following ordinary out-patient or general practice appointments in which students were being taught. Template analysis was used to generate provisional themes and a process of phenomenological reduction was used to distil individual respondents' lived experiences to their essence. RESULTS: The presence of students in ambulatory consultations was normal. Nine respondents described transactional relationships in which they remained outside the community of practice of which the doctor and student were members. Only an intimate problem would engage them deeply enough for a student's presence to 'bother' them. One patient's personal and professional background led her to regard doctors' handling of consultation dynamics as factors contributing to whether teaching consultations were negative or positive experiences. When doctors' sensitive and inclusive behaviour drew her into a triadic relationship with the student and doctor, she experienced mutual benefits with students. When it did not, she felt objectified and alienated. CONCLUSIONS: Provided they receive the clinical care for which they are attending a consultation and are treated respectfully, patients may sometimes willingly become 'objects' from which students learn. They may, however, become more deeply engaged in teaching consultations in which they participate actively in a triadic relationship of mutual benefit with a doctor and student. Teaching consultations call for doctors to be sensitive and adaptable.

McLachlan E; King N; Wenger E; Dornan T

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Choosing family medicine. What influences medical students?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore factors that influence senior medical students to pursue careers in family medicine. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. SETTING: University of Western Ontario (UWO) in London. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven of 29 graduating UWO medical students matched to Canadian family medicine residency programs beginning in July 2001. METHOD: Eleven semistructured interviews were conducted with a maximum variation sample of medical students. Interviews were transcribed and reviewed independently, and a constant comparative approach was used by the team to analyze the data. MAIN FINDINGS: Family physician mentors were an important influence on participants' decisions to pursue careers in family medicine. Participants followed one of three pathways to selecting family medicine: from an early decision to pursue family medicine, from initial uncertainty about career choice, or from an early decision to specialize and a change of mind. CONCLUSION: The perception of a wide scope of practice attracts candidates to family medicine. Having more family medicine role models early in medical school might encourage more medical students to select careers in family medicine.

Jordan J; Brown JB; Russell G

2003-01-01

242

Selection of medical students: a controlled experiment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to discover, through a controlled experiment, whether cognitive and non-cognitive assessment would select higher-achieving applicants to medical school than selection by lottery. METHODS: We carried out a prospective cohort study to compare 389 medical students who had been admitted by selection and 938 students who had been admitted by weighted lottery, between 2001 and 2004. Main outcome measures were dropout rates, study rate (credits per year) and mean grade per first examination attempt per year. Study rates in the 4 pre-clinical years of medical school were used to categorise students' performance as average or optimal. RESULTS: Pre-admission variables did not differ between the two groups. The main outcome of the selection experiment was that relative risk for dropping out of medical school was 2.6 times lower for selected students than for lottery-admitted controls (95% confidence interval 1.59-4.17). Significant differences between the groups in the percentage of optimally performing students and grade point average for first examination attempts were found only in the 2001 cohort, when results favoured the selected group. The results of the selection process took into account both the assessment procedure involved and the number of students who withdrew voluntarily. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first controlled study to show that assessing applicants' non-cognitive and cognitive abilities makes it possible to select students whose dropout rate will be lower than that of students admitted by lottery. The dropout rate in our overall cohort was 2.6 times lower in the selected group.

Urlings-Strop LC; Stijnen T; Themmen AP; Splinter TA

2009-02-01

243

Headache among medical and psychology students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Headaches occur frequently and thus are a key component of sociocentric medical education. OBJECTIVE: To study headaches among students of medicine and psychology in a single university. METHOD: This was a questionnaire-based survey of a cohort of students of medicine and psychology. RESULTS: The overall lifetime prevalence of headache was 98% and over the last year, 91%. Tensional headache accounted for 59% and migraine 22% in medicine; and 48.5% and 32% respectively in psychology. Forty-five percent reported that headaches had a variable sporadic impact on their productivity. The self-medication rate was 77%. Thirty-six percent reported worsening since admission to the university. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of headaches was very high. Tension-type headaches predominated in males and migraine in females. Tension-type was more frequent among medical students than among psychology students; migraine was more frequent in psychology (more females) than in medicine. Both kinds of students reported that headaches caused low interference with daily activities. The students reported that their symptoms had worsened since admission to the university.

Ferri-de-Barros JE; Alencar MJ; Berchielli LF; Castelhano Junior LC

2011-06-01

244

Developing a professional identity: student nurses in the workplace.  

Science.gov (United States)

This analysis of the academic and student discourse about learning in the practicum in one Australian pre-registration Bachelor of Nursing course is part of a larger study examining the professional identity of undergraduate students in three professional groups: nursing, teaching and engineering. The focus group discussion of six student nurses reveals that the theories learned in the classroom are only partially useful preparation for the relationships required to work as a nurse in a people-laden workplace; students struggle to create meaning about practices that are not consistent with classroom theory; and students require support as they develop an identity of a nurse through the embodiment of practice work. The findings from this group support the view that the traditional approach to learning, as expressed in the documentation for the final practicum experience, where knowledge is certain, context-free, and disciplinary or subject focused, is insufficient to assist student readiness for the world of work. Recommendations emerging from this analysis are related to the university and provides some evidence for others teaching in nursing programs to reconsider their practices. PMID:16167443

Grealish, Laurie; Trevitt, Corinne

245

Developing a professional identity: student nurses in the workplace.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This analysis of the academic and student discourse about learning in the practicum in one Australian pre-registration Bachelor of Nursing course is part of a larger study examining the professional identity of undergraduate students in three professional groups: nursing, teaching and engineering. The focus group discussion of six student nurses reveals that the theories learned in the classroom are only partially useful preparation for the relationships required to work as a nurse in a people-laden workplace; students struggle to create meaning about practices that are not consistent with classroom theory; and students require support as they develop an identity of a nurse through the embodiment of practice work. The findings from this group support the view that the traditional approach to learning, as expressed in the documentation for the final practicum experience, where knowledge is certain, context-free, and disciplinary or subject focused, is insufficient to assist student readiness for the world of work. Recommendations emerging from this analysis are related to the university and provides some evidence for others teaching in nursing programs to reconsider their practices.

Grealish L; Trevitt C

2005-07-01

246

Prior experience of interprofessional learning enhances undergraduate nursing and healthcare students' professional identity and attitudes to teamwork.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: How willing are today's medical, nursing and other healthcare students to undertake some of their studies as shared learning? There is a lack of evidence of students' views by discipline despite this being a priority task for higher education sectors. This study explored the views of nursing, midwifery, nursing-emergency health (paramedic), medical, physiotherapy and nutrition-dietetics students. METHODS: Senior undergraduate students from six disciplines at one university completed the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale prior to participating in interprofessional clinical learning modules. RESULTS: For 741 students, the highest ranked response was agreement about a need for teamwork (mean 4.42 of 5 points). Nursing students held significantly more positive attitudes towards Teamwork/Collaboration, and were more positive about Professional Identity than medical students (p < .001). Midwifery and nursing-emergency-health students rejected uncertainty about Roles/Responsibilities compared with medical students (p < .001). One-third of all students who had prior experience of interprofessional learning held more positive attitudes in each of four attitude domains (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Overall, students' attitudes towards interprofessional learning were positive and all student groups were willing to engage in learning interprofessionally. Early introduction of IPL is recommended. Further studies should explore the trajectory of students' attitudes throughout the university degree.

Hood K; Cant R; Baulch J; Gilbee A; Leech M; Anderson A; Davies K

2013-08-01

247

Medical student performance skills in otolaryngology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A clinical rating scale was developed to assess clinical skills of third-year medical students completing a two-week required clerkship in otolaryngology. Thirty-seven students in six consecutive small groups were rated with the instrument by themselves, their student peers, and the departmental staff, and the ratings compared. The instrument was usable and aceeptance was good. Agreement among the differenet rating bodies was poor, but single observations by staff or peers were suitably reliable when multiple raters were used. The "halo effect" was particularly evident in staff ratings.

Harker LA; Jones J

1977-01-01

248

Teaching of medical ethics: students' perception in different periods of the course.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Medical ethics is structured to guide doctors towards a better professional practice. However, its teaching in medical schools seems to be neglected. AIM: To evaluate the perception of Federal University of Sergipe medical students about ethical conflicts during their academic practice, in two different periods of a medical course. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, analytic and observational study. Using a qualitative approach, analytic categories were identified using an open questionnaire answered by two groups of students, before and after attending the medical ethics course. RESULTS: In everyday practice, the participants referred embarrassment in front of patients. When considering the relationship with the professional/professor, they identified negligence and conflicts of interests in their practice. The students also detected bad infrastructure and professional relationship in public services, when compared to private ones. The conflicts experienced by the students in their own practice were insecurity, inability to cope with patients' problems and inadequate perception of medical confidentiality limits. According to the respondents, contribution of ethics teaching varied from adequate, when it was effective to orient their practice and provide confidence, to inadequate or absent because of an overall superficial approach. CONCLUSIONS: Major deficiencies related to the teaching of medical ethics were identified, pointing to the need to change current medical education model.

Pimentel D; Barbosa de Oliveira C; Vieira MJ

2011-01-01

249

Historical context for the growth of medical professionalism and curriculum reform in Taiwan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medical school curricular reform to address humanism is now a prominent issue in Taiwan. Taiwan's community of medical professionals have for the last 100 years played a leading role in the nation's modernization and democratization. With the democratic opening of 1990, they took up the cause of humanistic reform of medical education. Although the reform has not sufficiently specified the depth and breadth of professionalism to be achieved through the medical school curriculum, it points at least to the most desired professionalism goals. Collaboration with the international community, particularly with Taiwanese-American medical educators and researchers who bring their experience back to Taiwan, has been a potent force for the advancement of the humanities and professionalism in medical education. This paper presents the definition of professionalism and the history of the medical profession from the perspective of medical education in Taiwan, and discusses recent transitions.

Chiu CH; Arrigo LG; Tsai D

2009-09-01

250

Historical context for the growth of medical professionalism and curriculum reform in Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical school curricular reform to address humanism is now a prominent issue in Taiwan. Taiwan's community of medical professionals have for the last 100 years played a leading role in the nation's modernization and democratization. With the democratic opening of 1990, they took up the cause of humanistic reform of medical education. Although the reform has not sufficiently specified the depth and breadth of professionalism to be achieved through the medical school curriculum, it points at least to the most desired professionalism goals. Collaboration with the international community, particularly with Taiwanese-American medical educators and researchers who bring their experience back to Taiwan, has been a potent force for the advancement of the humanities and professionalism in medical education. This paper presents the definition of professionalism and the history of the medical profession from the perspective of medical education in Taiwan, and discusses recent transitions. PMID:19717370

Chiu, Chiung-Hsuan; Arrigo, Linda Gail; Tsai, Duujian

2009-09-01

251

[Learning motivational interviewing to help patients change their health-related behaviors: medical students confirm it].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

At the Lausanne University, 5th year medical students were trained in Motivational interviewing (MI). Eight hours of training improved their competence in the use of this approach. This experience supports the implementation of MI training in medical schools. Motivational interviewing allows the health professional to actively involve the patient in this behavior change process (drinking, smoking, diet, exercise, medication adherence, etc.), by encouraging reflection and reinforcing personal motivation and resources.

Fortini C; Daeppen JB

2012-06-01

252

Selected physical characteristics of medical students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure selected anthropometrical characteris-tics, motor abilities and cardiorespiratory functions of medical students. Eighty-seven students were involved in this investigation. The students were categorized into five groups: (1) recreational, doing sport activities irregularly, (2) basketball and (3) handball players, having training at least two times per week, as well as men (4) and women (5) students entering medical school. In all groups the mean body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio were at the upper level of the normal range, while body fat percentage was similar to standards for sedentary subjects. Better motor per-formances were obtained from the basketball and handball players than from the other groups. Static strength for the sample was somewhat above the normal sedentary level. The resting blood pressure and heart rate for most subjects were in the normal. Cardiovascular risk factors were found in six students. Their systolic blood pressure was above 140 mm Hg. There were no sub-jects identified with low blood pressure. The heart rate was elevated for three students from the recreational group, and in the women. Bradycardia did not occur. The vital capacity and the ability to hold one?s breath was at the upper level of the normal range. The present results emphasis the need to improve the students` prevention oriented life style through participation in exercising.

Dr. Lajos Ángyán

2003-01-01

253

Understanding of cardiovascular phenomena in medical students  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Undergraduate (UG) medical students of II Semester of different institutions were surveyed to determine the prevalence of 13 different misconceptions (conceptual difficulties) about cardiovascular physiology. The prevalence of these misconceptions ranged from 75.60% to 25.30%. Methods: A list of questionnaire was selected that were diagnostic for difficulties that can seriously interfere with students mastery of the topic. Diagnostic questions were generally of the form: 'If x increases, then will y increases/decrease/show no change'. Results: The result suggests that students have a number of underlying conceptual difficulties about cardio-vascular phenomena. Our possible source of some misconceptions is the students inability to apply simple general models to specific cardiovascular phenomena. Conclusion: UG students may understand less than they appear to 'know'. Some implications of these results for teachers of physiology and medicine are explained. (author)

2010-01-01

254

"Walk with me…" : A Journey of Self-Directed Holistic Cancer Education by Medical Students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cancer education offers an ideal opportunity to inspire and initiate medical students in life-long, self-directed learning. Early and innovative out-of-the-box learning experiences, tailored to appeal to a multi-media savvy generation of medical students, form the theme of these reflections. Students never fail to surprise teachers when the seed of an idea appeals and motivates their minds. 'Walk with me…' is the story of a journey together of students, mentors, patients, and the manifold professionals who manage breast cancer.

Lakhtakia R; Al Badi M; Al Obaidani A; Al Jarrah A

2013-07-01

255

Preparing for export? Medical and nursing student migration intentions post-qualification in South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The migration of health professionals can have a profound impact on health systems around the globe. The International Organization for Migration’s (IOM) Mobility of Health Professionals Research Project (MoHProf) aimed to improve knowledge about the migration of healthcare professionals and understand migration intentions and factorsinfluencing the migration of medical and nursing students.Objectives: The study aimed to determine the proportion of nursing and medical students who were intending to emigrate, their attitudes and beliefs about, and the factors influencing their decision to emigrate.Method: This study was conducted at three medical schools and one nursing school in South Africa (n = 298) amongst 260 medical and 38 nursing students. One hundred and twenty-five students were in the final year of their studies and 143 were in their prefinal year. Thirty students did not indicate the year of their studies. Every student present on the day of data collection completed a questionnaire comprising psychometric and survey-based questions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data.Results: More than a third (37%) of the respondents intended to work or specialise abroad. The majority of medical (58.9%) and nursing (66.6%) students intended to leave SA within five years of completing their medical or nursing studies. The perception of poor working conditions within the health sector, such as long work hours, high patient loads, inadequate resources and occupational hazards, influenced medical students to consider emigrating fromSouth Africa.Conclusion: The high number of medical and nursing students intending to emigrate requires a reassessment of effectiveness of retention strategies for doctors and nurses in the South African healthcare system and actions to improve working conditions in the public healthcare sector.

Gavin George; Candice Reardon

2013-01-01

256

A STUDY OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PARENTAL EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS IN MEDICAL COLLEGE BHAVNGAR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carrier selection is one of the important major question in student life. Various factors affects individual’s carrier selection. Among various factors socioeconomic status and parental educational background is most important, which affects student’s carrier selection. More than student’s interest in particular field for higher education he should be affordable for necessary money required as well he should have proper guidance and inspiration for higher education. Primary guidance of students starts at home so if parents are highly qualified in education, student can get good guidance and motivation at home. In present study we tried to evaluate Socio-economic and Parental educational background of Medical students. Study was conducted in first year medical students of Govt. Medical College, Bhavnagar. Students were given objective questionnaire regarding information like their native place whether in urban or rural area, income of their parents and educational level of their parents. Data was compiled and analyzed. It was observed that students from good socio-economical and high parental educational background have good chances to get admission in good professional courses. Schools in rural area should be upgraded and this students should provide necessary help and guidance to meet their needs.

Ghuntla Tejas P.; Mehta Hemant B.; Gokhale Pradnya A.; Shah Chinmay J.

2012-01-01

257

Medical students teaching cardiopulmonary resuscitation to middle school Brazilian students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Diseases of the circulatory system are the most common cause of death in Brazil. Because the general population is often the first to identify problems related to the circulatory system, it is important that they are trained. However, training is challenging owing to the number of persons to be trained and the maintenance of training. OBJECTIVES: To assess the delivery of a medical-student led cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training program and to assess prior knowledge of CPR as well as immediate and delayed retention of CPR training among middle school students. METHODS: Two public and two private schools were selected. CPR training consisted of a video class followed by practice on manikins that was supervised by medical students. Multiple choice questionnaires were provided before, immediately after, and at 6 months after CPR training. The questions were related to general knowledge, the sequence of procedures, and the method to administer each component (ventilation, chest compression, and automated external defibrillation). The instructors met in a focus group after the sessions to identify the potential problems faced. RESULTS: In total, 147 students completed the 6-month follow-up. The public school students had a lower prior knowledge, but this difference disappeared immediately after training. After the 6-month follow-up period, these public school students demonstrated lower retention. The main problem faced was teaching mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. CONCLUSIONS: The method used by medical students to teach middle school students was based on the see-and-practice technique. This method was effective in achieving both immediate and late retention of acquired knowledge. The greater retention of knowledge among private school students may reflect cultural factors.

Ribeiro LG; Germano R; Menezes PL; Schmidt A; Pazin-Filho A

2013-08-01

258

Features of professionally applied physical preperation of med?cal students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is defined the development and support of a certain level of important psychical and physical qualities from professional point. The experiment has been carried out by the participation of the students of the Medical Academy. Along with other physical exercises particular attention has been paid to special respiratory exercises. The ways of physical culture and sport that improve general and specific professional and physical capacity for work have been shown. The methods of combining correctly organized breathing and psychological tuning with as a result of a favorable influence on a person's organism are also considered. It has been proved that suggested exercises have promoted the improvement of important psychical and physical qualities from professional point, as well as raising the individual's capacity for work, freeing from nervous stress.

Gubka P.I.

2011-01-01

259

Medical simulation for professional development--science and practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From the earliest days of medical practice, when surgeons used cadavers to explore the possibilities of surgical intervention, simulation has been employed to advance the practice of health care. In the last 10 years, technological advances have allowed for a wider availability and greater realism of simulation, and this has encouraged a great expansion in its use. Simulation aims to create a virtuous cycle of professional development to improve patient outcomes. Although it seems eminently logical to believe that simulation will result in better outcomes, there is a need to test these new training interventions rigorously to be sure of their worth and to understand any limitations. The purpose of this BJOG supplement is to examine in depth several paradigms of medical simulation within maternity care and gynaecology, in different settings, looking at what can be achieved and how. In this opening review, we look at the potential use of medical simulation in broad terms and describe the types of evidence that can be employed to support its use.

Fox R; Walker JJ; Draycott TJ

2011-11-01

260

Personality and performance of preclinical medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study deals with personality variables of medical students in relation to their academic success in the preclinical stage. One hundred and one students completed the 16PF Questionnaire at the beginning of their medical course and the scores were analysed in relation to their marks obtained at the end of the 2-year preclinical stage. This study shows that the 16PF Questionnaire can be a useful instrument for identifying personality variables in candidates who are likely to have academic problems and those who are likely to do well in the preclinical stage of a medical course. Students of urban origin and the eldest in the family performed better in their preclinical years. Performance was not related to sex, ethnic group, family size of entrance qualification into medicine. Personality variables of being enthusiastic, venturesome, self-opinionated, imaginative, experimenting, resourceful and driven correlate positively with performance, whereas being self-assured has negative correlation. Problem students were more reserved, emotionally less stable and more apprehensive than non-problem students.

Peng R; Khaw HH; Edariah AB

1995-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

Course in massage therapy for medical students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Massage courses for medical students have been held at Frankfurt University Medical School since 1987. To evaluate the motives for participation and to record possible changes in the attitude towards massage therapy, the students were asked to fill out a standardized questionnaire in 1990, 1993 and 1995/96. The results show that the motive for participation and the attitude towards massage therapy remained widely unchanged during these years. Summarizing all data (n = 199) the motives for participation were: (1) to practise massage therapy (86%), (2) to be better able to (later) prescribe massage therapy (66%), (3) to improve palpation skills (75%), (4) to do 'something practical' (56%), and (5) to (later) practise massage therapy as a medical doctor (23%). On average, the proportion of theory and practical instruction of 1:3.2 was considered suitable. PMID:10211294

Falkenbach, A; Blumenthal, E; Bühring, M

1998-09-01

262

Course in massage therapy for medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Massage courses for medical students have been held at Frankfurt University Medical School since 1987. To evaluate the motives for participation and to record possible changes in the attitude towards massage therapy, the students were asked to fill out a standardized questionnaire in 1990, 1993 and 1995/96. The results show that the motive for participation and the attitude towards massage therapy remained widely unchanged during these years. Summarizing all data (n = 199) the motives for participation were: (1) to practise massage therapy (86%), (2) to be better able to (later) prescribe massage therapy (66%), (3) to improve palpation skills (75%), (4) to do 'something practical' (56%), and (5) to (later) practise massage therapy as a medical doctor (23%). On average, the proportion of theory and practical instruction of 1:3.2 was considered suitable.

Falkenbach A; Blumenthal E; Bühring M

1998-09-01

263

Medication therapy management clinic: perception of healthcare professionals in a University medical center setting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine the overall perception and utilization of the pharmacist managed medication therapy management (MTM) clinic services, by healthcare professionals in a large, urban, university medical care setting.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, anonymous survey sent to 195 healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, and pharmacists at The University of Illinois Outpatient Care Center to determine their perception and utilization of the MTM clinic. The survey consisted of 12 questions and was delivered through a secure online application. Results: Sixty-two healthcare professionals (32%) completed the survey. 82% were familiar with the MTM clinic, and 63% had referred patients to the clinic. Medication adherence and disease state management was the most common reason for referral. Lack of knowledge on the appropriate referral procedure was the prominent reason for not referring patients to the MTM clinic. Of the providers that were aware of MTM services, 44% rated care as ‘excellent’, 44% as ‘good’, 5% as ‘fair’, and 0% stated ‘poor’. Strengths of MTM clinic identified by healthcare providers included in-depth education to patients, close follow-up, and detailed medication reconciliation provided by MTM clinic pharmacists. Of those familiar with MTM clinic, recommendations included; increase marketing efforts to raise awareness of the MTM clinic service, create collaborative practice agreements between MTM pharmacists and physicians, and ensure that progress notes are more concise.Conclusion: In a large, urban, academic institution MTM clinic is perceived as a valuable resource to optimize patient care by providing patients with in-depth education as it relates to their prescribed medications and disease states. These identified benefits of MTM clinic lead to frequent patient referrals specifically for aid with medication adherence and disease state management.

Shah M; Markel Vaysman A; Wilken L

2013-01-01

264

Medical student appraisal: applications for bedside patient education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Medical students are often afforded the privilege of counselling patients. In the past resources were limited to pen and paper or anatomic models. The evolution of mobile applications allows for limitless access to resources that facilitate bedside patient education. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the utility of six applications in patient education and promote awareness of implementing mobile resources in clinical care. METHODS: Six medical students rotating on various clerkships evaluated a total of six mobile applications. Strengths, limitations, and suggested uses in clinical care were identified. Applications included Meditoons™, VisiblePatient™, DrawMD™, CardioTeach™, Visual Anatomy™, and 360° Patient Education Suite™. Data was generated from narrative responses supplied by each student during their evaluation period. RESULTS: Bedside teaching was enhanced by professional illustrations and animations depicting anatomy and pathophysiology. Impromptu teaching was facilitated, as resources were conveniently available on a student's smartphone or tablet. The ability to annotate and modify images and subsequently email to patients was an extraordinary improvement in provider-patient communication. Universal limitations included small smartphone screens and the novelty of new technology. DISCUSSION: Mobile applications have the potential to greatly enhance patient education and simultaneously build rapport. Endless opportunities exist for their integration in clinical practice, particularly for new diagnoses, consent for procedures, and at time of discharge. Providers should be encouraged to try new applications and utilize them with patients.

Markman TM; Sampognaro PJ; Mitchell SL; Weeks SR; Khalifian S; Dattilo JR

2013-01-01

265

Stress and academic performance among medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of stress and academic performance in first year medical students and to identify sources of stress, levels of stress and relevant coping strategies. STUDY DESIGN: Mixed method sequential. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, from March to December 2010. METHODOLOGY: Survey questionnaire and in-depth interviews were carried out in the first year students with their consent. Two hundred and fifty students were surveyed, out of whom 120 students responded. Twelve students with their consent were interviewed. Non-probability purposive sampling was employed for both types of data collection. SPSS version 20 was used. The qualitative data generated through structured in-depth interviews, were analyzed by content analysis. RESULTS: Low level of stress was found in 7.5% (score ‹150), moderate level of stress was present in 71.67% (score between 150 and 300), and high level of stress was observed in 20.83% (score ›300) of the students. There is moderate negative (-0.583) and significant (p < 0.01) correlation between academic performance and sources of stress. Similarly there is moderate negative (-0.478) and significant (p < 0.01) correlation between academic performance and levels of stress. There was strong positive (0.799) and significant (p < 0.01), correlation between stress level and number of stress sources. CONCLUSION: The study showed a diversity of stress sources and a high level of stress in the medical students. The results also show that higher level of stress is associated with poor academic performance.

Sohail N

2013-01-01

266

A Study of Stress among Students of Professional Colleges from an Urban area in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Various studies across the globe have emphasised that students undertaking professional courses, such as medical and dental studies, are subjected to higher stress. Excessive stress could lead to psychological problems like depression and anxiety. The objective of the current study was to assess stress among students of various professional colleges and its association with various academic, social and health-related factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2011 to February 2012 among students of medical, dental and engineering colleges from the urban area of Sangli district, Maharashtra, India, using a convenience sampling technique. The calculated total sample size was 1,200. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used for the data collection. Analysis was done using percentage, the chi-square test, binary logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Out of the 1,224 respondents, 299 (24.4%) experienced stress. Among them 115 (38.5%), 102 (34.1%) and 82 (27.4%) were dental, medical and engineering students, respectively. There was a statistically significant association between stress and the field of education.Stress was observed in 187 (27.7%) females and 112 (20.4%) males; the association with gender was statistically significant. By applying binary logistic regression, medical studies, health and lifestyle factors, and academic factors were the significant predictors for stress. Conclusion: Students from all the three fields studied were exposed to stress. Academic factors were one of the most important stressors. The introduction of stress management education into the curriculum could prove useful in combatting this problem.

Vivek B. Waghachavare; Girish B. Dhumale; Yugantara R. Kadam; Alka D. Gore

2013-01-01

267

A Study of Stress among Students of Professional Colleges from an Urban area in India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Various studies across the globe have emphasised that students undertaking professional courses, such as medical and dental studies, are subjected to higher stress. Excessive stress could lead to psychological problems like depression and anxiety. The objective of the current study was to assess stress among students of various professional colleges and its association with various academic, social and health-related factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2011 to February 2012 among students of medical, dental and engineering colleges from the urban area of Sangli district, Maharashtra, India, using a convenience sampling technique. The calculated total sample size was 1,200. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used for the data collection. Analysis was done using percentage, the chi-square test, binary logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Out of the 1,224 respondents, 299 (24.4%) experienced stress. Among them 115 (38.5%), 102 (34.1%) and 82 (27.4%) were dental, medical and engineering students, respectively. There was a statistically significant association between stress and the field of education. Stress was observed in 187 (27.7%) females and 112 (20.4%) males; the association with gender was statistically significant. By applying binary logistic regression, medical studies, health and lifestyle factors, and academic factors were the significant predictors for stress. CONCLUSION: Students from all the three fields studied were exposed to stress. Academic factors were one of the most important stressors. The introduction of stress management education into the curriculum could prove useful in combatting this problem.

Waghachavare VB; Dhumale GB; Kadam YR; Gore AD

2013-08-01

268

A Study of Stress among Students of Professional Colleges from an Urban area in India  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Various studies across the globe have emphasised that students undertaking professional courses, such as medical and dental studies, are subjected to higher stress. Excessive stress could lead to psychological problems like depression and anxiety. The objective of the current study was to assess stress among students of various professional colleges and its association with various academic, social and health-related factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2011 to February 2012 among students of medical, dental and engineering colleges from the urban area of Sangli district, Maharashtra, India, using a convenience sampling technique. The calculated total sample size was 1,200. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used for the data collection. Analysis was done using percentage, the chi-square test, binary logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Out of the 1,224 respondents, 299 (24.4%) experienced stress. Among them 115 (38.5%), 102 (34.1%) and 82 (27.4%) were dental, medical and engineering students, respectively. There was a statistically significant association between stress and the field of education. Stress was observed in 187 (27.7%) females and 112 (20.4%) males; the association with gender was statistically significant. By applying binary logistic regression, medical studies, health and lifestyle factors, and academic factors were the significant predictors for stress. Conclusion: Students from all the three fields studied were exposed to stress. Academic factors were one of the most important stressors. The introduction of stress management education into the curriculum could prove useful in combatting this problem.

Waghachavare, Vivek B.; Dhumale, Girish B.; Kadam, Yugantara R.; Gore, Alka D.

2013-01-01

269

Correlators of achievement in English for medical purposes among baccalaureate nursing students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals use English language medical terminology and phraseology to write medical records and to communicate within their profession. Patient medical records provide information and data critical to facilitating proper medical care. Therefore, it is essential for nurses to be able to apply and to understand medical English (known as "English for medical purposes" or EMP) correctly to provide optimal care for patients. PURPOSE: This study investigated the relationship between EMP achievement levels among baccalaureate nursing students and learning strategies, learning motivation, and individual variables such as student gender and general English proficiency. This study also identified important explanatory factors behind achieved EMP level for nursing students. METHODS: A cross-sectional correlational design was used. A sample of 103 nursing students (24 men and 79 women) in the second semester of their sophomore year completed Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning and the Foreign Language Learning Motivation Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation, and multiple regression. RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis showed learning motivation, gender, compensation strategy, and general English proficiency explained 32% of the variance in EMP achievement level. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study suggests that when designing an EMP curriculum for baccalaureate nursing students, course designers should consider (a) enhancing student learning motivation to improve the general level of EMP achievement, (b) increasing the use of EMP in professional nursing courses, and (c) introducing a variety of strategies aimed to help students master EMP.

Chen YW; Chiou CP

2010-03-01

270

A Study about Library Usage by Undergraduate Medical Students in a Medical College in North India  

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Full Text Available Background: Since no study has been done regarding use of library in medical students in North India and very few studies in whole of India that is why this study was conceived. Objective: To study the use of library by medical students in all the professional courses in Government Medical College, Chandigarh U.T. Material and Methods: 235 students were administered pre-structured and pre-tested proforma in classroom and guided filling of proforma was done by authors. Results: Maximum students (265) were in the age group of 18-25 years.122 students felt that their objectives were partially fulfilled in the library, 71 felt their objectives were fully fulfilled in the library, while 20 felt none of their objectives were fulfilled in the library. 64.5 % students were visiting library for updating their knowledge, 31.7% for retrieving literature, 18.7% for information on a specific disease, 12.6% for research purposes, 6.7% for diagnosis, 2.6% for publications, 2.2% for patient care. Among the IT services available 57% were using computer, 54.1% were utilising internet, 47.01% were using E mail, 32.5% were using E books, 31.3%were using CD ROM, and 28.3% were using telephone. Out of benefits available of using IT services 75.7% said it lead to better access to information, 51.8% said it provided quick information, 42.9% said it lead to contact with distant personnel, 44.75% believed it lead to improvement in quality of work, 22.7%said it lead to decrease in use of postal mail, 10.8% said it lead to decrease in use of telephone, 10.1% said it lead to decrease in use of print version. 34.3 %( 91) students opined that there was need for an orientation programme regarding the use of IT services in the library.

N K Goel, S S Sarpal, Abhiruchi Galhotra, Abhadeep

2012-01-01

271

Medical students' perceptions in relation to ethnicity and gender: a qualitative study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The British medical student population has undergone rapid diversification over the last decades. This study focuses on medical students' views about their experiences in relation to ethnicity and gender during their undergraduate training within the context of the hidden curriculum in one British medical school as part of a wider qualitative research project into undergraduate medical education. Method We interviewed 36 undergraduate medical students in one British Medical School, across all five years of training using a semi-structured interview schedule. We selected them by random and quota sampling, stratified by sex and ethnicity and used the whole medical school population as a sampling frame. Data analyses involved the identification of common themes, reported by means of illustrative quotations and simple counts. Results The students provided information about variations patterned by gender in their motivation and influences when deciding to study medicine. Issues in relation to ethnicity were: gaining independence from parents, perceived limitations to career prospects, incompatibility of some religious beliefs with some medical practices and acquired open-mindedness towards students and patients from different ethnic backgrounds. Despite claiming no experiences of gender difference during medical training, female and male students expressed gender stereotypes, e.g. that women bring particularly caring and sympathetic attitudes to medicine, or that surgery requires the physical strength and competitiveness stereotypically associated with men that are likely to support the continuation of gender differentiation in medical careers. Conclusion The key themes identified in this paper in relation to ethnicity and to gender have important implications for medical educators and for those concerned with professional development. The results suggest a need to open up aspects of these relatively covert elements of student culture to scrutiny and debate and to take an explicitly wider view of the influence of what has sometimes been called the hidden curriculum upon the training of medical professionals and the practice of medicine.

Lempp Heidi; Seale Clive

2006-01-01

272

Writing about an experience of illness in medical students  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathography is defined as “historical biography from a medical, psychological, and psychiatric viewpoint.” We thought that writing about an experience of illness might help students understand patients’ experience and in turn grow in terms of self-understanding. Participants included 151 medical students. Students wrote about their own experience of illness and were asked to answer questions from the Likert scale. Most students wrote about themselves (79.2%); however, some students (20.8%) wrote about the illness of others. Among the 149 pathographies, ecopathography was most frequent (30.9%), followed by testimonial pathography (25.5%); angry pathography (13.4%) and alternative pathography (12.1%) were relatively less frequent. Eighty-eight pathographies (59.1%) showed 120 expressions of family relationship. Among the 120 cases, worrying about family members was most frequent (47.5%), followed by reliance on a family member (32.5%). All students wrote about the enlightenment experienced on returning to daily life. The sense of belonging together was most frequent (38.3%), followed by gratitude for living (20.8%), resolution to be a good doctor (18.1%), and a will to live and be healthy (12.1%). Answers on the Likert scale (total 5) for pathography beneficence were very high in understanding desirable doctor image (4.46), attaining morals and personality as a health care professional (4.49), and understanding basic communication skills (4.46). Writing about an experience of illness allows students to better understand patients’ experience and to grow in self-understanding.

Hwang, Kun; Fan, Huan; Hwang, Se Won

2013-01-01

273

Medical students' knowledge about hospital infections  

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Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to show the differences in the knowledge level about hospital infections between medical students having studied according to the old and new education programs. Material and methods. Two cross-sectional studies were conducted at the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade, Serbia. The anonymous self-administrated questionnaires were distributed to all third year students. In 2000, the students followed the 'old' system of education, and in 2007 they followed the new curriculum according to the Bologna Process. Results. The questionnaires were answered and returned by 79.8% of students who had the 'old' education program and by 71.9% of students having a 'new' curriculum. The latter students knew more about the definition of hospital infections (p<0.001), their reservoirs (p<0.05), the importance of endogenous reservoirs (p<0.001), etiology (p<0.001), transmission (p<0.001) and prevention (p<0.001). A greater number of students studying according to the new program recognized that the contact was the most frequent mode of transmission (p<0.001). Discussion. The students with the new program of studies knew more about hospital infections. This difference may be attributed to the previous course in epidemiology and earlier clinical practice that covered these topics. Although all of the students stated they knew which mode of transmission was the most frequent, when asked in specific terms about the hand hygiene, the 'new' curriculum students stated to have intermediate knowledge, and the 'old' curriculum students showed a substantial lack of knowledge. It is important to increase their knowledge level and compliance with the hand hygiene. Conclusion. The knowledge about hospital infections seems to have been improved by theoretical and practical sessions during early clinical training by the Bologna curriculum.

Markovi?-Deni? Ljiljana; Maksimovi? Jadranka; Sbutega-Miloševi? Gorica; Sbutega Isidora; Maksimovi? Miloš

2010-01-01

274

Disaster preparedness of nationally certified emergency medical services professionals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: During disasters, the public expects that emergency care will be available at a moment's notice. As such, an emergency medical services (EMS) workforce that is trained and prepared for disasters is imperative. The primary objectives of this study were to quantify the amount of individual-level training EMS professionals receive in terrorism and disaster-preparedness, as well as to assess EMS professionals' participation in multiagency disaster drills across the United States. Characteristics of those most likely to have received individual-level training or participated in multiagency disaster drills were explored. The secondary objectives were to assess EMS professional's perception of preparedness and to determine whether the amount of training individuals received was correlated with their perceptions of preparedness. METHODS: A structured survey was administered to nationally certified EMT-Basics and paramedics as part of their 2008 recertification paperwork. Outcome variables included individual-level preparedness training, participation in multiagency disaster drills, and perception of preparedness. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression modeling were used to quantify the amount of training received. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to analyze whether training was correlated with an individual's perception of preparedness. RESULTS: There were 46,127 EMS professionals who had the opportunity to complete the recertification questionnaire; 30,570 (66.3%) responded. A complete case analysis was performed on 21,438 respondents. Overall, 19,551 respondents (91.2%) reported receiving at least 1 hour of individual-level preparedness training, and 12,828 respondents (59.8%) reported participating in multiagency disaster drills, in the prior 24 months. Spearman rank correlation coefficients revealed that hours of individual-level preparedness training were significantly correlated with the perception of preparedness. CONCLUSIONS: While areas where EMS should focus attention for improvement were identified, a majority of nationally certified EMT-Basics and paramedics reported participating in both individual and multiagency disaster-preparedness training. A large majority of respondents reported feeling adequately prepared to respond to man-made and natural disasters and the perception of preparedness correlated with hours of training.

Fernandez AR; Studnek JR; Margolis GS; Mac Crawford J; Bentley MA; Marcozzi D

2011-04-01

275

[Attitude of medical students to the preventive and social aspects of medical education and practice  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reports on a study carried out in the Faculty of Medicine of the Autonomous National University of Mexico to discover the attitudes of a group of students toward the preventive and social aspects of medicine, and their own professional aspirations. It was found that these students were aware of the importance of these aspects, and that they inclined by preference to the practice of a clinical specialty. No correlation was found between the patterns of the students' professional aspirations and their attitudes. The authors feel this could mean that attitudes are determined by the overall influence of the society, but the aspirations by the structure of the labor market and the prevailing medical practice model. It is suggested that a similar survey be done of the same group of students at the completion of their studies to determine the possible effects of the educational process on their attitudes. Comments are made and recommendations put forward for solving methodological problems that arise in studies of this type.

González Carbajal E; Gutiérrez Avila JH; Aguilar De La Garza J; García Medrano J

1982-01-01

276

Medical and surgical ward rounds in teaching hospitals of Kuwait University: students’ perceptions  

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Full Text Available Sara AlMutar,1 Lulwa AlTourah,1 Hussain Sadeq,2 Jumanah Karim,2 Yousef Marwan3 1Department of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital, 3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Al-Razi Orthopedic Hospital, Kuwait City, Kuwait Background: Teaching sessions for medical students during ward rounds are an essential component of bedside teaching, providing students with the opportunity to regard patients as actual people, and to observe their physical conditions directly, allowing a better understanding of illnesses to be developed. We aim to explore medical students’ perceptions regarding medical and surgical ward rounds within the Faculty of Medicine at Kuwait University, and to evaluate whether this teaching activity is meeting the expectation of learners. Methods: A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data from 141 medical students during the 2012–2013 academic year. They were asked to provide their current and expected ratings about competencies that were supposed to be gained during ward rounds, on a scale from 1 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Mean scores were calculated, and the Student t-test was used to compare results. P < 0.05 was the cut-off level for significance. Results: Only 17 students (12.1%) declined to participate in the study. The students' current competency scores (for competencies taught within both disciplines – medical and surgical) were significantly lower than the scores indicating students’ expectations (P < 0.001). The best-taught competency was bedside examination, in both medical (mean: 3.45) and surgical (mean: 3.05) ward rounds. However, medical ward rounds were better than surgical rounds in covering some competencies, especially the teaching of professional attitude and approach towards patients (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Both medical and surgical ward rounds were deficient in meeting the students’ expectations. Medical educators should utilize the available literature to improve the bedside teaching experience for their students. Keywords: ward rounds, bedside teaching, undergraduate, medical students, medical education

AlMutar S; AlTourah L; Sadeq H; Karim J; Marwan Y

2013-01-01

277

The influence of personal and environmental factors on professionalism in medical education  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Professionalism is a critical quality for physicians to possess. Physician professionalism has received increased attention in recent years, with many authorities suggesting that professionalism is in decline. An understanding of the factors contributing to professionalism may allow the development of more effective approaches to promoting this quality in medical education. Discussion We propose a model of personal and environmental factors that contribute to physician professionalism. Personal factors include distress/well-being, individual characteristics, and interpersonal qualities. Environmental factors include institutional culture, formal and informal curricula, and practice characteristics. Promotion of professionalism requires efforts directed at each of these elements. Summary One responsibility of medical education is to foster the development of professionalism among its learners. Both personal and environmental factors play a role in physician professionalism. Accordingly, institutions should consider these factors as efforts to promote physician professionalism evolve.

West Colin P; Shanafelt Tait D

2007-01-01

278

Attitudes Of Medical Students Towards Relationship With Pharmaceutical Company: Do We Need A Change?  

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Full Text Available Purpose: Promotion by pharmaceutical company often takes advantage of mental shortcuts. Significant deficiencies have been found in student’s knowledge about pharmaceutical marketing expenditures, professional ethics and accuracy of drug information. The purpose of study was to assess the attitudes of medical students towards relationship with pharmaceutical companies and drug promotion by them. Methods: To assess the attitudes, a prevalidated questionnaire consisting of 18 questions was designed. Questionnaire was istributed when a series of lectures were scheduled for the entire medical class (253 medical students). Completed questionnaires werecollected at the end of the session and analysis was done using statistical methods. Results: Overall 81% of the medical students were of the opinion that pharmaceutical companies should be allowed to interact with them at the college level. About 95% believe that the information given by MRs is reliable and confirmation of the claims is not required (75% students). Overall 68% students believe that drug promotional offers never compromise the decision making of the physicians. About 70% students think that physicians should be compensated with gifts by medical representatives whenever their drugs are prescribed. Conclusion: The medical students are generally not opposed to interact with MR at some point of time or receive gifts from them. Also many students may not be conscious potential subconscious expectations of give-and-take relationship. Perhaps, the insight gained from our study will be used to reinforce the existing teaching curriculum with added emphasis on this issue.

Dr. Shahu Ingole; Dr. Radha Yegnanarayan

2011-01-01

279

Medical student electives and learning outcomes for global health: A commentary on behalf of the UK Medical Schools Elective Council.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Electives have the potential to have a very positive impact on the professional development of medical students. Education about issues in global health is widely regarded as a neglected area in the undergraduate curricula of many medical schools. Linking learning outcomes for global health to the elective offers a possible solution that avoids adding additional teaching to crowded courses. Conclusion: This commentary advocates caution as many potential learning outcomes are better addressed elsewhere and setting detailed outcomes erodes the essence of the elective - student choice.

Hastings A; Dowell J; Eliasz MK

2013-10-01

280

Changes of empathy in medical college and medical school students: 1-year follow up study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background This study aims to determine the correlation between medical education systems, medical college (MC) and medical school (MS), and empathy by investigating the changes in empathy among students with each additional year of medical education. Methods ...

Hong Minha; Lee Won; Park Jae; Yoon Tai; Moon Duk; Lee Sang; Bahn Geon

 
 
 
 
281

Teaching clinical reasoning to medical students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background:? Keele Medical School's new curriculum includes a 5-week course to extend medical students' consultation skills beyond those historically required for competent inductive diagnosis. Context:? Clinical reasoning is a core skill for the practice of medicine, and is known to have implications for patient safety, yet historically it has not been explicitly taught. Rather, it has been assumed that these skills will be learned by accumulating a body of knowledge and by observing expert clinicians. This course aims to assist students to develop their own clinical reasoning skills and promote their greater understanding of, and potential to benefit from, the clinical reasoning skills of others. The course takes place in the fourth or penultimate year, and is integrated with students' clinical placements, giving them opportunities to practise and quickly embed their learning. Innovation:? This course emphasises that clinical reasoning extends beyond initial diagnosis into all other aspects of clinical practice, particularly clinical management. It offers students a variety of challenging and interesting opportunities to engage with clinical reasoning across a wide range of clinical practice. It addresses bias through metacognition and increased self-awareness, considers some of the complexities of prescribing and non-pharmacological interventions, and promotes pragmatic evidence-based practice, information management within the consultation and the maximising of patient adherence. This article describes clinical reasoning-based classroom and community teaching. Implications:? Early evaluation suggests that students value the course and benefit from it. PMID:24015736

Gay, Simon; Bartlett, Maggie; McKinley, Robert

2013-10-01

282

LEARNING STYLES ADOPTED BY MEDICAL STUDENTS  

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Full Text Available Learning results in gain of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Some like to learn by seeing, some by hearing and some by demonstration. Learning style influences the retention of information and depth of comprehension. Understanding their preferred learning styles as visual, auditory, read-write or kinesthetic learners will help improve the teaching methods adopted. Role of the educator necessitates making the most of each teaching opportunity by understanding the characteristics of the learning audience and incorporating demonstrated principles of adult educational design, with a focus on collaborative learning and variety in presentation techniques. The goal is to provide student oriented education, producing efficient doctors. A cross-sectional study among 92 medical students of the Govt. Medical College, Bhavnagar, conducted in 2009. VARK questionnaire was used to access their learning preference. Preference for different learning styles were, visual (V) 1.08%, auditory (A) 20.65%, reading/writing (R) 2.17% and kinesthetic (K) 17.39%. 41.30% of the total 92 students preferred a single mode of information presentation. Of the 92 students who preferred multiple modes of information presentation, some preferred two modes (bimodal, 31.52%), some preferred three modes (tri-modal, 27.13%), and only one student preferred quadri-modal.

Chinmay Shah; Naisargi Joshi; H.B.Mehta; P.A.Gokhle

2011-01-01

283

Teaching clinical reasoning to medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background:? Keele Medical School's new curriculum includes a 5-week course to extend medical students' consultation skills beyond those historically required for competent inductive diagnosis. Context:? Clinical reasoning is a core skill for the practice of medicine, and is known to have implications for patient safety, yet historically it has not been explicitly taught. Rather, it has been assumed that these skills will be learned by accumulating a body of knowledge and by observing expert clinicians. This course aims to assist students to develop their own clinical reasoning skills and promote their greater understanding of, and potential to benefit from, the clinical reasoning skills of others. The course takes place in the fourth or penultimate year, and is integrated with students' clinical placements, giving them opportunities to practise and quickly embed their learning. Innovation:? This course emphasises that clinical reasoning extends beyond initial diagnosis into all other aspects of clinical practice, particularly clinical management. It offers students a variety of challenging and interesting opportunities to engage with clinical reasoning across a wide range of clinical practice. It addresses bias through metacognition and increased self-awareness, considers some of the complexities of prescribing and non-pharmacological interventions, and promotes pragmatic evidence-based practice, information management within the consultation and the maximising of patient adherence. This article describes clinical reasoning-based classroom and community teaching. Implications:? Early evaluation suggests that students value the course and benefit from it.

Gay S; Bartlett M; McKinley R

2013-10-01

284

Teaching handover of care to medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Handover is a key activity in acute health care, with patient safety implications if it is not performed well. This is becoming more important with shorter working hours and therefore a greater number of handovers. Despite this there is a paucity of evidence to guide education to enhance practice. A teaching session for senior medical students on handover of care was devised, delivered and evaluated, with the aim of producing a theoretically sound intervention that is acceptable to students and can be delivered with limited resources. CONTEXT: Teaching sessions to improve the handover of care have been described before, but the descriptions lacked the detail to allow a reader to deliver the session as intended. INNOVATION: We designed and delivered a 1-hour session on handover for senior medical students. This was based on models of handover practice and education, and was based on broader patient safety education principles. Student satisfaction was high and students rated their knowledge as having improved. No funding and minimal resources were used to develop and deliver the teaching session. IMPLICATIONS: A pedagogically sound teaching session, based on best-evidence theories for modelling handover practice, is presented. The perceived ability to handover has also been extremely high after the intervention. Other educators can use this intervention as a starting point for designing interventions within their own setting, and to allow future research to investigate the effectiveness of such interventions.

Darbyshire D; Gordon M; Baker P

2013-02-01

285

Hand Hygiene Practices among Medical Students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background. Hand hygiene is a cost-effective method in preventing infection transmission. Hand hygiene practices have been found to be faulty in most healthcare settings. We conducted a study to evaluate the awareness, and compliance of hand hygiene among undergraduate medical students during their clinical phase in Qassim College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A questionnaire based on World Health Organization's concept of "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" was used to evaluate the awareness of the indications for hand hygiene and compliance was observed during Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) sessions. Sixty students including thirty-six males (60%) and twenty-four females (40%) participated voluntarily in the study. Results. The average awareness regarding the positive indications of hand hygiene was 56%. Rest of the 44% of students were either not sure or unaware of the indications of hygiene. Only 29% of students were able to identify all the five indications for hand hygiene in the questionnaire. Compliance as assessed during OSCE sessions was only 17% with no significant difference between the genders. Conclusion. It was concluded that serious efforts are needed to improve the hand hygiene practices among medical students.

Al Kadi A; Salati SA

2012-01-01

286

"I'm too used to it": a longitudinal qualitative study of third year female medical students' experiences of gendered encounters in medical education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although the number of women entering medical school has been steadily rising in the U.S.A., female medical students continue to report instances of sexual harassment and gender discrimination. The full spectrum of such experiences and their effect on the professional identity formation of female students over time remains largely unknown. To investigate these experiences, we interviewed 12 third year female medical students at a private New England medical school over several points during the 2006-2007 academic year. Using theoretical frameworks of gender performance and the centrality of student-patient and student-supervisor relationships, we were better able to understand how female medical students interpret the role of 'woman doctor' and the effect of negative and positive gendered interactions on the evolution of their professional identity. We found that participants quickly learned how to confront and respond to inappropriate behavior from male patients and found interactions with female patients and supervisors particularly rewarding. However, they did not feel equipped to respond to the unprofessional behavior of male supervisors, resulting in feelings of guilt and resignation over time that such events would be a part of their professional identity. The rapid acculturation to unprofessional behavior and resignation described by participants has implications for not only professional identity formation of female students but specialty choices and issues of future physician workforce.

Babaria P; Abedin S; Berg D; Nunez-Smith M

2012-04-01

287

A student-initiated and student-facilitated international health elective for preclinical medical students  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Global health education is becoming more important for developing well-rounded physicians and may encourage students toward a career in primary care. Many medical schools, however, lack adequate and structured opportunities for students beginning the curriculum. Methods: Second-year medical students initiated, designed, and facilitated a pass–fail international health elective, providing a curricular framework for preclinical medical students wishing to gain exposure to the clinical and cultural practices of a developing country. Results: All course participants (N=30) completed a post-travel questionnaire within one week of sharing their experiences. Screening reflection essays for common themes that fulfill university core competencies yielded specific global health learning outcomes, including analysis of health care determinants. Conclusion: Medical students successfully implemented a sustainable global health curriculum for preclinical student peers. Financial constraints, language, and organizational burdens limit student participation. In future, long-term studies should analyze career impact and benefits to the host country.

Nirali Vora; Mina Chang; Hemang Pandya; Aliya Hasham; Cathy Lazarus

2010-01-01

288

Tablet computer use by medical students in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The value of tablet computer use in education is an area of considerable interest. Preliminary investigations shows that medical students feel that tablet computers were a positive addition to the preclinical curriculum. To better understand how and why medical students use tablet computers, we conducted an online survey of medical students in the United States This study shows frequent tablet computer use by medical students. Students in clinical years of medical school are the most frequent users of tablet computers. The high frequency of tablet computer use suggest that this may be an important area for medical educators to explore.

Robinson RL; Burk MS

2013-08-01

289

Tablet computer use by medical students in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The value of tablet computer use in education is an area of considerable interest. Preliminary investigations shows that medical students feel that tablet computers were a positive addition to the preclinical curriculum. To better understand how and why medical students use tablet computers, we conducted an online survey of medical students in the United States This study shows frequent tablet computer use by medical students. Students in clinical years of medical school are the most frequent users of tablet computers. The high frequency of tablet computer use suggest that this may be an important area for medical educators to explore. PMID:23832806

Robinson, Robert L; Burk, Martha S

2013-07-07

290

Study Motives and Career Choices of Iranian Medical and Dental Students  

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Full Text Available To compare the study motives and career choices of senior undergraduate medical and dental students in Iran. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey study involving final year medical and dental students from 4 dental and medical schools was conducted in 2010. The questionnaire was designed in three sections (Demographic details, motivational items and career choice items) and after confirming the validity and reliability of the questions, it was distributed among the students. Data were entered into SPSS; statistical analysis included logistic regression and multiple linear regression. The response rate was 62% (n=219) for medical and 64% (n=300) for dental students. The factor analysis identified six motivational items: "Social and professional status", "Health care and people", "Others recommendation", "personal interest and nature of occupation", "Occupational experience" and "Personal life". Medical students were more influenced by "Playing a role in community health" and "Personal interest". "Work independence" and "Social factors" however were two major influential factors among dental students. There were significant differences in important influences by age (Social and professional status, Others' recommendation), Parents education (Social and professional status, Health care and people, Personal life) and marital status (single >married: Occupational experience, married > single: Personal life). Engaging in postgraduate studies was the first career preference among 90.9% and 89.8% of dental and medical students respectively. Medical and dental students report a wide range of motivational factors in studying medicine/dentistry and future career plans which is affected by age, parents' education and marital status.

Marzieh Vahid Dastjerdi; Mina Mahdian; Elahe Vahid Dastjerdi; Mahshid Namdari

2012-01-01

291

Professional Socialization of Graduate Students: A give-and-take process.  

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Full Text Available Professional socialization of graduate students is a give-and-take process due to its complexity and dynamism. This paper, which falls under organizational behavior focuses on the three approaches to socialization of graduate students—functionalist, interpretive and critical. The author views professional socialization from the standpoint of interpretive approach, which argues that a student plays a significant role in the professional socialization process. While the department puts the student through the socialization process, the student makes a decision and chooses how to behave through the socialization process. Thus, the student influences socialization process just as the socialization process influences the student’s professional preparation. The paper focuses on graduate students because of the assumption that graduate study plays a fundamental role in socializing and preparing students for work and developing an early professional identity.

Orpha Kemunto Ongiti

2012-01-01

292

Tobacco use by Indian medical students and the need for comprehensive intervention strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Tobacco is one of the most important causes of pulmonary and cardiac diseases. Health professionals, including medical students, should ideally play an important role in the fight against tobacco use but several reports suggest that a good number of medical students are themselves addicted to tobacco. METHODS: This is a single institutional cross-sectional survey of preclinical medical students in Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad over a five-year period from 2003-2007. Data was collected using the WHO Global Health Professionals Survey questionnaire. RESULTS: 560 students over a period of five years were included in this study. A total of 183 were tobacco users of which 83 were tobacco chewers, 59 cigarette smokers and 41 were addicted to both chewing and smoking. As health professionals, 88% knew that they should advise their patients to quit tobacco. CONCLUSION: This study showed rampant abuse of tobacco. Specific smoking cessation training is needed for medical students to develop appropriate skills and strategies.

Mehrotra R; Chaudhary AK; Pandya S; Mehrotra KA; Singh M

2010-01-01

293

[Family and religious traditions present in medical discourses by medical professionals about children with genetic diseases].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study explores the influences of cultural traditions rooted in the tone of medical discourse at the Instituto Fernandes Figueira/ Fundação Oswaldo Cruz by physicians regarding children with genetic diseases involving malformations and mental retardation, as well as reflections upon the professional care for these children. Data were collected using oral interviews (in the form of conversational narratives) and were submitted to semiotic analysis. The results pointed to four main cultural traditions present in medical discourse: the norm, the reason, the family and the Jewish-Christian religiosity. This article, however, focuses on the latter two, emphasizing how the notion of the family, mainly the mythification of the mother, can make the child with a genetic disease 'invisible,' in addition to contributing towards womanhood being underestimated when contrasted with motherhood. Such concepts overlap with those brought by the religious traditions and directly influence the medical perceptions towards patients and their families.

Martins AJ; Cardoso MH; Llerena JC Jr; Moreira MC

2012-02-01

294

Students' attitudes towards the introduction of a Personal and Professional Development portfolio: potential barriers and facilitators  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Portfolios, widely used in undergraduate and postgraduate medicine, have variable purposes, formats and success. A recent systematic review summarised factors necessary for successful portfolio introduction but there are no studies investigating the views of students inexperienced in portfolio use towards portfolio learning. This study's aim was to survey student views about a prospective Professional and Personal Development (PPD) portfolio. Methods This was a qualitative, focus group study. All focus groups were taped and transcribed verbatim, and anonymised. The transcripts were analysed inductively, using framework analysis. Results Four focus groups were carried out with 32 undergraduate medical students naïve in portfolio use. Three themes relevant to portfolio introduction emerged. The first theme was the need for clear information and support for portfolio introduction, and anxieties about how this could be supported effectively. The second was that students had negative views about reflective learning and whether this could be taught and assessed, believing formal assessment could foster socially acceptable content. The third was that participants revealed little understanding of reflective learning and its potential benefits. Rather portfolios were seen as useful for concrete purposes (e.g., job applications) not intrinsic benefits. Conclusion Undergraduate medical students without experience of portfolios are anxious about portfolio introduction. They require support in developing reflective learning skills. Care must be taken to ensure students do not see portfolios as merely yet another assessment hurdle.

Ross Sarah; Maclachlan Alison; Cleland Jennifer

2009-01-01

295

Radiation oncology: a primer for medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Radiation oncology requires a complex understanding of cancer biology, radiation physics, and clinical care. This paper equips the medical student to understand the fundamentals of radiation oncology, first with an introduction to cancer treatment and the use of radiation therapy. Considerations during radiation oncology consultations are discussed extensively with an emphasis on how to formulate an assessment and plan including which treatment modality to use. The treatment planning aspects of radiation oncology are then discussed with a brief introduction to how radiation works, followed by a detailed explanation of the nuances of simulation, including different imaging modalities, immobilization, and accounting for motion. The medical student is then instructed on how to participate in contouring, plan generation and evaluation, and the delivery of radiation on the machine. Lastly, potential adverse effects of radiation are discussed with a particular focus on the on-treatment patient.

Berman AT; Plastaras JP; Vapiwala N

2013-09-01

296

Medical students' attitudes towards group and self-regulated learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The study is aimed at exploring the association between beginning students' attitudes towards group learning and their awareness of learning strategies, to demographic variables and their exposure to problem-based or mixed curricula. Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional design included students (N = 351) from two medical schools with lecture-based and two with problem-based curricula from Germany and Sweden. Gender, age, personal and parents' practice experience within health care were assessed. A questionnaire was designed for measuring attitudes towards group and individual learning, awareness of learning strategies was assessed with the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory. The t-test for independent groups was applied to compare dependent variables between personal factors, and multivariate statistics to compare medical schools. Results: Students' personal work experience correlated with self-regulation (t[sub](333)[/sub] = -3.307; p = 0.001) and group learning experience (t[sub](341)[/sub] = -2.971; p = 0.003). Students from the German problem-based curriculum reported most experience with group learning (largest mean difference compared to the German lecture-based curriculum = 1.45 on a Likert scale from 1 to 7; SE = 0.181; p < 0.001), and were better at regulating their learning strategies than students from the Swedish lecture-based school (mean difference 0.18; SE = 0.181; p = 0.034). Conclusions: Students' clinical experience seemed to benefit self-regulation skills. Problem-based teaching methods and early interprofessional education appear to be favorable learning conditions for the development of professional skills.

Antje L umma-Sellenthin

2012-01-01

297

Medical students-as-teachers: a systematic review of peer-assisted teaching during medical school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tzu-Chieh Yu¹, Nichola C Wilson², Primal P Singh¹, Daniel P Lemanu¹, Susan J Hawken³, Andrew G Hill¹¹South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ²Department of Surgery, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ³Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandIntroduction: International interest in peer-teaching and peer-assisted learning (PAL) during undergraduate medical programs has grown in recent years, reflected both in literature and in practice. There, remains however, a distinct lack of objective clarity and consensus on the true effectiveness of peer-teaching and its short- and long-term impacts on learning outcomes and clinical practice.Objective: To summarize and critically appraise evidence presented on peer-teaching effectiveness and its impact on objective learning outcomes of medical students.Method: A literature search was conducted in four electronic databases. Titles and abstracts were screened and selection was based on strict eligibility criteria after examining full-texts. Two reviewers used a standard review and analysis framework to independently extract data from each study. Discrepancies in opinions were resolved by discussion in consultation with other reviewers. Adapted models of “Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Learning” were used to grade the impact size of study outcomes.Results: From 127 potential titles, 41 were obtained as full-texts, and 19 selected after close examination and group deliberation. Fifteen studies focused on student-learner outcomes and four on student-teacher learning outcomes. Ten studies utilized randomized allocation and the majority of study participants were self-selected volunteers. Written examinations and observed clinical evaluations were common study outcome assessments. Eleven studies provided student-teachers with formal teacher training. Overall, results suggest that peer-teaching, in highly selective contexts, achieves short-term learner outcomes that are comparable with those produced by faculty-based teaching. Furthermore, peer-teaching has beneficial effects on student-teacher learning outcomes.Conclusions: Peer-teaching in undergraduate medical programs is comparable to conventional teaching when utilized in selected contexts. There is evidence to suggest that participating student-teachers benefit academically and professionally. Long-term effects of peer-teaching during medical school remain poorly understood and future research should aim to address this.Keywords: peer-teaching, peer-assisted learning, near-peer teaching, medical student, medical school

Yu TC; Wilson NC; Singh PP; Lemanu DP; Hawken SJ; Hill AG

2011-01-01

298

Anatomy in medical education: Perceptions of undergraduate medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: The best method to teach anatomy is widely debated. A shift away from cadaveric dissection in UK medical schools towards newer approaches has taken place without adequate evaluation of their suitability. The impact of this on future anatomical and surgical competencies is unclear. We assessed student perceptions to different methods of anatomy teaching. METHODS: All 2nd year students at Leeds School of Medicine were invited to complete a matrix-grid questionnaire. Participants were asked to score six methods of anatomy teaching (dissection; prosection; lectures; models; PC software packages; living & radiological anatomy) using a 5-point Likert-type scale on the ability to achieve nine learning objectives. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney analyses suitable for non-parametric data were used to evaluate differences in scores between teaching methods. RESULTS: 170 students (71%) responded to the survey. Overall, dissection was the single highest scored method, followed by prosection. Newer approaches such as models, computer software packages and living & radiological anatomy scored comparatively worse. The most suitable method for achieving individual learning objectives was variable with dissection perceived as most suitable for four out of nine objectives. CONCLUSIONS: Cadaveric dissection is a favourable approach for achieving important learning objectives in the field of anatomy. Further evaluation of teaching methods is required prior to changes being made in the curricula of UK medical schools.

Chapman SJ; Hakeem AR; Marangoni G; Prasad KR

2013-04-01

299

What do medical students think about their quality of life? A qualitative study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education can affect medical students’ physical and mental health as well as their quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess medical students’ perceptions of their quality of life and its relationship with medical education. Methods First- to sixth-year students from six Brazilian medical schools were interviewed using focus groups to explore what medical student’s lives are like, factors related to increases and decreases of their quality of life during medical school, and how they deal with the difficulties in their training. Results Students reported a variety of difficulties and crises during medical school. Factors that were reported to decrease their quality of life included competition, unprepared teachers, excessive activities, and medical school schedules that demanded exclusive dedication. Contact with pain, death and suffering and harsh social realities influence their quality of life, as well as frustrations with the program and insecurity regarding their professional future. The scarcity of time for studying, leisure activities, relationships, and rest was considered the main factor of influence. Among factors that increase quality of life are good teachers, classes with good didactic approaches, active learning methodologies, contact with patients, and efficient time management. Students also reported that meaningful relationships with family members, friends, or teachers increase their quality of life. Conclusion Quality of teachers, curricula, healthy lifestyles related to eating habits, sleep, and physical activity modify medical students’ quality of life. Lack of time due to medical school obligations was a major impact factor. Students affirm their quality of life is influenced by their medical school experiences, but they also reframe their difficulties, herein represented by their poor quality of life, understood as necessary and inherent to the process of becoming doctors.

Tempski Patricia; Bellodi Patricia L; Paro Helena BMS; Enns Sylvia C; Martins Milton A; Schraiber Lilia B

2012-01-01

300

Prevalence of smoking habits, attitudes, knowledge and beliefs among Health Professional School students: a cross-sectional study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p (more) Prevalence of current smokers was 38.2%. 94.3% of the total sample believe that health professionals should receive specific training to quit smoking, but only 21.3% of the sample received it during the study courses. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of smokers among health professionals and their key role both as advisers and behavioral models, our results highlight the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training addressed to them.

Ferrante, Margherita; Saulle, Rosella; Ledda, Caterina; Pappalardo, Roberto; Fallico, Roberto; La Torre, Giuseppe; Fiore, Maria

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Hepatitis B prophylaxis practice among medical students : An overview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Healthcare personnel, especially medical students, represent a high risk population for Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection. Hepatitis B is the most important infectious occupational hazard which Indian medical students and healthcare workers (HCWs) encounter. The medical students and HCWs all over th...

Chouhan Swati

302

Assessing medical students’ competence in calculating drug doses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evidence suggests that healthcare professionals are not optimally able to calculate medicine doses and various strategies have been employed to improve these skills. In this study, the performance of third and fourth year medical students was assessed and the success of various educational interventions investigated. Students were given four types of dosing calculations typical of those required in an emergency setting. Full competence (at the 100% level) was defined as correctly answering all four categories of calculation at any one time. Three categories correct meant competence at the 75% level. Interventions comprised an assignment with a model answer for self-assessment in the third year and a small group tutorial in the fourth year. The small groups provided opportunities for peer-assisted learning. A subgroup of 23 students received individual tuition from the lecturer prior to the start of the fourth year. Amongst the 364 eligible students, full competence rose from 23% at the beginning of the third year to 66% by the end of the fourth year. More students succeeded during the fourth than the third year of study. Success of small group tuition was assessed in a sample of 200 students who had formal assessments both before and after the fourth year tuition. Competence at the 75% level improved by 10% in attendees and decreased by 3% in non-attendees, providing evidence of the value of students receiving assistance from more able same-language peers. Good results were achieved with one-on-one tuition where individualised assistance allowed even struggling students to improve.

Catherine Harries; Julia Botha

2013-01-01

303

Human trafficking: an evaluation of Canadian medical students' awareness and attitudes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Human trafficking is a human rights violation prevalent globally. Current guidelines highlight healthcare professionals' key role in responding to human trafficking, emphasizing the importance of medical education in raising awareness of trafficking. OBJECTIVE: To assess pre-clerkship medical students' awareness of human trafficking and attitudes towards learning about trafficking in the medical curriculum at Canada's largest medical school. METHODS: An anonymous, classroom-based questionnaire was designed, piloted and administered to first- and second-year medical students at one large Canadian medical school with a diverse student population. The questionnaire sought demographic data and information on students' self-perceived awareness of human trafficking and interest in learning about trafficking and other community health issues. RESULTS: 262 medical students completed the questionnaire (70.0% response). Most participants reported that they were not knowledgeable (48.5%) or only somewhat knowledgeable (45.4%) about human trafficking. 88.9% of participants were not familiar with signs and symptoms of trafficked persons. While students' responses indicated that they prioritized other social issues, a majority of participants (76.0%) thought that trafficking was important to learn about in medical school, especially identifying trafficked persons and their health needs. CONCLUSIONS: These medical students of one Canadian medical school demonstrated limited familiarity with the issue of human trafficking but largely felt that they should be taught more about this issue during their medical education. This assessment of early medical students' awareness of human trafficking is relevant to medical educators and the organizations that could develop the required educational curricula and resources.

Wong JC; Hong J; Leung P; Yin P; Stewart DE

2011-04-01

304

Sleep quality in Zanjan university medical students  

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Full Text Available Background: Sleep has a major role in daily cycles and reconstruction of physical and mental abilities. Regarding the importance of this feature, we decided to determine sleep quality in medical students.Methods: A questionnaire containing demographic data, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was prepared. We distributed the questionnaires using a census method to every student at the Zanjan Faculty of Medicine. The completed questionnaires were collected and the data was analyzed using SPSS.Results: A total of 224 students answered the questionnaire, with 133 (59.4%) students evaluated to have good sleep quality and 91 (40.6%) poor sleep quality. Of these 91 students, 38% were female and 44.8% were male (p=0.307). The prevalence of poor sleep quality according to the four stages of medical training was 24.6% of those in basic sciences, 42.9% of those in physiopathology, 41.7% of externs, and 53.5% of interns (p=0.008). According to residential status, the prevalence of poor sleep quality was 61.5% among students living with their spouse, 44.6% for students living in their own private homes, 37.6% among students living in the dormitory, and 20.8% for those living with their parents (p=0.024). According to marital status, 35.8% of singles and 64.9% of married students had poor sleep quality (p=0.001). According to financial status, 57.9%, 46.9%, and 33.9% of those from low, moderate and high economic classes, respectively, were sleep deprived (p=0.049). Among those with average grades of under 16 and over 16 out of 20, 47.5% and 32%, respectively, were suffering from poor sleep quality (p=0.047). There was no obvious relationship between sleep quality and BMI, sex, or history of depression or anxiety.Conclusion: Poor sleep quality was significantly associated with lower grades, economic status, living arrangement and type of training. A large number of students quality of life and work may suffer because sleep deprivation.

Ghoreishi A; Aghajani A H

2008-01-01

305

Professional preferences of students in physical education and sport sciences  

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Full Text Available The actual context has enhanced job opportunities in the field of sport in order to respond to the current market demand. Thus, Physical Education and Sport Science graduates who begin to do differents jobs to the traditional ones but relate to their study field. The aim of this study was to guess which are the job preferences of the students of Physical Education and Sport Science of Seville University by gender and age doing the second cycle of their college degree and determine if there are significant differences. A descriptive analysis was carried out, using a questionnaire based on several researches, it was related to professional opportunities in sport sciences. The sample was of 118 students which represented 40.7% of the overall registered students. Results shown that sport management is the most preferable professional opportunity for women and men of the total sample, following in second place by teaching in secondary school for people older than 25 years of both sexes and teaching in primary school for the younger than 25 years. These findings announce changes in occupational trends in sports, to be taken into account in the framework of the European higher education (Degree of Science in Sport and Physical Activity, own US Masters and Official, lifelong learning programs...).

Jerónimo García Fernández; Francisco Pires Vega; Jesús Fernández Gavira

2013-01-01

306

Medical students’ attitudes toward gay men  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N?=?371) with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25?years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. Conclusions We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches.

Matharu Kabir; Kravitz Richard L; McMahon Graham T; Wilson Machelle D; Fitzgerald Faith T

2012-01-01

307

Enhancing and sustaining empathy in medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Empathy is an important component of physician competence that needs to be enhanced. Aim: To test the hypotheses that medical students' empathy can be enhanced and sustained by targeted activities. Methods: This was a two-phase study in which 248 medical students participated. In Phase 1, students in the experimental group watched and discussed video clips of patient encounters meant to enhance empathic understanding; those in the control group watched a documentary film. Ten weeks later in Phase 2 of the study, students who were in the experimental group were divided into two groups. One group attended a lecture on empathy in patient care, and the other plus the control group watched a movie about racism. The Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) was administered pre-post in Phase 1 and posttest in Phase 2. Results: In Phase 1, the JSE mean score for the experimental group improved significantly (p?

Hojat M; Axelrod D; Spandorfer J; Mangione S

2013-06-01

308

Nursing and medical students' sexual attitudes and knowledge. Curricular implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual attitudes and knowledge of graduate nursing students were compared with those of sophomore medical students in a large, urban Midwestern university and also with the national normative values for nonmedical graduate students. The Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT) was used to collect data. Graduate nursing students did not differ significantly in the attitude and knowledge of human sexuality when compared with sophomore medical students. Graduate nonmedical students were not significantly more knowledgeable, but were significantly more tolerant toward human sexuality than sophomore medical students and graduate nursing students. The fundamental implication is the need for more constructive education in human sexuality as a planned part of the nursing curricula. PMID:6906463

Kuczynski, H J

309

Nursing and medical students' sexual attitudes and knowledge. Curricular implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sexual attitudes and knowledge of graduate nursing students were compared with those of sophomore medical students in a large, urban Midwestern university and also with the national normative values for nonmedical graduate students. The Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT) was used to collect data. Graduate nursing students did not differ significantly in the attitude and knowledge of human sexuality when compared with sophomore medical students. Graduate nonmedical students were not significantly more knowledgeable, but were significantly more tolerant toward human sexuality than sophomore medical students and graduate nursing students. The fundamental implication is the need for more constructive education in human sexuality as a planned part of the nursing curricula.

Kuczynski HJ

1980-11-01

310

Study on Influencing Factors Relationship between Teacher and Student in View of Students of Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: Scientific and personal characteristics of teachers are important factors in StudentTeacher relationship. In this study the objective to determine the Factors that influence the relationship between teachers and students regarding the opinion of the students of Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences. Subjects and Methods: This study is descriptive-analytic. The population of the research Includes all students of Ahvaz University of medical sciences. The data was gathered by questionnaire. The criteria for assessment of questions were Likert scale. Results: In this study, The effect of personal, ethical and professional characters of teachers was assessed as high by 63.8 percent of students and very high by 23.4 percent.. In between Of all these characters, “ethic” and “h umility” and also, “heartiness” of teachers have been the most effects regarding the students’ views. The effect of professional and scientific factors was assessed as inefctive by 18.8 percent, as low by 1.8, high by 48.7, and very high by 30.7 percent of the students. The effect of physical environment was considered as ineffective by 42.4 percent, very low by 4.7, low by 13.8, high by 25.3 and very high by 13.8 percent of the students.. Conclusion: This study and other researches show that of different factors, ethical and personal characters of teacher are more effective in student- teacher Relationship.

Amin Torabi; Mansour Zahiri

2012-01-01

311

Study on Influencing Factors Relationship between Teacher and Student in View of Students of Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objective: Scientific and personal characteristics of teachers are important factors in Student-Teacher relationship. In this study the objective to determine the Factors that influence the relationship between teachers and students regarding the opinion of the students of Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences.Subjects and Methods: This study is descriptive-analytic. The population of the researchIncludes all students of Ahvaz University of medical sciences. The data was gathered by questionnaire. The criteria for assessment of questions were Likert scale. Results: In this study, The effect of personal, ethical and professional characters of teachers was assessed as high by 63.8 percent of students and very high by 23.4 percent.. In between Of all these characters, “ethic” and “h umility” and also, “heartiness” of teachers have been the most effects regarding the students’ views. The effect of professional and scientific factors was assessed as inefctive by 18.8 percent, as low by 1.8, high by 48.7, and very high by 30.7 percent of the students. The effect of physical environment was considered as ineffective by 42.4 percent, very low by 4.7, low by 13.8, high by 25.3 and very high by 13.8 percent of the students.. Conclusion: This study and other researches show that of different factors, ethical and personal characters of teacher are more effective in student- teacher Relationship.

Amin Torabi; Mansour Zahiri

2012-01-01

312

Specialty preferences among medical students in a Kenyan university  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although in the recent years gender distribution in medical schools has changed, with the proportion of female medical students drastically increasing, medical specialties continue to have gender disparities. This study aimed at determining gender differences in career choices among medical students in Kenya.

Philip Maseghe Mwachaka; Eric Thuo Mbugua

2010-01-01

313

Medical Students and Mental Health by SCL-90-R  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background:The process of medical education is stressful and medical students are at risk of psychological problems. In addition to the normal stressors of everyday life, medical students must deal with stresses specific to medical school. The aim of this study was to assess mental health in senior ...

Marzieh Nojomi; Banafsheh Gharayee

314

Do our medical colleges inculcate health-promoting lifestyle among medical students: a pilot study from two medical colleges from southern India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Behavioral risk factors are responsible for a substantial portion of chronic disease. Educating patients is a professional responsibility of medical practitioners. However, it has been observed that physicians did not practice what they preach. To study whether medical colleges inculcate health-promoting lifestyle among medical students during their stay in medical colleges. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted in two conveniently selected medical colleges in southern India. Fourth year MBBS students were included in the study. A pre-tested self-administered multiple choice type questionnaire was used to collect data. Information was sought on the behavioral factors, namely smoking, alcohol use, junk food consumption, and physical activity, before joining the medical college and at the time of the study. SPSS version 10.0 was used to analyze the data. Frequencies, proportions, chi-square test. RESULTS: Out of 176 respondents, 94 (53%) were males and 82 (47%) were females. The number of smokers had increased from 24 (13.6%) to 46 (26.1%) and the number of alcohol consumers from 34 (19.3%) to 77 (43.8%) since they joined medical college. The number of students doing any physical activity declined from 76 (43.2%) to 43 (24.4%) and their food habits became unhealthier during the same period. CONCLUSIONS: The study reported an increase in health-risking behavior and a decline in health-promoting behavior among medical students during their stay in medical college.

Majra J

2013-04-01

315

Approaches to increasing the effectiveness of the learning process and the future professional activity of students with disabilities.  

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Full Text Available The features of medical public welfare of students are in-process studied with disability. 2672 students took part in an inspection. The necessity of application is marked for individual rehabilitation programs. Resulted recommendation on application of psychological, pedagogical, physical, professional, labour, athletic, sporting, social, domestic rehabilitation. Directions professional adaptation of students are rotined to the future profession. The program of physical rehabilitation which has 3 stages is recommended: adaptation (1 course), correction-health-improvement (2-3 course), professionally-applied (4-6 course). It is set that computer-integrated and inclusive an educational environment is the optimum form of providing of young people with disability by terms for a self-expression, self-perfection, independent creation, and realization of equal rights and possibilities, forming of sense of the personal meaningfulness and full value.

Makarova E.V.

2012-01-01

316

The nursing students' viewpoints on influential clinical instructor in Jahrom University of Medical Sciences  

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Full Text Available Introduction:Clinical teachers have an important role in creating an environment for effective clinical teaching to students. In addition, the faculty has a significant impact on the students' feeling of success or failure in professional competence. This study was performed to determine the characteristics of an influential instructor according to the nursing students' viewpoints in Jahrom University of Medical Sciences.Material and Methods:In this cross-sectional survey, 75 nursing students of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences were selected by census sampling method. The data collection tool was a valid and reliable questionnaire consisting of 4 domains including professional competence, interpersonal relationship, personality characteristics, and teaching ability. The data were analyzed by SPSS.Results:The results showed that influential clinical teacher must be professionally competent (mean=4.4 ± 0.80), have interpersonal relationships (mean=4.2 ± 0.96) have good personality characteristics (mean=4.1 ± 0.95), and have high eaching ability (mean=4 ± 0.89). According to the students, the most important characteristics of an influential clinical instructor are having interest in patient care (98.4%), having sufficient professional knowledge (80%), explaining and demonstrating new nursing techniques (80%), performing nursing skills procedures (86.3%), being honest with the students and creating motivation in students (83%).Conclusion:The nursing students' viewpoints indicated that influential clinical instructor has an important role in promoting quality nursing experience and in getting knowledge, professional skills and attitude. Nursing faculty should plan for promoting professional competency in clinical instructors.

Sedigheh Najafipour; Sohrab Najafipour; Rahim Raoofi; Mohammad Hashem Abdi; Leili Mosalanejad

2011-01-01

317

Computer Game Design Classes: The Students' and Professionals' Perspectives  

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Full Text Available There are multiple reasons that justify teaching computer game design. Its multi-aspectual nature creates opportunity to develop, at the same time, creativity, technical skills and ability to work in team. Thinking of game design classes, one needs direction on what to focus on so that the students could benefit the most. In this paper, we present results of a survey on both the students' and working professionals' expectations from game design course and opinions on game designer job. Although sometimes consistent, the answers from the two groups often reveal significant discrepancies. We believe that the results presented in this paper can help improve the quality of computer game design courses and make their learning outcomes more compatible with the needs of the computer game industry.

Jakub SWACHA; Adam SKRZYSZEWSKI; Wojciech A. SYSLO

2010-01-01

318

Competing duties: medical educators, underperforming students, and social accountability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the last 80 years, a major goal of medical educators has been to improve the quality of applicants to medical school and, hence, the resulting doctors. To do this, academic standards have been progressively strengthened. The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) in the United States and the undergraduate science grade point average (GPA) have long been correlated with success in medical school, and graduation rates have been close to 100 percent for many years. Recent studies have noted that some doctors having difficulties in practice were found to have had similar problems while in school. In this essay, we present a brief historical account of attitudes and approaches to admissions requirements, then discuss basic broad areas of accomplishment in clinical practice: academic mastery, clinical acumen, and professionalism. We then review data that suggest that lack of competency can often be detected very early in a student's career and may or may not be immune to remediation efforts. We end with a recommendation for a course of action that upholds and fulfills the profession's social responsibility. This will be a moral argument, defending an aggressive but equitable approach to maintaining both public accountability and trust.

Arawi T; Rosoff PM

2012-06-01

319

Competing duties: medical educators, underperforming students, and social accountability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last 80 years, a major goal of medical educators has been to improve the quality of applicants to medical school and, hence, the resulting doctors. To do this, academic standards have been progressively strengthened. The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) in the United States and the undergraduate science grade point average (GPA) have long been correlated with success in medical school, and graduation rates have been close to 100 percent for many years. Recent studies have noted that some doctors having difficulties in practice were found to have had similar problems while in school. In this essay, we present a brief historical account of attitudes and approaches to admissions requirements, then discuss basic broad areas of accomplishment in clinical practice: academic mastery, clinical acumen, and professionalism. We then review data that suggest that lack of competency can often be detected very early in a student's career and may or may not be immune to remediation efforts. We end with a recommendation for a course of action that upholds and fulfills the profession's social responsibility. This will be a moral argument, defending an aggressive but equitable approach to maintaining both public accountability and trust. PMID:23180257

Arawi, Thalia; Rosoff, Philip M

2012-03-13

320

Knowledge and attitudes towards complementary and alternative medicine among medical students in Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine knowledge and attitudes towards Complementary and Alternative Medicine among medical students in Turkey, and find out whether they want to be trained in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out between October and December 2010 among medical students. Data were collected from a total of seven medical schools. FINDINGS: The study included 943 medical students. The most well known methods among the students were herbal treatment (81.2 %), acupuncture (80.8 %), hypnosis (78.8 %), body-based practices including massage (77 %) and meditation (65.2 %), respectively. Acupuncture, aromatherapy, herbal treatment and meditation were better known among female participants compared to males (p < 0.05). Females and first year students, generally had more positive attitudes. A larger proportion of female students compared to male students reported that a doctor should be knowledgeable about CAM (p = 0.001), and this knowledge would be helpful in their future professional lives (p = 0.015). Positive attitudes towards and willingness to receive training declined as the number of years spent in the faculty of medicine increased. CONCLUSIONS: Majority of the medical students were familiar with the CAM methods widely used in Turkey, while most of them had positive attitudes towards CAM as well as willingness to receive training on the subject, and they were likely to recommend CAM methods to their patients in their future professional lives. With its gradual scientific development and increasing popularity, there appears a need for a coordinated policy in integrating CAM into the medical curriculum, by taking expectations of and feedback from medical students into consideration in setting educational standards.

Akan H; Izbirak G; Kaspar EC; Kaya CA; Aydin S; Demircan N; Bucaktepe PG; Ozer C; Sahin HA; Hayran O

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Exploring UK medical and social work students' legal literacy: comparisons, contrasts and implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To ensure acceptable practice standards both doctors and social workers should draw on relevant legal rules when reaching professional judgements concerning, for instance, children requiring protection, people with severe mental distress and adults at risk, information sharing, consent to intervention and service user involvement in their care and treatment. Many practitioners use the law to maintain high standards of professionalism. However, research has uncovered limited awareness of legal rules and poor standards of health and social care. Academic benchmarks and practice requirements for health and social care professions centrally position legal knowledge for secure decision-making. Model curricula exist. However, the outcomes of the taught curriculum on students' confidence in their legal knowledge and skills have been relatively overlooked. This article introduces the concept of legal literacy, a distillation of knowledge, understanding, skills and values that enables practitioners to connect relevant legal rules with their professional practice, to appreciate the roles and duties of other practitioners and to communicate effectively across organisational boundaries. It presents the outcomes for a 2006-2009 study of 1154 UK medical and 638 social work students of their law learning for practice, response rates of 46% and 68%. Significant differences were found between medical and social work students' attitudes towards the law, and in their self-ratings of legal knowledge and skills. Confidence levels were low and anxiety high, especially among medical students, although law teaching had some positive outcomes on knowledge and skill development. Social work and medical students associated different themes with the law, the latter especially foregrounding ethics, negligence and liability, which could affect inter-professional working. Students are not fully prepared for legally literate practice, with a consequent need to review the time allocated for, and the content of law learning and the subsequent availability of continuing professional development.

Preston-Shoot M; McKimm J

2013-05-01

322

Exploring UK medical and social work students' legal literacy: comparisons, contrasts and implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

To ensure acceptable practice standards both doctors and social workers should draw on relevant legal rules when reaching professional judgements concerning, for instance, children requiring protection, people with severe mental distress and adults at risk, information sharing, consent to intervention and service user involvement in their care and treatment. Many practitioners use the law to maintain high standards of professionalism. However, research has uncovered limited awareness of legal rules and poor standards of health and social care. Academic benchmarks and practice requirements for health and social care professions centrally position legal knowledge for secure decision-making. Model curricula exist. However, the outcomes of the taught curriculum on students' confidence in their legal knowledge and skills have been relatively overlooked. This article introduces the concept of legal literacy, a distillation of knowledge, understanding, skills and values that enables practitioners to connect relevant legal rules with their professional practice, to appreciate the roles and duties of other practitioners and to communicate effectively across organisational boundaries. It presents the outcomes for a 2006-2009 study of 1154 UK medical and 638 social work students of their law learning for practice, response rates of 46% and 68%. Significant differences were found between medical and social work students' attitudes towards the law, and in their self-ratings of legal knowledge and skills. Confidence levels were low and anxiety high, especially among medical students, although law teaching had some positive outcomes on knowledge and skill development. Social work and medical students associated different themes with the law, the latter especially foregrounding ethics, negligence and liability, which could affect inter-professional working. Students are not fully prepared for legally literate practice, with a consequent need to review the time allocated for, and the content of law learning and the subsequent availability of continuing professional development. PMID:23379906

Preston-Shoot, Michael; McKimm, Judy

2013-02-05

323

The Challenge of Promoting Professionalism Through Medical Ethics and Humanities Education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Given recent emphasis on professionalism training in medical schools by accrediting organizations, medical ethics and humanities educators need to develop a comprehensive understanding of this emphasis. To achieve this, the Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) II Workshop (May 2011) enlisted representatives of the three major accreditation organizations to join with a national expert panel of medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. PRIME II faculty engaged in a dialogue on the future of professionalism in medical education. The authors present three overarching themes that resulted from the PRIME II discussions: transformation, question everything, and unity of vision and purpose.The first theme highlights that education toward professionalism requires transformational change, whereby medical ethics and humanities educators would make explicit the centrality of professionalism to the formation of physicians. The second theme emphasizes that the flourishing of professionalism must be based on first addressing the dysfunctional aspects of the current system of health care delivery and financing that undermine the goals of medical education. The third theme focuses on how ethics and humanities educators must have unity of vision and purpose in order to collaborate and identify how their disciplines advance professionalism. These themes should help shape discussions of the future of medical ethics and humanities teaching.The authors argue that improvement of the ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that fosters professionalism should enhance patient care and be evaluated for its distinctive contributions to educational processes aimed at producing this outcome.

Doukas DJ; McCullough LB; Wear S; Lehmann LS; Nixon LL; Carrese JA; Shapiro JF; Green MJ; Kirch DG

2013-09-01

324

Professional values, self-esteem, and ethical confidence of baccalaureate nursing students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Professional identity and competent ethical behaviors of nursing students are commonly developed through curricular inclusion of professional nursing values education. Despite the enactment of this approach, nursing students continue to express difficulty in managing ethical conflicts encountered in their practice. This descriptive correlational study explores the relationships between professional nursing values, self-esteem, and ethical decision making among senior baccalaureate nursing students. A convenience sample of 47 senior nursing students from the United States were surveyed for their level of internalized professional nursing values (Revised Professional Nursing Values Scale), level of self-esteem (Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale), and perceived level of confidence in ethical decision making. A significant positive relationship (p < 0.05) was found between nursing students' professional nursing values and levels of self-esteem. The results of this study can be useful to nursing educators whose efforts are focused on promoting professional identity development and competent ethical behaviors of future nurses.

Iacobucci TA; Daly BJ; Lindell D; Griffin MQ

2013-06-01

325

Using Internet Videoconferencing to Connect Fashion Students with Apparel Industry Professionals  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy, benefits and student perceptions of using Internet videoconferencing and a web camera to connect college and university fashion students with apparel industry professionals. A total of 70 college and university fashion students, three instructors, and three apparel industry professionals

Ashley, Vera Bruce

2010-01-01

326

ATTITUDES OF MEDICAL STUDENTS, CLINICIANS AND SPORTS SCIENTISTS TOWARDS EXERCISE COUNSELLING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We compared the amount of exercise undertaken by medical students, clinicians, and sport scientists with the National Australian Physical Activity (NAPA) Guidelines. A second aim was to compare attitudes to exercise counselling as preventive medicine between university- and clinic-based professionals. The research setting was a university medical school and a sports science sports medicine centre. A 20-item questionnaire was completed by 216 individuals (131 medical students, 43 clinicians and 37 sports scientists). Self-reported physical activity habits, exercise counselling practices and attitudes towards preventive medicine were assessed. The physical activity undertaken by most respondents (70%) met NAPA Guidelines. General practitioners had significantly lower compliance rates with NAPA Guidelines than other professionals. More than half of clinicians and medical students (54%) were less active now compared with levels of activity undertaken prior to graduate training. Most physicians (68%) reported they sometimes discuss physical activity with patients. In contrast, the majority of non-medically qualified respondents (60%) said they never discuss physical activity with their doctor. Most respondents (70%) had positive attitudes to exercise counselling. Sports scientists and respondents who were highly active in childhood had more positive attitudes to exercise counselling than others. Health professionals in this study were more active than the general population, however healthy exercise habits tend to deteriorate after the commencement of medical training. Despite the important role of doctors in health promotion, the degree of exercise counselling to patients is low

Abbyrhamy Gnanendran; David B. Pyne; Kieran E. Fallon; Peter A. Fricker

2011-01-01

327

Antibiotics Self-Medication among Southern Iranian University Students  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and behavior toward antibiotic self-medication among medical and non-medical university students in Iran. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 200 students randomly chosen from a medical and a non-medical university in Ahwaz, South of Iran in 2008. Data was collected using self administered questionnaires with open-ended and close-ended items. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 14 and the results were presented as the percentage 97.5% of respondents filled and returned the questionnaire. Self-medication with antibiotics was reported by 42.2% of the medical and 48% of the non-medical students during the last 3 months. Respiratory problems such as sore throat and common cold was the main indication for self-medication with antibiotics (73.3%) and amoxicillin was the most commonly used antibiotic in both groups. The choice of self-medication was based on medical knowledge among medical students (50%) and on a previous suggestion by a physician (32.6%) for the non-medical ones. The prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics among medical and non-medical students was high. Educational programs are needed to teach university students about the potential problems of self-medication with antibiotics.

S. Sarahroodi; A. Arzi; A.F. Sawalha; A. Ashtarinezhad

2010-01-01

328

Understanding communication of health information: a lesson in health literacy for junior medical and physiotherapy students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Best practice communication between healthcare professionals and patients involves using quality patient information leaflets (PILs). We assessed medical and physiotherapy students' (N = 337) ability to appraise the readability, psychology theory content and quality of nine international smoking PILs. Flesch scores ranged from 52.8-79.7% (fairly difficult to fairly easy). Students identified components of the Health Belief Model (84-98%), Theory of Planned Behaviour (65-88%) and Transtheoretical Model (37-86%). Importantly, student-proposed additional theory-based content had no detrimental effect on readability scores. Overall quality scores indicated low-moderate quality. This assignment helped students critically evaluate the utility of PILs for communication.

Doyle F; Doherty S; Morgan K; McBride O; Hickey A

2013-04-01

329

The Exploration of Professional Identification for College Students among Different Employment Scopes  

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Full Text Available This study compared and analyzed the situation of the college studentsprofessional identification amongdifferent employment scopes to explore the influence from the scopes to the professional identification. Theresult indicates that the present situation of college studentsprofessional identification is not satisfactory. Wedid not find remarkable difference between implicit and explicit identification. The result shows that collegestudents among different employment scopes lack of enough implicit professional identification.

Chuanbo Sun; Yunfeng He; Lin Ding

2010-01-01

330

Medical and surgical ward rounds in teaching hospitals of Kuwait University: students' perceptions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Teaching sessions for medical students during ward rounds are an essential component of bedside teaching, providing students with the opportunity to regard patients as actual people, and to observe their physical conditions directly, allowing a better understanding of illnesses to be developed. We aim to explore medical students' perceptions regarding medical and surgical ward rounds within the Faculty of Medicine at Kuwait University, and to evaluate whether this teaching activity is meeting the expectation of learners. METHODS: A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data from 141 medical students during the 2012-2013 academic year. They were asked to provide their current and expected ratings about competencies that were supposed to be gained during ward rounds, on a scale from 1 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Mean scores were calculated, and the Student t-test was used to compare results. P < 0.05 was the cut-off level for significance. RESULTS: Only 17 students (12.1%) declined to participate in the study. The students' current competency scores (for competencies taught within both disciplines - medical and surgical) were significantly lower than the scores indicating students' expectations (P < 0.001). The best-taught competency was bedside examination, in both medical (mean: 3.45) and surgical (mean: 3.05) ward rounds. However, medical ward rounds were better than surgical rounds in covering some competencies, especially the teaching of professional attitude and approach towards patients (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Both medical and surgical ward rounds were deficient in meeting the students' expectations. Medical educators should utilize the available literature to improve the bedside teaching experience for their students.

Almutar S; Altourah L; Sadeq H; Karim J; Marwan Y

2013-01-01

331

Medical professionalism, revenue enhancement, and self-interest: an ethically ambiguous association.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the association between medical professionalism, revenue enhancement, and self-interest. Utilizing the sociological literature, I begin by characterizing professionalism generally and medical professionalism particularly. I then consider "pay for performance" mechanisms as an example of one way physicians might be incentivized to improve their professionalism and, at the same time, enhance their revenue. I suggest that the concern discussed in much of the medical professionalism literature that physicians might act on the basis of self-interest is over-generalized, and that instead we ought to argue about ways to distinguish permissible and impermissible self-interested actions. Also, I argue that financial incentives for medical professionals ought to be permissible but considered as "by-products" of doing what physicians are expected to do as professionals in any case. Nevertheless, I conclude that, even if a positive association between increasing professionalism and revenue enhancement can be established, in the long term it may not be an unambiguous good for physicians as professionals in that this association may tend to reduce their professional discretion. PMID:23104549

Heller, Jan C

2012-12-01

332

Using standardized patients to assess communication skills in medical and nursing Students  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS). Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE's) in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE's and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5) and sixty four nursing students (Year 2/3 of 4) were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE's for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33/46; 72%) and 81% of nursing students (56/64) passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.

Ryan C Anthony; Walshe Nuala; Gaffney Robert; Shanks Andrew; Burgoyne Louise; Wiskin Connie M

2010-01-01

333

Expectations for medical student work hours in inpatient clinical clerkships.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: No standards regarding what should be learned during medical school exist. PURPOSE: We investigated what medical students and clerkship directors (CDs) believe students are, and should be, doing during clerkships. METHODS: From January to June 2011, Mount Sinai School of Medicine CDs (n = 4) and 3rd-year students (n = 132) estimated how students spend time and should spend time during clerkships. Mann-Whitney U-tests compared students' and CDs' replies. RESULTS: All CDs and 105 of 132 students (79.5%) participated. Medicine CDs believed that students did more rounding and studying, and surgery CDs perceived that students did more note writing and studying and less waiting than students reported. Medicine CDs felt students should round more, whereas surgery CDs felt students should spend more total time in the hospital as well as in educational activities and studying than students did ( p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Students and CDs disagree about how students allocate (and should allocate) time during clerkships.

Mazurkiewicz R; Friedman E; Karani R; Lin JJ

2013-04-01

334

(Re-)reading medical trade catalogs: the uses of professional advertising in British medical practice, 1870-1914.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article explores how medical practitioners read, used, and experienced medical trade catalogs in late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Britain. Reader responses to the catalog, a book-like publication promoting medical tools, appliances, and pharmaceuticals, have been chronically understudied, as have professional reading practices within medicine more generally. Yet, evidence suggests that clinicians frequently used the catalog and did so in three main ways: to order medical products, to acquire new information about these products, and to display their own product endorsements and product designs. The seemingly widespread nature of these practices demonstrates an individual and collective professional desire to improve medical practice and highlights the importance of studying professional reading practices in the cultural history of medicine.

Jones CL

2012-01-01

335

(Re-)reading medical trade catalogs: the uses of professional advertising in British medical practice, 1870-1914.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores how medical practitioners read, used, and experienced medical trade catalogs in late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Britain. Reader responses to the catalog, a book-like publication promoting medical tools, appliances, and pharmaceuticals, have been chronically understudied, as have professional reading practices within medicine more generally. Yet, evidence suggests that clinicians frequently used the catalog and did so in three main ways: to order medical products, to acquire new information about these products, and to display their own product endorsements and product designs. The seemingly widespread nature of these practices demonstrates an individual and collective professional desire to improve medical practice and highlights the importance of studying professional reading practices in the cultural history of medicine. PMID:23241910

Jones, Claire L

2012-01-01

336

A comparison of the voice handicap index-10 scores between medical and musical theater students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Elite professional voice users experience a high vocal load and if voice quality deteriorates, their livelihoods are affected. Our aim was to assess how an elite professional voice user group, musical theater students (n=49), perceive their voices in comparison with medical students (n=43). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Participants completed a confidential questionnaire including demographics and the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) in September 2010. RESULTS: Response rate was 100% (92/92). The mean age of the medical students was 25 years and of musical theater students was 20 years. The mean overall VHI-10 score was higher in musical theater students compared with that of medical students (mean score, 5.56 and standard deviation [SD], 4.13 vs mean score, 3.79 and SD, 3.02, P=0.02), particularly in three VHI-10 items: voice strain, lack of clarity, and being upset from voice problem (mean score, 0.82 and SD, 0.86 vs mean score, 0.44 and SD, 0.67, P=0.02; mean score, 0.92 and SD, 0.89 vs mean score, 0.53 and SD, 0.70, P=0.02; and mean score, 0.49 and SD, 0.79 vs mean score, 0.07 and SD, 0.26, P=0.001, respectively). Furthermore, musical theater students report higher possible voice problems in the past (6/43 [14%], 21/49 [43%], P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: In this small group, musical theater students report more handicap compared with medical students. It is possible that this difference may be because of the musical theater students experiencing greater voice use over time or better recognition of potential voice problems. This may mean that we need to do more to protect student's voices by optimizing vocal care during their training, without neglecting the vocal needs of other students.

Watson NA; Oakeshott P; Kwame I; Rubin JS

2013-01-01

337

"It's Not All Doom and Gloom": Perceptions of Medical Students Talking to Hospice Patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Background: End-of-life care has become a priority in medical education internationally. A previous study of hospice patients and staff regarding medical students teaching in a hospice showed positive responses from patients and hospice staff. However concern was expressed by some staff regarding medical students' welfare, contributing to gatekeeping by professionals. Studies have shown that medical students feel underprepared to care for the dying by the time they qualify. Objective: The study's objective was to explore in more detail the views and experience of medical students who had spoken with patients during their hospice placement. Design: This was a qualitative study. Setting/Subjects: The study was carried out with 14 Hull York Medical School (HYMS) students who had responded in an electronic survey that they had spoken with patients during their hospice placement. Measurement: Semistructured interviews provided the study's data. Results: Although students expressed some anxieties prior to their hospice visit about meeting patients who were near the end of life, they felt that the overall experience, and the time spent with patients in particular, provided valuable learning about palliative care and preparation for caring for dying patients. Conclusions: We would encourage staff to not be overprotective but to support students to take every opportunity to meet with patients in a hospice.

Gadoud A; Adcock Y; Jones L; Koon S; Johnson M

2013-09-01

338

Medical and surgical ward rounds in teaching hospitals of Kuwait University: students' perceptions  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Teaching sessions for medical students during ward rounds are an essential component of bedside teaching, providing students with the opportunity to regard patients as actual people, and to observe their physical conditions directly, allowing a better understanding of illnesses to be developed. We aim to explore medical students’ perceptions regarding medical and surgical ward rounds within the Faculty of Medicine at Kuwait University, and to evaluate whether this teaching activity is meeting the expectation of learners. Methods A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data from 141 medical students during the 2012–2013 academic year. They were asked to provide their current and expected ratings about competencies that were supposed to be gained during ward rounds, on a scale from 1 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Mean scores were calculated, and the Student t-test was used to compare results. P ward rounds. However, medical ward rounds were better than surgical rounds in covering some competencies, especially the teaching of professional attitude and approach towards patients (P ward rounds were deficient in meeting the students’ expectations. Medical educators should utilize the available literature to improve the bedside teaching experience for their students.

AlMutar, Sara; AlTourah, Lulwa; Sadeq, Hussain; Karim, Jumanah; Marwan, Yousef

2013-01-01

339

Associations of Pass-Fail Outcomes with Psychological Health of First-Year Medical Students in a Malaysian Medical School  

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Full Text Available Objectives: The demanding and intense environment of medical training can create excessive pressures on medical students that eventually lead to unfavorable consequences, either at a personal or professional level. These consequences can include poor academic performance and impaired cognitive ability. This study was designed to explore associations between pass-fail outcome and psychological health parameters (i.e. stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a cohort of first-year medical students in a Malaysian medical school. The depression anxiety stress scale 21-item assessment (DASS-21) was administered to them right after the final paper of the first-year final examination. Their final examination outcomes (i.e. pass or fail) were traced by using their student identity code (ID) through the Universiti Sains Malaysia academic office. Results: A total of 194 (98.0%) of medical students responded to the DASS-21. An independent t-test showed that students who passed had significantly lower stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms than those who failed the first-year final examination (P <0.05). Those who experienced moderate to high stress were at 2.43 times higher risk for failing the examination than those who experienced normal to mild stress. Conclusion: Medical students whofailed in the final examination had higher psychological distress than those who passed the examination. Those who experienced high stress levels were more likely to fail than those who did not. Reducing the psychological distress of medical students prior to examination may help them to perform better in the examination.

Muhamad S. B. Yusoff

2013-01-01

340

Medical students' interprofessional experiences in a rehabilitation and palliative care placement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract The majority of interprofessional learning literature focuses on initiatives within pre-clinical or simulated learning environments, with a paucity of research exploring the variation in impact of exposure to nurses and other health professionals in different health care settings. This study aimed to explore the experiences and attitudes of medical students following scheduled placements in palliative and rehabilitative care units. Three focus groups were conducted by researchers independent of the clinical school, to explore the attitudes of first clinical year medical students towards, and experiences of, a clinical placement that provided the opportunity to develop interprofessional skills. Students responded differently to the expectation put upon them to initiate their own learning experiences. A number of students felt that being asked to focus on clinical skill development conflicted with the assessment demands of the medical curriculum. This, in turn, contributed to a missed opportunity for them to learn with, from and about nurses and other health professionals. The driver of assessment was seen to be more important to their training. This emphasises the importance of including an assessment of interprofessional skills if we want to ensure students achieve these skills. If medical students are not going to be assessed on interprofessional knowledge, skills and attitudes then a curriculum orientation to the value of interprofessional practice is required.

Greenstock L; Molloy E; Fiddes P; Fraser C; Brooks P

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Program to improve the effectiveness of education and professional activities of college students  

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Full Text Available We describe a training program on “Psychology of effective professional activity”, realized on the basis of the Ural College of the Beauty Industry. The purpose of this discipline is to improve the effectiveness of education and professional activities of college students acquiring professions of “Human-Human” type. To improve effectiveness of education and professional activities, this program provides formation of professionally important qualities of students. The results of the program can be: students’ acquisition of knowledge required for the effective performance of professional activities (ways to prevent burnout, increase self-confidence, etc.); mastery of professional skills (planning, simulation, etc.); formation of professionally important qualities (stress, tolerance, etc.); increasing the efficiency of their professional activities.

I.V. Vlaskina

2013-01-01

342

A survey of medical students attending an international ?student conference  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To explore the lifestyle choices of international medical students attending a ?student conference. ?Study Design: Questionnaire-based census study.?Methods: A pre-tested structured questionnaire was given to the 481 delegates attending an ?international medical student conference in 2009 in Macedonia. The respondents were asked ?questions on their demographics, physical activity, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, sexual ?activity and nutritional intake. The results obtained from statistical analysis using SPSS version ??16 were used to outline the socio-demographic variables under survey.?? Results: An overall response rate of 60.9% (n=293) was achieved. The sample population had a ?mean age of 22.45, 44% (128) of the respondents were male and 56% (165) were female. 89% ?were undergraduate students and 62% were from Europe. 78.8% reported practicing physical ?activity at least once a week, with 4.5% reporting no physical activity at all. Of those who ?reported practicing physical activity, half carry out more than one hour of activity daily. 22.2% ??(n=65) smoke on a regular basis, of which 88.7% smoked cigarettes and 11.3% reported ?smoking marijuana over the previous 12 months. The Eastern Mediterranean Region reported the ?highest percentage of smoking (31.6%), followed by Europe (23.1%). 84.6% of the respondents ?reported regular consumption of alcohol. The majority of respondents (97%) reported consuming ?vegetables and fruit at least on a weekly basis. 37% reported consuming fast food at least once a ?week. 76.9% of the subjects reported having been sexually active. Of the sexually active ?population; 82.4% reported always using contraception, with the condom and the pill being the ?more popular methods.?? Conclusions: Medical students are in constant contact with health promotion and this should ?reflect in their own personal lifestyle choices. A very low percentage was observed to smoke on ?a regular basis, a high percentage carry out physical activity regularly and the majority include ?healthy food in their diet. The same population did however report a high percentage of alcohol ?and fast food consumption. The latter may be due to lifestyle choices made somewhat inevitable ?by their educational schedule, many of whom live away from home.?

Jonathan Mamo; Chantal Fenech

2012-01-01

343

Differential mentorship for medical students: development, implementation and initial evaluation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop a uniquely tailored mentoring program for medical students and evaluate the success of implementation. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among medical students at University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, in 2007 (response rate 74 n=1235) ...

Jennifer Kurré; Monika Bullinger; Corinna Petersen-Ewert; Andreas H. Guse