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Status and mating success amongst visual artists  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Geoffrey Miller has hypothesized that producing artwork functions as a mating display. Here we investigate the relationship between mating success and artistic success in a sample of 236 visual artists. We derived two measures of artistic success, one based on self-perception and the other on more objective variables to do with artistic output and attitudes, as well as a measure of artistic identity. More subjectively successful male artists and those males with a stronger artistic identity had more sexual partners than less successful artists. There was no relationship between mating success and the more objective measure of artistic status. Predicted sex differences in mating success were found for both measures of artistic success and for artistic identity. Male artists with greater self-perceived success had a mating strategy based on longer term relationships. More objective measures of success and identity did not affect mating strategy. This study may provide support for the emerging idea that our evolved psychological predispositions enable humans to construct mechanisms, such as identity, that aid our reproductive success and survival.

DanielNettle

2011-10-01

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Status and Mating Success Amongst Visual Artists  

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Geoffrey Miller has hypothesized that producing artwork functions as a mating display. Here we investigate the relationship between mating success and artistic success in a sample of 236 visual artists. Initially, we derived a measure of artistic success that covered a broad range of artistic behaviors and beliefs. As predicted by Miller’s evolutionary theory, more successful male artists had more sexual partners than less successful artists but this did not hold for female artists. Also, m...

Clegg, Helen; Nettle, Daniel; Miell, Dorothy

2011-01-01

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Expression of OsMATE1 and OsMATE2 alters development, stress responses and pathogen susceptibility in Arabidopsis  

Science.gov (United States)

Multidrug and Toxic compound Extrusion proteins (MATE) are a group of secondary active transporters with ubiquitous occurrences in all domains of life. This is a newly characterized transporter family with limited functional knowledge in plants. In this study, we functionally characterised two members of rice MATE gene family, OsMATE1 and OsMATE2 through expression in heterologous system, Arabidopsis. Expression of OsMATEs in Arabidopsis altered growth and morphology of transgenic plants. Genome-wide expression analysis revealed modulation of genes involved in plant growth, development and biotic stress in transgenic lines. Transgenic plants displayed sensitivity for biotic and abiotic stresses. Elevated pathogen susceptibility of transgenic lines was correlated with reduced expressions of defence related genes. Promoter and cellular localization studies suggest that both MATEs express in developing and reproductive organs and are plasma-membrane localised. Our results reveal that OsMATE1 and OsMATE2 regulate plant growth and development as well as negatively affect disease resistance.

Tiwari, Manish; Sharma, Deepika; Singh, Munna; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

2014-01-01

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Mating alters gene expression patterns in Drosophila melanogaster male heads  

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Abstract Background Behavior is a complex process resulting from the integration of genetic and environmental information. Drosophila melanogaster rely on multiple sensory modalities for reproductive success, and mating causes physiological changes in both sexes that affect reproductive output or behavior. Some of these effects are likely mediated by changes in gene expression. Courtship and mating alter female transcript profiles, but it is not known how mating affe...

Ellis Lisa L; Carney Ginger E

2010-01-01

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Genetic variants in multidrug and toxic compound extrusion-1, hMATE1, alter transport function.  

Science.gov (United States)

hMATE1 (human multidrug and toxin compound extrusion-1; encoded by SLC47A1) is thought to have an important function in the renal and hepatic elimination of drugs, endogenous compounds and environmental toxins. The goals of this study were to identify genetic variants of hMATE1 and to determine their effects on hMATE1 transport function. We identified four synonymous and six nonsynonymous, coding region variants in DNA samples from 272 individuals (68 Caucasians, 68 African Americans, 68 Asian Americans and 68 Mexican Americans). The overall prevalence of hMATE1 nonsynonymous variants was relatively low with three singleton variants and three variants having allele frequencies > or =2% in a specific ethnic group. The nonsynonymous hMATE1 variants were constructed and stably transfected into HEK-293 cells. Uptake studies using four known hMATE1 substrates (paraquat, metformin, tetraethylammonium and oxaliplatin) were performed in cells transfected with hMATE1 reference or variants. We found that two singleton variants, G64D and V480M, produced a complete loss of function for all four tested substrates whereas three polymorphic variants (allele frequencies > or =2%), L125F, V338I and C497S, significantly altered the transport function in a substrate-dependent manner. Confocal microscopy studies were consistent with functional studies suggesting that the altered function of the variants was due to altered localization to the plasma membrane. These data suggest that nonsynonymous variants in hMATE1 may alter drug disposition and ultimately affect clinical drug response. PMID:19172157

Chen, Ying; Teranishi, Kristen; Li, Shuanglian; Yee, Sook Wah; Hesselson, Stephanie; Stryke, Doug; Johns, Susan J; Ferrin, Thomas E; Kwok, Pui; Giacomini, Kathleen M

2009-04-01

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Genetic Variants in Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion 1, hMATE1, Alter Transport Function  

Science.gov (United States)

hMATE1 (human multidrug and toxin compound extrusion-1; encoded by SLC47A1) is thought to have an important function in the renal and hepatic elimination of drugs, endogenous compounds and environmental toxins. The goals of this study were to identify genetic variants of hMATE1 and to determine their effects on hMATE1 transport function. We identified four synonymous and six nonsynonymous, coding region variants in DNA samples from 272 individuals (68 Caucasians, 68 African Americans, 68 Asian Americans and 68 Mexican Americans). The overall prevalence of hMATE1 nonsynonymous variants was relatively low with three singleton variants and three variants having allele frequencies ?2% in a specific ethnic group. The nonsynonymous hMATE1 variants were constructed and stably transfected into HEK-293 cells. Uptake studies using four known hMATE1 substrates (paraquat, metformin, tetraethylammonium and oxaliplatin) were performed in cells transfected with hMATE1 reference or variants. We found that two singleton variants, G64D and V480M, produced a complete loss of function for all four tested substrates whereas three polymorphic variants (allele frequencies ?2%), L125F, V338I and C497S, significantly altered the transport function in a substrate-dependent manner. Confocal microscopy studies were consistent with functional studies suggesting that the altered function of the variants was due to altered localization to the plasma membrane. These data suggest that nonsynonymous variants in hMATE1 may alter drug disposition and ultimately affect clinical drug response.

Chen, Ying; Teranishi, Kristen; Li, Shuanglian; Yee, Sook Wah; Hesselson, Stephanie; Stryke, Doug; Johns, Susan J.; Ferrin, Thomas E.; Kwok, Pui; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

2009-01-01

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Sexual selection on Drosophila serrata male pheromones does not vary with female age or mating status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mate preferences are costly and are thought to evolve due to the direct and/or indirect benefits they provide. Such costs and benefits may vary in response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors with important evolutionary consequences. Limited attention has been given to quantifying such variation and understanding its causes, most notably with respect to the direction and strength of preferences for multivariate sexual displays. In Drosophila serrata, female preferences target a pheromone blend of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). We used a factorial design to test whether female age and mating status generated variation in the strength and direction of sexual selection on male CHCs. Replicate choice mating trials were conducted using young and old females (4 or 10 days post-emergence) that were either virgin or previously mated. The outcome of such trials is known to capture variation in female mate preferences, although male-male interactions may also contribute. Directional sexual selection on male CHCs was highly significant within each treatment, but there was little evidence of any variation among treatments. The absence of treatment effects implies that the multivariate combination of male CHCs preferred by females was constant with respect to female age and mating status. To the extent that male-male interactions may also contribute, our results similarly imply that these did not vary among treatments groups. With respect to D. serrata mate preferences, our results suggest that either plasticity with respect to age and mating status is not beneficial to females, or preference expression is somehow constrained. PMID:24828752

Gershman, S; Delcourt, M; Rundle, H D

2014-06-01

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Zaprinast, a Phosphodiesterase Type-5 Inhibitor, Alters Paced Mating Behavior in Female Rats  

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Nitric oxide (NO) is the primary mediator of blood flow in female genital tissues and drugs that enhance the activity of nitric oxide, such as phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, increase vaginal blood flow in anesthetized rats. The goal of the present study was to test the effects of one PDE-5 inhibitor, zaprinast, on the display of sexual behaviors in gonadectomized, estrogen and progesterone-treated female rats. Experiment 1 demonstrates that zaprinast alters paced mating behavior...

Clark, Ann S.; Meerts, Sarah H.; Guarraci, Fay A.

2009-01-01

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The relevance of age and nutritional status on the mating competitiveness of medfly males (Diptera: Teprhitidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Results of previous investigations trying to ascertain which physiological factors are more important to the mating success of medfly males are controversial. In part, this controversy owes to the fact that each factor was evaluated by an independent study using different experimental designs and po [...] pulations. In the present study we compare the roles of age and nutritional status (immature and adult phases) on the mating competitiveness of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) males. Three parameters were used to evaluate the male mating success: calling behavior (pheromone emission), lek participation and copulation (ability to be chosen by a female). Females gave preference to the males that were given a high protein diet in the larval phase. By contrast, females did not give preference to males that had been well-nourished in the adult phase only. The other parameters evaluated followed the same pattern: young males and males that had been fed a high protein diet during their immature phase had a greater participation in leks and called more often than older males and males that had been fed a diet poor in protein during their larval phase. Therefore, we conclude that the mating success of C. capitata males is determined both by age and nourishment during the immature stage.

Roriz, Alzira Kelly Passos; Joachim-Bravo, Iara Sordi.

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Autonomic Reactivity With Altered Thyroid Status  

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Full Text Available The study was carried out to test the effect of altered thyroid status on the autonomic reactivity in 60subjects (age group 20-50 years. The para meters recorded and the tests used were pulse rate, bloodpressure, orthostasis, cold pressor test, mental arithmetic and QTc interval for assessment of sympatheticactivity and valsalva ratio, heart rate response, expiratory-inspiratory ratio (E.I. ratio, heart rate variability,standing-lying ratio (S.L. ratio and 30: 15 ratio for assessment of parasympathetic activity. Our findingsshow that the changes in thyroid hormone levels - in both hypothyroids and hyperthyroids are associatedwith altered sympathetic reactivity, with no significant difference in the parasympathetic activity - ineither hypothyroids or hyperthyroids- as compared to euthyroid controls.

Anjali Nadir Bhat, Leela Kalsotra, Sabita Yograj

2007-04-01

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Behavioral responses of adult female tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta, to hostplant volatiles change with age and mating status  

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Full Text Available We present evidence for two behaviors influenced by intact, vegetative plant odor -- upwind flight and abdomen curling -- in female Manduca sexta and demonstrate the influence of the age and mating status of the moths on these behaviors. We compared the behavioral responses of laboratory-reared M. sexta. of discrete ages and physiological states (2,3, and 4 day old for virgin; 2 and 3 day old for mated as individual moths flew upwind in a flight tunnel to a source of hostplant volatiles. We monitored odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling in the presence of volatiles released by potted hostplants. Mated 3 day old females exhibited the highest incidence of odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling. Similarly, as virgin moths aged, a greater percentage of the individuals displayed odor-modulated flight patterns and abdomen curling. In contrast, younger virgin moths exhibited high levels of abdomen curling only after contact with the plant.

W.L. Mechaber

2002-03-01

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Previous sexual experience alters the display of paced mating behavior in female rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study tested whether the display of paced mating behavior in female rats over four weekly tests is affected by sexual experience and whether test parameters, i.e., ending the test based on time or number of stimulations received, influence behavioral changes. In Experiment 1A rats with nonpaced sexual experience returned to the male more quickly overall compared to sexually naïve rats in a 30-min test of paced mating behavior. In Experiment 1B, rats received four weekly 30-min tests with one, different, male rat partner each week. Over the four tests, rats returned to the male significantly more quickly after intromissions, but significantly more slowly after ejaculations. Experiment 2A tested whether sexual experience would influence paced mating behavior in tests with a 15-intromission end criterion and the male replaced after ejaculation. Rats tested weekly under 15-intromission test conditions returned to the male significantly more quickly after intromissions, but no behavioral change was observed after ejaculations. When those same rats were given a 30-min test of paced mating behavior (Experiment 2B), they returned to the male significantly more slowly after ejaculations. Collectively, these data show that sexual experience influences the display of paced mating behavior in female rats and that the test parameters interact with sexual experience to influence the nature of the changes. Sexual experience may facilitate behaviors that promote reproductive success in female rats. PMID:24401472

Meerts, Sarah H; Schairer, Rosemary S; Farry-Thorn, Molly E; Johnson, Elliott G; Strnad, Helen K

2014-05-01

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Variation in adult sex ratio alters the association between courtship, mating frequency and paternity in the lek-forming fruitfly Ceratitis capitata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intensity with which males deliver courtship and the frequency with which they mate are key components of male reproductive success. However, we expect the strength of the relationship between these traits and a male's overall paternity to be strongly context dependent, for example to be altered significantly by the extent of post-mating competition. We tested this prediction in a lekking insect, Ceratitis capitata (medfly). We examined the effect of manipulating the sex ratio from male- to female-biased (high and low male competition, respectively) on courtship behaviour, mating frequency and paternity of focal males. Under high male competition, focal males delivered significantly more courtship but gained lower paternity than under lower competition. Paternity was positively associated with mating frequency and small residual testes size. However, the association between mating frequency and paternity was significantly stronger under low competition. We conclude that manipulation of sex ratio significantly altered the predictors of mating success and paternity. The relationship between pre- and post-mating success is therefore plastic and alters according to the prevailing level of competition. The results highlight the importance of post-copulatory processes in lekking species and illuminate selection pressures placed on insects such as medflies that are mass reared for pest control. PMID:22725666

Leftwich, P T; Edward, D A; Alphey, L; Gage, M J G; Chapman, T

2012-09-01

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Audience Effect Alters Male Mating Preferences in Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata)  

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The social environment of animals strongly influences the mating preferences of both the choosing and the observing individuals. Notably, there is recent evidence that polygamous males decrease their selectivity when being observed by competitors in order to direct their rivals’ attention away from their true interest and, consequently, reduce sperm competition risk. Yet, other mechanisms, whose importance remains unexplored, could induce similar effects. In monogamous species with mutual c...

Dubois, Fre?de?rique; Belzile, Alexandra

2012-01-01

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Voice pitch alters mate-choice-relevant perception in hunter–gatherers  

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In humans, voice pitch is thought to be a cue of underlying quality and an important criterion for mate choice, but data from non-Western cultures have not been provided. Here we test attributions to and preferences for voices with raised and lowered pitch in hunter–gatherers. Using a forced-choice playback experiment, we found that both men and women viewed lower pitched voices in the opposite sex as being better at acquiring resources (e.g. hunting and gathering). While men preferred high...

Apicella, Coren L.; Feinberg, David R.

2009-01-01

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Female Moth Calling and Flight Behavior Are Altered Hours Following Pheromone Autodetection: Possible Implications for Practical Management with Mating Disruption  

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Full Text Available Female moths are known to detect their own sex pheromone—a phenomenon called “autodetection”. Autodetection has various effects on female moth behavior, including altering natural circadian rhythm of calling behavior, inducing flight, and in some cases causing aggregations of conspecifics. A proposed hypothesis for the possible evolutionary benefits of autodetection is its possible role as a spacing mechanism to reduce female-female competition. Here, we explore autodetection in two species of tortricids (Grapholita molesta (Busck and Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris. We find that females of both species not only “autodetect,” but that learning (change in behavior following experience occurs, which affects behavior for at least 24 hours after pheromone pre-exposure. Specifically, female calling in both species is advanced at least 24 hours, but not 5 days, following pheromone pre-exposure. Also, the propensity of female moths to initiate flight and the duration of flights, as quantified by a laboratory flight mill, were advanced in pre-exposed females as compared with controls. Pheromone pre-exposure did not affect the proportion of mated moths when they were confined with males in small enclosures over 24 hours in laboratory assays. We discuss the possible implications of these results with respect to management of these known pest species with the use of pheromone-based mating disruption.

Lukasz Stelinski

2014-06-01

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Women's Hormonal Status and Mate Value Influence Relationship Satisfaction and Perceived Male Attractiveness  

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Full Text Available Numerous findings suggest that female preferences for certain features of male faces vary during the menstrual cycle. Similarly, changes during the cycle have also been found in women's commitment to a current relationship. Furthermore, from the perspective of securing benefits from extra-pair affairs, the differences between women with high vs. low mate value could be expected. In this study we have tried to connect these sets of findings: first, we explored differences between partnered and single women in their ratings of male facial attractiveness in different phases of the menstrual cycle; and second, their satisfaction with the current relationship in relation to the cycle phase and selfperceived mate value. Two groups of women (single vs. partnered rated the attractiveness of two sets of male faces (normal vs. symmetrical. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that women in a relationship gave higher ratings of attractiveness for both normal and symmetrical faces in the luteal phase compared to the early follicular phase of a cycle, while single women showed the opposite pattern. Analyses of satisfaction with their current relationship in relation to cycle phase and self-perceived mate value showed that women with higher mate value are generally more satisfied with their current partners, and show smaller differences in satisfaction in various phases of the cycle. The results are interpreted in terms of content-specificity of hormone mediated adaptive design.

Ivana Hromatko

2006-12-01

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Altered Mating-Type Identity in the Fungus Podospora Anserina Leads to Selfish Nuclei, Uniparental Progeny, and Haploid Meiosis  

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In wild-type crosses of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina, after fertilization, only nuclei of opposite mating type can form dikaryons that undergo karyogamy and meiosis, producing biparental progeny. To determine the role played by the mating type in these steps, the four mat genes were mutagenized in vitro and introduced into a strain deleted for its mat locus. Genetic and cytological analyses of these mutant strains, crossed to each other and to wild type, showed that mating-ty...

Zickler, D.; Arnaise, S.; Coppin, E.; Debuchy, R.; Picard, M.

1995-01-01

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Altered Erythrocyte Deformability and Antioxidant Status in Patients with Schizophrenia  

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Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia is a major mental disorder whose etiology still remains unkown. There is evidence that free radicals are involved in membrane pathology in the central nervous system and may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Red blood cells are also considered to be a peripheral marker in psychiatric illnesses. We aimed to provide further insight into the effects of changed antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation on the rheological behavior of red blood cells in schizophrenia.Patients and Methods: Twenty patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy subjects were included in the study. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation were measured spectrophotometrically and red blood cell deformability was measured by shear stress diffractometer.Results: Deformability of red blood cells was found to be decreased, lipid peroxidation was increased and antioxidant status was altered in the patients (p<0.05.Conclusion: It is understood that erythrocyte deformability was impaired and antioxidant status was altered in patients with schizophrenia. (Marmara Medical Journal 2012;25:133-7

Hande YAPI?LAR

2012-01-01

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Male mating biology  

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Full Text Available Abstract Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during colonisation and long-term mass rearing. Careful selection of mating characteristics must be combined with intensive field trials to ensure phenotypic characters are not antagonistic to longevity, dispersal, or mating behaviours in released males. Success has been achieved, even when colonised vectors were less competitive, due in part to extensive field trials to ensure mating compatibility and effective dispersal. The study of male mating biology in other dipterans has improved the success of operational SIT programmes. Contributing factors include inter-sexual selection, pheromone based attraction, the ability to detect alterations in local mating behaviours, and the effects of long-term colonisation on mating competitiveness. Although great strides have been made in other SIT programmes, this knowledge may not be germane to anophelines, and this has led to a recent increase in research in this area.

Howell Paul I

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
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Geochemical alteration of backfill FY98 status report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Yucca Mountain Project is considering some type of backfill, possibly emplaced as a capillary barrier, for inclusion in the Engineering Barrier System (EBS) at the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository site. The performance of capillary barriers in isothermal, low- temperature, environments has been studied extensively (e.g., Ho and Webb, 1998; OZdenburg and Pruess, 1993; Ross, 1990). The performance of capillary barriers in an non-isothermal, high temperature environment, such as during the thermal pulse phase of a nuclear waste repository, has received much less attention. One concern is that the backfill materials may be altered from that of the as-placed material by the hydrothermal regime imposed by the emplacement of waste in the repository, changing hydrologic properties in a way that degrades the performance of the EBS system. This report is a status report on our efforts to address this concern. The work was initiated by SCR #98-76-041 and was authorized to begin at LLNL in summer 1998. This report is organized as follows. In the first part, we discuss our understanding of the relevant issues of backfill performance based on thermal hydrology. We focus here on changes to hydrologic properties, but we recognize that changes to thermal, mechanical and chemical (e.g., sorptive) properties are also important. Our primary interest is in addressing concerns over possible changes in the magnitude of key hydrologic properties (i.e., porosity, permeability, and moisture retention characteristics) that could significantly affect the design performance of backfill in the EBS. We report on what we know from previous work about geochemical alteration of backfill material, focusing primarily on crushed tuff. In the second part of this report, we present our progress on geochemical studies on backfill materials. These include sub-boiling, two-phase column experiments, batch experiments at above boiling temperatures and associated numerical modeling.

Buscheck, T; Knauss, K; Rosenberg, N; Viani, B

1998-09-30

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Is the Oxidant/Antioxidant Status Altered in CADASIL Patients?  

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The altered aggregation of proteins in non-native conformation is associated with endoplasmic reticulum derangements, mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a rare hereditary systemic vasculopathy, caused by NOTCH3 mutations within the receptor extracellular domain, that lead to abnormal accumulation of the mutated protein in the vascular wall. NOTCH3...

2013-01-01

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Alteration of Oxidative Status in Rats Following Administration of Acrylamide  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Acrylamide (ACR is a known industrial neurotoxic and carcinogenic chemical in rodents. The recent discovery of acrylamide in wide variety of commonly consumed foods has energized research efforts worldwide to define toxic mechanisms. Objective: The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of acrylamide administration on in vivo malondialdehyde (MDA, a product of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH as well as copper and zinc superoxide dismutase enzyme activity (Cu/Zn SOD of rats. Material and Methods: Fourteen adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups each containing "7" rats. Group 1 served as negative control fed on basal diet and group 2 (positive control received basal diet and acrylamide (0.34g/ kg diet for 11 days. Levels of MDA, GSH and activity of SOD were determined in liver, kidneys, brain, heart, testes, spleen and lungs of rats. Results: ACR treatment significantly increased MDA in all organs; the highest increase was detected in testis (87.9% and heart (71.5% while the lowest one was found in kidneys (28.2%. On the other hand, GSH levels and SOD activities were significantly reduced in ACR treated rats. However, the reduction of GSH level ranged from 10.2% to 36.5 %.The inhibition of SOD activities were higher in testis (57.3% and lungs (38.5%. Conclusion: The present study showed that ACR exerts deteriorated effects on oxidative status of rats

Hanaa H. El-Sayed1, Shawkia S. Abd El- Halim1,

2007-09-01

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Is the oxidant/antioxidant status altered in CADASIL patients?  

Science.gov (United States)

The altered aggregation of proteins in non-native conformation is associated with endoplasmic reticulum derangements, mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a rare hereditary systemic vasculopathy, caused by NOTCH3 mutations within the receptor extracellular domain, that lead to abnormal accumulation of the mutated protein in the vascular wall. NOTCH3 misfolding could cause free radicals increase also in CADASIL. Aim of the study was to verify whether CADASIL patients have increased oxidative stress compared to unrelated healthy controls. We enrolled 15 CADASIL patients and 16 gender- and age-matched healthy controls with comparable cardiovascular risk factor. Blood and plasma reduced and total aminothiols (homocysteine, cysteine, glutathione, cysteinylglycine) were measured by HPLC and plasma 3-nitrotyrosine by ELISA. Only plasma reduced cysteine (Pr-Cys) and blood reduced glutathione (Br-GSH) concentrations differed between groups: in CADASIL patients Br-GSH levels were higher (p = 0.019) and Pr-Cys lower (p = 0.010) than in controls. No correlation was found between Br-GSH and Pr-Cys either in CADASIL patients (rho 0.25, P = 0.36) or in controls (rho -0.15, P = 0.44). Conversely, 3-nitrotyrosine values were similar in CADASIL and healthy subjects (p = 0.82). The high levels of antioxidant molecules and low levels of oxidant mediators found in our CADASIL population might either be expression of an effective protective action against free radical formation at an early stage of clinical symptoms or they could suggest that oxidative stress is not directly involved in the pathogenesis of CADASIL. PMID:23799141

Campolo, Jonica; De Maria, Renata; Mariotti, Caterina; Tomasello, Chiara; Parolini, Marina; Frontali, Marina; Inzitari, Domenico; Valenti, Raffaella; Federico, Antonio; Taroni, Franco; Parodi, Oberdan

2013-01-01

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Mate preferences do predict attraction and choices in the early stages of mate selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although mate preference research has firmly established that men value physical attractiveness more than women do and women value social status more than men do, recent speed-dating studies have indicated mixed evidence (at best) for whether people's sex-differentiated mate preferences predict actual mate choices. According to an evolutionary, mate preference priority model (Li, Bailey, Kenrick, & Linsenmeier, 2002; Li & Kenrick, 2006; Li, Valentine, & Patel, 2011), the sexes are largely similar in what they ideally like, but for long-term mates, they should differ on what they most want to avoid in early selection contexts. Following this model, we conducted experiments using online messaging and modified speed-dating platforms. Results indicate that when a mating pool includes people at the low end of social status and physical attractiveness, mate choice criteria are sex-differentiated: Men, more than women, chose mates based on physical attractiveness, whereas women, more than men, chose mates based on social status. In addition, individuals who more greatly valued social status or physical attractiveness on paper valued these traits more in their actual choices. In particular, mate choices were sex-differentiated when considering long-term relationships but not short-term ones, where both sexes shunned partners with low physical attractiveness. The findings validate a large body of mate preferences research and an evolutionary perspective on mating, and they have implications for research using speed-dating and other interactive contexts. PMID:23915041

Li, Norman P; Yong, Jose C; Tov, William; Sng, Oliver; Fletcher, Garth J O; Valentine, Katherine A; Jiang, Yun F; Balliet, Daniel

2013-11-01

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Strategies of Human Mating  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern humans have inherited the mating strategies that led to the success of their ancestors. These strategies include long-term mating, short-term mating, extra-pair mating, mate poaching, and mate guarding. This article presents empirical evidence supporting evolution-based hypotheses about the complexities of these mating strategies. Since men and women historically confronted different adaptive problems in the mating domain, the sexes differ profoundly in evolved strategic solutions. These differences include possessing different mate preferences, different desires for short-term mating, and differences in the triggers that evoke sexual jealousy. The study of human mating is one of the “success stories” of evolutionary psychology.

David M. Buss

2006-12-01

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Organic and Conventional Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil) Improves Metabolic Redox Status of Liver and Serum in Wistar Rats  

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Organic and conventional yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is widely used in South America to prepare nonalcoholic drinks rich in polyphenols. These compounds are able to prevent the generation of reactive species, thus minimizing the incidence of several diseases. In this perspective, we hypothesized that yerba mate may have protective effects against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced oxidative damage in liver and serum of rats. Animals (n = 42) received distilled water (control) or yerba mate ...

Branco, Ca?tia S.; Gustavo Scola; Rodrigues, Adriana D.; Verónica Cesio; Horacio Heinzen; Alessandra Godoy; Cláudia Funchal; Coitinho, Adriana S.; Mirian Salvador

2013-01-01

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Altered hepatic energy status in chlordecone (Kepone)-potentiated CCl4 hepatotoxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have demonstrated that increased intracellular calcium, depletion of glycogen, and suppressed hepatocellular division resulting in progression of hepatic lesion without recovery are associated with chlordecone (CD)-potentiated CCl4 hepatotoxicity. Since these phenomena are indicative of compromised hepatic energy status, the present studies were designed to investigate this possibility. Neither hepatic ATP content nor mitochondrial Mg2(+)-ATPase was altered significantly in rats maintained on diets contaminated with either CD (10 ppm), or phenobarbital (PB; 225 ppm) alone for 15 days. Similarly, CCl4 (100 microL/kg) administration alone did not alter hepatic ATP levels or mitochondrial Mg2(+)-ATPase activity in rats maintained on a normal diet. However, CCl4 administration to CD pretreated rats resulted in significantly decreased hepatic ATP content as early as 1 hr (36%), and this decrease was irreversibly progressive with time (81% at 6 hr). Oligomycin-sensitive Mg2(+)-ATPase was decreased significantly only starting at 6 hr (21%) after CCl4 administration, indicating that depletion of ATP at early time points was most likely due to rapid utilization consequent to toxic events. CCl4 administration to mirex or PB pretreated rats resulted in a smaller decrease in ATP levels (18-24%) only at 24 hr, returning to normal levels by 36-48 hr, in accord with rapid recovery from limited liver injury. These findings indicate that CCl4 administration to CD but not to PB or mirex pretreated rats results in a severely compromised energy status of the liver. The progressive and early depletion of liver ATP and the inhibition of Mg2(+)-ATPase in CD + CCl4 treated rats indicate the association of compromised energy status with altered Ca2+ homeostasis, depletion of glycogen, and suppressed cell division in CD-potentiated CCl4 toxicity. PMID:1696822

Kodavanti, P R; Kodavanti, U P; Mehendale, H M

1990-08-15

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Alterations in Plasma Lipid Peroxidation and Total Antioxidant Status During Storage of Blood  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was designed to determine the alteration of plasma lipid peroxidation-(by measuring the level of MDA and total antioxidant status in stored blood. This study is carried out to find out the quantitative alterations and the useful length of stored blood. The whole blood were taken from 10 donors. Red Blood Cells (RBC were counted in whole blood. The levels of Potassium (P and lactate dehydrogenate activity(LDH were measured in plasma for determination of hemolysis. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and Total Antioxidant Status (TAS were studied in plasma for determination of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system, respectively. The measurement were performed at the day 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33 and 35 of the storage. The levels of malondialdehyde and Potassium and lactate dehydrogenate activity increased (p<0.05 depending on storage time whereas Total Antioxidant Status (TAS and Red Blood Cells decreased (p<0.05. The alterations of MDA, TAS, P, LDH and RBC in the measurement days were as follows: MDA, P and LDH significantly increased at the day 9, 5 and 5 whereas TAS and RBC decreased at the day 13 and 29, respectively. These results suggest that increased level of MDA and decreased level of TAS in the stored blood can not improve the vialibilty and longevity of RBC by increasing cell damage caused by free radicals at the day mentioned above. To improve the quality of stored blood is to supplement blood donors with antioxidants and vitamins at least one week before blood collection to keep and store the stored blood for longer time until using for transfusion. We conclude that increased level of MDA and decreased TAS in stored blood which can cause the beginning of hemolysis. It is therefore necessary to control these factors before blood transfusion.

Abdoljalal Marjani

2006-01-01

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Kinship alters the effects of forced cohabitation on body weight, mate choice and fitness in the rat-like hamster Tscheskia triton  

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Full Text Available It has been documented that social isolation imparts deleterious effects on gregarious rodents species, but caging in group imparts such effects on solitary rodents. This study was attempted at examining how kinship to affect body weight, behavioral interaction, mate choice and fitness when we caged male and female rat-like hamsters Tscheskia triton in pair, a solitary species. We found that females paired with nonsibling males became heavier than the females paired with sibling males, but both agonistic and amicable behavior between paired males and females did not differ between sibling and nonsibling groups. This indicated that kinship might reduce females’ obesity in response to forced cohabitation, and dissociation might exist between physiological and behavioral responses. Furthermore, binary choice tests revealed that social familiarity between either siblings or nonsiblings decreased their investigating time spent in opposite sex conspecific of cage mates and/or their scents as compared with those of non-mates, suggesting effects of social association on mate and kin selection of the hamsters. On the other side, both females and males caged in pair with siblings show a preference between unfamiliar siblings or their scents and the counterparts of nonsiblings after two month separation, indicating that the kin recognition of the hamsters might also rely on phenotype matching. In addition, cohabitation (or permanent presence of fathers elicited a lower survival of pups in nonsibling pairs than sibling pairs, but did not affect litter size, suggesting that kinship affects fitness when housing male and female ratlike hamsters together. Therefore, inbreeding might be adapted for rare and endangered animals [Current Zoology 55(1: 41–47, 2009].

Lin CONG

2009-02-01

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A comparative study into alterations of coenzyme Q redox status in ageing pigs, mice, and worms.  

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Coenzyme Q derivatives (CoQ) are lipid soluble antioxidants that are synthesized endogenously in almost all species and function as an obligatory cofactor of the respiratory chain. There is evidence that CoQ status is altered by age in several species. Here we determined level and redox-state of CoQ in different age groups of pigs, mice and Caenorhabditis elegans. Since these species are very different with respect to lifespan, reproduction and physiology, our approach could provide some general tendencies of CoQ status in ageing organisms. We found that CoQ level decreases with age in pigs and mice, whereas CoQ content increases in older worms. As observed in all three species, ubiquinone, the oxidized form of CoQ, increases with age. Additionally, we were able to show that supplementation of ubiquinol-10, the reduced form of human CoQ10 , slightly increases lifespan of post-reproductive worms. In conclusion, the percentage of the oxidized form of CoQ increases with age indicating higher oxidative stress or rather a decreased anti-oxidative capacity of aged animals. © 2014 BioFactors, 40(3):346-354, 2014. PMID:24578032

Onur, Simone; Niklowitz, Petra; Fischer, Alexandra; Metges, Cornelia C; Grune, Tilman; Menke, Thomas; Rimbach, Gerald; Döring, Frank

2014-05-01

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Status epilepticus in the immature rodent brain alters the dynamics of autophagy.  

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There is considerable interest in defining the molecular pathways involved in seizure-induced neuronal death. Necrotic, apoptotic and anti-apoptotic signalling pathways are activated after status epilepticus (SE). Analyses of apoptosis and necrosis have been merely reported, however conditions of autophagic cell death with hallmarks of type 2 programmed cell death-morphology are relatively few. Autophagy is a highly regulated cellular mechanism for the bulk degradation of cytoplasmic contents which is involved in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions associated with neurological diseases. Our goal was to examine whether autophagy is implicated in the cell death machinery after SE. For this purpose, we used lithium-pilocarpine model of SE in 14-day-old rats and examined the dynamics in the expression of autophagic markers in the hippocampus in controls and in animals subjected to SE at 6, 24, and 48h after the insult. Protein levels of central components of the autophagic machinery were dramatically affected by SE with, however, altered dynamics, compared to controls. Levels of LC3, phospho-mTOR/mTOR, BAG3 and Hsp70 were significantly increased, whereas Beclin 1 levels remained unchanged after SE. The dynamics in the expression of Atg3, Atg5, Atg7, Atg14 and LAMP1 were slightly altered. The amount of SQSTM1/p62 underwent a dramatic and highly significant breakdown 48 h after the induction of SE. These results demonstrate for the first time that SE in the immature brain results in significant alterations of autophagy dynamics. There is a growing interest in the role of autophagy in neurodegeneration, and an emerging consensus that autophagy represents a double-edged sword, acting either as a prosurvival mechanism, or as part of a cell death pathway. PMID:24597603

Benz, Alexander Philipp; Niquet, Jerôme; Wasterlain, Claude Guy; Rami, Abdelhaq

2014-05-01

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Dietary selenium and nutritional plane alter specific aspects of maternal endocrine status during pregnancy and lactation.  

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Objectives were to examine effects of selenium (Se) supply and maternal nutritional plane during gestation on placental size at term and maternal endocrine profiles throughout gestation and early lactation. Ewe lambs (n = 84) were allocated to treatments that included Se supply of adequate Se (ASe; 11.5 ?g/kg BW) or high Se (HSe; 77 ?g/kg BW) initiated at breeding and nutritional plane of 60% (RES), 100% (CON), or 140% (EXC) of requirements beginning on day 40 of gestation. At parturition, lambs were removed from their dams, and ewes were transitioned to a common diet that met requirements of lactation. Blood samples were taken from a subset of ewes (n = 42) throughout gestation, during parturition, and throughout lactation to determine hormone concentrations. Cotyledon number was reduced (P = 0.03) in RES and EXC ewes compared with CON ewes. Placental delivery time tended (P = 0.08) to be shorter in HSe ewes than in ASe ewes, whereas placental delivery time was longer (P = 0.02) in RES ewes than in CON and EXC ewes. During gestation, maternal progesterone, estradiol-17?, and GH were increased (P < 0.05) in RES ewes and decreased (P < 0.05) in EXC ewes compared with CON ewes. In contrast, maternal cortisol, IGF-I, prolactin, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were decreased in RES ewes and increased in EXC ewes compared with CON ewes during gestation. Selenium supply did not alter maternal hormone profiles during gestation. During parturition and lactation, maternal hormone concentrations were influenced by both Se and maternal nutritional plane. During the parturient process, HSe ewes tended to have greater (P = 0.06) concentrations of estradiol-17? than ASe ewes. Three hours after parturition a surge of GH was observed in ASe-RES ewes that was muted in HSe-RES ewes and not apparent in other ewes. Growth hormone area under the curve during the parturient process was increased (P < 0.05) in ASe-RES vs HSe-RES ewes. Ewes that were overfed during gestation had reduced (P < 0.05) estradiol-17? but greater IGF-I, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine (P < 0.05) compared with RES ewes. Even though ewes were transitioned to a common diet after parturition, endocrine status continued to be affected into lactation. Moreover, it appears that gestational diet may partially affect lactational performance through altered endocrine status. PMID:24183757

Lemley, C O; Meyer, A M; Neville, T L; Hallford, D M; Camacho, L E; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Wilmoth, T A; Wilson, M E; Perry, G A; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S; Vonnahme, K A

2014-01-01

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Male mating biology  

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Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during c...

2009-01-01

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Male mating biology  

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Abstract Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious ...

2009-01-01

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Increased oxidative stress and altered antioxidants status in patients with chronic allergic rhinitis  

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Full Text Available Background: Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disorder of the upper airways. Although several oxidants and antioxidants are likely to be involved, alterations in only limited parameters have been studied. Objective: In this study an attempt has been made to study the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance by investigating changes in a wide range of oxidants and antioxidants in the blood. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 39 chronic allergic rhinitis patients (males 24, females 15, aged 20-70 (mean age 36.33 ± 2.03 years and 53 individuals (36 males, 17 females; aged 24 to 64 (mean age 45.42 ± 1.36 years. Duration of allergic rhinitis was 1.77 ± 0.237 years. In the study group, nasal symptoms were scored and the results were recorded. The patients were classified as having perennial Allergic rhinitis (PAR if they had had at least 2 rhinitis symptoms (sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, itching for at least 6 months a year in the previous 2 years and if they had a positive skin prick test response to at least 1 clinically significant perennial allergen (e.g., house dust mites, molds, cockroach, cockroach excrement grass and tree pollen, cat and dog epithelia and molds, or animal dander. They had no other allergic diseases except persistent allergic rhinitis diagnosed by the physical and history examination. Erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, erythrocyte antioxidants viz., glutathione, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and plasma antioxidants viz., ceruloplasmin, glutathione-S-transferase, vitamin C, total antioxidant activity were estimated in the above two groups. Results: Erythrocyte lipid peroxidation (0 hour, p < 0.01 and superoxide dismutase (p < 0.01 were significantly higher, whereas plasma vitamin C (p < 0.001, ceruloplasmin (p < 0.05 and total antioxidant activity (p < 0.001 were significantly lower in chronic allergic rhinitis patients when compared to controls. Plasma Glutathione S transferase and erythrocyte catalase, glutathione, and glutathione reductase remained unchanged from normal subjects. Conclusion: The changes in different parameters indicate an imbalance in the oxidant and antioxidant status in chronic allergic rhinitis patients. Further studies are required to investigate the potential for antioxidant supplements to be used as routine therapy in chronic allergic rhinitis patients. Capsule summery: The study shows that the body is trying to cope for the oxidative stress by altering the enzyme levels. But external supplement may also be required as the total antioxidant levels are very much depleted.

Shiefa Sequeira

2012-11-01

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Acute hyperhomocysteinemia alters the coagulation system and oxidative status in the blood of rats.  

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In the present study, we investigated the effect of the acute administration of homocysteine (Hcy) on parameters of the coagulation system, as well as fibrinogen and nitrite levels in the blood of rats. In addition, we evaluated the effect of acute hyperhomocysteinemia on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in plasma and on antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione peroxidase) in the erythrocytes of rats. Wistar rats, aged 29 days, received a single subcutaneous dorsal injection of saline (control) or Hcy (0.6 ?mol/g body weight). Fifteen minutes, 1 h, 6 h or 12 h after the injection, the rats were euthanized and the blood, plasma, and erythrocytes were collected. Results showed that Hcy significantly increased platelet count in the blood and plasma fibrinogen levels of rats at 15 min and 1 h, but not at 6 h and 12 h, when compared with the control group. Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and nitrite levels significantly decreased in plasma at 15 min and 1 h, but not at 6 h and 12 h after Hcy administration. In addition, hyperhomocysteinemia increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive, an index of lipid peroxidation, in plasma at 15 min and 1 h; decreased the superoxide dismutase and gluthatione peroxidase activity, and increased the catalase activity at 15 min in erythrocytes of rats, suggesting that acute Hcy administration may alter the oxidative status in the blood of rats. Our findings suggest that hypercoagulability and oxidative stress can occur after acute hyperhomocysteinemia, possibly in association, at least in part, with the vascular dysfunction and thromboembolic complications observed in homocystinuric patients. PMID:21948259

da Cunha, Aline A; Scherer, Emilene; da Cunha, Maira J; Schmitz, Felipe; Machado, Fernanda R; Lima, Daniela D; Delwing, Débora; Wyse, Angela T S

2012-01-01

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Cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment alter the somatostatin status of delta cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? TGP52 cells display enhanced functionality in pseudoislet form. ? Somatostatin content was reduced, but secretion increased in high glucose conditions. ? Cellular interactions and environment alter the somatostatin status of TGP52 cells. -- Abstract: Introduction: Somatostatin, released from pancreatic delta cells, is a potent paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion. Islet cellular interactions and glucose homeostasis are essential to maintain normal patterns of insulin secretion. However, the importance of cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment in the regulation of somatostatin release remains unclear. Methods: This study employed the somatostatin-secreting TGP52 cell line maintained in DMEM:F12 (17.5 mM glucose) or DMEM (25 mM glucose) culture media. The effect of pseudoislet formation and culture medium on somatostatin content and release in response to a variety of stimuli was measured by somatostatin EIA. In addition, the effect of pseudoislet formation on cellular viability (MTT and LDH assays) and proliferation (BrdU ELISA) was determined. Results: TGP52 cells readily formed pseudoislets and showed enhanced functionality in three-dimensional form with increased E-cadherin expression irrespective of the culture environment used. However, culture in DMEM decreased cellular somatostatin content (P < 0.01) and increased somatostatin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli including arginine, calcium and PMA (P < 0.001) when compared with cells grown in DMEM:F12. Configuration of TGP52 cells as pseudoislets reduced the proliferative rate and increased cellular cytotoxicity irrespective of culture medium used. Conclusions: Somatostatin secretion is greatly facilitated by cell-to-cell interactions and E-cadherin expression. Cellular environment and extracellular glucose also significantly influence the function of delta cells.

2010-08-20

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76 FR 60447 - Florigene Pty., Ltd.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Altered Color Roses  

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...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...

2011-09-29

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Selenium toxicity but not deficient or super-nutritional selenium status vastly alters the transcriptome in rodents  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein and mRNA levels for several selenoproteins, such as glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx1, are down-regulated dramatically by selenium (Se deficiency. These levels in rats increase sigmoidally with increasing dietary Se and reach defined plateaus at the Se requirement, making them sensitive biomarkers for Se deficiency. These levels, however, do not further increase with super-nutritional or toxic Se status, making them ineffective for detection of high Se status. Biomarkers for high Se status are needed as super-nutritional Se intakes are associated with beneficial as well as adverse health outcomes. To characterize Se regulation of the transcriptome, we conducted 3 microarray experiments in weanling mice and rats fed Se-deficient diets supplemented with up to 5 ?g Se/g diet. Results There was no effect of Se status on growth of mice fed 0 to 0.2 ?g Se/g diet or rats fed 0 to 2 ?g Se/g diet, but rats fed 5 ?g Se/g diet showed a 23% decrease in growth and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, indicating Se toxicity. Rats fed 5 ?g Se/g diet had significantly altered expression of 1193 liver transcripts, whereas mice or rats fed ? 2 ?g Se/g diet had Conclusion This study shows that Se toxicity (5 ?g Se/g diet in rats vastly alters the liver transcriptome whereas Se-deficiency or high but non-toxic Se intake elicits relatively few changes. This is the first evidence that a vastly expanded number of transcriptional changes itself can be a biomarker of Se toxicity, and that identified transcripts can be used to develop molecular biomarker panels that accurately predict super-nutritional and toxic Se status.

Sunde Roger A

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Low-quality females prefer low-quality males when choosing a mate  

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Mate choice studies routinely assume female preferences for indicators of high quality in males but rarely consider developmental causes of within-population variation in mating preferences. By contrast, recent mate choice models assume that costs and benefits of searching or competing for high-quality males depend on females' phenotypic quality. A prediction following from these models is that manipulation of female quality should alter her choosiness or even the direction of her mating pref...

Holveck, Marie-jeanne; Riebel, Katharina

2010-01-01

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Mate choice for a male carotenoid-based ornament is linked to female dietary carotenoid intake and accumulation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The coevolution of male traits and female mate preferences has led to the elaboration and diversification of sexually selected traits; however the mechanisms that mediate trait-preference coevolution are largely unknown. Carotenoid acquisition and accumulation are key determinants of the expression of male sexually selected carotenoid-based coloration and a primary mechanism maintaining the honest information content of these signals. Carotenoids also influence female health and reproduction in ways that may alter the costs and benefits of mate choice behaviours and thus provide a potential biochemical link between the expression of male traits and female preferences. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the dietary carotenoid levels of captive female house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus and assessed their mate choice behavior in response to color-manipulated male finches. Results Females preferred to associate with red males, but carotenoid supplementation did not influence the direction or strength of this preference. Females receiving a low-carotenoid diet were less responsive to males in general, and discrimination among the colorful males was positively linked to female plasma carotenoid levels at the beginning of the study when the diet of all birds was carotenoid-limited. Conclusions Although female preference for red males was not influenced by carotenoid intake, changes in mating responsiveness and discrimination linked to female carotenoid status may alter how this preference is translated into choice. The reddest males, with the most carotenoid rich plumage, tend to pair early in the breeding season. If carotenoid-related variations in female choice behaviour shift the timing of pairing, then they have the potential to promote assortative mating by carotenoid status and drive the evolution of carotenoid-based male plumage coloration.

Toomey Matthew B

2012-01-01

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???: dnaMATE  

Full Text Available 08000 08300 ?????PCR?????? | ??????? dnaMATE WWW Download Pontificia Universid mbuena T, Melo F. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005 Jul 1;33(Web Server issue):W570-2. http://scholar.google.com/sc

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Regulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1? expression by the alteration of redox status in HepG2 cells  

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Full Text Available Abstract Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 has been considered as a critical transcriptional factor in response to hypoxia. It can increase P-glycoprotein (P-Gp thus generating the resistant effect to chemotherapy. At present, the mechanism regulating HIF-1? is still not fully clear in hypoxic tumor cells. Intracellular redox status is closely correlated with hypoxic micro-environment, so we investigate whether alterations in the cellular redox status lead to the changes of HIF-1? expression. HepG2 cells were exposed to Buthionine sulphoximine (BSO for 12 h prior to hypoxia treatment. The level of HIF-1? expression was measured by Western blot and immunocytochemistry assays. Reduce glutathione (GSH concentrations in hypoxic cells were determined using glutathione reductase/5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrob-enzoic acid (DTNB recycling assay. To further confirm the effect of intracellular redox status on HIF-1? expression, N-acetylcysteine (NAC was added to culture cells for 8 h before the hypoxia treatment. The levels of multidrug resistance gene-1 (MDR-1 and erythropoietin (EPO mRNA targeted by HIF-1? in hypoxic cells were further determined with RT-PCR, and then the expression of P-Gp protein was observed by Western blotting. The results showed that BSO pretreatment down-regulated HIF-1? and the effect was concentration-dependent, on the other hand, the increases of intracellular GSH contents by NAC could partly elevate the levels of HIF-1? expression. The levels of P-Gp (MDR-1 and EPO were concomitant with the trend of HIF-1? expression. Therefore, our data indicate that the changes of redox status in hypoxic cells may regulate HIF-1? expression and provide valuable information on tumor chemotherapy.

Zhang Wu-kui

2011-05-01

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Iron and exercise induced alterations in antioxidant status. Protection by dietary milk proteins.  

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Lipid peroxidation stress induced by iron supplementation can contribute to the induction of gut lesions. Intensive sports lead to ischemia reperfusion, which increases free radical production. Athletes frequently use heavy iron supplementation, whose effects are unknown. On the other hand, milk proteins have in vitro antioxidant properties, which could counteract these potential side effects. The main aims of the study were: (1) to demonstrate the effects of combined exercise training (ET) and iron overload on antioxidant status; (2) to assess the protective properties of casein in vivo; (3) to study the mechanisms involved in an in vitro model. Antioxidant status was assessed by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD); glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)), and on the onset of aberrant crypts (AC) in colon, which can be induced by lipid peroxidation. At day 30, all ET animals showed an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, in iron concentration in colon mucosa and liver and in the number of AC compared to untrained rats. It was found that Casein's milk protein supplementation significantly reduced these parameters. Additional information on protective effect of casein was provided by measuring the extent of TBARS formation during iron/ascorbate-induced oxidation of liposomes. Free casein and casein bound to iron were found to significantly reduce iron-induced lipid peroxidation. The results of the overall study suggest that Iron supplementation during intensive sport training would decrease anti-oxidant status. Dietary milk protein supplementation could at least partly prevent occurrence of deleterious effects to tissue induced by iron overload. PMID:17390518

Zunquin, Gautier; Rouleau, Vincent; Bouhallab, Said; Bureau, Francois; Theunynck, Denis; Rousselot, Pierre; Arhan, Pierre; Bougle, Dominique

2006-05-01

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Alterations in cellular immune status in patients with solid tumors undergoing radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cellular immunity in terms of peripheral total lymphocyte count, T-cell and B-cell subsets, was evaluated in 53 patients having malignant tumors of various organs. Their immune status was depressed as compared to 26 control subjects. The mean T-cell count, initially 29.% of total lymphocytes, reached 22.0% at the completion of radiotherapy. B-lymphocytes were not as markedly decreased during treatment. No difference in response was found according to the site of cancer and irradiation. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

1991-11-01

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Altered Antioxidant Status and Increased Lipid Per-Oxidation in Seminal Plasma of Tunisian Infertile Men  

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Full Text Available Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF for the first tentative. Patients were characterized by an idiopathic infertility. They were divided into three groups: normozoospermics who were considered as controls (n=40, asthenozoospermics (Astheno; n=45 and oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (OAT; n=35. Seminal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX and the levels of glutathione (GSH, zinc (Zn and malondialdehyde (MDA were measured. With the significant increase of the seminal activities of SOD and GPX in normozoospermics group, there were positive correlations observed between this enzymes and sperm quality. Also, significant elevated rates of seminal zinc and GSH were observed in control group, but there was contradictory associations reflecting the effects of these antioxidants on semen parameters. However, we noted significant increase of MDA levels in groups with abnormal seminogram. We showed negative associations between this per-oxidative marker and sperm parameters. These results obviously suggested that impairment on seminal antioxidants is an important risk factor for low sperm quality associated to idiopathic infertility and as a result can lead to poor IVF outcome.

Fatma Atig, Monia Raffa, Habib Ben Ali, Kerkeni Abdelhamid, Ali Saad, Mounir Ajina

2012-01-01

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Dietary zinc status reversibly alters both the feeding behaviors of the rats and gene expression patterns in diencephalon.  

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Nutritional status influences feeding behaviors, food preferences, and taste sensations. For example, zinc-deficient rats have been reported to show reduced and cyclic food intake patterns with increased preferences for NaCl. Although some impairments of the central nervous and endocrine systems have been speculated to be involved in these phenomena, the effects of short-term zinc deficiency on the brain have not been well examined to date. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the gene expression patterns in the rat diencephalon, which is a portion of the brain that includes the hypothalamus and thalamus, after short-term zinc deficiency and also during zinc recovery. The rats showed reduced and cyclic food intake patterns with increased salt preferences after a 10-day dietary zinc deficiency. A comparative analysis of their diencephalons using cDNA microarrays revealed that approximately 1% of the genes expressed in the diencephalons showed significantly altered expression levels. On the other hand, a 6-day zinc supplementation following the deprivation allowed for the recovery to initial food intake behaviors and salt preferences. The expression levels of most of the genes that had been altered by exposure to zinc deficient conditions were also recovered. These results show that feeding behaviors, taste preferences and gene expression patterns in the diencephalon respond quickly to changing zinc levels. PMID:22488846

Okada, Shinji; Abuyama, Moe; Yamamoto, Ryo; Kondo, Takashi; Narukawa, Masataka; Misaka, Takumi

2012-01-01

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Field crickets change mating preferences using remembered social information  

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Plasticity in female mate choice can fundamentally alter selection on male ornaments, but surprisingly few studies have examined the role of social learning in shaping female mating decisions in invertebrates. We used the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus to show that females retain information about the attractiveness of available males based on previous social experience, compare that information with incoming signals and then dramatically reverse their preferences to produce final, pred...

Bailey, Nathan W.; Zuk, Marlene

2009-01-01

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Menstrual cycle changes in mate preferences for cues associated with genetic quality: the moderating role of mate value.  

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The purpose of the study was to explore the influence of mate value and fertility status on women's implicit and explicit preferences for male traits associated with genetic quality. It was hypothesized that a woman low in mate value would experience greater fluctuation across her menstrual cycle in her preferences for characteristics associated with genetic quality than a woman high in mate value. Specifically, a low mate value woman during the non-fertile part of the cycle would experience a reduction in a desire for traits associated with health and reproductive success. To test the hypothesis, the college age female participants completed two measures of mate value and a self-report measure designed to gauge fertility status. Then the participants performed an Implicit Associations Test (IAT) designed to measure implicit associations with a male trait related to genetic quality and a questionnaire designed to measure their explicit responses to the same trait. As predicted, mate value moderated the relationship between fertility status and implicit preferences. PMID:23302235

Millar, Murray

2013-01-01

51

MATE's ROV Competitions  

Science.gov (United States)

This webpage from the Marine Advanced Technology Education Center (MATE) provides information about the center's ROV competition. The competitions "connect students and educators with employers and working professionals from marine industries, highlight marine-related career opportunities, and promote the development of technical, problem solving, critical thinking, and teamwork skills." This webpage includes news about the competitions from recent years.

2011-08-15

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Alterations in bronchoalveolar lavage constituents, oxidant/antioxidant status, and lung histology following intratracheal instillation of respirable suspended particulate matter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban suspended particulate pollutants differ with place of occurrence, meteorological conditions, physicochemical compositions, and the response of the bronchopulmonary apparatus. Lung injury following intratracheal instillation of respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) collected in an urban setting in India was investigated in rats. The animals were killed 15 days after exposure to 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg of RSPM. We examined the changes in lung histology, enzymatic activity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and the oxidant/ antioxidant status in lung homogenates. The alterations in these parameters were compared with those in rats instilled with quartz particulates, which were used as positive controls. Exposure to RSPM resulted in an increase in the relative weight of lungs and inflammatory changes evidenced by an increase in the total cellularity of the lungs, predominantly polymorphonuclear cells, demonstrable both in the lungs sections and in the bronchoalveolar lavage of the exposed animals. An increase in the protein content and in the lactate dehydrogenase activity in the BAL was found in the RSPM-exposed rats. A marked increase in the output of lipid peroxides and a dose-dependent increase in the formation of reactive nitrogen species (NO) in lung homogenates and BAL, respectively, was found in the RSPM-exposed rats. A significant decrease in the enzymatic lung antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, and catalase was observed. However, the alterations in the levels of glutathione in the lungs of the RSPM-exposed animals were not significant. The inflammatory reaction, oxidative changes, and enzyme release, were more marked in quartz-exposed animals in comparison to the RSPM-exposed rats. PMID:15715506

Pradhan, Anupam; Waseem, Mohd; Dogra, Shashi; Khanna, Ashok Kumar; Kaw, Jawahir Lal

2005-01-01

53

The Best Timing of Mate Search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea)  

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Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different m...

Beauche, Fanny; Richard, Freddie-jeanne

2013-01-01

54

Do Couples Assortatively Mate?  

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This study investigated the role of intelligence, conservatism, personal values, and Openness in assortative mating. A sample of 32 couples was given questionnaires, which measured self-rated intelligence and partner-rated Openness, conservatism and values. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) were used to ascertain similarity within couples on the above variables. We found significant evidence of assortment for Openness, the facets of Artistic Interests, Intellect and Liberalism, conservatism a...

Mistry, Navin

2010-01-01

55

ERYTHROCYTE BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS AND ALTERATIONS OF THE HORMONAL STATUS AMONG THE REPRODUCTIVE AGE WOMEN WITH BREAST TUMORS  

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Full Text Available The significance of ABO blood system groups antigens in development of some malignant tumors is already established. The alteration of  hormonal homeostasis must also be taken into account. Hence the aim  of   the investigation was to study ABO  and Rh blood system antigens and hormonal status among  reproductive age  women with benign and malignant breast   tumors. Methods: The determination of  hormones was made by the enzymatic analysis method (ELAIZA, provided by proper ELAIZA kits. For the study of ABO and Rh-Hr system antigens, internationally recognized immunoserology methods were used.Results: High index of  the breast gland tumors  were  revealed  in  patients with A(II phenotypic group,  according to the  ABO  system.  The frequency distribution of O(I phenotypic group was low  among women with breast tumors. Among  D, C, E, c and e antigens of  the Rh system, the frequency of D and E antigens were increased in benign and malignant breast tumors patients. The study of hormonal balance revealed thyroid gland hypofunction and increased level of estradiol on the background of  increased testosterone and decreased progesterone levels. Such hormonal imbalance and  excess  production of estradiol creates conditions for malignant tumor formation in reproductive age women.Conclusion: The highest frequency of breast cancer in reproductive age was revealed in A(II group patients. The wide spectrum of hormonal disorders were revealed in breast tumor patients of the reproductive age, which was especially clear in cases of malignant tumor.

Irina Nakashidze

2014-04-01

56

The evolution of experience-mediated plasticity in mate preferences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experience of sexual signals can alter mate preferences and influence the course of sexual selection. Here, we examine the patterns of experience-mediated plasticity in mate preferences that can arise in response to variation in the composition of mates in the environment. We use these patterns to test hypotheses about potential sources of selection favouring experience-mediated plasticity. We manipulated signal experience of female Enchenopa treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) in a vibrational playback experiment with the following treatments: silence; two types of non-preferred signals; preferred signals; and a mixture of preferred and non-preferred signals. This experiment revealed plasticity in mate preference selectivity, with greatest selectivity in the mixed signal treatment, followed by the preferred signal treatment. We found no plasticity in peak preference. These results suggest that females have been selected to adjust preference selectivity according to the variability of potential mates in their social environment, as well as to the presence/absence of preferred mates. We discuss how experience-mediated plasticity in mate preferences can influence the strength of selection on male signals and can result in evolutionary dynamics between variation in preferences and signals that either promote the maintenance of variation or facilitate rapid trait fixation. PMID:22817109

Fowler-Finn, K D; Rodríguez, R L

2012-09-01

57

Yeast pheromone response pathway: characterization of a suppressor that restores mating to receptorless mutants.  

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid cells, alpha and a, mate after being appropriately stimulated by the pheromone secreted by the opposite cell type (a-factor and alpha-factor, respectively). The binding of a pheromone to its receptor is a signal that initiates a series of intracellular changes that lead to the specific physiological alterations required for mating. To identify components of the signal transduction pathway, we sought pseudorevertants that restored mating competence to receptor ...

1989-01-01

58

Different cognitive processes underlie human mate choices and mate preferences  

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Based on undergraduates' self-reports of mate preferences for various traits and self-perceptions of their own levels on those traits, Buston and Emlen [Buston PM, Emlen ST (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:8805–8810] concluded that modern human mate choices do not reflect predictions of tradeoffs from evolutionary theory but instead follow a “likes-attract” pattern, where people choose mates who match their self-perceptions. However, reported preferences need not correspond to actual m...

Todd, Peter M.; Penke, Lars; Fasolo, Barbara; Lenton, Alison P.

2007-01-01

59

The mating behaviour and reproduction performance in a multi-sire mating system for pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An important aim of organic animal production is to allow natural animal behaviour. Regarding reproduction techniques, artificial insemination is permitted but natural mating is preferred. The outdoor multi-sire system, where the sows are placed in large paddocks with a group of boars, is one example of a service system, which complies well with the organic ideals of facilitating natural animal behavior. However, very little knowledge is available about such system. Seven groups of in total of 47 sows and 31 boars were observed to study the mating behavior in an outdoor multi-sire mating system and the subsequent reproduction results. The time of start of courtship, behavior and the cause of disruption if the courtship was terminated, were recorded each time a boar courted a sow. All aggressive interactions between the boars were also recorded to estimate the boar ranking order. The observations revealed numerous poor quality matings, a huge variation in the number of times sows are mated, and overworked boars. Only 35% of all copulations lasted 2 min or more and 63% of all copulations were disrupted, mainly by competitor boars. The higher social status of the boar, the more copulations did it disrupt (p < 0.05). The outcome was an unacceptable variation in reproduction results. Only 71% of all estrus sows conceived, corresponding to a pregnancy rate of 77% of all mated sows. A large inter-group variation in reproduction performance was observed, indicating scope for improvements. In some groups all sows showed estrus and all sows conceived. Recommendations for improvement of the system are proposed

Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

2008-01-01

60

Inhibition of glutathione biosynthesis alters compartmental redox status and the thiol proteome in organogenesis-stage rat conceptuses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developmental signals that control growth and differentiation are regulated by environmental factors that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alter steady-state redox environments in tissues and fluids. Protein thiols are selectively oxidized and reduced in distinct spatial and temporal patterns in conjunction with changes in glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) and cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS) redox potentials (E(h)) to regulate developmental signaling. The purpose of this study was to measure compartment-specific thiol redox status in cultured organogenesis-stage rat conceptuses and to evaluate the impact of thiol oxidation on the redox proteome. The visceral yolk sac (VYS) has the highest initial (0 h) total intracellular GSH (GSH+2GSSG) concentration (5.5 mM) and the lowest Eh (-223 mV) as determined by HPLC analysis. Total embryo (EMB) GSH concentrations ranged lower (3.2 mM) and were only slightly more oxidized than the VYS. Total GSH concentrations in yolk sac fluid (YSF) and amniotic fluid (AF) are >500-fold lower than in tissues and are highly oxidized (YSF E(h)=-121 mV and AF E(h)=-49 mV). Steady-state total Cys concentrations (Cys+2CySS) were significantly lower than GSH in tissues but were otherwise equal in VYS and EMB near 0.5 mM. On gestational day 11, total GSH and Cys concentrations in EMB and VYS increase significantly over the 6h time course while E(h) remains relatively constant. The Eh (GSH/GSSG) in YSF and AF become more reduced over time while E(h) (Cys/CySS) become more oxidized. Addition of L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BS0) to selectively inhibit GSH synthesis and mimic the effects of some GSH-depleting environmental chemicals significantly decreased VYS and EMB GSH and Cys concentrations and increased Eh over the 6h exposure period, showing a greater overall oxidation. In the YSF, BSO caused a significant increase in total Cys concentrations to 1.7 mM but did not significantly change the E(h) for Cys/CySS. A significant net oxidation was seen in the BSO-treated AF compartment after 6 h. Biotinylated iodoacetamide (BIAM) labeling of proteins revealed the significant thiol oxidation of many EMB proteins following BSO treatment. Quantitative changes in the thiol proteome, associated with developmentally relevant pathways, were detected using isotope coded affinity tag (ICAT) labeling and mass spectroscopy. Adaptive pathways were selectively enriched with increased concentrations of proteins involved in mRNA processing (splicesome) and mRNA stabilization (glycolysis, GAPDH), as well as protein synthesis (aminoacyl-tRNA) and protein folding (antigen processing, Hsp70, protein disulfide isomerase). These results show the ability of chemical and environmental modulators to selectively alter compartmental intracellular and extracellular GSH and Cys concentrations and change their corresponding E(h) within the intact viable conceptus. The altered E(h) were also of sufficient magnitude to alter the redox proteome and change relative protein concentrations, suggesting that the mechanistic links through which environmental factors inform and regulate developmental signaling pathways may be discovered using systems developmental biology techniques. PMID:23736079

Harris, Craig; Shuster, Daniel Z; Roman Gomez, Rosaicela; Sant, Karilyn E; Reed, Matthew S; Pohl, Jan; Hansen, Jason M

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
61

Tissue remodeling: a mating-induced differentiation program for the Drosophila oviduct  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In both vertebrates and invertebrates, the oviduct is an epithelial tube surrounded by visceral muscles that serves as a conduit for gamete transport between the ovary and uterus. While Drosophila is a model system for tubular organ development, few studies have addressed the development of the fly's oviduct. Recent studies in Drosophila have identified mating-responsive genes and proteins whose levels in the oviduct are altered by mating. Since many of these molecules (e.g. Muscle LIM protein 84B, Coracle, Neuroglian have known roles in the differentiation of muscle and epithelia of other organs, mating may trigger similar differentiation events in the oviduct. This led us to hypothesize that mating mediates the last stages of oviduct differentiation in which organ-specific specializations arise. Results Using electron- and confocal-microscopy we identified tissue-wide post-mating changes in the oviduct including differentiation of cellular junctions, remodeling of extracellular matrix, increased myofibril formation, and increased innervation. Analysis of once- and twice-mated females reveals that some mating-responsive proteins respond only to the first mating, while others respond to both matings. Conclusion We uncovered ultrastructural changes in the mated oviduct that are consistent with the roles that mating-responsive proteins play in muscle and epithelial differentiation elsewhere. This suggests that mating triggers the late differentiation of the oviduct. Furthermore, we suggest that mating-responsive proteins that respond only to the first mating are involved in the final maturation of the oviduct while proteins that remain responsive to later matings are also involved in maintenance and ongoing function of the oviduct. Taken together, our results establish the oviduct as an attractive system to address mechanisms that regulate the late stages of differentiation and maintenance of a tubular organ.

Hoy Ronald R

2008-12-01

62

On classical and quantum error-correction in ciliate mate selection  

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Ciliated protozoa sensing pheromones secreted from nonself mating types engage in preconjugal “courtship” dances and contacts. Using simulated “social” trials, I recently showed the heterotrich ciliate, Spirostomum ambiguum, can learn to advertise degrees of mating fitness to “suitors” and “rivals” when serially contracting or (ciliary) reversing at variable rates. Conspicuous consumers signal higher quality reproductive status by playing “harder-to-get” via metabolically ...

Clark, Kevin B.

2010-01-01

63

Changes in the status of p53 affect drug sensitivity to thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitors by altering TS levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Colorectal cancer (CRC) resistance to fluoropyrimidines and other inhibitors of thymidylate synthase (TS) is a serious clinical problem often associated with increased intracellular levels of TS. Since the tumour suppressor gene p53, which is mutated in 50% of CRC, regulates the expression of several genes, it may modulate TS activity, and changes in the status of p53 might be responsible for chemoresistance. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate TS levels and sensitivity to TS inhibitors in wild-type (wt) and mutant (mt) p53 CRC cells, Lovo and WiDr, respectively, transfected with mt and wt p53. Lovo 175X2 cells (transfected with mt p53) were more resistant to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; 2-fold), nolatrexed (3-fold), raltitrexed (3-fold) and pemetrexed (10-fold) in comparison with the wt p53 parental cells Lovo 92. Resistance was associated with an increase in TS protein expression and catalytic activity, which might be caused by the loss of the inhibitory effect on the activity of TS promoter or by the lack of TS mRNA degradation, as suggested by the reversal of TS expression to the levels of Lovo 92 cells by adding actinomycin. In contrast, Lovo li cells, characterized by functionally inactive p53, were 3-13-fold more sensitive to nolatrexed, raltitrexed and pemetrexed, and had a lower TS mRNA, protein expression and catalytic activity than Lovo 92. However, MDM-2 expression was significantly higher in Lovo li, while no significant differences were observed in Lovo 175X2 cells with respect to Lovo 92. Finally, mt p53 WiDr transfected with wt p53 were not significantly different from mt p53 WiDr cells with respect to sensitivity to TS inhibitors or TS levels. Altogether, these results indicate that changes in the status of p53, can differently alter sensitivity to TS inhibitors by affecting TS levels, depending on activity or cell line, and might explain the lack of clear correlation between mutations in p53 and clinical outcome after chemotherapy with TS inhibitors. PMID:17339891

Giovannetti, E; Backus, H H J; Wouters, D; Ferreira, C G; van Houten, V M M; Brakenhoff, R H; Poupon, M-F; Azzarello, A; Pinedo, H M; Peters, G J

2007-03-12

64

Mating behavior of Cnephasia jactatana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important pest of kiwifruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding mating behavioral sequence helps us identify the mechanisms of mate assessment and choice, and better evaluate behavior-based pest control strategies. Here we describe the mating behavior of Cnephasia jactatana Walker whose females release a sex pheromone, and determine the effect of male mating status on reproductive success. The mating sequence starts when males approach females and display courtship behavior with antennation and fanning wings. Both males and females may end a mating attempt at any stage of the sequence. Both sexes assess their mates from the initial contact to copulation. Females appear to be choosier at the early and mid-stages than at the late stage of the sequence. Virgin males approach and court females significantly earlier than nonvirgin males. As compared with nonvirgin males, virgin males are approximately 1.6 times more likely to approach and 1.8 times more likely to court females, and four times more likely to achieve mating. This may be attributed to depletion of sperm and accessory gland materials and reduced ability to respond to female sex pheromones in nonvirgin males. The number of attempts by males to acquire mates may be one of the traits that females assess before choosing their mates. PMID:23865204

Jiménez-Pérez, Alfredo; Wang, Qiao; Arzuffi, R

2013-06-01

65

Estrogens can disrupt amphibian mating behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main component of classical contraceptives, 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), has high estrogenic activity even at environmentally relevant concentrations. Although estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds are assumed to contribute to the worldwide decline of amphibian populations by adverse effects on sexual differentiation, evidence for EE2 affecting amphibian mating behaviour is lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that EE2 exposure at five different concentrations (0.296 ng/L, 2.96 ng/L, 29.64 ng/L, 2.96 µg/L and 296.4 µg/L) can disrupt the mating behavior of adult male Xenopus laevis. EE2 exposure at all concentrations lowered male sexual arousal, indicated by decreased proportions of advertisement calls and increased proportions of the call type rasping, which characterizes a sexually unaroused state of a male. Additionally, EE2 at all tested concentrations affected temporal and spectral parameters of the advertisement calls, respectively. The classical and highly sensitive biomarker vitellogenin, on the other hand, was only induced at concentrations equal or higher than 2.96 µg/L. If kept under control conditions after a 96 h EE2 exposure (2.96 µg/L), alterations of male advertisement calls vanish gradually within 6 weeks and result in a lower sexual attractiveness of EE2 exposed males toward females as demonstrated by female choice experiments. These findings indicate that exposure to environmentally relevant EE2 concentrations can directly disrupt male mate calling behavior of X. laevis and can indirectly affect the mating behavior of females. The results suggest the possibility that EE2 exposure could reduce the reproductive success of EE2 exposed animals and these effects might contribute to the global problem of amphibian decline. PMID:22355410

Hoffmann, Frauke; Kloas, Werner

2012-01-01

66

Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most insect species exhibit characteristic behavioral changes after mating. Typical post-mating behaviors in female insects include noticeable increases in food intake, elevated oviposition rates, lowered receptivity to courting males, and enhanced immune response. Although it has been reported that mated females of several insect species including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster increase the amount of food intake and change their dietary preferences, the limited number of comparative studies prevent the formulation of generalities regarding post-mating behaviors in other insects in particular amongst orthopteran species. Here, we investigated whether females of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, alter their feeding behavior after mating. Although significant differences in the amount of food intake after mating were not observed, all experimental data indicated a clear trend among crickets toward the ingestion of larger quantities of food. Geometric framework analyses revealed that the mated female crickets preferred food with higher protein content compared to virgin female crickets. This implies that this species required different nutritional demands after mating. These findings further expand our understanding of the behavioral and biological changes that are triggered in female insects post-mating, and highlight the potential for this species in investigating the molecular-based nutritional dependent activities that are linked to post-mating behaviors. PMID:24659970

Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji

2014-01-01

67

Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most insect species exhibit characteristic behavioral changes after mating. Typical post-mating behaviors in female insects include noticeable increases in food intake, elevated oviposition rates, lowered receptivity to courting males, and enhanced immune response. Although it has been reported that mated females of several insect species including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster increase the amount of food intake and change their dietary preferences, the limited number of comparative studies prevent the formulation of generalities regarding post-mating behaviors in other insects in particular amongst orthopteran species. Here, we investigated whether females of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, alter their feeding behavior after mating. Although significant differences in the amount of food intake after mating were not observed, all experimental data indicated a clear trend among crickets towards the ingestion of larger quantities of food. Geometric framework analyses revealed that the mated female crickets preferred food with higher protein content compared to virgin female crickets. This implies that this species required different nutritional demands after mating. These findings further expand our understanding of the behavioral and biological changes that are triggered in female insects post-mating, and highlight the potential for this species in investigating the molecular-based nutritional dependent activities that are linked to post-mating behaviors.

ShinjiNagata

2014-03-01

68

Fertility after ovarian follicular wave synchronization and fixed-time natural mating compared to random natural mating in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to compare the efficiency of two ovarian follicular wave synchronization protocols coupled with fixed-time natural mating with that of random mating in dromedary camels. Dromedaries were assigned randomly to one of the three treatment groups. Group 1 animals (RM; n = 46) were mated randomly. Group 2 camels (1×GnRH-FTM; n = 46) were given a GnRH analog (Buserelin, 20 ?g/animal, i.v.; Receptal, Intervet, Holland) at random, then were mated 14 days later. In Group 3 animals (2×GnRH-FTM; n = 41), random GnRH analog was followed by repeated GnRH injection 14 days later and fixed-time natural mating on Day 28. Transrectal examination and ultrasonography were performed at weekly intervals to evaluate ovarian follicular status, diagnose ovulation and pregnancy. Blood samples were collected for progesterone determination by ELISA to confirm ovulation and pregnancy. All female dromedaries were assigned randomly to one of thirteen fertile bulls and were bred once on Days 1, 14 and 28 in Groups 1-3, respectively. Ovarian follicular status and ovulation rate was similar among groups at the start of the study. Seventy-five of the 133 dromedaries (56.4%) ovulated after random natural mating or random GnRH treatment. Mean length of mating was 386 ± 17.8 (±SEM) seconds. There was no significant difference in mating time among groups and in pregnancy rate among dromedary bulls. In Group 3 (2×GnRH-FTM), ovarian follicular status before mating (P < 0.05), ovulation rate (n = 37, 90.2%, P < 0.001) and pregnancy rate at 21 and 60 days (PR 21 days n = 22, 53.7% and PR 60 days n = 19, 46.3%, P < 0.05) were greater compared to random natural mating (Group 1: OR n = 25, 54.3%, PR 21 days n = 13, 28.3% and PR 60 days n = 12, 26.1%). In Group 2 dromedaries (1×GnRH-FTM), treatment tended to improve follicular status before mating, ovulation rate (n = 34, 73.9%) and pregnancy rate at 21 and 60 days (PR 21 days n = 21, 45.7% and PR 60 days n = 16, 34.8%), but the effect was not significant compared to random natural mating. In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating that favorable pregnancy rate can be achieved following ovarian follicular wave synchronization with repeated GnRH analog and fixed-time natural mating at 14 days intervals in dromedary camels. PMID:22683027

Nagy, P; Juhasz, J

2012-06-01

69

Influence of Nutritional Flushing Prior to Mating on the Performance of West African Dwarf Goats Mated in the Rainy Season  

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The effect of nutritional flushing for a period of six weeks prior to mating on the physical condition, serum metabolic and hormonal status at mating and litter size at birth of 32 pluriparous West African Dwarf (WAD) goats was studied using a 2 x 2 factorial design. The factors in the design were age (young, 3-4 years old versus old, 5-6 years old) and nutritional flushing regime (pasture alone versus pasture plus concentrate supplementation). The young does gained more weight and body condi...

Karikari, P. K.; Blasu, E. Y.

2009-01-01

70

Different cognitive processes underlie human mate choices and mate preferences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on undergraduates' self-reports of mate preferences for various traits and self-perceptions of their own levels on those traits, Buston and Emlen [Buston PM, Emlen ST (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:8805-8810] concluded that modern human mate choices do not reflect predictions of tradeoffs from evolutionary theory but instead follow a "likes-attract" pattern, where people choose mates who match their self-perceptions. However, reported preferences need not correspond to actual mate choices, which are more relevant from an evolutionary perspective. In a study of 46 adults participating in a speed-dating event, we were largely able to replicate Buston and Emlen's self-report results in a pre-event questionnaire, but we found that the stated preferences did not predict actual choices made during the speed-dates. Instead, men chose women based on their physical attractiveness, whereas women, who were generally much more discriminating than men, chose men whose overall desirability as a mate matched the women's self-perceived physical attractiveness. Unlike the cognitive processes that Buston and Emlen inferred from self-reports, this pattern of results from actual mate choices is very much in line with the evolutionary predictions of parental investment theory. PMID:17827279

Todd, Peter M; Penke, Lars; Fasolo, Barbara; Lenton, Alison P

2007-09-18

71

Transcriptome profiling of sexual maturation and mating in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual maturation and mating in insects are generally accompanied by major physiological and behavioural changes. Many of these changes are related to the need to locate a mate and subsequently, in the case of females, to switch from mate searching to oviposition behaviour. The prodigious reproductive capacity of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the factors that has led to its success as an invasive pest species. To identify the molecular changes related to maturation and mating status in male and female medfly, a microarray-based gene expression approach was used to compare the head transcriptomes of sexually immature, mature virgin, and mated individuals. Attention was focused on the changes in abundance of transcripts related to reproduction, behaviour, sensory perception of chemical stimulus, and immune system processes. Broad transcriptional changes were recorded during female maturation, while post-mating transcriptional changes in females were, by contrast, modest. In male medfly, transcriptional changes were consistent both during maturation and as a consequence of mating. Of particular note was the lack of the mating-induced immune responses that have been recorded for Drosophila melanogaster, that may be due to the different reproductive strategies of these species. This study, in addition to increasing our understanding of the molecular machinery behind maturation and mating in the medfly, has identified important gene targets that might be useful in the future management of this pest. PMID:22303464

Gomulski, Ludvik M; Dimopoulos, George; Xi, Zhiyong; Scolari, Francesca; Gabrieli, Paolo; Siciliano, Paolo; Clarke, Anthony R; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano

2012-01-01

72

Sexual selection and mating systems  

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Sexual selection is among the most powerful of all evolutionary forces. It occurs when individuals within one sex secure mates and produce offspring at the expense of other individuals within the same sex. Darwin was first to recognize the power of sexual selection to change male and female phenotypes, and, in noting that sexual selection is nonubiquitous, Darwin was also first to recognize the importance of mating system—the “special circumstances” in which reproduction occurs within s...

Shuster, Stephen M.

2009-01-01

73

?????????????????????? The Influence of Mate-Rejection on Self-Perceived Mate Value: Testing the Mating Sociometer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????????????????/?????????????????????????????1 ?????????????/???????????????????????????2 ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Kirkpatrick?Ellis(2001?????????????——???????????????????????????????????????????????The present study which using recall paradigm aimed to investigate the effect of  mate-rejection on positive affect and negative affect, self-esteem, self-perceived mate value, mate standard. The result showed: 1  Mate-rejection makes an impact on positive affect and negative affect, while self-esteem plays fully the mediating role among them; 2 Self-esteem fully mediated the impact of mate-rejection on self-perceived mate value, and self-perceived mate value fully mediated the impact of self-esteem on mate standard, thus a process model was built. This research supports and expands a conceptualization of the domain-specific sociometer, which is derived from Kirkpatrick and Ellis (2001: self-esteem as a mechanism functions to calibrate self-perceived mate value in response to experiences of mate-rejection, and makes an indirect effect on mate standard.

??

2012-11-01

74

Big two personality and big three mate preferences: similarity attracts, but country-level mate preferences crucially matter.  

Science.gov (United States)

People differ regarding their "Big Three" mate preferences of attractiveness, status, and interpersonal warmth. We explain these differences by linking them to the "Big Two" personality dimensions of agency/competence and communion/warmth. The similarity-attracts hypothesis predicts that people high in agency prefer attractiveness and status in mates, whereas those high in communion prefer warmth. However, these effects may be moderated by agentics' tendency to contrast from ambient culture, and communals' tendency to assimilate to ambient culture. Attending to such agentic-cultural-contrast and communal-cultural-assimilation crucially qualifies the similarity-attracts hypothesis. Data from 187,957 online-daters across 11 countries supported this model for each of the Big Three. For example, agentics-more so than communals-preferred attractiveness, but this similarity-attracts effect virtually vanished in attractiveness-valuing countries. This research may reconcile inconsistencies in the literature while utilizing nonhypothetical and consequential mate preference reports that, for the first time, were directly linked to mate choice. PMID:22956293

Gebauer, Jochen E; Leary, Mark R; Neberich, Wiebke

2012-12-01

75

Altered mental status and low anion gap in a patient with sickle cell anemia: a case report  

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Abstract Introduction It is challenging to diagnose two coexisting medical conditions if the symptoms are overlapping. This is further confounded if the patient presents with an unexplained deterioration in mental status. A low anion gap or a zero anion gap is an uncommon clinical finding and has few differential diagnoses. This test therefore has important implications in correctly identifying underlying medical conditions. Case presentation A 50-year-old Afric...

2012-01-01

76

Lactational cadmium exposure induced alterations in the hematological indices and oxidative status in brain, liver and testes of rat pups  

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This study was carried out to investigate the effect of lactational exposure to    cadmium (Cd) on suckling male rat pups. Hematological parameters, antioxidant status, some biochemical and pathophysiological indices in brain, liver and testicular tissues of rat offspring were studied. Lactating Sprague–Dawley females received either 0 ppb (control) or 20 ppm Cd as CdCl2 in their drinking water during the lactational period. Suckling male rat pups were weaned and sacrific...

Elsharkawy, E. E.; El-nisr, N. A.

2012-01-01

77

Changes in the status of p53 affect drug sensitivity to thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitors by altering TS levels  

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Colorectal cancer (CRC) resistance to fluoropyrimidines and other inhibitors of thymidylate synthase (TS) is a serious clinical problem often associated with increased intracellular levels of TS. Since the tumour suppressor gene p53, which is mutated in 50% of CRC, regulates the expression of several genes, it may modulate TS activity, and changes in the status of p53 might be responsible for chemoresistance. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate TS levels and sensitivity to TS inhib...

Giovannetti, E.; Backus, H. H. J.; Wouters, D.; Ferreira, C. G.; Houten, V. M. M.; Brakenhoff, R. H.; Poupon, M-f; Azzarello, A.; Pinedo, H. M.; Peters, G. J.

2007-01-01

78

Selenium toxicity but not deficient or super-nutritional selenium status vastly alters the transcriptome in rodents  

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Abstract Background Protein and mRNA levels for several selenoproteins, such as glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx1), are down-regulated dramatically by selenium (Se) deficiency. These levels in rats increase sigmoidally with increasing dietary Se and reach defined plateaus at the Se requirement, making them sensitive biomarkers for Se deficiency. These levels, however, do not further increase with super-nutritional or toxic Se status, making them ineffective for detection of high...

Raines Anna M; Sunde Roger A

2011-01-01

79

The Structure and Content of Long-Term and Short-Term Mate Preferences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study addresses two limitations in the mate preferences literature. First, research all-too-often relies on single-item assessments of mate preferences precluding more advanced statistical techniques like factor analysis. Second, when factor analysis could be done, it exclusively has done for long-term mate preferences, at the exclusion of short-term mate preferences. In this study (N = 401, we subjected 20 items designed to measure short- and long-term mate preferences to both principle components (n = 200 and confirmatory factor analysis (n = 201. In the long-term context, we replicated previous findings that there are three different categories of preferences: physical attractiveness, interpersonal warmth, and social status. In the short-term context, physical attractiveness occupied two parts of the structure, social status dropped out, and interpersonal warmth remained. Across short- and long-term contexts, there were slight changes in what defined the shared dimensions (i.e., physical attractiveness and interpersonal warmth, suggesting prior work that applies the same inventory to each context might be flawed. We also replicated sex differences and similarities in mate preferences and correlates with sociosexuality and mate value. We adopt an evolutionary paradigm to understand our results.

Peter K. Jonason

2013-12-01

80

Singing and mating success in water pipits: one specific song element makes all the difference.  

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Positive correlations between male vocalization and reproductive success have been documented for many animal species. They are usually based on differences between males in vocalization rate, duration or repertoire size. Here, we present probably the first field study linking differences in territorial overlap and mating status to differences in a single, clearly definable song element, the ‘Snarr’. Male water pipits,Anthus spinoletta, with high Snarr scores were mated more often than ma...

Rehsteiner, U.; Geisser, H.; Reyer, H. U.

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Caste determination through mating in primitively eusocial societies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eusocial animal societies are typified by the presence of a helper (worker) caste which predominantly cares for young offspring in a social group while investing little in their own direct reproduction. A key question is what determines whether an individual becomes a worker or leaves to initiate her own reproduction. In some insects, caste is determined nutritionally during development. In others, and in vertebrate societies, adults are totipotent and the cues that determine caste are less well known. The mate limitation hypothesis (MLH) states that a female's mating status acts as a cue for caste determination: females that mate become reproductives, while those that fail to mate become workers. The MLH is consistent with empirical observations in sweat bees showing that over the course of the nesting season, there are increases in both the proportion of females that become reproductives and the frequency of males in the mating pool. We modelled a foundress's offspring sex-ratio strategy to investigate whether an increasingly male-biased operational sex-ratio over time is evolutionarily stable under the MLH. Our results indicate that such a pattern could occur if early workers were more valuable than late workers. This pattern was then more likely if male mortality was high, if worker mortality was low, if the value of a worker was high and if the period over which workers can help was short. Our results suggest that the MLH can be evolutionarily stable, but only under restrictive conditions. Manipulative experiments are now required to investigate whether mating determines caste in nature. PMID:23770404

Lucas, Eric R; Field, Jeremy

2013-10-21

82

F1 sterility of Diatraea saccharalis (Fab.), Lepidoptera: Crambidae. II. mating dynamics and effects on progeny  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of irradiation of Diatraea saccharalis pupae at substerilizing gamma doses on the competitiveness of adult males emerging from the irradiated pupae and on their sterile progeny was evaluated on the basis of mating dynamics, mating duration and the length of the pre-mating period, as well as the sex ratio and the variation of pupal weights in the progeny. It is concluded that substerilizing gamma doses do not affect the indicators evaluated and that in the progeny the sex ratio is altered in favour of males and F1 pupal weights are reduced significantly. (author). 8 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

1993-09-01

83

Pyrroloquinoline quinone nutritional status alters lysine metabolism and modulates mitochondrial DNA content in the mouse and rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) added to purified diets devoid of PQQ improves indices of perinatal development in rats and mice. Herein, PQQ nutritional status and lysine metabolism are described, prompted by a report that PQQ functions as a vitamin-like enzymatic cofactor important in lysine metabolism (Nature 422 [2003] 832). Alternatively, we propose that PQQ influences lysine metabolism, but by mechanisms that more likely involve changes in mitochondrial content. PQQ deprivation in both rats and mice resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial content. In rats, alpha-aminoadipic acid (alphaAA), which is derived from alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde (alphaAAS) and made from lysine in mitochondria, and the plasma levels of amino acids known to be oxidized in mitochondria (e.g., Thr, Ser, and Gly) were correlated with changes in the liver mitochondrial content of PQQ-deprived rats, but not PQQ-supplemented rats. In contrast, the levels of NAD dependent alpha-aminoadipate-delta-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (AASDH), a cytosolic enzyme important to alphaAA production from alphaAAS, was not influenced by PQQ dietary status. Moreover, the levels of U26 mRNA were not significantly changed even when diets differed markedly in PQQ and dietary lysine content. U26 mRNA levels were measured, because of U26's proposed, albeit questionable role as a PQQ-dependent enzyme involved in alphaAA formation. PMID:17029795

Bauerly, K A; Storms, D H; Harris, C B; Hajizadeh, S; Sun, M Y; Cheung, C P; Satre, M A; Fascetti, A J; Tchaparian, E; Rucker, R B

2006-11-01

84

The tomato leafminer reproduces without a mate: New case of parthenogenesis in Lepidoptera  

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The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), originates from South America and is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the Mediterranean Basin countries of Europe and North Africa. The preventing pest mating control methods include: (1) the use of synthetic pheromones for male attraction and annihilation inside insecticide-contain- ing traps; (2) mating disruption by saturating the atmosphere with sex pheromones which alter the ability...

2012-01-01

85

Mate choice evolution, dominance effects, and the maintenance of genetic variation  

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Female mate choice influences the maintenance of genetic variation by altering the mating success of males with different genotypes. The evolution of preferences themselves, on the other hand, depends on genetic variation present in the population. Few models have tracked this feedback between a choice gene and its effects on genetic variation, in particular when genes that determine offspring viability and attractiveness have dominance effects. Here we build a population genetic model that a...

2007-01-01

86

Investigation Romance and Mate Selection Myths of University Students  

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Full Text Available Among the developmental responsibilities expected from the early adulthood period are selecting one’s mate and managing to live together with him/her. The way in which individuals select their mates and the ideas and beliefs that guide them are among the most curious of subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not myths regarding romance and mate selection among university students change according to relationship status, gender and age whether or not they have had a romantic relationship before and, if so, how many they have had. The study sample consisted of 370 students attending different departments of the Faculty of Education at Ondokuz May?s University. In the study, Romance and Mate Selection Attitude Scale (RMSAS was used. The results of the study indicated that in terms of gender, while the difference among the averages of the total scores was significant. In terms of kinds of relationship, total scores the difference was not significant. Regarding whether or not participants had experienced a romantic relationship before, there was not such a significant difference in the total scores. In terms of age, the difference among the averages in all the RMSAS subscales and the total scores is not significant.

Muge Y?lmaz

2013-02-01

87

Future Oceanic Warming and Acidification Alter Immune Response and Disease Status in a Commercial Shellfish Species, Mytilus edulis L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments. PMID:24927423

Mackenzie, Clara L; Lynch, Sharon A; Culloty, Sarah C; Malham, Shelagh K

2014-01-01

88

Altered redox status in Escherichia coli cells enhances pyruvate production in pH-adjusting culture with a fermenter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Improvements in pyruvate production process were examined using Escherichia coli BW25113Dpta/ pHfdh strain carrying the formate dehydrogenase gene of Mycobacterium vaccae to change the redox status of the cells. Glucose and formate concentrations, and oxygenation levels determined previously in a shake-flask culture were applied for pyruvate production in a 1 l fermenter. However, pyruvate was not produced under the examined conditions. Detailed pH measurements during the fermenter culture using CaCO3 revealed that maintaining the pH value around 6.0 plays an important role in stabilizing the pyruvate accumulation. In the pH-adjusting culture around 6.0 with NaOH solution, the concentration and yield of pyruvate were 8.96 g l-1 and 0.48 g pyruvate g glucose-1, respectively, which were significantly higher than the values reported in the shake-flask culture (6.79 g l-1 and 0.32 g pyruvate g glucose-1). PMID:23797477

Ojima, Yoshihiro; Matsuo, Nahoko; Suparman, Asep; Suryadarma, Prayoga; Taya, Masahito

2014-03-01

89

Strategic mating with common preferences.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a two-sided search model in which individuals from two groups (males and females, employers and workers) would like to form a long-term relationship with a highly ranked individual of the other group, but are limited to individuals who they randomly encounter and to those who also accept them. This article extends the research program, begun in Alpern and Reyniers [1999. J. Theor. Biol. 198, 71-88], of providing a game theoretic analysis for the Kalick-Hamilton [1986. J. Personality Soc. Psychol. 51, 673-682] mating model in which a cohort of males and females of various 'fitness' or 'attractiveness' levels are randomly paired in successive periods and mate if they accept each other. Their model compared two acceptance rules chosen to represent homotypic (similarity) preferences and common (or 'type') preferences. Our earlier paper modeled the first kind by assuming that if a level x male mates with a level y female, both get utility -|x-y|, whereas this paper models the second kind by giving the male utility y and the female utility x. Our model can also be seen as a continuous generalization of the discrete fitness-level game of Johnstone [1997. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 40, 51-59]. We establish the existence of equilibrium strategy pairs, give examples of multiple equilibria, and conditions guaranteeing uniqueness. In all equilibria individuals become less choosy over time, with high fitness individuals pairing off with each other first, leaving the rest to pair off later. This route to assortative mating was suggested by Parker [1983. Mate Choice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 141-164]. If the initial fitness distributions have atoms, then mixed strategy equilibria may also occur. If these distributions are unknown, there are equilibria in which only individuals in the same fitness band are mated, as in the steady-state model of MacNamara and Collins [1990. J. Appl. Prob. 28, 815-827] for the job search problem. PMID:16171826

Alpern, Steve; Reyniers, Diane

2005-12-21

90

Congenital hypothyroidism alters the oxidative status, enzyme activities and morphological parameters in the hippocampus of developing rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital hypothyroidism is associated with delay in cell migration and proliferation in brain tissue, impairment of synapse formation, misregulation of neurotransmitters, hypomyelination and mental retardation. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuropsychological deficits observed in congenital hypothyroidism are not completely understood. In the present study we proposed a mechanism by which hypothyroidism leads to hippocampal neurotoxicity. Congenital hypothyroidism induces c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway activation leading to hyperphosphorylation of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin and neurofilament subunits from hippocampal astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Moreover, hyperphosphorylation of the cytoskeletal proteins was not reversed by T3 and poorly reversed by T4. In addition, congenital hypothyroidism is associated with downregulation of astrocyte glutamate transporters (GLAST and GLT-1) leading to decreased glutamate uptake and subsequent influx of Ca(2+) through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. The Na(+)-coupled (14)C-?-methyl-amino-isobutyric acid ((14)C-MeAIB) accumulation into hippocampal cells also might cause an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration by opening voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC). The excessive influx of Ca(2+) through NMDA receptors and VDCCs might lead to an overload of Ca(2+) within the cells, which set off glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. The inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity might also induce Ca(2+) influx. The inhibited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities, associated with altered glutamate and neutral amino acids uptake could somehow affect the GSH turnover, the antioxidant defense system, as well as the glutamate-glutamine cycle. Reduced levels of S100B and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) take part of the hypothyroid condition, suggesting a compromised astroglial/neuronal neurometabolic coupling which is probably related to the neurotoxic damage in hypothyroid brain. PMID:23693027

Cattani, Daiane; Goulart, Paola Bez; Cavalli, Vera Lúcia de Liz Oliveira; Winkelmann-Duarte, Elisa; Dos Santos, André Quincozes; Pierozan, Paula; de Souza, Daniela Fraga; Woehl, Viviane Mara; Fernandes, Marilda C; Silva, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina; Zamoner, Ariane

2013-08-15

91

Mate attraction, retention and expulsion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual selection theory and parental investment theory have guided much of the evolutionary psychological research on human mating. Based on these theories, researchers have predicted and found sex differences in mating preferences and behaviors. Men generally prefer that their long-term partners are youthful and physically attractive. Women generally prefer that their long-term partners have existing resources or clear potential for securing resources and display a willingness to invest those resources in children the relationship might produce. Both men and women, however, desire long-term partners who are kind and intelligent. Once a partner is obtained, men and women act in sex-specific ways to ensure the continuation and exclusivity of the relationship. Men, in particular, engage in behaviors designed to prevent, correct, and anticipate their partner's sexual infidelity. Relationships dissolve for evolutionarily-relevant reasons: infidelity, childlessness, and infertility. The discussion addresses directions for future research. PMID:20100421

Miner, Emily J; Shackelford, Todd K

2010-02-01

92

2012 International MATE ROV Competition  

Science.gov (United States)

This video, created by the Marine Advanced Technology Education Center, shares highlights of the 2012 International MATE ROV competition, which was held in Orlando, Florida. 55 teams participated in the competition, which aims to get students interested in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM). Teams constructed their own ROVs and also integrated their own control systems in the competition. Running time for the video is 8:57.

2013-07-18

93

Effects of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene and dietary protein on male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating success.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of access to dietary protein (P) and the topical application of a juvenile hormone analogue (methoprene (M)) on mating behaviour of male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae was assessed in the laboratory and in field cages. Age, dietary protein and methoprene application increased the mating success and influenced the mating behaviour. Treatment with methoprene (M+) to protein-deprived (P-) males had only a modest effect on the acceleration of sexual maturity, but application of methoprene (M+) to protein-fed (P+) males greatly accelerated sexual maturity. Protein diet (P+) increased mating success of males in comparison to protein-deprived (P-) males. Protein and methoprene have a synergistic effect on mating behaviour, since M+P+ treated males exhibit reduced mating latency and achieved higher mating in younger ages than methoprene and/or protein-deprived males. Copulation duration was correlated with nutritional status and M+P+ males copulated longer at the age of advanced sexual maturity than M-P+ males. Our results suggest that in this species with a lek mating system, females discriminate between the males based on their sexual signals, which were influenced by protein in the adult diet, methoprene application and age. The results are discussed in the light of mating competitiveness of precocious treated young males and their relevance to Sterile Insect Technique application against this pest species. PMID:20438735

ul Haq, Ihsan; Cáceres, Carlos; Hendrichs, Jorge; Teal, Peter; Wornoayporn, Viwat; Stauffer, Christian; Robinson, Alan S

2010-11-01

94

Clinical implications of altered thyroid status in male testicular function Implicações clínicas das alterações tireoidianas na função gonadal masculina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are involved in the development and maintenance of virtually all tissues. Although for many years the testis was thought to be a thyroid-hormone unresponsive organ, studies of the last decades have demonstrated that thyroid dysfunction is associated not only with abnormalities in morphology and function of testes, but also with decreased fertility and alterations of sexual activity in men. Nowadays, the participation of triiodothyronine (T3 in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation, testicular maturation, and steroidogenesis is widely accepted, as well as the presence of thyroid hormone transporters and receptors in testicular cells throughout the development process and in adulthood. But even with data suggesting that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects, there is still controversy regarding the impact of thyroid diseases on human spermatogenesis and fertility, which can be in part due to the lack of well-controlled clinical studies. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of recent clinical data about the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function.Os hormônios da tireoide estão envolvidos virtualmente no desenvolvimento e na manutenção de todos os tecidos. As gônadas masculinas foram, por décadas, consideradas insensíveis aos hormônios tireoidianos. No entanto, estudos mais recentes têm demonstrado que disfunções tireoidianas estão associadas não somente a anormalidades na morfologia e na função dos testículos, mas também à diminuição da fertilidade e alterações na atividade sexual masculina. Atualmente, o papel da triiodotironina (T3 no controle da proliferação das células de Sertoli e Leydig, maturação testicular e esteroidogênese é amplamente aceito, bem como a presença de transportadores e receptores para o hormônio tireoidiano nos testículos durante o período de desenvolvimento e a idade adulta. No entanto, apesar dos dados que indicam que o T3 atua diretamente nos testículos humanos, persistem controvérsias em relação ao impacto das doenças tireoidianas sobre a espermatogênese e a fertilidade, o que pode ser em parte devido à escassez de estudos clínicos nessa área. Essa revisão tem por objetivo apresentar um panorama de dados clínicos atualizados sobre o papel dos hormônios tireoidianos na função gonadal masculina.

Simone Magagnin Wajner

2009-11-01

95

Pairomics, the omics way to mate choice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The core aspects of the biology and evolution of sexual reproduction are reviewed with a focus on the diploid, sexually reproducing, outbreeding, polymorphic, unspecialized, altricial and cultural human species. Human mate choice and pair bonding are viewed as central to individuals' lives and to the evolution of the species, and genetic assistance in reproduction is viewed as a universal human right. Pairomics is defined as an emerging branch of the omics science devoted to the study of mate choice at the genomic level and its consequences for present and future generations. In pairomics, comprehensive genetic information of individual genomes is stored in a database. Computational tools are employed to analyze the mating schemes and rules that govern mating among the members of the database. Mating models and algorithms simulate the outcomes of mating any given genome with each of a number of genomes represented in the database. The analyses and simulations may help to understand mating schemes and their outcomes, and also contribute a new cue to the multicued schemes of mate choice. The scientific, medical, evolutionary, ethical, legal and social implications of pairomics are far reaching. The use of genetic information as a search tool in mate choice may influence our health, lifestyle, behavior and culture. As knowledge on genomics, population genetics and gene-environment interactions, as well as the size of genomic databases expand, so does the ability of pairomics to investigate and predict the consequences of mate choice for the present and future generations. PMID:23945982

Dani, Sergio Ulhoa; März, Winfried; Neves, Paulo Mauricio Serrano; Walter, Gerhard Franz

2013-10-01

96

Skin fibroblasts from pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration patients show altered cellular oxidative status and have defective iron-handling properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a neurodegenerative disease belonging to the group of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation disorders. It is characterized by progressive impairments in movement, speech and cognition. The disease is inherited in a recessive manner due to mutations in the Pantothenate Kinase-2 (PANK2) gene that encodes a mitochondrial protein involved in Coenzyme A synthesis. To investigate the link between a PANK2 gene defect and iron accumulation, we analyzed primary skin fibroblasts from three PKAN patients and three unaffected subjects. The oxidative status of the cells and their ability to respond to iron were analyzed in both basal and iron supplementation conditions. In basal conditions, PKAN fibroblasts show an increase in carbonylated proteins and altered expression of antioxidant enzymes with respect to the controls. After iron supplementation, the PKAN fibroblasts had a defective response to the additional iron. Under these conditions, ferritins were up-regulated and Transferrin Receptor 1 (TfR1) was down-regulated to a minor extent in patients compared with the controls. Analysis of iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) reveals that, with respect to the controls, PKAN fibroblasts have a reduced amount of membrane-associated mRNA-bound IRP1, which responds imperfectly to iron. This accounts for the defective expression of ferritin and TfR1 in patients' cells. The inaccurate quantity of these proteins produced a higher bioactive labile iron pool and consequently increased iron-dependent reactive oxygen species formation. Our results suggest that Pank2 deficiency promotes an increased oxidative status that is further enhanced by the addition of iron, potentially causing damage in cells. PMID:22692681

Campanella, Alessandro; Privitera, Daniela; Guaraldo, Michela; Rovelli, Elisabetta; Barzaghi, Chiara; Garavaglia, Barbara; Santambrogio, Paolo; Cozzi, Anna; Levi, Sonia

2012-09-15

97

Influence of Nutritional Flushing Prior to Mating on the Performance of West African Dwarf Goats Mated in the Rainy Season  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of nutritional flushing for a period of six weeks prior to mating on the physical condition, serum metabolic and hormonal status at mating and litter size at birth of 32 pluriparous West African Dwarf (WAD goats was studied using a 2 x 2 factorial design. The factors in the design were age (young, 3-4 years old versus old, 5-6 years old and nutritional flushing regime (pasture alone versus pasture plus concentrate supplementation. The young does gained more weight and body condition (2.0±0.30 kg; 0.53±0.10 units; p>0.05 over the 6-wk nutritional flushing period than the old does (1.4±0.30 kg; 0.40±0.10 units, but the old does were heavier (p<0.05 at mating. The overall mean (±SE total serum protein was 86.1±0.76 g/l at mating and did not differ (p>0.05 between treatments. The serum glucose concentrations were also similar for the treatment groups and averaged 2.6±0.10 mmol/l at mating. At the end of the nutritional flushing period, supplemented does had a higher (p<0.05 serum concentration of insulin (19.1±0.63 versus 15.1±0.63 IU/ml than the unsupplemented does. Young does also had higher (p<0.05 serum insulin concentrations (19.8±0.63 IU/ml than old does (14.3±0.63 IU/ml. Serum Luteinizing Hormone (LH concentration at mating was similar for supplemented and unsupplemented does, but was higher (p<0.05 for young does (11.8±0.23 < mu>IU/ml than for old does (1.8±0.23 IU/ml. Young does had a higher litter size (1.81±0.12 than old does (1.50±0.12 and supplemented does had a larger litter (1.81±0.12 than the unsupplemented does (1.50±0.12. These differences were, however, not statistically significant (p>0.05. There was, however, an interaction between age of doe and nutritional flushing treatment with young does that were supplemented having a mean (±SE litter size of 2.13±0.18 compared to 1.50±0.18 for each of the other three treatment groups. It was concluded that young (3-4 years old does may benefit from concentrate supplementation of wet season grazing, but that old does (5-6 years old will not benefit from this supplementation if they are in moderate body condition six weeks before mating.

P.K. Karikari

2009-01-01

98

Covariation and repeatability of male mating effort and mating preferences in a promiscuous fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although mate choice by males does occur in nature, our understanding of its importance in driving evolutionary change remains limited compared with that for female mate choice. Recent theoretical models have shown that the evolution of male mate choice is more likely when individual variation in male mating effort and mating preferences exist and positively covary within populations. However, relatively little is known about the nature of such variation and its maintenance within natural populations. Here, using the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) as a model study system, we report that mating effort and mating preferences in males, based on female body length (a strong correlate of fecundity), positively covary and are significantly variable among subjects. Individual males are thus consistent, but not unanimous, in their mate choice. Both individual mating effort (including courtship effort) and mating preference were significantly repeatable. These novel findings support the assumptions and predictions of recent evolutionary models of male mate choice, and are consistent with the presence of additive genetic variation for male mate choice based on female size in our study population and thus with the opportunity for selection and further evolution of large female body size through male mate choice. PMID:23919148

Godin, Jean-Guy J; Auld, Heather L

2013-07-01

99

Molecular Determinants of Ligand Selectivity for the Human Multidrug and Toxin Extruder Proteins MATE1 and MATE2-K  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study compared the selectivity of two homologous transport proteins, multidrug and toxin extruders 1 and 2-K (MATE1 and MATE2-K), and developed three-dimensional pharmacophores for inhibitory ligand interaction with human MATE1 (hMATE1). The human orthologs of MATE1 and MATE2-K were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and transport function was determined by measuring uptake of the prototypic organic cation (OC) substrate 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP). Both MATEs ...

2012-01-01

100

Heterozygosity-based assortative mating in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus): implications for the evolution of mate choice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The general hypothesis of mate choice based on non-additive genetic traits suggests that individuals would gain important benefits by choosing genetically dissimilar mates (compatible mate hypothesis) and/or more heterozygous mates (heterozygous mate hypothesis). In this study, we test these hypotheses in a socially monogamous bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We found no evidence for a relatedness-based mating pattern, but heterozygosity was positively correlated between social mates...

Garci?a-navas, Vicente; Ortego, Joaqui?n; Sanz, Juan Jose?

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Computational mate choice: theory and empirical evidence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present review is based on the thesis that mate choice results from information-processing mechanisms governed by computational rules and that, to understand how females choose their mates, we should identify which are the sources of information and how they are used to make decisions. We describe mate choice as a three-step computational process and for each step we present theories and review empirical evidence. The first step is a perceptual process. It describes the acquisition of evi...

Cermelli, Paolo; Castellano, Sergio

2012-01-01

102

What determines sex roles in mate searching?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a seminal paper, Hammerstein and Parker (1987) described how sex roles in mate searching can be frequency dependent: the need for one sex to perform mate searching is diminished when the opposite sex takes on the greater searching effort. Intriguingly, this predicts that females are just as likely to search as males, despite a higher potential reproductive rate by the latter sex. This prediction, however, is not supported by data: male mate searching prevails in nature. Counterexamples als...

Kokko, Hanna; Wong, Bob B. M.

2007-01-01

103

Variation in human mate choice: Simultaneously investigating heritability, parental influence, sexual imprinting, and assortative mating  

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Human mate choice is central to individuals’ lives and to the evolution of the species, but the basis of variation in mate choice is not well understood. Here we look at a large community-based sample of twins and their partners and parents (N > 20,000 individuals) to test for genetic and family environmental influences on mate choice, with and without controlling for the effects of assortative mating. Key traits are analyzed, including height, body mass index, age, education, income, perso...

Zietsch, Brendan P.; Verweij, Karin J. H.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.

2011-01-01

104

Molecular Genetic Analyses of Mating Pheromones Reveal Intervariety Mating or Hybridization in Cryptococcus neoformans  

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The sexual mating of the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is important for pathogenesis studies because the fungal virulence is linked to the ? mating type (MAT?). We characterized C. neoformans mating pheromones (MF? 1 and MFa1) from 122 strains to understand intervariety hybridization or mating and intervariety virulence. MF? 1 in three C. neoformans varieties showed (a) specific nucleotide polymorphisms, (b) different copy numbers and chromosomal localizations, and (c) unique d...

Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Fan, Jinjiang; Stein, Birgit; Behr, Melissa J.; Samsonoff, William A.; Wickes, Brian L.; Chaturvedi, Sudha

2002-01-01

105

Variation in human mate choice: simultaneously investigating heritability, parental influence, sexual imprinting, and assortative mating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human mate choice is central to individuals' lives and to the evolution of the species, but the basis of variation in mate choice is not well understood. Here we looked at a large community-based sample of twins and their partners and parents ([Formula: see text] individuals) to test for genetic and family environmental influences on mate choice, while controlling for and not controlling for the effects of assortative mating. Key traits were analyzed, including height, body mass index, age, education, income, personality, social attitudes, and religiosity. This revealed near-zero genetic influences on male and female mate choice over all traits and no significant genetic influences on mate choice for any specific trait. A significant family environmental influence was found for the age and income of females' mate choices, possibly reflecting parental influence over mating decisions. We also tested for evidence of sexual imprinting, where individuals acquire mate-choice criteria during development by using their opposite-sex parent as the template of a desirable mate; there was no such effect for any trait. The main discernible pattern of mate choice was assortative mating; we found that partner similarity was due to initial choice rather than convergence and also at least in part to phenotypic matching. PMID:21508607

Zietsch, Brendan P; Verweij, Karin J H; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

2011-05-01

106

Allochronic separation versus mate choice: nonrandom patterns of mating between fall armyworm host strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assortative mating may result from intrinsic individual mating preferences or from assortment traits not requiring expression of preferences. Assortment traits are phenotypes expressed in both sexes that enhance the probability of encountering individuals possessing similar trait values. In the noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda, it has been suggested that nonrandom mating between two host strains is caused by a temporal assortment trait-that is, differential timing of calling and copulation during the night. By experimental manipulation of this trait in controlled mate-choice experiments, we investigated whether mating by same-strain individuals is enhanced mainly by the allochronic shift of mating activity or is also affected by time-independent intrinsic mating preferences. The observed patterns suggest that nonrandom mating between the two host strains in the laboratory is shaped by an interaction of both effects that is dominated by mating preferences during the first encounter night. This interaction changes over time as the preferences become weaker on subsequent nights. Males were less restricted than females with regard to both the time shift in mating activity and mate preferences. Although the nature of the mate-preference mechanism remains elusive, its restriction to females suggests that male-produced close-range pheromones emitted during courtship play a role. PMID:21460569

Schöfl, Gerhard; Dill, Anja; Heckel, David G; Groot, Astrid T

2011-04-01

107

Comprehensive View of the Human Mating Process Among Young Couples in Isfahan-Iran: An Explanatory Mixed-Method Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Heterosexual relationship is the main component of mate selection. Regardless of the importance of mate favorites, little is known about exact valued criteria in potential mates. Objectives: This study was designed to comprehensively explain the theoretical view of the human mating process. Materials and Methods: This was as an explanatory mixed–method study. The first phase was a cross-sectional quantitative study with two Farsi-modified versions of instruments: preferences concerning potential mates and factors of choosing a mate; content analysis was the second phase. The quantitative phase of this study consisted of 202 dating couples, decided to get married. The qualitative phase consisted of 28 participants who acquired the extreme scores (highest and lowest) in the first phase. Results: Average age of marriage for women and men was 23.04 and 26.41 respectively; the actual age difference was 3.37 years (women younger than men). The results of this study in support of evolution-based theory explained that, age is a preference and choosing an older husband and a younger wife is due to having reproductive capacity. Also, they mentioned that appearance is necessary for men because of sexual attraction, not as a prediction for the next generation appearance. In both phases of this study, both genders had a strong emphasis on “chastity” in a potential mate. Results showed that, men preferred a mate who was a good housewife, capable of cooking, and women preferred a mate with “Good earning capacity”, “Good financial prospect” “university education”, “Favorable social status” and “Industriousness”. Conclusions: The results confirmed that for a comprehensive view in human mating process, we need a combined theoretical approach as well as qualitative and quantitative study to explore the real meaning of each preference in a mate.

Merghati Khoei, Effat; Ziaei, Tayebe; Salehi, Mehrdad; Farajzadegan, Ziba

2013-01-01

108

Strategic mating with homotypic preferences  

Science.gov (United States)

We determine equilibrium acceptance strategies in a class of multi-period mating games where individuals prefer opposite sex partners with a close parameter type (one-dimensional homotypic preferences). In each period unmated individuals are randomly paired. They form a couple (and leave the pool) if each accepts the other; otherwise they continue into future periods. We consider models with a fixed cohort group (without replacement) and also steady-state models (with replacement). Unlike the job-search model of McNamara & Collins involving type preferences (maximizing individuals), we find no segmentation of the populations at equilibrium, rather continuous changes of strategy. We find some similarities and some differences with the Kalick-Hamilton simulation model of attractiveness matching in a dating context. In general, we find that at equilibrium all individuals become less choosy (in accepting potential mates) with time, and that individuals with more central types are choosier than those with more extreme types. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10329116

Alpern; Reyniers

1999-05-01

109

Mating-induced differential coding of plant odour and sex pheromone in a male moth.  

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Innate behaviours in animals can be influenced by several factors, such as the environment, experience, or physiological status. This behavioural plasticity originates from changes in the underlying neuronal substrate. A well-described form of plasticity is induced by mating. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, males experience a post-ejaculatory refractory period, during which they avoid new females. In the male moth Agrotis ipsilon, mating induces a transient inhibition of responses to the female-produced sex pheromone. To understand the neural bases of this inhibition and its possible odour specificity, we carried out a detailed analysis of the response characteristics of the different neuron types from the periphery to the central level. We examined the response patterns of pheromone-sensitive and plant volatile-sensitive neurons in virgin and mated male moths. By using intracellular recordings, we showed that mating changes the response characteristics of pheromone-sensitive antennal lobe (AL) neurons, and thus decreases their sensitivity to sex pheromone. Individual olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) recordings and calcium imaging experiments indicated that pheromone sensory input remains constant. On the other hand, calcium responses to non-pheromonal odours (plant volatiles) increased after mating, as reflected by increased firing frequencies of plant-sensitive AL neurons, although ORN responses to heptanal remained unchanged. We suggest that differential processing of pheromone and plant odours allows mated males to transiently block their central pheromone detection system, and increase non-pheromonal odour detection in order to efficiently locate food sources. PMID:21488987

Barrozo, Romina B; Jarriault, David; Deisig, Nina; Gemeno, Cesar; Monsempes, Christelle; Lucas, Philippe; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

2011-05-01

110

Genetically Engineered Transvestites Reveal Novel Mating Genes in Budding Yeast  

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Haploid budding yeast has two mating types, defined by the alleles of the MAT locus, MATa and MAT?. Two haploid cells of opposite mating types mate by signaling to each other using reciprocal pheromones and receptors, polarizing and growing towards each other, and eventually fusing to form a single diploid cell. The pheromones and receptors are necessary and sufficient to define a mating type, but other mating type-specific proteins make mating more efficient. We examined the role of these p...

Huberman, Lori Bromer; Murray, Andrew W.

2013-01-01

111

Acid phosphatase activity in mating type I and mating type II cell lines of Paramecium primaurelia.  

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The cellular acid phosphatase content, a marker enzyme for lysosomal activity, in Paramecium primaurelia mating type I and mating type II cells was determined by optical laser scanning microscopy. The naphthol AS-TR phosphatase-hexazotized pararosaniline method was used to visualize acid phosphatase activity by the light microscopy. Cell lines of both mating types were tested during culture life, from the early log phase to the death phase. The amount of acid phosphatase was higher in mating type II than in mating type I until the onset of the stationary phase, and then the values reversed. Indeed, during the log phase of growth, mating type II cells formed a higher number of food vacuoles, so that, by taking up a higher amount of bacteria, they sooner became deprived of food. It is suggested that, by lacking nutrients, their synthesis activities and acid phosphatase content were reduced as compared with mating type I cells. PMID:7549019

Ramoino, P; Beltrame, F; Fato, M; Marcenaro, G

1995-01-01

112

Sociosexuality and Mate Retention in Romantic Couples  

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Full Text Available On a sample of 191 romantic couples the relations between mate retention strategies of one partner in the pair and sociosexuality of the other was examined. Mate retention strategies were measured by using self-reports, while sociosexuality was measured by self-report, as well as partner’s report. The results show that mate retention tactics, categories and domains are mainly positively related to both measures of partners’ sociosexuality in men and women, and particularly perceived sociosexuality of one’s partner. The results also show that relations between the overall frequency in the use of mate retention acts and partners’ sociosexuality do not differ between men and women. However, consistent differences in the relations between sociosexuality and mate retention strategies in men and women were obtained. When their partners are higher on sociosexuality women are more inclined to use intersexual manipulations, while men are more prone to intrasexual manipulations.

Igor Kardum

2006-12-01

113

Low mate encounter rate increases male risk taking in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantis.  

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Male praying mantises are forced into the ultimate trade-off of mating versus complete loss of future reproduction if they fall prey to a female. The balance of this trade-off will depend both on (1) the level of predatory risk imposed by females and (2) the frequency of mating opportunities for males. We report the results of a set of experiments that examine the effects of these two variables on male risk-taking behavior and the frequency of sexual cannibalism in the praying mantis Tenodera sinensis. We experimentally altered the rate at which males encountered females and measured male approach and courtship behavior under conditions of high and low risk of being attacked by females. We show that male risk taking depends on prior access to females. Males with restricted access to females showed greater risk-taking behavior. When males were given daily female encounters, they responded to greater female-imposed risk by slowing their rate of approach and remained a greater distance from a potential mate. In contrast, males without recent access to mates were greater risk-takers; they approached females more rapidly and to closer proximity, regardless of risk. In a second experiment, we altered male encounter rate with females and measured rates of sexual cannibalism when paired with hungry or well-fed females. Greater risk-taking behavior by males with low mate encounter rates resulted in high rates of sexual cannibalism when these males were paired with hungry females. PMID:22558146

Brown, William D; Muntz, Gregory A; Ladowski, Alexander J

2012-01-01

114

Mating types and macrocyst formation in Dictyostelium.  

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Macrocysts have been found among strains of Dictyostelium rosarium Raper and Cavender (K. B. Raper and J. C. Cavender, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 84:31-47, 1968). Strains that exhibit mating capabilities could be classified into one of three mating types: A1, A2, or A3. Each mating type was self-incompatible but cross-compatible with the other two types in most cases. No self-fertile strain was observed. Wet conditions, darkness, and moderate nutrient particularly favored macrocyst producti...

Chang, M. T.; Raper, K. B.

1981-01-01

115

Realization of the chess mate solver application  

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This paper presents details of the chess mate solver application, which is a part of the author’s Geniss general chess application. The problem chess is an important domain connected with solving of the chess problems. The Geniss Mate Solver (G.M.S.) application solves Mate-in-N-move problems. Main techniques used for the implementation of the application are full-width searching with Alpha-Beta pruning technique and zero evaluation function. The application is written in Delphi for Windows...

Vu?kovi? Vladan V.

2004-01-01

116

Female fertility and mating type distribution in a Philippine population of Fusarium verticillioides.  

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Fusarium verticillioides is a common causal agent of maize ear rot in the Philippines. Eighty isolates were collected from healthy and infected maize cobs from Laguna province. Fifty isolates crossed with one of the mating type A testers. The ratio of MATA-1:MATA-2 is 27:23, which follows a Mendelian ratio of 1:1. The effective population number, Ne, was determined by mating type and male/hermaphrodite polymorphisms. The effective population number for mating type, Ne mt, is 81% of the count (total population), and that for male/hermaphrodite status, Ne f, is 36-42% of the count (total population). Sexual reproduction in Philippine isolates of F. verticillioides does not occur frequently, compared to F. verticillioides in other regions of the world. PMID:18263979

Cumagun, Christian Joseph R

2008-01-01

117

The effect of mate removal on dawn singing behaviour in male pied bush chats  

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Full Text Available To determine the influence of pairing status on dawn singing behaviour in pied bush chats Saxicola caprata, we conducted mate removal experiments across eight territories. The experiment was divided into three stages: pre-removal (pairs were present on their respective territories, removal (females were experimentally removed, and returned (females were released into the focal pairs’ territories. Dawn bout length, song rate, song complexity, percentage performance time, song perch height, and distance of singing location to territory boundary were measured for each male during each experimental stage. We did not find an effect of mate removal on any dawn song characteristics of male pied bush chats suggesting that the presence or absence of a mate does not influence male dawn singing behaviour. Our findings further suggest that males use dawn chorus to mediate social relationships with neighbouring males to proclaim an established territory [Current Zoology 57 (1: 72–76, 2011].

Vinaya Kumar SETHI, Dinesh BHATT, Amit KUMAR

2011-02-01

118

Experimental constraints on mate preferences in Drosophila pseudoobscura decrease offspring viability and fitness of mated pairs  

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Using Drosophila pseudoobscura, we tested the hypothesis that social constraints on the free expression of mate preferences, by both females and males, decrease offspring viability and reproductive success of mating pairs. Mate preference arenas eliminated intrasexual combat and intersexual coercion. The time female and male choosers spent in arena tests near either of two opposite-sex individuals measured the preferences of choosers. We placed choosers in breeding trials with their preferred...

Anderson, Wyatt W.; Kim, Yong-kyu; Gowaty, Patricia Adair

2007-01-01

119

Remote Unmanned Work System (RUWS) Mating Latch.  

Science.gov (United States)

The patent application relates to a remote interconnection of a first undersea vehicle tethered to a second undersea vehicle which is assured by mating assemblies carried on both vehicles. The tethering cable extends through a prod assembly carried on the...

P. V. Tryon

1976-01-01

120

MATE 2007 Summer Institute: Curriculum Products  

Science.gov (United States)

The Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE) Center hosts summer institutes at their Monterey, CA campus each year. The 2007 institute featured a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) workshop. This site includes the participant's names, their schools and curriculum products.

2011-09-02

 
 
 
 
121

Associations between body morphology, mating success and mate preferences among Slovak males and females.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human body morphology is thought to be correlated with sexual behaviour and sociosexuality (defined as an increased willingness to engage in sex without commitment) influences the perception of certain cues of physical attractiveness. Based on a sample of Slovak university students, we investigated relationships between 1) male and female mating success and reported body morphology (body mass index, BMI and waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) and 2) mate preference characteristics and mating success. Both males and females reported a similar number of long-term sexual partners and frequency of engaging in extra-pair copulation (EPC). The mating success of both sexes was positively mediated by self-perceived attractiveness. However, female BMI was inversely associated with mating success whereas increasing BMI was positively associated with male mating success (the total number of lifetime sexual partners) as well as with the likelihood of engaging in EPC. Unrestricted sociosexuality positively correlated with direct and indirect benefits from mating and negatively with the religious/political background of a potential mate and with the desire for a home/ children. These results confirm the hypothesis that human body morphology is associated with sexual behaviour and that cues of direct/indirect benefits in a potential mate positively correlate with sociosexuality. PMID:23980387

Prokop, Pavol; Fedor, Peter

2013-01-01

122

Schizotypy, creativity and mating success in humans  

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There is an evolutionary puzzle surrounding the persistence of schizophrenia, since it is substantially heritable and associated with sharply reduced fitness. However, some of the personality traits which are predictive of schizophrenia are also associated with artistic creativity. Geoffrey Miller has proposed that artistic creativity functions to attract mates. Here, we investigate the relationship between schizotypal personality traits, creative activity, and mating success in a large sampl...

Nettle, Daniel; Clegg, Helen

2006-01-01

123

Visual mate choice in poison frogs.  

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We investigated female mate choice on the basis of visual cues in two populations of Dendrobates pumilio, the strawberry poison frog, from the Bocas del Toro Archipelago in Panama, Central America. Mate choice experiments were carried out by presenting subject females of each of two morphs of this species (orange and green) from two different island populations (Nancy Key and Pope Island) with object frogs (one of each morph) under glass at one end of a terrarium. Recorded calls were played s...

Summers, K.; Symula, R.; Clough, M.; Cronin, T.

1999-01-01

124

Observing free-swimming copepods mating  

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Planktonic copepods are small transparent animals swimming in water. To observe how a male finds its mate, special optical systems had to be designed. The animals are treated as phase objects and matched spatial filters allow three-dimensional recordings of the swimming behaviour in a 1-litre vessel. Application of the techniques described shows how a male cyclopoid copepod swims for 20 s in synchronicity with the female before mating. Results stemming from observations with this optical syst...

Strickler, J. R.

1998-01-01

125

Both mating types of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola are present in Morocco.  

Science.gov (United States)

Septoria tritici blotch caused by the heterothallic ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola is one of the most currently damaging diseases on wheat crops worldwide. So far, no information was reported about the status of sexual reproduction of this pathogen under Moroccan conditions. We investigated here for the first time the occurrence of the two mating types (MAT1-1 and MAT1-2) of M. graminicola in Morocco by sampling 141 single-conidial isolates from 4 important wheat producing regions (Gharb, Saïs, Chaouia and Tadla). The mating type of each isolate was determined by amplification with multiplex PCR of a partial sequence from the corresponding idiomorph. Overall, 43% out of the assessed isolates were MAT1-1 and 57 % were MAT1-2. Both mating types were identified within the 3 sampled regions Gharb, Saïs and Chaouia, but not in Tadla, where only MAT1-2 isolates were found. The presence of the two mating types highlighted here offers a suitable genetic condition for M. graminicola to occur sexual reproduction in Morocco. The potential of sexual recombination will be examined by the study of mating type frequencies using a large sample size as well as by searching and quantification of pseudothecia in the field. PMID:21534472

Elbekali, A Y; Ramdani, A; Tisserant, B; Deweer, C; Siah, A; Reignault, Ph; Halama, P

2010-01-01

126

Biased learning affects mate choice in a butterfly  

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Early acquisition of mate preferences or mate-preference learning is associated with signal diversity and speciation in a wide variety of animal species. However, the diversity of mechanisms of mate-preference learning across taxa remains poorly understood. Using the butterfly Bicyclus anynana we uncover a mechanism that can lead to directional sexual selection via mate-preference learning: a bias in learning enhanced ornamentation, which is independent of preexisting mating biases. Naïve fe...

Westerman, Erica L.; Hodgins-davis, Andrea; Dinwiddie, April; Monteiro, Anto?nia

2012-01-01

127

Variation in Male Mate Choice in Drosophila melanogaster  

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Male mate choice has been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, even though males of this species were previously thought to maximise their fitness by mating with all available females. To understand the evolution of male mate choice it is important to understand variation in male mating preferences. Two studies, using different stock populations and different methods, have reported contrasting patterns of variation in male mate choice in D. melanogaster. Two possible explanatio...

Edward, Dominic A.; Chapman, Tracey

2013-01-01

128

In Vivo and In Vitro Anaerobic Mating in Candida albicans?  

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Candida albicans cells of opposite mating types are thought to conjugate during infection in mammalian hosts, but paradoxically, the mating-competent opaque state is not stable at mammalian body temperatures. We found that anaerobic conditions stabilize the opaque state at 37°C, block production of farnesol, and permit in vitro mating at 37°C at efficiencies of up to 84%. Aerobically, farnesol prevents mating because it kills the opaque cells necessary for mating, and as a corollary, farnes...

Dumitru, Raluca; Navarathna, Dhammika H. M. L. P.; Semighini, Camile P.; Elowsky, Christian G.; Dumitru, Razvan V.; Dignard, Daniel; Whiteway, Malcolm; Atkin, Audrey L.; Nickerson, Kenneth W.

2007-01-01

129

High mate and site fidelity in cunningham's skinks (Egernia cunninghami) in natural and fragmented habitat.  

Science.gov (United States)

While habitat alteration has considerable potential to disrupt important within-population processes, such as mating and kin structure, via changed patterns of dispersal, this has rarely been tested. We are investigating the impact of anthropogenic habitat alteration on the population biology of the rock-dwelling Australian lizard Egernia cunninghami on the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia, by comparing deforested and adjacent naturally vegetated areas. The novel analyses in this paper, and its companion, build on previous work by adding a new replicate site, more loci and more individuals. The additional microsatellite loci yield sufficient power for parentage analysis and the sociobiological inferences that flow from it. Genetic and capture-mark-recapture techniques were used to investigate mate and site fidelity and associated kin structure. Analyses of the mating system and philopatry using 10 microsatellite loci showed high levels of site fidelity by parents and their offspring in natural and deforested habitats. Parentage assignment revealed few individuals with multiple breeding partners within seasons and fidelity of pairs across two or more breeding seasons was typical. Despite reduced dispersal, increased group sizes and significant, dramatic increases in relatedness among individuals within rock outcrops in deforested areas, no significant differences between deforested and natural areas were evident in the degree of multiple mating or philopatry of breeding partners within and across seasons. With the exception that there was a significantly higher proportion of unmated males in the deforested area, the social and mating structure of this species has so far been surprisingly robust to substantial perturbation of dispersal and relatedness structure. Nonetheless, approximately 10-fold elevation of mean pairwise relatedness in the deforested areas has great potential to increase inbred matings, which is investigated in the companion paper. PMID:14717896

Stow, A J; Sunnucks, P

2004-02-01

130

On the proper functions of human mate preference adaptations: Comment on Eastwick, Luchies, Finkel, and Hunt (2014).  

Science.gov (United States)

Evolutionary psychologists have hypothesized that humans possess sex-differentiated mate preference adaptations. In the context of long-term mating, men are hypothesized to more strongly prefer cues to youth and fecundity, whereas women are hypothesized to more strongly prefer cues to status-related attributes. Eastwick, Luchies, Finkel, and Hunt (2014) recently asserted that if men and women evolved sex-differentiated desires, they should exhibit similarly sex-differentiated relational outcomes such as marital satisfaction in response to whether a partner fulfills those desires. This seemingly reasonable extrapolation from sex differences in mate preferences to sex differences in relationship outcomes is, from an evolutionary perspective, problematic and warrants careful conceptual analysis. Evolutionary psychologists have not predicted that selecting a mate with sex-differentiated desirable qualities always translates to more satisfying, trusting, and passionate relational outcomes. Indeed, in some cases obtaining an ideal partner is expected to lead to negative outcomes, such as incurring the costs of heightened courtship effort, mate retention exertion, and the painful experience of jealousy. There are 4 additional concerns with the Eastwick et al. analysis: (a) heterogeneous operationalizations of predictor and criterion variables, (b) inadequate treatment of individual differences in the expression of evolved mate preferences, (c) an overlooking of physical appearance cues central to women's long-term mate preferences, and (d) the impact of nonrandom mateship formation on sex-linked variances in preferred attributes (e.g., low status men and unattractive women may be underrepresented in studies of established couples). As conducted, the Eastwick et al. analyses, while valuable, did not adequately test function-related hypotheses derived from the evolutionary psychology of mate preferences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24773503

Schmitt, David P

2014-05-01

131

Burn-induced oxidative stress is altered by a low zinc status: kinetic study in burned rats fed a low zinc diet  

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As an initial subdeficient status of zinc, considered as an essential antioxidant trace element, is frequent in burned patients, we aim to assess the effects of low zinc dietary intakes on burn induced oxidative stress, in an animal model. After eight weeks of conditioning diets containing 80 ppm (control group) or 10 ppm of zinc (depleted group), Wistar rats were 20% TBSA burned and sampled one to ten days after injury. Kinetic evolutions of zinc status, plasma oxidative stress parameters an...

Claeyssen, Richard; Andriollo-sanchez, Maud; Arnaud, Josiane; Touvard, Laurence; Alonso, Antonia; Chancerelle, Yves; Roussel, Anne-marie; Agay, Diane

2008-01-01

132

Sampling and assessment accuracy in mate choice: a random-walk model of information processing in mating decision.  

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Abstract Mate choice depends on mating preferences and on the manner in which mate-quality information is acquired and used to make decisions. We present a model that describes how these two components of mating decision interact with each other during a comparative evaluation of prospective mates. The model, with its well-explored precedents in psychology and neurophysiology, assumes that decisions are made by the integration over time of noisy information until a stopping-rule cr...

2011-01-01

133

A process of pair formation leading to assortative mating: Passive age-assortative mating by habitat heterogeneity  

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We present an individual-based model dealing with mating as a process of pair formation. Model simulations, based on data from a 19-year study of Spanish imperial eagles, Aquila adalberti, showed that the mating pattern of a population is not necessarily a direct consequence of the mating preferences of individuals; positive age-assortative mating, by which individuals of similar age are more likely to become paired, does not necessarily indicate homotypic mating preferences. For example, ind...

Ferrer, Miguel; Penteriani, Vincenzo

2003-01-01

134

Precopulatory Mate Guarding, Mating System and Pairing Parental Care in Hyale rubra (Peracarida; Amphipoda; Gammaridae  

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Full Text Available Mating behaviour of the gammarid amphipod, Hyale rubra, was observed. H. rubra displayedprecopulatory mate guarding: males clasped females with their gnathopods during copulation, forming a pair.Males also participated in embryo care during the incubation period. The population was small, and the sex ratiowas almost equal. Energy allocation for mating effort and parental effort in the two sexes appear to be almostequal. The mating system was sequentially polygamous (or promiscuous and there was conspicuous sexualdimorphism in the size of the gnathopod, which was used for mate guarding. However, there appears to berelatively weak sexual competition for mating opportunities despite conspicuous sexual dimorphism. H. rubra didnot display territorial competition or external fertilization. Nevertheless, the male provided paternal care. SinceH. rubra inhabit tide pools and live on algae, the polygamous mating system of the species can be explainedby the polygyny threshold model. The evolution of mate guarding and parental care may have been favored bythe species’ low population density and harsh environments, an interpretation consistent with the optimalitymodel.

Kim, Sunghan

2008-02-01

135

Female genomic response to mate information.  

Science.gov (United States)

Females should be choosier than males about prospective mates because of the high costs of inappropriate mating decisions. Both theoretical and empirical studies have identified factors likely to influence female mate choices. However, male-male social interactions also can affect mating decisions, because information about a potential mate can trigger changes in female reproductive physiology. We asked how social information about a preferred male influenced neural activity in females, using immediate early gene (IEG) expression as a proxy for brain activity. A gravid female cichlid fish (Astatotilapia burtoni) chose between two socially equivalent males and then saw fights between these two males in which her preferred male either won or lost. We measured IEG expression levels in several brain nuclei including those in the vertebrate social behavior network (SBN), a collection of brain nuclei known to be important in social behavior. When the female saw her preferred male win a fight, SBN nuclei associated with reproduction were activated, but when she saw her preferred male lose a fight, the lateral septum, a nucleus associated with anxiety, was activated instead. Thus social information alone, independent of actual social interactions, activates specific brain regions that differ significantly depending on what the female sees. In female brains, reproductive centers are activated when she chooses a winner, and anxiety-like response centers are activated when she chooses a loser. These experiments assessing the role of mate-choice information on the brain using a paradigm of successive presentations of mate information suggest ways to understand the consequences of social information on animals using IEG expression. PMID:21106763

Desjardins, Julie K; Klausner, Jill Q; Fernald, Russell D

2010-12-01

136

Les peintures mates d’Antoine Wiertz (1806-1865  

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Full Text Available Pour le spectateur confronté aux œuvres d’Antoine Wiertz, une question se pose : l’aspect délavé et terne de certaines de ses peintures est-il une volonté esthétique de l’artiste ou la conséquence de l’altération des matériaux de mise en oeuvre. Réalisées avec une technique de peinture mate développée par l’artiste, ces œuvres sont, en fait, sujettes à un lent processus de dégradation. L’analyse des écrits du peintre ainsi que l’analyse scientifique des reconstitutions de ces procédés de peinture mate ont permis de conclure que cet aspect non intentionnel des œuvres est causé par l’action conjuguée des différentes altérations inhérentes à une mauvaise mise en œuvre des matériaux.Faced with the works of Antoine Wiertz, a question arises: Is the washed-out and mat appearance of some of his paintings an artistic intent, or a consequence of alteration. Painted with a technique developed by the artist to achieve a matt appearance, these works are in fact subject to a slow degradation process. Based on the artist’s writings, his particular painting process was reproduced and analysed scientifically. This study concludes that the appearance of those artworks is not a result of the artist’s intent but caused by the combined action of various changes inherent to the painter’s technique.

Karine Janssen

2012-06-01

137

The Medusa Algorithm for Polynomial Matings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Medusa algorithm takes as input two postcritically finite quadratic polynomials and outputs the quadratic rational map which is the mating of the two polynomials (if it exists). Specifically, the output is a sequence of approximations for the parameters of the rational map, as well as an image of its Julia set. Whether these approximations converge is answered using Thurston's topological characterization of rational maps. This algorithm was designed by John Hamal Hubbard, and implemented in 1998 by Christian Henriksen and REU students David Farris and Kuon Ju Liu. In this paper we describe the algorithm and its implementation, discuss some output from the program (including many pictures) and related questions. Specifically, we include images and a discussion for some shared matings, Lattès examples, and tuning sequences of matings.

Boyd, Suzanne Hruska; Henriksen, Christian

2012-01-01

138

The Medusa Algorithm for Polynomial Matings  

CERN Document Server

The Medusa algorithm takes as input two postcritically finite quadratic polynomials and outputs the quadratic rational map which is the mating of the two polynomials (if it exists). Specifically, the output is a sequence of approximations for the parameters of the rational map, as well as an image of its Julia set. Whether these approximations converge is answered using Thurston's topological characterization of rational maps. This algorithm was designed by John Hamal Hubbard, and implemented in 1998 by Christian Henriksen and REU students David Farris, and Kuon Ju Liu. In this paper we describe the algorithm and its implementation, discuss some output from the program (including many pictures) and related questions. Specifically, we include images and a discussion for some shared matings, Lattes examples, and tuning sequences of matings.

Boyd, Suzanne Hruska

2011-01-01

139

Not Only Single Mating in Stingless Bees  

Science.gov (United States)

Queens of the large, pantropical and fully eusocial taxon Meliponinae (stingless bees) are generally considered to be singly mated. We indirectly estimated queen mating frequency in two meliponids, Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona postica, by examining genotypes of workers at microsatellite DNA loci. Microsatellites were highly variable, providing suitable markers with which to assign patrilinial origin of workers within colonies headed by single queens. Queen mating frequency varied between 1 and 3 (M. beecheii) and 1 and 6 (S. postica), representing the first clear documentation of polyandry in the Meliponinae. Effective paternity frequency, me, was lower, although above 2 for S. postica. Stingless bees may provide suitable subjects for the testing of recent inclusive fitness arguments describing intracolony kin conflict in social Hymenoptera.

Paxton, Robert J.; Weißschuh, Nicole; Engels, Wolf; Hartfelder, Klaus; Quezada-Euan, J. Javier G.

140

Experience-mediated plasticity in mate preferences: mating assurance in a variable environment.  

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An individual's prior experience of sexual signals can result in variation in mate preferences, with important consequences for the course of sexual selection. We test two hypotheses about the evolution of experience-mediated plasticity in mate preferences: mating assurance and mismating avoidance. We exposed female Enchenopa binotata treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) to treatments that varied their experience of signal frequency, the most divergent sexual signal trait in the E. binotata species complex. Treatments consisted of (1) signals matching the preferred frequency, (2-3) signals deviating either 100 Hz above or 100 Hz below the preferred frequency, and (4) no signals. Females experiencing preferred signals showed the greatest selectivity. However, experience had no effect on peak preference. These results support the hypothesis that selection has favored plasticity in mate preferences that ensures that mating takes place when preferred mates are rare or absent, while ensuring choice of preferred types when those are present. We consider how experience-mediated plasticity may influence selection on sexual advertisement signals, patterns of reproductive isolation, and the maintenance of genetic variation. We suggest that the plasticity we describe may increase the likelihood of successful colonization of a novel environment, where preferred mating types may be rare. PMID:22276541

Fowler-Finn, Kasey D; Rodríguez, Rafael L

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
141

How universal are human mate choices?: size doesn’t matter when Hadza foragers are choosing a mate  

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It has been argued that size matters on the human mate market: both stated preferences and mate choices have been found to be non-random with respect to height and weight. But how universal are these patterns? Most of the literature on human mating patterns is based on post-industrial societies. Much less is known about mating behaviour in more traditional societies. Here we investigate mate choice by analysing whether there is any evidence for non-random mating with respect to size and stren...

Sear, Rebecca; Marlowe, Frank W.

2009-01-01

142

How universal are human mate choices? Size does not matter when Hadza foragers are choosing a mate  

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It has been argued that size matters on the human mate market: both stated preferences and mate choices have been found to be non-random with respect to height and weight. But how universal are these patterns? Most of the literature on human mating patterns is based on post-industrial societies. Much less is known about mating behaviour in more traditional societies. Here we investigate mate choice by analysing whether there is any evidence for non-random mating with respect to size and stren...

Sear, Rebecca; Marlowe, Frank W.

2009-01-01

143

Does divergence in female mate choice affect male size distributions in two cave fish populations?  

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Sexual selection by female choice can maintain male traits that are counter selected by natural selection. Alteration of the potential for sexual selection can thus lead to shifts in the expression of male traits. We investigated female mate choice for large male body size in a fish (Poecilia mexicana) that, besides surface streams, also inhabits two caves. All four populations investigated, exhibited an ancestral visual preference for large males. However, only one of the cave populations...

Tobler, M.; Schlupp, I.; Plath, M.

2008-01-01

144

Does divergence in female mate choice affect male size distributions in two cave fish populations?  

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Sexual selection by female choice can maintain male traits that are counter selected by natural selection. Alteration of the potential for sexual selection can thus lead to shifts in the expression of male traits. We investigated female mate choice for large male body size in a fish (Poecilia mexicana) that, besides surface streams, also inhabits two caves. All four populations investigated, exhibited an ancestral visual preference for large males. However, only one of the cave populations al...

Tobler, Michael; Schlupp, Ingo; Plath, Martin

2008-01-01

145

Kin Selection Is Implicated in Partial Sib-Mating Populations With Constant Viability Differences Before Mating  

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The change in the frequency of a rare mutant allele under constant sex-differentiated viability selection in an infinite, partial full-sib mating population is studied. The diplo-diploid and haplo-diploid polygynous models are considered with a Poisson distribution for the number of offspring produced by every mated female. Reproduction is followed by weak selection among the offspring and then mating to form the next generation. It is shown that the rate of change with respect to the frequen...

Lessard, Sabin

2005-01-01

146

Bird mating optimizer: An optimization algorithm inspired by bird mating strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Thanks to their simplicity and flexibility, evolutionary algorithms (EAs) have attracted significant attention to tackle complex optimization problems. The underlying idea behind all EAs is the same and they differ only in technical details. In this paper, we propose a novel version of EAs, bird mating optimizer (BMO), for continuous optimization problems which is inspired by mating strategies of bird species during mating season. BMO imitates the behavior of bird species metaphorically to breed broods with superior genes for designing optimum searching techniques. On a large set of unimodal and multimodal benchmark functions, BMO represents a competitive performance to other EAs.

Askarzadeh, Alireza

2014-04-01

147

Polymyxin B nonapeptide inhibits mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Polymyxin B nonapeptide enhanced susceptibility of yeast cells to various hydrophobic antibiotics and to mating pheromones. At much lower concentrations, the nonapeptide severely inhibited mating. The inhibition was caused by interference with sexual agglutination.

Boguslawski, G.

1986-01-01

148

Using probability modelling and genetic parentage assignment to test the role of local mate availability in mating system variation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The formal testing of mating system theories with empirical data is important for evaluating the relative importance of different processes in shaping mating systems in wild populations. Here, we present a generally applicable probability modelling framework to test the role of local mate availability in determining a population's level of genetic monogamy. We provide a significance test for detecting departures in observed mating patterns from model expectations based on mate availability alone, allowing the presence and direction of behavioural effects to be inferred. The assessment of mate availability can be flexible and in this study it was based on population density, sex ratio and spatial arrangement. This approach provides a useful tool for (1) isolating the effect of mate availability in variable mating systems and (2) in combination with genetic parentage analyses, gaining insights into the nature of mating behaviours in elusive species. To illustrate this modelling approach, we have applied it to investigate the variable mating system of the mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus cunninghami) and compared the model expectations with the outcomes of genetic parentage analysis over an 18-year study. The observed level of monogamy was higher than predicted under the model. Thus, behavioural traits, such as mate guarding or selective mate choice, may increase the population level of monogamy. We show that combining genetic parentage data with probability modelling can facilitate an improved understanding of the complex interactions between behavioural adaptations and demographic dynamics in driving mating system variation. PMID:21899620

Blyton, Michaela D J; Banks, Sam C; Peakall, Rod; Lindenmayer, David B

2012-02-01

149

The evolution of female mate choice by sexual conflict.  

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Although empirical evidence has shown that many male traits have evolved via sexual selection by female mate choice, our understanding of the adaptive value of female mating preferences is still very incomplete. It has recently been suggested that female mate choice may result from females evolving resistance rather than attraction to males, but this has been disputed. Here, we develop a quantitative genetic model showing that sexual conflict over mating indeed results in the joint evolution ...

Gavrilets, S.; Arnqvist, G.; Friberg, U.

2001-01-01

150

Uncertain Paternity, Mating Market Failure, and the Institution of Marriage  

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This paper provides a first microeconomic foundation for the institution of marriage. Based on a model of reproduction, mating, and parental investment in children, we argue that marriage serves the purpose of attenuating the risk of mating market failure that arises from incomplete information on individual paternity. Raising the costs of mating to individuals, marriage circumscribes female infidelity and mate poaching among men, which reduces average levels of paternal uncertainty in societ...

Bethmann, Dirk; Kvasnicka, Michael

2007-01-01

151

Localization of the Mating Type Gene in Agaricus bisporus  

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The cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus is secondarily homothallic. Most basidia produce two basidiospores, each of which receives two of the four postmeiotic nuclei. Usually, the two packaged nuclei carry compatible mating types. Previous studies suggested that there may be only a single mating type locus in A. bisporus. In this study, we determined whether the mating type segregated as a single Mendelian determinant in a cross marked with 64 segregating molecular markers. To score mating ...

Xu, Jianping; Kerrigan, Richard W.; Horgen, Paul A.; Anderson, James B.

1993-01-01

152

On the origin of species by means of assortative mating.  

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Assortative mating may split a population even in the absence of natural selection. Here, we study when this happens if mating depends on one or two quantitative traits. Not surprisingly, the modes of assortative mating that can cause sympatric speciation without selection are rather strict. However, some of them may occur in nature. Slow elimination of intermediate individuals caused by the gradual tightening of assortative mating, which evolves owing to relatively weak disruptive selection,...

Kondrashov, A. S.; Shpak, M.

1998-01-01

153

Post-mating clutch piracy in an amphibian  

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Female multiple mating and alternative mating systems can decrease the opportunity for sexual selection. Sperm competition is often the outcome of females mating with multiple males and has been observed in many animals, and alternative reproductive systems are widespread among species with external fertilization and parental care. Multiple paternity without associated complex behaviour related to mating or parental care is also seen in simultaneously spawning amphibians and fishes that relea...

2004-01-01

154

Chemical Profiles of Two Pheromone Glands Are Differentially Regulated by Distinct Mating Factors in Honey Bee Queens (Apis mellifera L.)  

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Pheromones mediate social interactions among individuals in a wide variety of species, from yeast to mammals. In social insects such as honey bees, pheromone communication systems can be extraordinarily complex and serve to coordinate behaviors among many individuals. One of the primary mediators of social behavior and organization in honey bee colonies is queen pheromone, which is produced by multiple glands. The types and quantities of chemicals produced differ significantly between virgin and mated queens, and recent studies have suggested that, in newly mated queens, insemination volume or quantity can affect pheromone production. Here, we examine the long-term impact of different factors involved during queen insemination on the chemical composition of the mandibular and Dufour's glands, two of the major sources of queen pheromone. Our results demonstrate that carbon dioxide (an anesthetic used in instrumental insemination), physical manipulation of genital tract (presumably mimicking the act of copulation), insemination substance (saline vs. semen), and insemination volume (1 vs. 8 µl) all have long-term effects on mandibular gland chemical profiles. In contrast, Dufour's gland chemical profiles were changed only upon insemination and were not influenced by exposure to carbon dioxide, manipulation, insemination substance or volume. These results suggest that the chemical contents of these two glands are regulated by different neuro-physiological mechanisms. Furthermore, workers responded differently to the different mandibular gland extracts in a choice assay. Although these studies must be validated in naturally mated queens of varying mating quality, our results suggest that while the chemical composition of Dufour's gland is associated with mating status, that of the mandibular glands is associated with both mating status and insemination success. Thus, the queen appears to be signaling both status and reproductive quality to the workers, which may impact worker behavior and physiology as well as social organization and productivity of the colony.

Nino, Elina L.; Malka, Osnat; Hefetz, Abraham; Tarpy, David R.; Grozinger, Christina M.

2013-01-01

155

AA, mating of BST magnet halves  

CERN Multimedia

The AA had 2 types of bending magnets: BLG (window-frame,long and narrow) and BST (H-type, short and wide). The BST had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the mating of two BST halves.

1980-01-01

156

The mating-type-related bias of gene conversion in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mating-type bias (mat-bias) of gene conversion was previously described as a phenomenon in which the number of prototrophic recombinants in an ura4A heteroallelic two-factor cross relates to the mating types of the parents. We show now that the mat-bias is restricted neither to ura4A nor to recombination hotspots, but occurs at other genomic loci, too. It is specific for gene conversion and absent in azygotic meiosis. Thus, the mat-bias must originate from mating-type-specific "imprinting" events before karyogamy takes place. Structural variations of the mating-type locus, such as h(+N), h(+S), h(-S), h(+smtDelta), or h(-smtDelta), showed mat-bias manifestation. Mutations in genes coding for histone acetylase (gcn5, ada2) and histone deacetylase (hos2, clr6) activities smooth or abolish the mat-bias. In addition, the mat-bias depends on the presence of Swi5. We propose a new role for Swi5 and the histone acetylation status in mat-bias establishment through directionality of repair from the intact chromatid to the broken chromatid. PMID:18845847

Parvanov, Emil; Kohli, Juerg; Ludin, Katja

2008-12-01

157

Mating choice of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of male ageing on mating success  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of male ageing on male pheromone release and mating success of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The effects of male ageing on mating were evaluated on fi ve and 21 d-old males by assessing their mating success (males chosen by a female for copulation) and the amount of males releasing the sex pheromone. The mating success was evaluated by using several ratios of young to older males by increasing the number of older males:young males from 1:1 to 5:1. The mating success of the 1:1 ratio was also evaluated in fi eld cages. The evaluation of the mating success (in the 1:1 ratio) showed a clear preference of the females for young males. Sex pheromone emission was much more common on young than older males. Even in cases were older males were more abundant (ratios 2:1 and 3:1), females still chose the young males. However, females could not distinguish young from older males in ratios of 4:1 or 5:1. Our data indicate that the ageing of C. capitata males has a considerable negative effect on their reproductive success, especially if they are found in a proportion any lower than 3:1. (author)

2009-01-01

158

Cognitive processes underlying human mate choice: The relationship between self-perception and mate preference in Western society  

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This study tested two hypotheses concerning the cognitive processes underlying human mate choice in Western society: (i) mate preference is conditional in that the selectivity of individuals' mate preference is based on their perception of themselves as long-term partners, and (ii) the decision rule governing such conditional mate preference is based on translating perception of oneself on a given attribute into a comparable selectivity of preference for the same attri...

Buston, Peter M.; Emlen, Stephen T.

2003-01-01

159

The evolution of mate choice and the potential for conflict between species and mate-quality recognition  

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Understanding how individuals select mates becomes complex when high-quality conspecifics resemble heterospecifics. Individuals facing such a situation may be unable to effectively identify both conspecifics (species recognition) and high-quality mates that can confer fitness benefits to the choosy individual or its offspring (mate-quality recognition). Here I suggest when a conflict may occur between species and mate-quality recognition, discuss the evolutionary consequences stemming from th...

Pfennig, K. S.

1998-01-01

160

Predator-induced changes of female mating preferences: innate and experiential effects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In many species males face a higher predation risk than females because males display elaborate traits that evolved under sexual selection, which may attract not only females but also predators. Females are, therefore, predicted to avoid such conspicuous males under predation risk. The present study was designed to investigate predator-induced changes of female mating preferences in Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana. Males of this species show a pronounced polymorphism in body size and coloration, and females prefer large, colorful males in the absence of predators. Results In dichotomous choice tests predator-naïve (lab-reared females altered their initial preference for larger males in the presence of the cichlid Cichlasoma salvini, a natural predator of P. mexicana, and preferred small males instead. This effect was considerably weaker when females were confronted visually with the non-piscivorous cichlid Vieja bifasciata or the introduced non-piscivorous Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. In contrast, predator experienced (wild-caught females did not respond to the same extent to the presence of a predator, most likely due to a learned ability to evaluate their predators' motivation to prey. Conclusions Our study highlights that (a predatory fish can have a profound influence on the expression of mating preferences of their prey (thus potentially affecting the strength of sexual selection, and females may alter their mate choice behavior strategically to reduce their own exposure to predators. (b Prey species can evolve visual predator recognition mechanisms and alter their mate choice only when a natural predator is present. (c Finally, experiential effects can play an important role, and prey species may learn to evaluate the motivational state of their predators.

Indy Jeane

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

GNF - Sustainable cultivation of mate tea in Paraguay  

...GNF - Sustainable cultivation of mate tea in Paraguay A GNF project for sustainable cultivation methods of tea in the biosphere reserve of ...us bring in the harvest With 150 euro;, you help finance a mate tea dryer equipment Any donation - whatever amount you can afford ... The organic cultivation of traditional mate tea and medicinal herbs creates alternative income sources for the locals. Mate tea is cultivated under ... Mate tea is produced from leaves and is said to be stimulating. It can suppress the feeling of tiredness and hunger. ...

162

Maternal fat intake in rats alters 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 status and the epigenetic regulation of Fads2 in offspring liver????  

Science.gov (United States)

Poor prenatal nutrition, acting through epigenetic processes, induces persistent changes in offspring phenotype. We investigated the effect of maternal fat intake on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status and on the epigenetic regulation of Fads2, encoding ?6 desaturase (rate limiting in PUFA synthesis), in the adult offspring. Rats (n=6 per dietary group) were fed either 3.5% (w/w), 7% (w/w) or 21% (w/w) butter or fish oil (FO) from 14 days preconception until weaning. Offspring (n=6 males and females per dietary group) were fed 4% (w/w) soybean oil until postnatal day 77. 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 levels were lower in liver phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine and plasma PC (all PFads2 expression related inversely to maternal dietary fat. Fads2 messenger RNA expression correlated negatively with methylation of CpGs at ?623, ?394, ?84 and ?76 bases relative to the transcription start site (all PFads2 expression and increased methylation of CpGs ?623, ?394, ?84 and ?76 that reversed in animals switched from 7% to 4% fat diets. These findings suggest that fat exposure during development induces persistent changes, while adults exhibit a transient response, in hepatic PUFA status in offspring through epigenetic regulation of Fads2. Thus, epigenetic regulation of Fads2 may contribute to short- and long-term regulation of PUFA synthesis.

Hoile, Samuel P.; Irvine, Nicola A.; Kelsall, Christopher J.; Sibbons, Charlene; Feunteun, Aurelie; Collister, Alex; Torrens, Christopher; Calder, Philip C.; Hanson, Mark A.; Lillycrop, Karen A.; Burdge, Graham C.

2013-01-01

163

Why do female Callosobruchus maculatus kick their mates?  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other's matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs) was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings. PMID:24752530

van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B; Simmons, Leigh W

2014-01-01

164

Mate choice: from sexual cues to cognitive adaptations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evolutionary psychologists have successfully combined sexual selection theory and empirical research to compile lists of sexual attractiveness cues used in human mate choice. But a list of inputs is not the same as a normative or descriptive model of a psychological adaptation. We need to shift from cataloguing sexual cues to modelling cognitive adaptations for mate choice. This theoretical chapter addresses how to make this transition in three parts. The introduction discusses four general problems with cue cataloguing as an evolutionary psychology research strategy: animals' promiscuous flexibility of cue use; cue use being marginal to cognition; cue use being marginal to the hard game-theoretical aspects of mate choice; and cue use being uninformative about the exact adaptive functions of mate choice. The middle section develops six critiques of current mate choice research: the obsession with sex difference; the over-emphasis on physical rather than behavioural cues; the assumption of weighted linear models of cue integration; the avoidance of game-theoretical problems of mutual choice and assortative mating; the neglect of co-evolution between mate choice heuristics and the cues that they select; and the failure to understand that mate choice is only worth doing if potential mates show significant genetic variance. The conclusion outlines a new normative and descriptive framework for mate choice, centred on the use of brutally efficient search heuristics that exploit the informational structure of human genotypes, phenotypes and populations to make good mate choices. PMID:9386908

Miller, G F

1997-01-01

165

Altered vitamin D status in liver tissue and blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study compared vitamin D3 (vitD3) and 25-OH vitamin D3 (25OHD3) status in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) given either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber high in organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) or clean porcine (Suis scrofa) fat for up to 636 days. A group of six exposed and six control sister bitches (maternal generation) and their three exposed and four control pups, respectively, were daily fed 112g whale blubber (193µg â??PCB/day) or porcine fat (0.17µg â??PCB/day). Mean level of â??PCB in adipose tissue of exposed bitches and their pups was 3106 and 2670ng/g lw, respectively, which was significantly higher than the mean concentration of 53ng/g lw for all controls (p

Jakobsen, Jette

2014-01-01

166

Aedes albopictus (Skuse) males in laboratory and semi-field cages: release ratios and mating competitiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

To control the container-breeding mosquito and major vector of dengue and chikungunya Aedes albopictus, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is proposed as a component of integrated vector management programs in endemic areas. For the technique to be successful, released males, sterilized with 35 Gy of ionizing radiation during the pupal stage, must be able to compete for mating opportunities with wild counterparts and successfully copulate with wild females to induce sterility in the population. Any reduction in competitiveness can be compensated for by increasing the ratio of released sterile to wild males, a ratio which must be optimized for effectiveness and efficiency. Fruit fly SIT programs use field enclosures to test the competitiveness of sterile males to monitor the quality of the colony and adjust release ratios. This is laborious and time consuming, and for mosquito programs it would be advantageous if similarly useful results could be obtained by smaller scale laboratory tests, conducted on a more regular basis. In the present study we compared the competitiveness, as measured by hatching rate of resulting egg batches, of irradiated males measured in small and large laboratory cages and semi-field enclosures in a greenhouse setting, when competing in a 1:1, 3:1, and 5:1 ratio with fertile males. The sterile males were found to be equally competitive when compared to unirradiated counterparts, and a 5:1 ratio was sufficient to reduce, but not eliminate, the fertility of the female populations, irrespective of cage size. Variability in hatch rate in eggs laid by individual females and so-called indeterminate matings, when we could not be certain whether a female had mated a fertile or a sterile male, could be investigated by closer investigation of mating status and the frequency of multiple matings in Ae. albopictus. The laboratory results are encouraging for the effectiveness of the SIT using irradiated males of this species, and we support further assessment in the field. PMID:24299924

Madakacherry, Odessa; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Gilles, Jeremie Roger Lionel

2014-04-01

167

Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same processes which have historically created dog breeds are still ongoing, and create further subdivision within current dog breeds.

Hailer Frank

2008-01-01

168

The Medusa Algorithm for Polynomial Matings  

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The Medusa algorithm takes as input two postcritically finite quadratic polynomials and outputs the quadratic rational map which is the mating of the two polynomials (if it exists). Specifically, the output is a sequence of approximations for the parameters of the rational map, as well as an image of its Julia set. Whether these approximations converge is answered using Thurston's topological characterization of rational maps. This algorithm was designed by John Hamal Hubb...

Boyd, Suzanne Hruska; Henriksen, Christian

2011-01-01

169

Fluctuating mate preferences in a marine fish  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to theory, directional female choice for male sexual ornaments is expected to erode underlying genetic variation. Considerable attention, in this regard, has been given to understanding the ubiquity of heritable genetic variation in both female choice and male sexual traits. One intriguing possibility emerging from this work is that persistent genetic variation could be maintained, over time, by variation in female mate preferences. Here, we report the results of a four-year study s...

Lehtonen, Topi K.; Wong, Bob B. M.; Lindstro?m, Kai

2010-01-01

170

Transgenerational epigenetic imprints on mate preference  

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Environmental contamination by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) can have epigenetic effects (by DNA methylation) on the germ line and promote disease across subsequent generations. In natural populations, both sexes may encounter affected as well as unaffected individuals during the breeding season, and any diminution in attractiveness could compromise reproductive success. Here we examine mate preference in male and female rats whose progenitors had been treated with the antiandrogenic f...

Crews, David; Gore, Andrea C.; Hsu, Timothy S.; Dangleben, Nygerma L.; Spinetta, Michael; Schallert, Timothy; Anway, Matthew D.; Skinner, Michael K.

2007-01-01

171

Oestradiol level and opportunistic mating in women  

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The ovarian steroid hormone oestradiol plays a crucial role in female fertility, sexual motivation and behaviour. We investigated the relationship between oestradiol and the likelihood that women would engage in opportunistic mating. Two salivary samples were taken from normally cycling women within the peri-ovulatory and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. At both testing sessions, participants also completed self-perceived desirability scales and provided subjective reports of sexual and s...

2009-01-01

172

Estrogens Can Disrupt Amphibian Mating Behavior  

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The main component of classical contraceptives, 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), has high estrogenic activity even at environmentally relevant concentrations. Although estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds are assumed to contribute to the worldwide decline of amphibian populations by adverse effects on sexual differentiation, evidence for EE2 affecting amphibian mating behaviour is lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that EE2 exposure at five different concentrations (0.296 ng/L, 2.96 ng/L...

2012-01-01

173

Mating populations of Gibberella fujikuroi (Sawada S. Ito species complex isolating from maize, sorghum and wheat in Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The status of fertility and distribution of mating populations in the G. fujikuroi species complex, isolating from maize, sorghum and wheat cultivated under various agroecological conditions of Serbia, have been studied. A total of 79 field isolates of Fusarium spp. in the section Liseola, which had been reciprocally crossed to standard testers (MAT-1 and MAT-2 from each of the four mating populations of the G. fujikuroi species complex, were selected for these studies. Twenty of 79 isolates belonged to the mating population A (G. moniliformis, 22 to the population D (G. intermedia, 17 to the population E (G. subglutinans and 20 to the population F (G. thapsina. A mating type MAT-1 was dominant in the populations A (14 MATA-1 :6 MATA-2, D (13 MATA-1 :9 MATA-2 and E (10 MATA-1 :7 MATA-2, while MAT-2 prevailed in the population F (6 MATA-1 : 14 MATA-2. The obtained results indicate that the possibility of sexual reproduction of Fusarium spp., belonging to the A, D, E and F mating populations, is not so frequent phenomenon in Serbia as in other regions world-wide. Consequently, these species will be asexually reproduced under field conditions, particularly species belonging to the F population. These are the first results on the characterisation of three (A, E and F out of four populations of the G. fujikuroi species complex present in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31023

Kova?evi? Tamara

2013-01-01

174

Altered glucose metabolism rather than naive type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is related to vitamin D status in severe obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Context The last decades have provided insights into vitamin D physiology linked to glucose homeostasis. Uncertainties remain in obesity due to its intrinsic effects on vitamin D and glucose tolerance. Objectives To assess the relationship between vitamin D and glucose abnormalities in severely obese individuals previously unknown to suffer from abnormal glucose metabolism. Setting Tertiary care centre. Patients 524 obese patients (50.3?±?14.9 yrs; BMI, 47.7?±?7.3 kg/m2) screened by OGTT, HbA1c and the lipid profile. Vitamin D status was assessed by 25(OH)D3, PTH and electrolyte levels. 25(OH)D3 deficiency/insufficiency were set at 20 and 30 ng/ml, respectively. All comparative and regression analyses were controlled for age, BMI and gender. Results The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism were 95% and 50.8%, respectively. Normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were found in 37.8%, 40.5% and 21.7% of cases, respectively. Large variations in metabolic parameters were seen across categories of vitamin D status, but the only significant differences were found for C-peptide, tryglicerides, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol levels (p?OGTT-stimulated insulin levels (r?=?0.097 and r?=?0.099; p?

2014-01-01

175

The mating sociometer and attractive others: a double-edged sword in romantic relationships.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighty-one participants were recruited to test the sensitivity of the mating sociometer to mate-value feedback in the context of ongoing intimate relationships. Experiences of social rejection/acceptance by attractive opposite-sex confederates were manipulated. The effects of this manipulation on self-esteem, relationship satisfaction and commitment, perceptions of dating alternatives, and friendship-dedication were assessed. Social rejection/acceptance by members of the opposite sex altered relationship satisfaction and commitment; this causal link was amplified by changes in state self-esteem; and these effects were specific to intimate relationships and did not generalize to friendship-dedication. This research supports a domain-specific conceptualization of sociometer theory, extending the theory in important directions. PMID:24765818

Kavanagh, Phillip Sean; Fletcher, Garth J O; Ellis, Bruce J

2014-01-01

176

Alteration of lipid status and lipid metabolism, induction of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic herbicide in rat liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to investigate the effects of the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic herbicide (2,4-D) on plasma lipids, lipoproteins concentrations, hepatic lipid peroxidation, fatty acid composition and antioxidant enzyme activities in rats. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each: control group and three 2,4-D-treated groups G1, G2 and G3 were administered 15, 75 and 150?mg/kg/BW/d 2,4-D by gavage for 28?d, respectively. Results showed that 2,4-D caused significant negative changes in the biochemical parameters investigated. The malondialdehyde level was significantly increased in 2,4-D-treated groups. Fatty acid composition of the liver was also significantly changed with 2,4-D exposure. Furthermore, the hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly affected. Finally, 2,4-D at the studied doses modifies lipidic status, disrupt lipid metabolism and induce hepatic oxidative stress. In conclusion, at higher doses, 2,4-D may play an important role in the development of vascular disease via metabolic disorder of lipoproteins, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. PMID:23464821

Tayeb, Wafa; Nakbi, Amel; Cheraief, Imed; Miled, Abdelhedi; Hammami, Mohamed

2013-07-01

177

Altered vitamin D status in liver tissue and blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared vitamin D3 (vitD3) and 25-OH vitamin D3 (25OHD3) status in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) given either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber high in organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) or clean porcine (Suis scrofa) fat for up to 636 days. A group of six exposed and six control sister bitches (maternal generation) and their three exposed and four control pups, respectively, were daily fed 112g whale blubber (193µg ?PCB/day) or porcine fat (0.17µg ?PCB/day). Mean level of ?PCB in adipose tissue of exposed bitches and their pups was 3106 and 2670ng/g lw, respectively, which was significantly higher than the mean concentration of 53ng/g lw for all controls (pvitamin D compounds may respond differently to the dietary composition of fatty acids and OHC exposure. It is unknown if the lower level of 25OHD3 in the liver of exposed dogs would have any negative effects on immunity and reproduction and more focus should be conducted on this compound in Arctic wildlife. PMID:24725758

Sonne, Christian; Kirkegaard, Maja; Jakobsen, Jette; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Letcher, Robert J; Dietz, Rune

2014-06-01

178

Fitness-based mating: A systematic analysis of a new preference model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Natural populations exhibit a non-random mating behavior and it is assumed that mate preferences causing the non-random mating behavior play a role in sympatric speciation. In my thesis, I have proposed a new model of a mate preference that is based on ecological performance and I have named it fitness-based mating. Individuals that express this mate preference choose primarily fit partners. Fitness-based mating is modelled for haploid, diallelic populations. Individuals are distrib...

Schindler, Susanne

2011-01-01

179

Romantic love: a mammalian brain system for mate choice  

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Mammals and birds regularly express mate preferences and make mate choices. Data on mate choice among mammals suggest that this behavioural ‘attraction system’ is associated with dopaminergic reward pathways in the brain. It has been proposed that intense romantic love, a human cross-cultural universal, is a developed form of this attraction system. To begin to determine the neural mechanisms associated with romantic attraction in humans, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMR...

Fisher, Helen E.; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy L.

2006-01-01

180

Multiple mating and reproductive skew in Trinidadian guppies.  

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Male offspring production in promiscuously mating species is typically more skewed than female offspring production. It is therefore advantageous for males to seek as many mating partners as possible. However, given the documented benefits of polyandry we expect females, as well as males, to mate multiply. We tested these ideas using Trinidadian guppies, Poecilia reticulata. Fishes were collected from the wild, housed in groups of 10 males and 10 females and allowed to reproduce freely over a...

Becher, S. A.; Magurran, A. E.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Sexual Display and Mate Choice in an Energetically Costly Environment  

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Sexual displays and mate choice often take place under the same set of environmental conditions and, as a consequence, may be exposed to the same set of environmental constraints. Surprisingly, however, very few studies consider the effects of environmental costs on sexual displays and mate choice simultaneously. We conducted an experiment, manipulating water flow in large flume tanks, to examine how an energetically costly environment might affect the sexual display and mate choice behavior ...

Head, Megan L.; Wong, Bob B. M.; Brooks, Robert

2010-01-01

182

Mutual Mate Choice in the Deep Snouted Pipefish Syngnathus typhle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis integrates the fields of sexual selection, parental investment and sex role theory by investigating mutual mate choice and mate competition in the sex role reversed deep snouted pipefish Syngnathus typhle (Pisces: Syngnathidae) through a series of laboratory experiments. In S. typhle, the female transfers her eggs to the male's brood pouch where they are nourished and oxygenated for about a month, when the male gives birth to the independent fry. Mate choice was found to be adapti...

Widemo, Maria

2003-01-01

183

Inbreeding avoidance through non-random mating in sticklebacks  

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Negative effects of inbreeding are well documented in a wide range of animal taxa. Hatching success and survival of inbred offspring is reduced in many species and inbred progeny are often less attractive to potential mates. Thus, individuals should avoid mating with close kin. However, experimental evidence for inbreeding avoidance through non-random mating in vertebrates is scarce. Here, we show that gravid female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) when given the choice betw...

Frommen, Joachim G.; Bakker, Theo C. M.

2006-01-01

184

Proximate mechanisms of mate choice in zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies of mating preferences contribute to our understanding of the evolution of male secondary sexual traits. How females respond to novel male characteristics may lend insight into these mating preferences and subsequent mate choice patterns. Studies on several species have shown that females prefer males with manipulated or novel phenotypes. However, few studies investigate the mechanisms that females use to determine these preferences. I used zebrafish (Danio rerio) to investigate female...

2010-01-01

185

The evolution of mating rates in Pieris napi  

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In the green-veined white butterfly (Pieris napi), females obtain direct fitness benefits from mating multiply and studies have shown that fitness increases seemingly monotonically with number of matings. The reason is that at mating males transfer a large nutritious gift (a so called nuptial gift) to the females that the females use to increase both their fecundity and lifespan. In addition, if exposed to poor food conditions as larvae, females mature at a smaller size compared to males. Acc...

Bergstro?m, Jonas

2004-01-01

186

Dimorphic mating-type chromosomes in the fungus Microbotryum violaceum.  

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Fungi often mate as haploids, and sex chromosomes (i.e., mating-type chromosomes) that are dimorphic for their size or overall DNA content have never been reported in this kingdom. Using electrophoretic techniques for karyotype analysis, a highly dimorphic chromosome pair that determines mating compatibility is shown to occur in populations of the fungus Microbotryum violaceum. This substantiates the evolution of such dimorphism as a general feature associated with haploid determination of ma...

Hood, Michael E.

2002-01-01

187

Do couples assortatively mate on Openness, and if so why?  

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Extending previous research on personality and mate choice, this study examined the influence of the Openness to Experience factor and its facets on assortative mating. In order to investigate whether prior research demonstrating weak correlations in the personality-mate choice relationship was due to the domain and level of analysis used. The study examined partner correlations in a sample of 32 couples with respect to Openness and criterion variables of intelligence, conservatism and values...

Mcleod, Laura

2010-01-01

188

Mate preference of female blue tits varies with experimental photoperiod  

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Organisms use environmental cues to time their life-cycles and among these cues, photoperiod is the main trigger of reproductive behaviours such as territory defence or song activity. Whether photoperiod is also important for another behaviour closely associated with reproduction, mate choice, is unknown. In many bird species, mate choice occurs at two different times during the annual cycle that strongly differ in daylength: in late winter when photoperiod is short and social mates are chose...

Reparaz, L. B.; Oers, K.; Naguib, M.; Doutrelant, C.; Visser, M. E.; Caro, S. P.

2014-01-01

189

Genetic implications of mating structure in a Caribbean isolate.  

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Mating patterns in the population of St. Barthélémy, French West Indies, are examined to evaluate the expected genetic consequences of consanguinity avoidance and of failure to mate due to celibacy and emigration. Nearly 60% of all individuals reaching mating age on "St. Bart" never contribute to the gene pool of succeeding generations. This greatly reduces the effective population size and, therefore, increases genetic drift or random inbreeding. The consequent loss of heterozygosity is pa...

Leslie, P. W.; Morrill, W. T.; Dyke, B.

1981-01-01

190

Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference  

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Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females f...

2012-01-01

191

Mutations preventing transpositions of yeast mating type alleles  

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Homothallic strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can switch from one mating type to the other as often as every cell division. The conversion of mating type alleles (from MATa to MAT? or vice versa) depends on other, unexpressed copies of a or ? information that can be transposed to MAT. Previously, “inconvertible” mutations within MAT? and MATa have been described that block the excision of the MAT allele. In this paper we describe two cis-acting mutations that also impair mating type ...

Haber, James E.; Savage, Walter T.; Raposa, Susan M.; Weiffenbach, Barbara; Rowe, Lucy B.

1980-01-01

192

Inline Electrical Connector Mate/Demate Pliers  

Science.gov (United States)

Military and aerospace industries use Mil-Spec type electrical connections on bulkhead panels that require inline access for mate and demate operations. These connectors are usually in tight proximity to other connectors, or recessed within panels. The pliers described here have been designed to work in such tight spaces, and consist of a mirrored set of parallel handles, two cross links, two return springs, and replaceable polyurethane-coated end effectors. The polyurethane eliminates metal-to-metal contact and provides a high-friction surface between the jaw and the connector. Operationally, the user would slide the pliers over the connector shell until the molded polyurethane lip makes contact with the connector shell edge. Then, by squeezing the handles, the end effector jaws grip the connector shell, allowing the connector to be easily disconnected by rotating the pliers. Mating the connector occurs by reversing the prescribed procedure, except the connector shell is placed into the jaws by hand. The molded lip within the jaw allows the user to apply additional force for difficult-to-mate connectors. Handle design has been carefully examined to maximize comfort, limit weight, incorporate tether locations, and improve ergonomics. They have been designed with an off-axis offset for wiring harness clearance, while placing the connector axis of rotation close to the user s axis of wrist rotation. This was done to eliminate fatigue during multiple connector panel servicing. To limit handle opening width, with user ergonomics in mind, the pliers were designed using a parallel jaw mechanism. A cross-link mechanism was used to complete this task, while ensuring smooth operation.

Yutko, Brian; Dininny, Michael; Moscoso, Gerand; Dokos, Adam

2010-01-01

193

New Environments Set the Stage for Changing Tastes in Mates  

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Experimentally manipulating the resource environment of Drosophila serrata reveals that mating preferences can evolve, at least in part, as a result of environmentally-based divergent natural selection.

2005-01-01

194

Mating and Parental Care in Lake Tanganyika's Cichlids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika display a variety of mating and parental care behaviors, including polygamous and monogamous mouthbrooding and substrate breeding, cooperative breeding, as well as various alternative reproductive tactics such as sneaking and piracy. Moreover, reproductive behaviors sometimes vary within species both in space and in time. Here, I survey reports on mating and parenting behaviors of Lake Tanganyika cichlid species and address the evolution of mating and parental care patterns and sexual dimorphism. Notes on measures of sexual selection intensity and the difficulties of defining mating systems and estimating selection intensities at species level conclude the essay. PMID:21822482

Sefc, Kristina M

2011-01-01

195

In vivo and in vitro anaerobic mating in Candida albicans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Candida albicans cells of opposite mating types are thought to conjugate during infection in mammalian hosts, but paradoxically, the mating-competent opaque state is not stable at mammalian body temperatures. We found that anaerobic conditions stabilize the opaque state at 37 degrees C, block production of farnesol, and permit in vitro mating at 37 degrees C at efficiencies of up to 84%. Aerobically, farnesol prevents mating because it kills the opaque cells necessary for mating, and as a corollary, farnesol production is turned off in opaque cells. These in vitro observations suggest that naturally anaerobic sites, such as the efficiently colonized gastrointestinal (GI) tract, could serve as niches for C. albicans mating. In a direct test of mating in the mouse GI tract, prototrophic cells were obtained from auxotrophic parent cells, confirming that mating will occur in this organ. These cells were true mating products because they were tetraploid, mononuclear, and prototrophic, and they contained the heterologous hisG marker from one of the parental strains. PMID:17259544

Dumitru, Raluca; Navarathna, Dhammika H M L P; Semighini, Camile P; Elowsky, Christian G; Dumitru, Razvan V; Dignard, Daniel; Whiteway, Malcolm; Atkin, Audrey L; Nickerson, Kenneth W

2007-03-01

196

In Vivo and In Vitro Anaerobic Mating in Candida albicans?  

Science.gov (United States)

Candida albicans cells of opposite mating types are thought to conjugate during infection in mammalian hosts, but paradoxically, the mating-competent opaque state is not stable at mammalian body temperatures. We found that anaerobic conditions stabilize the opaque state at 37°C, block production of farnesol, and permit in vitro mating at 37°C at efficiencies of up to 84%. Aerobically, farnesol prevents mating because it kills the opaque cells necessary for mating, and as a corollary, farnesol production is turned off in opaque cells. These in vitro observations suggest that naturally anaerobic sites, such as the efficiently colonized gastrointestinal (GI) tract, could serve as niches for C. albicans mating. In a direct test of mating in the mouse GI tract, prototrophic cells were obtained from auxotrophic parent cells, confirming that mating will occur in this organ. These cells were true mating products because they were tetraploid, mononuclear, and prototrophic, and they contained the heterologous hisG marker from one of the parental strains.

Dumitru, Raluca; Navarathna, Dhammika H. M. L. P.; Semighini, Camile P.; Elowsky, Christian G.; Dumitru, Razvan V.; Dignard, Daniel; Whiteway, Malcolm; Atkin, Audrey L.; Nickerson, Kenneth W.

2007-01-01

197

Local mate competition and parental investment in social insects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts to develop formulas for contrasting genetic interests of workers and queens in social Hymenoptera are complicated by many factors, including multiple matings by queens, oviposition by unmated females, and mating rivalry among genetic relatives (Hamilton's "local mate competition"). Because of haplodiploid sex determination in Hymenoptera, when such influences are absent, queens benefit from 1:1 sex ratios of investment (male: female) in reproductive offspring, workers from 1:3 ratios among reproductive siblings. Reports of variable ratios, including many well above 1:3, and female biases in nonsocial Hymenoptera and diplodiploid termites, implicate local mate competition and raises questions about previous interpretations that workers have their way. PMID:17837066

Alexander, R D; Sherman, P W

1977-04-29

198

HLA and mate selection: no evidence in South Amerindians.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There have been reports of nonrandom mating (negative-assortative mating) or preference for individuals of different major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotypes in both mice and humans. We have examined the association of HLA-A and HLA-B genotypes, both for each locus by itself and for two-locus genotypes, in mates of 194 couples from 11 South Amerindian tribes. The proportion of couples sampled averaged >50% of the total matings with progeny for 10 of the tribes. In nearly all cases, HL...

Hedrick, P. W.; Black, F. L.

1997-01-01

199

Common regulation of feeding and mating in Aplysia fasciata: pheromones released by mating and by egg cordons increase feeding behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined whether pheromones released by reproductive behaviors (mating and egg-laying) affect feeding behavior. A preliminary experiment demonstrated that the quantity of food eaten can be used to measure the effects of pheromones on feeding. Using this measure, we then showed that Aplysia that were prevented from mating, but that were in the same aquarium as mating conspecifics, eat more food than do Aplysia in a medium lacking mating animals. Mating and feeding were not temporally correlated, indicating that pheromones released by mating probably do not initiate feeding, but rather modulate feeding after it has begun. Aplysia that were in the same aquarium as freshly deposited egg cordons also ate more than did animals in a medium lacking eggs. PMID:1759945

Botzer, D; Blumberg, S; Ziv, I; Susswein, A J

1991-11-01

200

MATE Module 15: Payloads and Actuators  

Science.gov (United States)

This module from the Marine Advanced Technology Education Center introduces the concept of actuators as they are utilized on a remotely operated vehicle, or ROV. Electric, pneumatic and hydraulic actuators and the control of each are discussed. Students will learn to develop a connection diagram between the MATE ROV Control System and a motor actuator, describe methods used to suppress electrical switching transients while controlling actuators and develop a pneumatic and/or hydraulic control diagram for gripper control and build a simple gripper demonstrating that control. This page includes two PowerPoint files with the documents for in-class instruction.

2013-07-03

 
 
 
 
201

Personality and mate preferences: five factors in mate selection and marital satisfaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although personality characteristics figure prominently in what people want in a mate, little is known about precisely which personality characteristics are most important, whether men and women differ in their personality preferences, whether individual women or men differ in what they want, and whether individuals actually get what they want. To explore these issues, two parallel studies were conducted, one using a sample of dating couples (N = 118) and one using a sample of married couples (N = 216). The five-factor model, operationalized in adjectival form, was used to assess personality characteristics via three data sources-self--report, partner report, and independent interviewer reports. Participants evaluated on a parallel 40-item instrument their preferences for the ideal personality characteristics of their mates. Results were consistent across both studies. Women expressed a greater preference than men for a wide array of socially desirable personality traits. Individuals differed in which characteristics they desired, preferring mates who were similar to themselves and actually obtaining mates who embodied what they desired. Finally, the personality characteristics of one's partner significantly predicted marital and sexual dissatisfaction, most notably when the partner was lower on Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Intellect-Openness than desired. PMID:9143146

Botwin, M D; Buss, D M; Shackelford, T K

1997-03-01

202

Cloning the Mating Types of the Heterothallic Fungus Podospora Anserina: Developmental Features of Haploid Transformants Carrying Both Mating Types  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

DNAs that encode the mating-type functions (mat+ and mat-) of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina were cloned with the use of the mating-type A probe from Neurospora crassa. Cloning the full mat information was ascertained through gene replacement experiments. Molecular and functional analyses of haploid transformants carrying both mating types lead to several striking conclusions. Mat+ mat- strains are dual maters. However, the resident mat information is dominant to the mat informatio...

Picard, M.; Debuchy, R.; Coppin, E.

1991-01-01

203

Mating and re-mating of medflies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Guatemala: Individual fly marking in field cages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sterile insect technique (SIT) depends critically upon the ability of sterilized, released males to locate and mate with wild females. The overall efficiency of the method also depends upon the relative frequencies of re-mating by wild females following first matings to laboratory or wild males. Using a newly devised technique that individually marks the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), a field cage study was undertaken in a Guatemala coffee orchard to record individual fly mating behaviors between each of several laboratory strain and coffee-reared wild flies. Five laboratory strains were tested- a genetic sexing strain examined in sex ratios between 50%-100% sterile males, two standard bisexual strains, and two Fl hybrid strains. The marking technique revealed a substantial amount of information on individual fly mating and re-mating. Wild male flies significantly out-competed each of the lab strains in the first matings with both wild and lab females. Approx. 22% and 3% of wild males and females, respectively, re-mated in the field cages during two consecutive morning observation periods, while 4-8% of lab males, and 2-8% of lab females re-mated, respectively. Male flies from each lab strain averaged significantly shorter copulation times than wild males. Female flies, either lab or wild, tended to re-mate more often if they first mated to a lab male, but the differences were not statistically significant. An index was devised to provide a measure of relative male mating quality. Wild males tended to have higher individual index values than lab strain males. Average values of the latter ranged from ca. half to roughly equal that of wild males. (author)

2002-03-01

204

Substrate specificity of MATE1 and MATE2-K, human multidrug and toxin extrusions/H(+)-organic cation antiporters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The substrate specificities of human (h) multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) 1 and hMATE2-K were examined to find functional differences between these two transporters by the transfection of the cDNA of hMATE1 and hMATE2-K into HEK293 cells. Western blotting revealed specific signals for hMATE1 and hMATE2-K consistent with a size of 50 and 40kDa, respectively, in the transfectants as well as human renal brush-border membranes under reducing conditions. In the presence of oppositely directed H(+)-gradient, the transport activities of various compounds such as tetraethylammonium, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, cimetidine, metformin, creatinine, guanidine, procainamide, and topotecan were stimulated in hMATE1- and hMATE2-K-expressing cells. In addition to cationic compounds, anionic estrone sulfate, acyclovir, and ganciclovir were also recognized as substrates of these transporters. Kinetic analyses demonstrated the Michaelis-Menten constants for the hMATE1-mediated transport of tetraethylammonium, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, cimetidine, metformin, guanidine, procainamide, topotecan, estrone sulfate, acycrovir, and ganciclovir to be (in mM) 0.38, 0.10, 0.17, 0.78, 2.10, 1.23, 0.07, 0.47, 2.64, and 5.12, respectively. Those for hMATE2-K were 0.76, 0.11, 0.12, 1.98, 4.20, 1.58, 0.06, 0.85, 4.32, and 4.28, respectively. Although their affinity for hMATE1 and hMATE2-K was similar, the zwitterionic cephalexin and cephradine were revealed to be specific substrates of hMATE1, but not of hMATE2-K. Levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were not transported, but were demonstrated to be potent inhibitors of these transporters. These results suggest that hMATE1 and hMATE2-K function together as a detoxication system, by mediating the tubular secretion of intracellular ionic compounds across the brush-border membranes of the kidney. PMID:17509534

Tanihara, Yuko; Masuda, Satohiro; Sato, Tomoko; Katsura, Toshiya; Ogawa, Osamu; Inui, Ken-Ichi

2007-07-15

205

Effect Of Gamma Irradiation On The Mating Activity And Mating Competitiveness Of The Black Cutworm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUFN.) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sterility effects were examined on the P1 generation of the black cutworm; Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.), after gamma sterilization. The objective was to identify the dose of gamma radiation that would allow for maximum production of partially sterile P1 adults while inducing full sterility in the F1 generation. Full grown pupae of the black cutworm from laboratory culture were irradiated at 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 Gy. Results indicated that non-significant differences between untreated and treated groups in moth were observed in copula occurred and time of copulation while significant difference was recorded between the treated males and untreated once in spermatophore formation and percentage of females with sperm in their spermatheca at the last two doses. Low percentages of untreated female moths were mated when they were paired with previously mated males than when paired with virgin males. The sequence in which females were mated to an irradiated male did not affect the transfer of spermatophores. The percentage of eggs hatched was higher from the first mated females as compared to the second and third mated females. There were non-significant effects of 0 or 125 Gy exposures on female mating or time in copula. However, significant low percentages of mating of treated and untreated females were occurred with sequentially provided male moths on days 2, 3, to 5 following the first observed female mating. According to the mating competitiveness measured from direct

2011-01-01

206

Sociosexual behavior, male mating tactics, and the reproductive cycle of giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female distribution exerts a major impact on male mating tactics. Giraffe cows have a reproductive cycle, and a social system, that should favor a male roaming reproductive tactic. We conducted a 2-year study of female Rothschild's giraffe (G. c. rothschildi) reproductive endocrinology in order to characterize attributes of the reproductive cycle and investigate how female endocrine and behavioral cues influence mating activity. We used non-invasive fecal steroid methods to determine reproductive state among females residing in a herd in a large outdoor enclosure. We found that females had an estrous cycle of 14.7 days and that they regularly had multiple ovarian cycles prior to conception. Adult males were more likely to associate with, and sexually investigate, females when they were cycling than when they were either pregnant or acyclic. During the estrous cycle, male-female proximity and sociosexual behavior were more pronounced during the probable fertile phase than the rest of the cycle. Sexual activity between giraffe coincided with the periovulatory period, with male interest in females peaking during the fertile window in the absence of proceptive behavior by females. We conclude that males detect reliable cues revealing female reproductive status and partition their reproductive effort in response to such cues. We propose that male giraffe adopt a roaming reproductive strategy with their large size, enabling them to search for and mate guard fertile females while minimizing metabolic costs. PMID:16765955

Bercovitch, Fred B; Bashaw, Meredith J; del Castillo, Susan M

2006-08-01

207

Courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Lourenço & Qi, 2005 (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae) from Xizang province, China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the current work, the courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Lourenço & Qi, 2005 (Euscorpiidae) from Xizang province (Tibet), China, were studied for the first time in the laboratory. Most of the mating behaviors in Scorpiops luridus are not remarkably different from those exhibited by oth [...] er scorpions. However, for the first time a male pulling a female with its chelicerae to rapidly accomplish the sperm uptake was observed. Additionally, the sexual stinging behavior displayed by the male occurred in the initial stage, not during the promenade stage as previously described in several scorpion species. Through observation and analysis, we speculate that venom injection during sexual stinging is selective, possibly relying on the status shown by the stung scorpion (passive or aggressive). In order to clearly describe the process of courtship and mating, both sequences are represented in a flow chart, while the main behavior components of these processes were identified, analyzed and discussed.

GB, Jiao; MS, Zhu.

208

Mating success and potential male-worker conflict in a male-dimorphic ant  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Males of many species adjust their reproductive tactics with regard to their condition and status. For example, large males may develop weapons and fight for access to females, whereas small or undernourished males do not express costly weapons or ornaments and sneak copulations. Different condition-dependent reproductive tactics may be associated with unequal average fitness, but the tactic chosen by a given male under given circumstances is thought to result in the highest possible fitness return. The ant species Cardiocondyla obscurior exhibits an environment-controlled polymorphism of docile, winged males and aggressive "ergatoid" males. Ergatoid males, which can replenish their sperm supply throughout their lives, engage in lethal fighting, and attempt to monopolize all female sexuals available in their nests, were previously assumed to gain higher lifetime reproductive success than the peaceful, winged males, which disperse to mate away from the nest and whose spermatogenesis is limited to the first days of adult life. However, precise data on male mating success have as yet not been available. Here, we compare the average mating success of the two male morphs, taking the high mortality rate of immature ergatoid males into account. Because individuals in insect societies may have opposing interests about their own development, we also investigate whether the interests of male larvae coincide with those of the workers and the rest of the society. Results When the survival probability of males is taken into account, winged males are more likely to mate multiply and in consequence have a higher estimated average mating success than ergatoid males. Therefore, male larvae are expected to prefer developing into winged instead of ergatoid adults. Conclusion Though male larvae can expect a higher average mating success when developing into winged males, most colonies produce only ergatoid males under standard conditions. This might point at a novel type of potential kin conflict within the social insect colony. Because workers in insect societies usually control male larval development, ergatoid male production under normal conditions probably reflects the optimal allocation strategy of workers to maximise their inclusive fitness.

Darrouzet Eric

2007-07-01

209

Altered Realities  

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'Altered Realities' is an ongoing private photographic project exploring how perception can be altered without changing a fundamentally familiar structure. The pictures present the banal and the comfortably familiar in an unfamiliar way, objects and vistas that are part of the background and blend into the environment.

Linda Tilling

2007-01-01

210

Multiple mating strategies explain unexpected genetic mixing of New Zealand fur seals with two congenerics in a recently recolonized population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human impacts on natural systems can cause local population extinctions, which may promote redistribution of taxa and secondary contact between divergent lineages. In mammalian populations that have mating systems shaped by polygyny and sexual selection, the potential for hybridization to ensue and persist depends on individual and demographic factors. At Macquarie Island, a recently formed fur seal population is comprised of both sexes of breeding Antarctic (Arctocephalus gazella) and subantarctic (A. tropicalis) fur seals, and an itinerant collection of male New Zealand fur seals (A. forsteri), presumed to be non-breeders due to their absence from principle breeding areas. The mating system of the three species is described as resource-defence polygyny: males defend beach territories containing breeding females for exclusive mating rights. A recent genetic study identified a high level of hybridization in the population (17-30%), unexpectedly involving all three species. This study examined the source of involvement in breeding by A. forsteri with respect to mating strategies operating in the population. Ninety-five (10%) pups born from 1992 to 2003 were genetically identified as New Zealand hybrids. Most resulted from reproduction within territories by New Zealand hybrids of both sexes, although some were conceived extra-territorially, indicating that males successfully utilize strategies other than territory holding to achieve paternities. Female reproductive status influenced mating partner and mating location, and females without pups were more likely to conceive extra-territorially and with A. forsteri males. This study illustrates an important consequence of low heterospecific discrimination in a sympatric population of long-lived mammals. PMID:18028306

Lancaster, Melanie L; Goldsworthy, Simon D; Sunnucks, Paul

2007-12-01

211

Male Mating Strategies through Manipulation of Female-perceived Predation Risk: A Minireview and a Hypothesis  

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Full Text Available In this minireview we focus on how males may exploit female’s sensitivity to predation risk in thecontext of mating. It has been shown in studies on guppies and jumping spiders that in response to alteredfemale behaviors, which are adaptations to the unfavorable environment and a consequence of females’ highersensitivity to predator’s presence as well as females’ higher predation risk, males can adopt condition-dependentmating tactics. It appears that in such cases males do not modify their reproductive behavior directly in responseto their own perception of predation risk, but indirectly in response to changes in female behavior induced bypredator presence. It has also been recently shown in crabs that males can exploit female behavior by creatingsafer habitat spots, which increases the male mating success. Hence all the evidence suggests that males notonly respond to female sensitivity to the natural variation in predation risk, but that males can also exploit femalebehavior by altering the environment. As a logical extension of these findings, we present a hypothesis that incertain conditions males can manipulate the environment in order to increase the predation risk and to inducefemale behaviors that enhance the male’s mating success with the increased predation risk. We propose thatsuch a manipulation to increase predation risk is expected to evolve in males of species with a strong sexualconflict and female-biased predation risk. Although empirical evidence has not been yet shown, initialobservations in a water strider species in Korea, Gerris gracilicornis, seem to support this hypothesis.

Han, Chang S

2008-02-01

212

Biased learning affects mate choice in a butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early acquisition of mate preferences or mate-preference learning is associated with signal diversity and speciation in a wide variety of animal species. However, the diversity of mechanisms of mate-preference learning across taxa remains poorly understood. Using the butterfly Bicyclus anynana we uncover a mechanism that can lead to directional sexual selection via mate-preference learning: a bias in learning enhanced ornamentation, which is independent of preexisting mating biases. Naïve females mated preferentially with wild-type males over males with enhanced wing ornamentation, but females briefly exposed to enhanced males mated significantly more often with enhanced males. In contrast, females exposed to males with reduced wing ornamentation did not learn to prefer drab males. Thus, we observe both a learned change of a preexisting mating bias, and a bias in ability to learn enhanced male ornaments over reduced ornaments. Our findings demonstrate that females are able to change their preferences in response to a single social event, and suggest a role for biased learning in the evolution of visual sexual ornamentation. PMID:22689980

Westerman, Erica L; Hodgins-Davis, Andrea; Dinwiddie, April; Monteiro, Antónia

2012-07-01

213

Parent-offspring conflict over mating: testing the tradeoffs hypothesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The difference in genetic relatedness between parents and offspring results into traits such as beauty being more beneficial in a spouse than in an in-law. As a consequence, mate and in-law preferences do not overlap, and each party tends to prefer more the traits that give it more benefits. This paper tests the hypothesis that this divergence in preferences interacts with the tradeoffs nature of mating to give rise to parent-offspring conflict over mating. In particular, using a design where mate choice is constrained by a budget, three hypotheses are tested: First, asymmetries between in-law and mate preferences result in asymmetrical compromises in the choice of an in-law and a spouse. Second, the hypothesis is tested that when choice is constrained, disagreement spreads to traits where there is no divergence between in-law and mate preferences. Finally, it is hypothesized that there is a negative relationship between mate value and parent-offspring conflict over mating. Evidence from two independent studies in two different countries provides support for all three hypotheses. PMID:22947988

Apostolou, Menelaos

2011-01-01

214

Mating and Parental Care in Lake Tanganyika's Cichlids  

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Cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika display a variety of mating and parental care behaviors, including polygamous and monogamous mouthbrooding and substrate breeding, cooperative breeding, as well as various alternative reproductive tactics such as sneaking and piracy. Moreover, reproductive behaviors sometimes vary within species both in space and in time. Here, I survey reports on mating and parenting behaviors of Lake Tanganyi...

Sefc, Kristina M.

2011-01-01

215

You can't always get what you want: size assortative mating by mutual mate choice as a resolution of sexual conflict  

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Abstract Background Assortative mating patterns for mate quality traits like body size are often observed in nature. However, the underlying mechanisms that cause assortative mating patterns are less well known. Sexual selection is one important explanation for assortment, suggesting that i) one (usually the female) or both sexes could show preferences for mates of similar size or ii) mutual mate choice could resolve sexual conflict over quality traits into assortment. We tes...

Baldauf Sebastian A; Kullmann Harald; Schroth Stefanie H; Thünken Timo; Cm, Bakker Theo

2009-01-01

216

Recent social history alters male courtship preferences.  

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Phenotypically plastic mating behavior may allow males to modify their reproductive behavior to suit the prevailing social conditions, but we do not know if males only react to immediate social stimuli or change their inherent mate preferences according to their social history. Here we examine the effect of social experiences on the subsequent reproductive behavior of male guppies under standard conditions, allowing us to distinguish the effect of past and immediate social conditions. Males experienced experimental conditioning periods during which they interacted with three females, either of variable size or of similar size. Females arrived either simultaneously or consecutively. In subsequent standard assays, only males that had experienced females of variable size preferentially courted large females. Further, males exposed to sequential female arrival courted subsequent females more vigorously than males that had experienced simultaneous female arrival. In contrast, males did not alter their coercive mating attempts in relation to their recent social history. These results demonstrate that males use past experiences to modify their subsequent reproductive behavior rather than reacting only to immediate stimuli, and reveal the sophisticated ways in which males alter their reproductive tactics to suit the social environment and maximize fitness across changing selective landscapes. PMID:22220882

Jordan, Lyndon A; Brooks, Robert C

2012-01-01

217

Mating First, Mating More: Biological Market Fluctuation in a Wild Prosimian  

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In biology, economics, and politics, distributive power is the key for understanding asymmetrical relationships and it can be obtained by force (dominance) or trading (leverage). Whenever males cannot use force, they largely depend on females for breeding opportunities and the balance of power tilts in favour of females. Thus, males are expected not only to compete within their sex-class but also to exchange services with the opposite sex. Does this mating market, described for humans and ape...

Norscia, Ivan; Antonacci, Daniela; Palagi, Elisabetta

2009-01-01

218

Are high-quality mates always attractive?: State-dependent mate preferences in birds and humans  

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Sexual selection theory posits that females should choose mates in a way that maximizes their reproductive success. But what exactly is the optimal choice? Most empirical research is based on the assumption that females seek a male of the highest possible quality (in terms of the genes or resources he can provide), and hence show directional preferences for indicators of male quality. This implies that attractiveness and quality should be highly correlated. However, females frequently differ ...

Riebel, Katharina; Holveck, Marie-jeanne; Verhulst, Simon; Fawcett, Tim W.

2010-01-01

219

Precopulatory mate guarding and mating behaviour in the rotifer Epiphanes senta (Monogononta: Rotifera).  

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Epiphanes senta is a littoral rotifer species that occurs in temporary waters and displays a mating behaviour which has not, to my knowledge, so far been described for monogonont rotifers. Monogonont rotifers show distinctive periods within their life cycle during which mictic females appear. Mictic females produce haploid eggs that develop into males or into diapausing eggs if fertilized. The females of E. senta are mostly stationary on the substrate while males are more active swimmers. If ...

Schro?der, Thomas

2003-01-01

220

Life cycle and influence of age and feeding on the first mating of Triatoma mazzottii (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

A cohort of 100 eggs of Triatoma mazzottii Usinger was studied to obtain information on its life cycle. Egg incubation took 24 days; mean duration of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th instar nymphs was 27, 36, 39, 46, and 64 days respectively; mean time from egg to adult was 236 days. The total duration of the nymphal stages was 212 days. The total nymph mortality in cohort was 16.3%, and the embryonic egg mortality was 14.0%. The greater mortality occurred in the 2nd instar. The average number of eggs/female/week was 9.8 during 15 weeks of observation. Of the total eggs laid (2,514), only 58.7% hatched. The total of insects that achieved the adult stage (72), 38 were females (52.8%), and 34 were males (47.2%). The influence of age and feeding on the first mating of T. mazzottii were also studied. It was found that the first mating depended on the male's age and it was on the average 30 days after the last imaginal molt. The female could be mating since 2nd days after the imaginal life. The nutritional status did not play an important role in the capacity of the insect for the first mating. PMID:8107581

Malo, E A; Ramirez-Rovelo, A; Cruz-Lopez, L; Rojas, J C

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Life cycle and influence of age and feeding on the first mating of Triatoma mazzottii (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A cohort of 100 eggs of Triatoma mazzottii Usinger was studied to obtain information on its life cycle. Egg incubation took 24 days; mean duration of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th instar nymphs was 27, 36, 39, 46 and 64 days respectively; mean time from egg to adult was 236 days. The total duration of [...] the nymphal stages was 212 days. The total nymph mortality in cohort was 16.3% and the embryonic egg mortality was 14.0%. The grater mortality occured in the 2nd instar. The average number of eggs/female/week was 9.8 during 15 weeks of observation. Of the total eggs laid (2,514), only 58.7% hatched. The total of insects that achieved the adult stage (72), 38 were females (52.8%), and 34 were males (47.2%). The influence of age and feeding on the first mating of T. mazzottii were also studied. It was found that the first mating depended on the male's age and it was on the average 30 days after the last imaginal molt. The female could be mating since 2nd days after the imaginal life. The nutritional status did not play an important role in the capacity of the insect for the first mating.

Malo, Edi A.; Ramirez-Rovelo, Alfredto; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C..

222

Life cycle and influence of age and feeding on the first mating of Triatoma mazzottii (Hemiptera: Reduviidae  

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Full Text Available A cohort of 100 eggs of Triatoma mazzottii Usinger was studied to obtain information on its life cycle. Egg incubation took 24 days; mean duration of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th instar nymphs was 27, 36, 39, 46 and 64 days respectively; mean time from egg to adult was 236 days. The total duration of the nymphal stages was 212 days. The total nymph mortality in cohort was 16.3% and the embryonic egg mortality was 14.0%. The grater mortality occured in the 2nd instar. The average number of eggs/female/week was 9.8 during 15 weeks of observation. Of the total eggs laid (2,514, only 58.7% hatched. The total of insects that achieved the adult stage (72, 38 were females (52.8%, and 34 were males (47.2%. The influence of age and feeding on the first mating of T. mazzottii were also studied. It was found that the first mating depended on the male's age and it was on the average 30 days after the last imaginal molt. The female could be mating since 2nd days after the imaginal life. The nutritional status did not play an important role in the capacity of the insect for the first mating.

Edi A. Malo

1993-06-01

223

Dopaminergic neurons in the brain and dopaminergic innervation of the albumen gland in mated and virgin helisoma duryi (mollusca: pulmonata  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dopamine was shown to stimulate the perivitelline fluid secretion by the albumen gland. Even though the albumen gland has been shown to contain catecholaminergic fibers and its innervation has been studied, the type of catecholamines, distribution of fibers and the precise source of this neural innervation has not yet been deduced. This study was designed to address these issues and examine the correlation between dopamine concentration and the sexual status of snails. Results Dopaminergic neurons were found in all ganglia except the pleural and right parietal, and their axons in all ganglia and major nerves of the brain. In the albumen gland dopaminergic axons formed a nerve tract in the central region, and a uniform net in other areas. Neuronal cell bodies were present in the vicinity of the axons. Dopamine was a major catecholamine in the brain and the albumen gland. No significant difference in dopamine quantity was found when the brain and the albumen gland of randomly mating, virgin and first time mated snails were compared. Conclusions Our results represent the first detailed studies regarding the catecholamine innervation and quantitation of neurotransmitters in the albumen gland. In this study we localized catecholaminergic neurons and axons in the albumen gland and the brain, identified these neurons and axons as dopaminergic, reported monoamines present in the albumen gland and the brain, and compared the dopamine content in the brain and the albumen gland of randomly mating, virgin and first time mated snails.

Lange Angela

2001-08-01

224

Effect of {sup 60}Co radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis); Efeito do processamento por radiacao de {sup 60}Co na erva-mate (llex paraguariensis)  

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The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10 kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10 kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and qualitative profile of bioactive compounds. (author)

Furgeri, Camilo

2009-07-01

225

Osmotic Balance Regulates Cell Fusion during Mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Successful zygote formation during yeast mating requires cell fusion of the two haploid mating partners. To ensure that cells do not lyse as they remodel their cell wall, the fusion event is both temporally and spatially regulated: the cell wall is degraded only after cell–cell contact and only in the region of cell–cell contact. To understand how cell fusion is regulated, we identified mutants defective in cell fusion based upon their defect in mating to a fus1 fus2 strain (Cheneve...

1997-01-01

226

Size-assortative mating and sexual size dimorphism are predictable from simple mechanics of mate-grasping behavior  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand the typically complex interactions between diverse counter-balancing factors of Darwinian selection for size assortative mating and sexual size dimorphism. It appears that rarely a simple mechanism could provide a major explanation of these phenomena. Mechanics of behaviors can predict animal morphology, such like adaptations to locomotion in animals from various of taxa, but its potential to predict size-assortative mating and its evolutionary consequences has been less explored. Mate-grasping by males, using specialized adaptive morphologies of their forelegs, midlegs or even antennae wrapped around female body at specific locations, is a general mating strategy of many animals, but the contribution of the mechanics of this wide-spread behavior to the evolution of mating behavior and sexual size dimorphism has been largely ignored. Results Here, we explore the consequences of a simple, and previously ignored, fact that in a grasping posture the position of the male's grasping appendages relative to the female's body is often a function of body size difference between the sexes. Using an approach taken from robot mechanics we model coercive grasping of females by water strider Gerris gracilicornis males during mating initiation struggles. We determine that the male optimal size (relative to the female size, which gives the males the highest grasping force, properly predicts the experimentally measured highest mating success. Through field sampling and simulation modeling of a natural population we determine that the simple mechanical model, which ignores most of the other hypothetical counter-balancing selection pressures on body size, is sufficient to account for size-assortative mating pattern as well as species-specific sexual dimorphism in body size of G. gracilicornis. Conclusion The results indicate how a simple and previously overlooked physical mechanism common in many taxa is sufficient to account for, or importantly contribute to, size-assortative mating and its consequences for the evolution of sexual size dimorphism.

Jablonski Piotr G

2010-11-01

227

Chemotactic behavior of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is altered during gametogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemotactic behavior of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is altered during the sexual life cycle. Unlike vegetative cells and noncompetent pregametes, mature gametes did not show chemotaxis to ammonium. Loss of chemotaxis to ammonium in mating-competent cells is controlled by gamete-specific genes that are common for both mating-type gametes. Change of chemotaxis mode requires the sequential action of the two environmental signals: removal of ammonium from the medium and light. The mutants lrg1, lrg3, and lrg4 affected in the light-dependent step of sexual differentiation exhibited the loss of chemotaxis to ammonium in the absence of light. These data indicate that there are common components in the signaling pathways that control change of chemotactic behavior and forming of mating competence in gametes. PMID:12732974

Ermilova, Elena V; Zalutskaya, Zhanna M; Lapina, Tatyana V; Nikitin, Maksim M

2003-04-01

228

Efeito da Densidade de Presas e do Acasalamento na Taxa de Predação de Fêmeas de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) em Condições de Laboratório e Campo / Effect of Prey Density and Mating Status on Predation Rate of Females of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Laboratory and Field Conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a taxa de predação de fêmeas virgens ou acasaladas de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) em diferentes densidades de lagartas de Alabama argillacea (Huebner) em condições de laboratório e de campo. Em laboratório, empregaram-se potes plásticos de 500 ml contendo fêmeas do predador, uma folha de [...] algodão e lagartas de A. argillacea (50 ± 10 mg) nas densidades de uma, duas, quatro, oito e 16 lagartas. No campo, algodoeiros na fase de florescimento foram engaiolados, sendo empregadas as mesmas densidades de lagartas que no laboratório. Em ambas as condições, as fêmeas de P. nigrispinus apresentaram ganho de peso e aumento de sua taxa de predação com o aumento da densidade de lagartas de A. argillacea, mas com valores maiores para fêmeas em laboratório. Nas duas condições, o ganho de peso e a taxa de predação foram semelhantes para fêmeas virgens ou acasaladas. No campo, P. nigrispinus explorou 94,7% e 21,2% da área foliar disponível na menor e maior densidade de presas, respectivamente. O tempo de manipulação e a taxa de ataque estimadas foram de 3,37 ± 0,82h e de 0,076 ± 0,013h-1 em laboratório, e de 3,33 ± 0,93h e de 0,017 ± 0,003h-1 em campo. A resposta funcional em laboratório e no campo foi caracterizada como do Tipo II. Os números observados e estimados de lagartas predadas pelo modelo foram significativamente correlacionados com as condições de laboratório (r = 0,78) e de campo (r = 0,70). Abstract in english The predation rate of unmated and mated females of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) was evaluated on different densities of Alabama argillacea (Huebner) caterpillars (50 ± 10 mg), in laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, the predator females were maintained in 500 ml plastic jars with five [...] different densities of prey (one, two, four, eight, and 16). In the field, caterpillars at the same densities were caged on flowering cotton plants. Under both conditions, females gained weight and increased the predation rate when the availability of prey increased, although higher values were obtained for females kept in the laboratory. Weight gain and predation rate did not differ between unmated and mated females under both conditions. In the field, P. nigrispinus searched 94.7% of the available foliar area under low prey density, and 21.2% under high prey density. The estimated handling time and attack rate were, respectively, 3.37 ± 0,82h and 0.076 ± 0.013h-1 in the laboratory, and 3.33 ± 0.93h and 0.017 ± 0.003h-1 in the field. The functional response corresponded to a type II for both conditions. The number of killed caterpillars observed and estimated by the model were highly correlated for both laboratory (r = 0.78) and field (r = 0.70) conditions.

JOSÉ E.M., OLIVEIRA; JORGE B., TORRES; ALBERTO F., CARRANO-MOREIRA; JOSÉ C., ZANUNCIO.

229

Dimorphic mating-type chromosomes in the fungus Microbotryum violaceum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungi often mate as haploids, and sex chromosomes (i.e., mating-type chromosomes) that are dimorphic for their size or overall DNA content have never been reported in this kingdom. Using electrophoretic techniques for karyotype analysis, a highly dimorphic chromosome pair that determines mating compatibility is shown to occur in populations of the fungus Microbotryum violaceum. This substantiates the evolution of such dimorphism as a general feature associated with haploid determination of mating compatibility, which previously had been known only in haplodioecious plants (mosses and liverworts). Size-dimorphic sex chromosomes are present in a lineage of M. violaceum native to Europe, as well as a lineage native to North America. However, they are very different in size between these lineages, indicating either independent evolution of the dimorphism or a large degree of divergence since their isolation. Several DNA sequences that show sequence similarity to transposons were isolated from these sex chromosomes. PMID:11861552

Hood, Michael E

2002-02-01

230

Parent-Offspring Conflict over Short-Term Mating Strategies  

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Full Text Available Individuals engage in short-term mating strategies that enable them to obtain fitness benefits from casual relationships. These benefits, however, count for less and cost more to their parents. On this basis three hypotheses are tested. First, parents and offspring are likely to disagree over short-term mating strategies, with the former considering these as less acceptable than the latter. Second, parents are more likely to disapprove of the short-term mating strategies of their daughters than of their sons. Finally, mothers and fathers are expected to agree on how much they disagree over the short-term mating strategies of their children. Evidence from a sample of 148 Greek-Cypriot families (140 mothers, 105 fathers, 119 daughters, 77 sons provides support for the first two hypotheses and partial support for the third hypothesis. The implications of these findings for understanding family dynamics are further discussed.

Spyroulla Georgiou

2011-12-01

231

Signal transduction during mating and meiosis in S. pombe  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

When starved, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe responds by producing mating factors or pheromones that signal to cells of the opposite sex to initiate mating. Like its distant relative Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells of the two mating types of S. pombe each produce a distinct pheromone that binds to receptors on the opposite cell type to induce the morphological changes required for mating. While the pathways are basically very similar in the two yeasts, pheromone signalling in S. pombe differs in several important ways from that of the more familiar budding yeast. In this article, Olaf Nielsen describes the pheromones and their effects in S. pombe, and compares the signalling pathways of the two yeasts.

Nielsen, O; Nielsen, Olaf

1993-01-01

232

Assortative mating counteracts the evolution of dispersal polymorphisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polymorphic dispersal strategies are found in many plant and animal species. An important question is how the genetic variation underlying such polymorphisms is maintained. Numerous mechanisms have been discussed, including kin competition or frequency-dependent selection. In the context of sympatric speciation events, genetic and phenotypic variation is often assumed to be preserved by assortative mating. Thus, recently, this has been advocated as a possible mechanism leading to the evolution of dispersal polymorphisms. Here, we examine the role of assortative mating for the evolution of trade-off-driven dispersal polymorphisms by modeling univoltine insect species in a metapopulation. We show that assortative mating does not favor the evolution of polymorphisms. On the contrary, assortative mating favors the evolution of an intermediate dispersal type and a uni-modal distribution of traits within populations. As an alternative, mechanism dominance may explain the occurrence of two discrete morphs. PMID:21884049

Fronhofer, Emanuel A; Kubisch, Alexander; Hovestadt, Thomas; Poethke, Hans-Joachim

2011-09-01

233

Constructing rational maps with cluster points using the mating operation  

CERN Document Server

In this article, we show that all admissible rational maps with fixed or period two cluster cycles can be constructed by the mating of polynomials. We also investigate the polynomials which make up the matings that construct these rational maps. In the one cluster case, one of the polynomials must be an $n$-rabbit and in the two cluster case, one of the maps must be either $f$, a "double rabbit", or $g$, a secondary map which lies in the wake of the double rabbit $f$. There is also a very simple combinatorial way of classifiying the maps which must partner the aforementioned polynomials to create rational maps with cluster cycles. Finally, we also investigate the multiplicities of the shared matings arising from the matings in the paper.

Sharland, Thomas

2011-01-01

234

Male inbreeding status affects female fitness in a seed-feeding beetle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inbreeding generally reduces male mating activity such that inbred males are less successful in male-male competition. Inbred males can also have smaller accessory glands, transfer less sperm and produce sperm that are less motile, less viable or have a greater frequency of abnormalities, all of which can reduce the fertilization success and fitness of inbred males relative to outbred males. However, few studies have examined how male inbreeding status affects the fitness of females with whom they mate. In this study, we examine the effect of male inbreeding status (inbreeding coefficient f = 0.25 vs. f = 0) on the fecundity, adult longevity and the fate of eggs produced by outbred females in the seed-feeding beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Females mated to inbred males were less likely to lay eggs. Of those that laid eggs, females mated to inbred males laid 6-12% fewer eggs. Females mated to inbred males lived on average 5.4% longer than did females mated to outbred males, but this effect disappeared when lifetime fecundity was used as a covariate in the analysis. There was no effect of male inbreeding status on the proportion of a female's eggs that developed or hatched, and no evidence that inbred males produced smaller nuptial gifts. However, ejaculates of inbred males contained 17-33% fewer sperm, on average, than did ejaculates of outbred males. Our study demonstrates that mating with inbred males has significant direct consequences for the fitness of female C. maculatus, likely mediated by effects of inbreeding status on the number of sperm in male ejaculates. Direct effects of male inbreeding status on female fitness should be more widely considered in theoretical models and empirical studies of mate choice. PMID:21995954

Fox, Charles W; Xu, J; Wallin, W G; Curtis, C L

2012-01-01

235

Gore Selects Senator Lieberman As Running Mate  

Science.gov (United States)

Yesterday, Democratic Presidential candidate Al Gore announced his selection of Connecticut Senator Joseph Lieberman as his running mate. The choice is widely seen as an attempt to separate Gore from the President's ethical controversies and to appeal to independent and Republican voters. Lieberman, the first orthodox Jew to be named to a major party's presidential ticket, was also the first Democrat to publicly criticize Clinton for his conduct in the Lewinsky affair and is known for his traditional stands on moral issues. Politically, Lieberman tends to be a centrist, even taking some typically Republican positions, such as his support of school vouchers and the privatization of Social Security. However, Republicans have already sought to paint him as a tax-loving liberal with deep ties to big business interests in health insurance and pharmaceuticals. While the choice clearly represents Gore's desire to position himself away from Clinton and in the center, some Democrats have worried that the moderate Lieberman will do little to appeal to the base of the Democratic party, namely labor, minorities, the left, and women. Unlike Bush, Gore has not yet solidified his support among these traditional Democratic constituencies. Some have also wondered aloud if Lieberman's religious affiliation will have an impact on the political race.

Charbonneau, David D.

236

Mate choice and the origin of menopause.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human menopause is an unsolved evolutionary puzzle, and relationships among the factors that produced it remain understood poorly. Classic theory, involving a one-sex (female) model of human demography, suggests that genes imparting deleterious effects on post-reproductive survival will accumulate. Thus, a 'death barrier' should emerge beyond the maximum age for female reproduction. Under this scenario, few women would experience menopause (decreased fertility with continued survival) because few would survive much longer than they reproduced. However, no death barrier is observed in human populations. Subsequent theoretical research has shown that two-sex models, including male fertility at older ages, avoid the death barrier. Here we use a stochastic, two-sex computational model implemented by computer simulation to show how male mating preference for younger females could lead to the accumulation of mutations deleterious to female fertility and thus produce a menopausal period. Our model requires neither the initial assumption of a decline in older female fertility nor the effects of inclusive fitness through which older, non-reproducing women assist in the reproductive efforts of younger women. Our model helps to explain why such effects, observed in many societies, may be insufficient factors in elucidating the origin of menopause. PMID:23785268

Morton, Richard A; Stone, Jonathan R; Singh, Rama S

2013-01-01

237

Nonlinearities in mating sounds of American crocodiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

We use nonlinear time series analysis methods to analyze the dynamics of the sound-producing apparatus of the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). We capture its dynamics by analyzing a recording of the singing activity during mating time. First, we reconstruct the phase space from the sound recording and thereby reveal that the attractor needs no less than five degrees of freedom to fully evolve in the embedding space, which suggests that a rather complex nonlinear dynamics underlies its existence. Prior to investigating the dynamics more precisely, we test whether the reconstructed attractor satisfies the notions of determinism and stationarity, as a lack of either of these properties would preclude a meaningful further analysis. After positively establishing determinism and stationarity, we proceed by showing that the maximal Lyapunov exponent of the recording is positive, which is a strong indicator for the chaotic behavior of the system, confirming that dynamical nonlinearities are an integral part of the examined sound-producing apparatus. At the end, we discuss that methods of nonlinear time series analysis could yield instructive insights and foster the understanding of vocal communication among certain reptile species. PMID:19505529

Benko, Tina P; Perc, Matjaz

2009-09-01

238

Diffusion approximation of a multilocus model with assortative mating  

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To understand the effect of assortative mating on the genetic evolution of a population, we consider a finite population in which each individual has a type, determined by a sequence of n diallelic loci. We assume that the population evolves according to a Moran model with weak assortative mating, strong recombination and low mutation rates. With an appropriate rescaling of time, we obtain that the evolution of the genotypic frequencies in a large population can be approximated by the evoluti...

Etheridge, Alison; Lemaire, Sophie

2011-01-01

239

WAKE SHIELD FACILITY FREE FLYER MATE TO CANISTER  

Science.gov (United States)

WAKE SHIELD FACILITY FREE FLYER MATE TO CANISTER KSC-96PC-2961.10 In NASA's Building AE on Cape Canaveral Air Station, the Wake Shield Facility-3 (WSF- 3) free-flyer is being mated to the carrier to complete the payload. The WSF-3 is one of two primary payloads on Space Shuttle Mission STS-80. The Shuttle Columbia is being prepared for liftoff on the final Shuttle flight of 1996 around Nov. 8 from Launch Pad 39B.

1996-01-01

240

Dimensionality of mate choice, sexual isolation, and speciation  

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Multiple cues, across multiple sensory modalities, are involved in mate choice in a wide range of animal taxa. This multiplicity leads to the prediction that, in adaptive radiations, sexual isolation results from divergence in multiple dimensions. However, difficulties in directly measuring preferences and detecting multiple effects limit our ability to empirically assess the number of independent traits contributing to mate choice and sexual isolation. We present an approach to estimate the ...

Hohenlohe, Paul A.; Arnold, Stevan J.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Alternative mating tactics and extreme male dimorphism in fig wasps.  

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The dimorphisms in morphology and behaviour of male fig wasps are among the most extreme in the animal kingdom, and offer excellent opportunities to test the predictions of certain sexual selection models. Winged males resemble their conspecific females closely, but wingless males are so divergent in form that they have repeatedly been classified into different taxa. Wingless males mate within their natal fig fruits, whereas winged males disperse to mate. Individual species may have winged ma...

Cook, James M.; Compton, Steven G.; Herre, E. Allen; West, Stuart A.

1997-01-01

242

How early life experience shapes mate preference in female mice  

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Mate choice is an evolutionary process with a profound impact in species morphology, behavioural displays and overall success. We are interested in understanding the proximate mechanisms underlying the assortative mate choice exhibited by Mus musculus musculus females when given a choice between a male of their own subspecies and a male from the closely related subspecies, Mus musculus domesticus. Previous results from our laboratory suggest that this assortative preference is modulated by ea...

Dias, Anto?nio Jose? Da Silva

2013-01-01

243

Mating type sequences in asexually reproducing Fusarium species  

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To assess the potential for mating in several Fusarium species with no known sexual stage, we developed degenerate and semidegenerate oligonucleotide primers to identify conserved mating type (MAT) sequences in these fungi. The putative and high-mobility-group (HMG) box sequences from Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. poae, and F. semitectum were compared to similar sequences that were described previously for other members of the genus. The DNA sequences of the regions flanking the amplif...

2004-01-01

244

Mating Type Sequences in Asexually Reproducing Fusarium Species  

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To assess the potential for mating in several Fusarium species with no known sexual stage, we developed degenerate and semidegenerate oligonucleotide primers to identify conserved mating type (MAT) sequences in these fungi. The putative ? and high-mobility-group (HMG) box sequences from Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. poae, and F. semitectum were compared to similar sequences that were described previously for other members of the genus. The DNA sequences of the regions flanking the ampl...

2004-01-01

245

Mate choice for genetic compatibility in the house mouse  

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In house mice, genetic compatibility is influenced by the t haplotype, a driving selfish genetic element with a recessive lethal allele, imposing fundamental costs on mate choice decisions. Here, we evaluate the cost of genetic incompatibility and its implication for mate choice in a wild house mice population. In laboratory reared mice, we detected no fertility (number of embryos) or fecundity (ability to conceive) costs of the t, and yet we found a high cost of genetic incompatibility: hete...

2013-01-01

246

The biological meaning of preferences on the human mate market  

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Factors, which universally influence mate choice decisions, are: age, physical appearance, and resources. Different evidence of the biological relevance of these three factors on the human mate market is presented. The sex-specific preferences for partner's age reflect such values as Fisherian reproductive potential and fecundity for females and life expectancy related to the length of further time of paternal investment for males. Physical attractiveness is analyzed as a marker of female's a...

Paw?owski, Bogus?aw

2000-01-01

247

Personality May Confound Common Measures of Mate-Choice  

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The measurement of female mating preferences is central to the study of the evolution of male ornaments. Although several different methods have been developed to assess sexual preference in some standardized way, the most commonly used procedure consists of recording female spatial association with different males presented simultaneously. Sexual preference is then inferred from time spent in front of each male. However, the extent to which the measurement of female mate-choice is related to...

2011-01-01

248

More than just a pretty face and a hot body: multiple cues in mate-choice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mate preferences have been well studied in social and evolutionary psychology. In two studies (N = 490), using two different measurement techniques, we examined mate preferences for the body and the face in the context of other traits. Results replicated prior research on mate preferences across the sex of the participant and mating duration but clarified the nature of preferences for physical attractiveness. Generally, physical attractiveness was a necessity in short-term mating and for men and traits like kindness were a necessity in long-term mating and for women. Men wanted a short-term mate who had a good body, likely because that body advertises fertility whereas both sexes wanted a mate with a nice face for a long-term mate, which is likely because the face is a cue based on structural properties related to health. Sex and mating-duration differences on preferences for attractive faces and bodies were robust to differences in measurement technique. PMID:22468419

Jonason, Peter K; Raulston, Tara; Rotolo, Ashley

2012-01-01

249

Virgin ant queens mate with their own sons to avoid failure at colony foundation  

Science.gov (United States)

Mother-son mating (oedipal mating) is practically non-existent in social Hymenoptera, as queens typically avoid inbreeding, mate only early in life and do not mate again after having begun to lay eggs. In the ant genus Cardiocondyla mating occurs among sib in the natal nests. Sex ratios are extremely female-biased and young queens face the risk of remaining without mating partners. Here, we show that virgin queens of Cardiocondyla argyrotricha produce sons from their own unfertilized eggs and later mate with them to produce female offspring from fertilized eggs. Oedipal mating may allow C. argyrotricha queens to found new colonies when no mating partners are available and thus maintains their unusual life history combining monogyny, mating in the nest, and low male production. Our result indicates that a trait that sporadically occurs in solitary haplodiploid animals may evolve also in social Hymenoptera under appropriate ecological and social conditions.

Schmidt, Christine Vanessa; Frohschammer, Sabine; Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jürgen

2014-01-01

250

Cytonuclear interactions and the economics of mating in seed beetles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have uncovered an abundance of nonneutral cytoplasmic genetic variation within species, which suggests that we should no longer consider the cytoplasm an idle intermediary of evolutionary change. Nonneutrality of cytoplasmic genomes is particularly intriguing, given that these genomes are maternally transmitted. This means that the fate of any given cytoplasmic genetic mutation is directly tied to its performance when expressed in females. For this reason, it has been hypothesized that cytoplasmic genes will coevolve via a sexually antagonistic arms race with the biparentally transmitted nuclear genes with which they interact. We assess this prediction, examining the intergenomic contributions to the costs and benefits of mating in Callosobruchus maculatus females subjected to a mating treatment with three classes (kept virgin, mated once, or forced to cohabit with a male). We find no evidence that the economics of mating are determined by interactions between cytoplasmic genes expressed in females and nuclear genes expressed in males and, therefore, no support for a sexually antagonistic intergenomic arms race. The cost of mating to females was, however, shaped by an interaction between the cytoplasmic and nuclear genes expressed within females. Thus, cytonuclear interactions are embroiled in the economics of mating. PMID:20524843

Dowling, Damian K; Meerupati, Tejashwari; Arnqvist, Göran

2010-08-01

251

Reproductive success and mate choice in Long-Evans rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, mating behavior was observed in female rats that were given the opportunity to mate with two male rats simultaneously. Eleven sexually naïve, naturally cycling rats were assigned to one pair of sexually experienced cohabitating male rats. Each female rat was mated during proestrous with her assigned pair of males. Eight females successfully became pregnant and gave birth to healthy pups (approximately 9 pups/litter). After the offspring were weaned, paternity of each pup was determined using microsatellite DNA markers. Based on this analysis, it was determined that one male in each pair sired the majority of the pups in the litter. No male sexual behaviors or characteristics distinguished male rats that sired the majority of pups from those that sired few or none of the pups. Furthermore, neither female mate preference nor measures of paced mating behavior differed between male rats that had a reproductive advantage from those that did not. Finally, ejaculation order also failed to predict reproductive success of the male rats. Together, these results suggest that reproductive success of some male rats may not depend on specific mating behaviors, but rather their success may depend on physiological or genetic traits that make them unique. PMID:18824017

Zewail-Foote, Maha; Diehl, Abby; Benson, Anastasia; Lee, Kuan H; Guarraci, Fay A

2009-01-01

252

Pest management programmes in vineyards using male mating disruption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Israeli vine growers have been reluctant to adopt the mating disruption technique for control of the European vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. Since the chemically controlled honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., coexists with the European vine moth, growers have maintained that the use of mating disruption would fail to bring about a significant reduction in pesticide use. In this study, the efficacy of mating disruption techniques against C. gnidiella was tested, as well as the effect of these methods on pesticide use and damage to clusters when the method was employed against both of the pests in wine grapes. Comparisons were made between plots treated with (1) L. botrana mating disruption pheromone, (2) L. botrana and C. gnidiella mating disruption pheromones and (3) control plots. A significant difference in the number of clusters infested with the developmental stages of the moths was seen between pheromone-treated plots and controls, while no such difference was observed between plots treated with one versus two pheromones. A similar pattern was observed in the number of insecticide applications; the greatest number of applications was used in control plots, followed by plots treated with L. botrana mating disruption pheromone and by plots treated with pheromones against both pests, in which no pesticides were applied. PMID:17523143

Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Gordon, Dvora; Anshelevich, Leonid; Harel, Miriam; Ovadia, Shmulik; Dunkelblum, Ezra

2007-08-01

253

Both Geography and Ecology Contribute to Mating Isolation in Guppies  

Science.gov (United States)

Local adaptation to different environments can promote mating isolation – either as an incidental by-product of trait divergence, or as a result of selection to avoid maladaptive mating. Numerous recent empirical examples point to the common influence of divergent natural selection on speciation based largely on evidence of strong pre-mating isolation between populations from different habitat types. Accumulating evidence for natural selection's influence on speciation is therefore no longer a challenge. The difficulty, rather, is in determining the mechanisms involved in the progress of adaptive divergence to speciation once barriers to gene flow are already present. Here, we present results of both laboratory and field experiments with Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from different environments, who do not show complete reproductive isolation despite adaptive divergence. We investigate patterns of mating isolation between populations that do and do not exchange migrants and show evidence for both by-product and reinforcement mechanisms depending on female ecology. Specifically, low-predation females discriminate against all high-predation males thus implying a by-product mechanism, whereas high-predation females only discriminate against low-predation males from further upstream in the same river, implying selection to avoid maladaptive mating. Our study thus confirms that mechanisms of adaptive speciation are not necessarily mutually exclusive and uncovers the complex ecology-geography interactions that underlie the evolution of mating isolation in nature.

Schwartz, Amy K.; Weese, Dylan J.; Bentzen, Paul; Kinnison, Michael T.; Hendry, Andrew P.

2010-01-01

254

Secondary sexual ornamentation and non-additive genetic benefits of female mate choice  

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Ornamental secondary sexual traits are hypothesized to evolve in response to directional mating preferences for more ornamented mates. Such mating preferences may themselves evolve partly because ornamentation indicates an individual's additive genetic quality (good genes). While mate choice can also confer non-additive genetic benefits (compatible genes), the identity of the most ‘compatible’ mate is assumed to depend on the choosy individual's own genotype. It is therefore unclear how c...

Reid, Jane M.

2007-01-01

255

Misleading mollies: The effect of an audience on the expression of mating preferences  

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An increasing body of literature considers the question of how mate choice is influenced by the social environment of the choosing individual (non-independent mate choice). For example, individuals may copy the mate choice of others. A very simple form of socially influenced mate choice, however, remained comparatively little investigated: choosing individuals may adjust their mate choice to the mere presence of rivals. Recent studies in our groups1–4 have examined this question. Using live...

Plath, Martin; Schlupp, Ingo

2008-01-01

256

Mate preferences and infectious disease: theoretical considerations and evidence in humans  

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Mate preferences may operate in part to mitigate the threats posed by infectious disease. In this paper, we outline various ways in which preferring healthy mates can offer direct benefits in terms of pathogen avoidance and indirect benefits in terms of heritable immunity to offspring, as well as the costs that may constrain mate preferences for health. We then pay special attention to empirical work on mate preferences in humans given the depth and breadth of research on human mating. We rev...

Tybur, Joshua M.; Gangestad, Steven W.

2011-01-01

257

Potentials-Attract or Likes-Attract in Human Mate Choice in China  

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To explain how individuals’ self-perceived long-term mate value influences their mate preference and mate choice, two hypotheses have been presented, which are “potentials-attract” and “likes-attract”, respectively. The potentials-attract means that people choose mates matched with their sex-specific traits indicating reproductive potentials; and the likes-attract means that people choose mates matched with their own conditions. However, the debate about these two hypotheses still r...

He, Qiao-qiao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jian-xin; Wang, Zhi-guo; Tu, Ying; Ji, Ting; Tao, Yi

2013-01-01

258

Commensal bacteria play a role in mating preference of Drosophila melanogaster  

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Development of mating preference is considered to be an early event in speciation. In this study, mating preference was achieved by dividing a population of Drosophila melanogaster and rearing one part on a molasses medium and the other on a starch medium. When the isolated populations were mixed, “molasses flies” preferred to mate with other molasses flies and “starch flies” preferred to mate with other starch flies. The mating preference appeared after only one generation and was ma...

Sharon, Gil; Segal, Daniel; Ringo, John M.; Hefetz, Abraham; Zilber-rosenberg, Ilana; Rosenberg, Eugene

2010-01-01

259

Courtship in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: an early cell-cell interaction during mating.  

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During conjugation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two cells of opposite mating type (MATa and MAT alpha) fuse to form a diploid zygote. Conjugation requires that each cell locate an appropriate mating partner. To investigate how yeast cells select a mating partner, we developed a competition mating assay in which wild-type MAT alpha cells have a choice of two MATa cell mating partners. We first demonstrated that sterile MAT alpha 1 cells (expressing no a- or alpha-specific gene products) do not...

Jackson, C. L.; Hartwell, L. H.

1990-01-01

260

A Mutation Allowing Expression of Normally Silent a Mating-Type Information in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE  

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Mating type in haploid cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by a pair of alleles MATa and MAT? . Under various conditions haploid mating types can be interconverted. It has been proposed that transpositions of silent cassettes of mating-type information from HML or HMR to MAT are the source of mating type conversions. A mutation described in this work, designated AON1, has the following properties. (1) MAT? cells carring AON1 are defective in mating. (2) AON1 allows ...

Gruenspan, Harry; Eaton, Norman R.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without continuous exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus pen mate: effects on rectal temperature and serum proinflammatory cytokine and haptoglobin concentrations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in immunomodulation in cohorts. It is hypothesized that the extent of modulation differs for low-risk, preconditioned (PC) vs. high-risk, auction market (AM) beef cattle. Our objective was to compare immune responses of PC or AM calves in the presence (PI) or absence (CON) of a PI-BVDV pen mate. Crossbred PC steers (n = 27) from a single ranch origin were weaned, dewormed, vaccinated against respiratory and clostridial pathogens, tested for PI-BVDV, and kept on the ranch for 61 d. Subsequently, PC steers were transported to a receiving unit (RU), weighed, stratified by d -1 BW, and assigned randomly to treatment (PCPI or PCCON) with no additional processing. Simultaneously, crossbred AM calves (n = 27) were assembled from regional auction markets and transported to the RU. The AM calves were weighed, stratified by gender and d -1 BW, processed under the same regimen used for PC steers at their origin ranch, except bull calves were castrated, then assigned randomly to treatment (AMPI or AMCON). Treatment pens were arranged spatially so that PI did not have fence line contact with CON. Blood samples were collected on d 0, 1, 3, 7, and 14 to determine serum concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interferon-? (IFN-?), IL-4, and IL-6. Rectal temperature (RT) was recorded concurrent with blood sampling. In AM calves, RT and Hp increased (management effect; P AMPI. Results indicate weaning management and PI-BVDV exposure alter the immune status of newly received beef cattle. These main effects may be additive because proinflammatory cytokine concentrations were greatest for AMPI. Therefore, results further indicate that potential health or growth consequences in cohorts exposed to a PI-BVDV pen mate are impacted by previous management and health history. PMID:23345551

Richeson, J T; Kegley, E B; Powell, J G; Schaut, R G; Sacco, R E; Ridpath, J F

2013-03-01

262

Effect of the Sterilizing dose of Gamma Irradiation on Mating Performance and Female re-mating of Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The population suppression success of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) using sterile insect technique (SIT) depends mainly upon the ability of sterilized males to locate and mate with wild females. The efficiency of the SIT also depends upon the relative frequencies of re-mating by wild females following first mating with sterilized or wild males. A semi field cage test was conducted to study the effect of three different sterilizing doses of gamma irradiation on the male mating performance. No significant differences were found in the ability of mating, the mating duration and mating site between the un-irradiated males and irradiated ones with the doses (80, 90 and 100 Gy) The irradiated males with the dose 80 Gy revealed mating ability higher than the irradiated males with the other doses (90 and 100 Gy) although un-irradiated males had a general higher ability than irradiated ones.

2014-02-01

263

Plasticity of the mate choice mind: courtship evokes choice-like brain responses in females from a coercive mating system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female mate choice is fundamental to sexual selection, and determining molecular underpinnings of female preference variation is important for understanding mating character evolution. Previously it was shown that whole-brain expression of a synaptic plasticity marker, neuroserpin, positively correlates with mating bias in the female choice poeciliid, Xiphophorus nigrensis, when exposed to conspecific courting males, whereas this relationship is reversed in Gambusia affinis, a mate coercive poeciliid with no courting males. Here we explore whether species-level differences in female behavioral and brain molecular responses represent 'canalized' or 'plastic' traits. We expose female G. affinis to conspecific males and females, as well as coercive and courting male Poecilia latipinna, for preference assays followed by whole-brain gene expression analyses of neuroserpin, egr-1 and early B. We find positive correlations between gene expression and female preference strength during exposure to courting heterospecific males, but a reversed pattern following exposure to coercive heterospecific males. This suggests that the neuromolecular processes associated with female preference behavior are plastic and responsive to different male phenotypes (courting or coercive) rather than a canalized response linked to mating system. Further, we propose that female behavioral plasticity may involve learning because female association patterns shifted with experience. Compared to younger females, we found larger, more experienced females spend less time near coercive males but associate more with males in the presence of courters. We thus suggest a conserved learning-based neuromolecular process underlying the diversity of female mate preference across the mate choice and coercion-driven mating systems. PMID:24548673

Wang, S M T; Ramsey, M E; Cummings, M E

2014-04-01

264

Diploids in the Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A population homozygous for the alpha mating type originate via unisexual mating.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ubiquitous environmental human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is traditionally considered a haploid fungus with a bipolar mating system. In nature, the alpha mating type is overwhelmingly predominant over a. How genetic diversity is generated and maintained by this heterothallic fungus in a largely unisexual alpha population is unclear. Recently it was discovered that C. neoformans can undergo same-sex mating under laboratory conditions generating both diploid intermediates and haploid recombinant progeny. Same-sex mating (alpha-alpha) also occurs in nature as evidenced by the existence of natural diploid alphaADalpha hybrids that arose by fusion between two alpha cells of different serotypes (A and D). How significantly this novel sexual style contributes to genetic diversity of the Cryptococcus population was unknown. In this study, approximately 500 natural C. neoformans isolates were tested for ploidy and close to 8% were found to be diploid by fluorescence flow cytometry analysis. The majority of these diploids were serotype A isolates with two copies of the alpha MAT locus allele. Among those, several are intra-varietal allodiploid hybrids produced by fusion of two genetically distinct alpha cells through same-sex mating. The majority, however, are autodiploids that harbor two seemingly identical copies of the genome and arose via either endoreplication or clonal mating. The diploids identified were isolated from different geographic locations and varied genotypically and phenotypically, indicating independent non-clonal origins. The present study demonstrates that unisexual mating produces diploid isolates of C. neoformans in nature, giving rise to populations of hybrids and mixed ploidy. Our findings underscore the importance of same-sex mating in shaping the current population structure of this important human pathogenic fungus, with implications for mechanisms of selfing and inbreeding in other microbial pathogens. PMID:19180236

Lin, Xiaorong; Patel, Sweta; Litvintseva, Anastasia P; Floyd, Anna; Mitchell, Thomas G; Heitman, Joseph

2009-01-01

265

Cancer and yerba mate consumption: a review of possible associations Cáncer y consumo de yerba mate: revisión de posibles asociaciones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To identify any possible link between mate consumption and cancer, mainly of the esophagus, larynx, and oral cavity. METHODS: A review of literature, published through August 2008, pertaining to the carcinogenic risk of mate consumption was undertaken by searching the two databases, MEDLINE and TOXLINE, for relevant articles. The bibliographies of the articles were examined for additional relevant sources. In addition, a search on the name of each author having published on the top...

Dora Loria; Enrique Barrios; Roberto Zanetti

2009-01-01

266

Reproductive consequences of mate quantity versus mate diversity in a wind-pollinated plant  

Science.gov (United States)

Since most pollen travels limited distances in wind-pollinated plants, both the local quantity and diversity of mates may limit female reproductive success. Yet little evidence exists on their relative contribution, despite the importance of viable seed production to population dynamics. To study how variation in female reproductive success is affected by the quantity versus the diversity of surrounding mates contributing pollen, we integrated pollination experiments, data on natural seed set and seed viability, and AFLP genetic marker data in the wind-pollinated dioecious clonal forest herb Mercurialis perennis. Pollination experiments indicated weak quantitative pollen limitation effects on seed set. Among-population crosses showed reduced seed viability, suggesting outbreeding depression due to genetic divergence. Pollination with pollen from a single source did not negatively affect reproductive success. These findings were consistent with results of the survey of natural female reproductive success. Seed set decreased with the distance to males in a female plants' local neighborhood, suggesting a shortage of pollen in isolated female plants, and increased with the degree of local genetic diversity. Spatial isolation to other populations and population size did not affect seed set. None of these variables were related to seed viability. We conclude that pollen movement in M. perennis is likely very limited. Both male proximity and the local degree of genetic diversity influenced female reproductive success.

Vandepitte, K.; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Honnay, O.

2009-07-01

267

[Calling and mating behaviors of bamboo shoot borer Kumasia kumaso].  

Science.gov (United States)

The calling and mating behaviors of Kumasia kumaso were studied in laboratory at (25 1) degrees C and (60 +/- 10) % RH under a cycle 14 L:10 D photo period, and the EAG response of male K. kumaso to female K. kumaso sex gland extracts was also tested. The calling and mating behaviors of K. kumaso could only be observed in scotophase. The females began calling at the first scotophase following emergence, and the peak of calling occurred during the second scotophase and decreased thereafter. The calling of the females commenced 0-4 h after dark, reached the maximum between the 5th and the 7th hour of the scotophase, and terminated during the last 1-2.5 h of the scotophase. Moth age had significant effects on the calling patterns. With increasing moth age, the onset time of calling advanced gradually, and the mean number of calling bouts as well as the calling length per bout had a gradual increase from calling day 1 to day 4 but decreased on day 5. The peak time and terminated time of calling advanced with increasing moth age. The mating of K. kumaso adults initiated during the first scotophase and terminated till the 5th scotophase following emergence, and the peak of mating was observed during the second scotophase. The peak of mating was observed 5.5-7.0 h after dark, and advanced with increasing moth age. Moth age affected the mean onset time of mating and the copulation duration significantly. With increasing moth age, the mean onset time of mating advanced, and the copulation duration decreased. Sex ratio had significant effects on the mating behavior as well. Treatment 2 female:1 male showed a significantly higher mating percentage, but an earlier onset time of mating and shorter copulation duration, as compared with treatment 1 female:1 male. The results of EAG test indicated that the male adults showed a significant EAG response to the sex gland extracts of 2-day-old virgin females. PMID:23479886

Shu, Jin-Ping; Teng, Ying; Zhang, Ai-Liang; Zhang, Ya-Bo; Deng, Shun; Wang, Hao-Jie

2012-12-01

268

Identifying Alterity and Altering Identity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Negative attitudes towards foreign cultures among certain categories of people in majority Islamic countries are often the result of their representations of the Other, their conception of alterity, of their identity and the relation between them, their vision of the implications of the confrontation with/or coexistence of different cultures in the same physical space or through mediated spaces. These representations have become a culture in its own right, giving birth to a categorisation of people within the same society and of peoples of the world. This paper will attempt to reveal the way this culture dichotomy operates and will analyse the mode its ideological base defines the dichotomy of alterity/identity. It will also suggest directions of reflexion towards the possibilities of forging a counter-culture which can stand as a new form of liberating discourse.

Abdelghani Nait Brahim

2011-01-01

269

Human mate selection under competitive pressure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stable, cross-cultural, gender-based preferences in relationship choices have been identified by evolutionary psychologists (Buss 1987, Symons and Ellis 1989). This study furthered such research by collecting data from 20 participants (10 male, 10 female) using a mixed design. Participants completed three questionnaires on sexual orientation and relationship status, their attitudes towards aspects of relationships, and a trait-rating scale (a replication of Buss 1989). Participants then answe...

2006-01-01

270

Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE) Center  

Science.gov (United States)

National consortium of educational institutions and organizations seeking to improve marine technology education. The website has an overview of marine technology with current status and future development, information on careers and educational and professional development opportunities. Some curriculum material is provided with more coming soon. Learn how to make your very own ROV. Additional information on ROV contests, workshops, and cost-associated teacher resources are available.

271

Radical loss of an extreme extra-pair mating system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mating outside the pair-bond is surprisingly common in socially monogamous birds, but rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP vary widely between species. Although differences in life-history and contemporary ecological factors may explain some interspecific variation, evolutionary forces driving extra-pair (EP mating remain largely obscure. Also, since there is a large phylogenetic component to the frequency of EPP, evolutionary inertia may contribute substantially to observed EP mating patterns. However, the relative importance of plasticity and phylogenetic constraints on the incidence of EP mating remains largely unknown. Results We here demonstrate very low levels of EPP (4.4% of offspring in the purple-crowned fairy-wren Malurus coronatus, a member of the genus with the highest known levels of EPP in birds. In addition, we show absence of the suite of distinctive behavioral and morphological adaptations associated with EP mating that characterize other fairy-wrens. Phylogenetic parsimony implies that these characteristics were lost in one speciation event. Nonetheless, many life-history and breeding parameters that are hypothesized to drive interspecific variation in EPP are not different in the purple-crowned fairy-wren compared to its promiscuous congeners. Conclusion Such radical loss of an extreme EP mating system with all associated adaptations from a lineage of biologically very similar species indicates that evolutionary inertia does not necessarily constrain interspecific variation in EPP. Moreover, if apparently minor interspecific differences regularly cause large differences in EPP, this may be one reason why the evolution of EP mating is still poorly understood.

Segelbacher Gernot

2009-05-01

272

Male rock sparrows adjust their breeding strategy according to female ornamentation: parental or mating investment?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigated the relations between female quality and ornamentation and between male breeding investment and female ornamentation in the rock sparrow, Petronia petronia, a passerine in which both sexes have a yellow breast patch. Breast patch size in females was positively correlated with body mass and breeding status; double-brooding and primary females of polygynous males had a larger patch, and patch size could therefore be an indicator of female phenotypic quality. We conducted a field experiment to test whether males allocate their parental effort in relation to female quality, as predicted by the differential allocation hypothesis. We increased and reduced the ornament sizes of paired females and compared the behaviour of their males before and after manipulation. Frequency of brood feeding by the male was not affected by female ornament manipulation; there was a nonsignificant trend for females with enlarged ornaments, contrary to predictions, to increase their feeding rate. Reducing female ornaments resulted in a decrease in male nest attendance, a measure of passive brood defence, whereas enlarging the ornament had no effect. Males concurrently reduced their territorial (song output) and sexual activity (courtship and copulation). The reduction in sexual activity suggests that males may have changed their nest attendance in response to their mate's renesting probability. Whatever the interpretation, these results provide some of the first evidence that not only female, but also male, birds change breeding strategy according to their mate's phenotype in the wild.

Pilastro, Andrea; Griggio, Matteo

2003-01-01

273

What do women's advertised mate preferences reveal? An analysis of video dating profiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined women's video dating profiles to determine what their advertised mate preferences revealed about their mate value and relationship interests. Women created a one-minute long video dating profile for a hypothetical dating website. The videos were content analyzed into four categories of stated mate preferences: 1) "good genes" indicators 2) good resource investment potential indicators 3) good parenting indicators and 4) good partner indicators. Long-term mating interest was positively correlated with describing good partner indicators and self-perceived mate value was positively correlated with describing good genes indicators. Short-term mating interest was negatively correlated with describing any mate preferences while attractiveness was positively correlated with doing so. Results suggest that women's advertised mate preferences provide clues to their underlying relationship interests and mate value. PMID:23718946

Goetz, Cari D

2013-01-01

274

Smectite alteration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

1983-12-08

275

Genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patterns of phenotypic variation arise in part from plasticity owing to social interactions, and these patterns contribute, in turn, to the form of selection that shapes the variation we observe in natural populations. This proximate-ultimate dynamic brings genetic variation in social environments to the forefront of evolutionary theory. However, the extent of this variation remains largely unknown. Here, we use a member of the Enchenopa binotata species complex of treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) to assess how mate preferences are influenced by genetic variation in the social environment. We used full-sibling split-families as 'treatment' social environments, and reared focal females alongside each treatment family, describing the mate preferences of the focal females. With this method, we detected substantial genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences. The mate preferences of focal females varied according to the treatment families along with which they grew up. We discuss the evolutionary implications of the presence of such genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences, including potential contributions to the maintenance of genetic variation, the promotion of divergence, and the adaptive evolution of social effects on fitness-related traits. PMID:23698010

Rebar, Darren; Rodríguez, Rafael L

2013-07-22

276

Borderline personality disorder features and mate retention tactics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and mate retention tactics as a means of examining an evolutionary perspective on the association between BPD features and interpersonal problems and violence in romantic relationships. Two-hundred twenty-five college student participants completed the Personality Assessment Inventory for Borderlines (PAI-BOR; Morey, 1991) and the Mate Retention Inventory-Short Form (MRI-SF; Buss, Shackelford, & McKibbin, 2008) embedded within other measures. There was a strong association between BPD features and cost-inflicting mate retention tactics, including the specific tactics of vigilance, punishing mate's infidelity threat, intrasexual threats, and sexual inducements for both men and women. There were also gender-specific associations for additional tactics. These results contribute to our understanding of problems in romantic relationships among men and women with BPD features, including violence, and to our understanding of impulsive sexual behavior among individuals with BPD features by showing how these behaviors are used as extreme, maladaptive attempts at mate retention. PMID:22686222

Tragesser, Sarah L; Benfield, Jacob

2012-06-01

277

Genetic analysis of mate discrimination in Drosophila simulans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Courtship is an elaborate behavior that conveys information about the identity of animal species and suitability of individual males as mates. In Drosophila, there is extensive evidence that females are capable of evaluating and comparing male courtships, and accepting or rejecting males as mates. These relatively simple responses minimize random sexual encounters involving subpar conspecific males and heterospecific males, and over generations can potentially select novel physical and behavioral traits. Despite its evolutionary and behavioral significance, little is still known about the genes involved in mating choice and how choices for novel males and females arise during evolution. Drosophila simulans and Drosophila sechellia are two recently diverged species of Drosophila in which females have a preference for conspecific males. Here we analyzed a total of 1748 F2 hybrid females between these two species and found a small number of dominant genes controlling the preference for D. simulans males. We also mapped two redundant X-linked loci of mating choice, Macho-XA and Macho-XB, and show that neither one is required for female attractiveness. Together, our results reveal part of the genetic architecture that allows D. simulans females to recognize, mate, and successfully generate progenies with D. simulans males. PMID:23888855

Chu, Y; Yang, E; Schinaman, J M; Chahda, J S; Sousa-Neves, R

2013-08-01

278

Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference  

Science.gov (United States)

Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females fly instead to green-leaf odour of the larval host plant cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. This behavioural switch is owing to a marked change in the olfactory representation of floral and green odours in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). Calcium imaging, using authentic and synthetic odours, shows that the ensemble of AL glomeruli dedicated to either lilac or cotton odour is selectively up- and downregulated in response to mating. A clear-cut behavioural modulation as a function of mating is a useful substrate for studies of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioural decisions. Modulation of odour-driven behaviour through concerted regulation of odour maps contributes to our understanding of state-dependent choice and host shifts in insect herbivores.

Saveer, Ahmed M.; Kromann, Sophie H.; Birgersson, Goran; Bengtsson, Marie; Lindblom, Tobias; Balkenius, Anna; Hansson, Bill S.; Witzgall, Peter; Becher, Paul G.; Ignell, Rickard

2012-01-01

279

Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females fly instead to green-leaf odour of the larval host plant cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. This behavioural switch is owing to a marked change in the olfactory representation of floral and green odours in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). Calcium imaging, using authentic and synthetic odours, shows that the ensemble of AL glomeruli dedicated to either lilac or cotton odour is selectively up- and downregulated in response to mating. A clear-cut behavioural modulation as a function of mating is a useful substrate for studies of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioural decisions. Modulation of odour-driven behaviour through concerted regulation of odour maps contributes to our understanding of state-dependent choice and host shifts in insect herbivores. PMID:22319127

Saveer, Ahmed M; Kromann, Sophie H; Birgersson, Göran; Bengtsson, Marie; Lindblom, Tobias; Balkenius, Anna; Hansson, Bill S; Witzgall, Peter; Becher, Paul G; Ignell, Rickard

2012-06-22

280

Insertion of Impella 5.0 to improve candidacy for HeartMate II left ventricular assist device placement.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Impella 5.0 is a minimally invasive heart assist device that can be used to stabilize patients with cardiogenic shock. We present the case of a 49-year-old female in cardiogenic shock who required left ventricular assist device placement, but was not an optimal candidate for surgery due to severe deconditioning and malnutrition. An Impella 5.0 pump was surgically implanted via right axillary artery approach, which allowed the patient time to improve nutritional and functional status before subsequent placement of HeartMate II left ventricular assist device. PMID:24717279

Rajagopalan, Navin; Yanagida, Roh; Hoopes, Charles W

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
281

Mate preferences and infectious disease: theoretical considerations and evidence in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mate preferences may operate in part to mitigate the threats posed by infectious disease. In this paper, we outline various ways in which preferring healthy mates can offer direct benefits in terms of pathogen avoidance and indirect benefits in terms of heritable immunity to offspring, as well as the costs that may constrain mate preferences for health. We then pay special attention to empirical work on mate preferences in humans given the depth and breadth of research on human mating. We review this literature and comment on the degree to which human mate preferences may reflect preferences for health. PMID:22042915

Tybur, Joshua M; Gangestad, Steven W

2011-12-12

282

Does mating interfere in the biological characteristics of a population of Trichogramma pretiosum?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Trichogramma spp. são parasitoides utilizados na regulação de populações de insetos que podem causar danos econômicos. Para que esses tenham bom desempenho é essencial o conhecimento de algumas de suas características biológicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se o acasalamento interfere nas [...] características biológicas de uma população de Trichogramma pretiosum coletada em campo. Em todos os experimentos, grupos de fêmeas acasaladas e não acasaladas foram utilizados. Além disso, foi verificada a interferência do acasalamento nas características biológicas dos descendentes. Foi constatado que o acasalamento é capaz de alterar o parasitismo e a longevidade das fêmeas genitoras, além de alterar a longevidade entre os descendentes, porém, uma vez parasitados, os ovos se desenvolvem normalmente, apresentando viabilidade e número de descendentes similares aos das fêmeas não acasaladas. Verificamos ainda, que a população de T. pretiosum coletada em campo apresentou indivíduos com características reprodutivas telítocas e arrenótocas. Esse fato ressalta a importância de investigações cuidadosas sobre o modo de reprodução das populações coletadas em campo, evitando assim problemas de eficiência no manejo de populações de insetos. Abstract in english Trichogramma spp. are parasitoids used in the regulation of insect populations that can cause economic damage. In order to ensure good performance, understanding some of their biological characteristics is essential. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether mating interferes with the biol [...] ogical characteristics of a population of Trichogramma pretiosum collected in the field. In all experiments, groups of mated and unmated females were used. We also verified any interference from mating on the biological characteristics of the offspring. We found that mating can alter the parasitism and longevity of genitor females, in addition to changing longevity among the descendants, but once parasitized, the eggs develop normally, showing similar emergence percentage and number of offspring as those from unmated females. In addition, we verified that the population of T. pretiosum collected in the field presented individuals with reproductive thelytokous and arrhenotokous characteristics. This fact highlights the importance of careful investigation on the reproduction mode of populations collected in the field, thus avoiding problems in the effective management of insect populations.

DIRCEU, PRATISSOLI; THIAGO G., KLOSS; FERNANDO D., ZINGER; JOSÉ R. DE, CARVALHO; ULYSSES R., VIANNA; JOÃO P.P., PAES.

283

The study and analysis of the mating behavior and sound production of male cicada Psalmocharias alhageos (Kol.) (Homoptera:Cicadidae) to make disruption in mating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psalmocharias alhageos is an important pest of vine in most parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, southern areas of Russia, Turkey and Iraq. This cicada is spread in most provinces in Iran such as Esfahan, Hamedan, Qazvin, Markazi, Lorestan, Qom, Kerman, Tehran and Kordestan. In addition to vine, this insect damages some other fruit trees, such as apple, sour cherry, quince, peach, pomegranate and pear trees and some non-fruit trees, namely white poplar, ash, elm, eglantine, silk and black poplar trees. The nymphs of cicada damage the trees by feeding on root, adult insects on young bud and by oviposition under branch barks. Nourishing root by nymph leads to the weakness of the tree and hinder its growth. The high density oviposition of adult insects inside young barks causes withering of branches. The resulted damage on vine products is 40% which is one of the most important factors in product reduction in vineyard. This research was conducted in Takestan in Qazvin. It was conducted for the first time to study the behaviors of the mates of this vine cicada in order to manage it. Two systems were used to record the sound of male cicada called analog voice-recorder and digital voice recorder. To analyze the recorded sound of the male cicada we used of spectrum analyzer, digital storage oscilloscope and protens 7 computer softwares. We could call the attention of natural enemies an disturb the male insect's attracting sound by producing natural and artificial sound in the range of 1-6 kHz in two different ripeness status of the fruits and could prevent mating and oviposition of female cicadas. PMID:19266919

Zamanian, H; Mehdipour, M; Ghaemi, N

2008-09-01

284

Sexual isolation and mating propensity among allopatric Drosophila mettleri populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drosophila mettleri is found in deserts of North America breeding in soil soaked by the juices of necrotic cacti. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) and cardón (Pachycereus pringlei) are the usual host cacti in Mexico and Arizona, while prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) is used by an isolated population on Santa Catalina Island off the southern California Coast. Populations of D. mettleri show significant local genetic differentiation, especially when geographical isolation is coupled with host shifts. We tested for evidence of sexual isolation among allopatric populations of D. mettleri using a variety of choice and no-choice tests. Populations exhibited significant differences in mating propensity, which translated into significant deviations from random mating. While in some cases these deviations were consistent with sexual isolation, in others, negative assortative mating was observed. No relationship between degree of genetic differentiation and the appearance of sexual isolation was detected. PMID:18561017

Castrezana, Sergio J; Markow, Therese Ann

2008-07-01

285

The evolution of mating systems in tropical reef corals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The life histories of tropical reef corals (Scleractinia) include two traits that can strongly bias mating systems towards inbreeding: (1) most species express both sexes simultaneously, creating the potential for self-fertilization; and (2) there is philopatric dispersal of planktonic or demersal larvae. Recent studies have confirmed that all hermaphrodite species with broad dispersal potential are either completely, or almost completely, self-incompatible. By contrast, species with limited dispersal potential have high, but variable, rates of self-fertilization. This interspecific variation in coral mating systems is similar to that found in terrestrial plants. Understanding the selective forces that drive mating-system variation in marine environments will undoubtedly broaden our understanding of the evolution of inbreeding and outbreeding in sessile plants and animals. PMID:10542461

Carlon

1999-12-01

286

Irradiation detection of coffee mate by electron spin resonance (ESR)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Un-irradiated coffee mate samples do not exhibit any ESR signal. However, the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiation exhibit an ESR singlet and a large unresolved ESR signal, respectively. The dose-response curves of the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiations were found to be described well by an exponential and linear functions, respectively. Variable temperature and fading studies at room temperature showed that the radiation-induced radicals in coffee mate sample are very sensitive to temperature. The discrimination between un-irradiated and irradiated coffee mate samples can be done just comparing their ESR spectra. However, determination of the radiation dose received by the sample cannot be possible because of the fast decay of signal intensity at room temperature.

Ozsayin, Fulya [Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Polat, Mustafa, E-mail: polat@hacettepe.edu.t [Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

2011-06-15

287

Irradiation detection of coffee mate by electron spin resonance (ESR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Un-irradiated coffee mate samples do not exhibit any ESR signal. However, the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiation exhibit an ESR singlet and a large unresolved ESR signal, respectively. The dose-response curves of the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiations were found to be described well by an exponential and linear functions, respectively. Variable temperature and fading studies at room temperature showed that the radiation-induced radicals in coffee mate sample are very sensitive to temperature. The discrimination between un-irradiated and irradiated coffee mate samples can be done just comparing their ESR spectra. However, determination of the radiation dose received by the sample cannot be possible because of the fast decay of signal intensity at room temperature.

2011-06-01

288

Validation of Cosmed's FitMate in measuring exercise metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the FitMate metabolic system (Cosmed, Rome, Italy) in measuring oxygen consumption during graded exercise. The FitMate is a new, small (20 x 24 cm) metabolic analyzer designed for measurement of oxygen consumption during rest and exercise. Subjects included 40 healthy adults (N = 20 males, N = 20 females) ranging in age from 18 to 37 kg/m2 (mean +/- SD age, 22.5 +/- 3.6 years) and body mass index (BMI) from 18.3 to 32.5 kg/m2 (23.2 +/- 3.3 years). One-minute FitMate and Douglas bag measurements were made during steady state conditions at the end of each 3-minute stage of the Bruce treadmill graded exercise test, and subjects continued until they could not attain steady state exercise during a stage. Oxygen consumption difference scores (Douglas bag minus FitMate measurements) did not differ between males and females, so data were combined and analyzed for the entire group. During the first three stages, mean oxygen consumption did not differ significantly between the Douglas bag and FitMate systems (26.5 +/- 1.1 and 26.7 +/- 1.3 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively, P = 0.140) with a mean absolute difference of 0.23 +/- 0.91 ml.kg-1.min-1 or 14.2 +/- 67.5 ml.min-1. In conclusion, the FitMate metabolic system accurately measures oxygen consumption during graded treadmill exercise when compared with the Douglas bag system in male and female adults. PMID:17365953

Nieman, David C; Lasasso, Heather; Austin, Melanie D; Pearce, Steven; McInnis, Tim; Unick, Jess

2007-01-01

289

Emergence of polymorphic mating strategies in robot colonies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polymorphism has fascinated evolutionary biologists since the time of Darwin. Biologists have observed discrete alternative mating strategies in many different species. In this study, we demonstrate that polymorphic mating strategies can emerge in a colony of hermaphrodite robots. We used a survival and reproduction task where the robots maintained their energy levels by capturing energy sources and physically exchanged genotypes for the reproduction of offspring. The reproductive success was dependent on the individuals' energy levels, which created a natural trade-off between the time invested in maintaining a high energy level and the time invested in attracting mating partners. We performed experiments in environments with different density of energy sources and observed a variety in the mating behavior when a robot could see both an energy source and a potential mating partner. The individuals could be classified into two phenotypes: 1) forager, who always chooses to capture energy sources, and 2) tracker, who keeps track of potential mating partners if its energy level is above a threshold. In four out of the seven highest fitness populations in different environments, we found subpopulations with distinct differences in genotype and in behavioral phenotype. We analyzed the fitnesses of the foragers and the trackers by sampling them from each subpopulation and mixing with different ratios in a population. The fitness curves for the two subpopulations crossed at about 25% of foragers in the population, showing the evolutionary stability of the polymorphism. In one of those polymorphic populations, the trackers were further split into two subpopulations: (strong trackers) and (weak trackers). Our analyses show that the population consisting of three phenotypes also constituted several stable polymorphic evolutionarily stable states. To our knowledge, our study is the first to demonstrate the emergence of polymorphic evolutionarily stable strategies within a robot evolution framework. PMID:24717898

Elfwing, Stefan; Doya, Kenji

2014-01-01

290

Structures of the Mating-Type Loci of Cordyceps takaomontana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nucleotide sequences of the mating-type loci MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 of Cordyceps takaomontana were determined, which is the first such report for the clavicipitaceous fungi. MAT1-1 contains two mating-type genes, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2, but MAT1-1-3 could not be found. On the other hand, MAT1-2 has MAT1-2-1. A pseudogene of MAT1-1-1 is located next to MAT1-2.

Yokoyama, Eiji; Yamagishi, Kenzo; Hara, Akira

2003-01-01

291

A case of multiple mating in stingless bees (Meliponinae)  

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In several stingless bee species many males aggregate in the vicinity of a nest when a virgin queen is present in the colony and is preparing for the nuptial flight. We report such male assemblage for Tetragonisca angustula. The departure of a virgin queen from the colony and the subsequent mating could be video-recorded, because the queen and the males that had mounted her fell to the ground. Since at least two males had lost their genitalia, multiple mating seems to have occurre...

Imperatriz-fonseca, V. L.; Matos, E. T.; Ferreira, F.; Velthuis, H. H. W.

1998-01-01

292

Reduced proceptivity and sex-motivated behaviors in the female rat after repeated copulation in paced and non-paced mating: effect of changing the male.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mating inhibition after repeated copulation (sexual satiety) and its re-commencement after changing the sexually active partner (Coolidge effect) are well recognized phenomena in males, but their occurrence in females is little explored. These two phenomena were compared in conditions when the female regulates copulation timing (pacing) and under non-paced mating. Female rats selected in proestrus copulated incessantly for 3 h with two different partners (for 90 min each), both of them sexually active and unknown for the female. During the entire test we recorded the hop/dart and ear wiggling frequencies and the lordosis quotient. In the pacing test we also registered the percentage of exits and the return latencies after mounts, intromissions and ejaculation within each copulatory series, the mean time the female spent in the neutral chamber and the number of crossings. In the non-paced mating situation there was a reduction in ear wiggling and hop/darting frequencies after 3 h of constant copulation. In the paced mating condition, also by the end of the test, the female spent more time in the neutral compartment and showed fewer crossings to the male's zone. Only when the female regulated mating, the change of the male provoked an increased hop/darting frequency accompanied by a reduced percentage of exits from the male's chamber after an intromission and in the time in the neutral compartment. These changes were not associated with alterations in receptivity, which was maximal along the test. Data are discussed by comparing the mating conditions and the sex differences in the effect of repeated copulation and partner replacement. PMID:23916997

Ventura-Aquino, Elisa; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

2013-08-15

293

Mating system and size advantage of male mating in the protogynous swamp eel Monopterus albus with paternal care.  

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In fish with paternal care, protogynous sex change (female to male) is rare and has only been reported from species with haremic polygyny. The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is a protogynous fish with paternal care, but little is known about its mating system. To understand protogyny in this species, we examined the mating system and male size advantage in mating in M. albus under semi-natural condition. Females swam over wide ranges and visited multiple male nests. Males defended a narrow territory around nests against other males that approached nests; at these nests, males courted and accepted visiting females. After spawning inside nests, caring males continued to perform courtship activities, and multiple breeding was observed. These observations suggest that the M. albus mating system is male-territory-visiting (MTV)-polygamy. Larger males had nests, and mated more frequently compared with small males. Because small initial males of this species are not found in nature, and because M. albus does not engage in sneaking tactics, larger nesting males do not suffer from reproductive parasitism. Thus, protogyny in this fish is likely consistent with the predictions of the size-advantage model. Biting attacks by territorial males of this predatory fish seriously wounded intruding males, occasionally resulting in the death of the intruder. We discuss the possibility that sexual differences in mortality rates in small fish may facilitate the evolution of protogyny in this species. Protogyny of the swamp eel is, to our knowledge, the first example of an MTV-polygamous mating system in a fish with paternal care. PMID:21557660

Matsumoto, Seiji; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Ohnishi, Nobuhiro; Kohda, Masanori

2011-05-01

294

Determinants of male reproductive health disorders: the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between reproductive health disorders and lifestyle factors in middle-aged and older men is not clear. The aim of this study is to describe lifestyle and biomedical associations as possible causes of erectile dysfunction (ED, prostate disease (PD, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and perceived symptoms of androgen deficiency (pAD in a representative population of middle-aged and older men, using the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS. Methods A representative sample (n = 5990 of men aged 40+ years, stratified by age and State, was contacted by random selection of households, with an individual response rate of 78%. All men participated in a 20-minute computer-assisted telephone interview exploring general and reproductive health. Associations between male reproductive health disorders and lifestyle and biomedical factors were analysed using multivariate logistic regression (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]. Variables studied included age, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, co-morbid disease and medication use for hypertension, high cholesterol and symptoms of depression. Results Controlling for age and a range of lifestyle and co-morbid exposures, sedentary lifestyle and being underweight was associated with an increased likelihood of ED (1.4 [1.1-1.8]; 2.9 [1.5-5.8], respectively and pAD (1.3 [1.1-1.7]; 2.7 [1.4-5.0], respectively. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease were both associated with ED, with hypertension strongly associated with LUTS and pAD. Current smoking (inverse association and depressive symptomatology were the only variables independently associated with PD. All reproductive disorders showed consistent associations with depression (measured either by depressive symptomatology or medication use in both age-adjusted and multivariate analyses. Conclusion A range of lifestyle factors, more often associated with chronic disease, were significantly associated with male reproductive health disorders. Education strategies directed to improving general health may also confer benefits to male reproductive health.

Wittert Gary

2010-02-01

295

The role of female dominance hierarchies in the mating behaviour of mosquitofish  

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While studies of sexual selection focus primarily on female choice and male–male competition, males should also exert mate choice in order to maximize their reproductive success. We examined male mate choice in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, with respect to female size and female dominance. We found that the number of mating attempts made by a male was predicted by the dominance rank of females in a group, with dominant females attracting more mating attempts than subordinates. The numbe...

Chen, Therese; Beekman, Madeleine; Ward, Ashley J. W.

2011-01-01

296

Male fish use prior knowledge about rivals to adjust their mate choice  

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Mate choice as one element of sexual selection can be sensitive to public information from neighbouring individuals. Here, we demonstrate that males of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana gather complex social information when given a chance to familiarize themselves with rivals prior to mate choice. Focal males ceased to show mating preferences when being observed by a rival (which prevents rivals from copying mating decisions), but this effect was only seen when focal males have perceive...

Bierbach, David; Girndt, Antje; Hamfler, Sybille; Klein, Moritz; Mu?cksch, Frauke; Penshorn, Marina; Schwinn, Michael; Zimmer, Claudia; Schlupp, Ingo; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

2011-01-01

297

Are Human Mating Preferences with Respect to Height Reflected in Actual Pairings?  

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Pair formation, acquiring a mate to form a reproductive unit, is a complex process. Mating preferences are a step in this process. However, due to constraining factors such as availability of mates, rival competition, and mutual mate choice, preferred characteristics may not be realised in the actual partner. People value height in their partner and we investigated to what extent preferences for height are realised in actual couples. We used data from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK) and comp...

Stulp, Gert; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.; Nettle, Daniel; Verhulst, Simon

2013-01-01

298

Mating in a viscous universe: the race is to the agile, not to the swift.  

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Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection has at its focal point the mating success of organisms. Among male animals, large body size is widely seen as the principal determinant of mating success. However, where mating takes place in a three-dimensional arena such as water, the arboreal habitat or air, small size with its concomitant aerobatic advantages might be advantageous. Despite considerable interest, the relationship between aerobatic ability and mating success has not yet been demo...

Crompton, Benedict; Thomason, Jeremy C.; Mclachlan, Athol

2003-01-01

299

MF?1, the Gene Encoding the ? Mating Pheromone of Candida albicans†  

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Candida albicans, the single most frequently isolated human fungal pathogen, was thought to be asexual until the recent discovery of the mating-type-like locus (MTL). Homozygous MTL strains were constructed and shown to mate. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that opaque-phase cells are more efficient in mating than white-phase cells. The similarity of the genes involved in the mating pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and C. albicans includes at least one gene (KEX2) that is involved in...

Panwar, Sneh L.; Legrand, Melanie; Dignard, Daniel; Whiteway, Malcolm; Magee, Paul T.

2003-01-01

300

Mate Choice in Mus musculus Is Relative and Dependent on the Estrous State  

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Mate choice is a critical behavioral decision process with profound impact on evolution. However, the mechanistic basis of mate choice is poorly understood. In this study we focused on assortative mate choice, which is known to contribute to the reproductive isolation of the two European subspecies of house mouse, Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. To understand the decision process, we developed both full mating and limited-contact paradigms and tested musculus females' prefe...

Zinck, Le?a; Lima, Susana Q.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Mate choice promotes inbreeding avoidance in the two-spotted spider mite  

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Since inbreeding in Tetranychus urticae can reduce offspring fitness, sexual selection may favour disassortative mate choice with respect to relatedness of the mating partners. We tested whether T. urticae shows this preference for mating with unrelated partners. We chose an experimental set-up with high potential for female choosiness, since females only mate once and are therefore expected to be the choosier gender. An adult virgin female was placed together with two adult males from the sa...

Tien, N. S. H.; Massourakis, G.; Sabelis, M. W.; Egas, M.

2011-01-01

302

Spatial distribution and male mating success of Anopheles gambiae swarms  

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Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae mates in flight at particular mating sites over specific landmarks known as swarm markers. The swarms are composed of males; females typically approach a swarm, and leave in copula. This mating aggregation looks like a lek, but appears to lack the component of female choice. To investigate the possible mechanisms promoting the evolution of swarming in this mosquito species, we looked at the variation in mating success be...

Diabaté Abdoulaye; Yaro Alpha S; Dao Adama; Diallo Moussa; Huestis Diana L; Lehmann Tovi

2011-01-01

303

Individual Differences in Sociosexual Orientation and Long Term Mate Value Preferences.  

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Previous research has suggested that an individual’s sociosexuality, a measure of sexual permissiveness, is influenced by self esteem, self perceived mate value and personality, however results from past research has been mixed. Furthermore, an individual’s long term mate value preference has been found to correlate with self perceived mate value, although there is a lack of research regarding how self-esteem and personality may relate to long term mate value preferences. The present stud...

Raw, Charlotte J.

2008-01-01

304

Gender, Gender Roles Affecting Mate Preferences in Turkish College Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The subject of this study is gender and gender roles affecting mate preferences. The sample of the study consists of 300 undergraduates and master students. To identify students' gender roles the Sex Role Evaluation Inventory (Bem, 1974) is used. The Question List (Bacanli 2001; Buss et. al., 1990) is applied to the sample group to determine the…

Gazioglu, A. Esra Ismen

2008-01-01

305

Aesthetic evolution by mate choice: Darwin's really dangerous idea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Darwin proposed an explicitly aesthetic theory of sexual selection in which he described mate preferences as a 'taste for the beautiful', an 'aesthetic capacity', etc. These statements were not merely colourful Victorian mannerisms, but explicit expressions of Darwin's hypothesis that mate preferences can evolve for arbitrarily attractive traits that do not provide any additional benefits to mate choice. In his critique of Darwin, A. R. Wallace proposed an entirely modern mechanism of mate preference evolution through the correlation of display traits with male vigour or viability, but he called this mechanism natural selection. Wallace's honest advertisement proposal was stridently anti-Darwinian and anti-aesthetic. Most modern sexual selection research relies on essentially the same Neo-Wallacean theory renamed as sexual selection. I define the process of aesthetic evolution as the evolution of a communication signal through sensory/cognitive evaluation, which is most elaborated through coevolution of the signal and its evaluation. Sensory evaluation includes the possibility that display traits do not encode information that is being assessed, but are merely preferred. A genuinely Darwinian, aesthetic theory of sexual selection requires the incorporation of the Lande-Kirkpatrick null model into sexual selection research, but also encompasses the possibility of sensory bias, good genes and direct benefits mechanisms. PMID:22777014

Prum, Richard O

2012-08-19

306

Do women pretend orgasm to retain a mate?  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study tested the hypothesis that women pretend orgasm as part of a broader strategy of mate retention. We obtained self-report data from 453 heterosexual women (M age, 21.8 years) in a long-term relationship (M length, 32.8 months) drawn from universities and surrounding communities in the southeastern United States. The results indicated that (1) women who perceived higher risk of partner infidelity were more likely to report pretending orgasm, (2) women who reported greater likelihood of pretending orgasm also reported performing more mate retention behaviors, and (3) women's perceptions of partner infidelity risk mediated the relationship between pretending orgasm and the performance of cost-inflicting mate retention behaviors, such as Intersexual Negative Inducements ("Flirted with someone in front of my partner") and Intrasexual Negative Inducements ("Yelled at a woman who looked at my partner"). Thus, pretending orgasm may be part of a broader strategy of mate retention performed by women who perceive higher risk of partner infidelity. PMID:22089325

Kaighobadi, Farnaz; Shackelford, Todd K; Weekes-Shackelford, Viviana A

2012-10-01

307

Optimization of a crossing system using mate selection  

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Full Text Available Abstract A simple model based on one single identified quantitative trait locus (QTL in a two-way crossing system was used to demonstrate the power of mate selection algorithms as a natural means of opportunistic line development for optimization of crossbreeding programs over multiple generations. Mate selection automatically invokes divergent selection in two parental lines for an over-dominant QTL and increased frequency of the favorable allele toward fixation in the sire-line for a fully-dominant QTL. It was concluded that an optimal strategy of line development could be found by mate selection algorithms for a given set of parameters such as genetic model of QTL, breeding objective and initial frequency of the favorable allele in the base populations, etc. The same framework could be used in other scenarios, such as programs involving crossing to exploit breed effects and heterosis. In contrast to classical index selection, this approach to mate selection can optimize long-term responses.

Li Yongjun

2006-02-01

308

Intratetrad mating, heterozygosity, and the maintenance of deleterious alleles in Microbotryum violaceum (=Ustilago violacea).  

Science.gov (United States)

The mating system of Microbotryum violaceum was investigated in populations that are polymorphic for mating-type bias, where individuals produce viable haploids of only one of the two required mating types. The cause of mating-type bias was identified as deleterious recessive alleles linked to mating type. Maintenance of the deleterious alleles was promoted by early conjugation among products of single meioses, such that the duration of the free-living haploid stage is minimized. This development was also observed in nonbiased isolates. As a consequence, the mating system tends toward mating within the tetrad, which might be expected to reduce heterozygosity. However, complete centromere linkage of mating type ensures conjugation between first division meiotic products, such that mating in M. violaceum is analogous to forms of meiotic parthenogenesis with first division restitution (i.e. automixis with central fusion). This fungus was used to test the prediction that this mating system would maintain heterozygosity in regions of the genome linked to centromeres. Therefore, populations were screened for additional heterozygous lethal recessive alleles linked to centromeres, and several examples were found. Furthermore, the occurrence of intratetrad mating in M. violaceum provides an explanation for low variation among individuals within populations, inconsistent estimates of outcrossing rates, low levels of mating between tetrads of one diploid individual, and high frequencies of haplo-lethal alleles in natural populations. PMID:11012726

Hood, M E; Antonovics, J

2000-09-01

309

Delayed mating reduces reproductive output of female European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Virgin females of Lobesia botrana Denis & Schiffermüller were mated at ages of 1, 3, 5, 8, 12 and 16 days and the effect of mating delay on reproductive output assessed. Delayed mating did not affect female mating success but fertilization was reduced in 16-day-old females. Increased mating delays substantially affected daily oviposition pattern and resulted in a significant reduction of both fecundity and fertility, so that mean number of viable eggs laid decreased from 150 to 22 in 1- and 16-day-old mated females, respectively. Heavier females were more constrained than lighter ones by mating delays and female reproductive efficiency (no. viable eggs/female body weight) was also significantly reduced. Female longevity significantly increased and oviposition period gradually declined with mating delay. The number of viable eggs was positively correlated with both female weight and oviposition period; female longevity and female weight were also significantly correlated. However, the significance of these correlations declined with increased mating delay. Results overall indicated that mating delay drastically reduces female L. botrana reproductive output. The implications of delayed mating of females are discussed from an ecological perspective in relation to L. botrana control using mating disruption. PMID:12088541

Torres-Vila, L M; Rodríguez-Molina, M C; Stockel, J

2002-06-01

310

Mating behaviour in a slave-making ant, Rossomyrmex minuchae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

The mating behaviour of the ant Rossomyrmex minuchae, a rare, protected slave-making species in Spain, seems to be significantly affected by its particular life history and patchy habitat. The mating behaviour of the entire genus Rossomyrmex is virtually unknown. We present here the results of a 3-year study of mating behaviour in R. minuchae.

Ruano, Francisca; Tinaut, Alberto

2005-07-01

311

'Good genes as heterozygosity': the major histocompatibility complex and mate choice in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the theory of mate choice based on heterozygosity, mates should choose each other in order to increase the heterozygosity of their offspring. In this study, we tested the 'good genes as heterozygosity' hypothesis of mate choice by documenting the mating patterns of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using both major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and microsatellite loci. Specifically, we tested the null hypotheses that mate choice in Atlantic salmon is not dependent on the relatedness between potential partners or on the MHC similarity between mates. Three parameters were assessed: (i) the number of shared alleles between partners (x and y) at the MHC (M(xy)), (ii) the MHC amino-acid genotypic distance between mates' genotypes (AA(xy)), and (iii) genetic relatedness between mates (r(xy)). We found that Atlantic salmon choose their mates in order to increase the heterozygosity of their offspring at the MHC and, more specifically, at the peptide-binding region, presumably in order to provide them with better defence against parasites and pathogens. This was supported by a significant difference between the observed and expected AA(xy) (p = 0.0486). Furthermore, mate choice was not a mechanism of overall inbreeding avoidance as genetic relatedness supported a random mating scheme (p = 0.445). This study provides the first evidence that MHC genes influence mate choice in fish. PMID:11410155

Landry, C; Garant, D; Duchesne, P; Bernatchez, L

2001-06-22

312

Conditioned mate-guarding behavior in the female rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female and male rats are often described as having a promiscuous mating strategy, yet simple Pavlovian conditioning paradigms, in which a neutral odor or strain-related cues are paired with preferred sexual reward states during an animal's first sexual experiences, shift this strategy toward copulatory and mate preferences for partners bearing the familiar odor or strain cue. We examined whether female rats given exclusive rewarding copulation with one particular male would display mate-guarding behavior, a strong index of monogamous mating. Ovariectomized, hormone-primed female Long-Evans rats were given their first 10 paced sexual experiences at 4-day intervals with a particular unscented male of the same strain. A final test was conducted in an open field 4-days later in which the primed, partnered female was given access to the male partner and a fully-primed competitor female. In this situation, the partnered females mounted the competitor female repeatedly if she came near the vicinity of the male. This behavior prevented the male from copulating with the competitor, and was not displayed if partnered females could not pace the rate of copulatory behavior efficiently during the training trials, nor was it displayed by the competitor females. Fos expression was examined in both the partnered and competitor females after the final open field test. Partnered females had significantly higher expression within the supraoptic nucleus and nucleus accumbens shell compared to partnered females that did not develop this behavior or competitor females. These data show that females engaged in paced copulation with the same male display mate-guarding when exposed to that male and a competitor female. Increased activation of the SON and NAc may underlie this behavior. PMID:24768651

Holley, Amanda; Shalev, Shy; Bellevue, Shannon; Pfaus, James G

2014-05-28

313

Shared Forces of Sex Chromosome Evolution in Haploid-Mating and Diploid-Mating Organisms: Microbotryum violaceum and Other Model Organisms  

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It is usually posited that the most important factors contributing to sex chromosome evolution in diploids are the suppression of meiotic recombination and the asymmetry that results from one chromosome (the Y) being permanently heterozygous and the other (the X) being homozygous in half of the individuals involved in mating. To distinguish between the roles of these two factors, it would be valuable to compare sex chromosomes in diploid-mating organisms and organisms where mating compatibili...

Hood, Michael E.; Antonovics, Janis; Koskella, Britt

2004-01-01

314

Isolation of the Mating-Type Genes of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Magnaporthe Grisea Using Genomic Subtraction  

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Using genomic subtraction, we isolated the mating-type genes (Mat1-1 and Mat1-2) of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea. Transformation of M. grisea strains of one mating type with a linearized cosmid clone carrying the opposite mating-type gene resulted in many ``dual maters,'' strains that contain both mating-type genes and successfully mate with both Mat1-1 and Mat1-2 testers. Dual maters differed in the frequency of production of perithecia in pure culture. Ascospores isolated from ...

Kang, S.; Chumley, F. G.; Valent, B.

1994-01-01

315

Aphrodisiac Pheromone and its role in mating behaviour of Gamma irradiated SPODOPTERA LITTORALIS (BOISD.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aphrodisiac pheromone in male moth of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis, is secreted from a scent gland that lies in the fore wings and hair pencils. The damage of the gland by gamma irradiation or elimination of the fore wings reduced mating percentage and the other related mating aspects. Multiple mating seldom was occurred in the eliminated wing males and this mean that the wing gland was effective in mating behaviour. The knowledge on pheromone glands and their role in mating behaviour have been appeared to be essential in the integrated control programmes

2007-01-01

316

Sperm precedence in female apple maggots alternately mated to normal and irradiated males  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dose of irradiation (Cesium 137) of 3 krad was sufficient to sterilize both sexes of the apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh). When the irradiated male (IM) mated with normal female (NF), egg production was not reduced compared with a normal mating, but the eggs were not viable. Also, two matings of 1 NF with either 2 IM or with 1 NM and 1 IM, produced fewer eggs than a single mating with 1 normal male. Sperm precedence exhibited for the 2nd of the 2 matings was not complete

1976-01-15

317

New insights into parental effects and toxicity: Mate availability and diet in the parental environment affect offspring responses to contaminants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parental effects manifest as alterations in offspring phenotype resulting from the parental phenotype and/or parental environment. We evaluated the effects of parental diet quality and mating strategy on the toxicant tolerance of offspring in Biomphalaria glabrata snails. We raised snails either individually (self-fertilizing) or in groups of three (outcrossing) on a diet of uncooked lettuce, fish food, cooked lettuce, or cooked lettuce plus fish food. We then exposed their offspring to cadmium and malathion challenges. Cadmium tolerance varied with parental diet and was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails than self-fertilizing snails. Malathion tolerance was not affected by parental diet but was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails. These results indicate that offspring responses to stressors are heavily influenced by parental experience, but may depend on the specific stressor and the mechanism of action and/or detoxification. -- Highlights: •We reared parental snails either alone or in groups and fed them one of four diets. •We exposed their juvenile offspring to cadmium and malathion survival challenges. •Outcrossing increased toxicant tolerance of juveniles compared to self-fertilizing. •Parental diet affected juvenile offspring tolerance to cadmium but not malathion. •Toxicant characteristics likely influenced parental effects on toxicant tolerance. -- Both parental diet composition and mating strategy can significantly alter the toxicant tolerance of offspring, and toxicant characteristics likely influence the probability of parental effects

2013-09-01

318

Interactive cueing with walk-Mate for Hemiparetic Stroke Rehabilitation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Many techniques that compensate for locomotion problems in daily life using externally controlled stimulation have recently been reported. These techniques are beneficial for effortlessly supporting patients’ locomotive functions, but the users of such devices must necessarily remain dependent on them. It is possible that some individuals with gait impairment may be prevented recovering locomotive function. From a rehabilitation viewpoint, it may therefore be supposed that ideally, devices that can be used in daily life to improve the locomotive functions of the body itself should be proposed. Methods We evaluate the effectiveness of Walk-Mate, which has been used mainly as a gait compensation device, as a gait rehabilitation training device by analyzing improvement in locomotion before, during and after rehabilitation in hemiparetic patients and comparing it with a previous gait training method. Walk-Mate generates a model walking rhythm in response to a user’s locomotion in real time, and by indicating this rhythm using auditory stimuli, provides a technology that supports walking by reducing asymmetries and fluctuations in foot contact rhythm. If patients can use the system to learn a regulated walking rhythm, then it may also be expected to fulfil the functions of a gait rehabilitation training device for daily life. Results With regard to asymmetry, significantly improvements were seen for compensatory movement during training using Walk-Mate, but improvements were not retained as rehabilitative results. Regarding fluctuations in the foot contact period, significant improvement was observed for compensatory movement during training and these significant improvements were retained as rehabilitative results. In addition, it became clear that such improvement could not be adequately obtained by the previously proposed training technique utilizing constant rhythmic auditory stimulation. Conclusions Walk-Mate effectively compensated for locomotion problems of hemiparetic patients by improving gait rhythm both during and after training, suggesting that locomotive function can be effectively recovered in some patients. The interactive mechanism of Walk-Mate may be capable of simultaneously achieving the aims of gait compensation and gait rehabilitation training methods previously developed under individual frameworks. Walk-Mate is a promising technology for assisting the reintegration of disabled persons into society.

Muto Takeshi

2012-08-01

319

MF?1, the Gene Encoding the ? Mating Pheromone of Candida albicans†  

Science.gov (United States)

Candida albicans, the single most frequently isolated human fungal pathogen, was thought to be asexual until the recent discovery of the mating-type-like locus (MTL). Homozygous MTL strains were constructed and shown to mate. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that opaque-phase cells are more efficient in mating than white-phase cells. The similarity of the genes involved in the mating pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and C. albicans includes at least one gene (KEX2) that is involved in the processing of the ? mating pheromone in the two yeasts. Taking into account this similarity, we searched the C. albicans genome for sequences that would encode the ? pheromone gene. Here we report the isolation and characterization of the gene MF?1, which codes for the precursor of the ? mating pheromone in C. albicans. Two active ?-peptides, 13 and 14 amino acids long, would be generated after the precursor molecule is processed in C. albicans. To examine the role of this gene in mating, we constructed an mf?1 null mutant of C. albicans. The mf?1 null mutant fails to mate as MTL?, while MTLa mf?1 cells are still mating competent. Experiments performed with the synthetic ?-peptides show that they are capable of inducing growth arrest, as demonstrated by halo tests, and also induce shmooing in MTLa cells of C. albicans. These peptides are also able to complement the mating defect of an MTL? kex2 mutant strain when added exogenously, thereby confirming their roles as ? mating pheromones.

Panwar, Sneh L.; Legrand, Melanie; Dignard, Daniel; Whiteway, Malcolm; Magee, Paul. T.

2003-01-01

320

Post-mating change in excretion by mated Drosophila melanogaster females is a long-term response that depends on sex peptide and sperm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drosophila seminal fluid proteins elicit physiological and behavioral changes in the female after mating. For example, the seminal protein sex peptide (SP) causes females to lay more eggs, reduce receptivity to re-mating, consume more food and produce more concentrated excreta upon mating. It has been reported that SP indirectly increases food consumption as a result of its stimulation of egg production, but its role in producing more concentrated excreta in the mated female was reported to be independent of egg production. Additionally, it has been shown that SP's effect on food consumption persists for several days after mating, while it is unknown whether this is true for its effect on excretion. SP can have both transient and long-term effects on mated females; the latter occur because of the peptide's binding to, and slow release from, sperm in the female. Here we used timed measures of excretion by female flies that had mated to males mutant in SP or in its regulators, to test the duration of SP's effect on excretion. We found that SP's effect on excretion persists for at least ~1 week after mating, and that this persistence requires that SP bind to and be released from sperm. Although these binding/release requirements of SP are similar to those for increased egg production (and consequent increased food intake) following mating, we find that the long-term change in excretion phenotype is only partially dependent on the presence of eggs in the female. Our data indicate that a change in intestinal transit is part of the long-term post-mating response elicited by the gradual release of sperm-bound SP in the female after mating, even though it is not fully dependent on other long-term responses elicited by SP. PMID:23891750

Apger-McGlaughon, Jennifer; Wolfner, Mariana F

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Simple Model of Mating Preference and Extinction Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a simple model of a population of individuals characterized by their genetic structure in the form of a double string of bits and the phenotype following from it. The population is living in an unchanging habitat preferring a certain type of phenotype (optimum). Individuals are unisex, however a pair is necessary for breeding. An individual rejects a mate if the latter's phenotype contains too many bad, i.e. different from the optimum, genes in the same places as the individual's. We show that such strategy, analogous to disassortative mating based on the major histocompatibility complex, avoiding inbreeding and incest, could be beneficial for the population and could reduce considerably the extinction risk, especially in small populations.

P?KALSKI, Andrzej

322

Experimental evolution reveals trade-offs between mating and immunity  

Science.gov (United States)

Immune system maintenance and upregulation is costly. Sexual selection intensity, which increases male investment into reproductive traits, is expected to create trade-offs with immune function. We assayed phenoloxidase (PO) and lytic activity of individuals from populations of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, which had been evolving under different intensities of sexual selection. We found significant divergence among populations, with males from female-biased populations having lower PO activity than males from balanced sex ratio or male-biased populations. There was no divergence in anti-bacterial lytic activity. Our data suggest that it is the increased male mating demands in female-biased populations that trades-off against immunity, and not the increased investment in sperm transfer per mating that characterizes male-biased populations.

McNamara, Kathryn B.; Wedell, Nina; Simmons, Leigh W.

2013-01-01

323

Honey Bee Mating Optimization Vector Quantization Scheme in Image Compression  

Science.gov (United States)

The vector quantization is a powerful technique in the applications of digital image compression. The traditionally widely used method such as the Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) algorithm always generated local optimal codebook. Recently, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is adapted to obtain the near-global optimal codebook of vector quantization. In this paper, we applied a new swarm algorithm, honey bee mating optimization, to construct the codebook of vector quantization. The proposed method is called the honey bee mating optimization based LBG (HBMO-LBG) algorithm. The results were compared with the other two methods that are LBG and PSO-LBG algorithms. Experimental results showed that the proposed HBMO-LBG algorithm is more reliable and the reconstructed images get higher quality than those generated form the other three methods.

Horng, Ming-Huwi

324

Stratification in the Early Stages of Mate Choice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sociologists have long studied mate choice patterns to understand the shape of stratification systems. Romantic pairing involves intimacy and trust, and is therefore a prime indicator of the extent to which members of different social groupings (race/ethnicity, social class, education, religion) accept each other as social equals. The majority of this literature focuses on marriage, given the commitment marriage implies and the availability of nationally-representative data. In this dissertat...

Lewis, Kevin

2012-01-01

325

Fluoxetine does not prevent interspecific mating between two hamster species  

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In a recent study we showed that female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) from a laboratory stock readily mated with male Turkish hamsters (M. brandti). We hypothesized that captivity and/or unconscious selection of the most receptive females by researchers or animal caretakers results in heightened female sexual receptivity and reduces the tendency to reject heterospecific males. To test this hypothesis, we decided to decrease female receptivity by injection of fluoxetine, which increas...

Delbarco-trillo, Javier; Johnston, Robert E.

2010-01-01

326

Mate choice in the galilee St. Peter's fish, Sarotherodongal galilaeus  

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This study reveals the correlation between operational sex ratio (OSR), body characteristics and pairing in one-year-old reproductively active St. Peter’s fish, Sarotherodon galilaeus, a mouth brooding tilapia that shows a wide variety in mating strategies including uni- vs biparental brood care, and monogamy vs polygamy. In this study individually marked fish were exposed to different OSR regimes: male-biased, balanced, and female-biased. Larger individuals formed a pair mor...

Ros, Albert F. H.; Zeilstra, Iija; Oliveira, Rui Filipe

2003-01-01

327

Sexual conflict over mating and fertilization: an overview  

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Sexual conflict is a conflict between the evolutionary interests of individuals of the two sexes. The sexes can have different trait optima but this need not imply conflict if their optima can be attained simultaneously. Conflict requires an interaction between males and females (e.g. mating or parental care), such that the optimal outcomes for each sex cannot be achieved simultaneously. It is important to distinguish between battleground models, which define the parameter space for conflict ...

Parker, G. A.

2006-01-01

328

The use of multiple cues in mate choice  

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An increasing number of studies find females to base their mate choice on several cues. Why this occurs is debated and many different hypotheses have been proposed. Here I review the hypotheses and the evidence in favour of them. At the same time I provide a new categorisation based on the adaptiveness of the preferences and the information content of the cues. A few comparative and empirical studies suggest that most multiple cues are Fisherian attractiveness cues or uninformative cues that ...

Candolin, Ulrika

2003-01-01

329

Assortative Mating and Divorce: Evidence from Austrian Register Data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper documents that changes in assortative mating patterns over the last four decades along the dimensions of age, ethnicity, religion and education are not responsible for the increasing marital instability in Austria. Quite the contrary, without the rise in the age at marriage, divorce rates would be considerably higher. Immigration and secularization, and the resulting supply of spouses with diverse ethnicity and religious denominations had no overall effect on divorce rates. Counter...

Frimmel, Wolfgang; Halla, Martin; Winter-ebmer, Rudolf

2009-01-01

330

Assortative mating and divorce: evidence from Austrian register data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper documents that changes in assortative mating patterns over the last four decades along the dimensions of age, ethnicity and religion are not responsible for the increasing marital stability in Austria. Quite the contrary, without the rise in the age at marriage, divorce rates would be considerably higher. Immigration and secularization, and the resulting supply of spouses with diverse ethnicity and religious denominations had no overall effect on divorce rates. Countervailing effec...

Frimmel, Wolfgang; Halla, Martin; Winter-ebmer, Rudolf

2009-01-01

331

Assortative Mating and Divorce: Evidence from Austrian Register Data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper documents that changes in assortative mating patterns over the last four decades along the dimensions of age, ethnicity, religion and education are not responsible for the increasing marital instability. Quite the contrary, without the rise in the age at marriage, divorce rates would be considerably higher. Immigration and secularization, and the resulting supply of spouses with diverse ethnicity and religious denominations had no overall effect on divorce rates. Countervailing eff...

Frimmel, Wolfgang; Halla, Martin; Winter-ebmer, Rudolf

2010-01-01

332

Mating competition between farmed and wild cod Gadus morhua  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increasing numbers of hatchery-produced fish entering marine environments has caused concern over potential fitness depressions in wild populations, yet no study has addressed the likelihood of hybridisation between farmed and wild marine fish. Escape rates of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. from commercial net pens have been substantial and there is a risk of interbreeding between depleted local coastal populations and escapees. We studied mating competition between farmed and wild cod in 2 mix...

Skjæraasen, Jon Egil; Meager, Justin J.; Karlsen, Ørjan; Mayer, Ian; Dahle, Geir; Rudolfsen, Geir; Ferno?, Anders

2010-01-01

333

Mating and Tetrad Separation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for Genetic Analysis  

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The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas) has become a popular organism for research in diverse areas of cell biology and genetics because of its simple life cycle, ease of growth and manipulation for genetic analysis, genomic resources, and transformability of the nucleus and both organelles. Mating strains is a common practice when genetic approaches are used in Chlamydomonass, to create vegetative diploids for analysis of dominance, or following tetrad dissection...

Jiang, Xingshan; Stern, David

2009-01-01

334

Asymmetric reproductive isolation during simultaneous reciprocal mating in pulmonates  

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The generality of asymmetric reproductive isolation between reciprocal crosses suggests that the evolution of isolation mechanisms often proceeds in reciprocal asymmetry. In hermaphroditic snails that copulate simultaneously and reciprocally, asymmetry in premating isolation may not be readily detectable because the failure of the symmetric performance of courtship would prevent copulation from occurring. On the other hand, through their prolonged copulation, snails discriminate among mates w...

Wiwegweaw, Amporn; Seki, Keiichi; Mori, Hiroshi; Asami, Takahiro

2009-01-01

335

Complex Mhc-based mate choice in a wild passerine  

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The extreme polymorphism of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) is famous for protecting hosts against constantly evolving pathogens. Mate choice is often evoked as a means of maintaining Mhc variability through avoidance of partners with similar Mhc alleles or preference for heterozygotes. Evidence for these two hypotheses mostly comes from studies on humans and laboratory mice. Here, we tested these hypotheses in a wild outbred population of house sparrows (Passer domestic...

Bonneaud, Camille; Chastel, Olivier; Federici, Pierre; Westerdahl, Helena; Sorci, Gabriele

2006-01-01

336

Mating frequency influences nectar amino acid preference of Pieris napi.  

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It is generally assumed that butterflies, as is the case with many holometabolous insects, rely primarily on nutrients gathered by larval feeding for somatic maintenance and fecundity. These reserves can be supplemented by adult feeding and in some cases by nuptial gifts passed from the males to the females during mating. Recent findings indicate that female butterflies detect and prefer nectar with high levels of amino acids, thus calling new attention to this nutritive source. Polyandrous s...

2004-01-01

337

Alterações agudas dos níveis de neurotransmissores em corpo estriado de ratos jovens após estado epiléptico induzido por pilocarpina Acute alterations of neurotransmitters levels in striatum of young rat after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Altas doses de agonista colinérgico muscarínico, pilocarpina, produzem alterações comportamentais, convulsões e estado epiléptico em ratos. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar as alterações nas concentrações dos neurotransmissores em corpo estriado de ratos em desenvolvimento após estado epiléptico induzido pela pilocarpina. Ratas Wistar foram tratadas com uma única dose de pilocarpina (400mg/Kg; s.c.. Controles receberam salina. A concentração dos neurotransmissores foi determinada através do HPLC, no corpo estriado de ratos que no período de observação de 1 e 24h desencadearam estado epiléptico e não sobreviveram à fase aguda do quadro convulsivo. Foi observada redução nos níveis de dopamina, serotonina, ácido dihidroxifenilacético, ácido 5-hidroxiindolacético, e aumento no ácido 4-hidroxi-3-metoxi-fenilacético. Os resultados mostraram que a ativação do sistema colinérgico pode interagir com os sistemas dopaminérgico e serotonérgico nos mecanismos referentes à fase aguda do processo convulsivo.High doses of the muscarinic cholinergic agonist, pilocarpine, result in behavioural changes, seizures and status epilepticus in rats. The purpose of the present work is to invetigate the striatal neurotransmissors level in young rats after status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine. Wistar rats were treated with a single dose of pilocarpine (400mg/Kg; s.c.. Controls received saline. Young animals were closed observed for behavioural changes during 1 and 24h. In these periods, the animals that developed status epilepticus and didn't survive this acute phase of seizures had the brains removed and striatal neurotransmissors level determined by HPLC. The concentration of dopamine, serotonine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid was reduced and an increase in 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenylacetic acid was observed. These results suggest that cholinergic activation can interage with dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in acute phase of the convulsive process in immature striatum.

Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

2003-06-01

338

Male Mating Tactics in Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta): The Influence of Dominance, Markets, and Relationship Quality  

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Male mating success in a multimale–multifemale group can depend on several variables: body condition, dominance, coalitions, “friendship,” or an exchange of services for mating access. Exchange patterns may also be determined by market effects or social relationships. We studied the mating tactics of males in a captive, multimale–multifemale group of rhesus macaques and the resulting patterns of mating and paternity to determine the influence of dominance rank, mating markets, and rel...

Massen, Jorg J. M.; Overduin-de Vries, Anne M.; Vos-rouweler, Annemiek J. M.; Spruijt, Berry M.; Doxiadis, Gaby G. M.; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

2012-01-01

339

Genomic analysis of post-mating changes in the honey bee queen (Apis mellifera)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms underlying the post-mating behavioral and physiological transitions undergone by females have not been explored in great detail. Honey bees represent an excellent model system in which to address these questions because they exhibit a range of "mating states," with two extremes (virgins and egg-laying, mated queens) that differ dramatically in their behavior, pheromone profiles, and physiology. We used an incompletely-mated mating-...

Kocher Sarah D; Richard Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy David R; Grozinger Christina M

2008-01-01

340

NUTRIÇÃO E CRESCIMENTO DA ERVA-MATE SUBMETIDA À CALAGEM  

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Full Text Available A erva-mate ocorre naturalmente em solos ácidos, mas é comumente cultivada em consórcio com culturasanuais que requerem correção da acidez. Contudo, pouco se conhece sobre seu comportamento frente àcalagem. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar a influência do calcário no crescimento e estado nutricionalde plantas jovens de erva-mate. Para isso, incubou-se o solo com 0,0, 0,7, 1,8, 2,5, 3,4, 4,3 e 5,2 g dm-3de calcário. Após 21 dias de incubação, mudas de erva-mate foram transplantadas para vasos com 3 dm3de solo. Após 210 dias determinou-se o crescimento em altura e diâmetro, posteriormente separou-se asplantas em folha, caule e raiz para determinação da área foliar, comprimento e volume de raízes, produçãode matéria seca e teor de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn e Al, além da eficiência de utilização de Ca eMg pela planta. O solo foi analisado quimicamente. O calcário elevou os teores de Ca, Mg e K do soloe estimulou um pequeno aumento no crescimento da parte aérea das plantas, o que não ocorreu para osistema radicular. O máximo crescimento e produção de matéria seca da parte aérea da erva-mate ocorreuem pequenas doses de calcário, quando o teor de Ca e Mg no solo se situava, respectivamente, na faixade 3,3 a 3,4 e 1,1 a 1,4 cmolc dm-3. Nas maiores doses de calcário os teores foliares de Cu, Zn, Mn e Fe eo crescimento das plantas foram fortemente reduzidos. A eficiência de utilização de Ca e Mg pela plantareduziu com o aumento da disponibilidade dos mesmos no solo. A erva-mate mostrou ser pouco responsivaà calagem e muito tolerante ao Al. Desta forma, a aplicação de calcário deve visar o suprimento de Ca e Mgpara as plantas e não a correção da acidez do solo no intuito de neutralizar o Al trocável.

Delmar Santin

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

Male mate choice in Tibetan macaques Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Though females are generally more selective in mate choice, males may also benefit from mate choice if male reproductive success is limited by factors other than simply the number of female mates, and if females differ in short-term reproductive potential. We studied male mate choice in a free-ranging troop of Tibetan macaques Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China, from August 2007 to April 2008. We employed focal animal sampling and all occurrence sampling to record sexual related behaviors. Eight adult females were divided into three female quality categories according to the females’ age, rank and parity. Using male mating effort as a proxy for male mate choice, we found that males do distinguish female quality and show time-variant mating strategies. Specifically, females with dominant rank, high fecundity, and middle age attracted significantly more males. Our results suggest that female short-term reproductive potential appears to be an important variable in determining male mating effort. Male Tibetan macaques do exercise mate choice for higher quality females as well as reduce useless reproductive cost, which is consistent with the direct benefits theory of mate choice [Current Zoology 56 (2: 213–221, 2010].

Min ZHANG, Jinhua LI, Yong ZHU, Xi WANG, Su WANG

2010-04-01

342

Mating Success of Female Dungeness Crabs (Cancer magister) in Oregon Coastal Waters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Dungeness crab is an important commercial and sports fishing species in Oregon. The fishery is regulated by sex, size, and season. This study examined whether female crabs are mating despite the removal of almost all legal-size male crabs each year. Of particular concern is whether large females are finding large enough mates. Females were collected from three Oregon fishing ports, dissected, and checked for evidence of mating. Captured male and female crabs were also measured to estimate population size distributions. The majority of female crabs examined (69%) mated in the collection year, and when combined with crabs that carried sperm from previous mating encounters (females store sperm), the percent of females that would have produced viable eggs was 83%. Crabs that definitely molted during the collection year showed higher mating success (95%). The largest females examined (carapace width, 160-169 mm) showed high mating success (84% Mated in the collection year, 95% could have produced viable eggs).These numbers compare favorably with a similar survey conducted in northern California, in which 69% of molting females had mated. We conclude from the data that molting females in these Oregon fishing ports are finding mates successfully, regardless of size.

Dunn, Paul; Shanks, Alan

2012-01-01

343

Sex allocation adjustment to mating group size in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex allocation theory is considered as a touchstone of evolutionary biology, providing some of the best supported examples for Darwinian adaptation. In particular, Hamilton's local mate competition theory has been shown to generate precise predictions for extraordinary sex ratios observed in many separate-sexed organisms. In analogy to local mate competition, Charnov's mating group size model predicts how sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites is affected by the mating group size (i.e., the number of mating partners plus one). Until now, studies have not directly explored the relationship between mating group size and sex allocation, which we here achieve in the simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm Macrostomum lignano. Using transgenic focal worms with ubiquitous expression of green-fluorescent protein (GFP), we assessed the number of wild-type mating partners carrying GFP+ sperm from these focal worms when raised in different social group sizes. This allowed us to test directly how mating group size was related to the sex allocation of focal worms. We find that the proportion of male investment initially increases with increasing mating group size, but then saturates as predicted by theory. To our knowledge, this is the first direct test of the mating group size model in a simultaneously hermaphroditic animal. PMID:24152005

Janicke, Tim; Marie-Orleach, Lucas; De Mulder, Katrien; Berezikov, Eugene; Ladurner, Peter; Vizoso, Dita B; Schärer, Lukas

2013-11-01

344

Mate loss affects survival but not breeding in black brant geese  

Science.gov (United States)

For birds maintaining long-term monogamous relationships, mate loss might be expected to reduce fitness, either through reduced survival or reduced future reproductive investment. We used harvest of male brant during regular sport hunting seasons as an experimental removal to examine effects of mate loss on fitness of female black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans; hereafter brant). We used the Barker model in program MARK to examine effects of mate loss on annual survival, reporting rate, and permanent emigration. Survival rates decreased from 0.847 ± 0.004 for females who did not lose their mates to 0.690 ± 0.072 for birds who lost mates. Seber ring reporting rate for females that lost their mates were 2 times higher than those that did not lose mates, 0.12 ± 0.086 and 0.06 ± 0.006, respectively, indicating that mate loss increased vulnerability to harvest and possibly other forms of predation. We found little support for effects of mate loss on fidelity to breeding site and consequently on breeding. Our results indicate substantial fitness costs to females associated with mate loss, but that females who survived and were able to form new pair bonds may have been higher quality than the average female in the population.

Nicolai, Christopher A.; Sedinger, James S.; Ward, David H.; Boyd, W. Sean

2012-01-01

345

Co-occurrence of mated workers and a mated queen in a colony of Platythyrea arnoldi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae  

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Full Text Available ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A colony of Platythyrea arnoldi was found to contain a functional queen and laying workers, both virgin and mated. This form of social organization has never been reported in ants before.**************AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Gepaarde en ongepaarde leende werkers en 'n funksionele koningin is in 'n kolonie van Platythyrea arnoldi gevind. Die vorm van sosiale struktuur is nog nooit tevore in miere gerapporteer nie.

Martin Villet

2012-01-01

346

Size-assortative mating and sexual size dimorphism are predictable from simple mechanics of mate-grasping behavior  

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Abstract Background A major challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand the typically complex interactions between diverse counter-balancing factors of Darwinian selection for size assortative mating and sexual size dimorphism. It appears that rarely a simple mechanism could provide a major explanation of these phenomena. Mechanics of behaviors can predict animal morphology, such like adaptations to locomotion in animals from various of taxa, but its potential to predi...

Han Chang S; Jablonski Piotr G; Kim Beobkyun; Park Frank C

2010-01-01

347

Diversification under sexual selection: the relative roles of mate preference strength and the degree of divergence in mate preferences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The contribution of sexual selection to diversification remains poorly understood after decades of research. This may be in part because studies have focused predominantly on the strength of sexual selection, which offers an incomplete view of selection regimes. By contrast, students of natural selection focus on environmental differences that help compare selection regimes across populations. To ask how this disparity in focus may affect the conclusions of evolutionary research, we relate the amount of diversification in mating displays to quantitative descriptions of the strength and the amount of divergence in mate preferences across a diverse set of case studies of mate choice. We find that display diversification is better explained by preference divergence rather than preference strength; the effect of the latter is more subtle, and is best revealed as an interaction with the former. Our findings cast the action of sexual selection (and selection in general) in a novel light: the strength of selection influences the rate of evolution, and how divergent selection is determines how much diversification can occur. Adopting this view will enhance tests of the relative role of natural and sexual selection in processes such as speciation. PMID:23809185

Rodríguez, Rafael L; Boughman, Janette W; Gray, David A; Hebets, Eileen A; Höbel, Gerlinde; Symes, Laurel B

2013-08-01

348

Effect of adult diet on signaling activity, mate attraction, and mating success in male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field experiments were performed to examine the effect of adult diet on calling activity, female attraction, and mating success in male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). In all tests, comparisons were drawn between males fed sugar only ('protein-deprived' males) and males fed a protein-sugar mixture ('protein-fed' males). In tests of long-distance attraction, aggregations consisting of protein-deprived males exclusively or protein-fed males exclusively were established in a coffee field, and females were released from a central release point. Protein-fed and protein-deprived males displayed similar calling levels, but approximately twice as many female sightings were recorded at groups of protein-fed males than at groups of protein-deprived males. A second test of female attraction compared single groups of protein-deprived and protein-fed males within the canopy of a field-caged host plant. As before, calling activity did not vary with diet, and in this case numbers of female sightings were also similar between aggregations of protein-fed vs. protein-deprived males. In mating trials conducted on field-caged host plants, protein-fed males achieved significantly more matings than protein-deprived males. These results are compared with other recent studies on the nutritional ecology of male Mediterranean fruit flies. (author)

2002-03-01

349

Functional Characterization of MAT1-1-Specific Mating-Type Genes in the Homothallic Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora Provides New Insights into Essential and Nonessential Sexual Regulators?†  

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Mating-type genes in fungi encode regulators of mating and sexual development. Heterothallic ascomycete species require different sets of mating-type genes to control nonself-recognition and mating of compatible partners of different mating types. Homothallic (self-fertile) species also carry mating-type genes in their genome that are essential for sexual development. To analyze the molecular basis of homothallism and the role of mating-type genes during fruiting-body development, we deleted ...

Klix, V.; Nowrousian, M.; Ringelberg, C.; Loros, J. J.; Dunlap, J. C.; Po?ggeler, S.

2010-01-01

350

Nonkonvulsif Status Epileptikus  

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Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE can be divided into two subgroups, convulsive status epilepticus (CSE and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE. NCSE is clinically characterized by recurrence or persistence of absence or complex partial seizures which unconsciousness persists. Seizures are lasted more than 30 minutes, and accompanied by mental and behavioral changes. Although the main feature is the change of level of consciousness, affective, memory, cognitive, speech, motor systems, behavioral and psychiatric disorders can be also seen. Electroencephalography (EEG is the single diagnostic method in this situation. NCSE constitutes approximately 25% of all SE, however it is thought that sometimes it is misdiagnosed and the incidence of NCSE may be higher. The causes are disorders of central nervous system (stroke, infection, trauma, tumor, and metabolic factors (hypoxia, renal diseases, drugs, failure to use antiepileptic drug. The treatment contains the standard therapy of SE. Short-acting benzodiazepines are preferred in initial treatment. For more resistant cases, loading of phenytoin is applied. If there is no response to treatment, midazolam and propofol additionally to barbiturates can be used. We aimed to present a case admitted to our ED with altered mental status and diagnosed as NCSE that is under-diagnosed.

Ayhan AKÖZ

2013-01-01

351

Temperature, age of mating and starvation determine the role of maternal effects on sex allocation in the mealybug Planococcus citri.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental effects on sex allocation are common, yet the evolutionary significance of these effects remains poorly understood. Environmental effects might influence parents, such that their condition directly influences sex allocation by altering the relative benefits of producing sons versus daughters. Alternatively, the environment might influence the offspring themselves, such that the conditions they find themselves in influence their contribution to parental fitness. In both cases, parents might be selected to bias their sex ratio according to the prevailing environmental conditions. Here, we consider sex allocation in the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri, a species with an unusual genetic system in which paternal genes are lost from the germline in males. We test environmental factors that may influence either female condition directly (rearing temperature and food restriction) or that may be used as cues of the future environment (age at mating). Using cytological techniques to obtain primary sex ratios, we show that high temperature, older age at mating and starvation all affect sex allocation, resulting in female-biased sex ratios. However, the effect of temperature is rather weak, and food restriction appears to be strongly associated with reduced longevity and a truncation of the usual schedule of male and offspring production across a female's reproductive lifetime. Instead, facultative sex allocation seems most convincingly affected by age at mating, supporting previous work that suggests that social interactions experienced by adult P. citri females are used when allocating sex. Our results highlight that, even within one species, different aspects of the environment may have conflicting effects on sex allocation. PMID:21625649

Ross, Laura; Dealey, Elizabeth J; Beukeboom, Leo W; Shuker, David M

2011-05-01

352

Degree of adaptive male mate choice is positively correlated with female quality variance  

Science.gov (United States)

When the cost of reproduction for males and variance in female quality are high, males are predicted to show adaptive mate choice. Using Drosophila melanogaster, we test this prediction and show that sperm limited males preferentially mated with young and/or well fed females. The preferred females had higher reproductive output – direct evidence of adaptive precopulatory male mate choice. Our most striking finding is the strong positive correlation between the degree of mating bias showed by the males and the variance in the fitness of the females. We discuss the possible mechanism for such adaptive male mate choice and propose that such choice has important consequences with respect to the existing understanding of the mating system and the evolution of aging.

Nandy, Bodhisatta; Joshi, Abhilasha; Ali, Zeeshan Syed; Sen, Sharmi; Prasad, Nagraj Guru

2012-01-01

353

“Attached” or “Unattached”: With Whom do Men and Women Prefer to Mate, and Why?  

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Full Text Available A mate poacher is an individual who has sexual relations with someone whom the poacher knows is already in a nominally exclusive, long-term relationship. This article reviews research in which participants were asked to rate the likelihood that benefits and costs exclusively associated with poaching would motivate them to attract, respectively, an attached or an unattached individual, assuming that the potential mates are equally attractive. The results indicated that for men and women to be motivated to poach, the attached individual must be perceived as being more attractive than the unattached individual. Discussion suggests that mate poaching may sometimes be pursued as an alternative to coercive mating strategies, by individuals who are unable to secure unattached mates of acceptable attractiveness. We further hypothesize that individuals may pursue a hierarchy of conditional mating strategies from attracting unattached individuals, through poaching, to coercion. Additional findings of sex differences in perceptions of benefits and costs exclusive to poaching also are discussed.

Alastair P.C. Davies

2006-12-01

354

Is accoustic communication essential in the mating behavior of Empyreuma pugione (Erebidae: Arctiinae?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical and acoustic communication are involved in species recognition and in female mate-choice during the mating behavior of many nocturnal Lepidoptera. Here, we analyzed the effect of audition and sound production in Empyreuma pugione reproductive behavior. For this, we combine intact females and males with deaf-mute animals and measured the number of successful matings in three experimental conditions: (1 couples of intact females and males, (2 couples of deaf-mute males and intact females, (3 couples of intact males and deaf-mute females. We found successful matings for the three tested combinations without significant difference between experimental conditions. 29 % of the successful mating occurred between deaf-mute males and intact females and 24 % between deaf-mute females and intact males. Our results suggest that sound production in E. pugione is not essential during courtship behavior and probably the chemical communication combined with other sensory systems is enough for select and accept mates.

Yohami Fernández

2013-04-01

355

Social learning and human mate preferences: a potential mechanism for generating and maintaining between-population diversity in attraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inspired by studies demonstrating mate-choice copying effects in non-human species, recent studies of attractiveness judgements suggest that social learning also influences human preferences. In the first part of our article, we review evidence for social learning effects on preferences in humans and other animals. In the second part, we present new empirical evidence that social learning not only influences the attractiveness of specific individuals, but can also generalize to judgements of previously unseen individuals possessing similar physical traits. The different conditions represent different populations and, once a preference arises in a population, social learning can lead to the spread of preferences within that population. In the final part of our article, we discuss the theoretical basis for, and possible impact of, biases in social learning whereby individuals may preferentially copy the choices of those with high status or better access to critical information about potential mates. Such biases could mean that the choices of a select few individuals carry the greatest weight, rapidly generating agreement in preferences within a population. Collectively, these issues suggest that social learning mechanisms encourage the spread of preferences for certain traits once they arise within a population and so may explain certain cross-cultural differences. PMID:21199841

Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; Debruine, Lisa M; Caldwell, Christine A

2011-02-12

356

Assortative mating among Lake Malawi cichlid fish populations is not simply predictable from male nuptial colour  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the evolution of reproductive isolation in African cichlid fishes has largely focussed on the role of male colours and female mate choice. Here, we tested predictions from the hypothesis that allopatric divergence in male colour is associated with corresponding divergence in preference. Methods We studied four populations of the Lake Malawi Pseudotropheus zebra complex. We predicted that more distantly-related populations that independently evolved similar colours would interbreed freely while more closely-related populations with different colours mate assortatively. We used microsatellite genotypes or mesh false-floors to assign paternity. Fisher's exact tests as well as Binomial and Wilcoxon tests were used to detect if mating departed from random expectations. Results Surprisingly, laboratory mate choice experiments revealed significant assortative mating not only between population pairs with differently coloured males, but between population pairs with similarly-coloured males too. This suggested that assortative mating could be based on non-visual cues, so we further examined the sensory basis of assortative mating between two populations with different male colour. Conducting trials under monochromatic (orange light, intended to mask the distinctive male dorsal fin hues (blue v orange of these populations, did not significantly affect the assortative mating by female P. emmiltos observed under control conditions. By contrast, assortative mating broke down when direct contact between female and male was prevented. Conclusion We suggest that non-visual cues, such as olfactory signals, may play an important role in mate choice and behavioural isolation in these and perhaps other African cichlid fish. Future speciation models aimed at explaining African cichlid radiations may therefore consider incorporating such mating cues in mate choice scenarios.

Taylor Martin I

2009-03-01

357

Does foreplay matter? Gammarus pulex females may benefit from long-lasting precopulatory mate guarding  

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Precopulatory mate guarding (PCMG) is generally assumed to be costly for both sexes. However, males may gain by displaying long-lasting mate guarding under strong male–male competition. Surprisingly, the potential for females to benefit from being held by males has been largely overlooked in previous studies. In Gammarus pulex, an amphipod crustacean, PCMG lasts several weeks, yet females are described as bearing only cost from such male mating strategy. We investigated potential female ben...

2011-01-01

358

Structure, Function, and Phylogeny of the Mating Locus in the Rhizopus oryzae Complex  

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The Rhizopus oryzae species complex is a group of zygomycete fungi that are common, cosmopolitan saprotrophs. Some strains are used beneficially for production of Asian fermented foods but they can also act as opportunistic human pathogens. Although R. oryzae reportedly has a heterothallic (+/?) mating system, most strains have not been observed to undergo sexual reproduction and the genetic structure of its mating locus has not been characterized. Here we report on the mating behavior and ...

Gryganskyi, Andrii P.; Lee, Soo Chan; Litvintseva, Anastasia P.; Smith, Matthew E.; Bonito, Gregory; Porter, Teresita M.; Anishchenko, Iryna M.; Heitman, Joseph; Vilgalys, Rytas

2010-01-01

359

Evolution of sex ratios in social hymenoptera: kin selection, local mate competition, polyandry and kin recognition  

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A model is constructed to study the effects of local mate competition and multiple mating on the optimum allocation of resources between the male and female reproductive brood in social hymenopteran colonies from the 'points of view' of the queen (parental manipulation theory) as well as the workers (kin selection theory). Competition between pairs of alleles specifying different sex investment ratios is investigated in a game theoretic frame work. All other things being equal, local mate com...

1985-01-01

360

Evolutionary strata in a small mating-type-specific region of the smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA sequence analysis and genetic mapping of loci from mating-type-specific chromosomes of the smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum demonstrated that the nonrecombining mating-type-specific region in this species comprises approximately 25% ( approximately 1 Mb) of the chromosome length. Divergence between homologous mating-type-linked genes in this region varies between 0 and 8.6%, resembling the evolutionary strata of vertebrate and plant sex chromosomes. PMID:19448270

Votintseva, Antonina A; Filatov, Dmitry A

2009-08-01

 
 
 
 
361

Geographic Distribution of Mating Type Alleles of Cryptococcus neoformans in Four Areas of the United States  

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To better understand the epidemiology and population structure of Cryptococcus neoformans, we determined mating types for 358 C. neoformans strains isolated through the active surveillance program from 1992 to 1994 in four geographic areas in the United States: San Francisco, California; Georgia; Texas; and Alabama. Two assays were used to determine mating types: (i) crossing with standard laboratory tester strains JEC20 and JEC21 on V8 agar medium; and (ii) PCR with the mating type ? allele...

Yan, Zhun; Li, Xiaogang; Xu, Jianping

2002-01-01

362

Reconciling sexual selection to species recognition: a process-based model of mating decision  

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Mating signals often encode information important for both species recognition and mate quality assessment and endure selection pressures that combine both stabilizing and directional components. Here, we present a family of models of mate preference for multiplemessage signals. Our models are process based rather than purely normative, they assume the existence of one (or more) ‘‘utility function’’ that order signals along a scale of perceived appropriateness, and interpret preferenc...

Cermelli, Paolo; Castellano, Sergio

2006-01-01

363

HERITABILITY OF AND EARLY ENVIRONMENT EFFECTS ON VARIATION IN MATING PREFERENCES  

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Many species show substantial between-individual variation in mating preferences, but studying the causes of such variation remains a challenge. For example, the relative importance of heritable variation versus shared early environment effects (like sexual imprinting) on mating preferences has never been quantified in a population of animals. Here, we estimate the heritability of and early rearing effects on mate choice decisions in zebra finches based on the similarity of choices between pa...

Schielzeth, Holger; Bolund, Elisabeth; Forstmeier, Wolfgang

2010-01-01

364

Geographical variation in reproductive character displacement in mate choice by male sailfin mollies.  

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Female Amazon mollies, Poecilia formosa, are a unisexual species that reproduce by gynogenesis. They must coexist and mate with males of other species (usually the mollies Poecilia latipinna or Poecilia mexicana) to induce embryogenesis, but inheritance is strictly maternal. We examined the mating preference of the male sailfin molly, P. latipinna, for female sailfin mollies versus Amazon mollies, P. formosa. We compared the mating preferences of sympatric and allopatric populations collected...

Gabor, C. R.; Ryan, M. J.

2001-01-01

365

Sex and the public: Social eavesdropping, sperm competition risk and male mate choice  

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Mate choice can be sensitive to social cues from neighboring individuals, e.g., animals can copy mate choice decisions. Males that are at risk of being copied by others may respond to this with reduced preference expression (“audience effects”). We review the various pathways by which sperm competition risk affects (1) male mate copying behavior and (2) audience effects. For example, a recent study suggests that males gather complex social information on rivals' sexual competitiveness (se...

Plath, Martin; Bierbach, David

2011-01-01

366

Phenotypic differentiation and pre-mating isolation between allopatric populations of Girardinichthys multiradiatus  

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Sexual selection may lead to reproductive isolation between populations through divergence in female mate choice, and population differentiation driven by female mate choice is expected to produce pre- but not post-mating isolation. We tested these hypotheses by looking at whether allopatric populations of the Amarillo (Girardinichthys multiradiatus), a sexually dimorphic viviparous fish with effective female choice, (i) have undergone phenotypical differentiation that may be attributed to di...

Gonza?lez Zuarth, Cesar; Maci?as Garcia, Constantino

2006-01-01

367

An Experimental Test of Condition-Dependent Male and Female Mate Choice in Zebra Finches  

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In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choic...

Holveck, Marie-jeanne; Geberzahn, Nicole; Riebel, Katharina

2011-01-01

368

The strength of a female mate preference increases with predation risk  

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When females search for mates and their perceived risk of predation increases, they less often express preferences for males that use conspicuous courtship signals, relaxing sexual selection on production of these signals. Here, we report an apparent exception to this general pattern. Courting male fiddler crabs Uca beebei sometimes build pillars of mud at the openings to their burrows in which crabs mate. Females visit several males before they choose a mate by staying and breeding in their ...

Kim, Tae Won; Christy, John H.; Dennenmoser, Stefan; Choe, Jae C.

2009-01-01

369

An experimental test of condition-dependent male and female mate choice in zebra finches  

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In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choic...

Holveck, Marie-jeanne; Geberzahn, Nicole; Riebel, Katharina

2011-01-01

370

Socially transmitted mate preferences in a monogamous bird: a non-genetic mechanism of sexual selection  

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There is increasing evidence that animals can acquire mate preferences through the use of public information, notably by observing (and copying) the mate preferences of others in the population. If females acquire preferences through social mechanisms, sexual selection could act very rapidly to spread the preference and drive elaboration of the preferred trait(s). Although there are reports of ‘mate-choice copying’ in polygynous species, there is no clear evidence for this process in mono...

Swaddle, John P.; Cathey, Mark G.; Correll, Maureen; Hodkinson, Brendan P.

2005-01-01

371

Evolutionary Strata in a Small Mating-Type-Specific Region of the Smut Fungus Microbotryum violaceum  

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DNA sequence analysis and genetic mapping of loci from mating-type-specific chromosomes of the smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum demonstrated that the nonrecombining mating-type-specific region in this species comprises ?25% (?1 Mb) of the chromosome length. Divergence between homologous mating-type-linked genes in this region varies between 0 and 8.6%, resembling the evolutionary strata of vertebrate and plant sex chromosomes.

Votintseva, Antonina A.; Filatov, Dmitry A.

2009-01-01

372

Reproductive behaviour of Crocidosema (=Epinotia) aporema (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): temporal pattern of female calling and mating  

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Crocidosema aporema (Walsingham) is a major pest of legumes in the southern cone of Latin America. The mating behaviour of two allopatric populations (Uruguay and Brazil) of C. aporema kept in captivity was studied by observing the posture of calling females, the temporal pattern of pheromone emission and mating, and the response of males to calling females in olfactometer tests. Female calling and mating was observed during the scotophase, from the first to the seventh night after adult emer...

Paula Altesor; Horas, Vanusa R.; Arcia, Mari?a P.; Carmen Rossini; Zarbin, Paulo H. G.; Andrés González

2010-01-01

373

Asexual Cephalosporin C Producer Acremonium chrysogenum Carries a Functional Mating Type Locus?  

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Acremonium chrysogenum, the fungal producer of the pharmaceutically relevant ?-lactam antibiotic cephalosporin C, is classified as asexual because no direct observation of mating or meiosis has yet been reported. To assess the potential of A. chrysogenum for sexual reproduction, we screened an expressed sequence tag library from A. chrysogenum for the expression of mating type (MAT) genes, which are the key regulators of sexual reproduction. We identified two putative mating type genes that ...

Po?ggeler, Stefanie; Hoff, Birgit; Ku?ck, Ulrich

2008-01-01

374

Copulation corrupts immunity: A mechanism for a cost of mating in insects  

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There are well documented costs of mating in insects but little evidence for underlying mechanisms. Here, we provide experimental evidence for a hormone-based mechanism that reduces immunity as a result of mating. We examined the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor and show that (i) mating reduces a major humoral immune effector-system (phenoloxidase) in both sexes, and (ii) that this down-regulation is mediated by juvenile hormone. Because both juvenile hormone and phenoloxidase have highly con...

2002-01-01

375

Localizing Brain Regions Associated with Female Mate Preference Behavior in a Swordtail  

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Female mate choice behavior is a critical component of sexual selection, yet identifying the neural basis of this behavior is largely unresolved. Previous studies have implicated sensory processing and hypothalamic brain regions during female mate choice and there is a conserved network of brain regions (Social Behavior Network, SBN) that underlies sexual behaviors. However, we are only beginning to understand the role this network has in pre-copulatory female mate choice. Using in situ hybri...

Wong, Ryan Y.; Ramsey, Mary E.; Cummings, Molly E.

2012-01-01

376

Absence of Evidence for MHC–Dependent Mate Selection within HapMap Populations  

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The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of immunity genes has been reported to influence mate choice in vertebrates, and a recent study presented genetic evidence for this effect in humans. Specifically, greater dissimilarity at the MHC locus was reported for European-American mates (parents in HapMap Phase 2 trios) than for non-mates. Here we show that the results depend on a few extreme data points, are not robust to conservative changes in the analysis procedure, and cannot be reproduce...

Derti, Adnan; Cenik, Can; Kraft, Peter; Roth, Frederick P.

2010-01-01

377

Overt female mate competition and preference for central males in a lekking antelope  

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In mammals, there exists only scant evidence of female mate choice in species mating on arenas, so-called leks. This has led to hypotheses of lek evolution that are based on benefits to females from reduced harassment by males, low predation risk, or improved availability of scarce nutrients. Here I report that female topi antelopes (Damaliscus lunatus) compete aggressively for matings with preferred males on central lek territories. Females fight at higher rates and more...

Bro-jørgensen, Jakob

2002-01-01

378

The Genetic Basis of Female Mate Preference and Species Isolation in Drosophila  

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The processes that underlie mate choice have long fascinated biologists. With the advent of increasingly refined genetic tools, we are now beginning to understand the genetic basis of how males and females discriminate among potential mates. One aspect of mate discrimination of particular interest is that which isolates one species from another. As behavioral isolation is thought to be the first step in speciation, and females are choosy more often than males in this regard, identifying the g...

Laturney, Meghan; Moehring, Amanda J.

2012-01-01

379

Structure of sterol aliphatic chains affects yeast cell shape and cell fusion during mating  

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Under mating conditions, yeast cells adopt a characteristic pear-shaped morphology, called a “shmoo,” as they project a cell extension toward their mating partners. Mating partners make contact at their shmoo tips, dissolve the intervening cell wall, and fuse their plasma membranes. We identified mutations in ERG4, encoding the enzyme that catalyzes the last step of ergosterol biosynthesis, that impair both shmoo formation and cell fusion. Upon pheromone treatment, erg4? mutants polarize...

2010-01-01

380

Notes and observations on courtship and mating in Tityus (Atreus) magnimanus Pocock, 1897 (Scorpiones: Buthidae)  

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Courtship and mating behaviors of the scorpion Tityus (Atreus) magnimanus are herein described, consisting of various components that pertain to four distinct behavioral stages. The courtship and mating rituals of Tityus (Atreus) magnimanus are similar to those of other scorpions. Behavioral components are presented in an ethogram to demonstrate their occurrence during mating sequences. The current report is presented as observational data that were acquired during life history studies of thi...

Lk, Ross

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Mating type gene analysis in apparently asexual Cercospora species is suggestive of cryptic sex  

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The genus Cercospora consists of numerous important, apparently asexual plant pathogens. We designed degenerate primers from homologous sequences in related species to amplify part of the C. apii, C. apiicola, C. beticola, C. zeae-maydis and C. zeina mating type genes. Chromosome walking was used to determine the full length mating type genes of these species. Primers were developed to amplify and sequence homologous portions of the mating type genes of additional species. Phylogenetic analys...

2006-01-01

382

Mating system and the evolution of sex-specific mortality rates in two nymphalid butterflies.  

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Life-history theory predicts that organisms should invest resources into intrinsic components of lifespan only to the degree that it pays off in terms of reproductive success. The benefit of a long life may differ between the sexes and different mating systems may therefore select for different sex-specific mortality rates. In insects with polyandrous mating systems, females mate throughout their lives and male reproductive success is likely to increase monotonously with lifespan. In monandro...

Wiklund, Christer; Gotthard, Karl; Nylin, So?ren

2003-01-01

383

No evidence of an MHC-based female mating preference in great reed warblers  

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Female mate-choice based on genetic compatibility is an area of growing interest. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are likely candidates for such mate-choice since these highly polymorphic genes may both increase offspring viability and also provide direct cues for mate-choice. In great reed warblers, females actively choose a breeding partner out of a handful of males that they visit and evaluate; thus, female preference for compatible or heterozygous MHC genes could have evo...

Westerdahl, Helena

2004-01-01

384

Sperm depletion: a cost for single mated females of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)  

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The aim of this work was to test if egg viability of polyandrous females was increased with increasing number of matings. Longevity and reproductive output of females of the predatory stinkbug Podisus nigrispinus that were allowed to mate for 0, 1, 2, 3 times or were in the continuous presence of the same male was evaluated. Polyandry resulted in diminished sperm depletion. Females that had mated three times or that were in continuous presence of a male produced more offspring than females th...

Leandro Sousa-Souto; Walter Santos Evangelista Júnior; Eraldo Rodrigues de Lima; José Cola Zanuncio; Marcy das Graças Fonseca

2006-01-01

385

Adolescent aggressive behavior: Status and stimulation goals in relation to the peer context  

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Vanuit een doelbenadering werd voorspeld dat adolescenten verschillen in de mate waarin ze status- en stimulatiedoelen nastreven, wat tot problemen met zelfregulatie kan leiden. Een sterke statusbehoefte kan leiden tot dominant en daarmee agressief gedrag. Een sterke stimulatiebehoefte kan leiden tot risicozoekend gedrag, zoals regelovertreding en agressie. Uit dit promotieonderzoek bleek dat er inderdaad individuele verschillen zijn in disposities tot het nastreven van status- en stimula...

Sijtsema, Jelle Jurrit

2010-01-01

386

Evolutionary reshaping of fungal mating pathway scaffold proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scaffold proteins play central roles in the function of many signaling pathways. Among the best-studied examples are the Ste5 and Far1 proteins of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These proteins contain three conserved modules, the RING and PH domains, characteristic of some ubiquitin-ligating enzymes, and a vWA domain implicated in protein-protein interactions. In yeast, Ste5p regulates the mating pathway kinases while Far1p coordinates the cellular polarity machinery. Within the fungal lineage, the Basidiomycetes and the Pezizomycetes contain a single Far1-like protein, while several Saccharomycotina species, belonging to the CTG (Candida) clade, contain both a classic Far1-like protein and a Ste5-like protein that lacks the vWA domain. We analyzed the function of C. albicans Ste5p (Cst5p), a member of this class of structurally distinct Ste5 proteins. CST5 is essential for mating and still coordinates the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (MAPK) cascade elements in the absence of the vWA domain; Cst5p interacts with the MEK kinase (MEKK) C. albicans Ste11p (CaSte11p) and the MAPK Cek1 as well as with the MEK Hst7 in a vWA domain-independent manner. Cst5p can homodimerize, similar to Ste5p, but can also heterodimerize with Far1p, potentially forming heteromeric signaling scaffolds. We found direct binding between the MEKK CaSte11p and the MEK Hst7p that depends on a mobile acidic loop absent from S. cerevisiae Ste11p but related to the Ste7-binding region within the vWA domain of Ste5p. Thus, the fungal lineage has restructured specific scaffolding modules to coordinate the proteins required to direct the gene expression, polarity, and cell cycle regulation essential for mating. PMID:21249169

Côte, Pierre; Sulea, Traian; Dignard, Daniel; Wu, Cunle; Whiteway, Malcolm

2011-01-01

387

Accumulation and proliferation of lymphocytes in the lymph nodes of the female rat following first mating.  

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Iliac and popliteal lymph nodes were removed from Sprague-Dawley female rats killed at 12-13 weeks of age in groups of 10 animals: one group of virgin controls and 10 groups at intervals of two days until the tenth day after either 'inbred' or outbred mating. The iliac lymph nodes on the second post-coital day after outbred mating were significantly heavier than those of virgin animals and on the fourth postcoital day were significantly heavier after outbred mating than 'inbred' mating. The t...

Shaya, E. I.; Mclean, J. M.; Gibbs, A. C.

1981-01-01

388

Sexual conflict over mating in Gnatocerus cornutus? Females prefer lovers not fighters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female mate choice and male-male competition are the typical mechanisms of sexual selection. However, these two mechanisms do not always favour the same males. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that female choice can sometimes benefit males that reduce female fitness. So whether male-male competition and female choice favour the same or different males, and whether or not females benefit from mate choice, remain open questions. In the horned beetle, Gnatocerus cornutus, males have enlarged mandibles used to fight rivals, and larger mandibles provide a mating advantage when there is direct male-male competition for mates. However, it is not clear whether females prefer these highly competitive males. Here, we show that female choice targets male courtship rather than mandible size, and these two characters are not phenotypically or genetically correlated. Mating with attractive, highly courting males provided indirect benefits to females but only via the heritability of male attractiveness. However, mating with attractive males avoids the indirect costs to daughters that are generated by mating with competitive males. Our results suggest that male-male competition may constrain female mate choice, possibly reducing female fitness and generating sexual conflict over mating. PMID:24807253

Okada, Kensuke; Katsuki, Masako; Sharma, Manmohan D; House, Clarissa M; Hosken, David J

2014-06-22

389

Chemical basis of nest-mate discrimination in the ant Formica exsecta  

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Distinguishing nest-mates from non-nest-mates underlies key animal behaviours, such as territoriality, altruism and the evolution of sociality. Despite its importance, there is very little empirical support for such a mechanism in nature. Here we provide data that the nest-mate recognition mechanism in an ant is based on a colony-specific Z9-alkene signature, proving that surface chemicals are indeed used in ant nest-mate recognition as was suggested 100 years ago. We investigated the cuticul...

Martin, Stephen J.; Vitikainen, Emma; Helantera?, Heikki; Drijfhout, Falko P.

2008-01-01

390

Are human mating preferences with respect to height reflected in actual pairings?  

Science.gov (United States)

Pair formation, acquiring a mate to form a reproductive unit, is a complex process. Mating preferences are a step in this process. However, due to constraining factors such as availability of mates, rival competition, and mutual mate choice, preferred characteristics may not be realised in the actual partner. People value height in their partner and we investigated to what extent preferences for height are realised in actual couples. We used data from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK) and compared the distribution of height difference in actual couples to simulations of random mating to test how established mate preferences map on to actual mating patterns. In line with mate preferences, we found evidence for: (i) assortative mating (r?=?.18), (ii) the male-taller norm, and, for the first time, (iii) for the male-not-too-tall norm. Couples where the male partner was shorter, or over 25 cm taller than the female partner, occurred at lower frequency in actual couples than expected by chance, but the magnitude of these effects was modest. We also investigated another preference rule, namely that short women (and tall men) prefer large height differences with their partner, whereas tall women (and short men) prefer small height differences. These patterns were also observed in our population, although the strengths of these associations were weaker than previously reported strength of preferences. We conclude that while preferences for partner height generally translate into actual pairing, they do so only modestly. PMID:23342102

Stulp, Gert; Buunk, Abraham P; Pollet, Thomas V; Nettle, Daniel; Verhulst, Simon

2013-01-01

391

De novo fragment assembly with short mate-paired reads: Does the read length matter?  

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Increasing read length is currently viewed as the crucial condition for fragment assembly with next-generation sequencing technologies. However, introducing mate-paired reads (separated by a gap of length, GapLength) opens a possibility to transform short mate-pairs into long mate-reads of length ? GapLength, and thus raises the question as to whether the read length (as opposed to GapLength) even matters. We describe a new tool, EULER-USR, for assembling mate-paired short reads and use it ...

Chaisson, Mark J.; Brinza, Dumitru; Pevzner, Pavel A.

2009-01-01

392

[Mating behavior of the coffee leaf-miner Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the importance of Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville) in coffee production worldwide, there is a lack of information on its reproductive biology. This knowledge will help in mass rearing, as well as support the development of behavioral control techniques for this insect. The purpose of the study was to determine the periodicity of mating and male capture and describe the mating behavior L. coffeella. In laboratory, we observed the periodicity of mating with virgin couples of different ages, zero to five days after emergence. Male activity was studied in a 0.7 ha coffee plantation, cv. Catuaí, where Delta traps were installed at 0.5 m above ground, using either virgin females or rubber septa lured with the synthetic sex pheromone. The sequence of mating behavior was studied by making visual observations and recorded of pairs placed on individual plastic tubes. Mating occurred between 4h and 6h of photophase, when the highest frequencies involved pairs with ages of one and three days after emergence, with peak of mating occurring in 5th hour of photophase. The young or old pairs showed significantly copulation frequency and the peak of matings advance in 1h. The highest male capture occurred at 12p.m. and 13 p.m. by traps with virgin females or traps with synthetic sex pheromone lures, respectively. L. coffeella is one insect with diurnal mating and the mating behavior was not different from what is know for other Lepidoptera species. PMID:17710320

Michereff, Mirian F F; Michereff Filho, Miguel; Vilela, Evaldo F

2007-01-01

393

Prm1 prevents contact-dependent lysis of yeast mating pairs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Membrane fusion requires localized destabilization of two phospholipid bilayers, but unrestrained membrane destabilization could result in lysis. prm1 mutant yeast cells have a defect at the plasma membrane fusion stage of mating that typically results in the accumulation of prezygotes that have fingers of membrane-bound cytoplasm projecting from one cell of each pair into its mating partner in the direction of the osmotic gradient between the cells. However, some prm1 mating pairs fuse successfully whereas the two cells in other prm1 mating pairs simultaneously lyse. Lysis only occurs if both mating partners are prm1 mutants. Osmotic stabilization does not protect prm1 mating pairs from lysis, indicating that lysis is not caused by a cell wall defect. prm1 mating pairs without functional mitochondria still lyse, ruling out programmed cell death. No excess lysis was found after pheromone treatment of haploid prm1 cells, and lysis did not occur in mating pairs when prm1 was combined with the fus1 and fus2 mutations to block cell wall remodeling. Furthermore, short (Prm1 protein stabilizes the membrane fusion event of yeast mating. PMID:15590839

Jin, Hui; Carlile, Candice; Nolan, Scott; Grote, Eric

2004-12-01

394

Prm1 Prevents Contact-Dependent Lysis of Yeast Mating Pairs†  

Science.gov (United States)

Membrane fusion requires localized destabilization of two phospholipid bilayers, but unrestrained membrane destabilization could result in lysis. prm1 mutant yeast cells have a defect at the plasma membrane fusion stage of mating that typically results in the accumulation of prezygotes that have fingers of membrane-bound cytoplasm projecting from one cell of each pair into its mating partner in the direction of the osmotic gradient between the cells. However, some prm1 mating pairs fuse successfully whereas the two cells in other prm1 mating pairs simultaneously lyse. Lysis only occurs if both mating partners are prm1 mutants. Osmotic stabilization does not protect prm1 mating pairs from lysis, indicating that lysis is not caused by a cell wall defect. prm1 mating pairs without functional mitochondria still lyse, ruling out programmed cell death. No excess lysis was found after pheromone treatment of haploid prm1 cells, and lysis did not occur in mating pairs when prm1 was combined with the fus1 and fus2 mutations to block cell wall remodeling. Furthermore, short (Prm1 protein stabilizes the membrane fusion event of yeast mating.

Jin, Hui; Carlile, Candice; Nolan, Scott; Grote, Eric

2004-01-01

395

MATE Module 11: Computer Control: Intro to Programming  

Science.gov (United States)

This module from the Marine Advanced Technology Education Center introduces students to "LabVIEW programming concepts using the Arduino processor and the MATE ROV Control System." Students will learn to develop a basic processing loop, read the state of an input pin and control and output based upon that state, incorporate a delay timer in the processing loop and add a sub-VI to the main processing loop. PowerPoint and PDF versions of the lecture material are available for download here along with links to other tutorials and tools.

2013-07-08

396

Evolutionary Reshaping of Fungal Mating Pathway Scaffold Proteins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Scaffold proteins play central roles in the function of many signaling pathways. Among the best-studied examples are the Ste5 and Far1 proteins of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These proteins contain three conserved modules, the RING and PH domains, characteristic of some ubiquitin-ligating enzymes, and a vWA domain implicated in protein-protein interactions. In yeast, Ste5p regulates the mating pathway kinases while Far1p coordinates the cellular polarity machinery. Within the fungal ...

Co?te, Pierre; Sulea, Traian; Dignard, Daniel; Wu, Cunle; Whiteway, Malcolm

2011-01-01

397

Do Women Pretend Orgasm to Retain a Mate?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current study tested the hypothesis that women pretend orgasm as part of a broader strategy of mate retention. We obtained self-report data from 453 heterosexual women (M age, 21.8 years) in a long-term relationship (M length, 32.8 months) drawn from universities and surrounding communities in the southeastern United States. The results indicated that (1) women who perceived higher risk of partner infidelity were more likely to report pretending orgasm, (2) women who reported greater like...

Kaighobadi, Farnaz; Shackelford, Todd K.; Weekes-shackelford, Viviana A.

2012-01-01

398

Emperor penguin mates: keeping together in the crowd  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As emperor penguins have no breeding territories, a key issue for both members of a pair is not to be separated until the egg is laid and transferred to the male. Both birds remain silent after mating and thereby reduce the risk of having the pair bond broken by unpaired birds. However, silence prevents finding each other if the pair is separated. Huddles—the key to saving energy in the cold and the long breeding fast—continuously form and break up, but not all birds are involved simultan...

Ancel, Andre?; Beaulieu, Michae?l; Le Maho, Yvon; Gilbert, Caroline

2009-01-01

399

[A case of Legionnaires' pneumonia accompanied by clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) with transient altered mental status and cerebellar symptoms, which responded to treatment by antibiotics and corticosteroid].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 60-year-old man was admitted because of fever, headache, and difficulty in walking. Respiratory symptoms included only mild cough, but crackles were present on auscultation at the right lung base, the chest roentgenogram and computed tomography scans showed consolidation in the right lower lobe. Laboratory findings revealed hyponatremia, elevated liver function test values and creatine phosphokinase, and Legionella pneumophila antigen in urine. Neurological examination revealed mild mental status change, dysmetria, dysarthria, and ataxic gait. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, performed at the time of admission, revealed regions of high intensity in the splenium corpus callosum. We diagnosed Legionnaires' pneumonia accompanied by clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS), and started treatment with ciprofloxacin and methylprednisolone at 1 mg/kg/day. Neurological symptoms gradually improved. On day 6 after admission, mild dysarthria and ataxic gait remained, a 123-IMP single photon emission computed tomography revealed no abnormality. On day 15 after admission, the only neurological symptom was mild ataxic gait; the MRI scans showed no abnormalities. On day 29 after adm