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Sample records for mating status alters

  1. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status.

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies), and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies). Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner's mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other. PMID:26863319

  2. Expression of OsMATE1 and OsMATE2 alters development, stress responses and pathogen susceptibility in Arabidopsis

    Tiwari, Manish; Sharma, Deepika; SINGH, Munna; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug and Toxic compound Extrusion proteins (MATE) are a group of secondary active transporters with ubiquitous occurrences in all domains of life. This is a newly characterized transporter family with limited functional knowledge in plants. In this study, we functionally characterised two members of rice MATE gene family, OsMATE1 and OsMATE2 through expression in heterologous system, Arabidopsis. Expression of OsMATEs in Arabidopsis altered growth and morphology of transgenic plants. Gen...

  3. Assortative mating by occupational status during early industrialization

    Zijdeman, R.L.; Maas, I.

    2010-01-01

    According to the logic of industrialism thesis during industrialization, the influence of, achieved characteristics on mate selection increased, while the influence of ascribed, characteristics decreased. Other processes that accompanied industrialization, such as, the development of mass communication, urbanization, increasing regional mobility, modern transport, and educational expansion, were hypothesized to break down, cultural differences and cause a decline of status based mate selectio...

  4. Status and Mating Success Amongst Visual Artists

    Clegg, Helen; Nettle, Daniel; Miell, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Geoffrey Miller has hypothesized that producing artwork functions as a mating display. Here we investigate the relationship between mating success and artistic success in a sample of 236 visual artists. Initially, we derived a measure of artistic success that covered a broad range of artistic behaviors and beliefs. As predicted by Miller’s evolutionary theory, more successful male artists had more sexual partners than less successful artists but this did not hold for female artists. Also, mal...

  5. The Treatment of Relationship Status in Research on Dating and Mate Selection

    Surra, Catherine A; Boettcher-Burke, Tyfany M. J.; Cottle, Nathan R.; West, Adam R.; Gray, Christine R.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship status of study participants (e.g., daters, cohabitors, marrieds, or unmarrieds) has implications for understanding dating and mate selection. Procedures used in studies may blur or ignore status distinctions. The authors examined methods used in 791 studies published from 1991-2001. Most commonly, status of participants is…

  6. Morphology and ornamentation in male frigatebirds: variation with age-class and mating status

    Madsen, Vinni; Dabelsteen, Torben; Osorio, Daniel; Osorno, José L.

    2007-01-01

    white in the plumage identifies three age classes of nonjuvenile male. Here we investigate how morphological and secondary sexual traits correlate with age class and mating status. Even though several age class-related differences in morphology and visual appearance can be identified, the only features...... that significantly predict mating success are acoustic components of courtship display. Specifically, males that mate drum at lower fundamental frequencies-that is, they have larger gular pouches-and have a quicker and more constant drumming cadence than unsuccessful males. The fundamental frequency...... decreases with age class, reflecting an increase in gular pouch size. This implies that females prefer older or possibly more experienced or viable males. Drumming cadence speed and stability might reflect male stamina. Apart from the acoustic differences with mating status, there is a nonsignificant...

  7. The effects of mating status and time since mating on female sex pheromone levels in the rice leaf bug, Trigonotylus caelestialium

    Yamane, Takashi; Yasuda, Tetsuya

    2014-02-01

    Although mating status affects future mating opportunities, the biochemical changes that occur in response to mating are not well understood. This study investigated the effects of mating status on the quantities of sex pheromone components found in whole-body extracts and volatile emissions of females of the rice leaf bug, Trigonotylus caelestialium. When sampled at one of four time points within a 4-day postmating period, females that had copulated with a male had greater whole-body quantities of sex pheromone components than those of virgin females sampled at the same times. The quantities of sex pheromone components emitted by virgin females over a 24-h period were initially high but then steadily decreased, whereas 24-h emissions were persistently low among mated females when measured at three time points within the 4 days after mating. As a result, soon after mating, the mated females emitted less sex pheromones than virgin females, but there were no significant differences between mated and virgin females at the end of the experiment. Thus, postmating reduction in the rate of emission of sex pheromones could explain previously observed changes in female attractiveness to male T. caelestialium.

  8. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflie...

  9. Mothers matter! Maternal support, dominance status and mating success in male bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    Surbeck, Martin; Mundry, Roger; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2011-02-22

    Variation in male mating success is often related to rank differences. Males who are unable to monopolize oestrous females alone may engage in coalitions, thus enhancing their mating success. While studies on chimpanzees and dolphins suggest that coalitions are independent of kinship, information from female philopatric species shows the importance of kin support, especially from mothers, on the reproductive success of females. Therefore, one might expect a similar effect on sons in male philopatric species. We evaluate mating success determinants in male bonobos using data from nine male individuals from a wild population. Results reveal a steep, linear male dominance hierarchy and a positive correlation between dominance status and mating success. In addition to rank, the presence of mothers enhances the mating success of sons and reduces the proportion of matings by the highest ranking male. Mothers and sons have high association rates and mothers provide agonistic aid to sons in conflicts with other males. As bonobos are male-philopatric and adult females occupy high dominance status, maternal support extends into adulthood and females have the leverage to intervene in male conflicts. The absence of female support to unrelated males suggests that mothers gain indirect fitness benefits by supporting their sons. PMID:20810444

  10. Influence of mating status and body size on human host avidity and the repellency of deet in Aedes albopictus

    Mean percent host seeking and the response to deet (25% in ethanol) by Aedes albopictus were significantly influenced by female mating status and body size. Average host seeking rates (determined in an olfactometer) were higher for mated (38%) than unmated females (26%) and the mean rate of landing...

  11. Reproduction of the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus, in relation to age, gonadal activity and mating status.

    Brent, Colin S

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the basic life history and underlying regulatory mechanisms for a pest insect is essential for developing targeted control strategies, but for many insects relatively little is known. Although the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight (Heteroptera: Miridae) has a substantial negative impact in the western U.S., its basic biology is poorly characterized. To elucidate the regulation of L. hesperus reproductive dynamics, the onset times of gonadal activation and mating behavior were examined in young adults. Newly emerged adults reared under laboratory conditions at 25 degrees C were monitored daily for changes in gamete production and willingness to mate. Males matured more quickly than females. Sperm was present at emergence and a small proportion of males were willing to mate as early as 2 days post-emergence. Females were unwilling to mate until at least 5 days post-emergence, although many produced choriogenic oocytes by 4 days. Males appeared to discriminate female age and were more likely to attempt mating with females >5 days post-emergence than with younger females. Males were also able to detect previous mating and attempted to mount virgins more often than recently inseminated females. Collectively these results indicate that the changes in the mating behaviors of L. hesperus are linked to reproductive status, although there is a lag between gamete production and willingness to mate. The results also suggest that interactions of the sexes are chemically mediated. PMID:19729015

  12. Modality interactions alter the shape of acoustic mate preference functions in gray treefrogs.

    Reichert, Michael S; Hbel, Gerlinde

    2015-09-01

    Sexual selection takes place in complex environments where females evaluating male mating signals are confronted with stimuli from multiple sources and modalities. The pattern of expression of female preferences may be influenced by interactions between modalities, changing the shape of female preference functions, and thus ultimately altering the selective landscape acting on male signal evolution. We tested the hypothesis that the responses of female gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor, to acoustic male advertisement calls are affected by interactions with visual stimuli. We measured preference functions for several call traits under two experimental conditions: unimodal (only acoustic signals presented), and multimodal (acoustic signals presented along with a video-animated calling male). We found that females were more responsive to multimodal stimulus presentations and, compared to unimodal playbacks, had weaker preferences for temporal call characteristics. We compared the preference functions obtained in these two treatments to the distribution of male call characteristics to make inferences on the strength and direction of selection expected to act on male calls. Modality interactions have the potential to influence the course of signal evolution and thus are an important consideration in sexual selection studies. PMID:26282702

  13. Female Moth Calling and Flight Behavior Are Altered Hours Following Pheromone Autodetection: Possible Implications for Practical Management with Mating Disruption

    Lukasz Stelinski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female moths are known to detect their own sex pheromone—a phenomenon called “autodetection”. Autodetection has various effects on female moth behavior, including altering natural circadian rhythm of calling behavior, inducing flight, and in some cases causing aggregations of conspecifics. A proposed hypothesis for the possible evolutionary benefits of autodetection is its possible role as a spacing mechanism to reduce female-female competition. Here, we explore autodetection in two species of tortricids (Grapholita molesta (Busck and Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris. We find that females of both species not only “autodetect,” but that learning (change in behavior following experience occurs, which affects behavior for at least 24 hours after pheromone pre-exposure. Specifically, female calling in both species is advanced at least 24 hours, but not 5 days, following pheromone pre-exposure. Also, the propensity of female moths to initiate flight and the duration of flights, as quantified by a laboratory flight mill, were advanced in pre-exposed females as compared with controls. Pheromone pre-exposure did not affect the proportion of mated moths when they were confined with males in small enclosures over 24 hours in laboratory assays. We discuss the possible implications of these results with respect to management of these known pest species with the use of pheromone-based mating disruption.

  14. Altered volatile profile associated with precopulatory mate guarding attracts spider mite males.

    Oku, Keiko; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Poelman, Erik H; De Jong, Peter W; Dicke, Marcel

    2015-02-01

    Proximate factors affecting animal behavior include stimuli generated by conspecifics. In spider mites of the genus Tetranychus (Acari: Tetranychidae), males guard pre-reproductive quiescent females, because only the first mating results in fertilization. In a dual-choice experiment, more adult males of T. urticae were attracted to females guarded by a male than to solitary females. Because spider mites are known to perceive volatiles, we hypothesized that guarded and solitary females differ in the volatile blends emitted. To test this hypothesis, headspace volatiles of guarded females, solitary females, and solitary males were collected, respectively. GC/MS analysis detected octanal, methyl salicylate, ethyl 4-ethoxybenzoate, and methyl cis-dihydrojasmonate in all of the groups. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) of the blends clearly discriminated guarded females from solitary females, supporting our hypothesis. Individual compounds did not show significant difference in emission rates for guarded females vs. solitary females, suggesting that differences lay in the total blend composition. OPLS-DA did not discriminate between the blends emitted by guarded females and solitary males. In conclusion, the differences in the volatile blends are likely to mediate male discrimination between guarded and solitary females. PMID:25612522

  15. Women's Hormonal Status and Mate Value Influence Relationship Satisfaction and Perceived Male Attractiveness

    Ivana Hromatko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous findings suggest that female preferences for certain features of male faces vary during the menstrual cycle. Similarly, changes during the cycle have also been found in women's commitment to a current relationship. Furthermore, from the perspective of securing benefits from extra-pair affairs, the differences between women with high vs. low mate value could be expected. In this study we have tried to connect these sets of findings: first, we explored differences between partnered and single women in their ratings of male facial attractiveness in different phases of the menstrual cycle; and second, their satisfaction with the current relationship in relation to the cycle phase and selfperceived mate value. Two groups of women (single vs. partnered rated the attractiveness of two sets of male faces (normal vs. symmetrical. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that women in a relationship gave higher ratings of attractiveness for both normal and symmetrical faces in the luteal phase compared to the early follicular phase of a cycle, while single women showed the opposite pattern. Analyses of satisfaction with their current relationship in relation to cycle phase and self-perceived mate value showed that women with higher mate value are generally more satisfied with their current partners, and show smaller differences in satisfaction in various phases of the cycle. The results are interpreted in terms of content-specificity of hormone mediated adaptive design.

  16. Altered Mating-Type Identity in the Fungus Podospora Anserina Leads to Selfish Nuclei, Uniparental Progeny, and Haploid Meiosis

    Zickler, D.; Arnaise, S; Coppin, E.; Debuchy, R; Picard, M.

    1995-01-01

    In wild-type crosses of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina, after fertilization, only nuclei of opposite mating type can form dikaryons that undergo karyogamy and meiosis, producing biparental progeny. To determine the role played by the mating type in these steps, the four mat genes were mutagenized in vitro and introduced into a strain deleted for its mat locus. Genetic and cytological analyses of these mutant strains, crossed to each other and to wild type, showed that mating-ty...

  17. Women's Hormonal Status and Mate Value Influence Relationship Satisfaction and Perceived Male Attractiveness

    Ivana Hromatko; Meri Tadinac; Helena Prizmić

    2006-01-01

    Numerous findings suggest that female preferences for certain features of male faces vary during the menstrual cycle. Similarly, changes during the cycle have also been found in women's commitment to a current relationship. Furthermore, from the perspective of securing benefits from extra-pair affairs, the differences between women with high vs. low mate value could be expected. In this study we have tried to connect these sets of findings: first, we explored differences between partnered and...

  18. Organic and Conventional Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil) Improves Metabolic Redox Status of Liver and Serum in Wistar Rats

    Branco, Ctia S.; Scola, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Adriana D.; Cesio, Vernica; Heinzen, Horacio; Godoy, Alessandra; Funchal, Cludia; Coitinho, Adriana S.; Salvador, Mirian

    2013-01-01

    Organic and conventional yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is widely used in South America to prepare nonalcoholic drinks rich in polyphenols. These compounds are able to prevent the generation of reactive species, thus minimizing the incidence of several diseases. In this perspective, we hypothesized that yerba mate may have protective effects against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced oxidative damage in liver and serum of rats. Animals (n = 42) received distilled water (control) or yerba mate (organic or conventional) for fifteen days. Then, half of the rats of each group received 60 mg/kg PTZ intraperitoneally or saline solution. After 30 min the animals were euthanized and the liver and blood were collected. The results showed that organic and conventional yerba mate avoided PTZ-induced oxidative damage and nitric oxide production in the liver and serum of the rats. Moreover, both kinds of yerba mate prevented the decrease in enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and non-enzymatic (sulfhydryl protein content) defenses in the liver and serum. In addition, histopathologic analysis of the liver showed that yerba mate reduced PTZ-induced cell damage. These findings indicate that yerba mate provides hepatoprotection and improves antioxidant status in the serum, which may contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies using nutraceuticals drinks.

  19. Organic and Conventional Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil Improves Metabolic Redox Status of Liver and Serum in Wistar Rats

    Ctia S. Branco

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic and conventional yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis is widely used in South America to prepare nonalcoholic drinks rich in polyphenols. These compounds are able to prevent the generation of reactive species, thus minimizing the incidence of several diseases. In this perspective, we hypothesized that yerba mate may have protective effects against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ-induced oxidative damage in liver and serum of rats. Animals (n = 42 received distilled water (control or yerba mate (organic or conventional for fifteen days. Then, half of the rats of each group received 60 mg/kg PTZ intraperitoneally or saline solution. After 30 min the animals were euthanized and the liver and blood were collected. The results showed that organic and conventional yerba mate avoided PTZ-induced oxidative damage and nitric oxide production in the liver and serum of the rats. Moreover, both kinds of yerba mate prevented the decrease in enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and catalase and non-enzymatic (sulfhydryl protein content defenses in the liver and serum. In addition, histopathologic analysis of the liver showed that yerba mate reduced PTZ-induced cell damage. These findings indicate that yerba mate provides hepatoprotection and improves antioxidant status in the serum, which may contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies using nutraceuticals drinks.

  20. Altered Erythrocyte Deformability and Antioxidant Status in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Hande YAPI?LAR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia is a major mental disorder whose etiology still remains unkown. There is evidence that free radicals are involved in membrane pathology in the central nervous system and may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Red blood cells are also considered to be a peripheral marker in psychiatric illnesses. We aimed to provide further insight into the effects of changed antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation on the rheological behavior of red blood cells in schizophrenia.Patients and Methods: Twenty patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy subjects were included in the study. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation were measured spectrophotometrically and red blood cell deformability was measured by shear stress diffractometer.Results: Deformability of red blood cells was found to be decreased, lipid peroxidation was increased and antioxidant status was altered in the patients (p<0.05.Conclusion: It is understood that erythrocyte deformability was impaired and antioxidant status was altered in patients with schizophrenia. (Marmara Medical Journal 2012;25:133-7

  1. Male Drosophila melanogaster learn to prefer an arbitrary trait associated with female mating status

    Verzijden, Machteld Nicolette; Abbott, Jessica K.; Philipsborn, Anne von; Loeschcke, Volker

    2015-01-01

    are able to learn to associate olfactory and gustatory cues with female receptivity, but the role of more arbitrary, visual cues in mate choice learning has been overlooked to date in this species. We therefore carried out a series of experiments to determine: 1) whether males had a baseline...... preference for female eye color (red versus brown), 2) if males could learn to associate an eye color cue with female receptivity, and 3) whether this association disappeared when the males were unable to use this visual cue in the dark. We found that naïve males had no baseline preference for females of...... either eye color, but that males which were trained with sexually receptive females of a given eye color showed a preference for that color during a standard binary choice experiment. The learned cue was indeed likely to be truly visual, since the preference disappeared when the binary choice phase of...

  2. Loss of preferred mates forces female satin bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus) to increase mate searching.

    Uy, J A; Patricelli, G L; Borgia, G

    2001-01-01

    Variation in mate choice among females can have important consequences for the operation of sexual selection, and can result from differences in the way females search for mates. Our previous work indicates that female satin bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus violaceus alter their mate-searching patterns according to long-term experience. Females which mate with very attractive males mate with the same males in the following year, thereby reducing their search. In contrast, females which fail to enco...

  3. Heliothis zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): effects of radiation and inherited sterility on mating competitiveness

    Normal and irradiated laboratory-reared Heliothis zea (Boddie) moths were released in screened field cages and in fields of tobacco and cotton. The nocturnal activities and incidence of mating of laboratory-reared and wild moths were observed. Laboratory-reared moths irradiated with 10 krad and released in field cages were competitive with nonirradiated laboratory-reared moths. The competitiveness of irradiated moths was not altered by the time interval (5 and 30 h) between irradiation and release, the mating status of the male, or by the time interval (24 and 48 h) between mating and release. Normal and irradiated, laboratory-reared males released in the field in either the presence or absence of laboratory-reared females were not significantly different in their nocturnal behavior and mating competitiveness. The interaction of wild and laboratory-reared moths was largely limited to wild males mating with laboratory-reared females

  4. Yeast supplementation alters the health status of receiving cattle

    Our objective was to determine if supplementation of yeast products during the receiving phase would improve the health status of beef calves prior to and following a low-dose LPS (0.25 micrograms/kg BW) challenge. Twenty-four crossbred calves (203 1.45 kg BW) were blocked by BW and assigned to 1 ...

  5. Study of altered platelet morphology with changes in glycaemic status

    Mitakshara Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that platelet morphology is altered with increasing glycaemic levels. These changes can be known by measurements of PVI which is an important simple and effortless tool can be used more extensively to predict the acute vascular events and thereby help curb morbidity and mortality. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 757-761

  6. Cardiac myosin heavy chain transition under altered thyroid status

    Arnoštová, Petra; Jedelský, P.; Soukup, Tomáš; Žurmanová, Jitka

    Geneva : Swiss Society for Neuroscience, 2008. s. 125.3-125.3. ISBN 92-990014-3-X. [FENS. Forum of European Neuroscience /6./. 12.07.2008-16.07.2008, Geneva] Grant ostatní: Myores(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : spo2 * cardiac myosin heavy chain * transition * thyroid status Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  7. Yerba Mate

    ... get from yerba mate as well as other sources. Smoking: The risk of getting cancer is 3 ... estradiol and levonorgestrel (Triphasil), ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone (Ortho-Novum 1/35, Ortho-Novum 7/7/7), ...

  8. Alterations in magnesium and oxidative status during chronic emotional stress.

    Cernak, I; Savic, V; Kotur, J; Prokic, V; Kuljic, B; Grbovic, D; Veljovic, M

    2000-03-01

    Magnesium and oxidative status were investigated in young volunteers exposed to chronic stress (political intolerance, awareness of potential military attacks, permanent stand-by duty and reduced holidays more than 10 years) or subchronic stress consisting of everyday mortal danger in military actions lasting more than 3 months. Significant decreases in plasma ionized Mg2+, total Mg and ionized Ca2+ concentrations were found in both groups. Similarly, both study groups exhibited oxidative stress as assessed by increased plasma superoxide anions and malondialdehyde and modified antioxidant defense. There were no significant differences between the two stress groups. A negative correlation between magnesium balance and oxidative stress was observed suggesting that the same etiological factor (chronic stress) initiate decreases in both free and total magnesium concentrations and simultaneously increase oxidative stress intensity. These findings support the need for magnesium supplementation with antioxidant vitamins for people living in conditions of chronic stress. PMID:10761188

  9. Alteration of Oxidative Status in Rats Following Administration of Acrylamide

    Hanaa H. El-Sayed1, Shawkia S. Abd El- Halim1,

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acrylamide (ACR is a known industrial neurotoxic and carcinogenic chemical in rodents. The recent discovery of acrylamide in wide variety of commonly consumed foods has energized research efforts worldwide to define toxic mechanisms. Objective: The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of acrylamide administration on in vivo malondialdehyde (MDA, a product of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH as well as copper and zinc superoxide dismutase enzyme activity (Cu/Zn SOD of rats. Material and Methods: Fourteen adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups each containing "7" rats. Group 1 served as negative control fed on basal diet and group 2 (positive control received basal diet and acrylamide (0.34g/ kg diet for 11 days. Levels of MDA, GSH and activity of SOD were determined in liver, kidneys, brain, heart, testes, spleen and lungs of rats. Results: ACR treatment significantly increased MDA in all organs; the highest increase was detected in testis (87.9% and heart (71.5% while the lowest one was found in kidneys (28.2%. On the other hand, GSH levels and SOD activities were significantly reduced in ACR treated rats. However, the reduction of GSH level ranged from 10.2% to 36.5 %.The inhibition of SOD activities were higher in testis (57.3% and lungs (38.5%. Conclusion: The present study showed that ACR exerts deteriorated effects on oxidative status of rats

  10. Alterations of nutritional status: impact of chemotherapy and radiation therapy

    The nutritional status of a cancer patient may be affected by the tumor, the chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy directed against the tumor, and by complications associated with that therapy. Chemotherpay-radiotherapy is not confined exclusively to malignant cell populations; thus, normal tissues may also be affected by the therapy and may contribute to specific nutritional problems. Impaired nutrition due to anorexia, mucositis, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may be dependent upon the specific chemotherapeutic agent, dose, or schedule utilized. Similar side effects from radiation therapy depend upon the dose, fractionation, and volume irradiated. When combined modality treatment is given the nutritional consequences may be magnified. Prospective, randomized clinical trials are underway to investigate the efficacy of nutritional support during chemotherapy-radiotherapy on tolerance to treatment, complications from treatment, and response rates to treatment. Preliminary results demonstrate that the administration of total parenteral nutrition is successful in maintaining weight during radiation therapy and chemotherapy, but that weight loss occurs after discontinuation of nutritional support. Thus, longterm evaluation is mandatory to learn the impact of nutritional support on survival, diease-free survival, and complication rates, as well as on the possible prevention of morbidity associated with aggressive chemotherapy-radiation therapy

  11. Mate preferences do predict attraction and choices in the early stages of mate selection.

    Li, Norman P; Yong, Jose C; Tov, William; Sng, Oliver; Fletcher, Garth J O; Valentine, Katherine A; Jiang, Yun F; Balliet, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Although mate preference research has firmly established that men value physical attractiveness more than women do and women value social status more than men do, recent speed-dating studies have indicated mixed evidence (at best) for whether people's sex-differentiated mate preferences predict actual mate choices. According to an evolutionary, mate preference priority model (Li, Bailey, Kenrick, & Linsenmeier, 2002; Li & Kenrick, 2006; Li, Valentine, & Patel, 2011), the sexes are largely similar in what they ideally like, but for long-term mates, they should differ on what they most want to avoid in early selection contexts. Following this model, we conducted experiments using online messaging and modified speed-dating platforms. Results indicate that when a mating pool includes people at the low end of social status and physical attractiveness, mate choice criteria are sex-differentiated: Men, more than women, chose mates based on physical attractiveness, whereas women, more than men, chose mates based on social status. In addition, individuals who more greatly valued social status or physical attractiveness on paper valued these traits more in their actual choices. In particular, mate choices were sex-differentiated when considering long-term relationships but not short-term ones, where both sexes shunned partners with low physical attractiveness. The findings validate a large body of mate preferences research and an evolutionary perspective on mating, and they have implications for research using speed-dating and other interactive contexts. PMID:23915041

  12. Alterations in lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in lichen planus

    Falguni H Panchal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus (LP, a T-cell-mediated inflammatory disorder, wherein inflammation produces lipid metabolism disturbances, is linked to increase in cardiovascular (CV risk with dyslipidemia. Increased reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides have also been implicated in its pathogenesis. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the status on lipid disturbances, oxidative stress, and inflammation in LP patients. Materials and Methods: The study was initiated after obtaining Institutional Ethics Committee permission and written informed consent from participants. The study included 125 patients (74 LP patients and 51 age and sex-matched controls visiting the outpatient clinic in the dermatology department of our hospital. Variables analyzed included lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP, malondialdehyde (MDA, and catalase (CAT activity. Results: Analysis of lipid parameters revealed significantly higher levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C along with decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in LP patients as compared to their respective controls. LP patients also presented with a significantly higher atherogenic index that is, (TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios than the controls. A significant increase in CRP levels was observed among the LP patients. There was a statistically significant increase in the serum levels of the lipid peroxidation product, MDA and a statistically significant decrease in CAT activity in LP patients as compared to their respective controls. A statistically significant positive correlation (r = 0.96 was observed between serum MDA levels and duration of LP whereas a significantly negative correlation (r = −0.76 was seen between CAT activity and LP duration. Conclusion: Chronic inflammation in patients with LP may explain the association with dyslipidemia and CV risk. Our findings also suggest that an increase in oxidative stress and imbalance in the antioxidant defense mechanisms in LP may play a role in the pathogenesis of LP.

  13. Strategies of Human Mating

    David M. Buss

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern humans have inherited the mating strategies that led to the success of their ancestors. These strategies include long-term mating, short-term mating, extra-pair mating, mate poaching, and mate guarding. This article presents empirical evidence supporting evolution-based hypotheses about the complexities of these mating strategies. Since men and women historically confronted different adaptive problems in the mating domain, the sexes differ profoundly in evolved strategic solutions. These differences include possessing different mate preferences, different desires for short-term mating, and differences in the triggers that evoke sexual jealousy. The study of human mating is one of the success stories of evolutionary psychology.

  14. The genetic basis for mating-induced sex differences in starvation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Jang, Taehwan; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2015-11-01

    Multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to influence starvation resistance, which is an important determinant of fitness in many organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster. Recent studies have revealed that mating can alter starvation resistance in female D. melanogaster, but little is known about the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying such mating-mediated changes in starvation resistance. In the present study, we first investigated whether the effect of mating on starvation resistance is sex-specific in D. melanogaster. As indicated by a significant sex×mating status interaction, mating increased starvation resistance in females but not in males. In female D. melanogaster, post-mating increase in starvation resistance was mainly attributed to increases in food intake and in the level of lipid storage relative to lean body weight. We then performed quantitative genetic analysis to estimate the proportion of the total phenotypic variance attributable to genetic differences (i.e., heritability) for starvation resistance in mated male and female D. melanogaster. The narrow-sense heritability (h(2)) of starvation resistance was 0.235 and 0.155 for males and females, respectively. Mated females were more resistant to starvation than males in all genotypes, but the degree of such sexual dimorphism varied substantially among genotypes, as indicated by a significant sex×genotype interaction for starvation resistance. Cross-sex genetic correlation was greater than 0 but less than l for starvation resistance, implying that the genetic architecture of this trait was partially shared between the two sexes. For both sexes, starvation resistance was positively correlated with longevity and lipid storage at genetic level. The present study suggests that sex differences in starvation resistance depend on mating status and have a genetic basis in D. melanogaster. PMID:26358400

  15. Undifferentiated altered mental status: a late presentation of toxic acetaminophen ingestion.

    Robey, Thomas E; Melnick, Edward R

    2012-01-01

    Altered mental status is a common undifferentiated presentation in the emergency department. We describe a case of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure that was diagnosed and treated prior to obtaining definitive historical or laboratory information about the etiology. The physical exam finding of scleral icterus in this case was a key element to rapid identification and treatment of this life-threatening condition. A discussion of appropriate N-acetylcysteine treatment for acute liver failure and acetaminophen intoxication is included. PMID:23326702

  16. Undifferentiated Altered Mental Status: A Late Presentation of Toxic Acetaminophen Ingestion

    Robey, Thomas E.; Melnick, Edward R.

    2012-01-01

    Altered mental status is a common undifferentiated presentation in the emergency department. We describe a case of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure that was diagnosed and treated prior to obtaining definitive historical or laboratory information about the etiology. The physical exam finding of scleral icterus in this case was a key element to rapid identification and treatment of this life-threatening condition. A discussion of appropriate N-acetylcysteine treatment for acute liver f...

  17. The value of electroencephalography in differential diagnosis of altered mental status in emergency departments

    Objective: To evaluate the value of electroencephalography in patients with altered mental status in emergency departments. Methods: Demographical characteristics, types and aetiologies of seizures, and clinical outcomes of the patients were recorded. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the complaints of admission: findings and symptoms of seizure; stroke and symptoms of stroke-related seizures; syncope; and metabolic abnormalities and other causes of altered mental status. The electroencephalography findings were classified into 3 groups: epileptiform discharges; paroxysmal electroencephalography abnormalities; and background slowing. Electroencephalography abnormalities in each subgroup were evaluated. SPSS 21 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total 190 patients in the study, 117(61.6%) had pathological electroencephalography findings. The main reason for electroencephalography in the emergency department was the presence of seizure findings and symptoms in 98(51.6%) patients. The ratio of electroencephalography abnormality was higher in patients who were admitted with complaints of metabolic abnormality-related consciousness disturbances (p<0.001). A total of 124(65.3%) patients had neuroimagings. Electroencephalography abnormalities were found to be significantly higher in patients with neuroimagings compared to those without neuroimagings (p<0.003). Conclusion: Despite advanced neuroimaging techniques, electroencephalography is still an important tool in the differential diagnosis of altered mental status such as epileptic seizures, metabolic abnormalities, pseudo-seizures and syncope. (author)

  18. Massive Nest-Box Supplementation Boosts Fecundity, Survival and Even Immigration without Altering Mating and Reproductive Behaviour in a Rapidly Recovered Bird Population

    Berthier K.; Leippert F.; Fumagalli L.; Arlettaz R.

    2012-01-01

    Habitat restoration measures may result in artificially high breeding density, for instance when nest-boxes saturate the environment, which can negatively impact species' demography. Potential risks include changes in mating and reproductive behaviour such as increased extra-pair paternity, conspecific brood parasitism, and polygyny. Under particular cicumstances, these mechanisms may disrupt reproduction, with populations dragged into an extinction vortex. With the use of nuclear microsatell...

  19. Alterations in Plasma Lipid Peroxidation and Total Antioxidant Status During Storage of Blood

    Abdoljalal Marjani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was designed to determine the alteration of plasma lipid peroxidation-(by measuring the level of MDA and total antioxidant status in stored blood. This study is carried out to find out the quantitative alterations and the useful length of stored blood. The whole blood were taken from 10 donors. Red Blood Cells (RBC were counted in whole blood. The levels of Potassium (P and lactate dehydrogenate activity(LDH were measured in plasma for determination of hemolysis. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and Total Antioxidant Status (TAS were studied in plasma for determination of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system, respectively. The measurement were performed at the day 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33 and 35 of the storage. The levels of malondialdehyde and Potassium and lactate dehydrogenate activity increased (p<0.05 depending on storage time whereas Total Antioxidant Status (TAS and Red Blood Cells decreased (p<0.05. The alterations of MDA, TAS, P, LDH and RBC in the measurement days were as follows: MDA, P and LDH significantly increased at the day 9, 5 and 5 whereas TAS and RBC decreased at the day 13 and 29, respectively. These results suggest that increased level of MDA and decreased level of TAS in the stored blood can not improve the vialibilty and longevity of RBC by increasing cell damage caused by free radicals at the day mentioned above. To improve the quality of stored blood is to supplement blood donors with antioxidants and vitamins at least one week before blood collection to keep and store the stored blood for longer time until using for transfusion. We conclude that increased level of MDA and decreased TAS in stored blood which can cause the beginning of hemolysis. It is therefore necessary to control these factors before blood transfusion.

  20. Acetaminophen and salicylate serum levels in patients with suicidal ingestion or altered mental status.

    Sporer, K A; Khayam-Bashi, H

    1996-09-01

    Is universal screening of acetaminophen (APAP) and salicylate (SAL) necessary in patients with a suicidal ingestion or an altered mental status and suspected ingestion? This descriptive, retrospective chart review in an emergency department in a large urban county hospital examined all patients who presented with a history of suicidal ingestion or an altered mental status with a strong suspicion of ingestion from January 1992 through October 1993. APAP and SAL serum levels were measured in 1,820 patients, and charts of patients with APAP serum levels of > 1 microgram/mL or SAL serum levels of > 1 mg/dL were reviewed. The patient's history of ingesting APAP or SAL was recorded, as well as the clinician's interpretation of that level. Sixteen charts were not available. APAP levels of > 1 microgram/mL were found in 175 (9.6%) patients, 120 (6.5%) of whom were APAP history-positive and 55 (3%) APAP history-negative. None of the APAP history-negative group required therapy with N-acetylcysteine. Eight (0.3%) of the APAP history-negative group had potentially toxic levels of > 50 micrograms/mL. SAL levels of > 1 mg/dL were found in 155 (8.5%) patients, 44 (2.5%) of whom were SAL history-positive and 111 (6%) SAL history-negative. Three patients were SAL history-negative but had a significant chronic SAL intoxication. All these patients presented with an altered mental status and had an anion gap of > 20 mEq/L. Universal screening found that 0.3% of suicidal ingestions had a potentially toxic APAP intoxication not suggested by history. This incidence of infrequent but potentially life: threatening overdose should prompt clinicians to screen all of their patients with a suspected ingestion. Salicylate screening found that 0.16% of suicidal ingestions had a toxic SAL intoxication not suggested by history, although such intoxication should be suggested by an elevated anion gap and an altered mental status. Since this less severe intoxication is less frequent and usually suggested by commonly obtained laboratory data, universal screening is not indicated, but a more selective approach to screening could be taken. PMID:8765104

  1. Secretor Status Is Strongly Associated with Microbial Alterations Observed during Pregnancy

    Kumar, Himanshu; Wacklin, Pirjo; Nakphaichit, Massalin; Loyttyniemi, Eliisa; Chowdhury, Somak; Shouche, Yogesh; Mättö, Jaana; Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy there are significant changes in gut microbiota composition and activity. The impact of secretor status as determined by genotyping FUT2 (fucosyltransferase 2) gene was taken as one of the confounding factors associated with faecal microbiota changes during pregnancy. In this prospective study, we followed women during pregnancy (total = 123 of which secretors = 108, non-secretors = 15) and characterised their gut microbiota by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Fluorescence In situ Hybridisation (FISH), Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. qPCR revealed that C. coccoides group counts decreased significantly in non-secretors in comparison to secretors (p = 0.02). Similar tendency was found by FISH analysis in Clostridium histolyticum and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus groups between the secretor and the non-secretor pregnant women. DGGE analysis showed significant decrease in richness of Clostridium sp. between secretor and non-secretor mothers during pregnancy. Pyrosequencing based analysis at phyla level showed that there is greater increase in Actinobacteria in secretors in comparison to non-secretors, whereas Proteobacteria showed more increase in non-secretors. Change in relative abundance of Clostridiaceae family from first to third trimester were significantly associated with secretor status of pregnant women (p = 0.05). Polyphasic approach for microbiota analysis points out that the host secretor status (FUT2 genotype) affects the gut microbiota during pregnancy. This may lead to altered infant gut microbiota colonization. PMID:26231005

  2. Mate-choice copying in single and coupled women: the influence of mate acceptance and mate rejection decisions of other women.

    Deng, Yan; Zheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Studies of humans and non-human animals indicate that females tend to change the likelihood of choosing a potential mate based on the decisions of other females; this is known as mate-choice copying. In a sample of both single and coupled women, we examined the influence of other women's (model) mate-choice decisions, including mate acceptance and mate rejection, on participants' attractiveness ratings of men (target) and willingness of mate selection. We also examined whether different types of relationships between the target men and the model women affected mate-choice copying. We found that both the single and coupled women showed mate-choice copying, but their response patterns differed. The significant effects for single women were dependent on a decrease in attractiveness ratings when they perceived the models' mate rejection. However, the significant findings for coupled women relied on an increase in attractiveness ratings when they observed the models' mate acceptance. Furthermore, the relationship status between the target men and the model women affected the magnitude of mate-choice copying effects for the single women. Specifically, they showed less mate-choice copying when the targets and models were in a committed romantic relationship than when in a temporary relationship. PMID:25622338

  3. Silver nanoparticle-induced hemoglobin decrease involves alteration of histone 3 methylation status.

    Qian, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Hu, Qinglin; Xu, Ming; Chen, Yue; Hu, Guoqing; Zhao, Meirong; Liu, Sijin

    2015-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (nanosilver, AgNPs) have been shown to induce toxicity in vitro and in vivo; however, the molecular bases underlying the detrimental effects have not been thoroughly understood. Although there are numerous studies on its genotoxicity, only a few studies have investigated the epigenetic changes, even less on the changes of histone modifications by AgNPs. In the current study, we probed the AgNP-induced alterations to histone methylation that could be responsible for globin reduction in erythroid cells. AgNP treatment caused a significant reduction of global methylation level for histone 3 (H3) in erythroid MEL cells at sublethal concentrations, devoid of oxidative stress. The ChIP-PCR analyses demonstrated that methylation of H3 at lysine (Lys) 4 (H3K4) and Lys 79 (H3K79) on the β-globin locus was greatly reduced. The reduction in methylation could be attributed to decreased histone methyltransferase DOT-1L and MLL levels as well as the direct binding between AgNPs to H3/H4 that provide steric hindrance to prevent methylation as predicted by the all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. This direct interaction was further proved by AgNP-mediated pull-down assay and immunoprecipitation assay. These changes, together with decreased RNA polymerase II activity and chromatin binding at this locus, resulted in decreased hemoglobin production. By contrast, Ag ion-treated cells showed no alterations in histone methylation level. Taken together, these results showed a novel finding in which AgNPs could alter the methylation status of histone. Our study therefore opens a new avenue to study the biological effects of AgNPs at sublethal concentrations from the perspective of epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:26295435

  4. Male mating biology

    Howell Paul I; Knols Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes...

  5. Novel screen printed electrode set for routine EEG recordings in patients with altered mental status.

    Myllymaa, Sami; Lepola, Pasi; Hukkanen, Taina; Oun, Andre; Mervaala, Esa; Toyras, Juha; Lappalainen, Reijo; Myllymaa, Katja

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing need for an easy to use screening tool for the assessment of brain's electrical function in patients with altered mental status (AMS). The purpose of this study is to give a brief overview of the state-of-the-art in electrode technology, and to present a novel sub-hairline electrode set developed in our research group. Screen-printing technology was utilized to construct the electrode set consisting of ten electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes, two electrooculography (EOG) electrodes, two ground electrodes and two reference electrodes. Electrical characteristics of hydrogel-coated silver ink electrodes were found adequate for clinical EEG recordings as assessed by electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The skin-electrode impedances remain stable and low enough at least two days enabling high-quality long-term recordings. Due to the proper material selection, thin ink layers and detachable zero insertion force (ZIF) - connector, electrode was observed to be CT- and MRI-compatible allowing imaging without removing the electrodes. Pilot EEG recordings gave very promising results and an on-going clinical trial with larger number of patients will show the true feasibility of this approach. PMID:24111286

  6. Reinforcement shapes clines in female mate discrimination in Drosophila subquinaria

    Bewick, Emily R.; Dyer, Kelly A

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement of species boundaries may alter mate recognition in a way that also affects patterns of mate preference among conspecific populations. In the fly Drosophila subquinaria, females sympatric with the closely related species D. recens reject mating with heterospecific males as well as with conspecific males from allopatric populations. Here, we assess geographic variation in behavioral isolation within and among populations of D. subquinaria and use cline theory to understand patter...

  7. Cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment alter the somatostatin status of delta cells

    Research highlights: → TGP52 cells display enhanced functionality in pseudoislet form. → Somatostatin content was reduced, but secretion increased in high glucose conditions. → Cellular interactions and environment alter the somatostatin status of TGP52 cells. -- Abstract: Introduction: Somatostatin, released from pancreatic delta cells, is a potent paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion. Islet cellular interactions and glucose homeostasis are essential to maintain normal patterns of insulin secretion. However, the importance of cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment in the regulation of somatostatin release remains unclear. Methods: This study employed the somatostatin-secreting TGP52 cell line maintained in DMEM:F12 (17.5 mM glucose) or DMEM (25 mM glucose) culture media. The effect of pseudoislet formation and culture medium on somatostatin content and release in response to a variety of stimuli was measured by somatostatin EIA. In addition, the effect of pseudoislet formation on cellular viability (MTT and LDH assays) and proliferation (BrdU ELISA) was determined. Results: TGP52 cells readily formed pseudoislets and showed enhanced functionality in three-dimensional form with increased E-cadherin expression irrespective of the culture environment used. However, culture in DMEM decreased cellular somatostatin content (P < 0.01) and increased somatostatin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli including arginine, calcium and PMA (P < 0.001) when compared with cells grown in DMEM:F12. Configuration of TGP52 cells as pseudoislets reduced the proliferative rate and increased cellular cytotoxicity irrespective of culture medium used. Conclusions: Somatostatin secretion is greatly facilitated by cell-to-cell interactions and E-cadherin expression. Cellular environment and extracellular glucose also significantly influence the function of delta cells.

  8. Cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment alter the somatostatin status of delta cells

    Kelly, Catriona, E-mail: catriona.kelly@qub.ac.uk [SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine (United Kingdom); Flatt, Peter R.; McClenaghan, Neville H. [SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-20

    Research highlights: {yields} TGP52 cells display enhanced functionality in pseudoislet form. {yields} Somatostatin content was reduced, but secretion increased in high glucose conditions. {yields} Cellular interactions and environment alter the somatostatin status of TGP52 cells. -- Abstract: Introduction: Somatostatin, released from pancreatic delta cells, is a potent paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion. Islet cellular interactions and glucose homeostasis are essential to maintain normal patterns of insulin secretion. However, the importance of cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment in the regulation of somatostatin release remains unclear. Methods: This study employed the somatostatin-secreting TGP52 cell line maintained in DMEM:F12 (17.5 mM glucose) or DMEM (25 mM glucose) culture media. The effect of pseudoislet formation and culture medium on somatostatin content and release in response to a variety of stimuli was measured by somatostatin EIA. In addition, the effect of pseudoislet formation on cellular viability (MTT and LDH assays) and proliferation (BrdU ELISA) was determined. Results: TGP52 cells readily formed pseudoislets and showed enhanced functionality in three-dimensional form with increased E-cadherin expression irrespective of the culture environment used. However, culture in DMEM decreased cellular somatostatin content (P < 0.01) and increased somatostatin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli including arginine, calcium and PMA (P < 0.001) when compared with cells grown in DMEM:F12. Configuration of TGP52 cells as pseudoislets reduced the proliferative rate and increased cellular cytotoxicity irrespective of culture medium used. Conclusions: Somatostatin secretion is greatly facilitated by cell-to-cell interactions and E-cadherin expression. Cellular environment and extracellular glucose also significantly influence the function of delta cells.

  9. The Memory Alteration Test Discriminates between Cognitively Healthy Status, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Nuñez del Prado, Liza; Parodi, José; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Montesinos, Rosa; Cortijo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Dementia is a worldwide public health problem and there are several diagnostic tools for its assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T) to discriminate between patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), and subjects with a cognitively healthy status (CHS). Methods The discriminative validity was assessed in a sample of 90 patients with AD, 45 patients with a-MCI, and 180 subjects with CHS. Clinical, functional, and cognitive studies were independently performed in a blinded fashion and the gold standard diagnosis was established by consensus on the basis of these results. The test performance was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis as area under the curve (AUC). Results M@T mean scores were 17.7 (SD = 5.7) in AD, 30.8 (SD = 2.3) in a-MCI, and 44.5 (SD = 3.1) in CHS. A cutoff score of 37 points had a sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 97.8% to differentiate a-MCI from CHS (AUC = 0.999). A cutoff score of 27 points had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% to differentiate mild AD from a-MCI and from CHS (AUC = 1.000). Conclusions The M@T had a high performance in the discrimination between early AD, a-MCI and CHS. PMID:25298775

  10. Prolonged Postoperative Altered Mental Status After Methylene Blue Infusion During Parathyroidectomy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Khan, MAS; North, AP; Chadwick, DR

    2007-01-01

    Methylene blue (5 mg/kg) is routinely given at our institution during parathyroidectomy. The dye stains the parathyroid glands and helps in better surgical visualisation. The technique is generally considered to be safe except for causing pseudo-cyanosis. We report a case of a patient who had confusion, agitation and altered mental status during the early postoperative course probably secondary to methylene blue infusion.

  11. Teaching medical students a clinical approach to altered mental status: simulation enhances traditional curriculum

    Jeremy D. Sperling

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Simulation-based medical education (SBME is increasingly being utilized for teaching clinical skills in undergraduate medical education. Studies have evaluated the impact of adding SBME to third- and fourth-year curriculum; however, very little research has assessed its efficacy for teaching clinical skills in pre-clerkship coursework. To measure the impact of a simulation exercise during a pre-clinical curriculum, a simulation session was added to a pre-clerkship course at our medical school where the clinical approach to altered mental status (AMS is traditionally taught using a lecture and an interactive case-based session in a small group format. The objective was to measure simulation's impact on students’ knowledge acquisition, comfort, and perceived competence with regards to the AMS patient. Methods: AMS simulation exercises were added to the lecture and small group case sessions in June 2010 and 2011. Simulation sessions consisted of two clinical cases using a high-fidelity full-body simulator followed by a faculty debriefing after each case. Student participation in a simulation session was voluntary. Students who did and did not participate in a simulation session completed a post-test to assess knowledge and a survey to understand comfort and perceived competence in their approach to AMS. Results: A total of 154 students completed the post-test and survey and 65 (42% attended a simulation session. Post-test scores were higher in students who attended a simulation session compared to those who did not (p<0.001. Students who participated in a simulation session were more comfortable in their overall approach to treating AMS patients (p=0.05. They were also more likely to state that they could articulate a differential diagnosis (p=0.03, know what initial diagnostic tests are needed (p=0.01, and understand what interventions are useful in the first few minutes (p=0.003. Students who participated in a simulation session were more likely to find the overall AMS curriculum useful (p<0.001. Conclusion: Students who participated in a simulation exercise performed better on a knowledge-based test and reported increased comfort and perceived competence in their clinical approach to AMS. SBME shows significant promise for teaching clinical skills to medical students during pre-clinical curriculum.

  12. Mating behaviour and mating competitiveness of radiation sterilized males of Dysdercus koenigii Fabricius

    In Dysdercus koenigii F., while, the females were ready for mating soon after emergence, the males attained sexual maturity only after 36-48 h. Irradiation of males with a sterilizing dose of 70 Gy of x rays prior to attaining sexual maturity brought about delay in mating. Irradiation after attaining sexual maturity did not however, alter mating behaviour. Evaluation of mating competitiveness of sterile males by confining a normal female with sterile and normal males in 1:1 or 2:1 ratio and then recording the type of matings that occurred revealed that 1) mating competitiveness of males rendered sterile by irradiating prior to attaining maturity was greatly reduced even when the sterile males were aged for 48 hrs 2) when males were irradiated after attaining maturity, they significantly out numbered the normal males in mating with females, apparently indicating their becoming more vigorous than normal males. Irradiation during early 5th instar induced wing deformities. Such males having wing deformities failed to undergo copulation with normal females, but wing deformity among females did not prevent them from undergoing copulation with normal males. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  13. Different training status may alter the continuous blood glucose kinetics in self-paced endurance running

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimizu, Tomomi; OTA, MAKOTO; HIRATA, RYUZO; Sato, Kenji; TAMURA, YOSHIFUMI; Imanishi, Akio; Watanabe, Masayuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the systemic energy metabolism is to provide a source of energy, mainly glucose, for the brain; therefore, blood glucose levels would be expected to correlate with exercise performance. The individual training status may also affect the blood glucose levels. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between blood glucose levels and running velocity during prolonged running in athletes with different training statuses. Two female college athletes, a triathl...

  14. Mate choice for a male carotenoid-based ornament is linked to female dietary carotenoid intake and accumulation

    Toomey Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coevolution of male traits and female mate preferences has led to the elaboration and diversification of sexually selected traits; however the mechanisms that mediate trait-preference coevolution are largely unknown. Carotenoid acquisition and accumulation are key determinants of the expression of male sexually selected carotenoid-based coloration and a primary mechanism maintaining the honest information content of these signals. Carotenoids also influence female health and reproduction in ways that may alter the costs and benefits of mate choice behaviours and thus provide a potential biochemical link between the expression of male traits and female preferences. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the dietary carotenoid levels of captive female house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus and assessed their mate choice behavior in response to color-manipulated male finches. Results Females preferred to associate with red males, but carotenoid supplementation did not influence the direction or strength of this preference. Females receiving a low-carotenoid diet were less responsive to males in general, and discrimination among the colorful males was positively linked to female plasma carotenoid levels at the beginning of the study when the diet of all birds was carotenoid-limited. Conclusions Although female preference for red males was not influenced by carotenoid intake, changes in mating responsiveness and discrimination linked to female carotenoid status may alter how this preference is translated into choice. The reddest males, with the most carotenoid rich plumage, tend to pair early in the breeding season. If carotenoid-related variations in female choice behaviour shift the timing of pairing, then they have the potential to promote assortative mating by carotenoid status and drive the evolution of carotenoid-based male plumage coloration.

  15. Expression of Calcium Binding Proteins in Skeletal and Heart Muscles of Rats with Altered Thyroid Status

    Novák, Pavel; Marková, Vladimíra; Sulimenko, Vadym; Soukup, Tomáš

    Kyoto, Japan : Physiological society, 2009. s. 5-5. [International congress of Physiological Sciences /36./. 27.07.2009-01.08.2009, Kyoto] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : calsequestrin * muscle * thyroid status Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  16. Increased oxidative stress and altered antioxidants status in patients with chronic allergic rhinitis

    Shiefa Sequeira; Rao, Ashalatha V.; Anjali Rao

    2012-01-01

    Background: Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disorder of the upper airways. Although several oxidants and antioxidants are likely to be involved, alterations in only limited parameters have been studied. Objective: In this study an attempt has been made to study the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance by investigating changes in a wide range of oxidants and antioxidants in the blood. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 39 chronic allergic rhinitis patients (males 24, females 15), aged 20-...

  17. Electron beam radiation induced oxidative stress on alteration of enzymatic antioxidant status of Swiss albino mice

    Ionizing radiation causes damage to living tissues through a series of molecular events, such as photoelectric, Compton and Auger effects, depending on the radiation energy. Because human tissues contain 80% water, the major radiation damage is due to the aqueous free radicals, generated by the action of radiation on water. It was found to be 10 Gy was the lethal dose for mice. Different dosages (4 Gy, 6 Gy and 8 Gy) of electron beam radiation were used to study the level of lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidant status of irradiated mice. The results showed higher the radiation dosage, increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant level. (author)

  18. Expression of calsequestrin in skeletal and heart muscles of rats with altered thyroid status

    Novák, Petr; Škajeva, Maria; Marková, Vladimíra; Sulimenko, Vadym; Soukup, Tomáš

    Martin : Univerzita Komenského, 2008. s. 86-86. [Fyziologické dny /84./. 06.02.2008-08.02.2008, Martin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0327 Grant ostatní: Myores(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : spr2 * calsequestrin * thyroid status * rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  19. Expression of calsequestrin in skeletal and heart muscles of rats with altered thyroid status

    Novák, Petr; Škajeva, Maria; Marková, Vladimíra; Sulimenko, Vadym; Soukup, Tomáš

    Fyziologický ústav AV ČR, v. v. i.. Roč. 57, č. 2 (2008), 24P-24P ISSN 0862-8408. [Fyziologické dny /84./. 06.02.2008-08.02.2008, Martin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0327 Grant ostatní: Myores(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : cpr1 * calsequestrin * thyroid status * rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  20. Altered mental status, an unusual manifestation of early disseminated Lyme disease: A case report

    Chabria Shiven B

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Early disseminated Lyme disease can have a myriad of central nervous system manifestations. These run the gamut from meningitis to radiculopathy and cranial neuropathy. Here we present a case that manifested with only acute mental status change in the setting of central nervous system involvement with Lyme disease. A paucity of other central nervous system manifestations is rare, especially with positive serum and cerebrospinal fluid markers. This article underscores the importance of a high index of clinical suspicion in detection of Lyme disease related manifestations in endemic areas.

  1. Proton Beams Inhibit Proliferation of Breast Cancer Cells by Altering DNA Methylation Status

    Kim, Byungtak; Bae, Hansol; Lee, Hyunkyung; Lee, Seungyeon; Park, Jeong Chan; Kim, Kye Ryung; Kim, Sun Jung

    2016-01-01

    Proton beam therapy has been gaining popularity in the management of a wide spectrum of cancers. However, little is known about the effect of proton beams on epigenetic alterations. In this study, the effects of proton beams on DNA methylation were evaluated in the breast cell lines MCF-10A and MCF-7. Pyrosequencing analysis of the long interspersed element 1 (LINE1) gene indicated that a few specific CpG sites were induced to be hypermethylated by proton beam treatment from 64.5 to 76.5% and...

  2. Ethanol Intake during Lactation Alters Milk Nutrient Composition and Growth and Mineral Status of Rat Pups

    CNTIA R.P AZARA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactating Wistar rats were fed a liquid diet containing either ethanol [ethanol-fed group (EFG] or an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate [pair-fed group (PFG] from day 1 postpartum up to day 14 of lactation, to investigate micro/macronutrient milk composition and the mineral status of pups. EFG presented a reduction of daily milk production and milk composition was significantly higher in protein and lower in carbohydrate, while the lipid content was similar to that of PFG. When compared to PFG, the milk of EFG had a decreased proportion of C22:6 n-3 fatty acid and an increase in medium-chain fatty acids and of several minerals. Pups of EFG showed reduced growth and a lower concentration of Cu and Sr in plasma and lower concentrations of Ca, P and Cl, and higher concentrations of Cd in the brain. We conclude that maternal EtOH intake greatly impairs lactational performance and modifies the mineral status of pups.

  3. Altered DNA repair, oxidative stress and antioxidant status in coronary artery disease

    A Supriya Simon; V Chithra; Anoop Vijayan; Roy D Dinesh; T Vijayakumar

    2013-06-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disease caused by the interplay of environmental risk factors with multiple predisposing genes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of DNA repair efficiency and oxidative stress and antioxidant status in CAD patients. Malonaldehyde (MDA), which is an indicator of oxidative stress, and mean break per cell (b/c) values, which is an indicator of decreased DNA repair efficiency, were found to be significantly increased in patients compared to normal controls ( < 0.05) whereas ascorbic acid and GSH were found to be lower among patients than the control group. It has been found that elevated oxidative stress decreased antioxidant level and decreased DNA repair efficiency can contribute to the development of CAD. This study also showed that high MDA, low ascorbic acid and GSH were significantly associated with high b/c value.

  4. Social status alters defeat-induced neural activation in Syrian hamsters.

    Morrison, K E; Curry, D W; Cooper, M A

    2012-05-17

    Although exposure to social stress leads to increased depression-like and anxiety-like behavior, some individuals are more vulnerable than others to these stress-induced changes in behavior. Prior social experience is one factor that can modulate how individuals respond to stressful events. In this study, we investigated whether experience-dependent resistance to the behavioral consequences of social defeat was associated with a specific pattern of neural activation. We paired weight-matched male Syrian hamsters in daily aggressive encounters for 2 weeks, during which they formed a stable dominance relationship. We also included control animals that were exposed to an empty cage each day for 2 weeks. Twenty-four hours after the final pairing or empty cage exposure, half of the subjects were socially defeated in 3, 5-min encounters, whereas the others were not socially defeated. Twenty-four hours after social defeat, animals were tested for conditioned defeat in a 5-min social interaction test with a non-aggressive intruder. We collected brains after social defeat and processed the tissue for c-Fos immunoreactivity. We found that dominants were more likely than subordinates to counter-attack the resident aggressor during social defeat, and they showed less submissive and defensive behavior at conditioned defeat testing compared with subordinates. Also, social status was associated with distinct patterns of defeat-induced neural activation in select brain regions, including the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus, and lateral septum. Our results indicate that social status is an important form of prior experience that predicts both initial coping style and the degree of resistance to social defeat. Further, the differences in defeat-induced neural activation suggest possible brain regions that may control resistance to conditioned defeat in dominant individuals. PMID:22433296

  5. SynchroMate

    Gibbs, M.; Vetere, F.; Bunyan, M; Howard, Steve

    2005-01-01

    preliminary ideas concerning technologies to support phatic interaction. Using the materials collected during our fieldwork as design inspirations, we developed design sketches for phatic technologies intended to support playful connection between intimates. One of these sketches – SynchroMate – is presented...

  6. Structural alterations in the rat brain and behavioral impairment after status epilepticus: An MRI study.

    Suleymanova, E M; Gulyaev, M V; Abbasova, K R

    2016-02-19

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common neurologic disorders often associated with behavioral impairments and cognitive deficit. Lithium-pilocarpine model of seizures in rodents reproduces many features of human convulsive status epilepticus (SE) and subsequent TLE. In this study, we have investigated changes in the rat brain after lithium-pilocarpine SE using a high-field MRI system for small animals in early and chronic periods after SE. We have studied the relationship between T2 relaxation time measured in these periods and the development of behavioral exploratory response to novelty and habituation in the open field test. A significant increase in T2 in the hippocampus and associated structures was found 2days after SE and practically resolved by day seven, while an increase in T2 in the parietal and prefrontal cortex appeared 30days after SE. High T2 values in the parietal cortex and thalamus on day two after SE were associated with an increased mortality risk. A substantial variability in T2 relaxation time was observed in the hippocampus and amygdala 30days after SE. Rats survived after SE showed locomotor hyperactivity and disruption of long-term habituation in the open field test carried out 5weeks after the seizures. Interestingly, T2 in the amygdala 30days after SE had a strong correlation with hyperactivity in the novel open field. Therefore, the amygdala damage may be an important factor in the development of hyperactivity in the chronic period after SE. PMID:26674057

  7. Habitat change influences mate search behaviour in three-spined sticklebacks

    Heuschele, Jan; Salminen, Tiina; Candolin, Ulrika

    2012-01-01

    global problem that alters habitat structure and visibility in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated whether changes in habitat complexity and male cue modality, visual or olfactory, influence mate search behaviour of female three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. We allowed gravid females to......Mate choice is one of the main mechanisms of sexual selection, with profound implications for individual fitness. Changes in environmental conditions can cause individuals to alter their mate search behaviour, with consequences for mate choice. Human-induced eutrophication of water bodies is a...

  8. Efficacy of lower doses of vanadium in restoring altered glucose metabolism and antioxidant status in diabetic rat lenses

    Anju Preet; Bihari L Gupta; Gupta Pramod K Yadava; Najma Z Baquer

    2005-03-01

    Vanadium compounds are potent in controlling elevated blood glucose levels in experimentally induced diabetes. However the toxicity associated with vanadium limits its role as therapeutic agent for diabetic treatment. A vanadium compound sodium orthovanadate (SOV) was given to alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats in lower doses in combination with Trigonella foenum graecum, a well-known hypoglycemic agent used in traditional Indian medicines. The effect of this combination was studied on lens morphology and glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. Lens, an insulin-independent tissue, was found severely affected in diabetes showing visual signs of cataract. Alterations in the activities of glucose metabolizing enzymes (hexokinase, aldose reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase) besides the levels of related metabolites, [sorbitol, fructose, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH)] were observed in the lenses from diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated with insulin (2 IU/day), SOV (0.6 mg/ml), T. f. graecum seed powder (TSP, 5%) and TSP (5%) in combination with lowered dose of vanadium SOV (0.2 mg/ml), for a period of 3 weeks. The activity of the enzymes, hexokinase, aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase was significantly increased whereas the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase decreased significantly in lenses from 3 week diabetic rats. Significant increase in accumulation of metabolites, sorbitol, fructose, glucose was found in diabetic lenses. TBARS measure of peroxidation increased whereas the levels of antioxidant GSH decreased significantly in diabetic condition. Insulin restored the levels of altered enzyme activities and metabolites almost to control levels. Sodium orthovanadate (0.6 mg/ml) and Trigonella administered separately to diabetic animals could partially reverse the diabetic changes, metabolic and morphological, while vanadate in lowered dose in combination with Trigonella was found to be the most effective in restoring the altered lens metabolism and morphological appearance in diabetes. It may be concluded that vanadate at lowered doses administered in combination with Trigonella was the most effective in controlling the altered glucose metabolism and antioxidant status in diabetic lenses, these being significant factors involved in the development of diabetic complications, that reflects in the reduced lens opacity.

  9. Matings in matrices

    Bibel, W.

    1983-11-01

    This paper gives an overview of the connection method developed by the author in automated theorem proving. Its prominent features are illustrated with a number of examples. Well-defined measures of efficiency have shown it to out perform standard proof methods. Some of its features are also present in Andrews independent approach via matings (1981). The relationship between these two methods is clarified. 21 references.

  10. Do Couples Assortatively Mate?

    Mistry, Navin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of intelligence, conservatism, personal values, and Openness in assortative mating. A sample of 32 couples was given questionnaires, which measured self-rated intelligence and partner-rated Openness, conservatism and values. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) were used to ascertain similarity within couples on the above variables. We found significant evidence of assortment for Openness, the facets of Artistic Interests, Intellect and Liberalism, conservatism a...

  11. Evolution of mating isolation between populations of Drosophila ananassae.

    Schug, Malcolm D; Baines, John F; Killon-Atwood, Amanda; Mohanty, Sujata; Das, Aparup; Grath, Sonja; Smith, Shelly G; Zargham, Shiva; McEvey, Shane F; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2008-06-01

    Prezygotic mating isolation has been a major interest of evolutionary biologists during the past several decades because it is likely to represent one of the first stages in the transition from populations to species. Mate discrimination is one of the most commonly measured forms of prezygotic isolation and appears to be relatively common among closely related species. In some cases, it has been used as a measure to distinguish populations from subspecies, races, and sister species, yet the influences of various evolutionary mechanisms that may generate mate discrimination are largely unknown. In this study, we measured the level and pattern of mate discrimination among 18 populations of a cosmopolitan drosophilid species, Drosophila ananassae, from throughout its geographical range and its sister species, Drosophila pallidosa, which has a restricted geographical distribution in the South Pacific Islands. In addition, we measured genetic differentiation between all 18 populations using mitochondrial DNA polymorphism data. Mate discrimination varies considerably throughout the species range, being higher among populations outside the ancestral Indonesian range, and highest in the South Pacific. Our results suggest that colonization and genetic differentiation may have an influence on the evolutionary origin of mate discrimination. Our phylogeographical approach clarifies the ancestral relationships of several populations from the South Pacific that show particularly strong mate discrimination and suggests that they may be in the early stages of speciation. Furthermore, both the genetic and behavioral results cast doubt on the status of D. pallidosa as a good species. PMID:18466237

  12. The Best Timing of Mate Search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    Beauche, Fanny; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different m...

  13. Mating behaviour of female Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): polyandry increases reproductive output

    Lee, M S; Albajes Garcia, Ramon; Eizaguirre Altuna, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is an important pest of tomato. Mass trapping of males has seldom proved an effective control measure, probably due to the pest"s reproductive biology. There are few studies on female mating behaviour. For this reason, this study aimed to determine female mating frequency and its effects on reproductive output and female longevity; the effects of male mating status on female reproductive output and longevity and the fate of the spermatophore inside the bursa copulatrix...

  14. Casanovas are liars: behavioral syndromes, sperm competition risk, and the evolution of deceptive male mating behavior in live-bearing fishes [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1zi

    David Bierbach

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive biology can by characterized through competition over mates as well as mate choice. Multiple mating and male mate choice copying, especially in internally fertilizing species, set the stage for increased sperm competition, i.e., sperm of two or more males can compete for fertilization of the female’s ova. In the internally fertilizing fish Poecilia mexicana, males respond to the presence of rivals with reduced expression of mating preferences (audience effect, thereby lowering the risk of by-standing rivals copying their mate choice. Also, males interact initially more with a non-preferred female when observed by a rival, which has been interpreted in previous studies as a strategy to mislead rivals, again reducing sperm competition risk (SCR. Nevertheless, species might differ consistently in their expression of aggressive and reproductive behaviors, possibly due to varying levels of SCR. In the current study, we present a unique data set comprising ten poeciliid species (in two cases including multiple populations and ask whether species can be characterized through consistent differences in the expression of aggression, sexual activity and changes in mate choice under increased SCR. We found consistent species-specific differences in aggressive behavior, sexual activity as well as in the level of misleading behavior, while decreased preference expression under increased SCR was a general feature of all but one species examined. Furthermore, mean sexual activity correlated positively with the occurrence of potentially misleading behavior. An alternative explanation for audience effects would be that males attempt to avoid aggressive encounters, which would predict stronger audience effects in more aggressive species. We demonstrate a positive correlation between mean aggressiveness and sexual activity (suggesting a hormonal link as a mechanistic explanation, but did not detect a correlation between aggressiveness and audience effects. Suites of correlated behavioral tendencies are termed behavioral syndromes, and our present study provides correlational evidence for the evolutionary significance of SCR in shaping a behavioral syndrome at the species level across poeciliid taxa.

  15. Casanovas are liars: behavioral syndromes, sperm competition risk, and the evolution of deceptive male mating behavior in live-bearing fishes [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1ko

    David Bierbach

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive biology can by characterized through competition over mates as well as mate choice. Multiple mating and male mate choice copying, especially in internally fertilizing species, set the stage for increased sperm competition, i.e., sperm of two or more males can compete for fertilization of the female’s ova. In the internally fertilizing fish Poecilia mexicana, males respond to the presence of rivals with reduced expression of mating preferences (audience effect, thereby lowering the risk of by-standing rivals copying their mate choice. Also, males interact initially more with a non-preferred female when observed by a rival, which has been interpreted in previous studies as a strategy to mislead rivals, again reducing sperm competition risk (SCR. Nevertheless, species might differ consistently in their expression of aggressive and reproductive behaviors, possibly due to varying levels of SCR. In the current study, we present a unique data set comprising ten poeciliid species (in two cases including multiple populations and ask whether species can be characterized through consistent differences in the expression of aggression, sexual activity and changes in mate choice under increased SCR. We found consistent species-specific differences in aggressive behavior, sexual activity as well as in the level of misleading behavior, while decreased preference expression under increased SCR was a general feature of all but one species examined. Furthermore, mean sexual activity correlated positively with the occurrence of potentially misleading behavior. An alternative explanation for audience effects would be that males attempt to avoid aggressive encounters, which would predict stronger audience effects in more aggressive species. We demonstrate a positive correlation between mean aggressiveness and sexual activity (suggesting a hormonal link as a mechanistic explanation, but did not detect a correlation between aggressiveness and audience effects. Suites of correlated behavioral tendencies are termed behavioral syndromes, and our present study provides correlational evidence for the evolutionary significance of SCR in shaping a behavioral syndrome at the species level across poeciliid taxa.

  16. Different cognitive processes underlie human mate choices and mate preferences

    Peter M. Todd; Penke, Lars; Fasolo, Barbara; Lenton, Alison P.

    2007-01-01

    Based on undergraduates' self-reports of mate preferences for various traits and self-perceptions of their own levels on those traits, Buston and Emlen [Buston PM, Emlen ST (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:8805–8810] concluded that modern human mate choices do not reflect predictions of tradeoffs from evolutionary theory but instead follow a “likes-attract” pattern, where people choose mates who match their self-perceptions. However, reported preferences need not correspond to actual mate ch...

  17. Patients with Altered Mental Status Due to Suicide: The Clinics of Follow-up and the Role of Emergency Departments.

    Murat Sar?temur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The patients with suicide attempt require a multidisciplinary approach. Today, a large proportion of treatment and follow-up is made in the emergency departments (EDs and intensive care units (ICUs. In our study, we aimed to investigate which clinics make treatment and follow-up and psychiatric evaluation of these patients and differences in follow-up between patients with and without altered mental status (AMS in our hospital. Methods The patients admitted to our ED between December 10, 2008 and February 15, 2011 with suicidal attempt and higher than 16 years old were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with Glasgow coma score ? 14 were considered having AMS. Results Along with 84 patients with AMS, a total of 304 patients were studied. Of the patients, 67.1% (n=204 were female and mean age was 25.89.1. Of the patients with AMS, 92.9% (n=78 were admitted and 48.8% (n=41 were admitted to the observation room of ED. The percentage of the patients without AMS who were admitted was 69.5% (n=153 and 43.2% (n=95 were admitted to the ED. The patients with and without AMS had a prior suicide attempt with 13.1% (n=11 and 16.8% (n=37, respectively. The rate of suicide attempt with more than one drug was almost similar and quite high in both groups. Conclusion EDs, ICUs, and surgical clinics when suicide attempt is associated with a trauma play a key role in the treatment of these patients. Therefore, we think that improvement of these clinics on this topic will enhance the quality of care.

  18. Mating programs including genomic relationships

    Computer mating programs have helped breeders minimize pedigree inbreeding and avoid recessive defects by mating animals with parents that have fewer common ancestors. With genomic selection, breed associations, AI organizations, and on-farm software providers could use new programs to minimize geno...

  19. Estrogens can disrupt amphibian mating behavior.

    Hoffmann, Frauke; Kloas, Werner

    2012-01-01

    The main component of classical contraceptives, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), has high estrogenic activity even at environmentally relevant concentrations. Although estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds are assumed to contribute to the worldwide decline of amphibian populations by adverse effects on sexual differentiation, evidence for EE2 affecting amphibian mating behaviour is lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that EE2 exposure at five different concentrations (0.296 ng/L, 2.96 ng/L, 29.64 ng/L, 2.96 µg/L and 296.4 µg/L) can disrupt the mating behavior of adult male Xenopus laevis. EE2 exposure at all concentrations lowered male sexual arousal, indicated by decreased proportions of advertisement calls and increased proportions of the call type rasping, which characterizes a sexually unaroused state of a male. Additionally, EE2 at all tested concentrations affected temporal and spectral parameters of the advertisement calls, respectively. The classical and highly sensitive biomarker vitellogenin, on the other hand, was only induced at concentrations equal or higher than 2.96 µg/L. If kept under control conditions after a 96 h EE2 exposure (2.96 µg/L), alterations of male advertisement calls vanish gradually within 6 weeks and result in a lower sexual attractiveness of EE2 exposed males toward females as demonstrated by female choice experiments. These findings indicate that exposure to environmentally relevant EE2 concentrations can directly disrupt male mate calling behavior of X. laevis and can indirectly affect the mating behavior of females. The results suggest the possibility that EE2 exposure could reduce the reproductive success of EE2 exposed animals and these effects might contribute to the global problem of amphibian decline. PMID:22355410

  20. Sexual selection in Nauphoeta cinerea: inherited mating preference?

    Moore, A J

    1989-09-01

    In the cockroach, Nauphoeta cinerea, female preferences with respect to sexual selection can be easily examined. Mating is nonrandom due to female preferences based on olfactory differences among males. This mate choice results in a mating advantage for socially dominant males. In this paper, results of experiments designed to explore the relationship between female choice in daughters and the preferred male character are described. Using females with male parents of known status and an olfactometer to determine preferences, it is shown that the type of male preferred depends on the status of the female's father. Because social experiences of females were experimentally controlled, these preliminary results suggest that (1) variation in female preferences may have a genetic basis and (2) because of assortative mating, mate choice may be genetically linked to the preferred male character, as predicted by mathematical models of the sexual selection process. N. cinerea appears to be an ideal species for testing predictions and assumptions of models of sexual selection. PMID:2803189

  1. Mating behavior of Cnephasia jactatana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important pest of kiwifruit.

    Jiménez-Pérez, Alfredo; Wang, Qiao; Arzuffi, R

    2013-06-01

    Understanding mating behavioral sequence helps us identify the mechanisms of mate assessment and choice, and better evaluate behavior-based pest control strategies. Here we describe the mating behavior of Cnephasia jactatana Walker whose females release a sex pheromone, and determine the effect of male mating status on reproductive success. The mating sequence starts when males approach females and display courtship behavior with antennation and fanning wings. Both males and females may end a mating attempt at any stage of the sequence. Both sexes assess their mates from the initial contact to copulation. Females appear to be choosier at the early and mid-stages than at the late stage of the sequence. Virgin males approach and court females significantly earlier than nonvirgin males. As compared with nonvirgin males, virgin males are approximately 1.6 times more likely to approach and 1.8 times more likely to court females, and four times more likely to achieve mating. This may be attributed to depletion of sperm and accessory gland materials and reduced ability to respond to female sex pheromones in nonvirgin males. The number of attempts by males to acquire mates may be one of the traits that females assess before choosing their mates. PMID:23865204

  2. Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Most insect species exhibit characteristic behavioral changes after mating. Typical post-mating behaviors in female insects include noticeable increases in food intake, elevated oviposition rates, lowered receptivity to courting males, and enhanced immune response. Although it has been reported that mated females of several insect species including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster increase the amount of food intake and change their dietary preferences, the limited number of comparative studies prevent the formulation of generalities regarding post-mating behaviors in other insects in particular amongst orthopteran species. Here, we investigated whether females of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, alter their feeding behavior after mating. Although significant differences in the amount of food intake after mating were not observed, all experimental data indicated a clear trend among crickets toward the ingestion of larger quantities of food. Geometric framework analyses revealed that the mated female crickets preferred food with higher protein content compared to virgin female crickets. This implies that this species required different nutritional demands after mating. These findings further expand our understanding of the behavioral and biological changes that are triggered in female insects post-mating, and highlight the potential for this species in investigating the molecular-based nutritional dependent activities that are linked to post-mating behaviors. PMID:24659970

  3. Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    ShinjiNagata

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most insect species exhibit characteristic behavioral changes after mating. Typical post-mating behaviors in female insects include noticeable increases in food intake, elevated oviposition rates, lowered receptivity to courting males, and enhanced immune response. Although it has been reported that mated females of several insect species including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster increase the amount of food intake and change their dietary preferences, the limited number of comparative studies prevent the formulation of generalities regarding post-mating behaviors in other insects in particular amongst orthopteran species. Here, we investigated whether females of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, alter their feeding behavior after mating. Although significant differences in the amount of food intake after mating were not observed, all experimental data indicated a clear trend among crickets towards the ingestion of larger quantities of food. Geometric framework analyses revealed that the mated female crickets preferred food with higher protein content compared to virgin female crickets. This implies that this species required different nutritional demands after mating. These findings further expand our understanding of the behavioral and biological changes that are triggered in female insects post-mating, and highlight the potential for this species in investigating the molecular-based nutritional dependent activities that are linked to post-mating behaviors.

  4. Ondansetron Can Enhance Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity via Inhibition of Multiple Toxin and Extrusion Proteins (MATEs)

    Li, Qing; Guo, Dong; Dong, Zhongqi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lei K.; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Polli, James E.; Shu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    The nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application of cisplatin. Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) work in concert in the elimination of cationic drugs such as cisplatin from the kidney. We hypothesized that co-administration of ondansetron would have an effect on cisplatin nephrotoxicity by altering the function of cisplatin transporters. The inhibitory potencies of ondansetron on metformin accumulation mediated by OCT2 and MATEs were determined in the stable HEK-293 cells expressing these transporters. The effects of ondansetron on drug disposition in vivo were examined by conducting the pharmacokinetics of metformin, a classical substrate for OCTs and MATEs, in wild-type and Mate1−/− mice. The nephrotoxicity was assessed in the wild-type and Mate1−/− mice received cisplatin with and without ondansetron. Both MATEs, including human MATE1, human MATE2-K, and mouse Mate1, and OCT2 (human and mouse) were subject to ondansetron inhibition, with much greater potencies by ondansetron on MATEs. Ondansetron significantly increased tissue accumulation and pharmacokinetic exposure of metformin in wild-type but not in Mate1−/− mice. Moreover, ondansetron treatment significantly enhanced renal accumulation of cisplatin and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity which were indicated by increased levels of biochemical and molecular biomarkers and more severe pathohistological changes in mice. Similar increases in nephrotoxicity were caused by genetic deficiency of MATE function in mice. Therefore, the potent inhibition of MATEs by ondansetron enhances the nephrotoxicity associated with cisplatin treatment in mice. Potential nephrotoxic effects of combining the chemotherapeutic cisplatin and the antiemetic 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron, should be investigated in patients. PMID:24001450

  5. Discovery of Potent, Selective Multidrug And Toxin Extrusion Transporter 1 (MATE1, SLC47A1) Inhibitors Through Prescription Drug Profiling and Computational Modeling

    Wittwer, Matthias B.; Zur, Arik A.; Khuri, Natalia; Kido, Yasuto; Kosaka, Alan; Zhang, Xuexiang; Morrissey, Kari M.; Sali, Andrej; Huang, Yong; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    The human multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) transporter 1 contributes to the tissue distribution and excretion of many drugs. Inhibition of MATE1 may result in potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and alterations in drug exposure and accumulation in various tissues. The primary goals of this project were to identify MATE1 inhibitors with clinical importance or in vitro utility and to elucidate the physicochemical properties that differ between MATE1 and OCT2 inhibitors. Using a fluoresc...

  6. Prior mating success can affect allocation towards future sexual signaling in crickets

    Rachel Chiswell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fitness is often correlated with the expression level of a sexually selected trait. However, sexually selected traits are costly to express such that investment in their expression should be optimised to maximize their overall fitness gains. Social interactions, in the form of successful and unsuccessful matings, may offer males one type of feedback allowing them to gauge how to allocate their resources towards sexual signaling. Here we tested whether adult male black field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus modify the extent of their calling effort (the sexually selected trait in response to successful and unsuccessful matings with females. To examine the effect that mating interactions with females have on investment into sexual signaling, we monitored male calling effort after maturation and then provided males with a female at two points within their life, manipulating whether or not males were able to successfully mate each time. Our results demonstrate that males alter their investment towards sexual signaling in response to successful matings, but only if the experience occurs early in their life. Males that mated early decreased their calling effort sooner than males that were denied a mating. Our results demonstrate that social feedback in the form of successful and unsuccessful matings has the potential to alter the effort a male places towards sexual signaling.

  7. Fasting, but Not Aging, Dramatically Alters the Redox Status of Cysteine Residues on Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster

    Katja E. Menger; Andrew M. James; Helena M. Cochemé; Harbour, Michael E.; Edward T. Chouchani; Shujing Ding; Ian M. Fearnley; Linda Partridge; Michael P. Murphy

    2015-01-01

    Summary Altering the redox state of cysteine residues on protein surfaces is an important response to environmental challenges. Although aging and fasting alter many redox processes, the role of cysteine residues is uncertain. To address this, we used a redox proteomic technique, oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT), to assess cysteine-residue redox changes in Drosophila melanogaster during aging and fasting. This approach enabled us to simultaneously identify and quantify the redox...

  8. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status

    Gouda-Vossos, Amany; Barnaby J. Dixson; Brooks, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual’s attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target mode...

  9. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Activation is Associated with Altered Plasma One-Carbon Metabolites and B-Vitamin Status in Rats.

    Lysne, Vegard; Strand, Elin; Svingen, Gard F T; Bjrndal, Bodil; Pedersen, Eva R; Midttun, ivind; Olsen, Thomas; Ueland, Per M; Berge, Rolf K; Nygrd, Ottar

    2016-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of metabolites along the choline oxidation pathway have been linked to increased risk of major lifestyle diseases, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been suggested to be involved in the regulation of key enzymes along this pathway. In this study, we investigated the effect of PPAR activation on circulating and urinary one-carbon metabolites as well as markers of B-vitamin status. Male Wistar rats (n = 20) received for 50 weeks either a high-fat control diet or a high-fat diet with tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA), a modified fatty acid and pan-PPAR agonist with high affinity towards PPAR?. Hepatic gene expression of PPAR?, PPAR?/? and the enzymes involved in the choline oxidation pathway were analyzed and concentrations of metabolites were analyzed in plasma and urine. TTA treatment altered most biomarkers, and the largest effect sizes were observed for plasma concentrations of dimethylglycine, nicotinamide, methylnicotinamide, methylmalonic acid and pyridoxal, which were all higher in the TTA group (all p treatment, but genes of the choline oxidation pathway were not affected. Long-term TTA treatment was associated with pronounced alterations on the plasma and urinary concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats. PMID:26742069

  10. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Activation is Associated with Altered Plasma One-Carbon Metabolites and B-Vitamin Status in Rats

    Vegard Lysne

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma concentrations of metabolites along the choline oxidation pathway have been linked to increased risk of major lifestyle diseases, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs have been suggested to be involved in the regulation of key enzymes along this pathway. In this study, we investigated the effect of PPAR activation on circulating and urinary one-carbon metabolites as well as markers of B-vitamin status. Male Wistar rats (n = 20 received for 50 weeks either a high-fat control diet or a high-fat diet with tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA, a modified fatty acid and pan-PPAR agonist with high affinity towards PPARα. Hepatic gene expression of PPARα, PPARβ/δ and the enzymes involved in the choline oxidation pathway were analyzed and concentrations of metabolites were analyzed in plasma and urine. TTA treatment altered most biomarkers, and the largest effect sizes were observed for plasma concentrations of dimethylglycine, nicotinamide, methylnicotinamide, methylmalonic acid and pyridoxal, which were all higher in the TTA group (all p < 0.01. Hepatic Pparα mRNA was increased after TTA treatment, but genes of the choline oxidation pathway were not affected. Long-term TTA treatment was associated with pronounced alterations on the plasma and urinary concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats.

  11. Impact of market value on human mate choice decisions.

    B. Pawłowski; Dunbar, R I

    1999-01-01

    Mate choice strategies are a process of negotiation in which individuals make bids that are constrained by their status in the market place. Humans provide an unusual perspective on this because we can measure their explicitly expressed preferences before they are forced to make any choices. We use advertisements placed in newspaper personal columns to examine, first, the extent to which evolutionary considerations affect the level of competition (or market value) during the reproductively ac...

  12. Sexually dimorphic mate preference in Japan : An analysis of lonely hearts advertisements.

    Oda, R

    2001-09-01

    Lonely hearts advertisements (LHA) published in Japan were examined in a comparative study on sexually dimorphic mate preference. I analyzed 944 LHA written by Japanese (730 by males and 214 by females) seeking short-term relationships and 780 LHA (577 by males and 203 by females) seeking long-term relationships. Some universal patterns of mate preference were confirmed and others were not. Female advertisers in both categories sought more traits than they offered; they also sought more traits than male advertisers. Males tended to offer their financial and social status, and females tended to seek those traits. More females requested family commitment than males. While there was no sex difference in offering and seeking physical appearance and health, females tended to request photographs of their potential mates. Males were more likely than females to be willing to accept children from previous relationships, although there was no significant difference in refusing such children. More females seeking long-term mates requested family commitment than females seeking short-term mates. In both males and females, more advertisers seeking long-term mates offered family commitment than advertisers seeking short-term mates. Some predictions for contingent preference were also examined. One prediction confirmed was that females offering physical appearance and health sought more traits than those not doing so. However, males offering financial and social status did not make higher demands than those who did not, which does not support one prediction. PMID:26192276

  13. The Structure and Content of Long-Term and Short-Term Mate Preferences

    Peter K. Jonason

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses two limitations in the mate preferences literature. First, research all-too-often relies on single-item assessments of mate preferences precluding more advanced statistical techniques like factor analysis. Second, when factor analysis could be done, it exclusively has done for long-term mate preferences, at the exclusion of short-term mate preferences. In this study (N = 401, we subjected 20 items designed to measure short- and long-term mate preferences to both principle components (n = 200 and confirmatory factor analysis (n = 201. In the long-term context, we replicated previous findings that there are three different categories of preferences: physical attractiveness, interpersonal warmth, and social status. In the short-term context, physical attractiveness occupied two parts of the structure, social status dropped out, and interpersonal warmth remained. Across short- and long-term contexts, there were slight changes in what defined the shared dimensions (i.e., physical attractiveness and interpersonal warmth, suggesting prior work that applies the same inventory to each context might be flawed. We also replicated sex differences and similarities in mate preferences and correlates with sociosexuality and mate value. We adopt an evolutionary paradigm to understand our results.

  14. Altered DNA methylation status of human brain derived neurotrophis factor gene could be useful as biomarker of depression

    Song, Yixuan; Miyaki, Koichi; Suzuki, Tomoko; Sasaki, Yasuharu; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; KAWAKAMI, NORITO; Shimazu, Akihito; Takahashi, Masaya; Inoue, Akiomi; Kan, Chiemi; KURIOKA, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the survival, development, and synaptic plasticity of neurons. BDNF is believed to be associated with the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Several studies have suggested the relevance of DNA methylation in its promoter region with depression. Here, we report different methylation statuses in groups with different depressive scores or undergoing different levels of job-stress. DNA samples were extracted from the saliva of 774 Jap...

  15. Evidence for Psychosocial Stress-induced Inflammation, Altered Dopamine Status and Impaired Reward-directed Behaviour in Mice

    Bergamini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events have been recognized as key proximal risk factors for depression, and exposure to stress is associated with altered immune function. Moreover, depression correlates with higher levels of inflammatory markers, at least in a subpopulation of patients. There is evidence that decreased dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic pathways leads to impaired reward and aversion processing and could underlie major psychopathologies, including motivational impairment...

  16. Findings on sperm alterations and DNA fragmentation, nutritional, hormonal and antioxidant status in an elite triathlete. Case report

    D. Vaamonde

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: In this high-intensity endurance athlete, sperm parameters, mainly sperm morphology and DNA fragmentation, are altered. Further knowledge is needed with regards nutritional antioxidant intake and other dietetic strategies oriented toward avoiding oxidative damage in semen of high-performance triathletes. Moreover, adequate nutritional strategies must be found and nutritional advice given to athletes so as to palliate or dampen the effects of exercise on semen quality.

  17. Alteration in membrane protein, antioxidant status and hexokinase activity in erythrocytes of CCl4- induced cirrhotic rats.

    Amir Hossein Doustimotlagh; Ahmad Reza Dehpour; Mitra Nourbakhsh; Abolfazl Golestani

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown that hepatocyte membrane composition changes in patients with cholestasis and cirrhosis. These alterations that are because of intracellular oxidative stress are supposed to be reflected in erythrocyte membrane. The aim of this study was to investigate the modification of erythrocyte membrane along with hexokinase and antioxidant enzymes during development of cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 in male Wistar rats. The test groups w...

  18. The Ca(2+) status of the endoplasmic reticulum is altered by induction of calreticulin expression in transgenic plants

    Persson, S.; Wyatt, S. E.; Love, J.; Thompson, W. F.; Robertson, D.; Boss, W. F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores in plant cells, we generated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum; NT1) suspension cells and Arabidopsis plants with altered levels of calreticulin (CRT), an ER-localized Ca(2+)-binding protein. NT1 cells and Arabidopsis plants were transformed with a maize (Zea mays) CRT gene in both sense and antisense orientations under the control of an Arabidopsis heat shock promoter. ER-enriched membrane fractions from NT1 cells were used to examine how altered expression of CRT affects Ca(2+) uptake and release. We found that a 2.5-fold increase in CRT led to a 2-fold increase in ATP-dependent (45)Ca(2+) accumulation in the ER-enriched fraction compared with heat-shocked wild-type controls. Furthermore, after treatment with the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin, ER microsomes from NT1 cells overproducing CRT showed a 2-fold increase in the amount of (45)Ca(2+) released, and a 2- to 3-fold increase in the amount of (45)Ca(2+) retained compared with wild type. These data indicate that altering the production of CRT affects the ER Ca(2+) pool. In addition, CRT transgenic Arabidopsis plants were used to determine if altered CRT levels had any physiological effects. We found that the level of CRT in heat shock-induced CRT transgenic plants correlated positively with the retention of chlorophyll when the plants were transferred from Ca(2+)-containing medium to Ca(2+)-depleted medium. Together these data are consistent with the hypothesis that increasing CRT in the ER increases the ER Ca(2+) stores and thereby enhances the survival of plants grown in low Ca(2+) medium.

  19. Amelioration of altered antioxidant status and membrane linked functions by vanadium and Trigonella in alloxan diabetic rat brains

    Mohammad Rizwan Siddiqui; Asia Taha; K Moorthy; Mohd Ejaz Hussain; S F Basir; Najma Zaheer Baquer

    2005-09-01

    Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP) and sodium orthovanadate (SOV) have been reported to have antidiabetic effects. However, SOV exerts hypoglycemic effects at relatively high doses with several toxic effects. We used low doses of vanadate in combination with TSP and evaluated their antidiabetic effects on antioxidant enzymes and membrane-linked functions in diabetic rat brains. In rats, diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body wt.) and they were treated with 2 IU insulin, 0.6 mg/ml SOV, 5% TSP and a combination of 0.2 mg/ml SOV with 5% TSP for 21 days. Blood glucose levels, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Na+/K+ ATPase, membrane lipid peroxidation and fluidity were determined in different fractions of whole brain after 21 days of treatment. Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose ( < 0.001), decreased activities of SOD, catalase and Na+/K+ ATPase ( < 0.01, < 0.001 and < 0.01), increased levels of GPx and MDA ( < 0.01 and < 0.001) and decreased membrane fluidity ( < 0.01). Treatment with different antidiabetic compounds restored the above-altered parameters. Combined dose of Trigonella and vanadate was found to be the most effective treatment in normalizing these alterations. Lower doses of vanadate could be used in combination with TSP to effectively counter diabetic alterations without any toxic effects.

  20. F1 sterility of Diatraea saccharalis (Fab.), Lepidoptera: Crambidae. II. mating dynamics and effects on progeny

    The effect of irradiation of Diatraea saccharalis pupae at substerilizing gamma doses on the competitiveness of adult males emerging from the irradiated pupae and on their sterile progeny was evaluated on the basis of mating dynamics, mating duration and the length of the pre-mating period, as well as the sex ratio and the variation of pupal weights in the progeny. It is concluded that substerilizing gamma doses do not affect the indicators evaluated and that in the progeny the sex ratio is altered in favour of males and F1 pupal weights are reduced significantly. (author). 8 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  1. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje; Weber, Steen; Eriksson, R.

    2002-01-01

    A medium fidelity and low cost training device for pilots, called the Multi Aircraft Training Environment (MATE), is developed to replace other low fidelity stand-alone training devices and integrate them into a flexible environment, primarily aimed attraining pilots in checklist procedures. The...

  2. Protecting artificial team-mates

    Merritt, Timothy; McGee, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on conversational, competitive, and cooperative systems suggests that people respond differently to humans and AI agents in terms of perception and evaluation of observed team-mate behavior. However, there has not been research examining the relationship between participants' pr...

  3. Mate choice decisions by searchers

    Daniel D. WIEGMANN, Lisa M. ANGELONI, Steven M. SEUBERT, J. Gordon WADE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For more than two decades rudimentary versions of the fixed sample and sequential search strategies have provided the primary theoretical foundation for the study of mate choice decisions by searchers. The theory that surrounds these models has expanded markedly over this time period. In this paper, we review and extend results derived from these models, with a focus on the empirical analysis of searcher behavior. The basic models are impractical for empirical purposes because they rely on the assumption that searchers—and, for applied purposes, researchers—assess prospective mates based on their quality, the fitness consequences of mate choice decisions. Here we expound versions of the models that are more empirically useful, reformulated to reflect decisions based on male phenotypic characters. For some organisms, it may be possible to use preference functions to derive predictions from the reformulated models and thereby avoid difficulties associated with the measurement of male quality per se. But predictions derived from the two models are difficult to differentiate empirically, regardless of how the models are formulated. Here we develop ideas that illustrate how this goal might be accomplished. In addition, we clarify how the variability of male quality should be evaluated and we extend what is known about how this variability influences searcher behavior under each model. More general difficulties associated with the empirical study of mate choice decisions by searchers are also discussed [Current Zoology 59 (2: 184–199, 2013].

  4. Neural Circuits: Male Mating Motifs.

    Benton, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Characterizing microcircuit motifs in intact nervous systems is essential to relate neural computations to behavior. In this issue of Neuron, Clowney et al. (2015) identify recurring, parallel feedforward excitatory and inhibitory pathways in male Drosophila's courtship circuitry, which might explain decisive mate choice. PMID:26335638

  5. Ondansetron Can Enhance Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity via Inhibition of Multiple Toxin and Extrusion Proteins (MATEs)

    Li, Qing; Guo, Dong; Dong, Zhongqi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lei K.; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Polli, James E.; Shu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    The nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application of cisplatin. Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) work in concert in the elimination of cationic drugs such as cisplatin from the kidney. We hypothesized that co-administration of ondansetron would have an effect on cisplatin nephrotoxicity by altering the function of cisplatin transporters. The inhibitory potencies of ondansetron on metformin accumulation mediated by OCT2 and MATEs wer...

  6. Ondansetron can enhance cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity via inhibition of multiple toxin and extrusion proteins (MATEs)

    Li, Qing [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Guo, Dong [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Dong, Zhongqi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhang, Wei [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei [Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Polli, James E. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Shu, Yan, E-mail: yshu@rx.umaryland.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application of cisplatin. Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) work in concert in the elimination of cationic drugs such as cisplatin from the kidney. We hypothesized that co-administration of ondansetron would have an effect on cisplatin nephrotoxicity by altering the function of cisplatin transporters. The inhibitory potencies of ondansetron on metformin accumulation mediated by OCT2 and MATEs were determined in the stable HEK-293 cells expressing these transporters. The effects of ondansetron on drug disposition in vivo were examined by conducting the pharmacokinetics of metformin, a classical substrate for OCTs and MATEs, in wild-type and Mate1−/− mice. The nephrotoxicity was assessed in the wild-type and Mate1−/− mice received cisplatin with and without ondansetron. Both MATEs, including human MATE1, human MATE2-K, and mouse Mate1, and OCT2 (human and mouse) were subject to ondansetron inhibition, with much greater potencies by ondansetron on MATEs. Ondansetron significantly increased tissue accumulation and pharmacokinetic exposure of metformin in wild-type but not in Mate1−/− mice. Moreover, ondansetron treatment significantly enhanced renal accumulation of cisplatin and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity which were indicated by increased levels of biochemical and molecular biomarkers and more severe pathohistological changes in mice. Similar increases in nephrotoxicity were caused by genetic deficiency of MATE function in mice. Therefore, the potent inhibition of MATEs by ondansetron enhances the nephrotoxicity associated with cisplatin treatment in mice. Potential nephrotoxic effects of combining the chemotherapeutic cisplatin and the antiemetic 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT{sub 3}) receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron, should be investigated in patients. - Highlights: • Nephrotoxicity significantly limits clinical use of the chemotherapeutic cisplatin. • The antiemetic ondansetron is frequently co-administrated with cisplatin. • Ondansetron was here demonstrated as a potent inhibitor of MATE transporters. • Ondansetron enhanced cisplatin nephrotoxicity likely via Mate1 inhibition in mice. • Ondansetron may increase patient risk of nephrotoxicity in cisplatin chemotherapy.

  7. Ondansetron can enhance cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity via inhibition of multiple toxin and extrusion proteins (MATEs)

    The nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application of cisplatin. Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) work in concert in the elimination of cationic drugs such as cisplatin from the kidney. We hypothesized that co-administration of ondansetron would have an effect on cisplatin nephrotoxicity by altering the function of cisplatin transporters. The inhibitory potencies of ondansetron on metformin accumulation mediated by OCT2 and MATEs were determined in the stable HEK-293 cells expressing these transporters. The effects of ondansetron on drug disposition in vivo were examined by conducting the pharmacokinetics of metformin, a classical substrate for OCTs and MATEs, in wild-type and Mate1−/− mice. The nephrotoxicity was assessed in the wild-type and Mate1−/− mice received cisplatin with and without ondansetron. Both MATEs, including human MATE1, human MATE2-K, and mouse Mate1, and OCT2 (human and mouse) were subject to ondansetron inhibition, with much greater potencies by ondansetron on MATEs. Ondansetron significantly increased tissue accumulation and pharmacokinetic exposure of metformin in wild-type but not in Mate1−/− mice. Moreover, ondansetron treatment significantly enhanced renal accumulation of cisplatin and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity which were indicated by increased levels of biochemical and molecular biomarkers and more severe pathohistological changes in mice. Similar increases in nephrotoxicity were caused by genetic deficiency of MATE function in mice. Therefore, the potent inhibition of MATEs by ondansetron enhances the nephrotoxicity associated with cisplatin treatment in mice. Potential nephrotoxic effects of combining the chemotherapeutic cisplatin and the antiemetic 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron, should be investigated in patients. - Highlights: • Nephrotoxicity significantly limits clinical use of the chemotherapeutic cisplatin. • The antiemetic ondansetron is frequently co-administrated with cisplatin. • Ondansetron was here demonstrated as a potent inhibitor of MATE transporters. • Ondansetron enhanced cisplatin nephrotoxicity likely via Mate1 inhibition in mice. • Ondansetron may increase patient risk of nephrotoxicity in cisplatin chemotherapy

  8. 46 CFR 15.810 - Mates.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mates. 15.810 Section 15.810 Shipping COAST GUARD....810 Mates. (a) The OCMI determines the minimum number of mates required for the safe operation of inspected vessels. (b) The minimum number of mariners holding a license or MMC officer endorsement as...

  9. 46 CFR 11.497 - Mate (OSV).

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mate (OSV). 11.497 Section 11.497 Shipping COAST GUARD... Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.497 Mate (OSV). (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, to qualify for an endorsement as Mate (OSV), an applicant shall present evidence that...

  10. Strain-speccific differences in mating, oviposition, and host-seeking behavior between Wolbachia-infected and uninfected Aedes albopictus

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacteria that cause various reproductive alterations in their arthropod hosts including cytoplasmic incompatibility. In this study, we compared mating, oviposition and host-seeking behaviors of Wolbachia-infected [Houston (HOU), Gainesville (GNV)] and Houston uninf...

  11. Investigation Romance and Mate Selection Myths of University Students

    Muge Yılmaz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the developmental responsibilities expected from the early adulthood period are selecting one’s mate and managing to live together with him/her. The way in which individuals select their mates and the ideas and beliefs that guide them are among the most curious of subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not myths regarding romance and mate selection among university students change according to relationship status, gender and age whether or not they have had a romantic relationship before and, if so, how many they have had. The study sample consisted of 370 students attending different departments of the Faculty of Education at Ondokuz Mayıs University. In the study, Romance and Mate Selection Attitude Scale (RMSAS was used. The results of the study indicated that in terms of gender, while the difference among the averages of the total scores was significant. In terms of kinds of relationship, total scores the difference was not significant. Regarding whether or not participants had experienced a romantic relationship before, there was not such a significant difference in the total scores. In terms of age, the difference among the averages in all the RMSAS subscales and the total scores is not significant.

  12. Sex Attraction and Mating in Bursaphelenchus okinawaensis and B. xylophilus.

    Shinya, Ryoji; Chen, Anthony; Sternberg, Paul W

    2015-09-01

    The fungal feeding, hermaphroditic Bursaphelenchus okinawaensis is a laboratory model to understand the biology of Bursaphelenchus. The extent to which B. okinawaensis can be used to model Bursaphelenchus xylophilus mating was investigated. A chemotaxis assay was conducted to examine whether B. xylophilus and B. okinawaensis produce and respond to volatile sex attractants. Unmated B. xylophilus females were found to attract B. xylophilus males. Similarly, old (sperm depleted) but not young (sperm repleted) B. okinawaensis hermaphrodites attract B. okinawaensis males. Thus, in both species, sperm status corresponds to its ability to attract males. B. xylophilus males also produce a volatile pheromone that attracts both mated and unmated females. A second assay, in which the behavior of males on petri plates in the presence of different females or hermaphrodites of Bursaphelenchus was observed, revealed that B. xylophilus unmated females attract B. okinawaensis males, and B. okinawaensis old hermaphrodites attract B. xylophilus males. These observations suggested that the pheromones of Bursaphelenchus work to some extent across species. Mating behavior through spicule insertion occurs across species, suggesting that postcopulatory mechanisms prevent production of interspecific progeny. The hermaphroditic B. okinawaensis will be a useful model to conduct genetic studies for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying mating behavior in Bursaphelenchus nematodes. PMID:26527838

  13. Characterization of VuMATE1 Expression in Response to Iron Nutrition and Aluminum Stress Reveals Adaptation of Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata) to Acid Soils through Cis Regulation

    Liu, Meiya; Xu, Jiameng; Lou, Heqiang; Fan, Wei; Yang, Jianli; Zheng, Shaojian

    2016-01-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) VuMATE1 appears to be constitutively expressed at vascular system but root apex, and Al stress extends its expression to root apex. Whether VuMATE1 participates in both Al tolerance and Fe nutrition, and how VuMATE1 expression is regulated is of great interest. In this study, the role of VuMATE1 in Fe nutrition was characterized through in planta complementation assays. The transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 was investigated through promoter analysis and promoter-GUS reporter assays. The results showed that the expression of VuMATE1 was regulated by Al stress but not Fe status. Complementation of frd3-1 with VuMATE1 under VuMATE1 promoter could not restore phenotype, but restored with 35SCaMV promoter. Immunostaining of VuMATE1 revealed abnormal localization of VuMATE1 in vasculature. In planta GUS reporter assay identified Al-responsive cis-acting elements resided between -1228 and -574 bp. Promoter analysis revealed several cis-acting elements, but transcription is not simply regulated by one of these elements. We demonstrated that cis regulation of VuMATE1 expression is involved in Al tolerance mechanism, while not involved in Fe nutrition. These results reveal the evolution of VuMATE1 expression for better adaptation of rice bean to acid soils where Al stress imposed but Fe deficiency pressure released.

  14. Strategic mating with common preferences.

    Alpern, Steve; Reyniers, Diane

    2005-12-21

    We present a two-sided search model in which individuals from two groups (males and females, employers and workers) would like to form a long-term relationship with a highly ranked individual of the other group, but are limited to individuals who they randomly encounter and to those who also accept them. This article extends the research program, begun in Alpern and Reyniers [1999. J. Theor. Biol. 198, 71-88], of providing a game theoretic analysis for the Kalick-Hamilton [1986. J. Personality Soc. Psychol. 51, 673-682] mating model in which a cohort of males and females of various 'fitness' or 'attractiveness' levels are randomly paired in successive periods and mate if they accept each other. Their model compared two acceptance rules chosen to represent homotypic (similarity) preferences and common (or 'type') preferences. Our earlier paper modeled the first kind by assuming that if a level x male mates with a level y female, both get utility -|x-y|, whereas this paper models the second kind by giving the male utility y and the female utility x. Our model can also be seen as a continuous generalization of the discrete fitness-level game of Johnstone [1997. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 40, 51-59]. We establish the existence of equilibrium strategy pairs, give examples of multiple equilibria, and conditions guaranteeing uniqueness. In all equilibria individuals become less choosy over time, with high fitness individuals pairing off with each other first, leaving the rest to pair off later. This route to assortative mating was suggested by Parker [1983. Mate Choice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 141-164]. If the initial fitness distributions have atoms, then mixed strategy equilibria may also occur. If these distributions are unknown, there are equilibria in which only individuals in the same fitness band are mated, as in the steady-state model of MacNamara and Collins [1990. J. Appl. Prob. 28, 815-827] for the job search problem. PMID:16171826

  15. Mitochondrial impairment induced by postnatal ActRIIB blockade does not alter function and energy status in exercising mouse glycolytic muscle in vivo.

    Béchir, Nelly; Pecchi, Émilie; Relizani, Karima; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Fur, Yann; Bernard, Monique; Amthor, Helge; Bendahan, David; Giannesini, Benoît

    2016-04-01

    Because it leads to a rapid and massive muscle hypertrophy, postnatal blockade of the activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) is a promising therapeutic strategy for counteracting muscle wasting. However, the functional consequences remain very poorly documented in vivo. Here, we have investigated the impact of 8-wk ActRIIB blockade with soluble receptor (sActRIIB-Fc) on gastrocnemius muscle anatomy, energy metabolism, and force-generating capacity in wild-type mice, using totally noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dynamic(31)P-MRS. Compared with vehicle (PBS) control, sActRIIB-Fc treatment resulted in a dramatic increase in body weight (+29%) and muscle volume (+58%) calculated from hindlimb MR imaging, but did not alter fiber type distribution determined via myosin heavy chain isoform analysis. In resting muscle, sActRIIB-Fc treatment induced acidosis and PCr depletion, thereby suggesting reduced tissue oxygenation. During an in vivo fatiguing exercise (6-min repeated maximal isometric contraction electrically induced at 1.7 Hz), maximal and total absolute forces were larger in sActRIIB-Fc treated animals (+26 and +12%, respectively), whereas specific force and fatigue resistance were lower (-30 and -37%, respectively). Treatment with sActRIIB-Fc further decreased the maximal rate of oxidative ATP synthesis (-42%) and the oxidative capacity (-34%), but did not alter the bioenergetics status in contracting muscle. Our findings demonstrate in vivo that sActRIIB-Fc treatment increases absolute force-generating capacity and reduces mitochondrial function in glycolytic gastrocnemius muscle, but this reduction does not compromise energy status during sustained activity. Overall, these data support the clinical interest of postnatal ActRIIB blockade. PMID:26837807

  16. Future Oceanic Warming and Acidification Alter Immune Response and Disease Status in a Commercial Shellfish Species, Mytilus edulis L.

    Mackenzie, Clara L.; Lynch, Sharon A.; Culloty, Sarah C.; Malham, Shelagh K.

    2014-01-01

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments. PMID:24927423

  17. Ring finger protein 43 expression is associated with genetic alteration status and poor prognosis among patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    Talabnin, Chutima; Janthavon, Patcharee; Thongsom, Sunisa; Suginta, Wipa; Talabnin, Krajang; Wongkham, Sopit

    2016-06-01

    Ring finger E3 ligases have roles in processes central to maintenance of genomic integrity and cellular homeostasis. Many ring finger E3 ligases are implicated in malignancy. Ring finger protein 43 (RNF43) is a ring finger E3 ligase that negatively regulates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. RNF43 is frequently mutated in several types of malignancy, including intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The significance of its expression in ICC has not, however, been reported. We determined RNF43 expression and identified RNF43 polymorphisms in ICC tissues. We also investigated the correlation between RNF43 expression and RNF43 mutation status, RNF43 polymorphisms, clinicopathological features, and prognosis of ICC patients. RNF43 reduced expression in ICC, and the reduction of RNF43 messenger RNA expression was significantly correlated with the presence of rs2257205 and RNF43 somatic mutations, confirming that all RNF43 somatic mutations in ICC are inactivating. Overall survival was worst in patients with down-regulation of RNF43. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that RNF43 expression was an independent prognostic factor. There was no statistically significant association between RNF43 messenger RNA and protein expression nor any clinicopathological features or RNF43 polymorphisms. The results imply that RNF43 is down-regulated in ICC and may play a crucial role during development of ICC. PMID:26980022

  18. Nutritional enrichment increases courtship intensity and improves mating success in male spiders

    Lomborg, Johannes Peter; Toft, Søren

    2009-01-01

    status (enriched or deficient) and that courtship intensity predicts mating success in males of the same nutritional status. We used wolf spiders, Pardosa prativaga, which have an elaborate display of courtship behaviors, including encircling, palp vibrations, abdomen vibrations, hopping, etc. Viability...... parameters indicated enhanced condition of enriched males. Mating success was higher for nutrient-enriched males in direct competition with deficient males. Enriched males had higher courtship intensity and were also larger (carapace width) but not heavier than deficient males. The statistical analysis...

  19. Feminization of pheromone-sensing neurons affects mating decisions in Drosophila males

    Beika Lu

    2014-01-01

    The response of individual animals to mating signals depends on the sexual identity of the individual and the genetics of the mating targets, which represent the mating social context (social environment. However, how social signals are sensed and integrated during mating decisions remains a mystery. One of the models for understanding mating behaviors in molecular and cellular terms is the male courtship ritual in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster. We have recently shown that a subset of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs that are enriched in the male appendages and express the ion channel ppk23 play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of male courtship via the perception of cuticular contact pheromones, and are likely to represent the main chemosensory pathway that influences mating decisions by males. Here we show that genetic feminization of ppk23-expressing GRNs in male flies resulted in a significant increase in male–male sexual attraction without an apparent impact on sexual attraction to females. Furthermore, we show that this increase in male–male sexual attraction is sensory specific, which can be modulated by variable social contexts. Finally, we show that feminization of ppk23-expressing sensory neurons lead to major transcriptional shifts, which may explain the altered interpretation of the social environment by feminized males. Together, these data indicate that the sexual cellular identity of pheromone sensing GRNs plays a major role in how individual flies interpret their social environment in the context of mating decisions.

  20. Female-borne cues affecting Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) male behavior during courtship and mating.

    Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni; Lucchi, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate courtship and mating behavior in Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti)-a koinobiont endophagous solitary parasitoid of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and of other fruit flies-is essential to its mass rearing and management. Augmentative releases of P. concolor for olive fruit fly control started in the Mediterranean areas in the 1950s and still continue with limited success. We determined the influence of visual and chemical cues on courtship and mating behavior of this braconid and the possible effect of the mating status of males and females in the perception of these cues. Our results suggest that integration of visual and chemical stimuli are fundamental for mate location and courtship. Indeed, the optimal response of the male was achieved when physical and chemical cues were simultaneously presented and vision and olfaction worked synergistically. PMID:23955889

  1. Costs of and Investment in Mate-Guarding in Wild Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis): Influences of Female Characteristics and Male-Female Social Bonds.

    Girard-Buttoz, Cdric; Heistermann, Michael; Rahmi, Erdiansyah; Agil, Muhammad; Fauzan, Panji Ahmad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Male primates living in multimale groups tend to direct mate and mate-guarding choices toward females of high reproductive value, i.e., high-ranking, parous females, or females with which they share strong bonds. Little is known, however, about the constraints that may limit male mate-guarding choices (the costs of this behavior) and the influence of the females' quality on male investment in mate-guarding. We aimed to study the effects of female rank, parity status, and male-female social bond strength on the costs of and investment in mate-guarding by males. We carried out our study during two reproductive seasons on three groups of wild long-tailed macaques in Indonesia. We combined behavioral observations on male locomotion and activity with noninvasive measurements of fecal glucocorticoids (fGC). Males spent less time feeding when mate-guarding nulliparous females than when mate-guarding parous females and tended to have higher fGC levels when mate-guarding low-ranking nulliparous females than when mate-guarding high-ranking nulliparous ones. Evolution should thus favor male choice for high-ranking parous females because such a decision brings benefits at proximate (reduced costs of mate-guarding) and ultimate (higher reproductive value) levels. Further, male investment in mate-guarding was flexible and contingent on female reproductive and social value. Males were more vigilant and more aggressive toward other males when mate-guarding females to which they were strongly bonded and/or high-ranking ones than when mate-guarding other females. Our findings bring a new dimension to the study of mate choice by showing that males not only mate preferentially with high-quality females but may also aim to secure paternity with these females through optimized monopolization. PMID:25152554

  2. How Sexually Dimorphic Are Human Mate Preferences?

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M; Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies on sex-differentiated mate preferences have focused on univariate analyses. However, because mate selection is inherently multidimensional, a multivariate analysis more appropriately measures sex differences in mate preferences. We used the Mahalanobis distance (D) and logistic regression to investigate sex differences in mate preferences with data secured from participants residing in 37 cultures (n = 10,153). Sex differences are large in multivariate terms, yielding an overall D = 2.41, corresponding to overlap between the sexes of just 22.8%. Moreover, knowledge of mate preferences alone affords correct classification of sex with 92.2% accuracy. Finally, pattern-wise sex differences are negatively correlated with gender equality across cultures but are nonetheless cross-culturally robust. Discussion focuses on implications in evaluating the importance and magnitude of sex differences in mate preferences. PMID:26068718

  3. Ant parasite queens revert to mating singly

    Sumner, Seirian; Hughes, William Owen Hamar; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2004-01-01

    A parasitic ant has abandoned the multiple mating habit of the queens of its related host. Multiple mating (polyandry) is widespread among animal groups, particularly insects 1 . But the factors that maintain it and underlie its evolution are hard to verify because benefits and costs are not easily...... quantified and they tend to be similar in related species. Here we compare the mating strategies of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior and its recently derived social parasite Acromyrmex insinuator, which is also its closest relative 2 (see Fig. 1 ). We find that although the host queens mate with up...... to a dozen different males, the social parasite mates only singly. This rapid and surprising reversion to single mating in a socially parasitic ant indicates that the costs of polyandry are probably specific to a free-living lifestyle....

  4. Molecular Determinants of Ligand Selectivity for the Human Multidrug and Toxin Extruder Proteins MATE1 and MATE2-K

    Astorga, Bethzaida; Ekins, Sean; Morales, Mark; Wright, Stephen H

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared the selectivity of two homologous transport proteins, multidrug and toxin extruders 1 and 2-K (MATE1 and MATE2-K), and developed three-dimensional pharmacophores for inhibitory ligand interaction with human MATE1 (hMATE1). The human orthologs of MATE1 and MATE2-K were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and transport function was determined by measuring uptake of the prototypic organic cation (OC) substrate 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP). Both MATEs ...

  5. MATE: The multi-agent test environment

    Mason, Cindy L.

    1992-01-01

    In this report we present the Multi-Agent Test Environment, MATE. MATE is a collection of experiment management tools for assisting in the design, testing, and evaluation of distributed problem-solvers. It provides the experimenter with an automated tool for executing and monitoring experiments choosing among rule bases, number of agents, communication strategies, and inference engines. Using MATE the experimenter can run a series of distributed problem-solving experiments without human intervention.

  6. Sociosexuality and Mate Retention in Romantic Couples

    Igor Kardum; Jasna Hudek- Knežević; Asmir Gračanin

    2006-01-01

    On a sample of 191 romantic couples the relations between mate retention strategies of one partner in the pair and sociosexuality of the other was examined. Mate retention strategies were measured by using self-reports, while sociosexuality was measured by self-report, as well as partner’s report. The results show that mate retention tactics, categories and domains are mainly positively related to both measures of partners’ sociosexuality in men and women, and particularly perceived sociosexu...

  7. Ant parasite queens revert to mating singly

    Sumner, Seirian; Hughes, William Owen Hamar; Pedersen, Jes Se; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2004-01-01

    A parasitic ant has abandoned the multiple mating habit of the queens of its related host. Multiple mating (polyandry) is widespread among animal groups, particularly insects 1 . But the factors that maintain it and underlie its evolution are hard to verify because benefits and costs are not easi...... to a dozen different males, the social parasite mates only singly. This rapid and surprising reversion to single mating in a socially parasitic ant indicates that the costs of polyandry are probably specific to a free-living lifestyle....

  8. The impacts of Wolbachia and the microbiome on mate choice in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Arbuthnott, D; Levin, T C; Promislow, D E L

    2016-02-01

    Symbionts and parasites can manipulate their hosts' reproduction to their own benefit, profoundly influencing patterns of mate choice and evolution of the host population. Wolbachia is one of the most widespread symbionts among arthropods, and one that alters its hosts' reproduction in diverse and dramatic ways. While we are beginning to appreciate how Wolbachia's extreme manipulations of host reproduction can influence species diversification and reproductive isolation, we understand little about how symbionts and Wolbachia, in particular, may affect intrapopulation processes of mate choice. We hypothesized that the maternally transmitted Wolbachia would increase the attractiveness of its female hosts to further its own spread. We therefore tested the effects of Wolbachia removal and microbiome disruption on female attractiveness and male mate choice among ten isofemale lines of Drosophila melanogaster. We found variable effects of general microbiome disruption on female attractiveness, with indications that bacteria interact with hosts in a line-specific manner to affect female attractiveness. However, we found no evidence that Wolbachia influence female attractiveness or male mate choice among these lines. Although the endosymbiont Wolbachia can greatly alter the reproduction of their hosts in many species, there is no indication that they alter mate choice behaviours in D.melanogaster. PMID:26548557

  9. Chronic exposure to pollutants in Madín Reservoir (Mexico) alters oxidative stress status and flesh quality in the common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Morachis-Valdez, Gabriela; Dublán-García, Octavio; López-Martínez, Leticia Xochitl; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Saucedo-Vence, Karinne; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Madín Reservoir (MR) is located on the Río Tlalnepantla in Mexico. Previous studies seeking to identify pollutants at this site evidence that MR water contains a considerable metal load as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) at concentrations above those determined suitable for aquatic life. This study aimed to evaluate whether chronic exposure to pollutants in MR alters oxidative stress status and flesh quality in muscle of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. The following biomarkers were evaluated in muscle of carp caught in the general area of discharge from the town of Viejo Madín: hydroperoxide content (HPC), lipid peroxidation (LPX), protein carbonyl content (PCC), and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Physicochemical and textural properties of muscle were also evaluated. Results show that the metals Al and Fe were accumulated in muscle of C. carpio at levels of 21.3 and 29.6 μg L(-1), respectively, and the NSAIDs diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen at levels from 0.08 to 0.21 ng L(-1). Fish exposed to discharge from the town of Viejo Madín showed significant increases in HPC (9.77 %), LPX (69.33 %), and PCC (220 %) with respect to control specimens (p < 0.05). Similarly, enzyme activity increased significantly: SOD (80.82 %), CAT (98.03 %), and GPx (49.76 %). In muscle, physicochemical properties evidenced mainly significant reductions compared to control values while textural properties showed significant increases. Thus, water in this reservoir is contaminated with xenobiotics that alter some biological functions in C. carpio, a fish species consumed by the local human population. PMID:25583264

  10. Variation in human mate choice: Simultaneously investigating heritability, parental influence, sexual imprinting, and assortative mating

    Zietsch, Brendan P.; Verweij, Karin J. H.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G

    2011-01-01

    Human mate choice is central to individuals’ lives and to the evolution of the species, but the basis of variation in mate choice is not well understood. Here we look at a large community-based sample of twins and their partners and parents (N > 20,000 individuals) to test for genetic and family environmental influences on mate choice, with and without controlling for the effects of assortative mating. Key traits are analyzed, including height, body mass index, age, education, income, persona...

  11. Is Evolution of Mating Preferences Inevitable? Random Mating in the Multisex System of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Phadke, Sujal S; Cooper, Lauren; Zufall, Rebecca A

    2012-01-01

    Ciliate mating systems are highly diversified, providing unique opportunities to study sexual differentiation and its implications for mating dynamics. Many species of ciliates have multiple (>2) sexes. More sexes may mean more choice and an opportunity for evolution of preferential mating. We asked if the multiple sexes of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila mate preferentially among each other. We quantified pairing frequencies among four sexes of T. thermophila using experiments that allowed the sexes to compete as mating partners. We found that all sexes mated equally frequently among each other, that is, we found no evidence of preferential mating with respect to sex. This suggests that the "mate choice" in this ciliate is binary, between whether to form a pair or not and, in this regard, sex facilitates only self-/non-self-distinction. Thus, presence of multiple sexes does not necessarily result in the evolution of mating bias, which could decrease the maximum amount of mating that would otherwise be possible in a population. Our result of random mating verifies a key assumption in the theoretical model of sex ratio evolution in T. thermophila. Investigation into molecular differences between the sexes will be necessary to reveal the mechanistic basis of random mating among them. PMID:23056994

  12. Direct costs and benefits of multiple mating: Are high female mating rates due to ejaculate replenishment?

    Worthington, Amy M; Kelly, Clint D

    2016-03-01

    Females often mate more than is necessary to ensure reproductive success even when they incur significant costs from doing so. Direct benefits are hypothesized to be the driving force of high female mating rates, yet species in which females only receive an ejaculate from their mate still realize increased fitness from multiple mating. Using the Texas field cricket, Gryllus texensis, we experimentally test the hypothesis that multiple mating via monandry or polyandry increases female fitness by replenishing ejaculates, thereby allowing females to produce more offspring for a longer period of time. We found that higher rates of female mating significantly increased lifetime fecundity and oviposition independent of whether females mated with one or two males. Further, although interactions with males significantly increased rates of injury or death, females that replenished ejaculates experienced an increased rate and duration of oviposition, demonstrating that the immediate benefits of multiple mating may greatly outweigh the long-term costs that mating poses to female condition and survival. We suggest that ejaculate replenishment is a driving factor of high mating rates in females that do not receive external direct benefits from mating and that a comparative study across taxa will provide additional insight into the role that ejaculate size plays in the evolution of female mating rates. PMID:26772782

  13. A character demonstrating the occurrence of mating in male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 μm in size. In mated males, the posterior simplex is clear and contains no granules. The presence or absence of these characters was found to be highly reliable and should be of value in determining mating status in marked-recaptured males of this species in a sterile insect release program directed against Cactoblastis. (author)

  14. Strategic mating with homotypic preferences

    Alpern; Reyniers

    1999-05-01

    We determine equilibrium acceptance strategies in a class of multi-period mating games where individuals prefer opposite sex partners with a close parameter type (one-dimensional homotypic preferences). In each period unmated individuals are randomly paired. They form a couple (and leave the pool) if each accepts the other; otherwise they continue into future periods. We consider models with a fixed cohort group (without replacement) and also steady-state models (with replacement). Unlike the job-search model of McNamara & Collins involving type preferences (maximizing individuals), we find no segmentation of the populations at equilibrium, rather continuous changes of strategy. We find some similarities and some differences with the Kalick-Hamilton simulation model of attractiveness matching in a dating context. In general, we find that at equilibrium all individuals become less choosy (in accepting potential mates) with time, and that individuals with more central types are choosier than those with more extreme types. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10329116

  15. Mating-induced changes in olfactory-mediated behavior of laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) mated to conspecific males

    Laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were mated with laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild male flies to assess the ability of males to alter olfactory-mediated behavioral responses of females to male-produced pheromone or host fruit odor. Virgin females of all 3 types showed a preferential attraction and arrestment on yellow spheres emitting male-produced pheromone in a laboratory flight tunnel. Laboratory-reared normal and wild females mated to laboratory reared normal, sterile, or wild males switched their behavior showing strong preferential attraction to, arrestment on, and egg-laying in (for laboratory-reared females) yellow spheres emitting host fruit odor (guava) over male-produced pheromone. Sterile females did not show a significant switch in behavior except when mated to sterile males. The olfactory-mediated behavioral switch was most evident in the laboratory-reared normal female × laboratory-reared normal male mating. These findings suggest that irradiation of males inducing gamete sterility does not affect the factor(s) from the male accessory gland associated with altering female olfactory behavior. The ability of sterile males to alter adequately olfactory-mediated behavior of wild females is discussed in the context of the sterile insect technique for control of Mediterranean fruit flies in the field

  16. Costs of and Investment in Mate-Guarding in Wild Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis): Influences of Female Characteristics and Male–Female Social Bonds

    Girard-Buttoz, Cédric; Heistermann, Michael; Rahmi, Erdiansyah; Agil, Muhammad; Fauzan, Panji Ahmad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Male primates living in multimale groups tend to direct mate and mate-guarding choices toward females of high reproductive value, i.e., high-ranking, parous females, or females with which they share strong bonds. Little is known, however, about the constraints that may limit male mate-guarding choices (the costs of this behavior) and the influence of the females’ quality on male investment in mate-guarding. We aimed to study the effects of female rank, parity status, and male–female social bo...

  17. Mating-related behaviour of grizzly bears inhabiting marginal habitat at the periphery of their North American range.

    Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E

    2015-02-01

    In comparison to core populations, peripheral populations have low density and recruitment, and are subject to different selective pressures, such as environmental conditions, food type and availability, predation, disease, etc., which may result in behavioural modifications to mating. We test the roam-to-mate hypothesis for a peripheral population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) at the northern extent of their North American range, in Canada's Arctic. If bears are roaming-to-mate, we predicted greater range size and daily displacement, and more linear movements for receptive animals during the mating period compared to post-mating. In contrast to our predictions, we found that in general range size and displacement increased from mating to post-mating regardless of reproductive status. When considered across both periods, females with cubs-of-the-year had smaller range use metrics than other reproductive groups, which we attribute to a counter-strategy against sexually selected infanticide and the reduced mobility of cubs. Linearity of movements remained near zero during both periods across all groups, suggesting tortuous movements more characteristic of foraging than of mate-searching. We suggest that for this population, finding quality habitat takes precedence over mate-searching in this marginal Arctic landscape. Alternatively, a more monogamous mating system and sequestering behaviour may have obscured movement differences between the two periods. The behavioural differences in mating that we observed from what is typical of core populations may reflect local adaptation to marginal conditions and could benefit the species in the face of ongoing environmental change. PMID:25498148

  18. Mate Choice: Charting Desire's Tangled Bank.

    Rosenthal, Gil G

    2016-04-01

    Choosing a mate requires a way to turn sexual arousal into sexual action. A recent paper identifies a hormone receptor that acts as a molecular gatekeeper in reproductive decisions. Focusing on mate-choice mechanisms may clarify longstanding evolutionary puzzles in sexual selection and speciation. PMID:27046819

  19. Electrician's Mate 3 & 2: Rate Training Manual.

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The training manual provides information related to the tasks assigned to the Electrician's Mate Third and Second Class who operate and maintain power and lighting systems and associated equipment. Individual chapters deal with: career challenges for the Electrician's Mate, safety precautions, test equipment, electrical installations, A-C power…

  20. Social Network of Mate Selection and Marital Satisfaction Among the Married Men

    Mohsen Noghani

    2013-07-01

    The social support of social network of mate selection has a positive effect on marital satisfaction during the marital life; it means that the more social support provided by social network of mate selection to ego, the marital satisfaction of ego increases. (Beta coefficient of support on marital satisfaction was 0.161. The duration of marriage and the economic–social status of ego have positive effect on the marital satisfaction. Importantly, this research showed the important role of relative relationships on marriage. The presence of relatives in mate selection is a characteristic of Iranian culture as a collectivist culture. The relatives have longer familiar with the ego and have a greater knowing of personality and Morality of ego. The relatives who know the ego and also be involved in the mate selection process, supported him during his life, Therefore ego is more satisfied from his marital life, because of more supporting provided to him. Meanwhile, the more the number of people who involved in mate selection process – or the more the number of relatives involved in mate selection process - ego is more satisfied from marital life because of the more social support received.

  1. Mate sampling and choosiness in the sand goby

    Lindström, Kai; Lehtonen, Topi K.

    2013-01-01

    To date, mate choice studies have mostly focused on establishing which mates are chosen or how the choices are performed. Here, we combined these two approaches by empirically testing how latency to mate is affected by various search costs, variation in mate quality and female quality in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus). Our results show that females adjust their mating behaviour according to the costs and benefits of the choice situation. Specifically, they mated sooner when access to ...

  2. Mating-Induced Transcriptome Changes in the Reproductive Tract of Female Aedes aegypti.

    Alfonso-Parra, Catalina; Ahmed-Braimah, Yasir H; Degner, Ethan C; Avila, Frank W; Villarreal, Susan M; Pleiss, Jeffrey A; Wolfner, Mariana F; Harrington, Laura C

    2016-02-01

    The Aedes aegypti mosquito is a significant public health threat, as it is the main vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Disease control efforts could be enhanced through reproductive manipulation of these vectors. Previous work has revealed a relationship between male seminal fluid proteins transferred to females during mating and female post-mating physiology and behavior. To better understand this interplay, we used short-read RNA sequencing to identify gene expression changes in the lower reproductive tract of females in response to mating. We characterized mRNA expression in virgin and mated females at 0, 6 and 24 hours post-mating (hpm) and identified 364 differentially abundant transcripts between mating status groups. Surprisingly, 60 transcripts were more abundant at 0hpm compared to virgin females, suggesting transfer from males. Twenty of these encode known Ae. aegypti seminal fluid proteins. Transfer and detection of male accessory gland-derived mRNA in females at 0hpm was confirmed by measurement of eGFP mRNA in females mated to eGFP-expressing males. In addition, 150 transcripts were up-regulated at 6hpm and 24hpm, while 130 transcripts were down-regulated at 6hpm and 24hpm. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that proteases, a protein class broadly known to play important roles in reproduction, were among the most enriched protein classes. RNAs associated with immune system and antimicrobial function were also up-regulated at 24hpm. Collectively, our results suggest that copulation initiates broad transcriptome changes across the mosquito female reproductive tract, "priming" her for important subsequent processes of blood feeding, egg development and immune defense. Our transcriptome analysis provides a vital foundation for future studies of the consequences of mating on female biology and will aid studies seeking to identify specific gene families, molecules and pathways that support key reproductive processes in the female mosquito. PMID:26901677

  3. Mating-Induced Transcriptome Changes in the Reproductive Tract of Female Aedes aegypti

    Degner, Ethan C.; Avila, Frank W.; Villarreal, Susan M.; Pleiss, Jeffrey A.; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    The Aedes aegypti mosquito is a significant public health threat, as it is the main vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Disease control efforts could be enhanced through reproductive manipulation of these vectors. Previous work has revealed a relationship between male seminal fluid proteins transferred to females during mating and female post-mating physiology and behavior. To better understand this interplay, we used short-read RNA sequencing to identify gene expression changes in the lower reproductive tract of females in response to mating. We characterized mRNA expression in virgin and mated females at 0, 6 and 24 hours post-mating (hpm) and identified 364 differentially abundant transcripts between mating status groups. Surprisingly, 60 transcripts were more abundant at 0hpm compared to virgin females, suggesting transfer from males. Twenty of these encode known Ae. aegypti seminal fluid proteins. Transfer and detection of male accessory gland-derived mRNA in females at 0hpm was confirmed by measurement of eGFP mRNA in females mated to eGFP-expressing males. In addition, 150 transcripts were up-regulated at 6hpm and 24hpm, while 130 transcripts were down-regulated at 6hpm and 24hpm. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that proteases, a protein class broadly known to play important roles in reproduction, were among the most enriched protein classes. RNAs associated with immune system and antimicrobial function were also up-regulated at 24hpm. Collectively, our results suggest that copulation initiates broad transcriptome changes across the mosquito female reproductive tract, “priming” her for important subsequent processes of blood feeding, egg development and immune defense. Our transcriptome analysis provides a vital foundation for future studies of the consequences of mating on female biology and will aid studies seeking to identify specific gene families, molecules and pathways that support key reproductive processes in the female mosquito. PMID:26901677

  4. TWO STAGE FRAMEWORK FOR ALTERED FINGERPRINT MATCHING

    T.R. Anoop

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint alteration is the process of masking ones identity from personal identification systems especially in boarder control security systems. Failure of matching the altered fingerprint of the criminals against the watch list of fingerprints can help them to break the security system. This fact leads to the need of a method for altered fingerprint matching. This paper presents a two stage method for altered fingerprint matching. In first stage, approximated global ridge orientation field of altered fingerprint is matched against the orientation field of its unaltered mate. If this matching is successful, fingerprints go to second stage. Second stage starts with the selection of unaltered region from the altered FP and same region from the unaltered mates. Matching in this stage is performed by extraction of ridge texture and ridge frequency from the selected region of interest. Euclidian distance is used in both stages to compute the matching score.

  5. Flax lignan concentrate reverses alterations in blood pressure, left ventricular functions, lipid profile and antioxidant status in DOCA-salt induced renal hypertension in rats.

    Sawant, Sameer H; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2016-04-01

    Context Earlier we reported cardioprotective, antihyperlipidemic, and in vitro antioxidant activity of flax lignan concentrate (FLC) obtained from the seeds of Linum usitatissimum L. (Linaceae). Objective To investigate the effect of FLC in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt induced experimental renal hypertension in rats. Materials and methods Hypertension was induced in uninephrectomized (UNTZD) male Wistar rats (230-280 g) by injecting DOCA (25 mg/kg, subcutaneously, twice weekly) and supplementing 1% NaCl in drinking water for 5 weeks. The rats were divided in six groups. Captopril (30 mg/kg, p.o.) and FLC (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered daily to the rats of groups III-VI, respectively, for 5 weeks. Various hemodynamic and biochemical parameters were investigated as well as histology of kidney and heart were carried out. Results In this study, the FLC (400 and 800 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.01, p < 0.001) decreased the systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure. It also significantly (p < 0.01, p < 0.001) decreased elevated end diastolic pressure (EDP), dP/dt max and dP/dt min, organs weights (kidney and heart) and activities of hepatic, renal and cardiac marker enzymes in the serum. Furthermore, FLC (400 and 800 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.01, p < 0.001) restored altered antioxidant status, serum electrolyte level, lipid profile values, and histological abnormalities. Captopril (30 mg/kg) showed maximum antihypertensive effect but low dose of FLC (200 mg/kg) was not enough to show the antihypertensive activity. Conclusion FLC possessed antihypertensive effect via modulation of endogenous enzymes in DOCA-salt induced renal hypertension in rats. PMID:26795298

  6. NUTRITION OF MATE-TREE WITH AMMONIUM SULFATE FERTILIZER

    Marcia Marzagão Ribeiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Mate tea leaves are the product of commercialization of the mate-tea tree (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., which leads to a great export of N, requiring its reposition. In previous nutritional studies of the mate-tea tree, it was observed that its production and metabolism was positively influenced by the ammonium form nitrogen fertilizer. This investigation tested different levels of nitrogen fertilization, in its ammonium form, in a commercial plantation, for verifying its effects on the nutritional status and on the productivity. The experiment was assembled in the region of Ivaí - Paraná, using, as fertilizer, the ammonium sulfate in the dosages of 00, 40, 60, 80 kg N ha-1. The statistical design was randomized blocks, with a split-plot arrangement, consisting of four treatments, two evaluation seasons with five replications and twenty plants per plot, being laid out in a 2,0 m x 3,5 m spacing. The evaluation of the plant’s nutritional status was performed through foliar analysis total N, K, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Al, in winter and summer, with fertilizations performed for two years. It was concluded that nitrogen supplied in the form of ammonium sulfate has a positive influence on the biomass up to the rate of 52,5 kg N ha-1. The harvesting season influences the plant’s chemical composition. The fertilization significantly influences the foliar contents of N, K and Mg and Zn during winter and Fe, Cu e Al during summer.

  7. The Medusa Algorithm for Polynomial Matings

    Boyd, Suzanne Hruska; Henriksen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The Medusa algorithm takes as input two postcritically finite quadratic polynomials and outputs the quadratic rational map which is the mating of the two polynomials (if it exists). Specifically, the output is a sequence of approximations for the parameters of the rational map, as well as an image...... describe the algorithm and its implementation, discuss some output from the program (including many pictures) and related questions. Specifically, we include images and a discussion for some shared matings, Lattès examples, and tuning sequences of matings....

  8. The best timing of mate search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    Beauch, Fanny; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different moult stages. We found that the attractiveness of individuals was mediated by short-distance chemical cues and tested individuals were able to discriminate and prefer individuals of the opposite sex. Moreover, male preference to female increased during their moulting status as they matured. Males were particularly more attracted by females with appearing white calcium plates, which corresponds to the beginning of their higher receptivity period. These differences in attractiveness due to sex and physiological status are likely to shape the composition of aggregates and facilitate mate finding and optimize the reproductive success for both males and females. Thus aggregation pheromones could be linked to sex pheromones in terrestrial isopods. PMID:23469225

  9. 46 CFR 12.25-40 - Apprentice mate.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Apprentice mate. 12.25-40 Section 12.25-40 Shipping... Department § 12.25-40 Apprentice mate. A person enrolled in an apprentice mate training program approved by... that he is so enrolled may be issued an endorsement as apprentice mate and may be signed on ships...

  10. Mating experience and juvenile hormone enhance sexual signaling and mating in male Caribbean fruit flies.

    Teal, P E; Gomez-Simuta, Y; Proveaux, A T

    2000-03-28

    Young mated male Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] have greater sexual prowess than their virgin counterparts. After mating for the first time, 6- to 7-day-old males released twice as much sex pheromone and acquired another mate in less than half the time required by virgin males of the same age. Mass spectroscopic analysis of extracts of hemolymph from mated and virgin 7-day-old males resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III bisepoxide and juvenile hormone III in a ratio of 2.5:1. Extracts from mated males contained 3-fold more juvenile hormone than did extracts from virgins. Enhancement of sexual signaling, pheromone release, and mating was induced by topical application of juvenile hormone, methoprene, or fenoxycarb. Newly eclosed adult males treated with juvenoids engaged in sexual signaling, released pheromone, and mated at significantly earlier ages than control males. We conclude that juvenile hormone mediated a positive feedback system that imparted a competitive advantage, guaranteeing that males who mated at an early age would out-compete virgins of the same age for mating opportunities. Additionally, the results support the hypothesis that juvenile hormone is a pivotal hormone coordinating the development of sexual signaling and reproductive maturity in these flies. PMID:10706642

  11. A mating plug and male mate choice in Drosophila hibisci Bock.

    Polak; Starmer; Barker

    1998-10-01

    The functional significance of mating plugs and their relation to male mating behaviour in insects are obscure. In Drosophila hibisci, we describe a firm, gelatinous, mating plug that fills the entire uterus at copulation, and evaluate two nonmutually exclusive hypotheses for the plug's function: (1) retention of sperm near the openings of the sperm storage organs and (2) inhibition of further matings. Unlike full-sized plugs, smaller plugs produced by previously mated males failed to retain sperm at the anterior end of the uterus, indicating that full-sized plugs prevent sperm backflow away from female storage organs. Sexually mature males failed to copulate with previously mated, young females, suggesting that the plug may also deter rival matings. In newly emerged females, the plug remains within the uterus for up to 4 days after copulation, but in mature females, the plug and ejaculate are expelled whenever the next mature oocyte descends into the uterus from the common oviduct, which may be soon after copulation. Males remained in copula significantly longer with mature females, perhaps to compensate for this greater likelihood of ejaculate expulsion. Males showed a mating preference for young virgins over older virgin and nonvirgin females. This unusual mating preference may confer fertility benefits made available through the effectiveness of the plug in reducing sperm competition. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9790703

  12. Mating experience and juvenile hormone enhance sexual signaling and mating in male Caribbean fruit flies

    Teal, P. E. A.; Gomez-Simuta, Y.; Proveaux, A. T.

    2000-01-01

    Young mated male Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] have greater sexual prowess than their virgin counterparts. After mating for the first time, 6- to 7-day-old males released twice as much sex pheromone and acquired another mate in less than half the time required by virgin males of the same age. Mass spectroscopic analysis of extracts of hemolymph from mated and virgin 7-day-old males resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III bisepoxide and juvenile hormone III in a...

  13. Schizotypy, creativity and mating success in humans

    Nettle, Daniel; Clegg, Helen

    2005-01-01

    There is an evolutionary puzzle surrounding the persistence of schizophrenia, since it is substantially heritable and associated with sharply reduced fitness. However, some of the personality traits which are predictive of schizophrenia are also associated with artistic creativity. Geoffrey Miller has proposed that artistic creativity functions to attract mates. Here, we investigate the relationship between schizotypal personality traits, creative activity, and mating success in a large sampl...

  14. Observing free-swimming copepods mating

    Strickler, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    Planktonic copepods are small transparent animals swimming in water. To observe how a male finds its mate, special optical systems had to be designed. The animals are treated as phase objects and matched spatial filters allow three-dimensional recordings of the swimming behaviour in a 1-litre vessel. Application of the techniques described shows how a male cyclopoid copepod swims for 20 s in synchronicity with the female before mating. Results stemming from observations with this optical syst...

  15. Courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Loureno & Qi, 2005 (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae from Xizang province, China

    GB Jiao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current work, the courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Loureno & Qi, 2005 (Euscorpiidae from Xizang province (Tibet, China, were studied for the first time in the laboratory. Most of the mating behaviors in Scorpiops luridus are not remarkably different from those exhibited by other scorpions. However, for the first time a male pulling a female with its chelicerae to rapidly accomplish the sperm uptake was observed. Additionally, the sexual stinging behavior displayed by the male occurred in the initial stage, not during the promenade stage as previously described in several scorpion species. Through observation and analysis, we speculate that venom injection during sexual stinging is selective, possibly relying on the status shown by the stung scorpion (passive or aggressive. In order to clearly describe the process of courtship and mating, both sequences are represented in a flow chart, while the main behavior components of these processes were identified, analyzed and discussed.

  16. Variation in Male Mate Choice in Drosophila melanogaster

    Edward, Dominic A; Chapman, Tracey

    2013-01-01

    Male mate choice has been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, even though males of this species were previously thought to maximise their fitness by mating with all available females. To understand the evolution of male mate choice it is important to understand variation in male mating preferences. Two studies, using different stock populations and different methods, have reported contrasting patterns of variation in male mate choice in D. melanogaster. Two possible explanatio...

  17. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Shen; Li, Yue; Ruan, Lu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals' social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this c...

  18. Female-biased dispersal under conditions of low male mating competition in a polygynous mammal.

    Prez-Gonzlez, J; Carranza, J

    2009-11-01

    Sex-biased dispersal is a common phenomenon in birds and mammals. Competition for mates has been argued to be an important selective pressure favouring dispersal. Sexual differences in the level of intrasexual competition may produce asymmetries in the costs-benefits balance of dispersal and philopatry for males and females, which may favour male-biased dispersal in polygynous species such as most mammals. This being the case, condition-dependent dispersal predicts that male-bias should decrease if mating competition relaxes. We test this expectation for red deer, where male-biased dispersal is the norm. In southwestern Spain, red deer populations located in nonfenced hunting estates presented altered structures with sex ratio strongly biased to females and high proportion of young males. As a consequence, mate competition in these populations was lower than in other, most typical red deer populations. We found that, under such conditions of altered population structure, dispersal was female-biased rather than male-biased. Additionally, mate competition positively related to male dispersal but negatively to female dispersal. Other factors such as resource competition, age of individuals and sex ratio were not related to male or female dispersal. Males may not disperse if intrasexual competition is low and then females may disperse as a response to male philopatry. We propose hypotheses related to female mate choice to explain female dispersal under male philopatry. The shift of the sex-biased dispersal pattern along the gradient of mate competition highlights its condition-dependence as well as the interaction between male and female dispersal in the evolution of sex-biased dispersal. PMID:19840261

  19. A process of pair formation leading to assortative mating: Passive age-assortative mating by habitat heterogeneity

    Ferrer, Miguel; Penteriani, Vincenzo

    2003-01-01

    We present an individual-based model dealing with mating as a process of pair formation. Model simulations, based on data from a 19-year study of Spanish imperial eagles, Aquila adalberti, showed that the mating pattern of a population is not necessarily a direct consequence of the mating preferences of individuals; positive age-assortative mating, by which individuals of similar age are more likely to become paired, does not necessarily indicate homotypic mating preferences. For example, ind...

  20. Male choice of mates and mating resources in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus)

    Casalini, M.; Reichard, Martin; Phillips, A.; Smith, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2013), s. 1199-1204. ISSN 1045-2249 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : body size * fecundity * male mate choice * mating system * oviposition * sperm competition * territoriality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.157, year: 2013

  1. Effect of 60CO radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis)

    The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and qualitative profile of bioactive compounds. (author)

  2. Effect of 60Co radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis)

    The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10 kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10 kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and qualitative profile of bioactive compounds. (author)

  3. Evaluation of mating behaviour and mating compatibility methods for the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana.

    April H. Wardhana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique program (SIT to eradicate pest insects relies on the success of mating competitiveness between irradiated male flies and wild type males for the wild type females. It has been successfully applied for the New World screwworm fly (NWSF, Cochliomyia hominivorax but remains unproven for the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF, Chrysomya bezziana. The aim of the study was to develop methods for investigating mating behaviour and mating compatibility of C. bezziana under laboratory conditions. Two methods were used for studying mating: individual mating (method 1 and group mating (method 2. The flies used in this study were 5-7 days old. Twenty four hours after emergence, adult flies were sexed and placed into different cages until studied. The female : male ratio in the group mating was 1 : 5 and the males were marked by painting a dot on the thorax using different oil colours. Observation of mating behaviour was investigated every 30 minutes through 10-20 replications for all methods depending on the availability of flies. Data were analysed using ANOVA and the Student’s t-test, with significance demonstrated at the 95% confidence level. The results demonstrated that the frequency of contacts between males and females at different ages was a significantly different (p 0.05 and method 2 (p > 0.05. Copulation was only initiated following longer periods of contact, mainly in the range of 270-449 seconds. The highest frequency of copulation occurred between 7-8 days, but the duration of mating was similar between 5-8 days old. The study demonstrated that the methods developed were suitable for a mating compatibility study of C. bezziana.

  4. Mating in the heterothallic haploid yeast Clavispora opuntiae, with special reference to mating type imbalances in local populations.

    Lachance, M A; Nair, P; Lo, P

    1994-07-01

    Mating was studied in the haploid, heterothallic yeast Clavispora opuntiae to assess the importance of nutritional, genetic, and other factors that may favour mating and recombination. Local populations of this yeast generally exhibit dramatic inequalities in mating type distributions, suggesting that mating is rare in nature even though most isolates mate freely in the laboratory. The absence of assimilable nitrogen is prerequisite to mating competence, presumably by causing G1 arrest. Maximum mating competence is found in cells entering stationary phase in nitrogen-limited media. Unlike the vast majority of mating yeasts, C. opuntiae does not appear to produce diffusible mating factors (sex pheromones), and mating-competent cells do not undergo sexual agglutination. Pairwise cell contact appears to be the only signal that triggers the sexual process in this case. In order to determine if mating type imbalances in nature are caused by reduced fertility of 'consanguine' crosses, meiotic recombination was measured in pairs of strains that varied in their genetic distances as indicated by restriction mapping. That hypothesis was rejected, as recombination efficiency decreased with increasing genetic distance. We conclude that the rarity of mating in local populations is exacerbated by the stringent physical (pairwise cell contact) and nutritional (nitrogen depletion) conditions that will allow mating to proceed. Parallels are drawn with mating patterns observed in Clavispora lusitaniae. PMID:7985417

  5. Realization of the chess mate solver application

    Vu?kovi? Vladan V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents details of the chess mate solver application, which is a part of the authors Geniss general chess application. The problem chess is an important domain connected with solving of the chess problems. The Geniss Mate Solver (G.M.S. application solves Mate-in-N-move problems. Main techniques used for the implementation of the application are full-width searching with Alpha-Beta pruning technique and zero evaluation function. The application is written in Delphi for Windows programming environment and the searching engine is completely coded in assembly language (about 10000 lines. This hybrid software structure enables efficient program development by using high-level programming environment and the realization of a very fast searching engine at the same time. The machine code is manually coded and could achieve above 7 million generated positions per second on the 1Ghz Celeron PC.

  6. Social wasps are a Saccharomyces mating nest.

    Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Bern, Luisa; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2016-02-23

    The reproductive ecology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is still largely unknown. Recent evidence of interspecific hybridization, high levels of strain heterozygosity, and prion transmission suggest that outbreeding occurs frequently in yeasts. Nevertheless, the place where yeasts mate and recombine in the wild has not been identified. We found that the intestine of social wasps hosts highly outbred S. cerevisiae strains as well as a rare S. cerevisiaeS. paradoxus hybrid. We show that the intestine of Polistes dominula social wasps favors the mating of S. cerevisiae strains among themselves and with S. paradoxus cells by providing a succession of environmental conditions prompting cell sporulation and spores germination. In addition, we prove that heterospecific mating is the only option for European S. paradoxus strains to survive in the gut. Taken together, these findings unveil the best hidden secret of yeast ecology, introducing the insect gut as an environmental alcove in which crosses occur, maintaining and generating the diversity of the ascomycetes. PMID:26787874

  7. Not Only Single Mating in Stingless Bees

    Paxton, Robert J.; Weischuh, Nicole; Engels, Wolf; Hartfelder, Klaus; Quezada-Euan, J. Javier G.

    Queens of the large, pantropical and fully eusocial taxon Meliponinae (stingless bees) are generally considered to be singly mated. We indirectly estimated queen mating frequency in two meliponids, Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona postica, by examining genotypes of workers at microsatellite DNA loci. Microsatellites were highly variable, providing suitable markers with which to assign patrilinial origin of workers within colonies headed by single queens. Queen mating frequency varied between 1 and 3 (M. beecheii) and 1 and 6 (S. postica), representing the first clear documentation of polyandry in the Meliponinae. Effective paternity frequency, me, was lower, although above 2 for S. postica. Stingless bees may provide suitable subjects for the testing of recent inclusive fitness arguments describing intracolony kin conflict in social Hymenoptera.

  8. Visual mate choice in poison frogs.

    Summers, K; Symula, R; Clough, M; Cronin, T

    1999-11-01

    We investigated female mate choice on the basis of visual cues in two populations of Dendrobates pumilio, the strawberry poison frog, from the Bocas del Toro Archipelago in Panama, Central America. Mate choice experiments were carried out by presenting subject females of each of two morphs of this species (orange and green) from two different island populations (Nancy Key and Pope Island) with object frogs (one of each morph) under glass at one end of a terrarium. Recorded calls were played simultaneously from behind both object frogs. The experiments were carried out under two light regimes: (i) white light, and (ii) relatively monochromatic filtered blue light. Subject females from each population displayed a significant preference for their own morph under white light, but not under blue light. These results indicate that female D. pumilio use visual cues in mate choice, and suggest that colour may be the visual cue they use. PMID:10649631

  9. The orbiter mate/demate device

    Miller, A. J.; Binkley, W. H.

    1985-01-01

    The numerous components and systems of the space shuttle orbiter mate/demate device (MDD) are discussed. Special emphasis is given, mechanisms and mechanical systems to discuss in general their requirements, functions, and design; and, where applicable, to relate any unusual problems encountered during the initial concept studies, final design, and construction are discussed. The MDD and its electrical, machinery, and mechanical systems, including the main hoisting system, power operated access service platform, wind restrain and adjustment mechanism, etc., were successfully designed and constructed. The MDD was used routinely during the initial orbiter-747 approach and landing test and the more recent orbiter flight tests recovery and mate operations.

  10. Protozoan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii Manipulates Mate Choice in Rats by Enhancing Attractiveness of Males

    Dass, Shantala Arundathi Hari; Vasudevan, Anand; Dutta, Deborah; Soh, Linda Jing Ting; Sapolsky, Robert Morris; Vyas, Ajai

    2011-01-01

    Females in various species typically avoid males infected with parasites, while parasite-free males advertise their status through conspicuous phenotypic traits. This process selects for heritable resistance and reduces direct exposure of the female to parasites. Coevolving parasites are likely to attempt to circumvent this obstacle. In this paper, we demonstrate a case of parasitic manipulation of host mate choice. We report that Toxoplasma gondii, a sexually transmitted infection of brown r...

  11. How universal are human mate choices?: size doesn’t matter when Hadza foragers are choosing a mate

    Sear, Rebecca; Marlowe, Frank W.

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that size matters on the human mate market: both stated preferences and mate choices have been found to be non-random with respect to height and weight. But how universal are these patterns? Most of the literature on human mating patterns is based on post-industrial societies. Much less is known about mating behaviour in more traditional societies. Here we investigate mate choice by analysing whether there is any evidence for non-random mating with respect to size and stren...

  12. Molecular determinants of ligand selectivity for the human multidrug and toxin extruder proteins MATE1 and MATE2-K.

    Astorga, Bethzaida; Ekins, Sean; Morales, Mark; Wright, Stephen H

    2012-06-01

    The present study compared the selectivity of two homologous transport proteins, multidrug and toxin extruders 1 and 2-K (MATE1 and MATE2-K), and developed three-dimensional pharmacophores for inhibitory ligand interaction with human MATE1 (hMATE1). The human orthologs of MATE1 and MATE2-K were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and transport function was determined by measuring uptake of the prototypic organic cation (OC) substrate 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP). Both MATEs had similar apparent affinities for MPP, with K(tapp) values of 4.4 and 3.7 μM for MATE1 and MATE2-K, respectively. Selectivity was assessed for both transporters from IC(50) values for 59 structurally diverse compounds. Whereas the two transporters discriminated markedly between a few of the test compounds, the IC(50) values for MATE1 and MATE2-K were within a factor of 3 for most of them. For hMATE1 there was little or no correlation between IC(50) values and the individual molecular descriptors LogP, total polar surface area, or pK(a). The IC(50) values were used to generate a common-features pharmacophore, quantitative pharmacophores for hMATE1, and a bayesian model suggesting molecular features favoring and not favoring the interaction of ligands with hMATE1. The models identified hydrophobic regions, hydrogen bond donor and hydrogen bond acceptor sites, and an ionizable (cationic) feature as key determinants for ligand binding to MATE1. In summary, using a combined in vitro and computational approach, MATE1 and MATE2-K were found to have markedly overlapping selectivities for a broad range of cationic compounds, including representatives from seven novel drug classes of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs. PMID:22419765

  13. Altered vitamin D status in liver tissue and blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber

    Sonne, Christian; Kirkegaard, Maja; Jakobsen, Jette; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Letcher, Robert J.; Dietz, Rune

    2014-01-01

    This study compared vitamin D3 (vitD3) and 25-OH vitamin D3 (25OHD3) status in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) given either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber high in organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) or clean porcine (Suis scrofa) fat for up to 636 days. A group of six...

  14. AA, mating of BST magnet halves

    1980-01-01

    The AA had 2 types of bending magnets: BLG (window-frame,long and narrow) and BST (H-type, short and wide). The BST had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the mating of two BST halves.

  15. The male mate search: an optimal foraging issue?

    Louâpre, Philippe; Fauvergue, Xavier; van Baaren, Joan; Martel, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Male insects must find and mate females to have some descendants; male fitness therefore depends on the number of females they inseminate. Males are for this reason expected to optimize the behaviors related to mate location, orientation and copulation. Although optimization of the reproductive behavior of males has long been neglected in the literature, recent studies suggest a renewed interest for this idea. Here we discuss the parallel between male mate-finding and mating strategies in ins...

  16. The evolution of female mate choice by sexual conflict.

    Gavrilets, S; G. Arnqvist; Friberg, U.

    2001-01-01

    Although empirical evidence has shown that many male traits have evolved via sexual selection by female mate choice, our understanding of the adaptive value of female mating preferences is still very incomplete. It has recently been suggested that female mate choice may result from females evolving resistance rather than attraction to males, but this has been disputed. Here, we develop a quantitative genetic model showing that sexual conflict over mating indeed results in the joint evolution ...

  17. Aesthetic evolution by mate choice: Darwin's really dangerous idea

    Prum, Richard O.

    2012-01-01

    Darwin proposed an explicitly aesthetic theory of sexual selection in which he described mate preferences as a ‘taste for the beautiful’, an ‘aesthetic capacity’, etc. These statements were not merely colourful Victorian mannerisms, but explicit expressions of Darwin's hypothesis that mate preferences can evolve for arbitrarily attractive traits that do not provide any additional benefits to mate choice. In his critique of Darwin, A. R. Wallace proposed an entirely modern mechanism of mate pr...

  18. 46 CFR 11.495 - Chief Mate (OSV).

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chief Mate (OSV). 11.495 Section 11.495 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.495 Chief Mate (OSV). (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, to qualify for an endorsement as Chief Mate (OSV), an applicant shall...

  19. Determinants of male reproductive health disorders: the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS)

    Wittert Gary; Cumming Robert; Pitts Marian; McLachlan Robert I; Holden Carol A; Ehsani Johnathon P; de Kretser David M; Handelsman David J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationship between reproductive health disorders and lifestyle factors in middle-aged and older men is not clear. The aim of this study is to describe lifestyle and biomedical associations as possible causes of erectile dysfunction (ED), prostate disease (PD), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and perceived symptoms of androgen deficiency (pAD) in a representative population of middle-aged and older men, using the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS). Methods ...

  20. Mating choice of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of male ageing on mating success

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of male ageing on male pheromone release and mating success of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The effects of male ageing on mating were evaluated on fi ve and 21 d-old males by assessing their mating success (males chosen by a female for copulation) and the amount of males releasing the sex pheromone. The mating success was evaluated by using several ratios of young to older males by increasing the number of older males:young males from 1:1 to 5:1. The mating success of the 1:1 ratio was also evaluated in fi eld cages. The evaluation of the mating success (in the 1:1 ratio) showed a clear preference of the females for young males. Sex pheromone emission was much more common on young than older males. Even in cases were older males were more abundant (ratios 2:1 and 3:1), females still chose the young males. However, females could not distinguish young from older males in ratios of 4:1 or 5:1. Our data indicate that the ageing of C. capitata males has a considerable negative effect on their reproductive success, especially if they are found in a proportion any lower than 3:1. (author)

  1. Male mate preferences in mutual mate choice: finches modulate their songs across and within male–female interactions

    Heinig, Abbie; Pant, Santosh; Dunning, Jeffery; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F.

    2014-01-01

    Male songbirds use song to advertise their attractiveness as potential mates, and the properties of those songs have a powerful influence on female mate preferences. One idea is that males may exert themselves maximally in each song performance, consistent with female evaluation and formation of mate preferences being the primary contributors to mate choice. Alternatively, males may modulate their song behaviour to different degrees in the presence of different females, consistent with both m...

  2. The evolution of mate choice and the potential for conflict between species and mate-quality recognition

    Pfennig, K. S.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding how individuals select mates becomes complex when high-quality conspecifics resemble heterospecifics. Individuals facing such a situation may be unable to effectively identify both conspecifics (species recognition) and high-quality mates that can confer fitness benefits to the choosy individual or its offspring (mate-quality recognition). Here I suggest when a conflict may occur between species and mate-quality recognition, discuss the evolutionary consequences stemming from th...

  3. Chemical profiles of two pheromone glands are differentially regulated by distinct mating factors in honey bee queens (Apis mellifera L.).

    Niño, Elina L; Malka, Osnat; Hefetz, Abraham; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    Pheromones mediate social interactions among individuals in a wide variety of species, from yeast to mammals. In social insects such as honey bees, pheromone communication systems can be extraordinarily complex and serve to coordinate behaviors among many individuals. One of the primary mediators of social behavior and organization in honey bee colonies is queen pheromone, which is produced by multiple glands. The types and quantities of chemicals produced differ significantly between virgin and mated queens, and recent studies have suggested that, in newly mated queens, insemination volume or quantity can affect pheromone production. Here, we examine the long-term impact of different factors involved during queen insemination on the chemical composition of the mandibular and Dufour's glands, two of the major sources of queen pheromone. Our results demonstrate that carbon dioxide (an anesthetic used in instrumental insemination), physical manipulation of genital tract (presumably mimicking the act of copulation), insemination substance (saline vs. semen), and insemination volume (1 vs. 8 µl) all have long-term effects on mandibular gland chemical profiles. In contrast, Dufour's gland chemical profiles were changed only upon insemination and were not influenced by exposure to carbon dioxide, manipulation, insemination substance or volume. These results suggest that the chemical contents of these two glands are regulated by different neuro-physiological mechanisms. Furthermore, workers responded differently to the different mandibular gland extracts in a choice assay. Although these studies must be validated in naturally mated queens of varying mating quality, our results suggest that while the chemical composition of Dufour's gland is associated with mating status, that of the mandibular glands is associated with both mating status and insemination success. Thus, the queen appears to be signaling both status and reproductive quality to the workers, which may impact worker behavior and physiology as well as social organization and productivity of the colony. PMID:24236028

  4. Mobility and Navigation among the Yucatec Maya : Sex Differences Reflect Parental Investment, Not Mating Competition.

    Cashdan, Elizabeth; Kramer, Karen L; Davis, Helen E; Padilla, Lace; Greaves, Russell D

    2016-03-01

    Sex differences in range size and navigation are widely reported, with males traveling farther than females, being less spatially anxious, and in many studies navigating more effectively. One explanation holds that these differences are the result of sexual selection, with larger ranges conferring mating benefits on males, while another explanation focuses on greater parenting costs that large ranges impose on reproductive-aged females. We evaluated these arguments with data from a community of highly monogamous Maya farmers. Maya men and women do not differ in distance traveled over the region during the mate-seeking years, suggesting that mating competition does not affect range size in this monogamous population. However, men's regional and daily travel increases after marriage, apparently in pursuit of resources that benefit families, whereas women reduce their daily travel after marriage. This suggests that parental effort is more important than mating effort in this population. Despite the relatively modest overall sex difference in mobility, Maya men were less spatially anxious than women, thought themselves to be better navigators, and pointed more accurately to distant locations. A structural equation model showed that the sex by marital status interaction had a direct effect on mobility, with a weaker indirect effect of sex on mobility mediated by navigational ability. PMID:26650606

  5. Mitochondrial DNA alterations correlate with the pathological status and the immunological ER, PR, HER-2/neu, p53 and Ki-67 expression in breast invasive ductal carcinoma.

    Lin, Chen-Sung; Chang, Shi-Chuan; Ou, Liang-Hung; Chen, Chien-Ming; Hsieh, Sophie Swen-Wan; Chung, Yu-Ping; King, Kuang-Liang; Lin, Shoei-Loong; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2015-06-01

    We analyzed the changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy numbers and the shifting of mtDNA D310 sequence variations (D310 mutation) with their relationships to pathological status and the expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2/neu), tumor-suppressor protein p53 and cellular proliferation protein Ki-67 in breast invasive ductal carcinoma (BIDC), respectively. Fifty-one paraffin-embedded BIDCs and their paired non-cancerous breast tissues were dissected for DNA extraction. The mtDNA copy number and mtDNA D310 sequence variations were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and PCR-based direct sequencing, respectively. The expression levels of ER, PR, HER-2/neu, p53 and Ki-67 were determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Compared to the paired non-cancerous breast tissues, 24 (47.1%) BIDCs had elevated mtDNA copy numbers and 29 (56.9%) harbored mtDNA D310 mutations. Advanced T-status (p=0.056), negative-ER (p=0.005), negative-PR (p=0.007), positive-p53 (p=0.050) and higher Ki-67 (p=0.004) expressions were related to a higher mtDNA copy ratio. In addition, advanced T-status (p=0.019) and negative-HER-2/neu expression (p=0.061) were associated with mtDNA D310 mutations. In conclusion, higher mtDNA copy ratio and D310 mutations may be relevant biomarkers correlated with pathological T-status and the expression levels of ER, PR, HER-2/neu, p53 and Ki-67 in BIDCs. PMID:25845386

  6. Negative-assortative mating for color in wolves.

    Hedrick, Philip W; Smith, Douglas W; Stahler, Daniel R

    2016-04-01

    There is strong negative-assortative mating for gray and black pelage color in the iconic wolves in Yellowstone National Park. This is the first documented case of significant negative-assortative mating in mammals and one of only a very few cases in vertebrates. Of 261 matings documented from 1995 to 2015, 63.6% were between gray and black wolves and the correlation between mates for color was -0.266. There was a similar excess of matings of both gray males × black females and black males × gray females. Using the observed frequency of negative-assortative mating in a model with both random and negative-assortative mating, the estimated proportion of negative-assortative mating was 0.430. The estimated frequency of black wolves in the population from 1996 to 2014 was 0.452 and these frequencies appear stable over this 19-year period. Using the estimated level of negative-assortative mating, the predicted equilibrium frequency of the dominant allele was 0.278, very close to the mean value of 0.253 observed. In addition, the patterns of genotype frequencies, that is, the observed proportion of black homozygotes and the observed excess of black heterozygotes, are consistent with negative-assortative mating. Importantly these results demonstrate that negative-assortative mating could be entirely responsible for the maintenance of this well-known color polymorphism. PMID:26988852

  7. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    Hailer Frank

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same processes which have historically created dog breeds are still ongoing, and create further subdivision within current dog breeds.

  8. Consanguineous matings in the Egyptian population.

    Hafez, M.; El-Tahan, H; Awadalla, M; El-Khayat, H; Abdel-Gafar, A; Ghoneim, M

    1983-01-01

    A total of 26 554 Egyptians was ascertained to study the incidence of consanguineous marriages. They were of different ages, different socioeconomic standards, and from different areas. There were 7646 from urban areas, 11 280 from suburban areas, and 7628 from rural areas. The incidence of consanguineous matings in the general population was found to be 28.96% with an average inbreeding coefficient of 0.010, which could be considered high. The highest incidence was that in the rural areas. F...

  9. Estrogens Can Disrupt Amphibian Mating Behavior

    Hoffmann, Frauke; Kloas, Werner

    2012-01-01

    The main component of classical contraceptives, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), has high estrogenic activity even at environmentally relevant concentrations. Although estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds are assumed to contribute to the worldwide decline of amphibian populations by adverse effects on sexual differentiation, evidence for EE2 affecting amphibian mating behaviour is lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that EE2 exposure at five different concentrations (0.296 ng/L, 2.96 ng/L,...

  10. The Perfect Mate for Safe Fueling

    2004-01-01

    Referred to as the "lifeline for any space launch vehicle" by NASA Space Launch Initiative Program Manager Warren Wiley, an umbilical is a large device that transports power, communications, instrument readings, and fluids such as propellants, pressurization gases, and coolants from one source to another. Numerous launch vehicles, planetary systems, and rovers require umbilical "mating". This process is a driving factor for dependable and affordable space access. With future-generation space vehicles in mind, NASA recently designed a smart, automated method for quickly and reliably mating and demating electrical and fluid umbilical connectors. The new umbilical concept is expected to replace NASA s traditional umbilical systems that release at vehicle lift-off (T-0). The idea is to increase safety by automatically performing hazardous tasks, thus reducing potential failure modes and the time and labor hours necessary to prepare for launch. The new system will also be used as a test bed for quick disconnect development and for advance control and leak detection. It incorporates concepts such as a secondary mate plate, robotic machine vision, and compliant motor motion control, and is destined to advance usage of automated umbilicals in a variety of aerospace and commercial applications.

  11. Physiological resonance between mates through calls as possible evidence of empathic processes in songbirds.

    Perez, Emilie C; Elie, Julie E; Boucaud, Ingrid C A; Crouchet, Thomas; Soulage, Christophe O; Soula, Hédi A; Theunissen, Frédéric E; Vignal, Clémentine

    2015-09-01

    Physiological resonance - where the physiological state of a subject generates the same state in a perceiver - has been proposed as a proximate mechanism facilitating pro-social behaviours. While mainly described in mammals, state matching in physiology and behaviour could be a phylogenetically shared trait among social vertebrates. Birds show complex social lives and cognitive abilities, and their monogamous pair-bond is a highly coordinated partnership, therefore we hypothesised that birds express state matching between mates. We show that calls of male zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata produced during corticosterone treatment (after oral administration of exogenous corticosterone and during visual separation from the partner) provoke both an increase in corticosterone concentrations and behavioural changes in their female partner compared to control calls (regular calls emitted by the same male during visual separation from the partner only), whereas calls produced during corticosterone treatment by unfamiliar males have no such effect. Irrespective of the caller status (mate/non-mate), calls' acoustic properties were predictive of female corticosterone concentration after playback, but the identity of mate calls was necessary to fully explain female responses. Female responses were unlikely due to a failure of the call-based mate recognition system: in a discrimination task, females perceive calls produced during corticosterone treatment as being more similar to the control calls of the same male than to control calls of other males, even after taking acoustical differences into account. These results constitute the first evidence of physiological resonance solely on acoustic cues in birds, and support the presence of empathic processes. PMID:26407661

  12. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Shen; Li, Yue; Ruan, Lu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals' social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies toward potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection. PMID:26648898

  13. The mating behaviour and reproduction performance in a multi-sire mating system for pigs

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2008-01-01

    An important aim of organic animal production is to allow natural animal behaviour. Regarding reproduction techniques, artificial insemination is permitted but natural mating is preferred. The outdoor multi-sire system, where the sows are placed in large paddocks with a group of boars, is one...... system and the subsequent reproduction results. The time of start of courtship, behavior and the cause of disruption if the courtship was terminated, were recorded each time a boar courted a sow. All aggressive interactions between the boars were also recorded to estimate the boar ranking order. The...... example of a service system, which complies well with the organic ideals of facilitating natural animal behavior. However, very little knowledge is available about such system. Seven groups of in total of 47 sows and 31 boars were observed to study the mating behavior in an outdoor multi-sire mating...

  14. Prism adaptation does not alter configural processing of faces [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1wk

    Janet H. Bultitude

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’ following a brain lesion show difficulty responding or orienting to objects and events on the left side of space. Substantial evidence supports the use of a sensorimotor training technique called prism adaptation as a treatment for neglect. Reaching for visual targets viewed through prismatic lenses that induce a rightward shift in the visual image results in a leftward recalibration of reaching movements that is accompanied by a reduction of symptoms in patients with neglect. The understanding of prism adaptation has also been advanced through studies of healthy participants, in whom adaptation to leftward prismatic shifts results in temporary neglect-like performance. Interestingly, prism adaptation can also alter aspects of non-lateralised spatial attention. We previously demonstrated that prism adaptation alters the extent to which neglect patients and healthy participants process local features versus global configurations of visual stimuli. Since deficits in non-lateralised spatial attention are thought to contribute to the severity of neglect symptoms, it is possible that the effect of prism adaptation on these deficits contributes to its efficacy. This study examines the pervasiveness of the effects of prism adaptation on perception by examining the effect of prism adaptation on configural face processing using a composite face task. The composite face task is a persuasive demonstration of the automatic global-level processing of faces: the top and bottom halves of two familiar faces form a seemingly new, unknown face when viewed together. Participants identified the top or bottom halves of composite faces before and after prism adaptation. Sensorimotor adaptation was confirmed by significant pointing aftereffect, however there was no significant change in the extent to which the irrelevant face half interfered with processing. The results support the proposal that the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation are limited to dorsal stream processing.

  15. Influence of mating and age on susceptibility of the beetle Anoplophora glabripennis to the fungal pathogen Metarhizium brunneum.

    Fisher, Joanna J; Hajek, Ann E

    2016-05-01

    The age and life history of an insect can influence its susceptibility to pathogens. Reproduction can be costly and may trade off with immunity while it is generally assumed that immunity will decrease with increasing age through a process called immunosenescence. Fungal pathogens are used as biological control agents for a variety of insect pests, and Metarhizium brunneum is being developed to control the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), an invasive wood-borer. Because adult female A. glabripennis take 1-2weeks to mature after eclosion and both sexes can be long-lived, we investigated how age and mating status would influence susceptibility of A. glabripennis to M. brunneum. Young (6.5day-old) unmated, mature (27-33day-old) mated and unmated, and old (57-71day-old) unmated and mated adults were inoculated with a lethal dose of M. brunneum. The presence of M. brunneum in the hemolymph was quantified and beetle mortality was monitored daily. There was a cost to reproduction for mated mature male and female beetles which died a median of 1.6-1.9days earlier than unmated beetles, while there was no effect of mating on susceptibility for old beetles. We found no evidence for immunosenescence in old beetles, as they did not die faster than young or mature beetles. Young unmated males however were more susceptible than mature or old unmated males, while there was no effect of age on susceptibility of unmated females. PMID:27103165

  16. Mating populations of Gibberella fujikuroi (Sawada S. Ito species complex isolating from maize, sorghum and wheat in Serbia

    Kova?evi? Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The status of fertility and distribution of mating populations in the G. fujikuroi species complex, isolating from maize, sorghum and wheat cultivated under various agroecological conditions of Serbia, have been studied. A total of 79 field isolates of Fusarium spp. in the section Liseola, which had been reciprocally crossed to standard testers (MAT-1 and MAT-2 from each of the four mating populations of the G. fujikuroi species complex, were selected for these studies. Twenty of 79 isolates belonged to the mating population A (G. moniliformis, 22 to the population D (G. intermedia, 17 to the population E (G. subglutinans and 20 to the population F (G. thapsina. A mating type MAT-1 was dominant in the populations A (14 MATA-1 :6 MATA-2, D (13 MATA-1 :9 MATA-2 and E (10 MATA-1 :7 MATA-2, while MAT-2 prevailed in the population F (6 MATA-1 : 14 MATA-2. The obtained results indicate that the possibility of sexual reproduction of Fusarium spp., belonging to the A, D, E and F mating populations, is not so frequent phenomenon in Serbia as in other regions world-wide. Consequently, these species will be asexually reproduced under field conditions, particularly species belonging to the F population. These are the first results on the characterisation of three (A, E and F out of four populations of the G. fujikuroi species complex present in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31023

  17. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status.

    Gouda-Vossos, Amany; Dixson, Barnaby J; Brooks, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual's attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as 'social context'. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women's economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory. PMID:26731414

  18. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status

    Dixson, Barnaby J.

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual’s attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as ‘social context’. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women’s economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory. PMID:26731414

  19. Effects of duration of separation on responses to mates and strangers in the monogamous titi monkey (Callicebus moloch).

    Fernandez-Duque, E; Mason, W A; Mendoza, S P

    1997-01-01

    Adult male and female titi monkeys form an intense social bond characterized by high levels of affiliative interactions between pairmates and agonistic responses to strangers. In natural settings, separation between mates can vary from brief periods, as when mates drift apart during feeding, to permanent separation, occasioned by desertion or death. In this study we asked how different durations of separation altered the behavior of male and female titi monkeys (Callicebus moloch). We compared the effects of brief separation such as might occur incidentally during feeding (1-2 h) with prolonged separation such as might occur if one partner died or deserted (5 days). Effects were observed during a 30 min reunion of pairmates or during a 30 min encounter with a stranger of the opposite sex. Following brief separation, interactions between mates and between strangers clearly differed in measures of affiliation, but not in behaviors indicative of arousal. Following prolonged separation, measures of arousal increased with both mated pairs and strangers. Females tended to interact more readily with a stranger following prolonged separation than after brief separation, but interactions between mates were essentially unchanged and differed substantially from those between strangers. The data suggest that the pair bond persists in titi monkeys after prolonged social isolation, despite increased interest in interacting with potential new partners. PMID:9359966

  20. Studies on mating competition of irradiated melon flies

    Mating competition is the key factor for fruit flies control by using sterile insect technique project. Mass rearing and irradiation can reduce the mating competition of fruit flies. This experiment has purpose to evaluate the mating competition of the irradiated melon fly. The results show that mating competition values of irradiated melon flies were 0.36 and 0.24 when they mated with normal and irradiated females. Both normal male and female can mate more frequency than irradiated flies. (Z=1.322, P<0.05; Z=1.851, P<0.05). The results show that quality of mass rearing and irradiated melon fly was lower than the normal flies. So that quality of irradiated fly must be improved and the number of released flies as less must be higher than natural flies 6 time

  1. Habitat Selection and Mating Success in a Mustelid

    Thierry Lodé

    2011-01-01

    Habitat selection remains a poorly understood ecological process, but relating mating behaviour to pattern of habitat selection constitutes a fundamental issue both in evolutionary ecology and in biological conservation. From radiotelemetry protocol, habitat-induced variations in mating success were investigated in a solitary mustelid carnivore, the European polecat Mustela putorius. Selection for marshy habitat was regarded as adaptive in that mating success was found greater using marches t...

  2. NUTRITION OF MATE-TREE WITH AMMONIUM SULFATE FERTILIZER

    Marcia Marzagão Ribeiro; Carlos Bruno Reissmann; Daniel Resende Corrêa

    2008-01-01

    Mate tea leaves are the product of commercialization of the mate-tea tree (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.), which leads to a great export of N, requiring its reposition. In previous nutritional studies of the mate-tea tree, it was observed that its production and metabolism was positively influenced by the ammonium form nitrogen fertilizer. This investigation tested different levels of nitrogen fertilization, in its ammonium form, in a commercial plantation, for verifying its effects on the nu...

  3. Costs influence male mate choice in a freshwater fish.

    Wong, Bob B.M; Jennions, Michael D

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that female mate choice decisions depend on the direct costs of choosing (either because of search costs or male-imposed costs). Far less is known about how direct fitness costs affect male mate choice. We conducted an experiment to investigate male mate choice in a fish, the Pacific blue-eye (Pseudomugil signifer). Preferred females were larger, probably because larger females are also more fecund. Males, however, were consistent in their choice of female only when the costs...

  4. Mating-Type Genes and MAT Switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Haber, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Mating type in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by two nonhomologous alleles, MATa and MAT?. These sequences encode regulators of the two different haploid mating types and of the diploids formed by their conjugation. Analysis of the MATa1, MAT?1, and MAT?2 alleles provided one of the earliest models of cell-type specification by transcriptional activators and repressors. Remarkably, homothallic yeast cells can switch their mating type as often as every generation by a highly choreograp...

  5. Familiarity adds to attractiveness in matters of siskin mate choice

    Senar, J C; Mateos-Gonzalez, F.; Uribe, F.; Arroyo, L.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently considerable controversy in evolutionary ecology revolving around whether social familiarity brings attraction when a female chooses a mate. The topic of familiarity is significant because by avoiding or preferring familiar individuals as mates, the potential for local adaptation may be reduced or favoured. The topic becomes even more interesting if we simultaneously analyse preferences for familiarity and sexual ornaments, because when familiarity influences female mating ...

  6. Genetic implications of mating structure in a Caribbean isolate.

    Leslie, P W; Morrill, W T; Dyke, B

    1981-01-01

    Mating patterns in the population of St. Barthlmy, French West Indies, are examined to evaluate the expected genetic consequences of consanguinity avoidance and of failure to mate due to celibacy and emigration. Nearly 60% of all individuals reaching mating age on "St. Bart" never contribute to the gene pool of succeeding generations. This greatly reduces the effective population size and, therefore, increases genetic drift or random inbreeding. The consequent loss of heterozygosity is part...

  7. Balancing sexual selection through opposing mate choice and male competition

    Moore, A. J.; Moore, P. J.

    1999-01-01

    Malemale competition and female mate choice act contemporaneously in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea and the social pheromone of males influences the outcome of both forms of sexual selection. We therefore examined the joint and separate effects of malemale competition and female mate choice to determine if the selective optima for the pheromone were the same or different. Dominant males in a newly established hierarchy mated more frequently, but not exclusively. Manipulations of the multi-...

  8. Inline Electrical Connector Mate/Demate Pliers

    Yutko, Brian; Dininny, Michael; Moscoso, Gerand; Dokos, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Military and aerospace industries use Mil-Spec type electrical connections on bulkhead panels that require inline access for mate and demate operations. These connectors are usually in tight proximity to other connectors, or recessed within panels. The pliers described here have been designed to work in such tight spaces, and consist of a mirrored set of parallel handles, two cross links, two return springs, and replaceable polyurethane-coated end effectors. The polyurethane eliminates metal-to-metal contact and provides a high-friction surface between the jaw and the connector. Operationally, the user would slide the pliers over the connector shell until the molded polyurethane lip makes contact with the connector shell edge. Then, by squeezing the handles, the end effector jaws grip the connector shell, allowing the connector to be easily disconnected by rotating the pliers. Mating the connector occurs by reversing the prescribed procedure, except the connector shell is placed into the jaws by hand. The molded lip within the jaw allows the user to apply additional force for difficult-to-mate connectors. Handle design has been carefully examined to maximize comfort, limit weight, incorporate tether locations, and improve ergonomics. They have been designed with an off-axis offset for wiring harness clearance, while placing the connector axis of rotation close to the user s axis of wrist rotation. This was done to eliminate fatigue during multiple connector panel servicing. To limit handle opening width, with user ergonomics in mind, the pliers were designed using a parallel jaw mechanism. A cross-link mechanism was used to complete this task, while ensuring smooth operation.

  9. Male Mating Signaling in Social Dilemma Games

    Jensen, Niels Holm

    2013-01-01

    According to sexual selection theory and costly signaling theory, men benefit from signaling costly mate qualities to attractive women. To date, several studies have investigated whether men use conspicuous altruism to attract women, but the findings are mixed. This study investigated whether men...... being observed by an attractive woman engage in competitive economic altruism in three social dilemma games — the Dictator Game, Trust Game (2nd mover), and Public Goods Game — in comparison to men being observed by a non-attractive woman. Results showed that altruistic contributions in the games were...

  10. Stylish lengths: Mate choice in flowers

    B T Ramesha; M D Yetish; G Ravikanth; K N Ganeshaiah; Jaboury Ghazoul; R Uma Shaanker

    2011-06-01

    The styles of flowers may represent an arena for pollen competition in the race to fertilize ovules. Accordingly, selection should favour a longer ‘race’ to better discriminate among variable pollen by increasing style length. Sampling across a taxonomically diverse range of wild and outcrossed species, we found that the distribution of style lengths within plants were skewed towards longer styles, as predicted. In self-pollinated domesticated species, where discrimination among pollen is less important, we found no such pattern. We conclude that style length is under directional selection towards longer styles as a mechanism for mate choice among pollen of variable quality.

  11. Mate Choice Drives Evolutionary Stability in a Hybrid Complex

    Morgado-Santos, Miguel; Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that assortative mating acts as a driver of speciation by countering hybridization between two populations of the same species (pre-zygotic isolation) or through mate choice among the hybrids (hybrid speciation). In both speciation types, assortative mating promotes speciation over a transient hybridization stage. We studied mate choice in a hybrid vertebrate complex, the allopolyploid fish Squalius alburnoides. This complex is composed by several genomotypes connected by an intricate reproductive dynamics. We developed a model that predicts the hybrid complex can persist when females exhibit particular mate choice patterns. Our model is able to reproduce the diversity of population dynamic outcomes found in nature, namely the dominance of the triploids and the dominance of the tetraploids, depending on female mate choice patterns and frequency of the parental species. Experimental mate choice trials showed that females exhibit the preferences predicted by the model. Thus, despite the known role of assortative mating in driving speciation, our findings suggest that certain mate choice patterns can instead hinder speciation and support the persistence of hybrids over time without speciation or extinction. PMID:26181664

  12. Mating behavior and sexual selection in a polygamous beetle

    Wen LU, Qiao WANG, Mingyi TIAN, Jin XU, Jian LV, Aizhi QIN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mating behavior and sexual selection in relation to morphometric traits in a polygamous beetle, Glenea cantor (F. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, were investigated. Upon encounter, a male approached a female, mounted her, grasped her terminal abdomen with his hind tarsi, and attempted to mate. Successful mating lasted about 3.5 h. Although all traits measured in females and half of traits in males were significantly correlated with mating success, the primary selection on virgin females was the genital trait, the bursa copulatrix length, and that on males was the body length and hind tarsal length. Longer bursa copulatrix accommodated a larger ejaculate, suggesting that this female trait benefits the male that first mates with the female in terms of increasing ejaculate size to beat subsequent males in sperm competition. Under a female-biased sex ratio, more than 20% of matings failed within 20s after the male genitalia had been inserted into hers, suggesting that males assess genital features of the female before insemination and undertake cryptic male mate choice. Larger males were more capable of grasping females and achieving mating. During the premating struggle the male almost always used his hind tarsi to lift the female terminal abdomen to the position for his genitalia to insert, and as a result, males with longer hind tarsi achieved higher mating success [Current Zoology 59 (2 : 257-264, 2013]. 

  13. New Environments Set the Stage for Changing Tastes in Mates

    2005-01-01

    Experimentally manipulating the resource environment of Drosophila serrata reveals that mating preferences can evolve, at least in part, as a result of environmentally-based divergent natural selection.

  14. Altered vitamin D status in liver tissue and blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber.

    Sonne, Christian; Kirkegaard, Maja; Jakobsen, Jette; Jenssen, Bjrn Munro; Letcher, Robert J; Dietz, Rune

    2014-06-01

    This study compared vitamin D3 (vitD3) and 25-OH vitamin D3 (25OHD3) status in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) given either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber high in organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) or clean porcine (Suis scrofa) fat for up to 636 days. A group of six exposed and six control sister bitches (maternal generation) and their three exposed and four control pups, respectively, were daily fed 112g whale blubber (193g ?PCB/day) or porcine fat (0.17g ?PCB/day). Mean level of ?PCB in adipose tissue of exposed bitches and their pups was 3106 and 2670ng/g lw, respectively, which was significantly higher than the mean concentration of 53ng/g lw for all controls (p<0.001). The vitamin analyses showed that 25OHD3 in liver of maternal exposed bitches were significantly lower than in controls (p=0.004) while vitD3 was significantly highest in liver of exposed pups (p<0.003). Regarding blood plasma concentrations, exposed F generation pups had significantly higher concentrations of 25OHD3 than controls (p=0.009). Correlation analyses showed that blood 25OHD3 decreased significantly with increased adipose tissue concentrations of ?PCB in exposed dogs (R(2)=0.64, p=0.005) and a similar trend was found for liver 25OHD3 (R(2)=0.32, p=0.08). The results indicate that the homeostasis and metabolism of vitamin D compounds may respond differently to the dietary composition of fatty acids and OHC exposure. It is unknown if the lower level of 25OHD3 in the liver of exposed dogs would have any negative effects on immunity and reproduction and more focus should be conducted on this compound in Arctic wildlife. PMID:24725758

  15. Amino acid starvation induced by protease inhibition produces differential alterations in redox status and the thiol proteome in organogenesis-stage rat embryos and visceral yolk sacs.

    Harris, Craig; Jilek, Joseph L; Sant, Karilyn E; Pohl, Jan; Reed, Matthew; Hansen, Jason M

    2015-12-01

    The process of embryonic nutrition in rodent conceptuses during organogenesis has been shown to involve a dominant histiotrophic mechanism where essential developmental substrates and micronutrients are supplied as whole maternal proteins or cargoes associated with proteins. The histiotrophic nutrition pathways (HNP) responsible for uptake and initial processing of proteins across maternal-conceptal interfaces involve uptake via receptor mediated endocytosis and protein degradation via lysosomal proteolysis. Chemical inhibition of either process can lead to growth deficits and malformation in the embryo (EMB), but selective inhibition of either HNP component will elicit a different subset of developmental perturbations. In vitro, whole embryo culture exposure of GD10 or GD11 rat conceptuses to the natural protease inhibitor, leupeptin, leads to significant reductions in all measured embryonic growth parameters as well as a myriad of other effects. Leupeptin doses of 10 μM or 20 μM over a 26-h period (GD10-GD11) and 50 μM over a 3 h pulse period produced significant decreases in the clearance of FITC-albumin from culture media. The near complete loss of acid soluble fluorescence and increased total visceral yolk sac (VYS) protein content confirmed the selective inhibition of proteolysis. Inhibition of lysosomal proteolysis thus deprives the developing EMB of essential nutrient amino acids producing conditions akin to amino acid starvation, but may also cause direct effects on pathways critical for normal growth and differentiation. Following leupeptin exposure for 26 or 6 h, total glutathione (GSH) concentrations dropped significantly in the VYS, but only slightly in yolk sac (YSF) and amniotic (AF) fluids. Cys concentrations increased in VYS and EMB, but dropped in YSF and AF fluids. Redox potentials (Eh) for the glutathione disulfide (GSSG)/glutathione (GSH) redox couple trended significantly toward the positive, confirming the net oxidation of conceptual tissues following leupeptin treatment. Analysis of the thiol proteome showed few alterations to specific pathways mapped to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database, but did reveal significant increases in concentrations of proteins associated with glycolysis/gluconeogenesis in the VYS and decreased concentrations proteins associated with ribosome biogenesis and function in the EMB. A subset of proteins elevated by >2-23-fold in the VYS were identified as serum (blood) proteins and represent the maternal-side proteins captured by the VYS and which are not degraded in the lysosomes as a result of leupeptin's inhibitory action. The observed constellation of proteins decreased in the EMB by leupeptin represent proteins from several adaptive pathways that are commonly altered in responses to amino acid starvation. These studies show clear differential responses to protease inhibition in VYS and EMB during organogenesis and suggest the possibility for additional roles of redox regulation, cellular adaptations and metabolic insufficiency caused by protease inhibition. PMID:26365578

  16. Interspecific Cross-Mating Between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Laboratory Strains: Implication of Population Density on Mating Behaviors.

    Marcela, P; Hassan, A Abu; Hamdan, A; Dieng, H; Kumara, T K

    2015-12-01

    Mating behavior between Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, established colony strains were examined under laboratory conditions (30-cm(3) screened cages) for 5 consecutive days. The effect of selected male densities (30, 20, 10) and female density (20) on the number of swarming, mating pairs, eggs produced, and inseminated females were evaluated. Male densities significantly increased swarming behavior, mating pairs, and egg production of heterospecific females, but female insemination was reduced. Aedes aegypti males mate more readily with heterospecific females than do Ae. albopictus males. The current study suggests that Ae. aegypti males were not species-specific in mating, and if released into the field as practiced in genetically modified mosquito techniques, they may mate with both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females, hence reducing populations of both species by producing infertile eggs. PMID:26675452

  17. Assortative mating and differential male mating success in an ash hybrid zone population

    Frascaria-Lacoste Nathalie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure and evolution of hybrid zones depend mainly on the relative importance of dispersal and local adaptation, and on the strength of assortative mating. Here, we study the influence of dispersal, temporal isolation, variability in phenotypic traits and parasite attacks on the male mating success of two parental species and hybrids by real-time pollen flow analysis. We focus on a hybrid zone population between the two closely related ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash and F. angustifolia Vahl (narrow-leaved ash, which is composed of individuals of the two species and several hybrid types. This population is structured by flowering time: the F. excelsior individuals flower later than the F. angustifolia individuals, and the hybrid types flower in-between. Hybrids are scattered throughout the population, suggesting favorable conditions for their local adaptation. We estimate jointly the best-fitting dispersal kernel, the differences in male fecundity due to variation in phenotypic traits and level of parasite attack, and the strength of assortative mating due to differences in flowering phenology. In addition, we assess the effect of accounting for genotyping error on these estimations. Results We detected a very high pollen immigration rate and a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, counter-balanced by slight phenological assortative mating and short-distance pollen dispersal. Early intermediate flowering hybrids, which had the highest male mating success, showed optimal sex allocation and increased selfing rates. We detected asymmetry of gene flow, with early flowering trees participating more as pollen donors than late flowering trees. Conclusion This study provides striking evidence that long-distance gene flow alone is not sufficient to counter-act the effects of assortative mating and selfing. Phenological assortative mating and short-distance dispersal can create temporal and spatial structuring that appears to maintain this hybrid population. The asymmetry of gene flow, with higher fertility and increased selfing, can potentially confer a selective advantage to early flowering hybrids in the zone. In the event of climate change, hybridization may provide a means for F. angustifolia to further extend its range at the expense of F. excelsior.

  18. Mating and re-mating of medflies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Guatemala: Individual fly marking in field cages

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) depends critically upon the ability of sterilized, released males to locate and mate with wild females. The overall efficiency of the method also depends upon the relative frequencies of re-mating by wild females following first matings to laboratory or wild males. Using a newly devised technique that individually marks the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), a field cage study was undertaken in a Guatemala coffee orchard to record individual fly mating behaviors between each of several laboratory strain and coffee-reared wild flies. Five laboratory strains were tested- a genetic sexing strain examined in sex ratios between 50%-100% sterile males, two standard bisexual strains, and two Fl hybrid strains. The marking technique revealed a substantial amount of information on individual fly mating and re-mating. Wild male flies significantly out-competed each of the lab strains in the first matings with both wild and lab females. Approx. 22% and 3% of wild males and females, respectively, re-mated in the field cages during two consecutive morning observation periods, while 4-8% of lab males, and 2-8% of lab females re-mated, respectively. Male flies from each lab strain averaged significantly shorter copulation times than wild males. Female flies, either lab or wild, tended to re-mate more often if they first mated to a lab male, but the differences were not statistically significant. An index was devised to provide a measure of relative male mating quality. Wild males tended to have higher individual index values than lab strain males. Average values of the latter ranged from ca. half to roughly equal that of wild males. (author)

  19. Effect Of Gamma Irradiation On The Mating Activity And Mating Competitiveness Of The Black Cutworm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUFN.) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)

    The sterility effects were examined on the P1 generation of the black cutworm; Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.), after gamma sterilization. The objective was to identify the dose of gamma radiation that would allow for maximum production of partially sterile P1 adults while inducing full sterility in the F1 generation. Full grown pupae of the black cutworm from laboratory culture were irradiated at 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 Gy. Results indicated that non-significant differences between untreated and treated groups in moth were observed in copula occurred and time of copulation while significant difference was recorded between the treated males and untreated once in spermatophore formation and percentage of females with sperm in their spermatheca at the last two doses. Low percentages of untreated female moths were mated when they were paired with previously mated males than when paired with virgin males. The sequence in which females were mated to an irradiated male did not affect the transfer of spermatophores. The percentage of eggs hatched was higher from the first mated females as compared to the second and third mated females. There were non-significant effects of 0 or 125 Gy exposures on female mating or time in copula. However, significant low percentages of mating of treated and untreated females were occurred with sequentially provided male moths on days 2, 3, to 5 following the first observed female mating. According to the mating competitiveness measured from direct

  20. Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus courtship and mating behavior

    Morales-Pieyra Jssica T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758, is a South American grazing deer categorized as "near threatened". However, knowledge about pampas deer behavior including courtship and mating is scarce and incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize the courtship and mating behavior of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, an endangered species from South America. Methods We performed focal observations of 5 males allocated at the Estacin de Cra de Fauna Autctona Cerro Pan de Azcar, Uruguay, 4 times a day from 5 to 20 minutes each time on a daily basis from February to May. During that period we recorded all courtship and mating behaviors, as well as quantified the frequency of the specific behaviors shown. As mating were rarely observed, we recorded that behavior when it was observed in the context of other studies performed in the same population during the following 2 years. Results During the observation period we recorded 928 courtships and 5 mating periods. In addition, we recorded 10 more matings performed during other studies, totaling 15. The duration of each mating calculated from the 15 recordings was 3.9??0.4 s, and the total period of female receptivity (from first to last mating acceptance was 8.2??1.1 min. Main observed courtship behaviors in males were chase and ostentation, while the most observed close to mating were chinning, raised head and anogenital sniffing. The most observed behaviors in females during the mating period were vulva exhibition and move away. Conclusion This is the first detailed report in pampas deer mating behavior. Estrus lasted only 8 min accepting only 3 short copulations per estrus. However, female behavior during courtship can be characterized as highly proceptive.

  1. FEMALE PRAIRIE VOLE MATE-CHOICE IS AFFECTED BY THE MALES’ BIRTH LITTER COMPOSITION

    Curtis, J. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Experimental testing and retrospective examination of breeding records were used to examine the influence of sex composition and/or size of males’ birth litters on female mate-choice. Sexually naïve female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) avoided males derived from all-male litters, but showed no preference for, or aversion to, males from single-male litters or from more typical mixed-sex litters. Examination of the pregnancy status of females after two weeks of pairing with a male allowe...

  2. Effect of potassium fertilization on yield and nutrition of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis

    Delmar Santin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis is a tree species native to the subtropical regions of South America, and is found in Brazil predominantly in the southern region. Despite the historical importance in this region, so far, studies on crop nutrition to improve yields are scarce. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of potassium rates on K soil availability, and the yield and nutritional status of yerba mate. The experiment was conducted in São Mateus do Sul, State of Paraná, on a Humox soil, where K2O rates of 0, 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 kg ha-1 were tested on 7-year-old plantations. The experiment was harvested 24 months after installation by removing approximately 95 % of the canopy that had sprouted from the previous harvest. The soil was evaluated for K availability in the layers 0-10, 0-20, 10-20, and 20-40 cm. The plant parts leaf fresh matter (LM, twigs (TW, thick branches (BR and commercial yerba mate (COYM, i.e., LM+TW, were analyzed. In addition, the relationship between fresh matter/dry matter (FM/DM and K concentration in LM, AG and BR were evaluated. The fertilization increased K availability in all evaluated soil layers, indicating good mobility of the nutrient even at low rates. Yerba mate responded positively to increasing K2O rates with higher yields of all harvested components. The crop proved K-demanding, with a maximum COYM yield of 28.5 t ha-1, when 72 mg dm-3 K was available in the 0-20 cm layer. Yerba mate in the plant production stage requires soil K availability at medium to high level; in clayey soil with low K availability, a rate of 300 kg ha-1 K2O should be applied at 24 month intervals to obtain high yields. A leaf K concentration of 16.0 g ha-1 is suitable for yerba mate in the growth stage.

  3. The evolution and maintenance of mixed mating systems

    The evolution and maintenance of mixed mating systems, where both selfing and outcrossing occur in a population, remains an important unresolved question in evolutionary biology. On the one hand the majority of theoretically models predict mixed mating systems to be evolutionary unstable with popula...

  4. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee ( Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen’s visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  5. Costs of mating and egg production in female Callosobruchus chinensis.

    Yanagi, Shin-Ichi; Miyatake, Takahisa

    2003-09-01

    Costs of reproduction include the costs of mating and egg production. Specific techniques such as irradiation or genetic mutation have been used to divide the expense into costs of mating and egg production in previous studies. We tried to divide the costs in the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), which needs some kinds of bean as an oviposition substrate. Mated females that were not allowed to lay eggs had a shorter life span than virgin females, but they had a longer life span than mated females that were allowed to lay eggs. The results showed two independent significant costs, mating and egg production, on the life span in C. chinensis. Costs of mating, however, include the costs of sexual harassment by males and copulation itself, and we need further studies to divide the costs. The present method for dividing the cost of reproduction into costs of mating and egg production can be applied to a broad taxonomic range of insect species, and thus it will be a useful model system for inter-specific comparisons of costs of mating and egg production. PMID:16256684

  6. Mating programs including genomic relationships and dominance effects

    Computer mating programs have helped breeders minimize pedigree inbreeding and avoid recessive defects by mating animals with parents that have fewer common ancestors. With genomic selection, breed associations, AI organizations, and on-farm software providers could use new programs to minimize geno...

  7. Sperm economy between female mating frequency and male ejaculate allocation.

    Abe, Jun; Kamimura, Yoshitaka

    2015-03-01

    Why females of many species mate multiply is a major question in evolutionary biology. Furthermore, if females accept matings more than once, ejaculates from different males compete for fertilization (sperm competition), which confronts males with the decision of how to allocate their reproductive resources to each mating event. Although most existing models have examined either female mating frequency or male ejaculate allocation while assuming fixed levels of the opposite sex's strategies, these strategies are likely to coevolve. To investigate how the interaction of the two sexes' strategies is influenced by the level of sperm limitation in the population, we developed models in which females adjust their number of allowable matings and males allocate their ejaculate in each mating. Our model predicts that females mate only once or less than once at an even sex ratio or in an extremely female-biased condition, because of female resistance and sperm limitation in the population, respectively. However, in a moderately female-biased condition, males favor partitioning their reproductive budgets across many females, whereas females favor multiple matings to obtain sufficient sperm, which contradicts the predictions of most existing models. We discuss our model's predictions and relationships with the existing models and demonstrate applications for empirical findings. PMID:25674694

  8. Effects of laboratory colonization on Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera, Tephritidae) mating behaviour: what a difference a year makes

    Schutze, Mark K.; Dammalage, Thilak; Jessup, Andrew; Vreysen, Marc J.B.; Wornoayporn, Viwat; Clarke, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Laboratory-reared insects are widely known to have significantly reduced genetic diversity in comparison to wild populations; however, subtle behavioural changes between laboratory-adapted and wild or wildish (i.e., within one or very few generations of field collected material) populations are less well understood. Quantifying alterations in behaviour, particularly sexual, in laboratory-adapted insects is important for mass-reared insects for use in pest management strategies, especially those that have a sterile insect technique component. We report subtle changes in sexual behaviour between wildish Bactrocera dorsalis flies (F1 and F2) from central and southern Thailand and the same colonies 12 months later when at six generations from wild. Mating compatibility tests were undertaken under standardised semi-natural conditions, with number of homo/heterotypic couples and mating location in field cages analysed via compatibility indices. Central and southern populations of Bactrocera dorsalis displayed positive assortative mating in the 2010 trials but mated randomly in the 2011 trials. Wildish southern Thailand males mated significantly earlier than central Thailand males in 2010; this difference was considerably reduced in 2011, yet homotypic couples from southern Thailand still formed significantly earlier than all other couple combinations. There was no significant difference in couple location in 2010; however, couple location significantly differed among pair types in 2011 with those involving southern Thailand females occurring significantly more often on the tree relative to those with central Thailand females. Relative participation also changed with time, with more southern Thailand females forming couples relative to central Thailand females in 2010; this difference was considerably decreased by 2011. These results reveal how subtle changes in sexual behaviour, as driven by laboratory rearing conditions, may significantly influence mating behaviour between laboratory-adapted and recently colonised tephritid fruit flies over a relatively short period of time.

  9. Environmental influences on mate preferences as assessed by a scenario manipulation experiment.

    Marzoli, Daniele; Moretto, Francesco; Monti, Aura; Tocci, Ornella; Roberts, S Craig; Tommasi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Many evolutionary psychology studies have addressed the topic of mate preferences, focusing particularly on gender and cultural differences. However, the extent to which situational and environmental variables might affect mate preferences has been comparatively neglected. We tested 288 participants in order to investigate the perceived relative importance of six traits of an ideal partner (wealth, dominance, intelligence, height, kindness, attractiveness) under four different hypothetical scenarios (status quo/nowadays, violence/post-nuclear, poverty/resource exhaustion, prosperity/global well-being). An equal number of participants (36 women, 36 men) was allotted to each scenario; each was asked to allocate 120 points across the six traits according to their perceived value. Overall, intelligence was the trait to which participants assigned most importance, followed by kindness and attractiveness, and then by wealth, dominance and height. Men appraised attractiveness as more valuable than women. Scenario strongly influenced the relative importance attributed to traits, the main finding being that wealth and dominance were more valued in the poverty and post-nuclear scenarios, respectively, compared to the other scenarios. Scenario manipulation generally had similar effects in both sexes, but women appeared particularly prone to trade off other traits for dominance in the violence scenario, and men particularly prone to trade off other traits for wealth in the poverty scenario. Our results are in line with other correlational studies of situational variables and mate preferences, and represent strong evidence of a causal relationship of environmental factors on specific mate preferences, corroborating the notion of an evolved plasticity to current ecological conditions. A control experiment seems to suggest that our scenarios can be considered as realistic descriptions of the intended ecological conditions. PMID:24069291

  10. Mate choice, mate preference, and biological markets: the relationship between partner choice and health preference is modulated by women’s own attractiveness

    Wincenciak, Joanna; Fincher, Corey L.; Fisher, Claire I.; Hahn, Amanda C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Although much of the research on human mate preference assumes that mate preference and partner choice will be related to some extent, evidence for correlations between mate preference and mate choice is mixed. Inspired by biological market theories of mate choice, which propose that individuals with greater market value will be better placed to translate their preference into choice, we investigated whether participants’ own attractiveness modulated the relationship between their preference ...

  11. 46 CFR 11.463 - General requirements for endorsements as master, mate (pilot), and apprentice mate (steersman) of...

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements for endorsements as master, mate (pilot), and apprentice mate (steersman) of towing vessels. 11.463 Section 11.463 Shipping COAST GUARD... Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.463 General requirements for endorsements as master,...

  12. Stochasticity in the yeast mating pathway

    We report stochastic simulations of the yeast mating signal transduction pathway. The effects of intrinsic and external noise, the influence of cell-to-cell difference in the pathway capacity, and noise propagation in the pathway have been examined. The stochastic temporal behaviour of the pathway is found to be robust to the influence of inherent fluctuations, and intrinsic noise propagates in the pathway in a uniform pattern when the yeasts are treated with pheromones of different stimulus strengths and of varied fluctuations. In agreement with recent experimental findings, extrinsic noise is found to play a more prominent role than intrinsic noise in the variability of proteins. The occurrence frequency for the reactions in the pathway are also examined and a more compact network is obtained by dropping most of the reactions of least occurrence

  13. MATESOFT: a program for deducing parental genotypes and estimating mating system statistics in haplodiploid species

    Moilanen, A.; Sundström, L.; Pedersen, Jes Søe

    breeding system, mating system, parentage analysis, paternity assignment, polyandry, social insects......breeding system, mating system, parentage analysis, paternity assignment, polyandry, social insects...

  14. Anlisis microbiolgico en yerba mate compuesta / Microbiological analysis in composite yerba mate

    G, Jerke; M.A, Horianski; S, Bargardi; M.L, Martnez.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 41 muestras de yerba mate compuesta (YMC) de Posadas, Misiones, Argentina: 21 muestras conteniendo menos de 15% de hierbas (YMC15%). El anlisis microbiolgico se realiz mediante recuentos de bacterias aerbicas mesfilas totales (BAMT), coliformes totales (CT), coliformes termotolera [...] ntes (CTT), mohos y levaduras (RML) y deteccin de Escherichia coli. Los recuentos microbiolgicos presentaron valores en promedio para YMC15%: BAMT=3,4x106 UFC/g, CT=6.8x102 NMP/g, CTT=3.4 x101 NMP/g y RML=1,0x105 UFC/g. En YMC>15% se detect Escherichia coli. YMC presenta una importante contaminacin microbiana, siendo mayor en YMC>15%. Los parmetros microbiolgicos analizados son superiores a los reportados en yerba mate elaborada destacando la importancia de realizar controles microbiolgicos en YMC. Abstract in english Forty one samples of composite yerba mate (CYM) from Posadas, Misiones, Argentina were studied: 21 samples containing less than 15% of herbs (CYM 15%). The analysis was performed by microbiological counts of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), total coliforms (TC), coliforms thermotolerant (CT [...] T), moulds and yeasts (MY) and Escherichia coli detection. Microbiological counts showed average values CYM15%: TMAB=3.4x106 CFU/g, TC=6.8x102 MPN/g, NMP CTT=3.4x101 CFU/g and MY=1.0x105 CFU/g. In YMC>15% Escherichia coli was detected. CYM presents significant microbial contamination, being higher in CYM>15%. Microbiological parameters analyzed are higher than those reported in elaborated yerba mate, showing the importance of microbiological controls to CYM.

  15. Desenvolvimento de gelatina funcional de erva-mate Development of functional yerba-mate jelly

    Kleber Alves Santos Bert

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver formulaes para gelatina funcional com extrato de erva-mate verde e fibras solveis como inulina (INU, frutooligossacardeos (FOS e a polidextrose (PD, avaliando o efeito desses ingredientes na gelatina funcional por meio da anlise fsica da textura (firmeza, consistncia e coesividade, anlise sensorial (sabor e preferncia de compra e composio qumica. As formulaes INU, PD e composio INU/PD/FOS apresentaram textura desejvel para uma sobremesa de gelatina, no diferindo (P>0,05 do padro com sacarose. Pela anlise sensorial, a gelatina funcional com INU obteve o maior ndice hednico para sabor e preferncia de compra acima de 70%, superior ao padro. Considerando os resultados obtidos neste estudo, a aplicao tecnolgica do extrato de erva-mate verde e das fibras solveis apresenta evidente potencial para o desenvolvimento de alimentos saudveis e funcionais.The objective of this study was to develop formulations for functional jelly with extract of green yerba-mate and soluble fibers as inulin (INU, fructooligosaccharides (FOS and polidextrose (PD, evaluating the effect of those ingredients in the functional jelly through texture physical analysis (firmness, consistence, cohesiveness, sensorial analysis (flavor and purchase preference and chemical composition. The formulations INU, PD and composition INU/PD/FOS presented desirable texture for jelly dessert and not differing (P>0.05 of the reference standard with sucrose. For the sensorial analysis the functional jelly with INU obtained the largest index hedonic for flavor and purchase preference above 70%, higher than the reference standard. Considering the results obtained in this study, the technological application of green yerba-mate extract and of soluble fibers, presents evident potential for the development of healthy and functional foods.

  16. Treatment with melatonin after status epilepticus attenuates seizure activity and neuronal damage but does not prevent the disturbance in diurnal rhythms and behavioral alterations in spontaneously hypertensive rats in kainate model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Petkova, Zlatina; Tchekalarova, Jana; Pechlivanova, Daniela; Moyanova, Slavianka; Kortenska, Lidia; Mitreva, Rumiana; Popov, Deyan; Markova, Petya; Lozanov, Valentin; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Lazarov, Nikolai; Stoynev, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Melatonin is involved in the control of circadian and seasonal rhythmicity, possesses potent antioxidant activity, and exerts a neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effect. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) are widely accepted as an experimental model of essential hypertension with hyperactivity, deficient sustained attention, and alterations in circadian autonomic profiles. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether melatonin treatment during epileptogenesis can prevent the deleterious consequences of status epilepticus (SE) in SHRs in the kainate (KA) model of temporal lobe of epilepsy (TLE). Spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) were EEG- and video-recorded during and after the treatment protocol. Melatonin (10mg/kg diluted in drinking water, 8weeks) increased the seizure-latent period, decreased the frequency of SRSs, and attenuated the circadian rhythm of seizure activity in SHRs. However, melatonin was unable to affect the disturbed diurnal rhythms and behavioral changes associated with epilepsy, including the decreased anxiety level, depression, and impaired spatial memory. Melatonin reduced neuronal damage specifically in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and piriform cortex and decreased hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) levels both in control and epileptic SHRs. Although long-term melatonin treatment after SE shows a potential to attenuate seizure activity and neuronal loss, it is unable to restore epilepsy-associated behavioral abnormalities in SHRs. PMID:24440891

  17. Effect of {sup 60}Co radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis); Efeito do processamento por radiacao de {sup 60}Co na erva-mate (llex paraguariensis)

    Furgeri, Camilo

    2009-07-01

    The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10 kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10 kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and qualitative profile of bioactive compounds. (author)

  18. Dopaminergic neurons in the brain and dopaminergic innervation of the albumen gland in mated and virgin helisoma duryi (mollusca: pulmonata

    Lange Angela

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dopamine was shown to stimulate the perivitelline fluid secretion by the albumen gland. Even though the albumen gland has been shown to contain catecholaminergic fibers and its innervation has been studied, the type of catecholamines, distribution of fibers and the precise source of this neural innervation has not yet been deduced. This study was designed to address these issues and examine the correlation between dopamine concentration and the sexual status of snails. Results Dopaminergic neurons were found in all ganglia except the pleural and right parietal, and their axons in all ganglia and major nerves of the brain. In the albumen gland dopaminergic axons formed a nerve tract in the central region, and a uniform net in other areas. Neuronal cell bodies were present in the vicinity of the axons. Dopamine was a major catecholamine in the brain and the albumen gland. No significant difference in dopamine quantity was found when the brain and the albumen gland of randomly mating, virgin and first time mated snails were compared. Conclusions Our results represent the first detailed studies regarding the catecholamine innervation and quantitation of neurotransmitters in the albumen gland. In this study we localized catecholaminergic neurons and axons in the albumen gland and the brain, identified these neurons and axons as dopaminergic, reported monoamines present in the albumen gland and the brain, and compared the dopamine content in the brain and the albumen gland of randomly mating, virgin and first time mated snails.

  19. Quantification of mutation-derived bias for alternate mating functionalities of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ste2p pheromone receptor.

    Choudhary, Pooja; Loewen, Michele C

    2016-01-01

    Although well documented for mammalian G-protein-coupled receptors, alternate functionalities and associated alternate signalling remain to be unequivocally established for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone Ste2p receptor. Here, evidence supporting alternate functionalities for Ste2p is re-evaluated, extended and quantified. In particular, strong mating and constitutive signalling mutations, focusing on residues S254, P258 and S259 in TM6 of Ste2p, are stacked and investigated in terms of their effects on classical G-protein-mediated signal transduction associated with cell cycle arrest, and alternatively, their impact on downstream mating projection and zygote formation events. In relative dose response experiments, accounting for systemic and observational bias, mutational-derived functional differences were observed, validating the S254L-derived bias for downstream mating responses and highlighting complex relationships between TM6-mutation derived constitutive signalling and ligand-induced functionalities. Mechanistically, localization studies suggest that alterations to receptor trafficking may contribute to mutational bias, in addition to expected receptor conformational stabilization effects. Overall, these results extend previous observations and quantify the contributions of Ste2p variants to mediating cell cycle arrest versus downstream mating functionalities. PMID:26232403

  20. Age-related mate choice in the wandering albatross.

    Jouventin; Lequette; Dobson

    1999-05-01

    We studied mate choice in the wandering albatross, Diomedea exulans, using data from 32 years of banding returns in the population of the Crozet Islands. We studied mating choices in a single year, when the Crozet Islands population was male biased (8:5, males:females). Thus, we expected that females might show great flexibility of choice of partners. Because age and experience might influence mate choice, we tested the expectation that females would choose the oldest and most experienced males for pair bonding. Pair bonds usually last until one member of the pair dies (0.3% of the birds 'divorce'), so mate choice should be especially important. We found that the ages of males and females in both displaying and bonded (breeding) pairs were significantly correlated. These age-associated pairings were not a passive phenomenon, but appeared to be due to an active process of selection of mates of similar age. First-time breeders sought mates of similar age, but preferred those with the most experience. Remating, experienced birds whose mates had died did not pair with individuals of significantly similar age, but predominantly paired with other widowed birds that, on average, were also relatively old. Mate fidelity in wandering albatrosses may be due to the cost of finding and bonding with a new mate. Pair bonds, and thus breeding, took an average of 3.2 and 2.3 years to establish, for males and females, respectively. Thus, remating exerts a potential average reproductive cost of about 15% of lifetime reproductive success. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10328796

  1. Green and roasted mate: phenolic profile and antioxidant activity

    EROL, Nihal Türkmen; Sari, Ferda; ÇALIKOĞLU, Eda; VELİOĞLU, Yakup Sedat

    2009-01-01

    Mate infusions have been recently and frequently used as dietary supplements because of their health effects to prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease and to be antioxidant. The aim of this study was to determine phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of green mate (GM) and roasted mate (RM) extracts and compare them with green tea (GT). Total polyphenol content of GM and RM extracts was found to be similar and to range from 237.20 to 438.50 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) ...

  2. Size-assortative mating and sexual size dimorphism are predictable from simple mechanics of mate-grasping behavior

    Jablonski Piotr G

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand the typically complex interactions between diverse counter-balancing factors of Darwinian selection for size assortative mating and sexual size dimorphism. It appears that rarely a simple mechanism could provide a major explanation of these phenomena. Mechanics of behaviors can predict animal morphology, such like adaptations to locomotion in animals from various of taxa, but its potential to predict size-assortative mating and its evolutionary consequences has been less explored. Mate-grasping by males, using specialized adaptive morphologies of their forelegs, midlegs or even antennae wrapped around female body at specific locations, is a general mating strategy of many animals, but the contribution of the mechanics of this wide-spread behavior to the evolution of mating behavior and sexual size dimorphism has been largely ignored. Results Here, we explore the consequences of a simple, and previously ignored, fact that in a grasping posture the position of the male's grasping appendages relative to the female's body is often a function of body size difference between the sexes. Using an approach taken from robot mechanics we model coercive grasping of females by water strider Gerris gracilicornis males during mating initiation struggles. We determine that the male optimal size (relative to the female size, which gives the males the highest grasping force, properly predicts the experimentally measured highest mating success. Through field sampling and simulation modeling of a natural population we determine that the simple mechanical model, which ignores most of the other hypothetical counter-balancing selection pressures on body size, is sufficient to account for size-assortative mating pattern as well as species-specific sexual dimorphism in body size of G. gracilicornis. Conclusion The results indicate how a simple and previously overlooked physical mechanism common in many taxa is sufficient to account for, or importantly contribute to, size-assortative mating and its consequences for the evolution of sexual size dimorphism.

  3. Nonlinearities in mating sounds of American crocodiles.

    Benko, Tina P; Perc, Matjaz

    2009-09-01

    We use nonlinear time series analysis methods to analyze the dynamics of the sound-producing apparatus of the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). We capture its dynamics by analyzing a recording of the singing activity during mating time. First, we reconstruct the phase space from the sound recording and thereby reveal that the attractor needs no less than five degrees of freedom to fully evolve in the embedding space, which suggests that a rather complex nonlinear dynamics underlies its existence. Prior to investigating the dynamics more precisely, we test whether the reconstructed attractor satisfies the notions of determinism and stationarity, as a lack of either of these properties would preclude a meaningful further analysis. After positively establishing determinism and stationarity, we proceed by showing that the maximal Lyapunov exponent of the recording is positive, which is a strong indicator for the chaotic behavior of the system, confirming that dynamical nonlinearities are an integral part of the examined sound-producing apparatus. At the end, we discuss that methods of nonlinear time series analysis could yield instructive insights and foster the understanding of vocal communication among certain reptile species. PMID:19505529

  4. Multi-species mating disruption in Wisconsin cranberries

    Previous work has shown pheromone-based mating disruption to be a promising method of pest control in cranberries. Three moth species, cranberry fruitworm, Acrobasis vaccinii Riley (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Sparganothis fruitworm, Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and black...

  5. Pheromone-based mating disruption in Wisconsin cranberries

    Pheromone-based mating disruption is a promising method of pest control in cranberries. Three moth species, cranberry fruitworm, Acrobasis vaccinii Riley (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Sparganothis fruitworm, Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and black-headed fireworm, Rhopobota...

  6. Signal transduction during mating and meiosis in S. pombe

    Nielsen, O; Nielsen, Olaf

    1993-01-01

    When starved, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe responds by producing mating factors or pheromones that signal to cells of the opposite sex to initiate mating. Like its distant relative Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells of the two mating types of S. pombe each produce a distinct pheromone...... that binds to receptors on the opposite cell type to induce the morphological changes required for mating. While the pathways are basically very similar in the two yeasts, pheromone signalling in S. pombe differs in several important ways from that of the more familiar budding yeast. In this article......, Olaf Nielsen describes the pheromones and their effects in S. pombe, and compares the signalling pathways of the two yeasts....

  7. Simulated spaceflight effects on mating and pregnancy of rats

    Sabelman, E. E.; Chetirkin, P. V.; Howard, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The mating of rats was studied to determine the effects of: simulated reentry stresses at known stages of pregnancy, and full flight simulation, consisting of sequential launch stresses, group housing, mating opportunity, diet, simulated reentry, and postreentry isolation of male and female rats. Uterine contents, adrenal mass and abdominal fat as a proportion of body mass, duration of pregnancy, and number and sex of offspring were studied. It is found that: (1) parturition following full flight simulation was delayed relative to that of controls; (2) litter size was reduced and resorptions increased compared with previous matings in the same group of animals; and (3) abdominal fat was highly elevated in animals that were fed the Soviet paste diet. It is suggested that the combined effects of diet, stress, spacecraft environment, and weightlessness decreased the probability of mating or of viable pregnancies in the Cosmos 1129 flight and control animals.

  8. Parent-Offspring Conflict over Short-Term Mating Strategies

    Spyroulla Georgiou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals engage in short-term mating strategies that enable them to obtain fitness benefits from casual relationships. These benefits, however, count for less and cost more to their parents. On this basis three hypotheses are tested. First, parents and offspring are likely to disagree over short-term mating strategies, with the former considering these as less acceptable than the latter. Second, parents are more likely to disapprove of the short-term mating strategies of their daughters than of their sons. Finally, mothers and fathers are expected to agree on how much they disagree over the short-term mating strategies of their children. Evidence from a sample of 148 Greek-Cypriot families (140 mothers, 105 fathers, 119 daughters, 77 sons provides support for the first two hypotheses and partial support for the third hypothesis. The implications of these findings for understanding family dynamics are further discussed.

  9. Female crickets assess relatedness during mate guarding and bias storage of sperm towards unrelated males

    Tuni, C; Beveridge, M; Simmons, L W

    2013-01-01

    female control rather than cryptic male choice, we manipulated the relatedness of mated males and of males performing post-copulatory mate guarding. Our results show that when guarded by a related male, females store less sperm from their actual mate, irrespective of the relatedness of the mating male...

  10. Choice Strategies in Mate Selection: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Phillips, Emma C

    2010-01-01

    Consumer research has revealed that humans will adapt their choice strategy as the number of options increases, tending to employ heuristic techniques to save time and effort. Recently, research has focused on how we make decisions in the domain of mate choice, usually assessed through self-reports. To further this research, the present study examined the impact of the number of mate options and sociosexuality on the actual choice strategy employed (which was determined using an eye-tracker),...

  11. WAKE SHIELD FACILITY FREE FLYER MATE TO CANISTER

    1996-01-01

    WAKE SHIELD FACILITY FREE FLYER MATE TO CANISTER KSC-96PC-2961.10 In NASA's Building AE on Cape Canaveral Air Station, the Wake Shield Facility-3 (WSF- 3) free-flyer is being mated to the carrier to complete the payload. The WSF-3 is one of two primary payloads on Space Shuttle Mission STS-80. The Shuttle Columbia is being prepared for liftoff on the final Shuttle flight of 1996 around Nov. 8 from Launch Pad 39B.

  12. An Automated Safe-to-Mate (ASTM) Tester

    Nguyen, Phuc; Scott, Michelle; Leung, Alan; Lin, Michael; Johnson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Safe-to-mate testing is a common hardware safety practice where impedance measurements are made on unpowered hardware to verify isolation, continuity, or impedance between pins of an interface connector. A computer-based instrumentation solution has been developed to resolve issues. The ASTM is connected to the circuit under test, and can then quickly, safely, and reliably safe-to-mate the entire connector, or even multiple connectors, at the same time.

  13. PlateMate: Crowdsourcing Nutrition Analysis from Food Photographs

    Noronha, Jon; Hysen, Eric; Zhang, Haoqi; Gajos, Krzysztof Z.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce PlateMate, a system that allows users to take photos of their meals and receive estimates of food intake and composition. Accurate awareness of this information can help people monitor their progress towards dieting goals, but current methods for food logging via self-reporting, expert observation, or algorithmic analysis are time-consuming, expensive, or inaccurate. PlateMate crowdsources nutritional analysis from photographs using Amazon Mechanical Turk, automatically coordinat...

  14. MATING DESIGNS: HELPFUL TOOL FOR QUANTITATIVE PLANT BREEDING ANALYSIS

    Athanase Nduwumuremyi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of parental materials and good mating designs in conventional plant breeding are the keys to the successful plant breeding programme. However, there are several factors affecting the choices of mating designs. Mating design refers to the procedure of producing the progenies, in plant breeding, plant breeders and geneticists, theoretically and practically, they use different form of mating designs and arrangements for targeted purpose. The choice of a mating design for estimating genetic variances should be dictated by the objectives of the study, time, space, cost and other biological limitations. In all mating designs, the individuals are taken randomly and crossed to produce progenies which are related to each other as half-sibs or full-sibs. A form of multivariate analysis or the analysis of variance can be adopted to estimate the components of variances. Therefore, this review aimed at highlighting the most used mating design in plant breeding and genetics studies. It provides easy and quick insight of the different form of mating designs and some statistical components for successful plant breeding. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  15. Female mating decisions in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus)

    Agbali, Muna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain an understanding of the basis to female mating decisions in the Chinese rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus). Bitterling have a resource-based mating system that involves the female laying her eggs inside the gills of a freshwater mussel. Male bitterling perform elaborate courtship behaviour and are territorial and aggressively guard mussels in their territory from other territory holders and non-territorial males. Using a series of laboratory experiments it...

  16. The biological meaning of preferences on the human mate market

    Pawłowski, Bogusław

    2000-01-01

    Factors, which universally influence mate choice decisions, are: age, physical appearance, and resources. Different evidence of the biological relevance of these three factors on the human mate market is presented. The sex-specific preferences for partner's age reflect such values as Fisherian reproductive potential and fecundity for females and life expectancy related to the length of further time of paternal investment for males. Physical attractiveness is analyzed as a marker of female's a...

  17. Mating with the wrong species can be right

    Reyer, H U

    2008-01-01

    The evolutionary importance of interspecific hybridisation has been a controversial issue for quite some time. Some view mating between different species as a maladaptive process; others stress the adaptive value of choosing heterospecific mates under ecological conditions that favour hybrids. A recent paper by Pfennig is the first study to make a priori predictions of how adaptive choice between con- and heterospecific partners should vary with ecological conditions, and then testing these p...

  18. Learning decreases heterospecific courtship and mating in fruit flies

    Dukas, Reuven

    2008-01-01

    Recent theory and data suggest that adaptive use of learning in the context of sexual behaviour could contribute to assortative mating. Experiments examining this issue indicated that male Drosophila persimilis that experienced courtship and rejection by heterospecific females exhibited significantly lower levels of heterospecific courtship and mating compared with those of inexperienced males. These results indicate that experience in the context of sexual behaviour in fruit flies could redu...

  19. Inositols affect the mating circadian rhythm of Drosophila melanogaster

    Sakata, Kazuki; Kawasaki, Haruhisa; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ito, Kumpei; Negishi, Osamu; Tsuno, Takuo; Tsuno, Hiromi; Yamazaki, Youta; Ishida, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the molecular circadian clock underlies the mating behavior of Drosophila melanogaster. However, information about which food components affect circadian mating behavior is scant. The ice plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum has recently become a popular functional food. Here, we showed that the close-proximity (CP) rhythm of D. melanogaster courtship behavior was damped under low-nutrient conditions, but significantly enhanced by feeding the flies with po...

  20. Effects of natural mating and CO2 narcosis on biogenic amine receptor gene expression in the ovaries and brain of queen honey bees, Apis mellifera.

    Vergoz, Vanina; Lim, Julianne; Duncan, Michael; Cabanes, Guénaël; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2012-12-01

    A queen honey bee mates at ∼6 days of age, storing the sperm in her spermatheca for life. Mating is associated with profound changes in the behaviour and physiology of the queen but the mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. What is known is that the presence of semen in the oviducts and spermatheca is insufficient to initiate laying, and that copulation or CO(2) narcosis is necessary for ovary activation. In this study we use real-time quantitative PCR to investigate the expression of biogenic amine receptor genes in the brain and ovarian tissue of queens in relation to their reproductive status. We show that dopamine, octopamine and serotonin receptor genes are expressed in the ovaries of queens, and that natural mating, CO(2) narcosis, and the presence of semen in the spermatheca differentially affect their expression. We suggest that these changes may be central to the hormonal cascades that are necessary to initiate oogenesis. PMID:22984778

  1. Alteration processes

    Savage, D.; Benbow, S.; Watson, C.; Takase, H.; Oda, C.; Honda, A.; Didot, A.; Herms, E.; Bataillon, C.; Chene, J.; Crusset, D.; Cuisinier, O.; Masrouri, F.; Pelletier, M.; Villieras, F.; Mosser-Ruck, R.; Honty, M.; Van Geet, M.; Craen, M. de; Arcos, D.; Luna, M.; Duro, L.; Trotignon, L.; Hairapetian, T.; Bildstein, O.; Jullien, M.; Osack' y, M.; Sucha, V.; Madejova, J.; Puskelova, L.; Komadel, P.; Miglierini, M.; Majernik, A.; Uhlik, P.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamada, F.; Negishi, K.; Hoshino, S.; Mukai, M.; Tanaka, T.; Nakayama, S.; Takahashi, T.; Ohkubo, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Ishidera, T.; Ueno, K.; Kurosawa, S.; Suyama, T.; Torres, E.; Turrero, M.J.; Martin, P.L.; Escribano, A.; Baldonedo, J.L.; Escribano, A.; Arcilla, C.A.; Paguican, E.; Ferrer, C.; Alexander, W.R.; McKinley, I.G.; Miyoshi, S.; Burnol, A.; Dupros, F.; Spycher, N.; Xu, T.; Blanc, P.; Gaucher, E.C.; Gaudin, A.; Gaboreau, S.; Tinseau, E.; Bartier, D.; Petit, S.; Beaufort, D.; Minet, Y.; Lartigue, J.E.; Lemmens, K.; Marty, N.; Tournassat, C.; Gaucher, E.C.; Burnol, A.; Giffaut, E.; Tinseau, E.; Cabrera, J.; Bartier, D.; Techer, I.; Lemius, S.; Made, B.; Michaux, L.; Sugiyama, T.; Tsuji, Y.; Mosser-Ruck, R.; Richard, L.; Cathelineau, M.; Richard, L

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 22 articles (posters) dealing with: natural systems evidence for the alteration of clay under alkaline conditions; stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel exposed to deep geological environment; the microstructure of compacted argillite submitted to an alkaline plume; the effect of the high pH alkaline solutions on the mineralogy and leachate chemistry of the Boom clay batch experiment at 60 deg. C; the effects of grouting and shotcreting on the backfill geochemistry of a KBS-3 HLNW repository; the evaluation of geochemical scenarios for iron/argillite interactions in a deep waste disposal: a density study on reaction rates and gas partial pressures; smectite interaction with metal iron; insights into long-term alteration of bentonite-cement system based on coupled mass-transport/chemical reaction analysis; the effects of alkaline alteration on water diffusivity in montmorillonite gels: NMR study; the investigation of smectite alteration and form of iron corrosion products in compacted bentonite being in contact with carbon steel for ten years; the TEM characterization of the FEBEX bentonite after two-years contact with iron corrosion products; the concrete/FEBEX bentonite interaction: preliminary results on short-term column experiments; IPHAP: background information on Philippine bentonites, hyper-alkaline waters and potential analogue sites; the Simulation of the degradation of a concrete/clay interface: influence of temperature, unsaturated conditions and porosity variations; the integrated study of 6 years in-situ steels/ argillite interactions at Tournemire by mineralogical and modelling approaches; the study of nuclear glass / canister corrosion products / clay system by means of integral modular material tests; the influence of dissolution/precipitation kinetics on the porosity clogging effect during cement/clay interactions; the alkaline perturbation into the Tournemire argillite: Structural and mineralogical studies of a 15 years in-situ propagation; the geochemical behavior of clay material under neutral and alkaline conditions at low temperature; a migration technique applied to study alteration of compacted sand-bentonite mixture in contact with concrete; the hydrothermal alteration of Callovo- Oxfordian argillite from the Paris basin by neutral and alkaline solutions at 150 deg. C and 300 deg. C and in the presence of iron metal; and some thermodynamic considerations on the behavior of Kerogen under conditions of alkaline perturbation.

  2. Alteration processes

    This session gathers 22 articles (posters) dealing with: natural systems evidence for the alteration of clay under alkaline conditions; stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel exposed to deep geological environment; the microstructure of compacted argillite submitted to an alkaline plume; the effect of the high pH alkaline solutions on the mineralogy and leachate chemistry of the Boom clay batch experiment at 60 deg. C; the effects of grouting and shotcreting on the backfill geochemistry of a KBS-3 HLNW repository; the evaluation of geochemical scenarios for iron/argillite interactions in a deep waste disposal: a density study on reaction rates and gas partial pressures; smectite interaction with metal iron; insights into long-term alteration of bentonite-cement system based on coupled mass-transport/chemical reaction analysis; the effects of alkaline alteration on water diffusivity in montmorillonite gels: NMR study; the investigation of smectite alteration and form of iron corrosion products in compacted bentonite being in contact with carbon steel for ten years; the TEM characterization of the FEBEX bentonite after two-years contact with iron corrosion products; the concrete/FEBEX bentonite interaction: preliminary results on short-term column experiments; IPHAP: background information on Philippine bentonites, hyper-alkaline waters and potential analogue sites; the Simulation of the degradation of a concrete/clay interface: influence of temperature, unsaturated conditions and porosity variations; the integrated study of 6 years in-situ steels/ argillite interactions at Tournemire by mineralogical and modelling approaches; the study of nuclear glass / canister corrosion products / clay system by means of integral modular material tests; the influence of dissolution/precipitation kinetics on the porosity clogging effect during cement/clay interactions; the alkaline perturbation into the Tournemire argillite: Structural and mineralogical studies of a 15 years in-situ propagation; the geochemical behavior of clay material under neutral and alkaline conditions at low temperature; a migration technique applied to study alteration of compacted sand-bentonite mixture in contact with concrete; the hydrothermal alteration of Callovo- Oxfordian argillite from the Paris basin by neutral and alkaline solutions at 150 deg. C and 300 deg. C and in the presence of iron metal; and some thermodynamic considerations on the behavior of Kerogen under conditions of alkaline perturbation

  3. More than just a pretty face and a hot body: multiple cues in mate-choice.

    Jonason, Peter K; Raulston, Tara; Rotolo, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Mate preferences have been well studied in social and evolutionary psychology. In two studies (N = 490), using two different measurement techniques, we examined mate preferences for the body and the face in the context of other traits. Results replicated prior research on mate preferences across the sex of the participant and mating duration but clarified the nature of preferences for physical attractiveness. Generally, physical attractiveness was a necessity in short-term mating and for men and traits like kindness were a necessity in long-term mating and for women. Men wanted a short-term mate who had a good body, likely because that body advertises fertility whereas both sexes wanted a mate with a nice face for a long-term mate, which is likely because the face is a cue based on structural properties related to health. Sex and mating-duration differences on preferences for attractive faces and bodies were robust to differences in measurement technique. PMID:22468419

  4. Structural basis for the blockade of MATE multidrug efflux pumps

    Radchenko, Martha; Symersky, Jindrich; Nie, Rongxin; Lu, Min

    2015-08-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters underpin multidrug resistance by using the H+ or Na+ electrochemical gradient to extrude different drugs across cell membranes. MATE transporters can be further parsed into the DinF, NorM and eukaryotic subfamilies based on their amino-acid sequence similarity. Here we report the 3.0 Å resolution X-ray structures of a protonation-mimetic mutant of an H+-coupled DinF transporter, as well as of an H+-coupled DinF and a Na+-coupled NorM transporters in complexes with verapamil, a small-molecule pharmaceutical that inhibits MATE-mediated multidrug extrusion. Combining structure-inspired mutational and functional studies, we confirm the biological relevance of our crystal structures, reveal the mechanistic differences among MATE transporters, and suggest how verapamil inhibits MATE-mediated multidrug efflux. Our findings offer insights into how MATE transporters extrude chemically and structurally dissimilar drugs and could inform the design of new strategies for tackling multidrug resistance.

  5. Model of Exploratory Search for Mating Partners by Fission Yeast

    Hurwitz, Daniel; Bendezu, Felipe; Martin, Sophie; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2014-03-01

    During conditions of nitrogen starvation, the model eukaryote S. pombe (fission yeast) undergoes sexual sporulation. Because fission yeast are non-motile, contact between opposite mating types during spore formation is accomplished by polarizing growth, via the Rho GTP-ase Cdc42, in each mating type towards the selected mate, a process known as shmooing. Recent findings showed that cells pick one of their neighboring compatible mates by randomizing the position of the Cdc42 complex about the cell membrane, such that the complex is stabilized near areas of high concentration of the opposite mating type pheromone. We developed Monte Carlo simulations to model partner finding in populations of mating cells and in small cell clusters. We assume that pheromones are secreted at the site of Cdc42 accumulation and that the Cdc42 dwell time increases in response to increasing pheromone concentration. We measured the number of cells that succeed in successful reciprocal pairing, the number of cells that were unable to find a partner, and the number of cells that picked a partner already engaged with another cell. For optimal cell pairing, we find the pheromone concentration decay length is around 1 micron, of order the cell size. We show that non-linear response of Cdc42 dwell time to pheromone concentration improves the number of successful pairs for a given spatial cell distribution. We discuss how these results compare to non-exploratory pairing mechanisms.

  6. Mating Competitiveness of Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) Irradiated as Parental Pupae

    Laboratory studied were carried out to evaluate the mating competitiveness of P1 and F1 generations of Agrotis ipsilon when irradiated as full grown pupae with 75 and 150 Gy of gamma irradiation. The mating competitiveness values showed that either males or females of P1 or F1 generation were full competitive after treatment with 75 or 150 Gy at all released ratios. Mating competitiveness of both irradiated males and females was also studied to avoid problems concerning mass sexing. The results revealed that confining both sexes together gave an excellent results for population suppression in both P1 and F1 in both tested doses and ratios. The addition of irradiated females to the release ratio make these females encountered in mating with untreated females, and possessed 78% of all matings occurred in parent generation in the two tested doses at 5:5:1 ratio and increased to reach 88% by F1 females 75 Gy while it was reduced to only 31% at 150 Gy, but still act in mating

  7. Marmosets treated with oxytocin are more socially attractive to their long-term mate

    Jon Cavanaugh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult male-female bonds are partly characterized by initiating and maintaining close proximity with a social partner, as well as engaging in high levels of affiliative and sociosexual behavior. Oxytocin (OXT, a neuromodulatory nonapeptide, plays a critical role in the facilitation of social bonding and prosocial behavior toward a social partner (Feldman, 2012. However, less attention has been given to whether augmentation of OXT levels in an individual alters others’ perceptions and behavior toward an OXT-treated social partner. We examined social dynamics in well-established male-female pairs of marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus in which one member of the pair was administered an intranasal OXT agonist, an OXT antagonist, or saline. OXT treatment did not alter the expression of affiliative toward an untreated partner. However, OXT did significantly influence the expression of proximity and grooming behavior with a treated partner, as a function of OXT treatment and sex. Female interest in initiating and maintaining proximity with a pair-mate was altered by OXT treatment. Untreated female marmosets departed from their saline-treated partner more frequently than they approached them, as indicated by a low proximity index score. However, when males received an intranasal OXT agonist they had a significantly increased proximity index score relative to saline, indicating that their untreated partner approached them more often than they departed from them. Saline-treated females initiated and received equivalent levels of grooming behavior. However, when female marmosets were treated with an OXT agonist their untreated partner groomed them proportionately more often, for a greater total duration, and for more time per bout, than they initiated grooming behavior. These results suggest that intranasal OXT altered male and female marmosets’ stimulus properties in such a way as to increase the amount of grooming behavior that females received from their long-term mate, as well as increase female interest in initiating and maintaining proximity with their long-term mate. Furthermore, these results support the notion that central OXT activity plays an important neuromodulatory role in the maintenance of long-lasting male-female relationships.

  8. The Possible Role of the Uropygial Gland on Mate Choice in Domestic Chicken

    Atsushi Hirao

    2011-01-01

    In avian mating systems, male domestic fowls are polygamous and mate with a number of selected members of the opposite sex. The factors that influence mating preference are considered to be visual cues. However, several studies have indicated that chemosensory cues also affect socio-sexual behavior, including mate choice and individual recognition. The female uropygial gland appears to provide odor for mate choice, as uropygial gland secretions are specific to individual body odor. Chicken ol...

  9. Mate preferences and infectious disease: theoretical considerations and evidence in humans

    Tybur, Joshua M.; Gangestad, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    Mate preferences may operate in part to mitigate the threats posed by infectious disease. In this paper, we outline various ways in which preferring healthy mates can offer direct benefits in terms of pathogen avoidance and indirect benefits in terms of heritable immunity to offspring, as well as the costs that may constrain mate preferences for health. We then pay special attention to empirical work on mate preferences in humans given the depth and breadth of research on human mating. We rev...

  10. Breeding Experience and the Heritability of Female Mate Choice in Collared Flycatchers

    Hegyi, Gergely; Herényi, Márton; Wilson, Alastair J.; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Rosivall, Balázs; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2010-01-01

    Background Heritability in mate preferences is assumed by models of sexual selection, and preference evolution may contribute to adaptation to changing environments. However, mate preference is difficult to measure in natural populations as detailed data on mate availability and mate sampling are usually missing. Often the only available information is the ornamentation of the actual mate. The single long-term quantitative genetic study of a wild population found low heritability in female ma...

  11. Misleading mollies: The effect of an audience on the expression of mating preferences

    Plath, Martin; Schlupp, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    An increasing body of literature considers the question of how mate choice is influenced by the social environment of the choosing individual (non-independent mate choice). For example, individuals may copy the mate choice of others. A very simple form of socially influenced mate choice, however, remained comparatively little investigated: choosing individuals may adjust their mate choice to the mere presence of rivals. Recent studies in our groups1–4 have examined this question. Using live b...

  12. Dynamic mate-searching tactic allows female satin bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus violaceus to reduce searching.

    Uy, J A; Patricelli, G L; Borgia, G

    2000-01-01

    Females can maximize the benefits of mate choice by finding high-quality mates while using search tactics that limit the costs of searching for mates. Mate-searching models indicate that specific search tactics would best optimize this trade-off under different conditions. These models do not, however, consider that females may use information from previous years to improve mate searching and reduce search costs in subsequent years. We followed female satin bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus violaceu...

  13. What’s in a kiss? The effect of romantic kissing on mate desirability

    Wlodarski, R; Dunbar, RIM

    2014-01-01

    Past research suggests that various courtship rituals, such as romantic kissing, may convey useful mate quality information. Two studies were carried out to examine how purported romantic kissing abilities, as a potential cue to some form of mate information, affect appraisals of potential mating partners. In Experiment 1, 724 participants were presented with vignette descriptions of potential mating partners and were asked to rate partner desirability for various mating-related situations. T...

  14. Reproductive consequences of mate quantity versus mate diversity in a wind-pollinated plant

    Vandepitte, K.; Roldn-Ruiz, I.; Honnay, O.

    2009-07-01

    Since most pollen travels limited distances in wind-pollinated plants, both the local quantity and diversity of mates may limit female reproductive success. Yet little evidence exists on their relative contribution, despite the importance of viable seed production to population dynamics. To study how variation in female reproductive success is affected by the quantity versus the diversity of surrounding mates contributing pollen, we integrated pollination experiments, data on natural seed set and seed viability, and AFLP genetic marker data in the wind-pollinated dioecious clonal forest herb Mercurialis perennis. Pollination experiments indicated weak quantitative pollen limitation effects on seed set. Among-population crosses showed reduced seed viability, suggesting outbreeding depression due to genetic divergence. Pollination with pollen from a single source did not negatively affect reproductive success. These findings were consistent with results of the survey of natural female reproductive success. Seed set decreased with the distance to males in a female plants' local neighborhood, suggesting a shortage of pollen in isolated female plants, and increased with the degree of local genetic diversity. Spatial isolation to other populations and population size did not affect seed set. None of these variables were related to seed viability. We conclude that pollen movement in M. perennis is likely very limited. Both male proximity and the local degree of genetic diversity influenced female reproductive success.

  15. Mating behaviour of the orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea: The effect of sex ratio and stocking density on mating success

    Khor Waiho; Muhamad Mustaqim; Hanafiah Fazhan; Wan Ibrahim Wan Norfaizza; Fadhlul Hazmi Megat; Mhd Ikhwanuddin

    2015-01-01

    Mud crabs from the genus Scylla have high commercial value and are considered as one of the highly sought luxury seafood items. Thorough understanding about their biology and mating behaviour is vital in providing important information for a sustainable exploitation and future incorporation into the aquaculture industry. The mating process of S. olivacea lasted 82.010.8h was divided into four phases: precopulation, molting, copulation, and postcopulation. Courtship displays and fighting w...

  16. Effect of the Sterilizing dose of Gamma Irradiation on Mating Performance and Female re-mating of Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied)

    The population suppression success of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) using sterile insect technique (SIT) depends mainly upon the ability of sterilized males to locate and mate with wild females. The efficiency of the SIT also depends upon the relative frequencies of re-mating by wild females following first mating with sterilized or wild males. A semi field cage test was conducted to study the effect of three different sterilizing doses of gamma irradiation on the male mating performance. No significant differences were found in the ability of mating, the mating duration and mating site between the un-irradiated males and irradiated ones with the doses (80, 90 and 100 Gy) The irradiated males with the dose 80 Gy revealed mating ability higher than the irradiated males with the other doses (90 and 100 Gy) although un-irradiated males had a general higher ability than irradiated ones.

  17. Post-mating change in excretion by mated Drosophila melanogaster females is a long-term response that depends on sex peptide and sperm

    Apger-McGlaughon, Jennifer; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila seminal fluid proteins elicit physiological and behavioral changes in the female after mating. For example, the seminal protein sex peptide (SP) causes females to lay more eggs, reduce receptivity to re-mating, consume more food and produce more concentrated excreta upon mating. It has been reported that SP indirectly increases food consumption as a result of its stimulation of egg production, but its role in producing more concentrated excreta in the mated female was reported to b...

  18. ORIENTATION FIELD RECONSTRUCTION OF ALTERED FINGERPRINT USING ORTHOGONAL WAVELETS

    Mini M.G.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ridge orientation field is an important feature for fingerprint matching and fingerprint reconstruction. Matching of the altered fingerprint against its unaltered mates can be done by extracting the available features in the altered fingerprint and using it along with approximated ridge orientation. This paper presents a method for approximating ridge orientation field of altered fingerprints. In the proposed method, sine and cosine of doubled orientation of the fingerprint is decomposed using orthogonal wavelets and reconstructed back using only the approximation coefficients. No prior information about the singular points is needed for orientation approximation. The method is found suitable for orientation estimation of low quality fingerprint images also.

  19. Gestural Communication and Mating Tactics in Wild Chimpanzees.

    Roberts, Anna Ilona; Roberts, Sam George Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which primates can flexibly adjust the production of gestural communication according to the presence and visual attention of the audience provides key insights into the social cognition underpinning gestural communication, such as an understanding of third party relationships. Gestures given in a mating context provide an ideal area for examining this flexibility, as frequently the interests of a male signaller, a female recipient and a rival male bystander conflict. Dominant chimpanzee males seek to monopolize matings, but subordinate males may use gestural communication flexibly to achieve matings despite their low rank. Here we show that the production of mating gestures in wild male East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweunfurthii) was influenced by a conflict of interest with females, which in turn was influenced by the presence and visual attention of rival males. When the conflict of interest was low (the rival male was present and looking away), chimpanzees used visual/ tactile gestures over auditory gestures. However, when the conflict of interest was high (the rival male was absent, or was present and looking at the signaller) chimpanzees used auditory gestures over visual/ tactile gestures. Further, the production of mating gestures was more common when the number of oestrous and non-oestrus females in the party increased, when the female was visually perceptive and when there was no wind. Females played an active role in mating behaviour, approaching for copulations more often when the number of oestrus females in the party increased and when the rival male was absent, or was present and looking away. Examining how social and ecological factors affect mating tactics in primates may thus contribute to understanding the previously unexplained reproductive success of subordinate male chimpanzees. PMID:26536467

  20. Radical loss of an extreme extra-pair mating system

    Segelbacher Gernot

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mating outside the pair-bond is surprisingly common in socially monogamous birds, but rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP vary widely between species. Although differences in life-history and contemporary ecological factors may explain some interspecific variation, evolutionary forces driving extra-pair (EP mating remain largely obscure. Also, since there is a large phylogenetic component to the frequency of EPP, evolutionary inertia may contribute substantially to observed EP mating patterns. However, the relative importance of plasticity and phylogenetic constraints on the incidence of EP mating remains largely unknown. Results We here demonstrate very low levels of EPP (4.4% of offspring in the purple-crowned fairy-wren Malurus coronatus, a member of the genus with the highest known levels of EPP in birds. In addition, we show absence of the suite of distinctive behavioral and morphological adaptations associated with EP mating that characterize other fairy-wrens. Phylogenetic parsimony implies that these characteristics were lost in one speciation event. Nonetheless, many life-history and breeding parameters that are hypothesized to drive interspecific variation in EPP are not different in the purple-crowned fairy-wren compared to its promiscuous congeners. Conclusion Such radical loss of an extreme EP mating system with all associated adaptations from a lineage of biologically very similar species indicates that evolutionary inertia does not necessarily constrain interspecific variation in EPP. Moreover, if apparently minor interspecific differences regularly cause large differences in EPP, this may be one reason why the evolution of EP mating is still poorly understood.

  1. Male inbreeding status affects female fitness in a seed-feeding beetle.

    Fox, Charles W; Xu, J; Wallin, W G; Curtis, C L

    2012-01-01

    Inbreeding generally reduces male mating activity such that inbred males are less successful in male-male competition. Inbred males can also have smaller accessory glands, transfer less sperm and produce sperm that are less motile, less viable or have a greater frequency of abnormalities, all of which can reduce the fertilization success and fitness of inbred males relative to outbred males. However, few studies have examined how male inbreeding status affects the fitness of females with whom they mate. In this study, we examine the effect of male inbreeding status (inbreeding coefficient f = 0.25 vs. f = 0) on the fecundity, adult longevity and the fate of eggs produced by outbred females in the seed-feeding beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Females mated to inbred males were less likely to lay eggs. Of those that laid eggs, females mated to inbred males laid 6-12% fewer eggs. Females mated to inbred males lived on average 5.4% longer than did females mated to outbred males, but this effect disappeared when lifetime fecundity was used as a covariate in the analysis. There was no effect of male inbreeding status on the proportion of a female's eggs that developed or hatched, and no evidence that inbred males produced smaller nuptial gifts. However, ejaculates of inbred males contained 17-33% fewer sperm, on average, than did ejaculates of outbred males. Our study demonstrates that mating with inbred males has significant direct consequences for the fitness of female C. maculatus, likely mediated by effects of inbreeding status on the number of sperm in male ejaculates. Direct effects of male inbreeding status on female fitness should be more widely considered in theoretical models and empirical studies of mate choice. PMID:21995954

  2. Human mate selection under competitive pressure

    Hope, David

    2006-01-01

    Stable, cross-cultural, gender-based preferences in relationship choices have been identified by evolutionary psychologists (Buss 1987, Symons and Ellis 1989). This study furthered such research by collecting data from 20 participants (10 male, 10 female) using a mixed design. Participants completed three questionnaires on sexual orientation and relationship status, their attitudes towards aspects of relationships, and a trait-rating scale (a replication of Buss 1989). Participants then answe...

  3. Smectite alteration

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  4. 2015 Sensorimotor Risk Standing Review Panel Evidence and Status Review For: the Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft/Associated Systems and Decreased Mobility Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Spaceflight

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Sensorimotor Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), NASA Headquarters, and NASA Research and Education Support Services (NRESS) on December 17, 2015 (list of participants is in Section VI of this report). The SRP reviewed the new Evidence Report for the Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft/Associated Systems and Decreased Mobility Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Spaceflight (from here on referred to as the 2015 Sensorimotor Evidence Report), and also received a status review of the Risk. The opening section of the 2015 Sensorimotor Evidence Report provides written descriptions of various incidents that have occurred during space missions. In most of these incidents, the main underlying contributing factors are not easy to identify unambiguously. For example, in section 1.9, a number of falls occurred while astronauts were walking on the moon. It is not clear to the SRP, however, why they fell. It is only possible to extrapolate from likely specific psychophysical or physiological abnormalities, but how these abnormalities were determined, and how they were directly responsible for the falls is unclear to the SRP. Section 2.1.2 on proprioception is very interesting, but the functional significance of the abnormalities detected is not clear. The SRP sees this as a problem throughout the report: a mapping between the component abnormalities identified and the holistic behaviors that are most relevant, for example, controlling the vehicle, and locomotion during egress, is generally lacking. The SRP thinks the cognitive section is too strongly focused on vestibular functioning. The SRP questions the notion that the main cognitive effects are mainly attributable to reversible vestibular changes induced by spaceflight. The SRP thinks that there can also be independent cognitive effects. The Functional Task Test (FTT) protocols and the Field Test are particularly valuable. The conclusion is that the unloading of major postural muscles experienced during spaceflight plays a central role in the alteration of functional task performance and balance control. This conclusion stands in contrast with the statements in other parts of the document that emphasize the role of vestibular changes on these functions. It would help to more fully integrate these two views on the predominant effects of spaceflight. Although the SRP thinks the countermeasures section is interesting, the proposed countermeasures are not well integrated with the abnormalities described in previous sections. The SRP thinks it would help enormously to have explicit links among each abnormality, its 2015 Sensorimotor Risk SRP Evidence Review Final Report 2 overall importance/impact on function, and the appropriate countermeasure that can be implemented to maintain adequate functioning.

  5. Factors affecting female re-mating frequency in the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Mating and re-mating of two laboratory strains (Petapa and Guate), one wild population (Antigua) of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and one of the hybrids between them were studied under laboratory conditions. No evidence of sexual isolation at first mating was found among them. Re-mating frequency was higher under crowded conditions for the two laboratory strains. The probability of Pe tap a females re-mating depended more on the origin of the male and was negatively associated with the duration of the first mating, but these variables had no effect on re-mating tendency of Guate females. Matings by Petapa males were significantly less prolonged than those of Guate or hybrid males. With respect to re-mating, Petapa non-virgin females preferred Petapa to Guate males. (author)

  6. Selecting One of Several Mating Types through Gene Segment Joining and Deletion in Tetrahymena thermophila

    Cervantes, Marcella D.; Hamilton, Eileen P.; Xiong, Jie; Lawson, Michael J.; Yuan, Dongxia; Hadjithomas, Michalis; Miao, Wei; Orias, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The unicellular eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila has seven mating types. Cells can mate only when they recognize cells of a different mating type as non-self. As a ciliate, Tetrahymena separates its germline and soma into two nuclei. During growth the somatic nucleus is responsible for all gene transcription while the germline nucleus remains silent. During mating, a new somatic nucleus is differentiated from a germline nucleus and mating type is decided by a stochastic process. We report here that the somatic mating type locus contains a pair of genes arranged head-to-head. Each gene encodes a mating type-specific segment and a transmembrane domain that is shared by all mating types. Somatic gene knockouts showed both genes are required for efficient non-self recognition and successful mating, as assessed by pair formation and progeny production. The germline mating type locus consists of a tandem array of incomplete gene pairs representing each potential mating type. During mating, a complete new gene pair is assembled at the somatic mating type locus; the incomplete genes of one gene pair are completed by joining to gene segments at each end of germline array. All other germline gene pairs are deleted in the process. These programmed DNA rearrangements make this a fascinating system of mating type determination. PMID:23555191

  7. The unexpected mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus 1758).

    Ewers-Saucedo, Christine; Hope, Neva B; Wares, John P

    2016-05-01

    Androdioecy was first described by Darwin in his seminal work on barnacle diversity; he identified males and hermaphrodites in the same reproductive population. Today, we realize that many androdioecious plants and animals share astonishing similarities, particularly with regard to their evolutionary history and mating system. Notably, these species were ancestrally dioecious, and their mating system has the following characteristics: hermaphrodites self-fertilize frequently, males are more successful in large mating groups, and males have a mating advantage. A male mating advantage makes androdioecy more likely to persist over evolutionary times. Androdioecious barnacles, however, appear to persist as an outlier with a different evolutionary trajectory: they originate from hermaphroditic species. Although sexual systems of androdioecious barnacles are known, no information on the mating system of androdioecious barnacles is available. This study assessed the mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria. In contrast to other androdioecious species, C. testudinaria does not self-fertilize, males do not have a mating advantage over hermaphrodites, and the average mating group is quite small, averaging only three individuals. Mating success is increased by proximity to the mate and penis length. Taken together, the mating system of C. testudinaria is unusual in comparison with other androdioecious plants and animals, and the lack of a male mating advantage suggests that the mating system alone does not provide an explanation for the maintenance of androdioecy in this species. Instead, we propose that sex-specific life history equalizes male and hermaphroditic overall fitness. PMID:26923636

  8. Deletion of the MAT-2 mating-type gene during uni-directional mating-type switching in Ceratocystis.

    Witthuhn, R C; Harrington, T C; Wingfield, B D; Steimel, J P; Wingfield, M J

    2000-07-01

    Ceratocystis eucalypti is strictly heterothallic, with single ascospore strains representing one of two opposite mating types. Most other Ceratocystis species, including C. virescens, C. pinicola, and C. fimbriata, are homothallic. In the homothallic species, the MAT-2 strains are self-fertile, while MAT-1 strains are self-sterile and grow more slowly than MAT-2 strains. The current hypothesis is that self-fertility of MAT-2 strains is due to the deletion of the MAT-2 mating-type gene, resulting in the expression of the MAT-1 mating type. These mutant MAT-1 strains are able to cross with MAT-2 strains. Part of the MAT-2 mating-type gene in C. eucalypti, C. pinicola, and C. fimbriata was amplified using degenerate primers designed from the conserved MAT-2 HMG DNA-binding motif. The expected approximately 300-bp PCR products were cloned and sequenced. Specific primers were designed that amplified 210-bp fragments only in MAT-2 isolates of C. eucalypti, C. virescens, C. pinicola, and C. finbriata. These fragments were present in self-fertile field isolates and self-fertile progeny but were absent in the self-sterile (MAT-1) progeny from selfings of C. virescens, C. pinicola, and C. fimbriata, thus supporting the hypothesis that the MAT-2 mating-type gene is deleted during uni-directional mating-type switching. A Southern-blot analysis was performed to confirm the deletion of MAT-2 gene in self-sterile progeny. The DNA sequence data for the C. eucalypti MAT-2 mating-type gene was increased to 1371-bp using TAIL-PCR and uneven PCR, representing a portion of the complete MAT-2 gene DNA sequence. PMID:10953881

  9. Sexual selection and the opportunity cost of free mate choice.

    Apostolou, Menelaos

    2016-06-01

    The model of sexual selection under parental choice has been proposed to account for the control that parents exercise over their children's mating decisions. The present paper attempts to formalize and advance this model with the purpose of providing a better understanding of how parental choice mandates the course of sexual selection. In particular, in the proposed formulation, free mate choice involves an opportunity cost which motivates parents to place their children's mate choices under their control. When they succeed in doing so, they become a significant sexual selection force, as traits that appeal to parents in an in-law are selected and increase in frequency in the population. The degree of parental control over mating, and thus the strength of sexual selection under parental choice, is positively predicted by the size of the opportunity cost of free mate choice. The primary factors that affect the level of opportunity cost vary between society types, affecting the strength of parental choice as a sexual selection force. PMID:26921247

  10. Do assortative preferences contribute to assortative mating for adiposity?

    Fisher, Claire I; Fincher, Corey L; Hahn, Amanda C; Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-11-01

    Assortative mating for adiposity, whereby levels of adiposity in romantic partners tend to be positively correlated, has implications for population health due to the combined effects of partners' levels of adiposity on fertility and/or offspring health. Although assortative preferences for cues of adiposity, whereby leaner people are inherently more attracted to leaner individuals, have been proposed as a factor in assortative mating for adiposity, there have been no direct tests of this issue. Because of this, and because of recent work suggesting that facial cues of adiposity convey information about others' health that may be particularly important for mate preferences, we tested the contribution of assortative preferences for facial cues of adiposity to assortative mating for adiposity (assessed from body mass index, BMI) in a sample of romantic couples. Romantic partners' BMIs were positively correlated and this correlation was not due to the effects of age or relationship duration. However, although men and women with leaner partners showed stronger preferences for cues of low levels of adiposity, controlling for these preferences did not weaken the correlation between partners' BMIs. Indeed, own BMI and preferences were uncorrelated. These results suggest that assortative preferences for facial cues of adiposity contribute little (if at all) to assortative mating for adiposity. PMID:24168811

  11. Relationship dealbreakers: traits people avoid in potential mates.

    Jonason, Peter K; Garcia, Justin R; Webster, Gregory D; Li, Norman P; Fisher, Helen E

    2015-12-01

    Mate preference research has focused on traits people desire in partners (i.e., dealmakers) rather than what traits they avoid (i.e., dealbreakers), but mate preferences calibrate to both maximize benefits and minimize costs. Across six studies (N > 6,500), we identified and examined relationship dealbreakers, and how they function across relationship contexts. Dealbreakers were associated with undesirable personality traits; unhealthy lifestyles in sexual, romantic, and friendship contexts; and divergent mating strategies in sexual and romantic contexts. Dealbreakers were stronger in long-term (vs. short-term) relationship contexts, and stronger in women (vs. men) in short-term contexts. People with higher mate value reported more dealbreakers; people with less-restricted mating strategies reported fewer dealbreakers. Consistent with prospect and error management theories, people weighed dealbreakers more negatively than they weighed dealmakers positively; this effect was stronger for women (vs. men) and people in committed relationships. These findings support adaptive attentional biases in human social cognition. PMID:26445853

  12. Mineral content of young leaves of yerba mate

    Marília Camotti Bastos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Yerba mate is largely used to produce drinks to human consume. In Spring the plants develop tender young leaves that could represent a new market niche in the yerba-mate industry; this period is called as ”pressafrinha” in this study. This study aimed to analyze the total and hydro soluble nutritional values of young leaves collected in the Spring season and its nutritional potential for human consumption. To represent the ”pressafrinha” young leaves, the collected vegetal material was limited to the third terminal bud. The total and hydro soluble chemical analysis of leaves in the provenances Cascavel (progeny 174, Ivaí (progeny 6, Barão de Cotegipe (progenies 68 and 69 included the following elements: P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. The content of elements in the beverage obtained from the infusion of young leaves of yerba mate in the recommended daily intake ranges from 0.5% to 11.5% and was in the following order: Cu > Mn > K > P > Mg > Fe > Zn > Ca > Na. Progenies and morphotypes of yerba mate showed little variation in the total nutrient content and did not differ in the content of soluble nutrients evaluated in young leaves. The extract obtained from young leaves of yerba mate presents potential to be used for human consumption.

  13. The role of male contest competition over mates in speciation

    Anna QVARNSTRÖM, Niclas VALLIN, Andreas RUDH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on the role of sexual selection in the speciation process largely focuses on the diversifying role of mate choice. In particular, much attention has been drawn to the fact that population divergence in mate choice and in the male traits subject to choice directly can lead to assortative mating. However, male contest competition over mates also constitutes an important mechanism of sexual selection. We review recent empirical studies and argue that sexual selection through male contest competition can affect speciation in ways other than mate choice. For example, biases in aggression towards similar competitors can lead to disruptive and negative frequency-dependent selection on the traits used in contest competition in a similar way as competition for other types of limited resources. Moreover, male contest abilities often trade-off against other abilities such as parasite resistance, protection against predators and general stress tolerance. Populations experiencing different ecological conditions should therefore quickly diverge non-randomly in a number of traits including male contest abilities. In resource based breeding systems, a feedback loop between competitive ability and habitat use may lead to further population divergence. We discuss how population divergence in traits used in male contest competition can lead to the build up of reproductive isolation through a number of different pathways. Our main conclusion is that the role of male contest competition in speciation remains largely scientifically unexplored [Current Zoology 58 (3: 490–506, 2012].

  14. Borderline personality disorder features and mate retention tactics.

    Tragesser, Sarah L; Benfield, Jacob

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and mate retention tactics as a means of examining an evolutionary perspective on the association between BPD features and interpersonal problems and violence in romantic relationships. Two-hundred twenty-five college student participants completed the Personality Assessment Inventory for Borderlines (PAI-BOR; Morey, 1991) and the Mate Retention Inventory-Short Form (MRI-SF; Buss, Shackelford, & McKibbin, 2008) embedded within other measures. There was a strong association between BPD features and cost-inflicting mate retention tactics, including the specific tactics of vigilance, punishing mate's infidelity threat, intrasexual threats, and sexual inducements for both men and women. There were also gender-specific associations for additional tactics. These results contribute to our understanding of problems in romantic relationships among men and women with BPD features, including violence, and to our understanding of impulsive sexual behavior among individuals with BPD features by showing how these behaviors are used as extreme, maladaptive attempts at mate retention. PMID:22686222

  15. Beyond magic traits: Multimodal mating cues in Heliconius butterflies.

    Mrot, Claire; Frrot, Brigitte; Leppik, Ene; Joron, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    Species coexistence involves the evolution of reproductive barriers opposing gene flow. Heliconius butterflies display colorful patterns affecting mate choice and survival through warning signaling and mimicry. These patterns are called "magic traits" for speciation because divergent natural selection may promote mimicry shifts in pattern whose role as mating cue facilitates reproductive isolation. By contrast, between comimetic species, natural selection promotes pattern convergence. We addressed whether visual convergence interferes with reproductive isolation by testing for sexual isolation between two closely related species with similar patterns, H. timareta thelxinoe and H. melpomene amaryllis. Experiments with models confirmed visual attraction based on wing phenotype, leading to indiscriminate approach. Nevertheless, mate choice experiments showed assortative mating. Monitoring male behavior toward live females revealed asymmetry in male preference, H. melpomene males courting both species equally while H. timareta males strongly preferred conspecifics. Experiments with hybrid males suggested an important genetic component for such asymmetry. Behavioral observations support a key role for short-distance cues in determining male choice in H. timareta. Scents extracts from wings and genitalia revealed interspecific divergence in chemical signatures, and hybrid female scent composition was significantly associated with courtship intensity by H. timareta males, providing candidate chemical mating cues involved in sexual isolation. PMID:26513426

  16. Women selectively guard their (desirable) mates from ovulating women.

    Krems, Jaimie Arona; Neel, Rebecca; Neuberg, Steven L; Puts, David A; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2016-04-01

    For women, forming close, cooperative relationships with other women at once poses important opportunities and possible threats-including to mate retention. To maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of same-sex social relationships, we propose that women's mate guarding is functionally flexible and that women are sensitive to both interpersonal and contextual cues indicating whether other women might be likely and effective mate poachers. Here, we assess one such cue: other women's fertility. Because ovulating (i.e., high-fertility) women are both more attractive to men and also more attracted to (desirable) men, ovulating women may be perceived to pose heightened threats to other women's romantic relationships. Across 4 experiments, partnered women were exposed to photographs of other women taken during either their ovulatory or nonovulatory menstrual-cycle phases, and consistently reported intentions to socially avoid ovulating (but not nonovulating) women-but only when their own partners were highly desirable. Exposure to ovulating women also increased women's sexual desires for their (highly desirable) partners. These findings suggest that women can be sensitive to subtle cues of other women's fertility and respond (e.g., via social exclusion, enhanced sexual attention to own mate) in ways that may facilitate their mate retention goals while not thwarting their affiliative goals. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26766112

  17. Same-Sex Gaze Attraction Influences Mate-Choice Copying in Humans

    Yorzinski, Jessica L.; Michael L. Platt

    2010-01-01

    Mate-choice copying occurs when animals rely on the mating choices of others to inform their own mating decisions. The proximate mechanisms underlying mate-choice copying remain unknown. To address this question, we tracked the gaze of men and women as they viewed a series of photographs in which a potential mate was pictured beside an opposite-sex partner; the participants then indicated their willingness to engage in a long-term relationship with each potential mate. We found that both men ...

  18. Irradiation detection of coffee mate by electron spin resonance (ESR)

    Özsayin, Fulya; Polat, Mustafa

    2011-06-01

    Un-irradiated coffee mate samples do not exhibit any ESR signal. However, the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiation exhibit an ESR singlet and a large unresolved ESR signal, respectively. The dose-response curves of the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiations were found to be described well by an exponential and linear functions, respectively. Variable temperature and fading studies at room temperature showed that the radiation-induced radicals in coffee mate sample are very sensitive to temperature. The discrimination between un-irradiated and irradiated coffee mate samples can be done just comparing their ESR spectra. However, determination of the radiation dose received by the sample cannot be possible because of the fast decay of signal intensity at room temperature.

  19. Irradiation detection of coffee mate by electron spin resonance (ESR)

    Ozsayin, Fulya [Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Polat, Mustafa, E-mail: polat@hacettepe.edu.t [Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-06-15

    Un-irradiated coffee mate samples do not exhibit any ESR signal. However, the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiation exhibit an ESR singlet and a large unresolved ESR signal, respectively. The dose-response curves of the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiations were found to be described well by an exponential and linear functions, respectively. Variable temperature and fading studies at room temperature showed that the radiation-induced radicals in coffee mate sample are very sensitive to temperature. The discrimination between un-irradiated and irradiated coffee mate samples can be done just comparing their ESR spectra. However, determination of the radiation dose received by the sample cannot be possible because of the fast decay of signal intensity at room temperature.

  20. Irradiation detection of coffee mate by electron spin resonance (ESR)

    Un-irradiated coffee mate samples do not exhibit any ESR signal. However, the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiation exhibit an ESR singlet and a large unresolved ESR signal, respectively. The dose-response curves of the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiations were found to be described well by an exponential and linear functions, respectively. Variable temperature and fading studies at room temperature showed that the radiation-induced radicals in coffee mate sample are very sensitive to temperature. The discrimination between un-irradiated and irradiated coffee mate samples can be done just comparing their ESR spectra. However, determination of the radiation dose received by the sample cannot be possible because of the fast decay of signal intensity at room temperature.

  1. Sexual Cooperation: Mating Increases Longevity in Ant Queens

    Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jrgen; Cremer, Sylvia

    2005-01-01

    Divergent reproductive interests of males and females often cause sexual conflict [1] and [2] . Males of many species manipulate females by transferring seminal fluids that boost female short-term fecundity while decreasing their life expectancy and future reproductivity [3] and [4] . The life...... history of ants, however, is expected to reduce sexual conflict; whereas most insect females show repeated phases of mating and reproduction, ant queens mate only during a short period early in life and undergo a lifelong commitment to their mates by storing sperm [5] . Furthermore, sexual offspring can...... sterilized male lived considerably longer and started laying eggs earlier than virgin queens. Only queens that received viable sperm from fertile males showed increased fecundity. The lack of a trade-off between fecundity and longevity is unexpected, given evolutionary theories of aging [6] . Our data...

  2. Turbidity alters pre-mating social interactions between native and invasive stream fishes

    Glotzbecker, Gregory J.; Ward, Jessica L.; Walters, David M.; Blum, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental degradation can result in the loss of aquatic biodiversity if impairment promotes hybridisation between non-native and native species. Although aquatic biological invasions involving hybridisation have been attributed to elevated water turbidity, the extent to which impaired clarity influences reproductive isolation among non-native and native species is poorly understood.

  3. Blackmailing: the keystone in the human mating system

    Watve Milind G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human mating system is characterized by bi-parental care and faithful monogamy is highly valued in most cultures. Marriage has evolved as a social institution and punishment for extra pair mating (EPM or adultery is common. However, similar to other species with bi-parental care, both males and females frequently indulge in EPM in secrecy since it confers certain gender specific genetic benefits. Stability of faithful monogamy is therefore a conundrum. We model human mating system using game theory framework to study the effects of factors that can stabilize or destabilize faithful committed monogamy. Results Although mate guarding can partly protect the genetic interests, we show that it does not ensure monogamy. Social policing enabled by gossiping is another line of defense against adultery unique to humans. However, social policing has a small but positive cost to an individual and therefore is prone to free riding. We suggest that since exposure of adultery can invite severe punishment, the policing individuals can blackmail opportunistically whenever the circumstances permit. If the maximum probabilistic benefit of blackmailing is greater than the cost of policing, policing becomes a non-altruistic act and stabilizes in the society. We show that this dynamics leads to the coexistence of different strategies in oscillations, with obligate monogamy maintained at a high level. Deletion of blackmailing benefit from the model leads to the complete disappearance of obligate monogamy. Conclusions Obligate monogamy can be maintained in the population in spite of the advantages of EPM. Blackmailing, which makes policing a non-altruistic act, is crucial for the maintenance of faithful monogamy. Although biparental care, EPM, mate guarding and punishment are shared by many species, gossiping and blackmailing make the human mating system unique.

  4. The Study and Analysis of the Mating Behavior and Sound Production of Male Cicada Psalmocharias alhageos (Kol. (Homoptera:Cicadidae to Make Disruption in Mating

    H. Zamanian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Psalmocharias alhageos is an important pest of vine in most parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, southern areas of Russia, Turkey and Iraq. This cicada is spread in most provinces in Iran such as Esfahan, Hamedan, Qazvin, Markazi, Lorestan, Qom, Kerman, Tehran and Kordestan. In addition to vine, this insect damages some other fruit trees, such as apple, sour cherry, quince, peach, pomegranate and pear trees and some non-fruit trees, namely white poplar, ash, elm, eglantine, silk and black poplar trees. The nymphs of cicada damage the trees by feeding on root, adult insects on young bud and by oviposition under branch barks. Nourishing root by nymph leads to the weakness of the tree and hinder its growth. The high density oviposition of adult insects inside young barks causes withering of branches. The resulted damage on vine products is 40% which is one of the most important factors in product reduction in vineyard. This research was conducted in Takestan in Qazvin. It was conducted for the first time to study the behaviors of the mates of this vine cicada in order to manage it. Two systems were used to record the sound of male cicada called analog voice-recorder and digital voice recorder. To analyze the recorded sound of the male cicada we used of spectrum analyzer, digital storage oscilloscope and protens 7 computer softwares. We could call the attention of natural enemies an disturb the male insect`s attracting sound by producing natural and artificial sound in the range of 1-6 kHz in two different ripeness status of the fruits and could prevent mating and oviposition of female cicadas.

  5. Structures of the Mating-Type Loci of Cordyceps takaomontana

    Yokoyama, Eiji; Yamagishi, Kenzo; HARA, AKIRA

    2003-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences of the mating-type loci MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 of Cordyceps takaomontana were determined, which is the first such report for the clavicipitaceous fungi. MAT1-1 contains two mating-type genes, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2, but MAT1-1-3 could not be found. On the other hand, MAT1-2 has MAT1-2-1. A pseudogene of MAT1-1-1 is located next to MAT1-2.

  6. Regulation of glycoprotein synthesis in yeast by mating pheromones

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glycosylated proteins amount to less than 2% of the cell protein. Two intensively studied examples of yeast glycoproteins are the external cell wall - associated invertase and the vacuolar carboxypeptidase Y. Recently, it was shown that the mating pheromone, alpha factor, specifically and strongly inhibits the synthesis of N-glycosylated proteins in haploid a cells, whereas O-glycosylated proteins are not affected. In this paper, the pathways of glycoprotein biosynthesis are summarized briefly, and evidence is presented that mating pheomones have a regulatory function in glycoprotein synthesis

  7. Mineral content of young leaves of yerba mate

    Marília Camotti Bastos; Carlos Bruno Reissmann; Jéssica Fernandes Keseker; Volnei Pauletti; Sérgio Gaiad; José Alfredo Sturion

    2014-01-01

    Yerba mate is largely used to produce drinks to human consume. In Spring the plants develop tender young leaves that could represent a new market niche in the yerba-mate industry; this period is called as ”pressafrinha” in this study. This study aimed to analyze the total and hydro soluble nutritional values of young leaves collected in the Spring season and its nutritional potential for human consumption. To represent the ”pressafrinha” young leaves, the collected vegetal material was limite...

  8. Intraclonal mating occurs during tsetse transmission of Trypanosoma brucei

    Ferris Vanessa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mating in Trypanosoma brucei is a non-obligatory event, triggered by the co-occurrence of different strains in the salivary glands of the vector. Recombinants that result from intra- rather than interclonal mating have been detected, but only in crosses of two different trypanosome strains. This has led to the hypothesis that when trypanosomes recognize a different strain, they release a diffusible factor or pheromone that triggers mating in any cell in the vicinity whether it is of the same or a different strain. This idea assumes that the trypanosome can recognize self and non-self, although there is as yet no evidence for the existence of mating types in T. brucei. Results We investigated intraclonal mating in T. b. brucei by crossing red and green fluorescent lines of a single strain, so that recombinant progeny can be detected in the fly by yellow fluorescence. For strain 1738, seven flies had both red and green trypanosomes in the salivary glands and, in three, yellow trypanosomes were also observed, although they could not be recovered for subsequent analysis. Nonetheless, both red and non-fluorescent clones from these flies had recombinant genotypes as judged by microsatellite and karyotype analyses, and some also had raised DNA contents, suggesting recombination or genome duplication. Strain J10 produced similar results indicative of intraclonal mating. In contrast, trypanosome clones recovered from other flies showed that genotypes can be transmitted with fidelity. When a yellow hybrid clone expressing both red and green fluorescent protein genes was transmitted, the salivary glands contained a mixture of fluorescent-coloured trypanosomes, but only yellow and red clones were recovered. While loss of the GFP gene in the red clones could have resulted from gene conversion, some of these clones showed loss of heterozygosity and raised DNA contents as in the other single strain transmissions. Our observations suggest that many recombinants are non-viable after intraclonal mating. Conclusion We have demonstrated intraclonal mating during fly transmission of T. b. brucei, contrary to previous findings that recombination occurs only when another strain is present. It is thus no longer possible to assume that T. b. brucei remains genetically unaltered after fly transmission.

  9. Female mate preference and sexual conflict: females prefer males that have had fewer consorts.

    Harris, W Edwin; Moore, Patricia J

    2005-05-01

    Different aspects of male quality as a mate can vary independently. When this is the case, females may need to use multiple cues to accurately assess overall mate quality. We examined the pattern of mating preference in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea. Sexual conflict occurs in this species because male manipulation of female mating receptivity can result in reduced female fitness. We predicted that since females cannot remate within a single reproductive bout because of male manipulation, females should assess male mating history to avoid mating with males with low fertility caused by sperm exhaustion. In a mate-preference experiment, we found that females discriminated against males who had mated multiple times. Females also discriminated against males who had consorted with several females but had been prevented from mating with those females. Thus, females appeared to be able to detect cues on males that were derived from previous mates and to use this information to avoid mating with sperm-exhausted males. We suggest that females may commonly use multiple cues to assess different aspects of mate quality, especially when male quality changes over time. This is an under-studied phenomenon that could help explain individual variation in female mating preferences. PMID:15795863

  10. Evaluation of phenolic compounds in mate (Ilex paraguariensis) processed by gamma radiation

    The radiation food processing has been demonstrating great effectiveness in the attack of pathogenic agents, while little compromising nutritional value and sensorial properties of foods. The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), widely consumed product in South America, generally in the form of infusions with hot or cold water, calls of chimarrao or terere, it is cited in literature as one of the best sources phenolic compounds. The antioxidants action of these constituent has been related to the protection of the organism against the free radicals, generated in alive, currently responsible for the sprouting of some degenerative illness as cancer, arteriosclerosis, rheumatic arthritis and cardiovascular clutters among others. The objective of that work was to evaluate the action of the processing for gamma radiation in phenolic compounds of terere beverage in the doses of 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. The observed results do not demonstrate significant alterations in phenolic compounds of terere beverage processed by gamma radiation.

  11. Evaluation of phenolic compounds in mate (Ilex paraguariensis) processed by gamma radiation

    Furgeri, C.; Nunes, T.C.F.; Fanaro, G.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes-Laboratory de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Souza, M.F.F.; Bastos, D.H.M. [Faculdade de Saude Publica, FSP/USP, Departamento de Nutricao-Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 715, CEP: 01246-904 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes-Laboratory de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2009-07-15

    The radiation food processing has been demonstrating great effectiveness in the attack of pathogenic agents, while little compromising nutritional value and sensorial properties of foods. The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), widely consumed product in South America, generally in the form of infusions with hot or cold water, calls of chimarrao or terere, it is cited in literature as one of the best sources phenolic compounds. The antioxidants action of these constituent has been related to the protection of the organism against the free radicals, generated in alive, currently responsible for the sprouting of some degenerative illness as cancer, arteriosclerosis, rheumatic arthritis and cardiovascular clutters among others. The objective of that work was to evaluate the action of the processing for gamma radiation in phenolic compounds of terere beverage in the doses of 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. The observed results do not demonstrate significant alterations in phenolic compounds of terere beverage processed by gamma radiation.

  12. Genetic determinants of mate recognition in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera

    Kubanek Julia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mate choice is of central importance to most animals, influencing population structure, speciation, and ultimately the survival of a species. Mating behavior of male brachionid rotifers is triggered by the product of a chemosensory gene, a glycoprotein on the body surface of females called the mate recognition pheromone. The mate recognition pheromone has been biochemically characterized, but little was known about the gene(s. We describe the isolation and characterization of the mate recognition pheromone gene through protein purification, N-terminal amino acid sequence determination, identification of the mate recognition pheromone gene from a cDNA library, sequencing, and RNAi knockdown to confirm the functional role of the mate recognition pheromone gene in rotifer mating. Results A 29 kD protein capable of eliciting rotifer male circling was isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Two transcript types containing the N-terminal sequence were identified in a cDNA library; further characterization by screening a genomic library and by polymerase chain reaction revealed two genes belonging to each type. Each gene begins with a signal peptide region followed by nearly perfect repeats of an 87 to 92 codon motif with no codons between repeats and the final motif prematurely terminated by the stop codon. The two Type A genes contain four and seven repeats and the two Type B genes contain three and five repeats, respectively. Only the Type B gene with three repeats encodes a peptide with a molecular weight of 29 kD. Each repeat of the Type B gene products contains three asparagines as potential sites for N-glycosylation; there are no asparagines in the Type A genes. RNAi with Type A double-stranded RNA did not result in less circling than in the phosphate-buffered saline control, but transfection with Type B double-stranded RNA significantly reduced male circling by 17%. The very low divergence between repeat units, even at synonymous positions, suggests that the repeats are kept nearly identical through a process of concerted evolution. Information-rich molecules like surface glycoproteins are well adapted for chemical communication and aquatic animals may have evolved signaling systems based on these compounds, whereas insects use cuticular hydrocarbons. Conclusion Owing to its critical role in mating, the mate recognition pheromone gene will be a useful molecular marker for exploring the mechanisms and rates of selection and the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation using rotifers as a model system. The phylogenetic variation in the mate recognition pheromone gene can now be studied in conjunction with the large amount of ecological and population genetic data being gathered for the Brachionus plicatilis species complex to understand better the evolutionary drivers of cryptic speciation.

  13. The effect of novel promoter variants in MATE1 and MATE2 on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metformin

    Stocker, Sophie L; Morrissey, Kari M.; Yee, Sook Wah; Castro, Richard A.; Xu, Lu; Dahlin, Amber; Ramirez, Andrea H; Roden, Dan M.; Wilke, Russ A.; McCarty, Cathy A; Robert L. Davis; Brett, Claire M.; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2012-01-01

    Interindividual variation in response to metformin, first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes, is substantial. Given that transporters are determinants of metformin pharmacokinetics, we examined the effects of promoter variants in both multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1) (g.−66T→C, rs2252281) and MATE2 (g.−130G→A, rs12943590) on variation in metformin disposition and response. The pharmacokinetics and glucose-lowering effects of metformin were assessed in healthy volunteers (n = 57) ...

  14. Female multiple matings and male harassment and their effects on fitness of arrhenotokous Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Li, Xiao-wei; Fail, Jozsef; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    Although it is generally assumed that one or a few matings are sufficient to maximize female fitness and that mating is generally assumed to be costly to females, multiple matings of females have been reported across a wide and taxonomically diverse set of animals. Here, we investigated female mating frequency and male harassment rate in arrhenotokous Thrips tabaci. In addition, the cost to females of mating, multiple matings, and male harassment to females was evaluated. We found that T. tab...

  15. Light wavelength dependency of mating activity in the drosophila melanogaster species subgroup

    The action spectra of mating activity among the six species of the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup were compared to understand how light wavelength affects mating activity. The species fell into three groups with respect to the action spectrum of mating activity. We chose one representative species from each of the three types for detailed study: D. melanogaster, D. sechellia and D. yakuba. The mating activities were investigated under three different light intensities of three monochromatic lights stimulus. Each species showed a unique spectral and intensity response. To know the evolutionary meaning of the light wavelength dependency of mating activity, we superimposed the type of action spectrum of mating activity in these six species on a cladogram. Mating inhibition under UV was conserved in evolution among these species. Furthermore we clarified that D. melanogaster showed low mating activity under UV because males courted less under UV. (author)

  16. Studies on the mating behaviour of radiosterilized males of potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (zeller)

    Studies on the mating periodicity and propensity, ability and sperm competition of sterilized and unsterilized males of the potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), were conducted under laboratory conditions. Results indicate that under the photoperiod of 14 h light and 10 h dark; both sterilized (45 Krad) and normal males mated only during scotophase. Following irradiation, there was delay in mating and normal mating behaviour was marginally reduced. When virgin females were individually caged with one each of normal and sterile male, competition for mating was in favour of normal males on the first day, but was comparable for both the males on the second day. Egg viability pattern of the females mated with sterile and normal males or vice versa indicated that sperm transferred during recent mating predominantly took precedence over those transferred during the earlier mating. (author). 20 refs., 4 tabs

  17. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus mating during late June on the pack ice of northern Svalbard, Norway

    Thomas G. Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polar bears are seasonal breeders and typically mate from late March to early May. Implantation is, however, delayed until autumn, which can allow plasticity in the date of mating. As for other seasonal breeders, a rapid return to estrus after the loss of dependent offspring can be expected, even into the summer. A few earlier observations and dissections of dead animals suggest that polar bears are able to mate in summer. We report on a mating incident on 29 June 2014, the first documented mating this late in the season among wild polar bears. The female had lost her dependent cub during the period prior to the mating event. We speculate that she lost this cub late in the mating season, entered estrus and successfully mated in late June.

  18. Gender, Gender Roles Affecting Mate Preferences in Turkish College Students

    Gazioglu, A. Esra Ismen

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study is gender and gender roles affecting mate preferences. The sample of the study consists of 300 undergraduates and master students. To identify students' gender roles the Sex Role Evaluation Inventory (Bem, 1974) is used. The Question List (Bacanli 2001; Buss et. al., 1990) is applied to the sample group to determine the…

  19. Spermidine promotes mating and fertilization efficiency in model organisms.

    Bauer, Maria Anna; Carmona-Gutirrez, Didac; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Reisenbichler, Angela; Megalou, Evgenia V; Eisenberg, Tobias; Magnes, Christoph; Jungwirth, Helmut; Sinner, Frank M; Pieber, Thomas R; Frhlich, Kai-Uwe; Kroemer, Guido; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Madeo, Frank

    2013-01-15

    Spermidine is a naturally occurring polyamine involved in multiple biological processes, including DNA metabolism, autophagy and aging. Like other polyamines, spermidine is also indispensable for successful reproduction at several stages. However, a direct influence on the actual fertilization process, i.e., the fusion of an oocyte with a spermatocyte, remains uncertain. To explore this possibility, we established the mating process in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model for fertilization in higher eukaryotes. During human fertilization, the sperm capacitates and the acrosome reaction is necessary for penetration of the oocyte. Similarly, sexually active yeasts form a protrusion called "shmoo" as a prerequisite for mating. In this study, we demonstrate that pheromone-induced shmoo formation requires spermidine. In addition, we show that spermidine is essential for mating in yeast as well as for egg fertilization in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In both cases, this occurs independently from autophagy. In synthesis, we identify spermidine as an important mating component in unicellular and multicellular model organisms, supporting an unprecedented evolutionary conservation of the mechanisms governing fertilization-related cellular fusion. PMID:23255134

  20. Spermidine promotes mating and fertilization efficiency in model organisms

    Bauer, Maria Anna; Carmona-Gutirrez, Didac; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Reisenbichler, Angela; Megalou, Evgenia V.; Eisenberg, Tobias; Magnes, Christoph; Jungwirth, Helmut; Sinner, Frank M.; Pieber, Thomas R.; Frhlich, Kai-Uwe; Kroemer, Guido; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Madeo, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Spermidine is a naturally occurring polyamine involved in multiple biological processes, including DNA metabolism, autophagy and aging. Like other polyamines, spermidine is also indispensable for successful reproduction at several stages. However, a direct influence on the actual fertilization process, i.e., the fusion of an oocyte with a spermatocyte, remains uncertain. To explore this possibility, we established the mating process in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model for fertilization in higher eukaryotes. During human fertilization, the sperm capacitates and the acrosome reaction is necessary for penetration of the oocyte. Similarly, sexually active yeasts form a protrusion called shmoo as a prerequisite for mating. In this study, we demonstrate that pheromone-induced shmoo formation requires spermidine. In addition, we show that spermidine is essential for mating in yeast as well as for egg fertilization in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In both cases, this occurs independently from autophagy. In synthesis, we identify spermidine as an important mating component in unicellular and multicellular model organisms, supporting an unprecedented evolutionary conservation of the mechanisms governing fertilization-related cellular fusion. PMID:23255134

  1. Small zooplankton sensing their environment: feeding, mating, and predator avoidance

    Nihongi, Ai

    2004-03-01

    Since zooplankton play a significant role at the base of the food web in aquatic environments, it is important to understand their feeding behaviors, mating behaviors, and predator avoidance. First, I will present the water flow regime of Daphnia. Using a high-speed video, I filmed how water with algae particles enters and leaves Daphnia, how the water flows within Daphnia and how the appendages of Daphnia work to produce the water flow. Second, I will discuss mate-searching behaviors of freshwater calanoid copepods and Daphnia. Male and female zooplankters have to encounter each other for successful mating in 3D environment. I have observed the behaviors of freshwater calanoid copepods from Lake Michigan. As a result, they showed different behaviors from other species studied. Likewise, I have observed differences in mate-searching behaviors of D. pulex and D. magna. Last, I will show the results of predator-prey interactions in D. pulex with kairomone, a chemical cue, from predatory fish using 3-D near infrared optical system. As experimental conditions, we used the following treatments: (a) no light/ no kairomone, (b) no light/ kairomone, (c) light/ no kairomone, and (d) light/ kairomone. While it appears that light and kairomone have an interactive effect on the swimming behaviors of Daphnia, light seems to be the most influential factor. The observed frequent spinning movements of D. pulex in a darkened tank with a predatory fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were successful predator avoidance maneuvers.

  2. Fission yeast mating-type switching: programmed damage and repair

    Egel, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Mating-type switching in fission yeast follows similar rules as in budding yeast, but the underlying mechanisms are entirely different. Whilst the initiating double-strand cut in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires recombinational repair for survival, the initial damage in Schizosaccharomyces pombe...

  3. EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS ESTROGEN ON MATE SELECTION OF HOUSE FINCHES

    Concern about the potential for endocrine disrupting chemicals to interfere with normal breeding behaviors of wildlife has prompted this study of effects of exogenous estrogen on mate selection in songbirds. The house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) was selected as a model as it is ...

  4. EFFECTS OF EXTROGENOUS ESTROGEN ON MATE SELECTION OF HOUSE FINCHES

    Effects of exogenous estrogen on mate selection of house finches. Clark, J., Fairbrother, A*. Parametrix, Inc., Corvallis, OR; Brewer, L., EBA, Inc., Sisters, OR; Bennett, R.S., USEPA, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, Duluth, MN. Concern about the potential for endocrine...

  5. Mating strategy of Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in northern Australia

    Nielsen, Mogens Gissel; Peng, Renkang; Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Birkmose, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the mating strategy of Oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius, 1775) and to clarify the factors that related to the nuptial flight. The nuptial flight was investigated over three seasons in the Darwin area, Australia, in which a total of 19 swarmings were observed...

  6. No effect of mate novelty on sexual motivation in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata

    Timmermeyer Nadine

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When mating effort (e.g. via ejaculates is high, males are expected to strategically allocate their resources depending on the expected fitness gains from a given mating opportunity. One mechanism to achieve strategic mating is the Coolidge effect, where male sexual motivation declines across repeated encounters with a familiar partner, but resuscitates when encountering a novel female. Experimental tests of male mate choice via mechanisms such as the Coolidge effect, however, remain scarce. Moreover, it is untested to date whether the Coolidge effect occurs in a sex-specific manner in simultaneous hermaphrodites, where the motivation to mate with a familiar partner may vary with previous mating activity in the male or female role. Results We exposed focal hermaphroditic freshwater snails, Biomphalaria glabrata, repeatedly to either a familiar or a novel partner. None of our proxies of sexual motivation (remating likelihood, mating delay, copulation duration varied between the novel and familiar partner treatments. Moreover, the mating role taken during the first copulation did not affect the subsequent choice of mating roles in the familiar partner treatment as would be expected if focals preferred to avoid mating twice in the same role with a familiar partner. This indicates the absence of sex-specific effects of partner novelty. Conclusion Our data indicate that mate novelty does affect neither overall sexual motivation nor the choice of mating roles in B. glabrata. Hence, male mate choice via a Coolidge effect appears inexistent in this invertebrate hermaphrodite. We discuss the possible roles of insufficient fitness gains for discriminatory behaviour in populations with frequent mate encounters as well as poor mate discrimination capacities. Our findings lend also no support to the novel prediction that sexual motivation in simultaneous hermaphrodites varies with the mating roles taken during previous copulations, calling for empirical investigation in further hermaphrodite systems.

  7. Ovarian activation in Melipona quadrifasciata queens triggered by mating plug stimulation (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    Melo, Gabriel; Maria Luisa T. Buschini,; Campos, Lucio

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the detached male genital capsule on ovarian activation in queens of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, and the amount of time the genital capsule remains attached to the queen genital chamber after mating, were investigated. Twenty-four controlled matings were carried out and the male capsules were manually removed at preset time intervals. The results indicate that the experimental removal of the mating plug on the first three days after mating inhibits ovarian activat...

  8. Individual Differences in Sociosexual Orientation and Long Term Mate Value Preferences.

    Raw, Charlotte J

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that an individual’s sociosexuality, a measure of sexual permissiveness, is influenced by self esteem, self perceived mate value and personality, however results from past research has been mixed. Furthermore, an individual’s long term mate value preference has been found to correlate with self perceived mate value, although there is a lack of research regarding how self-esteem and personality may relate to long term mate value preferences. The present study (n...

  9. Quality of public information matters in mate-choice copying in female zebra finches

    Kniel, Nina; SCHMITZ, JENNIFER; Witte, Klaudia

    2015-01-01

    Background Mate-choice copying is a form of social learning in which an individual gains information about potential mates by observing conspecifics. However, it is still unknown what kind of information drives the decision of an individual to copy the mate choice of others. Among zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata castanotis), only females (not males) copy the mate choice of others. We tested female zebra finches in a binary choice test where they, first, could choose between two males of di...

  10. The Iron-Responsive, GATA-Type Transcription Factor Cir1 Influences Mating in Cryptococcus neoformans

    Jung, Won Hee; Kronstad, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Mating and sexual development have been associated with virulence in various fungal pathogens including Cryptococcus neoformans. This fungus is a significant pathogen of humans because it causes life-threatening cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompromised people such as AIDS patients. The virulence of C. neoformans is known to be associated with the mating type of the cells (α or a), with the α mating type being predominant among clinical isolates. However, the mechanisms by which mating and...

  11. From Preferred to Actual Mate Characteristics: The Case of Human Body Shape

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Picq, Sandrine; Godelle, Bernard; Raymond, Michel; Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-01-01

    The way individuals pair to produce reproductive units is a major factor determining evolution. This process is complex because it is determined not only by individual mating preferences, but also by numerous other factors such as competition between mates. Consequently, preferred and actual characteristics of mates obtained should differ, but this has rarely been addressed. We simultaneously measured mating preferences for stature, body mass, and body mass index, and recorded corresponding a...

  12. Interspecies pheromone signaling promotes biofilm formation and same-sex mating in Candida albicans

    Alby, Kevin; Bennett, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a parasexual mating cycle in which cells must switch from the conventional “white” form to the alternative “opaque” form to become mating competent. Pheromones secreted by opaque cells induce the formation of polarized mating projections and result in cell–cell conjugation. In contrast, white cells are unable to undergo mating, but can still respond to pheromone by expression of adhesion genes that promote biofilm formation. In this study,...

  13. Reproductive aging and mating: The ticking of the biological clock in female cockroaches

    Moore, Patricia J.; Moore, Allen J.

    2001-01-01

    Females are expected to have different mating preferences because of the variation in costs and benefits of mate choice both between females and within individual females over a lifetime. Workers have begun to look for, and find, the expected variation among females in expressed mating preferences. However, variation within females caused by changes in intrinsic influences has not been examined in detail. Here we show that reproductive aging caused by delayed mating resulted in reduced choosi...

  14. No genetic correlation between the sexes in mating frequency in the bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis.

    Harano, T; Miyatake, T

    2007-09-01

    Female multiple mating, which is common in animals, may have evolved not in response to fitness advantages to females but as a genetic corollary to selection on males to mate frequently. This nonadaptive hypothesis assumes a genetic correlation between females and males in mating frequency, which has received a few empirical investigations. We tested this hypothesis by observing the correlated response in male mating frequency in the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis to artificial selection on female propensity to remate. Compared to control females, females from lines selected for increased or decreased female propensity to remate had, respectively, higher or lower mating frequency measured by the number of mating within a given period. This indicates that female receptivity to remating is genetically correlated with female mating frequency, and thus the artificial selection for female propensity to remate influenced female mating frequency. In contrast, males from the selected lines that diverged in female mating frequency did not vary significantly in their mating frequency. These results indicate that there is no genetic correlation between the sexes in mating frequency in C. chinensis. This study shows that the reason why females in C. chinensis remate despite suffering fitness costs cannot be explained by indirect selection resulting from selection on males to mate multiple times. PMID:17551526

  15. Mating behaviour of Rhytidoponera sp. 12 ants inferred from microsatellite analysis.

    Tay, W T; Crozier, R H

    2001-01-01

    In the queenless ponerine ant Rhytidoponera sp. 12, all workers have a spermatheca and functional ovaries and are potentially able to mate and reproduce. Within a colony gamergates may either be full sisters to each other (Type 1 colony), or they may not be full sisters but still be significantly related to each other (Type 2 colony) due to daughter gamergates reproducing in their natal colonies after mating. Despite many studies the mating behaviour of R. sp. 12 has been poorly understood. In this study, we used microsatellite markers to investigate intracolony relatednesses of male mates to the gamergates (bmq) and between male mates (bmm), and mating frequencies and mating patterns, using gamergate DNA and sperm DNA isolated from the spermathecae of gamergates from five colonies. Average bmm and bmq estimates for all five colonies studied were not significantly different from zero, suggesting that on average, within colonies, mating males were unrelated both to each other and to the gamergates. A low frequency (3%) of multiple mating by gamergates was detected. Multiple mating by individual males with sister gamergates within Type 1 colonies was also detected at 3% and could give rise to half-sister nestmate workers. Polygamy in R. sp. 12 might indicate local female-biased operational sex ratios despite the expectation of overall male biases. Our results concur with previous reports that gamergates mate within the colony or nearby, but indicate more diversity in mating patterns than previously indicated for this polygynous ponerine ant species. PMID:11251795

  16. Density-dependent male mating harassment, female resistance, and male mimicry.

    Gosden, Thomas P; Svensson, Erik I

    2009-06-01

    Genetic variation in female resistance and tolerance to male mating harassment can affect the outcome of sexually antagonistic mating interactions. We investigated female mating rates and male mating harassment in natural populations of a damselfly (Ischnura elegans). This damselfly species has a heritable sex-limited polymorphism in females, where one of the morphs is a male mimic (androchrome females). The three female morphs differ in mating rates, and these differences are stable across populations and years. However, the degree of premating resistance toward male mating attempts varied across generations and populations. Male mating harassment of the female morphs changed in a density-dependent fashion, suggesting that male mate preferences are plastic and vary with the different morph densities. We quantified morph differences in male mating harassment and female fecundity, using path analysis and structural equation modeling. We found variation between the morphs in the fitness consequences of mating, with the fecundity of one of the nonmimetic morphs declining with increasing male mating harassment. However, androchrome females had lower overall fecundity, presumably reflecting a cost of male mimicry. Density-dependent male mating harassment on the morphs and fecundity costs of male mimicry are thus likely to contribute to the maintenance of this female polymorphism. PMID:19382852

  17. 46 CFR 15.610 - Master and mate (pilot) of towing vessels.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master and mate (pilot) of towing vessels. 15.610... MANNING REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Uninspected Vessels § 15.610 Master and mate (pilot) of towing... and control of a person holding a license or MMC officer endorsement as master or mate (pilot)...

  18. 46 CFR 11.459 - Service requirements for master or mate of rivers.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service requirements for master or mate of rivers. 11... requirements for master or mate of rivers. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as master of river steam or... motor vessels of any gross tons. (b) An applicant for an endorsement as master or mate of river steam...

  19. The Mating Game: A Classroom Activity for Undergraduates that Explores the Evolutionary Basis of Sex Roles

    Moore, Dani; Holbrook, C. Tate; Meadows, Melissa G.; Taylor, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    In species that reproduce sexually, an individual's fitness depends on its ability to secure a mate (or mates). Although both males and females are selected to maximize their reproductive output, the mating strategies of the two sexes can differ dramatically. We present a classroom simulation that allows undergraduates to actively experience how

  20. Mating with large males decreases the immune defence of females in Drosophila melanogaster

    K. Imroze; N. G. Prasad

    2011-12-01

    Mating has been widely reported to be a costly event for females. Studies indicate that female cost of mating in terms of fecundity and survivorship can be affected by their mates, leading to antagonistic coevolution between the sexes. However, as of now, there is no evidence that the female cost of mating in terms of immune defence is affected by their mates. We assess the effect of different sized males on antibacterial immune defence and reproductive fitness of their mates. We used a large outbred population of Drososphila melanogaster as the host and Serratia marcescens as the pathogen. We generated three different male phenotypes: small, medium and large, by manipulating larval densities. Compared to females mating with small males, those mating with large males had higher bacterial loads and lower fecundity. There was no significant effect of male phenotype on the fraction of females mated or copulation duration (an indicator of ejaculate investment). Thus, our study is the first clear demonstration that male phenotype can affect the cost of mating to females in terms of their antibacterial immune defence. Mating with large males imposes an additional cost of mating to females in terms of reduced immune defence. The observed results are very likely due to qualitative/quantitative differences in the ejaculates of the three different types of males. If the phenotypic variation that we observed in males in our study is mirrored by genetic variation, then, it can potentially lead to antagonistic coevolution of the sexes over immune defence.

  1. The Mating Game: A Classroom Activity for Undergraduates that Explores the Evolutionary Basis of Sex Roles

    Moore, Dani; Holbrook, C. Tate; Meadows, Melissa G.; Taylor, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    In species that reproduce sexually, an individual's fitness depends on its ability to secure a mate (or mates). Although both males and females are selected to maximize their reproductive output, the mating strategies of the two sexes can differ dramatically. We present a classroom simulation that allows undergraduates to actively experience how…

  2. Condition-Dependent Effects of Mating on Longevity and Fecundity of Female Medflies: The Interplay between Nutrition and Age of Mating

    Papanastasiou, Stella A.; Nakas, Christos T; Carey, James R; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

    2013-01-01

    Background In various species mating exerts direct and indirect effects on female demographic traits ranging from life span shortening to behavioural shifts. A wealth of data regarding effects of nutrition on longevity and reproduction output also exists. Nonetheless, little is known regarding the interaction between the age of mating and nutrition on female fitness. Methodology We studied, the effects of protein deprivation and age of mating on female fitness traits, using a wild population ...

  3. Benefits of extra-pair mating may depend on environmental conditions-an experimental study in the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus).

    Arct, Aneta; Drobniak, Szymon M; Podmok?a, Edyta; Gustafson, Lars; Cicho?, Mariusz

    2013-01-01

    Extra-pair mating constitutes a relatively common reproductive strategy in many socially monogamous bird species. This strategy may considerably improve reproductive success of males, but female benefits from extra-pair matings still remain unclear and empirical evidence is scarce. This may be because genetic benefits of extra-pair mating are not always revealed. It is possible that they are shown only in unfavourable environmental conditions and hence problems arise with detecting differences between within- and extra-pair offspring whose performance is measured under favourable conditions. In order to test this prediction, we manipulated environmental conditions by altering brood sizes of blue tits and compared phenotypic characteristics of within- and extra-pair offspring in mixed-paternity broods. We found that extra-pair young exhibited a higher response to phytohemagglutinin in comparison to within-pair young, but this was only observed among nestlings from experimentally enlarged broods. These results indicate that genetic benefits may interact with the environment, and thus benefits of extra-pair mating are likely to become visible only when conditions are relatively unfavourable. PMID:24273372

  4. EFEITO DA ADIO DE RESDUOS DE PODA DA ERVA-MATE EM PAINIS AGLOMERADOS / EFFECT OF ADDING YERBA MATE PRUNING RESIDUES IN PARTICLEBOARD PANELS

    Amelia Guimares, Carvalho; Bruno Geike de, Andrade; Carla Priscilla Tvora, Cabral; Benedito Rocha, Vital.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade tcnica da utilizao de resduos da poda de erva-mate na produo de painis aglomerados. Foram produzidos painis de aglomerados nas seguintes composies: 100% de pinus (T1), 100% de resduos de erva-mate com casca (T2), 100% de resduos de erva [...] -mate sem casca (T3), 50% de pinus com 50% de resduos de erva-mate com casca (T4) e 50% de pinus com 50% de resduos de erva-mate sem casca (T5). Os painis foram produzidos com o adesivo ureia-formaldedo a um teor de 8%, com ciclo de prensagem de 8 min, a 170 C e 30 kgf.cm-2. Os painis produzidos com os resduos de erva-mate apresentaram menor umidade de equilbrio higroscpico (UEH), assim como menor absoro de gua aps 24 h de imerso (AA 24 h). No houve diferena estatstica entre os tratamentos quanto s propriedades de compresso, arrancamento de parafusos, dureza Janka e ligao interna. Os painis produzidos com resduos de erva-mate, assim como as misturas deles com partculas de pinus, apresentaram valores de mdulo de ruptura flexo esttica inferiores aos estipulados pela norma brasileira NBR 14810-2 (ABNT, 2002). Como no atenderam a um dos requisitos mnimos, painis produzidos com resduos de erva-mate no devem ser utilizados em substituio aos painis de madeira aglomerada. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of using residues from pruning yerba mate for manufacturing particleboard panels. Particleboard panels were produced containing: 100% pine (T1), 100% residues of yerba mate with bark (T2), 100% residues of yerba mate without bark (T3), [...] 50% pine with 50% residues of yerba mate with bark (T4) and 50% pine with 50% residues of yerba mate without bark (T5). The panels were produced with an urea formaldehyde adhesive 8%, with a pressing cycle of 8 minutes at 170 C and 30 kgf.cm-2. The panels produced with residues of yerba mate showed less hygroscopic equilibrium moisture (HEM) and lower water absorption after 24 of immersion (AA 24 h). There was no statistical difference among the treatments as for the properties of compression, screws pullout, Janka hardness and internal bond. The panels produced with residues of yerba mate, as well as mixtures of these with pine particles, showed values of modulus of rupture in static bending lower than stipulated by the Brazilian standard NBR 14810-2 (ABNT, 2002). Since they did meet one of the basic requirements, panels produced with residues of yerba mate should not be used to substitute wood particleboard panels.

  5. Sperm precedence in female apple maggots alternately mated to normal and irradiated males

    Myers, H.S.; Barry, B.D.; Burnside, J.A.; Rhode, R.H.

    1976-01-15

    A dose of irradiation (Cesium 137) of 3 krad was sufficient to sterilize both sexes of the apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh). When the irradiated male (IM) mated with normal female (NF), egg production was not reduced compared with a normal mating, but the eggs were not viable. Also, two matings of 1 NF with either 2 IM or with 1 NM and 1 IM, produced fewer eggs than a single mating with 1 normal male. Sperm precedence exhibited for the 2nd of the 2 matings was not complete.

  6. Interaction of H+ with the extracellular and intracellular aspects of hMATE1

    Dangprapai, Yodying; Wright, Stephen H

    2011-01-01

    Human multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (hMATE1, SLC47A1) is a major candidate for being the molecular identity of organic cation/proton (OC/H+) exchange activity in the luminal membrane of renal proximal tubules. Although physiological function of hMATE1 supports luminal OC efflux, the kinetics of hMATE1-mediated OC transport have typically been characterized through measurement of uptake, i.e., the interaction between outward-facing hMATE1 and OCs. To examine kinetics of hMATE1-mediated trans...

  7. Sperm precedence in female apple maggots alternately mated to normal and irradiated males

    A dose of irradiation (Cesium 137) of 3 krad was sufficient to sterilize both sexes of the apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh). When the irradiated male (IM) mated with normal female (NF), egg production was not reduced compared with a normal mating, but the eggs were not viable. Also, two matings of 1 NF with either 2 IM or with 1 NM and 1 IM, produced fewer eggs than a single mating with 1 normal male. Sperm precedence exhibited for the 2nd of the 2 matings was not complete

  8. New insights into parental effects and toxicity: Mate availability and diet in the parental environment affect offspring responses to contaminants

    Parental effects manifest as alterations in offspring phenotype resulting from the parental phenotype and/or parental environment. We evaluated the effects of parental diet quality and mating strategy on the toxicant tolerance of offspring in Biomphalaria glabrata snails. We raised snails either individually (self-fertilizing) or in groups of three (outcrossing) on a diet of uncooked lettuce, fish food, cooked lettuce, or cooked lettuce plus fish food. We then exposed their offspring to cadmium and malathion challenges. Cadmium tolerance varied with parental diet and was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails than self-fertilizing snails. Malathion tolerance was not affected by parental diet but was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails. These results indicate that offspring responses to stressors are heavily influenced by parental experience, but may depend on the specific stressor and the mechanism of action and/or detoxification. -- Highlights: •We reared parental snails either alone or in groups and fed them one of four diets. •We exposed their juvenile offspring to cadmium and malathion survival challenges. •Outcrossing increased toxicant tolerance of juveniles compared to self-fertilizing. •Parental diet affected juvenile offspring tolerance to cadmium but not malathion. •Toxicant characteristics likely influenced parental effects on toxicant tolerance. -- Both parental diet composition and mating strategy can significantly alter the toxicant tolerance of offspring, and toxicant characteristics likely influence the probability of parental effects

  9. Reciprocal herkogamy promotes disassortative mating in a distylous species with intramorph compatibility.

    Zhou, Wei; Barrett, Spencer C H; Wang, Hong; Li, De-Zhu

    2015-06-01

    Mating patterns in heterostylous species with intramorph compatibility have the potential to deviate from symmetrical disassortative mating owing to ecological and reproductive factors influencing pollen dispersal. Here, we investigate potential and realized patterns of mating in distylous Luculia pinceana (Rubiaceae), a species with intramorph compatibility. Our analysis provides an opportunity to test Darwin's hypothesis that reciprocal herkogamy promotes disassortative pollen transfer. We combined measurements of sex-organ reciprocity and pollen production to predict potential pollen transfer and mating patterns in a population from SW China. Marker-based paternity analysis was then used to estimate realized patterns of disassortative and assortative mating at the individual and floral morph levels. Both potential and realized mating patterns indicated a significant component of disassortative mating, satisfying theoretical conditions for the maintenance of floral dimorphism. Levels of assortative mating (37.7%) were significantly lower than disassortative mating (62.3%), but numerous offspring resulting from intramorph mating were detected in the majority of maternal seed families in both floral morphs. Our results provide empirical support for Darwin's cross-promotion hypothesis on the function of reciprocal herkogamy, but indicate that in most heterostylous species strong diallelic incompatibility may be a general requirement for complete disassortative mating. PMID:25664897

  10. Social network analysis of mating patterns in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Moore, Jennifer A; Xu, Ran; Frank, Kenneth; Draheim, Hope; Scribner, Kim T

    2015-08-01

    Nonrandom mating can structure populations and has important implications for population-level processes. Investigating how and why mating deviates from random is important for understanding evolutionary processes as well as informing conservation and management. Prior to the implementation of parentage analyses, understanding mating patterns in solitary, elusive species like bears was virtually impossible. Here, we capitalize on a long-term genetic data set collected from black bears (Ursus americanus) (N = 2422) in the Northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan, USA. We identified mated pairs using parentage analysis and applied logistic regression (selection) models that controlled for features of the social network, to quantify the effects of individual characteristics, and spatial and population demographic factors on mating dynamics. Logistic regression models revealed that black bear mating was associated with spatial proximity of mates, male age, the time a pair had coexisted, local population density and relatedness. Mated pairs were more likely to contain older males. On average, bears tended to mate with nearby individuals to whom they were related, which does not support the existence of kin recognition in black bears. Pairwise relatedness was especially high for mated pairs containing young males. Restricted dispersal and high male turnover from intensive harvest mortality of NLP black bears are probably the underlying factors associated with younger male bears mating more often with female relatives. Our findings illustrate how harvest has the potential to disrupt the social structure of game species, which warrants further attention for conservation and management. PMID:26113220

  11. Reproductive and productive efficiencies of Etawah Grade goats under various mating managements

    Bambang Sunadi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six Etawah Grade (PE goats were treated with three type of mating managements, i.e. mated at the first oestrous (A, mated at the second oestrous (B, and mated at the third oestrous (C after parturition, respectively . Results showed that average first estrous was 56 days (26-99 d after parturition with estrous cycle of 21 days . Conception rate at the first and second oestrous mating managements (A and B were 50 and 70%, respectively . Variability of birth weight (3,4 - 3,5 kg under three mating managements were not significantly different (P>0 .05, but the weaning weight of kids of B (16 .4 kg was higher (P<0.05 than A (11 .8 kg and C (12.9 kg, respectively. Does productivity (total weaning weight was not significantly affected by mating management, i.e. at fisrt, second or third oestrous after parturition .

  12. Coordinate control of initiative mating device for autonomous underwater vehicle based on TDES

    Yan, Zhe-Ping; Hou, Shu-Ping

    2005-06-01

    A novel initiative mating device, which has four 2-degree manipulators around the mating skirt, is proposed to mate between a skirt of AUV (autonomons underwater vehicle) and a disabled submarine. The primary function of the device is to keep exact mating between skirt and disabled submarine in a badly sub sea environment. According to the characteristic of rescue, an automaton model is brought foward to describe the mating proceed between AUV and manipulators. The coordinated control is implemented by the TDES (time discrete event system). After taking into account the time problem, it is a useful method to control mating by simulation testing. The result shows that it reduces about 70 seconds after using intelligent co-ordinate control based on TDES through the whole mating procedure.

  13. Fitness consequences of female multiple mating: A direct test of indirect benefits

    Barbosa Miguel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The observation that females mate multiply when males provide nothing but sperm - which sexual selection theory suggests is unlikely to be limiting - continues to puzzle evolutionary biologists. Here we test the hypothesis that multiple mating is prevalent under such circumstances because it enhances female fitness. We do this by allowing female Trinidadian guppies to mate with either a single male or with multiple males, and then tracking the consequences of these matings across two generations. Results Overall, multiply mated females produced 67% more F2 grand-offspring than singly mated females. These offspring, however, did not grow or mature faster, nor were they larger at birth, than F2 grand-offspring of singly mated females. Our results, however, show that multiple mating yields benefits to females in the form of an increase in the production of F1. The higher fecundity among multiply mated mothers was driven by greater production of sons but not daughters. However, contrary to expectation, individually, the offspring of multiply mated females do not grow at different rates than offspring of singly mated females, nor do any indirect fitness benefits or costs accrue to second-generation offspring. Conclusions The study provides strong evidence that multiple mating is advantageous to females, even when males contribute only sperm. This benefit is achieved through an increase in fecundity in the first generation, rather than through other fitness correlates such as size at birth, growth rate, time to sexual maturation and survival. Considered alongside previous work that female guppies can choose to mate with multiple partners, our results provide compelling evidence that direct fitness benefits underpin these mating decisions.

  14. Hydrocarbon Patterns and Mating Behaviour in Populations of Drosophila yakuba.

    Denis, Béatrice; Rouzic, Arnaud Le; Wicker-Thomas, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila yakuba is widespread in Africa. Here we compare the cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles and mating behavior of mainland (Kounden, Cameroon) and island (Mayotte, Sao-Tome, Bioko) populations. The strains each had different CHC profiles: Bioko and Kounden were the most similar, while Mayotte and Sao-Tome contained significant amounts of 7-heptacosene. The CHC profile of the Sao-Tome population differed the most, with half the 7-tricosene of the other populations and more 7-heptacosene and 7-nonacosene. We also studied the characteristics of the mating behavior of the four strains: copulation duration was similar but latency times were higher in Mayotte and Sao-Tome populations. We found partial reproductive isolation between populations, especially in male-choice experiments with Sao-Tome females. PMID:26516919

  15. Optimal swimming strategies in mate searching pelagic copepods

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Male copepods must swim to find females, but swimming increases the risk of meeting predators and is expensive in terms of energy expenditure. Here I address the trade-offs between gains and risks and the question of how much and how fast to swim using simple models that optimise the number of...... lifetime mate encounters. Radically different swimming strategies are predicted for different feeding behaviours, and these predictions are tested experimentally using representative species. In general, male swimming speeds and the difference in swimming speeds between the genders are predicted and...... observed to increase with increasing conflict between mate searching and feeding. It is high in ambush feeders, where searching (swimming) and feeding are mutually exclusive and low in species, where the matured males do not feed at all. Ambush feeding males alternate between stationary ambush feeding and...

  16. Honey Bee Mating Optimization Vector Quantization Scheme in Image Compression

    Horng, Ming-Huwi

    The vector quantization is a powerful technique in the applications of digital image compression. The traditionally widely used method such as the Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) algorithm always generated local optimal codebook. Recently, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is adapted to obtain the near-global optimal codebook of vector quantization. In this paper, we applied a new swarm algorithm, honey bee mating optimization, to construct the codebook of vector quantization. The proposed method is called the honey bee mating optimization based LBG (HBMO-LBG) algorithm. The results were compared with the other two methods that are LBG and PSO-LBG algorithms. Experimental results showed that the proposed HBMO-LBG algorithm is more reliable and the reconstructed images get higher quality than those generated form the other three methods.

  17. Fighting experience affects fruit fly behavior in a mating context.

    Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Mery, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In animals, correlations exist among behaviors within individuals, but it is unclear whether experience in a specific functional context can affect behavior across different contexts. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the effects of conflict-induced behavioral modifications on male mating behavior. In D. melanogaster, males fight for territories and experience a strong winner-loser effect, meaning that winners become more likely to win subsequent fights compared to losers, who continue to lose. In our protocol, males were tested for courtship intensity before and after fighting against other males. We show that male motivation to copulate before fights cannot predict the fight outcomes, but that, afterwards, losers mate less than before and less than winner and control males. Contrarily, winners show no differences between pre- and post-fight courtship intensity, and do not differ from control males. This suggests that the physiological modifications resulting from fight outcomes indirectly affect male reproductive behavior. PMID:27108453

  18. Tecnologia da erva-mate solúvel

    Berté, Kleber Alves dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: A erva-mate (Ilex paguariensis A. St.-Hil.) é uma árvore da família Aquifoliaceae, que ocupa uma região da América do Sul de aproximadamente 540.000 km², situada entre o noroeste Argentino, o leste do Paraguai e sul do Brasil. Os estados do Paraná, Santa Catarina e Rio Grande do Sul são os maiores produtores e consumidores de erva-mate. O chimarrão é a bebida mais apreciada e o seu consumo está vinculado às tradições e hábitos culturais predominantemente na região sul do país. O desen...

  19. Hydrocarbon Patterns and Mating Behaviour in Populations of Drosophila yakuba

    Béatrice Denis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila yakuba is widespread in Africa. Here we compare the cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC profiles and mating behavior of mainland (Kounden, Cameroon and island (Mayotte, Sao-Tome, Bioko populations. The strains each had different CHC profiles: Bioko and Kounden were the most similar, while Mayotte and Sao-Tome contained significant amounts of 7-heptacosene. The CHC profile of the Sao-Tome population differed the most, with half the 7-tricosene of the other populations and more 7-heptacosene and 7-nonacosene. We also studied the characteristics of the mating behavior of the four strains: copulation duration was similar but latency times were higher in Mayotte and Sao-Tome populations. We found partial reproductive isolation between populations, especially in male-choice experiments with Sao-Tome females.

  20. Mechanical seal having a single-piece, perforated mating ring

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2007-08-07

    A mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) with reduced contact surface temperature, reduced contact surface wear, or increased life span. The mechanical seal comprises a rotating ring and a single-piece, perforated mating ring, which improves heat transfer by controllably channeling coolant flow through the single-piece mating ring such that the coolant is in substantially uniform thermal contact with a substantial portion of the interior surface area of the seal face, while maintaining the structural integrity of the mechanical seal and minimizing the potential for coolant flow interruptions to the seal face caused by debris or contaminants (e.g., small solids and trash) in the coolant.

  1. The genetic structure and mating system of Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae)

    Aluana Gonçalves Abreu; Regina Helena Geribello Priolli; Joaquim Adelino Azevedo-Filho; Stella Maris Nucci; Maria Imaculada Zucchi; Ricardo Marques Coelho; Carlos Augusto Colombo

    2012-01-01

    Acrocomia aculeata is a perennial, fruit-producing palm tree, native to tropical forests. Its fruits have spurred interest because of their significant potential for use in the cosmetic industry and as feedstock for biofuel. In the present study, the genetic structure and mating system in Acrocomia aculeata were analyzed, using eight nuclear micro-satellite loci and samples from São Paulo and Minas Gerais states, Brazil. By means of Bayesian analysis, these populations were clustered into two...

  2. The incidence and selection of multiple mating in plants

    Pannell, John R.; Labouche, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Mating with more than one pollen donor, or polyandry, is common in land plants. In flowering plants, polyandry occurs when the pollen from different potential sires is distributed among the fruits of a single individual, or when pollen from more than one donor is deposited on the same stigma. Because polyandry typically leads to multiple paternity among or within fruits, it can be indirectly inferred on the basis of paternity analysis using molecular markers. A review of the literature indica...

  3. Post-mating inflammatory responses of the uterus.

    Katila, T

    2012-08-01

    This review attempts to summarize the current knowledge on uterine inflammatory response after mating in horses, pigs and cattle. Post-mating endometritis has been extensively studied in horses as it has been considered to cause infertility. The inflammation is known to occur also in cattle, but it has not been investigated to a similar extent. There are a number of publications about mechanisms of post-mating uterine inflammation in pigs, which seem to resemble those in horses. The major focus of this review is the horse, but relevant literature is presented also on swine and cattle. Spermatozoa, seminal plasma and semen extenders play roles in the induction of inflammation. In addition, sperm numbers, concentration and viability, as well as the site of semen deposition may modulate the inflammatory response. Cytokines, polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) and mononuclear cells represent the uterine inflammatory response to mating. Inflammation is the first line of defence against invasion and eliminates excess spermatozoa and bacteria. Semen deposition elicits a massive PMN invasion, followed by phagocytosis of sperm aided by the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. Exposure of the female genital tract to semen is important also for endometrial receptivity and pre-implantation embryo development. Seminal plasma (SP) and inflammation elicit transient immune tolerance to antigens present in semen. SP contains immune-regulatory molecules that activate and control immune responses to antigens by stimulating expression of cytokines and growth factors and by initiating tissue remodelling. SP also regulates ovarian function. Effective elimination of excess sperm and inflammatory by-products and subsequent rapid return of the endometrium to the normal state is a prerequisite for pregnancy. Uterine backflow, driven by myometrial contractions and requiring a patent cervix, is an important physical tool in uterine drainage. PMID:22913558

  4. Mating-type Gene Switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Lee, Cheng-Sheng; Haber, James E

    2015-04-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two alternative mating types designated MATa and MAT?. These are distinguished by about 700 bp of unique sequences, Ya or Y?, including divergent promoter sequences and part of the open reading frames of genes that regulate mating phenotype. Homothallic budding yeast, carrying an active HO endonuclease gene, HO, can switch mating type through a recombination process known as gene conversion, in which a site-specific double-strand break (DSB) created immediately adjacent to the Y region results in replacement of the Y sequences with a copy of the opposite mating type information, which is harbored in one of two heterochromatic donor loci, HML? or HMRa. HO gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that only half of the cells in a lineage switch to the opposite MAT allele, thus promoting conjugation and diploid formation. Study of the silencing of these loci has provided a great deal of information about the role of the Sir2 histone deacetylase and its associated Sir3 and Sir4 proteins in creating heterochromatic regions. MAT switching has been examined in great detail to learn about the steps in homologous recombination. MAT switching is remarkably directional, with MATa recombining preferentially with HML? and MAT? using HMRa. Donor preference is controlled by a cis-acting recombination enhancer located near HML. RE is turned off in MAT? cells but in MATa binds multiple copies of the Fkh1 transcription factor whose forkhead-associated phosphothreonine binding domain localizes at the DSB, bringing HML into conjunction with MATa. PMID:26104712

  5. Extra-Pair Mating and Evolution of Cooperative Neighbourhoods

    Eliassen, Sigrunn; Jrgensen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A striking but unexplained pattern in biology is the promiscuous mating behaviour in socially monogamous species. Although females commonly solicit extra-pair copulations, the adaptive reason has remained elusive. We use evolutionary modelling of breeding ecology to show that females benefit because extra-pair paternity incentivizes males to shift focus from a single brood towards the entire neighbourhood, as they are likely to have offspring there. Male-male cooperation towards public go...

  6. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies

    Yap, Sarsha; Fanson, Benjamin G; Taylor, Phillip W

    2015-01-01

    Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation o...

  7. MATING BEHAVIOUR AND CANNIBALISM IN PRAYING MANTIS (MANTIS RELIGIOSA

    Daniel – Ionuţ BOGDAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study the reproductive behaviour of praying mantis (Mantis religiosa L., describing the whole sequences of mating behaviour, approaching wholeness behavioural sequences related to reproduction of species, with special reference to cannibalistic behaviour, observed both in laboratory and natural environment of the insect. The investigations undertaken deduce the complexity of the problem and the need for further studies to elucidate and other aspects reguarding this type of behaviour.

  8. MATING BEHAVIOUR AND CANNIBALISM IN PRAYING MANTIS (MANTIS RELIGIOSA

    Daniel – Ionuţ BOGDAN; Dan STĂNESCU

    2010-01-01

    This paper intends to study the reproductive behaviour of praying mantis (Mantis religiosa L.), describing the whole sequences of mating behaviour, approaching wholeness behavioural sequences related to reproduction of species, with special reference to cannibalistic behaviour, observed both in laboratory and natural environment of the insect. The investigations undertaken deduce the complexity of the problem and the need for further studies to elucidate and other aspects reguarding this ty...

  9. Multiple mating and offspring quality in Lasius ants

    Fjerdingstad E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity benefits for social insect colonies headed by polyandrous queens have received intense attention, whereas sexual selection remains little explored. Yet mates of the same queen may engage in sperm competition over the siring of offspring, and this could confer benefits on queens if the most successful sire in each colony (the majority sire) produces gynes (daughter queens) of higher quality. These benefits could be increased if high-quality sires make queens increase the perc...

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on sperm utilization in twice-mated female of potato tuber moth (Lep., Noctuidae)

    The effects of second mating on fecundity and fertility of potato tuber moth female mated with 450 Gy - irradiated and normal males or vice versa were studied. Percentage of eggs fertilized by sperm from the 2 nd mate (P2) was 0.99, indicating that sperm transferred during the last mating were predominantly utilized in egg fertilization. Females mated first with irradiated males, remated after 2 days, while those mated first with normal males, remated after 3.3 days. Fecundity of twice-mated females was higher than those mated only once. Females laid their eggs 1.9 days after mating, while unmated females did not lay eggs at all. Duration of mating varied from 102 to 117 minutes for normal and irradiated males, respectively. (author)

  11. Mating strategies in dominant meerkats: evidence for extra-pair paternity in relation to genetic relatedness between pair mates.

    Leclaire, S; Nielsen, J F; Sharp, S P; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2013-07-01

    Rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP) have frequently been associated with genetic relatedness between social mates in socially monogamous birds. However, evidence is limited in mammals. Here, we investigate whether dominant females use divorce or extra-pair paternity as a strategy to avoid the negative effects of inbreeding when paired with a related male in meerkats Suricata suricatta, a species where inbreeding depression is evident for several traits. We show that dominant breeding pairs seldom divorce, but that rates of EPP are associated with genetic similarity between mates. Although extra-pair males are no more distantly related to the female than social males, they are more heterozygous. Nevertheless, extra-pair pups are not more heterozygous than within-pair pups. Whether females benefit from EPP in terms of increased fitness of the offspring, such as enhanced survival or growth, requires further investigations. PMID:23675879

  12. Aromatized to Find Mates: α-Pinene Aroma Boosts the Mating Success of Adult Olive Fruit Flies

    Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

    2013-01-01

    Background Contrary to other Tephritidae, female but also male olive flies, Bactrocera oleae release pheromones during their sexual communication. Alpha-pinene, a common plant volatile found in high amounts in unripe olive fruit and leaves has been detected as one of the major components of the female pheromone. However, possible effects of α-pinene and that of other host volatiles on the mating behavior of the olive fly have not been investigated. Methodology Using wild olive flies, reared o...

  13. First evidences of sexual selection by mate choice in marine zooplankton.

    Ceballos, Sara; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Sexual selection is potentially important in marine zooplankton, presumably the most abundant metazoans on earth, but it has never been documented. We examine the conditions for sexual selection through mate choice and describe mating preferences in relation to size in a marine zooplankter, the pelagic copepod Acartia tonsa. Males produce spermatophores at a rate (~1 day(-1)) much lower than known female encounter rates for most of the year and the decision to mate a particular female thus implies lost future opportunities. Female egg production increases with female size, and males mating larger females therefore sire more offspring per mating event. Similarly, females encounter males more frequently than they need to mate. Large males produce larger spermatophores than small males and the offspring production of female increases with the size of the spermatophore she receives. Additionally, large spermatophores allow females to fertilize eggs for a longer period. Thus, mating with large males reduces the female's need for frequent matings and she may sire sons that produce more offspring because size is heritable in copepods. Finally, we show that both males and females mate preferentially with large partners. This is the first demonstration of sexual selection by mate choice in a planktonic organism. PMID:20811913

  14. Promiscuous mating in the harem-roosting fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Garg, Kritika M; Chattopadhyay, Balaji; Doss D, Paramanatha Swami; A K, Vinoth Kumar; Kandula, Sripathi; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2012-08-01

    Observations on mating behaviours and strategies guide our understanding of mating systems and variance in reproductive success. However, the presence of cryptic strategies often results in situations where social mating system is not reflective of genetic mating system. We present such a study of the genetic mating system of a harem-forming bat Cynopterus sphinx where harems may not be true indicators of male reproductive success. This temporal study using data from six seasons on paternity reveals that social harem assemblages do not play a role in the mating system, and variance in male reproductive success is lower than expected assuming polygynous mating. Further, simulations reveal that the genetic mating system is statistically indistinguishable from promiscuity. Our results are in contrast to an earlier study that demonstrated high variance in male reproductive success. Although an outcome of behavioural mating patterns, standardized variance in male reproductive success (I(m)) affects the opportunity for sexual selection. To gain a better understanding of the evolutionary implications of promiscuity for mammals in general, we compared our estimates of I(m) and total opportunity for sexual selection (I(m) /I(f), where I(f) is standardized variance in female reproductive success) with those of other known promiscuous species. We observed a broad range of I(m) /I(f) values across known promiscuous species, indicating our poor understanding of the evolutionary implications of promiscuous mating. PMID:22725709

  15. Inhibition of female mating receptivity by male-derived extracts in two Callosobruchus species: consequences for interspecific mating.

    Yamane, Takashi; Miyatake, Takahisa

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the effects of injecting male-derived extracts on congeneric female receptivity in two species of Callosobruchus beetle, C. chinensis and C. maculatus. We also examined the influence of interspecific mating on female remating behaviour in these two species. Male-derived extracts reduced congeneric female receptivity in both species. As quick-acting components, extracts of C. chinensis male seminal vesicles reduced the receptivity of C. maculatus females, whereas extracts of C. maculatus male testes reduced the receptivity of C. chinensis females. As slow-acting components, extracts of male accessory glands of other species reduced the receptivity of both C. maculatus and chinensis females. After interspecific mating, the sperm of C. maculatus males were transferred to the reproductive organs of C. chinensis females, thereby reducing their receptivity. In contrast, no C. chinensis sperm were transferred to the reproductive organs of C. maculatus females; accordingly, the latter's receptivity was not reduced. Furthermore, the survival rate of C. chinensis females decreased markedly after interspecific mating. These results raise the possibility that under circumstances where populations of these two species share the same habitat, reproductive interference would occur only in the interactions between C. maculatus males and C. chinensis females. PMID:20493873

  16. Effect of adult diet on signaling activity, mate attraction, and mating success in male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Field experiments were performed to examine the effect of adult diet on calling activity, female attraction, and mating success in male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). In all tests, comparisons were drawn between males fed sugar only ('protein-deprived' males) and males fed a protein-sugar mixture ('protein-fed' males). In tests of long-distance attraction, aggregations consisting of protein-deprived males exclusively or protein-fed males exclusively were established in a coffee field, and females were released from a central release point. Protein-fed and protein-deprived males displayed similar calling levels, but approximately twice as many female sightings were recorded at groups of protein-fed males than at groups of protein-deprived males. A second test of female attraction compared single groups of protein-deprived and protein-fed males within the canopy of a field-caged host plant. As before, calling activity did not vary with diet, and in this case numbers of female sightings were also similar between aggregations of protein-fed vs. protein-deprived males. In mating trials conducted on field-caged host plants, protein-fed males achieved significantly more matings than protein-deprived males. These results are compared with other recent studies on the nutritional ecology of male Mediterranean fruit flies. (author)

  17. A comparison of two methods to assess audience-induced changes in male mate choice

    Madlen ZIEGE, Carmen HENNIGE-SCHULZ, Frauke MUECKSCH,David BIERBACH, Ralph TIEDEMANN, Bruno STREIT, Martin PLATH

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Multidirectional communicative interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior. Male Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana exhibit weaker mating preferences when an audience male is presented. This could be a male strategy to reduce sperm competition risk: interacting more equally with different females may be advantageous because rivals might copy mate choice decisions. In line with this hypothesis, a previous study found males to show a strong audience effect when being observed while exercising mate choice, but not when the rival was presented only before the choice tests. Audience effects on mate choice decisions have been quantified in poeciliid fishes using association preference designs, but it remains unknown if patterns found from measuring association times translate into actual mating behavior. Thus, we created five audience treatments simulating different forms of perceived sperm competition risk and determined focal males’ mating preferences by scoring pre-mating (nipping and mating behavior (gonopodial thrusting. Nipping did not reflect the pattern that was found when association preferences were measured, while a very similar pattern was uncovered in thrusting behavior. The strongest response was observed when the audience could eavesdrop on the focal male’s behavior. A reduction in the strength of focal males’ preferences was also seen after the rival male had an opportunity to mate with the focal male’s preferred mate. In comparison, the reduction of mating preferences in response to an audience was greater when measuring association times than actual mating behavior. While measuring direct sexual interactions between the focal male and both stimulus females not only the male’s motivational state is reflected but also females’ behavior such as avoidance of male sexual harassment [Current Zoology 58 (1: 84–94, 2012].

  18. Levels of myosin heavy chain mRNA transcripts and content of protein isoforms in the slow soleus muscle of 7 month-old rats with altered thyroid status

    Vadászová, Adriana; Hudecová, S.; Križanová, O.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2006), s. 221-225. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD305/03/H148; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0327 Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 2/6078; SAV(SK) APVT-51-027404; NATO(XE) 979876; MYORES(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : myosin heavy chain * thyroid hormones status * mRNA transcripts Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2006

  19. Long-term alteration of cementitious materials

    Long-term alteration of cementitious materials in the geological condition has been discussed for the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. This paper describes the status of understanding long-term chemical alteration of cement, by reviewing some of our investigations on this issue in which we developed a thermodynamic incongruent C-S-H dissolution/precipitation model and a reactive transport calculation code. Alteration of C-S-H gel in a saline groundwater and the change of chemical barrier performance of cementitious materials due to the alteration are also discussed. Some key issues to be discussed further are given and suggested for the future studies on the long-term alteration of cementitious materials in the repository environment. (author)

  20. Effect of host social mating status on breeding success of a brood parasite

    Honza, Marcel; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    Hainan : Hainan Normal University, 2012. s. 16. [International Symposium on Avian Brood Parasitism - in Honour of Significant Brood Parasitism Scientists. 15.11.2012-19.11.2012, Hainan] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : cuckoo * great reed warbler Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  1. The smell of virgins: mating status of females affects male swimming behaviour in Oithona davisae

    Heuschele, Jan; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Many copepod species rely on pheromone cues to find partners. Some parasitic and benthic copepod males are able to distinguish between females of different reproductive states. Here, we demonstrate that the swimming activity and velocity of males of a pelagic copepod, Oithona davisae, increases in...

  2. Breeding success of a brood parasite is associated with social mating status of its host

    Trnka, A.; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Prokop, P.; Honza, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 8 (2012), s. 1187-1194. ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brood parasitism * cuckoo * great reed warbler * polygyny * reproductive success Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.752, year: 2012

  3. Impact of sex, age, and mating status on flight behavior of the navel orangeworm (NOW)

    The current flight mill study shows that single-night median flight distance of unmated navel orangeworm adults is 4.5-6.6 miles for males and 4.1-8.7 miles for females depending on age during the first five days of adult life. Maximum distances were 16.6-24.5 miles for males and 33.9-41.1 miles for...

  4. Mating Success of Female Dungeness Crabs (Cancer magister) in Oregon Coastal Waters

    Dunn, Paul; Shanks, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The Dungeness crab is an important commercial and sports fishing species in Oregon. The fishery is regulated by sex, size, and season. This study examined whether female crabs are mating despite the removal of almost all legal-size male crabs each year. Of particular concern is whether large...... females are finding large enough mates. Females were collected from three Oregon fishing ports, dissected, and checked for evidence of mating. Captured male and female crabs were also measured to estimate population size distributions. The majority of female crabs examined (69%) mated in the collection...... year, and when combined with crabs that carried sperm from previous mating encounters (females store sperm), the percent of females that would have produced viable eggs was 83%. Crabs that definitely molted during the collection year showed higher mating success (95%). The largest females examined...

  5. Radiation-induced mating-type switching in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Haploid yeast cells possess two different mating types which are controlled genetically by the MAT locus. Information of the opposite mating type is stored on the same chromosome but not expressed. Radiation may initiate a gene conversion event leading to 'mating-type switching'. This was studied by using X-rays and 254 nm ultraviolet light. X-ray-induced mating type switching shows an oxygen enhancement ratio of 2.9 which is higher than that for survival (1.8) and equals that for double-strand break induction. Mating-type switching by UV is not photoreactivable and depends on a functioning excision repair system. The results are compatible with the interpretation that mating type switching is initiated by a double-strand break in the MAT coding region. (author)

  6. Mating Behavior of the African Weaver Ant, Oecophylla longinoda (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Nene, Wilson; Rwegasira, Gration; Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Mwatawala, Maulid; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel

    2015-01-01

    Mating in most species of ants occurs during nuptial flights. In the African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda Latreille, mating has previously been hypothesized to take place within the nest before the nuptial flight. However, several researchers disagree with this supposition particularly with...... reference to the closely related species Oecopylla smaragdina (Fabricius) whose mating occur during nuptial flights. Understanding the mating strategy of O. longinoda is of importance for its successful application in biological control programs. We conducted field and screen house experiments during two...... mating seasons to determine whether the mating occur prior to the dispersal flight. We examined winged O. longinoda queens on the nest surface before taking flight, immediately after leaving the nest, up to twelve hours (12h) after leaving the nest and after settling naturally following the dispersal...

  7. Through evolution's eyes: extracting mate preferences by linking visual attention to adaptive design.

    Krupp, Daniel Brian

    2008-02-01

    Information is crucial to decision-making, including mate choice decisions. Perceptual systems, such as attention, evolved in part to forage for reproductive information; consequently, these systems can be used to reveal mate preferences. Here, I consider the place of visual information in human mate choice and provide a rationale for pressing into service methods drawn from the attention literature for the study of mate choice decisions. Because visual attention is allocated automatically and selectively, it may be used to complement common methods of mate preference assessment, such as self-report questionnaires and measures of genital arousal, while avoiding some of the pitfalls of these methods. Beyond the utility of increasing confidence in extant research findings by employing relatively unobtrusive methods, visual attention paradigms can also allow researchers to explore a variety of questions that are rarely asked, such as those concerned with signal efficiency and tradeoffs in the assessment of mate value. PMID:18157626

  8. Adjustable under-expression of yeast mating pathway proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a programmed ribosomal frameshift.

    Choi, Min-Yeon; Park, Sang-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Experimental research in molecular biology frequently relies on the promotion or suppression of gene expression, an important tool in the study of its functions. Although yeast is among the most studied model systems with the ease of maintenance and manipulation, current experimental methods are mostly limited to gene deletion, suppression or overexpression of genes. Therefore, the ability to reduce protein expressions and then observing the effects would promote a better understanding of the exact functions and their interactions. Reducing protein expression is mainly limited by the difficulties associated with controlling the reduction level, and in some cases, the initial endogenous abundance is too low. For the under-expression to be useful as an experimental tool, repeatability and stability of reduced expression is important. We found that cis-elements in programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1RFS) of beet western yellow virus (BWYV) could be utilized to reduced protein expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The two main advantages of using -1RFS are adjustable reduction rates and ease of use. To demonstrate the utility of this under-expression system, examples of reduced protein abundance were shown using yeast mating pathway components. The abundance of MAP kinase Fus3 was reduced to approximately 28-75 % of the wild-type value. Other MAP kinase mating pathway components, including Ste5, Ste11, and Ste7, were also under-expressed to verify that the -1RFS system works with different proteins. Furthermore, reduced Fus3 abundance altered the overall signal transduction outcome of the mating pathway, demonstrating the potential for further studies of signal transduction adjustment via under-expression. PMID:26837218

  9. Assortative mating among Lake Malawi cichlid fish populations is not simply predictable from male nuptial colour

    Taylor Martin I

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the evolution of reproductive isolation in African cichlid fishes has largely focussed on the role of male colours and female mate choice. Here, we tested predictions from the hypothesis that allopatric divergence in male colour is associated with corresponding divergence in preference. Methods We studied four populations of the Lake Malawi Pseudotropheus zebra complex. We predicted that more distantly-related populations that independently evolved similar colours would interbreed freely while more closely-related populations with different colours mate assortatively. We used microsatellite genotypes or mesh false-floors to assign paternity. Fisher's exact tests as well as Binomial and Wilcoxon tests were used to detect if mating departed from random expectations. Results Surprisingly, laboratory mate choice experiments revealed significant assortative mating not only between population pairs with differently coloured males, but between population pairs with similarly-coloured males too. This suggested that assortative mating could be based on non-visual cues, so we further examined the sensory basis of assortative mating between two populations with different male colour. Conducting trials under monochromatic (orange light, intended to mask the distinctive male dorsal fin hues (blue v orange of these populations, did not significantly affect the assortative mating by female P. emmiltos observed under control conditions. By contrast, assortative mating broke down when direct contact between female and male was prevented. Conclusion We suggest that non-visual cues, such as olfactory signals, may play an important role in mate choice and behavioural isolation in these and perhaps other African cichlid fish. Future speciation models aimed at explaining African cichlid radiations may therefore consider incorporating such mating cues in mate choice scenarios.

  10. Blind dating—mate finding in planktonic copepods. III. Hydromechanical communication in Acartia tonsa

    Bagøien, Espen; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Mate-finding behaviour in the marine copepod Acartia tonsa was examined by video analysis. A. tonsa appears to depend on hydromechanical signals in the location of mates, detected at distances of up to 5 or 7 mm. Series of up to 7 or 8 synchronised hops in closely situated individuals, interpreted as an expression of hydromechanical communication or assessment of a potential partner, often concluded with mating. We use previously published models of hydrodynamic signalling to explain the obse...

  11. Beyond sex allocation : the role of mating systems in sexual selection in parasitoid wasps

    Boulton, Rebecca A.; Collins, Laura A.; Shuker, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the diverse array of mating systems and life histories which characterise the parasitic Hymenoptera, sexual selection and sexual conflict in this taxon have been somewhat overlooked. For instance, parasitoid mating systems have typically been studied in terms of how mating structure affects sex allocation. In the past decade, however, some studies have sought to address sexual selection in the parasitoid wasps more explicitly and found that, despite the lack of obvious secondary sexua...

  12. Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    ShinjiNagata

    2014-01-01

    Most insect species exhibit characteristic behavioral changes after mating. Typical post-mating behaviors in female insects include noticeable increases in food intake, elevated oviposition rates, lowered receptivity to courting males, and enhanced immune response. Although it has been reported that mated females of several insect species including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster increase the amount of food intake and change their dietary preferences, the limited number of comparative ...

  13. Seminal fluid causes temporarily reduced egg hatch in previously mated females.

    Prout, T; Clark, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    In Drosophila, male accessory gland fluid (seminal fluid) has multiple effects on the female's reproductive efficiency. Here, we show the effect of seminal fluid on rate of egg hatch immediately following mating. Singly mated females were remated to two classes of sterile males, one with seminal fluid and one without seminal fluid. Transfer of seminal fluid results in a strong reduction in egg hatch shortly after the mating. Also, it is shown that remating with normal males causes an immediat...

  14. Identification and Expression Analysis of MATE Genes Involved in Flavonoid Transport in Blueberry Plants

    CHEN Li; LIU, YUSHAN; Liu, Hongdi; Kang, Limin; Geng, Jinman; Gai, Yuzhuo; DING, YUNLONG; Sun, Haiyue; Li, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins are the most recently identified family of multidrug transporters. In plants, this family is remarkably large compared to the human and bacteria counterpart, highlighting the importance of MATE proteins in this kingdom. Here 33 Unigenes annotated as MATE transporters were found in the blueberry fruit transcriptome, of which eight full-length cDNA sequences were identified and cloned. These proteins are composed of 477–517 residues, with m...

  15. Patterns of Mating and Mitochondrial DNA Inheritance in the Agaric Basidiomycete Coprinus Cinereus

    May, G.; Taylor, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Patterns of mating and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inheritance were investigated for the Basidiomycete, Coprinus cinereus in order to better understand the relationship of reproductive biology and mtDNA evolution in fungi. Results showed that the unique mating system of basidiomycetes can lead to the formation of mitochondrial mosaics (i.e., colonies composed of sectors differing in mtDNA). Mitochondria do not migrate along with nuclei during mating. Intracellular mixed or recombinant mtDNA mol...

  16. Bread with Yerba Mate Aqueous Extract (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.)

    Christiane Faccin; Sarah Alberti; Lisiane Frare; Leticia R. Vieira; Myriam de las M. Salas-Mellado; Elisete M. de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil., (yerba mate) has been gaining space in face of the larger demand for alternative raw materials in food production. The study aimed to develop a bread formulation with an yerba mate aqueous extract replacing water, for making it more nourishing and functional. From a basic bread formulation, excluding fungal inhibitors and malt extract, two new formulations were prepared containing yerba mate aqueous extract replacing water. One of the formulations received an e...

  17. Weak polygyny in California sea lions and the potential for alternative mating tactics

    Flatz, Ramona; Gonzalez-Suarez, Manuela; Young, Julie K.; Hernndez-Camacho, Claudia J.; Immel, Aaron J.; Gerber, Leah R.

    2012-01-01

    Female aggregation and male territoriality are considered to be hallmarks of polygynous mating systems. The development of genetic parentage assignment has called into question the accuracy of behavioral traits in predicting true mating systems. In this study we use 14 microsatellite markers to explore the mating system of one of the most behaviorally polygynous species, the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). We sampled a total of 158 female-pup pairs and 99 territorial males acros...

  18. Weak Polygyny in California Sea Lions and the Potential for Alternative Mating Tactics

    Flatz, Ramona; M. Gonzlez-Surez; Young, Julie K.; Hernndez-Camacho, Claudia J.; Immel, Aaron J.; Berger, Leah R.

    2012-01-01

    Female aggregation and male territoriality are considered to be hallmarks of polygynous mating systems. The development of genetic parentage assignment has called into question the accuracy of behavioral traits in predicting true mating systems. In this study we use 14 microsatellite markers to explore the mating system of one of the most behaviorally polygynous species, the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). We sampled a total of 158 female-pup pairs and 99 territorial males acros...

  19. Production of Single Oospore Progeny (SOP) of Phytophtora infestans: Inheritance of Mating Type and Mycelial Morphotypes

    Diana M. Earnshaw

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce sexual progeny (oospores), of the causal agent of late blight, Phytophthora infestans, study the inheritance of mating type and morphological appearances of these progeny. This pseudofungus exists in two distinct mating types: A1 and A2 mainly in Mexico. However, reports indicate presence of both mating types in many countries all over the world which indicates possibilities of sexual reproduction. The experiment was conducted at the University of Wales, B...

  20. A hybrid bird mating optimizer algorithm with teaching-learning-based optimization for global numerical optimization

    Qingyang Zhang; Guolin Yu; Hui Song

    2015-01-01

    Bird Mating Optimizer (BMO) is a novel meta-heuristic optimization algorithm inspired by intelligent mating behavior of birds. However, it is still insufficient in convergence of speed and quality of solution. To overcome these drawbacks, this paper proposes a hybrid algorithm (TLBMO), which is established by combining the advantages of Teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) and Bird Mating Optimizer (BMO). The performance of TLBMO is evaluated on 23 benchmark functions, and compared wit...

  1. Reconsidering the Heritability of Intelligence in Adulthood: Taking Assortative Mating and Cultural Transmission into Account

    Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Van Der Sluis, Sophie; Maes, Hermine H. M.; Posthuma, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Heritability estimates of general intelligence in adulthood generally range from 75 to 85%, with all heritability due to additive genetic influences, while genetic dominance and shared environmental factors are absent, or too small to be detected. These estimates are derived from studies based on the classical twin design and are based on the assumption of random mating. Yet, considerable positive assortative mating has been reported for general intelligence. Unmodeled assortative mating may ...

  2. An Experimental Test of Condition-Dependent Male and Female Mate Choice in Zebra Finches

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Geberzahn, Nicole; Riebel, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choic...

  3. An experimental test of condition-dependent male and female mate choice in zebra finches

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Geberzahn, Nicole; Riebel, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choic...

  4. Beauty in the Eyes of the Beholders: Colour Vision and Mate Choice in the Family Poeciliidae

    Sandkam, Benjamin Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection plays a major role in numerous aspects of evolution. Many models have attempted to explain how mate preferences evolve both across populations within a species and across species. ‘Sensory bias’ predicts that the traits involved in mate choice will co-evolve with the tuning of the sensory systems responsible for detecting such traits. The family Poeciliidae is a classic system for studies of mate choice and provides an excellent opportunity to examine the co-evolution of pref...

  5. Interaction between natural and sexual selection during the evolution of mate recognition.

    Blows, Mark W

    2002-01-01

    The interaction between natural and sexual selection is central to many theories of how mate choice and reproductive isolation evolve, but their joint effect on the evolution of mate recognition has not, to my knowledge, been investigated in an evolutionary experiment. Natural and sexual selection were manipulated in interspecific hybrid populations of Drosophila to determine their effects on the evolution of a mate recognition system comprised of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). The effect of ...

  6. Polyandry as a mediator of sexual selection before and after mating

    Kvarnemo, Charlotta; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2013-01-01

    The DarwinBateman paradigm recognizes competition among males for access to multiple mates as the main driver of sexual selection. Increasingly, however, females are also being found to benefit from multiple mating so that polyandry can generate competition among females for access to multiple males, and impose sexual selection on female traits that influence their mating success. Polyandry can reduce a male's ability to monopolize females, and thus weaken male focused sexual selection. Perh...

  7. Tritrichomonas foetus: prevalence study in naturally mating bulls in Switzerland.

    Bernasconi, Ch; Bodmer, M; Doherr, M G; Janett, F; Thomann, A; Spycher, C; Iten, C; Hentrich, B; Gottstein, B; Mller, N; Frey, C F

    2014-03-01

    Switzerland is officially free from bovine Tritrichomonas foetus. While bulls used for artificial insemination (AI) are routinely examined for this pathogen, bulls engaged in natural mating, as well as aborted fetuses, are only very sporadically investigated, indicating that the disease awareness for bovine tritrichomoniasis is low. Natural mating in cattle is becoming increasingly popular in Switzerland. Accordingly, a re-introduction/re-occurrence of T. foetus in cattle seems possible either via resurgence from a yet unknown bovine reservoir, or via importation of infected cattle. The low disease awareness for bovine tritrichomoniasis might favor an unnoticed re-establishment of T. foetus in the Swiss cattle population. The aim of our study was thus to search for the parasite, and if found, to assess the prevalence of bovine T. foetus in Switzerland. We included (1) bulls over two years of age used in natural mating and sent to slaughter, (2) bulls used for natural service in herds with or without fertility problems and (3) aborted fetuses. Furthermore, the routinely examined bulls used for AI (4) were included in this study. In total, 1362 preputial samples from bulls and 60 abomasal fluid samples of aborted fetuses were analyzed for the presence of T. foetus by both in vitro cultivation and molecular analyses. The parasite could not be detected in any of the samples, indicating that the maximal prevalence possibly missed was about 0.3% (95% confidence). Interestingly, in preputial samples of three bulls of category 1, apathogenic Tetratrichomonas sp. was identified, documenting a proof-of-principle for the methodology used in this study. PMID:24447668

  8. ENE-Mates - A public information program for women

    Japan depends on import for more than 80 percent of its total energy supply. Nuclear energy is one of the most promising alternatives to oil. It plays a significant role for energy supply in terms of reliability, economic viability and reduction of CO2 emissions. In order to secure needed capacity, the Government concentrates its efforts on acquiring public acceptance of nuclear power as well as ensuring the safety of plants and improving plant capability and reliability. An opinion poll, done by the Japanese Government in Sep. of 1990, showed that 73.3 percent of man and 57.4 percent of women think that nuclear power is necessary to secure energy supply. Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) employs various methods for information services arid, in particular, electric power generation including nuclear with an assignment from the Japanese Government. Public information activities by the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) are as follows: a) Telephone QA service to respond to public inquiries; b) Publishing the 'Nuclear Newsletter' monthly and various brochures; c) Information service by personal computer network Atomnet concerning energy in general, and operation/trouble informations of nuclear plants; d) Distribution and service of personal computers to local governments offices/museums, etc., for users ranging from children to adults to gather nuclear related information; e) Organization of female monitors 'ENE-MATES' to have lecture meetings and site tours. ENE-MATES - A Public Information Program For Women. As a 1990 opinion poll shows, women's feelings about nuclear energy differ from that of men. Women are more sensitive and anxious than men on nuclear energy issues. To improve this situation several programs for women have been planned and implemented.'ENE-MATES' program is one of these cases. It's purpose is to encourage women, centering around house wives, to have unbiased understanding of energy-related issues

  9. Orbiter/External Tank Mate 3-D Solid Modeling

    Godfrey, G. S.; Brandt, B.; Rorden, D.; Kapr, F.

    2004-01-01

    This research and development project presents an overview of the work completed while attending a summer 2004 American Society of Engineering Education/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (ASEE/NASA) Faculty Fellowship. This fellowship was completed at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The scope of the project was to complete parts, assemblies, and drawings that could be used by Ground Support Equipment (GSE) personnel to simulate situations and scenarios commonplace to the space shuttle Orbiter/External Tank (ET) Mate (50004). This mate takes place in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). These simulations could then be used by NASA engineers as decision-making tools. During the summer of 2004, parts were created that defined the Orbiter/ET structural interfaces. Emphasis was placed upon assemblies that included the Orbiter/ET forward attachment (EO-1), aft left thrust strut (EO-2), aft right tripod support structure (EO-3), and crossbeam and aft feedline/umbilical supports. These assemblies are used to attach the Orbiter to the ET. The Orbiter/ET Mate assembly was then used to compare and analyze clearance distances using different Orbiter hang angles. It was found that a 30-minute arc angle change in Orbiter hang angle affected distance at the bipod strut to Orbiter yoke fitting 8.11 inches. A 3-D solid model library was established as a result of this project. This library contains parts, assemblies, and drawings translated into several formats. This library contains a collection of the following files: sti for sterolithography, stp for neutral file work, shrinkwrap for compression. tiff for photoshop work, jpeg for Internet use, and prt and asm for Pro/Engineer use. This library was made available to NASA engineers so that they could access its contents to make angle, load, and clearance analysis studies. These decision-making tools may be used by Pro/Engineer users and non-users.

  10. Genetic evidence for patrilocal mating behavior among Neandertal groups

    Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Rosas, Antonio; Estalrrich, Almudena; Gigli, Elena; Campos, Paula F; García-Tabernero, Antonio; García-Vargas, Samuel; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Ramírez, Oscar; Civit, Sergi; Bastir, Markus; Huguet, Rosa; Santamaría, David; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske; la Rasilla, Marco de

    2010-01-01

    The remains of 12 Neandertal individuals have been found at the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain), consisting of six adults, three adolescents, two juveniles, and one infant. Archaeological, paleontological, and geological evidence indicates that these individuals represent all or part of a contem...... three adult females carried different mtDNA lineages. These findings provide evidence to indicate that Neandertal groups not only were small and characterized by low genetic diversity but also were likely to have practiced patrilocal mating behavior....

  11. Do Women Pretend Orgasm to Retain a Mate?

    Kaighobadi, Farnaz; Shackelford, Todd K.; Weekes-Shackelford, Viviana A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that women pretend orgasm as part of a broader strategy of mate retention. We obtained self-report data from 453 heterosexual women (M age, 21.8 years) in a long-term relationship (M length, 32.8 months) drawn from universities and surrounding communities in the southeastern United States. The results indicated that (1) women who perceived higher risk of partner infidelity were more likely to report pretending orgasm, (2) women who reported greater like...

  12. Investigation on mating habit and sexual competition ability of Helicoverpa armigera sterilized by irradiation

    Mating habit and sexual competition ability of Helicoverpa armigera irradiated with 300 Gy of γ-rays were observed. The results showed that when reared in laboratory, most adults mated at 4-7 o'clock, a small proportion of adults mated at 2-3 o'clock or at 8-9 o'clock in the morning, meanwhile wild population mated two and a half hours earlier than laboratory populations did. No difference in mating habit and sexual competition ability was found between the irradiation-sterilized and normal adults except that the effective mating rate of the former was 61.6%, one third less than that of the latter ones. Most irradiation-sterilized adults mated one time in their whole lives, only a few could mate 2-3 times and even 5 times, indicating that the multi-mating characteristic of Helicoverpa armigera was not changed by irradiation. It can be concluded that irradiated sterile insect technique is feasible for integrated controlling the cotton bollworm

  13. Non-random mating for selection with restricted rates of inbreeding and overlapping generations

    Meuwissen Theo HE; Sonesson Anna K

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Minimum coancestry mating with a maximum of one offspring per mating pair (MC1) is compared with random mating schemes for populations with overlapping generations. Optimum contribution selection is used, whereby ΔF is restricted. For schemes with ΔF restricted to 0.25% per year, 256 animals born per year and heritability of 0.25, genetic gain increased with 18% compared with random mating. The effect of MC1 on genetic gain decreased for larger schemes and schemes with a less stringe...

  14. Sperm precedence in female spotted bollworm, Earias vittella fabricius mating with normal and radiation sterilized males

    Studies were carried out on sperm precedence in female Earias vittella mating with normal and radiation sterilized males. Egg viability pattern of the females mating first with sterile and then with normal males or vice versa indicated that in egg fertilization sperms transferred during the recent mating took precedence over those transferred during the earlier mating. Results under simulated population conditions showed that release of sterile males must coincide with the first emergence of adult males of natural population or should be prior to it. (author)

  15. Learning to speciate: The biased learning of mate preferences promotes adaptive radiation.

    Gilman, R Tucker; Kozak, Genevieve M

    2015-11-01

    Bursts of rapid repeated speciation called adaptive radiations have generated much of Earth's biodiversity and fascinated biologists since Darwin, but we still do not know why some lineages radiate and others do not. Understanding what causes assortative mating to evolve rapidly and repeatedly in the same lineage is key to understanding adaptive radiation. Many species that have undergone adaptive radiations exhibit mate preference learning, where individuals acquire mate preferences by observing the phenotypes of other members of their populations. Mate preference learning can be biased if individuals also learn phenotypes to avoid in mates, and shift their preferences away from these avoided phenotypes. We used individual-based computational simulations to study whether biased and unbiased mate preference learning promotes ecological speciation and adaptive radiation. We found that ecological speciation can be rapid and repeated when mate preferences are biased, but is inhibited when mate preferences are learned without bias. Our results suggest that biased mate preference learning may play an important role in generating animal biodiversity through adaptive radiation. PMID:26459795

  16. Impact of nonrandom mating on genetic variance and gene flow in populations with mass selection.

    Sánchez, Leopoldo; Woolliams, John A

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms by which nonrandom mating affects selected populations are not completely understood and remain a subject of scientific debate in the development of tractable predictors of population characteristics. The main objective of this study was to provide a predictive model for the genetic variance and covariance among mates for traits subjected to directional selection in populations with nonrandom mating based on the pedigree. Stochastic simulations were used to check the validity of this model. Our predictions indicate that the positive covariance among mates that is expected to result with preferential mating of relatives can be severely overpredicted from neutral expectations. The covariance expected from neutral theory is offset by an opposing covariance between the genetic mean of an individual's family and the Mendelian sampling term of its mate. This mechanism was able to predict the reduction in covariance among mates that we observed in the simulated populations and, in consequence, the equilibrium genetic variance and expected long-term genetic contributions. Additionally, this study provided confirmatory evidence on the postulated relationships of long-term genetic contributions with both the rate of genetic gain and the rate of inbreeding (deltaF) with nonrandom mating. The coefficient of variation of the expected gene flow among individuals and deltaF was sensitive to nonrandom mating when heritability was low, but less so as heritability increased, and the theory developed in the study was sufficient to explain this phenomenon. PMID:15020441

  17. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) mating during late June on the pack ice of northern Svalbard, Norway

    Smith, Thomas G.; Jon Aars

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears are seasonal breeders and typically mate from late March to early May. Implantation is, however, delayed until autumn, which can allow plasticity in the date of mating. As for other seasonal breeders, a rapid return to estrus after the loss of dependent offspring can be expected, even into the summer. A few earlier observations and dissections of dead animals suggest that polar bears are able to mate in summer. We report on a mating incident on 29 June 2014, the first documented m...

  18. Reproductive aging and mating: the ticking of the biological clock in female cockroaches.

    Moore, P J; Moore, A J

    2001-07-31

    Females are expected to have different mating preferences because of the variation in costs and benefits of mate choice both between females and within individual females over a lifetime. Workers have begun to look for, and find, the expected variation among females in expressed mating preferences. However, variation within females caused by changes in intrinsic influences has not been examined in detail. Here we show that reproductive aging caused by delayed mating resulted in reduced choosiness by female Nauphoeta cinerea, a cockroach that has reproductive cycles and gives live birth. Male willingness to mate was unaffected by variation in female age. Females who were beyond the optimal mating age, 6 days postadult molt, required considerably less courtship than their younger counterparts. Females who were older when they mated had fewer offspring per clutch and fewer clutches than females who mated young. Thus, reduced choosiness was correlated with a permanent reduction in fertility. There was no difference in overall senescence among females, and thus the reduction in clutch size did not result in the expected increased lifespan. We suggest that reproductive aging in N. cinerea, similar to aging in general, occurs because the maintenance of oocytes is costly, and selection is relaxed after the optimal mating period. Our results further suggest that selection for continued choosiness is also relaxed and supports direct selection on female choosiness and a cost to choosiness. PMID:11470903

  19. Assortative mating in poison-dart frogs based on an ecologically important trait.

    Reynolds, R Graham; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M

    2007-09-01

    The origin of new species can be influenced by both deterministic and stochastic factors. Mate choice and natural selection may be important deterministic causes of speciation (as opposed to the essentially stochastic factors of geographic isolation and genetic drift). Theoretical models predict that speciation is more likely when mate choice depends on an ecologically important trait that is subject to divergent natural selection, although many authors have considered such mating/ecology pleiotropy, or "magic-traits" to be unlikely. However, phenotypic signals are important in both mate choice and ecological processes such as avoiding predation. In chemically defended species, it may be that the phenotypic characteristics influencing mate choice are the same signals being used to transmit a warning to potential predators, although few studies have demonstrated this in wild populations. We tested for assortative mating between two color morphs of the Strawberry Poison-Dart Frog, Dendrobates pumilio, a group with striking geographic variation in aposematic color patterns. We found that females significantly prefer individuals of their own morph under two different light treatments, indicating strong assortative mating based on multiple coloration cues that are also important ecological signals. This study provides a rare example of one phenotypic trait affecting both ecological viability and nonrandom mating, indicating that mating/ecology pleiotropy is plausible in wild populations, particularly for organisms that are aposematically colored and visually orienting. PMID:17767594

  20. Mating advantage for rare males in wild guppy populations.

    Hughes, Kimberly A; Houde, Anne E; Price, Anna C; Rodd, F Helen

    2013-11-01

    To understand the processes that maintain genetic diversity is a long-standing challenge in evolutionary biology, with implications for predicting disease resistance, response to environmental change, and population persistence. Simple population genetic models are not sufficient to explain the high levels of genetic diversity sometimes observed in ecologically important traits. In guppies (Poecilia reticulata), male colour pattern is both diverse and heritable, and is arguably one of the most extreme examples of morphological polymorphism known. Negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS), a form of selection in which genotypes are favoured when they are rare, can potentially maintain such extensive polymorphism, but few experimental studies have confirmed its operation in nature. Here we use highly replicated experimental manipulations of natural populations to show that males with rare colour patterns have higher reproductive fitness, demonstrating NFDS mediated by sexual selection. Rare males acquired more mates and sired more offspring compared to common males and, as previously reported, had higher rates of survival. Orange colour, implicated in other studies of sexual selection in guppies, did predict male reproductive success, but only in one of three populations. These data support the hypothesis that NFDS maintains diversity in the colour patterns of male guppies through two selective agents, mates and predators. Similar field-based manipulations of genotype frequencies could provide a powerful approach to reveal the underlying ecological and behavioural mechanisms that maintain genetic and phenotypic diversity. PMID:24172904

  1. Mating compatibility between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Bo, W; Ahmad, S; Dammalage, T; Tomas, U Sto; Wornoayporn, V; Ul Haq, I; Cceres, C; Vreysen, M J B; Schutze, M K

    2014-04-01

    The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, is a highly polyphagous fruit pest that occurs predominantly in Africa yet has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. It is extremely morphologically and genetically similar to the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel); as such the specific relationship between these two species is unresolved. We assessed prezygotic compatibility between B. dorsalis and B. invadens using standardized field cage mating tests, which have proven effectiveness in tephritid cryptic species studies. These tests were followed by an assessment of postzygotic compatibility by examining egg viability, larval and pupal survival, and sex ratios of offspring produced from parental and subsequent F1 crosses to examine for hybrid breakdown as predicted under a two-species hypothesis. B. dorsalis was sourced from two countries (Pakistan and China), and each population was compared with B. invadens from its type locality of Kenya. B. invadens mated randomly with B. dorsalis from both localities, and there were generally high levels of hybrid viability and survival resulting from parental and F1 crosses. Furthermore, all but one hybrid cross resulted in equal sex ratios, with the single deviation in favor of males and contrary to expectations under Haldane's rule. These data support the hypothesis that B. dorsalis and B. invadens represent the same biological species, an outcome that poses significant implications for pest management and international trade for sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24772542

  2. The Origin of Multiple B Mating Specificities in Coprinus cinereus

    Riquelme, Meritxell; Challen, Michael P.; Casselton, Lorna A.; Brown, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    Mushrooms, such as Coprinus cinereus, possess large families of pheromones and G-protein-coupled receptors that are sequestered at the B mating-type locus and whose function is to confer vast numbers of different mating types. This ability results from complex patterns of cognate and noncognate pheromone/receptor pairings, which potentially offer a unique insight into the molecular interaction between receptor and ligand. In this study we have identified many more members of these families by molecular analysis of strains collected worldwide. There are three groups of genes at each B locus. We have identified two alleles of group 1, five alleles of group 2, and seven alleles of group 3, encoding in total 14 different receptors and 29 different pheromones. The specificity of many newly identified alleles was determined by transformation analysis. One striking finding was that receptors fall into groups based on sequence homology but these do not correspond to the groups defined by position, indicating that complex evolutionary processes gave rise to the B loci. While additional allelic versions may occur in nature, the number of B specificities possible by combination of the alleles that we describe is 70, close to previous estimates based on population analysis. PMID:15879506

  3. Multiple Paternity in Urban Norway Rats: Extended Ranging for Mates.

    Glass, Gregory E; Klein, Sabra L; Norris, Douglas E; Gardner, Lynne C

    2016-05-01

    Norway rats are an abundant synanthropic species in urban settings and serve as reservoirs for many pathogens. Attempts to control their populations have met with little success. Recent genetic studies suggest that local populations are structured and few individuals move significant distances, but there is substantial gene flow. To understand these observations and their implications on control strategies, we genotyped 722 rats from 20 alleys in Baltimore to establish paternity for 180 embryos. Up to 88 males may have contributed to the litters. All litters were sired by ≥2 males, with an average of 4.9 (range 2-7) males. For dams and sires with known locations, most matings (71.7%; n = 46) occurred among animals from different alleys. The average distance between sires and dams was 114 meters (range 8-352 meters). In 10/17 (58.8%) litters, the majority of the identified sires were captured in different alleys than the females. Sires were significantly less related to females than were the males captured in the females' alleys. Although rats may generally restrict their movements, either receptive females and/or breeding males engage in mate-seeking behaviors that extend beyond movement patterns at other times. This geographically extends the sizes of local populations and buffers them from the impacts of control strategies that focus on local infestations. PMID:26885622

  4. Roving females and patient males: a new perspective on the mating strategies of chimpanzees.

    Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2014-05-01

    Mating strategies are sets of decisions aimed at maximizing reproductive success. For male animals, the fundamental problem that these strategies address is attaining mating access to females in a manner that maximizes their chances of achieving paternity. For chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), despite substantial interest in mating strategies, very little attention has been paid to the most fundamental problem that mating strategies need to solve: finding mates. Only a single model, Dunbar's general model of male mating strategies, exists to explain mate-searching behaviour in chimpanzees. Under this model, males in most populations are regarded as pursuing a 'roving' strategy: searching for and sequestering fertile females who are essentially passive with respect to mate searching. The roving mating strategy is an assumption deeply embedded in the way chimpanzee behaviour is considered; it is implicit in the conventional model for chimpanzee social structure, which posits that male ranging functions both to monitor female reproductive state and to ward these females from other groups of males through collective territoriality: essentially, ranging as mating effort. This perspective is, however, increasingly at odds with observations of chimpanzee behaviour. Herein, I review the logic and evidence for the roving-male mating strategy and propose a novel alternative, a theoretical framework in which roving is a strategy pursued by female chimpanzees in order to engage successfully in promiscuous mating. Males, unable to thwart this female strategy, instead maximise the number of reproductive opportunities encountered by focusing their behaviour on countering threats to health, fertility and reproductive career. Their prolonged grooming bouts are seen, in consequence, as functioning to mitigate the negative impacts of socially induced physiological stress. In this new framework, the roving-male strategy becomes, at best, a 'best of a bad job' alternative for low-ranking males when faced with high levels of competition for mating access. Male chimpanzees do not search for mates, but for one another, for food, and, at times, for rivals in other communities. To the extent that female promiscuity functions to counter infanticide risk, mate searching by female chimpanzees-and any associated costs-can be seen as an unavoidable consequence of male sexual coercion. This novel framework is a better fit to the available data than is the conventional account. This review highlights the desperate need for additional work in an area of chimpanzee biology that has been somewhat neglected, perhaps in part because assumptions of roving males have remained unquestioned for too long. It also highlights the need, across taxa, to revisit and revise theory, and to test old assumptions, when faced with contrary data. PMID:24393574

  5. Self-referent phenotype matching and its role in female mate choice in arthropods

    Carie B. WEDDLE, John HUNT, Scott K. SAKALUK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of empirical evidence shows that females of many animal species gain benefits by mating polyandrously, and often prefer to mate with novel males over previous mates. Although a female preference for novel males has been demonstrated for multiple animal taxa, the mechanisms used by females to discriminate between novel and previous mates remain largely unknown. However, recent studies suggest that in decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus, females actually imbue males with their own chemical cues, known as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs during mating, and utilize chemosensory self-referencing to recognize recent mates. Here we review evidence that self-referent phenotype matching is a widespread mechanism of recognition in arthropods, and explore how CHCs are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions. There is substantial evidence that CHCs are used as recognition cues to discriminate between species, kin, sexes, mates, individuals, and self and non-self, and are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions in a wide range of arthropod taxa. There is also evidence that CHCs are often transferred between individuals during direct physical contact, including copulation. Chemosensory self-referencing via cuticular hydrocarbons could provide a simple, but reliable mechanism for identifying individuals from previous mating encounters. This mechanism does not require any specialized cognitive abilities because an individual’s phenotype is always available for reference. Given the ubiquitous use of CHCs among arthropods, chemosensory self-referencing may be a widespread mechanism used by female arthropods to facilitate female mate-choice decisions and to enhance opportunities for polyandry [Current Zoology 59 (2: 239-248, 2013].

  6. No size or density effect on alternative mate-locating tactics in the tropical damselfly Hetaerina rosea males (Odonata: Calopterygidae

    Paulo Enrique C. Peixoto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Males of the damselfly Hetaerina rosea may defend mating sites along river margins (resident males or, alternatively, wander among different areas presumably searching for mates (nonterritorial males. Although the occurrence of territorial and nonterritorial males of H. rosea is very common in Brazil, studies examining which factors may be responsible for the adoption of alternative mate-locating tactics in this species are inexistent. We investigated the relationship between the adoption of these alternative mate-locating tactics by males of H. rosea and two possible causes: body weight and male abundance. We carried the study in three areas: sites 1, 2 and 3. Samples were monthly undertaken in sites 1 and 2 between September/2001 and August/2002 and in site 3 between May/1999 and January/2001. Using the scan method with fixed areas and mark-resighting techniques, we did not find any relationship between the proportion of nonterritorial males and male abundance per month on sites 2 (n=6 and 3 (n=7, indicating that the adoption of alternative mate-locating tactics is not affected by competition for territories. In the same way, nonterritorial and resident males showed similar body and thoracic weight measures (n=30 and n=27 for sites 2 and 3 respectively. Maybe the nonterritorial tactic is adopted by individuals searching for better territories or males that were evicted from their defended sites. The absence of relationship between weight and male territorial status is in accordance with other Hetaerina species. However, other traits not investigated here such as parasitic load, fat content and age may influence the adoption of different mate-acquisition tactics in H. rosea males. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 361-370. Epub 2009 June 30.Los machos de la libélula Hetaerina rosea pueden defender sus sitios de apareamiento a lo largo de márgenes de ríos (machos residentes o, alternativamente, deambulan entre diferentes áreas presumiblemente buscando pareja (machos no territoriales. Aunque la existencia de machos territoriales y no territoriales de H. rosea es muy común en Brasil, no hay estudios que examinen cuáles factores pueden ser responsables para la adopción de tácticas alternativas para localizar pareja en esta especie. Investigamos la relación entre la adopción de estas tácticas alternativas para localizar pareja por machos de H. rosea, y dos posibles causas: peso del cuerpo y abundancia de machos. Realizamos el estudio en tres áreas: sitios 1, 2 y 3. Las muestras se tomaron mensualmente en sitios 1 y 2 entre setiembre 2001 y agosto 2002, y en sitio 3 entre mayo 1999 y enero 2001. La adopción de tácticas alternativas de localización de machos no se ve afectada por competencia por territorios. La ausencia de relación entre peso y estatus del macho territorial coincide con otras especies de Hetaerina. No obstante, otros rasgos que no fueron estudiados aquí, como la carga de parásitos, contenido de grasa y edad, pueden influenciar la adopción de diferentes tácticas de adquisición de pareja en machos de H. rosea.

  7. Exposure to bisphenol A in young adult mice does not alter ovulation but does alter the fertilization ability of oocytes.

    Moore-Ambriz, Teresita Rocio; Acua-Hernndez, Deyanira Guadalupe; Ramos-Robles, Brenda; Snchez-Gutirrez, Manuel; Santacruz-Mrquez, Ramss; Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Pia-Guzmn, Belem; Shibayama, Mineko; Hernndez-Ochoa, Isabel

    2015-12-15

    Follicle growth culminates in ovulation, which allows for the expulsion of fertilizable oocytes and the formation of corpora lutea. Bisphenol A (BPA) is present in many consumer products, and it has been suggested that BPA impairs ovulation; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Therefore, this study first evaluated whether BPA alters ovulation by affecting folliculogenesis, the number of corpora lutea or eggs shed to the oviduct, ovarian gonadotropin responsiveness, hormone levels, and estrous cyclicity. Because it has been suggested (but not directly confirmed) that BPA exerts toxic effects on the fertilization ability of oocytes, a second aim was to evaluate whether BPA impacts the oocyte fertilization rate using an in vitro fertilization assay and mating. The possible effects on early zygote development were also examined. Young adult female C57BL/6J mice (39 days old) were orally dosed with corn oil (vehicle) or 50 ?g/kgbw/day BPA for a period encompassing the first three reproductive cycles (12-15 days). BPA exposure did not alter any parameters related to ovulation. Moreover, BPA exposure reduced the percentage of fertilized oocytes after either in vitro fertilization or mating, but it did not alter the zygotic stages. The data indicate that exposure to the reference dose of BPA does not impact ovulation but that it does influence the oocyte quality in terms of its fertilization ability. PMID:26493930

  8. Positive or negative allosteric modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 does not alter expression of behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/o0

    Peter R Kufahl

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5 in methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization. The mGluR5 positive allosteric modulator (3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl benzamide (CDPPB and negative allosteric modulator fenobam were tested in separate experiments. Sprague-Dawley rats were repeatedly injected with 1 mg/kg methamphetamine or saline, and then given a locomotor challenge test using a dose of 0.5 mg/kg methamphetamine. Prior to the challenge test session, rats were injected with CDPPB, fenobam, or a vehicle.  Doses from previous studies showed reduced drug-conditioned behavior; however in this study neither CDPPB nor fenobam pretreatment resulted in an altered expression of behavioral sensitization, indicating a lack of mGluR5 involvement in sensitized methamphetamine-induced locomotion. Additionally, the high dose (30 mg/kg of fenobam resulted in decreased methamphetamine-induced locomotion in rats regardless of drug exposure history, which suggests evidence of nonspecific behavioral inhibition.

  9. Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus

    Ayhan Aköz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE can be divided into two subgroups, convulsive status epilepticus (CSE and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE. NCSE is clinically characterized by recurrence or persistence of absence or complex partial seizures which unconsciousness persists. Seizures are lasted more than 30 minutes, and accompanied by mental and behavioral changes. Although the main feature is the change of level of consciousness, affective, memory, cognitive, speech, motor systems, behavioral and psychiatric disorders can be also seen. Electroencephalography (EEG is the single diagnostic method in this situation. NCSE constitutes approximately 25% of all SE, however it is thought that sometimes it is misdiagnosed and the incidence of NCSE may be higher. The causes are disorders of central nervous system (stroke, infection, trauma, tumor, and metabolic factors (hypoxia, renal diseases, drugs, failure to use antiepileptic drug. The treatment contains the standard therapy of SE. Short-acting benzodiazepines are preferred in initial treatment. For more resistant cases, loading of phenytoin is applied. If there is no response to treatment, midazolam and propofol additionally to barbiturates can be used. We aimed to present a case admitted to our ED with altered mental status and diagnosed as NCSE that is under-diagnosed.

  10. Nonkonvulsif Status Epileptikus

    Ayhan AKÖZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE can be divided into two subgroups, convulsive status epilepticus (CSE and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE. NCSE is clinically characterized by recurrence or persistence of absence or complex partial seizures which unconsciousness persists. Seizures are lasted more than 30 minutes, and accompanied by mental and behavioral changes. Although the main feature is the change of level of consciousness, affective, memory, cognitive, speech, motor systems, behavioral and psychiatric disorders can be also seen. Electroencephalography (EEG is the single diagnostic method in this situation. NCSE constitutes approximately 25% of all SE, however it is thought that sometimes it is misdiagnosed and the incidence of NCSE may be higher. The causes are disorders of central nervous system (stroke, infection, trauma, tumor, and metabolic factors (hypoxia, renal diseases, drugs, failure to use antiepileptic drug. The treatment contains the standard therapy of SE. Short-acting benzodiazepines are preferred in initial treatment. For more resistant cases, loading of phenytoin is applied. If there is no response to treatment, midazolam and propofol additionally to barbiturates can be used. We aimed to present a case admitted to our ED with altered mental status and diagnosed as NCSE that is under-diagnosed.

  11. Cancer and yerba mate consumption: a review of possible associations Cáncer y consumo de yerba mate: revisión de posibles asociaciones

    Dora Loria; Enrique Barrios; Roberto Zanetti

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify any possible link between mate consumption and cancer, mainly of the esophagus, larynx, and oral cavity. METHODS: A review of literature, published through August 2008, pertaining to the carcinogenic risk of mate consumption was undertaken by searching the two databases, MEDLINE and TOXLINE, for relevant articles. The bibliographies of the articles were examined for additional relevant sources. In addition, a search on the name of each author having published on the top...

  12. Tissue distribution, ontogeny and induction of the transporters Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) 1 and MATE2 mRNA expression levels in mice

    Lickteig, Andrew J.; Cheng, Xingguo; Augustine, Lisa M; Curtis D. Klaassen; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2008-01-01

    Transporters are expressed in a wide variety of tissues where they perform the critical function of enabling anionic and cationic chemicals of exogenous and endogenous origin to cross otherwise impermeable cell membranes. The Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) transporters mediate cellular efflux of a variety of organic cations, including many drugs. The purpose of the current study was to determine (1) constitutive expression levels of MATE mRNA in various tissues, (2) whether there are ge...

  13. Cognitive ability is heritable and predicts the success of an alternative mating tactic

    Smith, Carl; Philips, A.; Reichard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 1809 (2015), s. 1809. ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alternative mating tactics * cognition * learning * mating system * sexual selection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.051, year: 2014

  14. Reliability of the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) Instrument with University Students

    Rutledge, Michael L.; Sadler, Kim C.

    2007-01-01

    The Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument was initially designed to assess high school biology teachers' acceptance of evolutionary theory. To determine if the MATE instrument is reliable with university students, it was administered to students in a non-majors biology course (n = 61) twice over a 3-week period.…

  15. Blind dating - mate finding in planktonic copepods. III. Hydromechanical communication in Acartia tonsa

    Bagoien, E.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Mate-finding behaviour in the marine copepod Acartia tonsa was examined by video analysis. A. tonsa appears to depend on hydromechanical signals in the location of mates, detected at distances of up to 5 or 7 mm. Series of up to 7 or 8 synchronised hops in closely situated individuals, interpreted...

  16. Mating duration and sperm precedence in the spider Linyphia triangularis

    Weldingh, Ditte L.; Toft, Søren; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2011-01-01

    In many animal species, mating behaviour is highly ritualised, which may allow us to relate some of its consequences, e.g. male paternity and female receptivity, to the progression of phases in the mating sequence; at the same time, ritualisation raises the question of to what extent the partners...

  17. 46 CFR 11.465 - Requirements for endorsements as mate (pilot) of towing vessels.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 CFR 11.429 and 11.456, then you may obtain an endorsement as mate (pilot) of towing vessels by... Towing Vessels Route endorsed Total service 2 TOS 3 on T/V as apprentice mate (steersman) 5 TOS 3.... 2 Service is in months unless otherwise indicated. 3 TOS is time of service. 4 TOAR is...

  18. Studies on mating behaviour of radio-sterilized males of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv)

    Studies on mating behaviour of normal and radio-sterilized males of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv were carried out under laboratory conditions with 12:12 Light: Dark photoperiodic cycle. Results indicated that both sterilized as well as unsterilized males mated equally well in both the phases of photoperiodic cycle and majority of the males mated in middle (5 to 8 hrs.) part of the phases. There was no significant change in mating behaviour of sterilized males, except slight increase in mating frequency and period of copulation. The maximum number of males mate only once in a single day, however some males were observed to mate more than 4 times in control and 6 times in irradiated regimen. The average respective mating frequency of control and sterilized male were 16.4 and 19.2 in dark phase, 17.8 and 18.8 in light phase. The period of copulation varied from 15 to 45 minutes in control males and 15 to 60 minutes in sterilized males. (author)

  19. Evolutionary transition from single to multiple mating in fungus-growing ants

    Villesen, Poul; Gertsch, P J; Frydenberg, J; Mueller, U G; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Villesen, Palle

    1999-01-01

    have lower queen mating frequencies, similar to those found in most other ants. We tested this prediction by analysing queen mating frequency and colony kin structure in three basal attine species: Myrmicocrypta ednaella, Apterostigma collare and Cyphomyrmex longiscapus. Microsatellite marker analyses...

  20. Pheromone-based mating disruption to control the historical top three insect pests of Wisconsin cranberries

    In 2012, the first 3-species pheromone mating disruption program was tested in Wisconsin cranberries. Preliminary data suggest that there was substantial disruption of blackheaded fireworm and Sparganothis fruitworm mating. The pheromone of cranberry fruitworm only contained a single component, and ...

  1. 40 CFR 180.117 - S-Ethyl dipropylthiocarba-mate; tolerances for residues.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false S-Ethyl dipropylthiocarba-mate; tolerances for residues. 180.117 Section 180.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Tolerances § 180.117 S-Ethyl dipropylthiocarba-mate; tolerances for residues. Tolerances are established...

  2. Primary sex ratio adjustment by ant queens in response to local mate competition

    de Menten, Ludivine; Cremer, Sylvia; Heinze, Jürgen; Aron, Serge

    2005-01-01

    In the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, wingless males compete with nestmate males for access to female mating partners, leading to local mate competition (LMC). Queen number varies between colonies, resulting in variation in the strength of LMC. Cremer & Heinze (2002, Proceedings of the Royal Society...

  3. 46 CFR 11.466 - Requirements for endorsements as apprentice mate (steersman) of towing vessels.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for endorsements as apprentice mate... Deck Officers § 11.466 Requirements for endorsements as apprentice mate (steersman) of towing vessels. (a) As Table 11.466(a) shows, if you would like to obtain an endorsement as apprentice...

  4. The iron-responsive, GATA-type transcription factor Cir1 influences mating in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Jung, Won Hee; Kronstad, James W

    2011-01-01

    Mating and sexual development have been associated with virulence in various fungal pathogens including Cryptococcus neoformans. This fungus is a significant pathogen of humans because it causes life-threatening cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompromised people such as AIDS patients. The virulence of C. neoformans is known to be associated with the mating type of the cells (α or a), with the α mating type being predominant among clinical isolates. However, the mechanisms by which mating and sexual development are controlled by environmental conditions and their relationship with virulence require further investigation. Cir1 is a GATA-type transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes required for utilization of essential metals such as iron and copper, and also genes required for major virulence factors including the polysaccharide capsule and melanin. Here we investigated the role of Cir1 in the mating of C. neoformans. Our results demonstrate that mutants lacking CIR1 are defective in mating, and that Cir1 contributes to copper mediated enhancement of sexual filamentation. Furthermore, we found that Cir1 influences the expression of mating pheromone genes suggesting that this protein plays a role in the early phase of sexual development on V8 mating medium. PMID:21120626

  5. The smt-0 mutation which abolishes mating-type switching in fission yeast is a deletion

    Styrkársdóttir, U; Egel, R; Nielsen, O; Nielsen, Olaf

    1993-01-01

    Mating-type switching in the fission yeast, S. pombe, is initiated by a DNA double-strand break (DSB) between the mat1 cassette and the H1 homology box. The mat1-cis-acting mutant, smt-0, abolishes mating-type switching and is shown here to be a 263-bp deletion. This deletion starts in the middle...

  6. Post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) in apple orchards

    The post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was examined in a young apple orchard planted on size-controlling rootstock in Virginia. All female dogwood borers captured while exhibiting casting flight near the base of trees were mated, base...

  7. Mating frequency of the male cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae), under laboratory conditions

    This study evaluated the number of times that males of the invasive cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) mate under laboratory conditions. Virgin females were provided to each male at 24 h intervals until male death. Females removed from the containers were dissected to ascertain their mating ...

  8. Fitness Benefits of Mate Choice for Compatibility in a Socially Monogamous Species.

    Ihle, Malika; Kempenaers, Bart; Forstmeier, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Research on mate choice has primarily focused on preferences for quality indicators, assuming that all individuals show consensus about who is the most attractive. However, in some species, mating preferences seem largely individual-specific, suggesting that they might target genetic or behavioral compatibility. Few studies have quantified the fitness consequences of allowing versus preventing such idiosyncratic mate choice. Here, we report on an experiment that controls for variation in overall partner quality and show that zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) pairs that resulted from free mate choice achieved a 37% higher reproductive success than pairs that were forced to mate. Cross-fostering of freshly laid eggs showed that embryo mortality (before hatching) primarily depended on the identity of the genetic parents, whereas offspring mortality during the rearing period depended on foster-parent identity. Therefore, preventing mate choice should lead to an increase in embryo mortality if mate choice targets genetic compatibility (for embryo viability), and to an increase in offspring mortality if mate choice targets behavioral compatibility (for better rearing). We found that pairs from both treatments showed equal rates of embryo mortality, but chosen pairs were better at raising offspring. These results thus support the behavioral, but not the genetic, compatibility hypothesis. Further exploratory analyses reveal several differences in behavior and fitness components between "free-choice" and "forced" pairs. PMID:26366558

  9. Creative Activity, Personality, Mental Illness, and Short-Term Mating Success

    Beaussart, Melanie L.; Kaufman, Scott Barry; Kaufman, James C.

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that creativity evolved, at least in part, through sexual selection to attract mates. Recent research lends support to this view and has also demonstrated a link between certain dimensions of schizotypy, creativity, and short-term mating. The current study delves deeper into these relationships by focusing on engagement in…

  10. Mating behavior of a flower-visiting longhorn beetle Zorion guttigerum (Westwood) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae)

    Wang, Qiao; Chen, Li-Yuan

    2005-05-01

    Long-range sex pheromones have been demonstrated for several cerambycid beetle species. Our field study on the mating behavior of Zorion guttigerum, on the basis of its temporal and spatial distributions on mating and feeding sites (flowers), and longevity, however, suggests that such pheromones are not used by this species. Plant characteristics rather than long-range sex pheromones may play an important role in bringing both sexes together. Adult activities on flowers occur exclusively during the day with two peaks, one around midday and the other in the late afternoon. Overall operational sex ratio is male-biased (≈1 ♀:1.5 ♂) but it becomes very highly male-biased (≈1 ♀:9 ♂) when mating and feeding activities decrease to the minimum in mid-afternoon, suggesting that females leave flowers to oviposit during that period of time. For cerambycid species whose females oviposit alone, and in which mating and oviposition occur on different plants or different plant parts, the operational sex ratio appears to vary significantly over time on the mating sites. The number and duration of pair-bondings also vary over time for Z. guttigerum. Fewer and shorter pair-bondings in the morning may suggest a strong sexual selection process. After ≈2 h of selection, both sexes tend to engage in longer pair-bondings and mate more times before females leave the mating sites in mid-afternoon. Details of the mating behavior are described here.

  11. Identifying the transition between single and multiple mating of queens in fungus-growing ants

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants...

  12. Mate Availability and the Transition to Unwed Motherhood: A Paradox of Population Structure.

    South, Scott J.

    1996-01-01

    Examines simultaneously the influence of mate availability and other factors on the transition to first marriage and the transition to a first premarital birth. Found that the supply of available mates in the local marriage market has somewhat paradoxical effects on the probability of becoming an unmarried mother. (63 references) (RJM)

  13. Divergent selection and the evolution of signal traits and mating preferences.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Mating preferences are common in natural populations, and their divergence among populations is considered an important source of reproductive isolation during speciation. Although mechanisms for the divergence of mating preferences have received substantial theoretical treatment, complementary experimental tests are lacking. We conducted a laboratory evolution experiment, using the fruit fly Drosophila serrata, to explore the role of divergent selection between environments in the evolution of female mating preferences. Replicate populations of D. serrata were derived from a common ancestor and propagated in one of three resource environments: two novel environments and the ancestral laboratory environment. Adaptation to both novel environments involved changes in cuticular hydrocarbons, traits that predict mating success in these populations. Furthermore, female mating preferences for these cuticular hydrocarbons also diverged among populations. A component of this divergence occurred among treatment environments, accounting for at least 17.4% of the among-population divergence in linear mating preferences and 17.2% of the among-population divergence in nonlinear mating preferences. The divergence of mating preferences in correlation with environment is consistent with the classic by-product model of speciation in which premating isolation evolves as a side effect of divergent selection adapting populations to their different environments.

  14. Effect of mating on sex attraction in Bactericera cockerelli with evidence of refractoriness

    We investigated the effect of mating on female attractiveness and male responsiveness in the potato psyllid, Bactericera (= Paratrioza) cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), a major pest of potato. Mating induced a behavioral refractoriness during which males are not attracted to females. This ...

  15. My Parents Know Best: No Mating With Members From Other Ethnic Groups

    Abraham P. Buunk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the opposition against out-group mating and the attitude towards parental influence on mate choice among 107 Dutch, 69 Moroccan, and 69 Turkish participants aged between 15 and 25. The level of preferred parental influence on mate choice was considerably higher among the Turks and Moroccans than among the Dutch, but females in both ethnic groups were less in favor of parental influence on mate choice than males were. Overall, males showed a higher opposition against interethnic dating than females did, and the Turks showed a higher level of opposition to interethnic mating than both the Moroccans and the Dutch. In addition, the effect of opposition against interethnic mating on preferred parental influence on mate choice was especially pronounced among the Turks, somewhat less so among the Moroccans, and least strong among the Dutch. Especially young males with a Turkish and Moroccan background seem to hold on to the values of the cultures they come from, and particularly Turkish immigrants seem keen on keeping the cohesion of their ethnic group intact by opposing interethnic dating, and by favoring parental influence on mate choice as a way to achieve this goal.

  16. ANITA status

    Connolly, A.; ANITA Collaboration

    2009-06-01

    I will review the status of ANtarctic Impulsive Transient Array (ANITA), an Antarctic long-duration balloon experiment designed to search for ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos through their radio Cherenkov signature in the ice. The first ANITA flight took place in the 2006-2007 Antarctic summer and ANITA II will fly this December 2008. I will report on first results from the first flight and the status of ANITA II.

  17. ANITA status

    I will review the status of ANtarctic Impulsive Transient Array (ANITA), an Antarctic long-duration balloon experiment designed to search for ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos through their radio Cherenkov signature in the ice. The first ANITA flight took place in the 2006-2007 Antarctic summer and ANITA II will fly this December 2008. I will report on first results from the first flight and the status of ANITA II.

  18. Genomic analysis of post-mating changes in the honey bee queen (Apis mellifera

    Richard Freddie-Jeanne

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms underlying the post-mating behavioral and physiological transitions undergone by females have not been explored in great detail. Honey bees represent an excellent model system in which to address these questions because they exhibit a range of "mating states," with two extremes (virgins and egg-laying, mated queens that differ dramatically in their behavior, pheromone profiles, and physiology. We used an incompletely-mated mating-state to understand the molecular processes that underlie the transition from a virgin to a mated, egg-laying queen. We used same-aged virgins, queens that mated once but did not initiate egg-laying, and queens that mated once and initiated egg-laying. Results Differences in the behavior and physiology among groups correlated with the underlying variance observed in the top 50 predictive genes in the brains and the ovaries. These changes were correlated with either a behaviorally-associated pattern or a physiologically-associated pattern. Overall, these results suggest that the brains and the ovaries of queens are uncoupled or follow different timescales; the initiation of mating triggers immediate changes in the ovaries, while changes in the brain may require additional stimuli or take a longer time to complete. Comparison of our results to previous studies of post-mating changes in Drosophila melanogaster identified common biological processes affected by mating, including stress response and alternative-splicing pathways. Comparison with microarray data sets related to worker behavior revealed no obvious correlation between genes regulated by mating and genes regulated by behavior/physiology in workers. Conclusion Studying the underlying molecular mechanisms of post-mating changes in honey bee queens will not only give us insight into how molecular mechanisms regulate physiological and behavioral changes, but they may also lead to important insights into the evolution of social behavior. Post-mating changes in gene regulation in the brains and ovaries of honey bee queens appear to be triggered by different stimuli and may occur on different timescales, potentially allowing changes in the brains and the ovaries to be uncoupled.

  19. Mate replacement entails a fitness cost for a socially monogamous seabird

    Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Daniel, Claire; Stephenson, Brent M.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the selective advantages of divorce in socially monogamous bird species have unravelled extensive variation among different lineages with diverse ecologies. We quantified the reproductive correlates of mate retention, mate loss and divorce in a highly philopatric, colonially breeding biparental seabird, the Australasian gannet Morus serrator. Estimates of annual divorce rates varied between 40-43% for M. serrator and were high in comparison with both the closely related Morus bassanus and the range of divorce rates reported across monogamous avian breeding systems. Mate retention across seasons was related to consistently higher reproductive success compared with mate replacement, while divorce per se contributed significantly to lower reproductive output only in one of two breeding seasons. Prior reproductive success was not predictive of mate replacement overall or divorce in particular. These patterns are in accordance with the musical chairs hypothesis of adaptive divorce theory, which operates in systems characterised by asynchronous territorial establishment.

  20. Vocal neighbour-mate discrimination in female great tits despite high song similarity

    Blumenrath, Sandra H.; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2007-01-01

    Discrimination between conspecifics is important in mediating social interactions between several individuals in a network environment. In great tits, Parus major, females readily distinguish between the songs of their mate and those of a stranger. The high degree of song sharing among neighbouring...... males, however, raises the question of whether females are also able to perceive differences between songs shared by their mate and a neighbour. The great tit is a socially monogamous, hole-nesting species with biparental care. Pair bond maintenance and coordination of the pair's reproductive efforts...... are important, and the female's ability to recognize her mate's song should therefore be adaptive. In a neighbour-mate discrimination playback experiment, we presented 13 incubating great tit females situated inside nestboxes with a song of their mate and the same song type from a neighbour. Each...

  1. Are narcissists sexy? Zeroing in on the effect of narcissism on short-term mate appeal.

    Dufner, Michael; Rauthmann, John F; Czarna, Anna Z; Denissen, Jaap J A

    2013-07-01

    This research was aimed to provide a comprehensive test of the classic notion that narcissistic individuals are appealing as short-term romantic or sexual partners. In three studies, we tested the hypotheses that narcissism exerts a positive effect on an individual's mate appeal and that this effect is mediated by high physical attractiveness and high social boldness. We implemented a multimethod approach and used ratings of opposite sex persons (Study 1), ratings of friends (Study 2), and records of courtship outcomes in naturalistic interactions (Study 3) as indicators of mate appeal. In all cases, narcissism had a positive effect on mate appeal, which was mainly due to the agentic self-enhancement aspects of narcissism (rather than narcissists' lacking communion). As predicted, physical attractiveness and social boldness mediated the positive effect of narcissism on mate appeal. Findings further indicated that narcissism was more strongly linked to mate appeal than to friend appeal. PMID:23554177

  2. The influence of pleiotropy between viability and pollen fates on mating system evolution.

    Jordan, Crispin Y

    2015-02-01

    Floral displays are functionally and genetically integrated structures, so modifications to display will likely affect multiple fitness components (pleiotropy), including pollen export and self-pollination, and therefore selfing rate. Consequently, the great diversities of floral displays and of mating systems found among angiosperms have likely co-evolved. I extend previous models of mating system evolution to determine how pleiotropy that links viability (e.g., probability of survival to reproduction) and the allocation of pollen for export and selfing affects the evolution of selfing, outcrossing, and in particular, mixed mating. I show that the outcome depends on how pollen shifts from being exported, unused, or used for selfing. Furthermore, pleiotropy that affects viability can explain observations not addressed by previous theory, including the evolution of mixed mating despite high inbreeding depression in the absence of pollen-limitation. Therefore, pleiotropy may play a key role in explaining selfing rates for such species that exhibit otherwise enigmatic mating systems. PMID:25448089

  3. Identifying the Transition between Single and Multiple Mating of Queens in Fungus-Growing Ants

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants...... is known to include evolutionarily derived genera with obligate multiple mating (the Acromyrmex and Atta leafcutter ants) as well as phylogenetically basal genera with exclusively single mating (e.g. Apterostigma, Cyphomyrmex, Myrmicocrypta). All attine genera share the unique characteristic of......), whereas the four evolutionarily derived higher attine genera have highly specialized, long-term clonal symbionts. In this paper, we investigate whether the transition from single to multiple mating occurred relatively recently in the evolution of the attine ants, in conjunction with the novel herbivorous...

  4. Body size and mating success in Drosophila willistoni are uncorrelated under laboratory conditions

    L. Basso Da Silva; V. L. S. Valente

    2001-08-01

    Mating activity and wing length were investigated in the F1 progeny of Drosophila willistoni females collected in the field to examine any possible relationship between body size and mating success. The flies were observed in a mating chamber under laboratory conditions. No significant differences in wing length were observed between copulating and noncopulating flies, and there was no significant correlation between wing length and copulation latency for both males and females. These results therefore suggest that the commonly accepted view that large body size is positively correlated with mating success in Drosophila does not always hold true. The results support the view that the extent of environmentally induced variation in body size may be an important factor in determining whether an association between body size and mating success is observed in Drosophila species.

  5. Assailing the competition: sexual selection, proximate mating motives, and aggressive behavior in men.

    Ainsworth, Sarah E; Maner, Jon K

    2014-12-01

    Throughout history, men have tended to be more violent than women. Evolutionary theories suggest that this sex difference derives in part from their historically greater need to compete with other men over access to potential mates. In the current research, men and women (Experiment 1) or men only (Experiments 2 and 3) underwent a mating motive prime or control prime, and then performed a task designed to measure aggression toward a same-sex partner. The mating prime increased aggression among men, but not women (Experiment 1). Furthermore, mating-related increases in aggression were directed only toward men who were depicted as viable intrasexual rivals, including a dominant (vs. non-dominant) male partner (Experiment 2) and a man who was depicted as single (versus married) and looking for a mate (Experiment 3). This research provides a picture of male intrasexual aggression as highly selective and aimed strategically at asserting one's dominance over sexual rivals. PMID:25313098

  6. Out of Lust or Jealousy: The Effects of Mate-Related Motives on Study-Time Allocation to Faces Varying in Attractiveness

    Li, Weijian; Zhang, Yuchi; Li, Fengying; LI, XINYU; Li, Ping; Jia, Xiaoyu; Chen, Haide; Ji, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing number of empirical studies have revealed that activating mate-related motives might exert a specific set of consequences for human cognition and behaviors, such as attention and memory, little is known about whether mate-related motives affect self-regulated learning. The present study examined the effects of mate-related motives (mate-search and mate-guarding) on study-time allocation to faces varying in attractiveness. In two experiments, participants in mate-related pri...

  7. PARTITIONING THE EFFECTS OF SPATIAL ISOLATION, NEST HABITAT, AND INDIVIDUAL DIET IN CAUSING ASSORTATIVE MATING WITHIN A POPULATION OF THREESPINE STICKLEBACK

    Snowberg, L. K.; Bolnick, D.I.

    2012-01-01

    Assortative mating is measured as a phenotypic or genotypic correlation between mates. Although biologists typically view assortative mating in terms of mate preference for similar partners, correlations between mates can also arise from phenotypic spatial structure arising from spatial isolation or habitat preferences. Here, we test whether diet-assortative mating within an ecologically variable population of threespine stickleback results from small-scale geographic isolation or microhabita...

  8. Monogyny and regulation of worker mating in the queenless ant Dinoponera quadriceps

    Monnin; Peeters

    1998-02-01

    The morphologically specialized queen caste has been lost in various ponerine ants, and mated workers ('gamergates') reproduce instead of queens. Unlike previous reports in the literature, we found only one gamergate in each colony of Dinoponera quadriceps. We documented monogyny by dissecting ovaries and spermathecae in 914 workers from 15 colonies, and by observing mating in the laboratory. In colonies without a gamergate, aggressive interactions among some of the unmated nestmates led to the behavioural differentiation of a top-ranking worker ('alpha'), which laid almost all the eggs. Only the alpha went outside the nest at night, and mated if foreign males were present (N=11 tests), thus becoming a gamergate. The alpha was sexually attractive even when her ovaries were not yet active. After intromission, the male remained linked to the alpha while she severed the end of his abdomen. Pieces of the male genitalia remained attached to her genital tract, and she removed them after 30+/-18 min (X+/-sdN=9). We interpret this to be a mating plug, preventing other males from fathering her offspring. None of these newly inseminated gamergates continued to go outside the nest, and, when tested, they never re-mated (N=4). Thus, gamergates of D. quadriceps probably mate only once. In queenless ant species, comparative evidence indicates that worker mating is often regulated in monogynous species, while unrestricted mating of young individuals is typical of polygynous species (oviposition is regulated subsequently). Furthermore, the occurrence of either monogyny or polygyny influences the mating strategies of males, and mating plugs have been reported only in some monogynous species. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9480697

  9. Effect of age on the mating propensity of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    The effect of age on the mating propensity of both wild and laboratory-reared Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was investigated under laboratory and field cage conditions. The optimal age for wild flies ranged from 7 to 13 days, whereas in laboratory-reared flies it was between 3 and 5 days old. Virgin flies were selective and more prone to mate than flies that were held with both sexes combined and therefore, had a chance to mate before the test. The difference among ages in laboratory-reared flies was significant only in virgin flies. Virgin females showed a tendency to increase their mating propensity as they got older, whereas virgin males showed a bimodal pattern, with peaks at 4 and 11 days old. When flies of both strains and different ages were combined, laboratory-reared females accounted for 72% of the all the matings and most matings were by 4-day-old females. Wild males accounted for 67% of all the matings and the maximum number of matings were by 10-day-old males. For quality control purpose, flies should be virgin and at their optimal age, this will produce more robust data for statistical analysis. For control purpose, it is recommended to release sterile flies at 1-2 days old, because flies in the field will be at their maximum mating propensity. Our results support the concept that releasing males only will make the Sterile Insect Technique more effective, since sterile males will be virgin and therefore, more prone to mate. (author)

  10. Comparison of delayed female mating on reproductive biology of codling moth and obliquebanded leafroller.

    Jones, Vincent P; Wiman, Nik G; Brunner, Jay F

    2008-06-01

    Delay of mating was examined as a possible mechanism for population decreases associated with mating disruption for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., and obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). We examined the effect of delaying female mating 0, 2, 4, or 6 d while holding male age constant on life table parameters of both species. We found that increasing delays in mating were accompanied by two responses: (1) an increase in the percentage of sterile pairs and (2) a reduction in net reproductive rate and population growth unrelated to sterility. On a percentage basis, obliquebanded leafroller population growth was more strongly affected than codling moth. However, the net fertility rate of obliquebanded leafroller was nearly eight-fold higher than that of codling moth, so that obliquebanded leafroller females that experienced a 4-d delay in mating had nearly the same reproductive rate as codling moth females that experienced no delay. Leslie matrix simulations using life tables with field-based adult longevity estimates showed that codling moth females experiencing >2-d delay in mating resulted in decreases in population density or extinction within two generations. In contrast, obliquebanded leafroller females delayed <6 d showed rapid population growth that decreased as female age at mating increased; only the 6-d delay treatment resulted in decreased population levels. Our results indicate that obliquebanded leafroller females must on average experience a much longer delay in mating to significantly reduce population growth compared with codling moth females, suggesting that delay of mating likely plays a greater role in codling moth mating disruption than for obliquebanded leafroller. PMID:18559173

  11. Genealogical theory for random mating populations with two sexes.

    Pollak, Edward

    2006-07-01

    Consider a random mating population that has N(m) males and N(f) females in each generation. Let us assume that at time 0 a random sample of n copies of a gene is taken from this population. Then, for models introduced by Wright [Evolution in Mendelian populations, Genetics 16 (1931) 97; Inbreeding and homozygosis, Proc. Nat. Acad. Wash. 19 (1933) 420; Evolution and the Genetics of Populations, The Theory of Gene Frequencies, vol. II, The University of Chicago, Chicago and London, 1969.], it is possible to obtain generalizations of the haploid theory of genealogical processes developed by Felsenstein . It is conjectured that these hold generally, regardless of the effective population size, if n

  12. From Stalemate to Soul Mate: Emergent Democracy in Kurdistan

    Harun Akyol

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the relationship between the KDP and the PUK has radically shifted from the one extreme, seemingly reconciling all the differences and being a soul mate for a strategic goal, to another extreme being an arch enemy. Existing literature on Kurdish political history focuses predominantly on the impact of international and regional affairs in the formation of Kurdish national political discourse. It underestimates the political impact of fragmented Kurdish demands in the construction of contemporary Kurdish national discourse. Characterising the Kurdish national movement and discourse as one strong unified political movement which is ready to grab any opportunity provided by the international developments is to reduce Kurdish politics to merely a matter of international relations.

  13. The genetic structure and mating system of Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae).

    Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves; Priolli, Regina Helena Geribello; Azevedo-Filho, Joaquim Adelino; Nucci, Stella Maris; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Coelho, Ricardo Marques; Colombo, Carlos Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Acrocomia aculeata is a perennial, fruit-producing palm tree, native to tropical forests. Its fruits have spurred interest because of their significant potential for use in the cosmetic industry and as feedstock for biofuel. In the present study, the genetic structure and mating system in Acrocomia aculeata were analyzed, using eight nuclear micro-satellite loci and samples from São Paulo and Minas Gerais states, Brazil. By means of Bayesian analysis, these populations were clustered into two or three groups. A high multilocus outcrossing rate suggests that outcrosses were predominant, although a certain degree of biparental inbreeding also occurred. Thus, although monoecious and self-compatible, there is every indication that A. aculeata bears a mixed reproductive system, with a predominance of outcrossing. Given the genetic structure revealed hereby, future conservation strategies and germplasm collecting should be focussed on sampling and preserving individuals from different clusters. PMID:22481883

  14. The genetic structure and mating system of Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae

    Aluana Gonçalves Abreu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrocomia aculeata is a perennial, fruit-producing palm tree, native to tropical forests. Its fruits have spurred interest because of their significant potential for use in the cosmetic industry and as feedstock for biofuel. In the present study, the genetic structure and mating system in Acrocomia aculeata were analyzed, using eight nuclear microsatellite loci and samples from São Paulo and Minas Gerais states, Brazil. By means of Bayesian analysis, these populations were clustered into two or three groups. A high multilocus outcrossing rate suggests that outcrosses were predominant, although a certain degree of biparental inbreeding also occurred. Thus, although monoecious and self-compatible, there is every indication that A. aculeata bears a mixed reproductive system, with a predominance of outcrossing. Given the genetic structure revealed hereby, future conservation strategies and germplasm collecting should be focussed on sampling and preserving individuals from different clusters.

  15. Sperm length, sperm storage and mating system characteristics in bumblebees

    Baer, Boris; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2003-01-01

    Multiple insemination induces sperm competition and may select for longer, faster moving sperm in species where sperm is short-lived and egg fertilization takes place almost immediately after ejaculation. Here we report the first detailed analysis of sperm length in social insects with long......-term storage of sperm, using three bumblebee species with different mating systems as models. We show that individual males produce only one size-class of sperm, but that sperm length is highly variable among brothers, among unrelated conspecific males, and among males of different species. Males of Bombus...... ejaculated sperm that was stored in a queen's spermatheca. Both longer sperm and shorter sperm could be preferentially stored, depending on the colony in which the males and queens were born and raised. These results indicate that the genotype of males may affect sperm length and that cryptic female choice...

  16. No effect of mate novelty on sexual motivation in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata

    Timmermeyer Nadine; Michiels Nico K; Werminghausen Johanna; Häderer Ines K; Anthes Nils

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background When mating effort (e.g. via ejaculates) is high, males are expected to strategically allocate their resources depending on the expected fitness gains from a given mating opportunity. One mechanism to achieve strategic mating is the Coolidge effect, where male sexual motivation declines across repeated encounters with a familiar partner, but resuscitates when encountering a novel female. Experimental tests of male mate choice via mechanisms such as the Coolidge effect, how...

  17. Identification of the Minus-Dominance Gene Ortholog in the Mating-Type Locus of Gonium pectorale

    Hamaji, Takashi; Ferris, Patrick J; Coleman, Annette W.; Waffenschmidt, Sabine; Takahashi, Fumio; Nishii, Ichiro; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of anisogamy/oogamy in the colonial Volvocales might have occurred in an ancestral isogamous colonial organism like Gonium pectorale. The unicellular, close relative Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has a mating-type (MT) locus harboring several mating-type-specific genes, including one involved in mating-type determination and another involved in the function of the tubular mating structure in only one of the two isogametes. In this study, as the first step in identifying the G. pecto...

  18. No preference in female sika deer for conspecific over heterospecific male sexual calls in a mate choice context

    Wyman, M T; Locatelli, Y.; Charlton, B.D.; Reby, D.

    2014-01-01

    Mating signals can be used both in contexts of species recognition and mate quality assessment. This study examines species recognition abilities in oestrous females presented with male mating calls from both conspecifics and closely related allopatric heterospecifics. Red deer and sika deer are naturally allopatric polygynous species capable of hybridization during sympatry. Male mating calls are sexually selected and differ greatly between species. Previous work indicated that most but not ...

  19. Comprehensive View of the Human Mating Process Among Young Couples in Isfahan-Iran: An Explanatory Mixed-Method Study

    Merghati Khoei, Effat; Ziaei, Tayebe; SALEHI, Mehrdad; Farajzadegan, Ziba

    2013-01-01

    Background: Heterosexual relationship is the main component of mate selection. Regardless of the importance of mate favorites, little is known about exact valued criteria in potential mates. Objectives: This study was designed to comprehensively explain the theoretical view of the human mating process. Materials and Methods: This was as an explanatory mixed–method study. The first phase was a cross-sectional quantitative study with two Farsi-modified versions of instruments: preferences conce...

  20. The incidence and selection of multiple mating in plants.

    Pannell, John R; Labouche, Anne-Marie

    2013-03-01

    Mating with more than one pollen donor, or polyandry, is common in land plants. In flowering plants, polyandry occurs when the pollen from different potential sires is distributed among the fruits of a single individual, or when pollen from more than one donor is deposited on the same stigma. Because polyandry typically leads to multiple paternity among or within fruits, it can be indirectly inferred on the basis of paternity analysis using molecular markers. A review of the literature indicates that polyandry is probably ubiquitous in plants except those that habitually self-fertilize, or that disperse their pollen in pollen packages, such as polyads or pollinia. Multiple mating may increase plants' female component by alleviating pollen limitation or by promoting competition among pollen grains from different potential sires. Accordingly, a number of traits have evolved that should promote polyandry at the flower level from the female's point of view, e.g. the prolongation of stigma receptivity or increases in stigma size. However, many floral traits, such as attractiveness, the physical manipulation of pollinators and pollen-dispensing mechanisms that lead to polyandrous pollination, have probably evolved in response to selection to promote male siring success in general, so that polyandry might often best be seen as a by-product of selection to enhance outcross siring success. In this sense, polyandry in plants is similar to geitonogamy (selfing caused by pollen transfer among flowers of the same plant), because both polyandry and geitonogamy probably result from selection to promote outcross siring success, although geitonogamy is almost always deleterious while polyandry in plants will seldom be so. PMID:23339242

  1. Courtship and mating in free-living spotted hyenas

    Szykman, M.; Van Horn, R. C.; Engh, A.L.; Boydston, E.E.; Holekamp, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    Female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are larger and more aggressive than males, and their genitalia are heavily 'masculinized'. These odd traits in females pose unusual challenges for males during courtship and copulation. Here our goals were to describe and quantify the behavior patterns involved in courtship and copulation in Crocuta, and determine whether rates of affiliative behavior directed toward females by males vary with female age, social rank, or time to conception. We also inquired whether consort formation with a particular female was necessary for a male to sire that female's cubs. Behavioral observations and paternity data based on 12 microsatellite loci were collected over 11 years from free-ranging hyenas in Kenya. Several of the courtship displays exhibited by male hyenas differed from those found in other carnivores, and appeared to reflect intense motivational conflict between tendencies to approach and flee from females. Most male advances were either ignored by females or elicited aggression from females toward males. Rates of male affiliative behavior toward females peaked around the time of conception. Although males behaved similarly toward young and old females in the highest social rank category, males directed more affiliative behavior toward older than younger females that were mid- and low-ranking. Multiple short mounts usually preceded a long mount, but intromission and ejaculation appeared to occur only during long mounts. Female receptivity was indicated by inhibited aggression toward the male and assumption of a distinctive receptive stance. The only behavior indicative of female proceptivity was following of the male by the female in mating contexts. Some males who sired cubs formed consortships with females whereas others did not, suggesting that individual male hyenas may adopt alternative reproductive tactics to attract and acquire mates. Our results also suggest that low fertility may be an important cost of female virilization in this species. ?? 2007 Brill Academic Publishers.

  2. Deletion of a Yci1 Domain Protein of Candida albicans Allows Homothallic Mating in MTL Heterozygous Cells

    Sun, Yuan; Gadoury, Christine; Hirakawa, Matthew P.; Bennett, Richard J.; Harcus, Doreen; Marcil, Anne

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT It has been proposed that the ancestral fungus was mating competent and homothallic. However, many mating-competent fungi were initially classified as asexual because their mating capacity was hidden behind layers of regulation. For efficient in vitro mating, the essentially obligate diploid ascomycete pathogen Candida albicans has to change its mating type locus from heterozygous MTLa/α to homozygous MTLa/a or MTLα/α and then undergo an environmentally controlled epigenetic switch to the mating-competent opaque form. These requirements greatly reduce the potential for C. albicans mating. Deletion of the Yci1 domain gene OFR1 bypasses the need for C. albicans cells to change the mating type locus from heterozygous to homozygous prior to switching to the opaque form and mating and allows homothallic mating of MTL heterozygous strains. This bypass is carbon source dependent and does not occur when cells are grown on glucose. Transcriptional profiling of ofr1 mutant cells shows that in addition to regulating cell type and mating circuitry, Ofr1 is needed for proper regulation of histone and chitin biosynthesis gene expression. It appears that OFR1 is a key regulator in C. albicans and functions in part to maintain the cryptic mating phenotype of the pathogen. PMID:27118591

  3. 46 CFR 11.422 - Tonnage limitations and qualifying requirements for endorsements as master or mate of vessels of...

    2010-10-01

    ... endorsements as master or mate of vessels of not more than 200 gross tons. 11.422 Section 11.422 Shipping COAST... requirements for endorsements as master or mate of vessels of not more than 200 gross tons. (a) Except as noted in paragraph (e), all endorsements issued for master or mate of vessels of not more than 200...

  4. 46 CFR 11.450 - Tonnage limitations and qualifying requirements for endorsements as master or mate of Great Lakes...

    2010-10-01

    ... endorsements as master or mate of Great Lakes and inland vessels of not more than 200 gross tons. 11.450... and qualifying requirements for endorsements as master or mate of Great Lakes and inland vessels of... master or mate of vessels of not more than 200 gross tons are issued in 50 ton increments based on...

  5. Sperm precedence in a novel context: mating in a sessile marine invertebrate with dispersing sperm.

    Bishop, J D; Pemberton, A J; Noble, L R

    2000-06-01

    The compound ascidian Diplosoma listerianum releases aquatic sperm which are dispersed passively to potential mates as individual gametes prior to storage of sperm, internal fertilization and brooding of embryos. The storage of exogenous sperm enables D. listerianum to produce a lengthy series of progeny following a brief period of mating. Molecular paternity analysis following sequential mating of colonies in laboratory culture revealed a consistent pattern with a clear initial bias in paternity towards the first of two acting males. The sites of sperm storage and fertilization and the morphology of the ovary in D. listerianum suggest that this bias reflects first-in-first-out use of individual stored gametes. The proportion of second-male paternity subsequently increased with time within the progeny arrays. This may have reflected the ageing or passive loss of first-male sperm. It is also possible that the modular nature of the organism contributed to this temporal trend: any recently budded colony modules maturing in the interval between matings would have been available exclusively to second-male sperm as virgin zooids. Two sets of mating trials were run. In the first, the collection of progeny suffered an interruption of 13 days and each male gained a larger proportion of recorded paternity within the progeny analysed when mating first rather than when mating second. In one mating combination, the first male obtained almost 100% of recorded paternity. In the second set of trials, with different clonal combinations, the complete sequence of progeny was collected and the estimated overall proportion of second-male paternity (P2) was consistently > 0.5. Taken as a whole, the results suggest that the overall P2-value can vary widely within the population studied. Proposed mechanisms of mating-order effects in species with copulatory mating include several which can have no counterpart in indirect aquatic mating since they involve the active removal, sealing off, volumetric displacement or incapacitation of first-male ejaculates. It is nevertheless clear that mating-order effects can be pronounced during the type of non-copulatory mating examined here, which is widespread in marine invertebrates. PMID:10885515

  6. Clinical implications of altered thyroid status in male testicular function Implicações clínicas das alterações tireoidianas na função gonadal masculina

    Simone Magagnin Wajner

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are involved in the development and maintenance of virtually all tissues. Although for many years the testis was thought to be a thyroid-hormone unresponsive organ, studies of the last decades have demonstrated that thyroid dysfunction is associated not only with abnormalities in morphology and function of testes, but also with decreased fertility and alterations of sexual activity in men. Nowadays, the participation of triiodothyronine (T3 in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation, testicular maturation, and steroidogenesis is widely accepted, as well as the presence of thyroid hormone transporters and receptors in testicular cells throughout the development process and in adulthood. But even with data suggesting that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects, there is still controversy regarding the impact of thyroid diseases on human spermatogenesis and fertility, which can be in part due to the lack of well-controlled clinical studies. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of recent clinical data about the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function.Os hormônios da tireoide estão envolvidos virtualmente no desenvolvimento e na manutenção de todos os tecidos. As gônadas masculinas foram, por décadas, consideradas insensíveis aos hormônios tireoidianos. No entanto, estudos mais recentes têm demonstrado que disfunções tireoidianas estão associadas não somente a anormalidades na morfologia e na função dos testículos, mas também à diminuição da fertilidade e alterações na atividade sexual masculina. Atualmente, o papel da triiodotironina (T3 no controle da proliferação das células de Sertoli e Leydig, maturação testicular e esteroidogênese é amplamente aceito, bem como a presença de transportadores e receptores para o hormônio tireoidiano nos testículos durante o período de desenvolvimento e a idade adulta. No entanto, apesar dos dados que indicam que o T3 atua diretamente nos testículos humanos, persistem controvérsias em relação ao impacto das doenças tireoidianas sobre a espermatogênese e a fertilidade, o que pode ser em parte devido à escassez de estudos clínicos nessa área. Essa revisão tem por objetivo apresentar um panorama de dados clínicos atualizados sobre o papel dos hormônios tireoidianos na função gonadal masculina.

  7. Hang on or run? Copepod mating versus predation risk in contrasting environments.

    Jersabek, Christian D; Luger, Martin S; Schabetsberger, Robert; Grill, Susanne; Strickler, J Rudi

    2007-09-01

    Mating durations of copepods were found to differ significantly between fishless high-altitude waters and lowland lakes containing fish. In lowland species the whole mating process was completed within a few minutes, but it averaged over an hour in high-altitude species. Alpine copepods showed a prolonged post-copulatory association between mates, during which the male clasped the female for an extended period after spermatophore transfer, while in lowland species males abandoned their partner immediately after copulation. Prolonged associations also occurred after transfer of spermatophores to heterospecific females with shorter conspecific mating duration, suggesting that male interests largely dictate the time spent in tandem. The differences observed may be adaptations to environments with different predation pressure, as pairs in tandem are more conspicuous and less reactive than single animals. We argue that differences in mating behavior and mating duration evolved under sexual versus natural selection, reflecting trade-offs between enhancement of fertilization success and reduction of vulnerability to visual predation. In fishless mountain lakes with high intrasexual competition, guarding males can reduce the risk of spermatophore displacement or the risk that the female will accept sperm from rival males without increased risk of being eaten, thereby maximizing paternity. Populations from fishless alpine lakes further differed from lowland species by exhibiting higher female/male size dimorphism and more intense pigmentation. While these traits vary between populations according to predation pressure, mating duration appears to be more species-specific. PMID:17541790

  8. Do female Nicrophorus vespilloides reduce direct costs by choosing males that mate less frequently?

    Hopwood, P E; Mazué, G P F; Carter, M J; Head, M L; Moore, A J; Royle, N J

    2016-03-01

    Sexual conflict occurs when selection to maximize fitness in one sex does so at the expense of the other sex. In the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, repeated mating provides assurance of paternity at a direct cost to female reproductive productivity. To reduce this cost, females could choose males with low repeated mating rates or smaller, servile males. We tested this by offering females a dichotomous choice between males from lines selected for high or low mating rate. Each female was then allocated her preferred or non-preferred male to breed. Females showed no preference for males based on whether they came from lines selected for high or low mating rates. Pairs containing males from high mating rate lines copulated more often than those with low line males but there was a negative relationship between female size and number of times she mated with a non-preferred male. When females bred with their preferred male the number of offspring reared increased with female size but there was no such increase when breeding with non-preferred males. Females thus benefited from being choosy, but this was not directly attributable to avoidance of costly male repeated mating. PMID:26979560

  9. Assortative mate choice and dominance modification: alternative ways of removing heterozygote disadvantage.

    Durinx, Michel; Van Dooren, Tom J M

    2009-02-01

    In genetic polymorphisms of two alleles, heterozygous individuals may contribute to the next generation on average more or fewer descendants than the homozygotes. Two different evolutionary responses that remove a disadvantageous heterozygote phenotype from the population are the evolution of strictly assortative mate choice, and that of a modifier making one of the two alleles completely dominant. We derive invasion fitness of mutants introducing dominance or assortative mate choice in a randomly mating population with a genetic polymorphism for an ecological trait. Mutations with small effects as well as mutants introducing complete dominance or perfect assorting are considered. Using adaptive dynamics techniques, we are able to calculate the ratio of fitness gradients for the effects of a dominance modifier and a mate choice locus, near evolutionary branching points. With equal resident allele frequencies, selection for mate choice is always stronger. Dominance is more strongly selected than assortative mating when the resident (common) alleles have very unequal frequencies at equilibrium. With female mate choice the difference in frequencies where dominance is more strongly selected is smaller than when mutants of both sexes can choose without costs. A symmetric resource-competition model illustrates the results. PMID:19054051

  10. A note on mate allocation for dominance handling in genomic selection

    Toro Miguel A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Estimation of non-additive genetic effects in animal breeding is important because it increases the accuracy of breeding value prediction and the value of mate allocation procedures. With the advent of genomic selection these ideas should be revisited. The objective of this study was to quantify the efficiency of including dominance effects and practising mating allocation under a whole-genome evaluation scenario. Four strategies of selection, carried out during five generations, were compared by simulation techniques. In the first scenario (MS, individuals were selected based on their own phenotypic information. In the second (GSA, they were selected based on the prediction generated by the Bayes A method of whole-genome evaluation under an additive model. In the third (GSD, the model was expanded to include dominance effects. These three scenarios used random mating to construct future generations, whereas in the fourth one (GSD + MA, matings were optimized by simulated annealing. The advantage of GSD over GSA ranges from 9 to 14% of the expected response and, in addition, using mate allocation (GSD + MA provides an additional response ranging from 6% to 22%. However, mate selection can improve the expected genetic response over random mating only in the first generation of selection. Furthermore, the efficiency of genomic selection is eroded after a few generations of selection, thus, a continued collection of phenotypic data and re-evaluation will be required.

  11. Relationships among Puberty, Muscle and Fat, and Liveweight Gain during Mating in Young Female Sheep.

    Rosales Nieto, C A; Ferguson, M B; Thompson, H; Briegel, J R; Macleay, C A; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2015-08-01

    Greater depths of muscle are associated with better reproductive performance in ewe lambs, but, in adult ewes, reproductive performance also seems to vary with liveweight gain during the mating period. Therefore, in a large field study with Merino ewe lambs, we tested whether the relationships among eye muscle depth (EMD), fat depth (FAT) and reproductive performance depend on liveweight gain during the mating period. We selected lambs with a wide range in phenotypic values for depths of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and assigned them to dietary treatments designed to achieve low (LOW, n=244) or high (HIGH, n=237) rates of liveweight gain during a 28-day mating period. The LOW treatment maintained live weight, whereas the HIGH treatment gained 1793.8g/day (prams) and had a higher reproductive rate (foetuses in utero per 100 ewes exposed to rams; p<0.001) than those from the LOW treatment. Fertility and reproductive rate were positively correlated with weight gain during mating as well as live weight at the start of mating, FAT and EMD (p<0.05 to <0.001). We conclude that faster growth, due to either extra nutrition during mating or higher phenotypic potential for fat and muscle, will increase reproductive performance in ewe lambs mated at 8months of age. PMID:25990918

  12. Drosophila melanogaster virgins are more likely to mate with strangers than familiar flies

    deen, Anders; Moray, Clea M.

    2008-03-01

    Recent evidence shows that females of many species can discriminate against males and/or male phenotypes they have mated with previously. However, these studies have not tested whether actual mating is necessary to induce the avoidance behaviour. A preference for strangers may have evolved because it avoids multiple matings with similar genotypes. Alternatively, there may be selection against mating with familiar individuals directly. By choosing its first mate among unfamiliar individuals (which are less likely close relatives than are those encountered early in life), a virgin might disentangle some of the potential benefits of avoiding genetic incompatibility and inbreeding in the offspring from the costs of remating. In this study, we test whether Drosophila melanogaster flies bias their mate choice towards strangers according to previous, non-copulatory, experience. Based on 173 trials over 12 weeks, virgin females presented with two virgin males were 59% more likely to mate with a novel male than the one which she had been housed with for 8 h the day before. Hence we present the first report showing that a dipteran can distinguish between previously encountered and not previously encountered conspecifics.

  13. Mating animals by minimising the covariance between ancestral contributions generates less inbreeding without compromising genetic gain in breeding schemes with truncation selection

    Henryon, M; Berg, P; Sørensen, A C

    2009-01-01

    We reasoned that mating animals by minimising the covariance between ancestral contributions (MCAC mating) will generate less inbreeding and at least as much genetic gain as minimum-coancestry mating in breeding schemes where the animals are truncation-selected. We tested this hypothesis by...... stochastic simulation and compared the mating criteria in hierarchical and factorial breeding schemes, where the animals were selected based on breeding values predicted by animal-model BLUP. Random mating was included as a reference-mating criterion. We found that MCAC mating generated 4% to 8% less...... inbreeding than minimum-coancestry mating in the hierarchical and factorial breeding schemes without any loss in genetic gain. Moreover, it generated upto 28% less inbreeding and about 3% more genetic gain than random mating. The benefits of MCAC mating over minimum-coancestry mating are worthwhile because...

  14. The effect of methyl eugenol exposure on subsequent mating performance of sterile males of the oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis

    The effect of methyl eugenol (ME) on the total times of mating, consecutive mating, mating competitiveness, multiple mating, and the incidence of wild female remating were studied in sterile males from a genetic sexing strain of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Male pupae were irradiated at dose of 100 Gy by 137Cs at 2 d before emergence and the dose rate was 1.00 Gy/min. Sexually mature 10 day old sterile males were fed ME, while Non-ME-fed sterile males and normal wild males were used as control, and wild females as mating partners. The results showed that some ME-fed sterile males could mate continuously up to nine times, but the total times of consecutive mating and the mean value of continuous mating times were not significant (P> 0.05) compared with the control. The total mating times of ME-fed sterile males was 344.33±12.55 and the mean value was 6.88±0.25, but both have no significant difference compared with the control. The mating success rate of ME-fed and non- ME-fed sterile males mated with wild females were (44.67±2.40)% and (22.00±2.31)% separately. There were significant differences between them (t = -6.8, P = 0.002). The outcomes were that feeding on ME did not increase the frequency of multiple mating by sterile males, but significantly increased the mating competitiveness of sterile males against wild males. At the same time, sterile males fed ME did not significantly affect the remating of wild females 5 days after the initial mating, but increased the remating frequency of females 10 and 15 days after the initial mating. (authors)

  15. Hybrid female mate choice as a species isolating mechanism: environment matters.

    Schmidt, E M; Pfennig, K S

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental goal of biology is to understand how new species arise and are maintained. Female mate choice is potentially critical to the speciation process: mate choice can prevent hybridization and thereby generate reproductive isolation between potentially interbreeding groups. Yet, in systems where hybridization occurs, mate choice by hybrid females might also play a key role in reproductive isolation by affecting hybrid fitness and contributing to patterns of gene flow between species. We evaluated whether hybrid mate choice behaviour could serve as such an isolating mechanism using spadefoot toad hybrids of Spea multiplicata and Spea bombifrons. We assessed the mate preferences of female hybrid spadefoot toads for sterile hybrid males vs. pure-species males in two alternative habitat types in which spadefoots breed: deep or shallow water. We found that, in deep water, hybrid females preferred the calls of sterile hybrid males to those of S. multiplicata males. Thus, maladaptive hybrid mate preferences could serve as an isolating mechanism. However, in shallow water, the preference for hybrid male calls was not expressed. Moreover, hybrid females did not prefer hybrid calls to those of S. bombifrons in either environment. Because hybrid female mate choice was context-dependent, its efficacy as a reproductive isolating mechanism will depend on both the environment in which females choose their mates as well as the relative frequencies of males in a given population. Thus, reproductive isolation between species, as well as habitat specific patterns of gene flow between species, might depend critically on the nature of hybrid mate preferences and the way in which they vary across environments. PMID:26717048

  16. Incipient sexual isolation in the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila: mating preference in male-, female– and multiple-choice mating experiments

    M T Tanuja; N B Ramachandra; H A Ranganath

    2001-09-01

    Interracial divergence is an important facet of speciation. The nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila with sixteen morphologically identical, karyotypically different but cross-fertile races is an excellent system to study a few dimensions of raciation. Drosophila nasuta nasuta, Drosophila nasuta albomicans, Cytorace 1, Cytorace 2, Cytorace 3 and Cytorace 4 of this subgroup have been subjected to male-, female- and multiple-choice mating experiments. Out of 8456 crosses conducted, 7185 had successful matings. The overall impression is that mating is far from random amongst these six closely related races of the nasuta-albomicans complex. The males of D. n. albomicans, Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 4 in male-choice, the females of Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 2 in female-choice, and the males and females of D. n. nasuta, D. n. albomicans, Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 4 against the males and females of Cytorace 2 in multiple-choice experiments, had significantly more homogamic matings than expected. Thus in this study of evolutionary experimentation on raciation under laboratory conditions, we have documented the initiation of preference for con-specific matings among closely related and independently evolving members of the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila.

  17. Tuber melanosporum: mating type distribution in a natural plantation and dynamics of strains of different mating types on the roots of nursery-inoculated host plants.

    Rubini, Andrea; Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Arcioni, Sergio; Martin, Francis; Paolocci, Francesco

    2011-02-01

    In light of the recent finding that Tuber melanosporum, the ectomycorrhizal ascomycete that produces the most highly prized black truffles, is a heterothallic species, we monitored the spatial distribution of strains with opposite mating types (MAT) in a natural truffle ground and followed strain dynamics in artificially inoculated host plants grown under controlled conditions. In a natural truffle ground, ectomycorrhizas (ECMs), soil samples and fruit bodies were sampled and genotyped to determine mating types. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were also used to fingerprint ECMs and fruit bodies. The ECMs from nursery-inoculated host plants were analysed for mating type at 6 months and 19 months post-inoculation. In open-field conditions, all ECMs from the same sampling site showed an identical mating type and an identical haploid genotype, based on SSR analysis. Interestingly, the gleba of fruit bodies always demonstrated the same genotype as the surrounding ECMs. Although root tips from nursery-grown plants initially developed ECMs of both mating types, a dominance of ECMs of the same MAT were found after several months. The present study deepens our understanding of the vegetative and sexual propagation modes of T. melanosporum. These results are highly relevant for truffle cultivation. PMID:20964691

  18. Biological characteristics and mating type distribution of Phytophthora capsici from China.

    Du, Y; Gong, Z-H; Liu, G-Z; Chai, G-X; Li, C

    2014-01-01

    Phytophthora capsici from seven provinces of China were investigated for their mating type, hyphal growth, zoospore production, and virulence. All of the morphological characteristics and the results of polymerase chain reaction confirmed that these isolates were indeed Phytophthora capsici. The test of mating type showed that the mating types of 19 representative isolates from China varied. The hyphal growth and the amount of zoospores produced from these isolates differed and there was no evident relationship between them, which indicated the existence of genetic diversity among the isolates in China. Also, the isolates that were more virulent on the pepper cultivars that we checked produced more zoospores than other isolates. PMID:24535866

  19. Termitomyces sp. associated with the termite Macrotermes natalensis has a heterothallic mating system and multinucleate cells

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Andersen, Anders; Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2005-01-01

    Fungi of the genus Termitomyces live in an obligate symbiosis with termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae. Many species of Termitomyces frequently form fruit bodies, which develop from the fungus comb within the nest. In this study, we determined the mating system of a species of Termitomyces...... mycelium had two different ITS types that segregated in the single spore cultures, which consequently had only a single ITS type. These results unambiguously prove that the strain of Termitomyces studied here has a heterothallic mating system, with the fungus garden of the termite mound being in the...... heterokaryotic phase. This is the first time the mating system of a Termitomnyces species has been studied....

  20. Mating success and sexual selection in a pelagic copepod, Temora longicornis: Evidence from paternity analyses

    Sichlau, Mie Hylstofte; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Thygesen, Uffe Hgsbro; Kirboe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about mating patterns is essential for understanding and explaining rates of reproduction and genetic potential of copepods populations. The aim of this study was to examine (1) the occurrence of multiple paternity in Temora longicornis, (2) the effect of multiple paternity (if present......) on the females reproductive output, and (3) whether mating is random or some individuals have a higher than average chance of fertilizing or being fertilized (super individuals). We show that multiple paternity is common in this copepod species, that females benefit from multiple matings by increased...