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Drosophila Cuticular Hydrocarbons Revisited: Mating Status Alters Cuticular Profiles  

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Most living organisms use pheromones for inter-individual communication. In Drosophila melanogaster flies, several pheromones perceived either by contact/at a short distance (cuticular hydrocarbons, CHs), or at a longer distance (cis-vaccenyl acetate, cVA), affect courtship and mating behaviours. However, it has not previously been possible to precisely identify all potential pheromonal compounds and simultaneously monitor their variation on a time scale. To overcome this limitation, we combi...

Everaerts, Claude; Farine, Jean-pierre; Cobb, Matthew; Ferveur, Jean-franc?ois

2010-01-01

2

Status and Mating Success Amongst Visual Artists  

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Geoffrey Miller has hypothesized that producing artwork functions as a mating display. Here we investigate the relationship between mating success and artistic success in a sample of 236 visual artists. We derived two measures of artistic success, one based on self-perception and the other on more objective variables to do with artistic output and attitudes, as well as a measure of artistic identity. More subjectively successful male artists and those males with a stronger artistic identity h...

DanielNettle; HelenClegg; DorothyMiell

2011-01-01

3

Mating alters gene expression patterns in Drosophila melanogaster male heads  

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Abstract Background Behavior is a complex process resulting from the integration of genetic and environmental information. Drosophila melanogaster rely on multiple sensory modalities for reproductive success, and mating causes physiological changes in both sexes that affect reproductive output or behavior. Some of these effects are likely mediated by changes in gene expression. Courtship and mating alter female transcript profiles, but it is not known how mating affe...

Ellis Lisa L; Carney Ginger E

2010-01-01

4

Polarization signaling in swordtails alters female mate preference.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polarization of light, and visual sensitivity to it, is pervasive across aquatic and terrestrial environments. Documentation of invertebrate use of polarized light is widespread from navigation and foraging to species recognition. However, studies demonstrating that polarization body patterning serves as a communication signal (e.g., with evidence of changes in receiver behavior) are rare among invertebrate taxa and conspicuously absent among vertebrates. Here, we investigate polarization-mediated communication by northern swordtails, Xiphophorus nigrensis, using a custom-built videopolarimeter to measure polarization signals and an experimental paradigm that manipulates polarization signals without modifying their brightness or color. We conducted mate choice trials in an experimental tank that illuminates a pair of males with light passed through a polarization filter and a diffusion filter. By alternating the order of these filters between males, we presented females with live males that differed in polarization reflectance by >200% but with intensity and color differences below detection thresholds (?5%). Combining videopolarimetry and polarization-manipulated mate choice trials, we found sexually dimorphic polarized reflectance and polarization-dependent female mate choice behavior with no polarization-dependent courtship behavior by males. Male swordtails exhibit greater within-body and body-to-background polarization contrast than females, and females preferentially associate with high-polarization-reflecting males. We also found limited support that males increase polarization contrast in social conditions over asocial conditions. Polarization cues in mate choice contexts may provide aquatic vertebrates with enhanced detection of specific display features (e.g., movements, angular information), as well as a signaling mechanism that may enhance detection by intended viewers while minimizing detection by others. PMID:25197061

Calabrese, Gina M; Brady, Parrish C; Gruev, Viktor; Cummings, Molly E

2014-09-16

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The relevance of age and nutritional status on the mating competitiveness of medfly males (Diptera: Teprhitidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Results of previous investigations trying to ascertain which physiological factors are more important to the mating success of medfly males are controversial. In part, this controversy owes to the fact that each factor was evaluated by an independent study using different experimental designs and po [...] pulations. In the present study we compare the roles of age and nutritional status (immature and adult phases) on the mating competitiveness of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) males. Three parameters were used to evaluate the male mating success: calling behavior (pheromone emission), lek participation and copulation (ability to be chosen by a female). Females gave preference to the males that were given a high protein diet in the larval phase. By contrast, females did not give preference to males that had been well-nourished in the adult phase only. The other parameters evaluated followed the same pattern: young males and males that had been fed a high protein diet during their immature phase had a greater participation in leks and called more often than older males and males that had been fed a diet poor in protein during their larval phase. Therefore, we conclude that the mating success of C. capitata males is determined both by age and nourishment during the immature stage.

Alzira Kelly Passos, Roriz; Iara Sordi, Joachim-Bravo.

2013-10-01

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Reproduction of the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus, in relation to age, gonadal activity and mating status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the basic life history and underlying regulatory mechanisms for a pest insect is essential for developing targeted control strategies, but for many insects relatively little is known. Although the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight (Heteroptera: Miridae) has a substantial negative impact in the western U.S., its basic biology is poorly characterized. To elucidate the regulation of L. hesperus reproductive dynamics, the onset times of gonadal activation and mating behavior were examined in young adults. Newly emerged adults reared under laboratory conditions at 25 degrees C were monitored daily for changes in gamete production and willingness to mate. Males matured more quickly than females. Sperm was present at emergence and a small proportion of males were willing to mate as early as 2 days post-emergence. Females were unwilling to mate until at least 5 days post-emergence, although many produced choriogenic oocytes by 4 days. Males appeared to discriminate female age and were more likely to attempt mating with females >5 days post-emergence than with younger females. Males were also able to detect previous mating and attempted to mount virgins more often than recently inseminated females. Collectively these results indicate that the changes in the mating behaviors of L. hesperus are linked to reproductive status, although there is a lag between gamete production and willingness to mate. The results also suggest that interactions of the sexes are chemically mediated. PMID:19729015

Brent, Colin S

2010-01-01

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Mate-guarding constrains feeding activity but not energetic status of wild male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).  

Science.gov (United States)

Mate-guarding is an important determinant of male reproductive success in a number of species. Little is known however about the constraints of this behaviour, e.g. the associated energetic costs. We investigated these costs in long-tailed macaques where alpha males mate guard females to a lesser extent than predicted by the priority of access model. The study was carried out during two mating periods on three wild groups living in the Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia. We combined behavioural observations on males' locomotion and feeding activity, GPS records of distance travelled and non-invasive measurements of urinary C-peptide (UCP), a physiological indicator of male energetic status. Mate-guarding led to a decrease in feeding time and fruit consumption suggesting a reduced intake of energy. At the same time, vertical locomotion was reduced, which potentially saved energy. These findings, together with the fact that we did not find an effect of mate-guarding on UCP levels, suggest that energy intake and expenditure was balanced during mate-guarding in our study males. Mate-guarding thus seems to not be energetically costly under all circumstances. Given that in strictly seasonal rhesus macaques, high-ranking males lose physical condition over the mating period, we hypothesise that the energetic costs of mate-guarding vary inter-specifically depending on the degree of seasonality and that males of non-strictly seasonal species might be better adapted to maintain balanced energetic condition year-round. Finally, our results illustrate the importance of combining behavioural assessments of both energy intake and expenditure with physiological measures when investigating energetic costs of behavioural strategies. PMID:24659851

Girard-Buttoz, Cédric; Heistermann, Michael; Rahmi, Erdiansyah; Marzec, Anna; Agil, Muhammad; Fauzan, Panji Ahmad; Engelhardt, Antje

2014-01-01

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Antacids, Altered Mental Status, and Milk-Alkali Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

The frequency of milk-alkali syndrome decreased rapidly after the development of histamine-2 antagonists and proton pump inhibitors for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease; however, the availability and overconsumption of antacids and calcium supplements can still place patients at risk (D. P. Beall et al., 2006). Here we describe a patient who presented with altered mental status, hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and acute renal failure in the context of ingesting large amounts of antacids to control dyspepsia. PMID:23431478

Watson, Simon C.; Dellinger, Bonnie B.; Jennings, Katie; Scott, Lancer A.

2012-01-01

9

Antacids, Altered Mental Status, and Milk-Alkali Syndrome  

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The frequency of milk-alkali syndrome decreased rapidly after the development of histamine-2 antagonists and proton pump inhibitors for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease; however, the availability and overconsumption of antacids and calcium supplements can still place patients at risk (D. P. Beall et al., 2006). Here we describe a patient who presented with altered mental status, hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and acute renal failure in the context of ingesting large amounts of antac...

Watson, Simon C.; Dellinger, Bonnie B.; Katie Jennings; Scott, Lancer A.

2012-01-01

10

The smell of virgins: mating status of females affects male swimming behaviour in Oithona davisae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many copepod species rely on pheromone cues to find partners. Some parasitic and benthic copepod males are able to distinguish between females of different reproductive states. Here, we demonstrate that the swimming activity and velocity of males of a pelagic copepod, Oithona davisae, increases in the presence of virgin when compared with mated females and that the cue is waterborne. The ability to distinguish between virgin and mated females may reduce male mortality during mate search and the cost related to mating behaviour (precopula) in both sexes. We estimate that at realistic population densities the ability of males to distinguish between virgin and mated females saves them several hours per day of dangerous and energetically expensive fast female tracking

Heuschele, Jan; KiØrboe, Thomas

2012-01-01

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Female Moth Calling and Flight Behavior Are Altered Hours Following Pheromone Autodetection: Possible Implications for Practical Management with Mating Disruption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Female moths are known to detect their own sex pheromone—a phenomenon called “autodetection”. Autodetection has various effects on female moth behavior, including altering natural circadian rhythm of calling behavior, inducing flight, and in some cases causing aggregations of conspecifics. A proposed hypothesis for the possible evolutionary benefits of autodetection is its possible role as a spacing mechanism to reduce female-female competition. Here, we explore autodetection in two species of tortricids (Grapholita molesta (Busck and Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris. We find that females of both species not only “autodetect,” but that learning (change in behavior following experience occurs, which affects behavior for at least 24 hours after pheromone pre-exposure. Specifically, female calling in both species is advanced at least 24 hours, but not 5 days, following pheromone pre-exposure. Also, the propensity of female moths to initiate flight and the duration of flights, as quantified by a laboratory flight mill, were advanced in pre-exposed females as compared with controls. Pheromone pre-exposure did not affect the proportion of mated moths when they were confined with males in small enclosures over 24 hours in laboratory assays. We discuss the possible implications of these results with respect to management of these known pest species with the use of pheromone-based mating disruption.

Lukasz Stelinski

2014-06-01

12

A matter of taste: direct detection of female mating status in the bedbug.  

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Males of the bedbug, Cimex lectularius, traumatically inseminate females by inserting a needle-like intromittent organ (penis) through the female's abdominal wall after she has fed. We demonstrate that: (i) mating duration determines ejaculate size; (ii) a female's first copulation in a bout of copulations always lasts longer than subsequent copulations; (iii) the intromittent organ bears sensillae; (iv) males use their intromittent organ to 'taste' whether their current mate has recently cop...

Siva-jothy, Michael T.; Stutt, Alistair D.

2003-01-01

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Organic and Conventional Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil Improves Metabolic Redox Status of Liver and Serum in Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available Organic and conventional yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis is widely used in South America to prepare nonalcoholic drinks rich in polyphenols. These compounds are able to prevent the generation of reactive species, thus minimizing the incidence of several diseases. In this perspective, we hypothesized that yerba mate may have protective effects against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ-induced oxidative damage in liver and serum of rats. Animals (n = 42 received distilled water (control or yerba mate (organic or conventional for fifteen days. Then, half of the rats of each group received 60 mg/kg PTZ intraperitoneally or saline solution. After 30 min the animals were euthanized and the liver and blood were collected. The results showed that organic and conventional yerba mate avoided PTZ-induced oxidative damage and nitric oxide production in the liver and serum of the rats. Moreover, both kinds of yerba mate prevented the decrease in enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and catalase and non-enzymatic (sulfhydryl protein content defenses in the liver and serum. In addition, histopathologic analysis of the liver showed that yerba mate reduced PTZ-induced cell damage. These findings indicate that yerba mate provides hepatoprotection and improves antioxidant status in the serum, which may contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies using nutraceuticals drinks.

Cátia S. Branco

2013-07-01

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Age and mating status do not affect transcript levels of odorant receptor genes in male antennae of Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa.  

Science.gov (United States)

In biological systems, it is expected that gene expression levels generally will correlate with temporally varying physiological and biological needs, and that gene expression levels could regulate biological capabilities. In moth species, male response to female sex pheromones often is affected by moth age and mating status. Odorant receptors (ORs) expressed in neurons within male antennae are critical for detecting the female pheromones. Therefore, we hypothesized that the expression level of these receptor proteins would be affected by age and mating status of male moths. We examined expression levels of two OR genes that are preferentially expressed in the male antennae of Heliothis virescens (HvOR13 and HvOR15) and Heliothis subflexa (HsOR13 and HsOR15). Antennae were dissected from virgin males at 2 h, 1 d, 2 d, 4 d, and 8 d. We also dissected antennae from 4-d-old mated males. We found that age had no effect on expression levels of either OR in either species, except for a small difference in HsOR15 expression between 2 h and 8-d-old virgin males. Furthermore, we found no effect of mating status on expression level of these ORs in either species. We discuss these findings in relationship to studies of age and mating status effects on male electrophysiological and behavioral response to female pheromones, and contrast our results to studies on the effects of age and mating status on gene expression of pheromone receptor proteins and pheromone binding proteins in other moths. PMID:20890796

Soques, Stephanie; Vásquez, Gissella M; Grozinger, Christina M; Gould, Fred

2010-11-01

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Bred to breed?! Implications of continuous mating on the emotional status of mouse offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Working with mice represents a smart method to study pathophysiological mechanisms in vivo. However, using animals as model organisms also bears immense caveats. While many aspects in animal research are meanwhile standardized (e.g. nutrition, housing, health) the breeding environment remains unaddressed. Moreover, since the "production" of mice is mostly performed pragmatically, continuous mating (CM) represents a common method to boost the amount of offspring. This condition implies simultaneous pregnancy and lactation in presence of the male, which is associated with increased costs for the breeding dam. Facing the widely-accepted impact of perinatal conditions, our aim was to elucidate how CM affects emotional behaviour of mouse offspring. We therefore compared pregnant mice in CM with mice raising their pups without potentially disturbing influences. According to our hypothesis CM-deriving offspring should demonstrate increased anxiety and depression-like behaviour shaped by pre- and postnatal stress of the mother. Maternal care, i.e. nest building and pup retrieval, was analysed around delivery. To assess the emotional state of the offspring, males and females of either condition were exposed to a behavioural test battery for exploration, anxiety and fear, social and despair behaviour. In addition we analysed corticosterone as stressphysiological correlate. Our study demonstrates that CM affects the emotional phenotype regarding nearly all parameters addressed. These findings emphasize (i) the impact of the perinatal environment on stress-associated behaviour such as depression, and (ii) the need to imply perinatal conditions in the experimental design to decrease the risk of artefacts and increase the overall validity of animal studies. PMID:25446740

Lerch, Sandra; Brandwein, Christiane; Dormann, Christof; Gass, Peter; Chourbaji, Sabine

2015-02-15

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Is the Oxidant/Antioxidant Status Altered in CADASIL Patients?  

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The altered aggregation of proteins in non-native conformation is associated with endoplasmic reticulum derangements, mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a rare hereditary systemic vasculopathy, caused by NOTCH3 mutations within the receptor extracellular domain, that lead to abnormal accumulation of the mutated protein in the vascular wall. NOTCH3...

Campolo, Jonica; Maria, Renata; Mariotti, Caterina; Tomasello, Chiara; Parolini, Marina; Frontali, Marina; Inzitari, Domenico; Valenti, Raffaella; Federico, Antonio; Taroni, Franco; Parodi, Oberdan

2013-01-01

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Altered Redox Status Accompanies Progression to Metastatic Human Bladder Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in bladder cancer progression remains an unexplored field. Expression levels of enzymes regulating ROS levels are often altered in cancer. Search of publicly available micro-array data reveals that expression of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (Sod2), responsible for the conversion of superoxide (O2-.) to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), is consistently increased in high grade and advanced stage bladder tumors. Here we aim to identify the role of Sod2 expression and ROS in bladder cancer. Using an in vitro human bladder tumor model we monitored the redox state of both non-metastatic (253J) and highly metastatic (253J B-V) bladder tumor cell lines. 253J B-V cells displayed significantly higher Sod2 protein and activity levels compared to their parental 253J cell line. The increase in Sod2 expression was accompanied by a significant decrease in catalase activity, resulting in a net increase in H2O2 production in the 253J B-V line. Expression of pro-metastatic and –angiogenic factors, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial derived growth factor (VEGF), respectively, were similarly upregulated in the metastatic line. Expression of both MMP-9 and VEGF were shown to be H2O2-dependent, as removal of H2O2 by overexpression of catalase attenuated their expression. Similarly, expression of catalase effectively reduced the clonogenic activity of 253J B-V cells. These findings indicate that metastatic bladder cancer cells display an altered antioxidant expression profile, resulting in a net increase in ROS production, which leads to the induction of redox-sensitive pro-tumorigenic and pro-metastatic genes such as VEGF and MMP-9. PMID:18930813

Hempel, Nadine; Ye, Hanqing; Abessia, Bryan; Mian, Badar; Melendez, J. Andres

2009-01-01

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Alteration of Oxidative Status in Rats Following Administration of Acrylamide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Acrylamide (ACR is a known industrial neurotoxic and carcinogenic chemical in rodents. The recent discovery of acrylamide in wide variety of commonly consumed foods has energized research efforts worldwide to define toxic mechanisms. Objective: The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of acrylamide administration on in vivo malondialdehyde (MDA, a product of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH as well as copper and zinc superoxide dismutase enzyme activity (Cu/Zn SOD of rats. Material and Methods: Fourteen adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups each containing "7" rats. Group 1 served as negative control fed on basal diet and group 2 (positive control received basal diet and acrylamide (0.34g/ kg diet for 11 days. Levels of MDA, GSH and activity of SOD were determined in liver, kidneys, brain, heart, testes, spleen and lungs of rats. Results: ACR treatment significantly increased MDA in all organs; the highest increase was detected in testis (87.9% and heart (71.5% while the lowest one was found in kidneys (28.2%. On the other hand, GSH levels and SOD activities were significantly reduced in ACR treated rats. However, the reduction of GSH level ranged from 10.2% to 36.5 %.The inhibition of SOD activities were higher in testis (57.3% and lungs (38.5%. Conclusion: The present study showed that ACR exerts deteriorated effects on oxidative status of rats

Hanaa H. El-Sayed1, Shawkia S. Abd El- Halim1,

2007-09-01

19

Alterations of nutritional status: impact of chemotherapy and radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nutritional status of a cancer patient may be affected by the tumor, the chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy directed against the tumor, and by complications associated with that therapy. Chemotherpay-radiotherapy is not confined exclusively to malignant cell populations; thus, normal tissues may also be affected by the therapy and may contribute to specific nutritional problems. Impaired nutrition due to anorexia, mucositis, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may be dependent upon the specific chemotherapeutic agent, dose, or schedule utilized. Similar side effects from radiation therapy depend upon the dose, fractionation, and volume irradiated. When combined modality treatment is given the nutritional consequences may be magnified. Prospective, randomized clinical trials are underway to investigate the efficacy of nutritional support during chemotherapy-radiotherapy on tolerance to treatment, complications from treatment, and response rates to treatment. Preliminary results demonstrate that the administration of total parenteral nutrition is successful in maintaining weight during radiation therapy and chemotherapy, but that weight loss occurs after discontinuation of nutritional support. Thus, longterm evaluation is mandatory to learn the impact of nutritional support on survival, diease-free survival, and complication rates, as well as on the possible prevention of morbidity associated with aggressive chemotherapy-radiation therapytion therapy

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Is the oxidant/antioxidant status altered in CADASIL patients?  

Science.gov (United States)

The altered aggregation of proteins in non-native conformation is associated with endoplasmic reticulum derangements, mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a rare hereditary systemic vasculopathy, caused by NOTCH3 mutations within the receptor extracellular domain, that lead to abnormal accumulation of the mutated protein in the vascular wall. NOTCH3 misfolding could cause free radicals increase also in CADASIL. Aim of the study was to verify whether CADASIL patients have increased oxidative stress compared to unrelated healthy controls. We enrolled 15 CADASIL patients and 16 gender- and age-matched healthy controls with comparable cardiovascular risk factor. Blood and plasma reduced and total aminothiols (homocysteine, cysteine, glutathione, cysteinylglycine) were measured by HPLC and plasma 3-nitrotyrosine by ELISA. Only plasma reduced cysteine (Pr-Cys) and blood reduced glutathione (Br-GSH) concentrations differed between groups: in CADASIL patients Br-GSH levels were higher (p = 0.019) and Pr-Cys lower (p = 0.010) than in controls. No correlation was found between Br-GSH and Pr-Cys either in CADASIL patients (rho 0.25, P = 0.36) or in controls (rho -0.15, P = 0.44). Conversely, 3-nitrotyrosine values were similar in CADASIL and healthy subjects (p = 0.82). The high levels of antioxidant molecules and low levels of oxidant mediators found in our CADASIL population might either be expression of an effective protective action against free radical formation at an early stage of clinical symptoms or they could suggest that oxidative stress is not directly involved in the pathogenesis of CADASIL. PMID:23799141

Campolo, Jonica; De Maria, Renata; Mariotti, Caterina; Tomasello, Chiara; Parolini, Marina; Frontali, Marina; Inzitari, Domenico; Valenti, Raffaella; Federico, Antonio; Taroni, Franco; Parodi, Oberdan

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Undifferentiated Altered Mental Status: A Late Presentation of Toxic Acetaminophen Ingestion  

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Altered mental status is a common undifferentiated presentation in the emergency department. We describe a case of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure that was diagnosed and treated prior to obtaining definitive historical or laboratory information about the etiology. The physical exam finding of scleral icterus in this case was a key element to rapid identification and treatment of this life-threatening condition. A discussion of appropriate N-acetylcysteine treatment for acute liver f...

Robey, Thomas E.; Melnick, Edward R.

2012-01-01

22

Effects of size, shape, genotype, and mating status on queen overwintering survival in the social wasp Vespula maculifrons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many insects survive cold winter temperatures by entering into a transient, dormant state. Social wasp queens in the genus Vespula undergo such a state of physiological dormancy known as diapause to survive winter conditions. We experimentally investigated the effects of size, shape, genotype, and matedness on the overwintering survival of Vespula maculifrons Buysson (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) queens in two study years. Queens first were mated in the laboratory and then subjected to overwintering conditions. The sizes of several morphological traits of each queen were measured, and the genotype of each queen was determined at polymorphic microsatellite loci allowing queens to be assigned to distinct patrilines. We found that overall large body size resulted in high overwintering survival for queens in one study year. In addition, queen thinness was positively and significantly associated with overwintering survival in both years. In contrast, we found no evidence for an effect of patriline on overwintering survival, which is consistent with the idea that natural selection removes genetic variation associated with traits directly linked to fitness. We also found no effect of queen matedness on overwintering survival, as expected under models suggesting that mating should not adversely affect female viability in social hymenopteran insects. Overall, our study demonstrates that some aspects of body size and shape are significantly associated with overwintering survival in V. maculifrons queens. However, variation in survival arising from genotypic differences or mating effects is limited due, in part, to the way selection operates in social insect species. PMID:23321110

Kovacs, Jennifer L; Goodisman, Michael A D

2012-12-01

23

The value of electroencephalography in differential diagnosis of altered mental status in emergency departments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the value of electroencephalography in patients with altered mental status in emergency departments. Methods: Demographical characteristics, types and aetiologies of seizures, and clinical outcomes of the patients were recorded. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the complaints of admission: findings and symptoms of seizure; stroke and symptoms of stroke-related seizures; syncope; and metabolic abnormalities and other causes of altered mental status. The electroencephalography findings were classified into 3 groups: epileptiform discharges; paroxysmal electroencephalography abnormalities; and background slowing. Electroencephalography abnormalities in each subgroup were evaluated. SPSS 21 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total 190 patients in the study, 117(61.6%) had pathological electroencephalography findings. The main reason for electroencephalography in the emergency department was the presence of seizure findings and symptoms in 98(51.6%) patients. The ratio of electroencephalography abnormality was higher in patients who were admitted with complaints of metabolic abnormality-related consciousness disturbances (p<0.001). A total of 124(65.3%) patients had neuroimagings. Electroencephalography abnormalities were found to be significantly higher in patients with neuroimagings compared to those without neuroimagings (p<0.003). Conclusion: Despite advanced neuroimaging techniques, electroencephalography is still an important tool in the differential diagnosis of altered mental status such as epileptic seizures, metabolic abnormalities, pseudo-seizures and syncope. (author)

24

Proteomic profiling and redox status alteration of recalcitrant tea (Camellia sinensis) seed in response to desiccation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tea seed is believed to be recalcitrant based on its sensitivity to chilling or drying stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alterations in cytosolic redox status have been implicated in intolerance to desiccation by recalcitrant seed, but there is little information available regarding how ROS are regulated in seeds susceptible to drying stress. We investigated changes in protein expression and activity in tea embryo in response to desiccation using physiological and proteomic methods. Results showed that desiccation treatment dramatically induced the accumulation of H(2)O(2) in tea embryos, accompanied by increased activities of antioxidant enzymes like ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Proteomic analyses also demonstrated that 23 proteins associated with defense response, metabolism and redox status were up-regulated following desiccation. Increase in antioxidants, ascorbic acid (AsA) and catalase (CAT) (H(2)O(2) scavengers) partially assuaged desiccation damage to tea seed, resulting in improved germination rates. Higher accumulation of H(2)O(2) aggravated desiccation damage to seeds leading to lower germination activity. We propose that desiccation causes an over-accumulation of ROS that are not efficiently scavenged by increased levels of antioxidant enzymes. High levels of ROS alter the redox status and are detrimental to seed viability. Reducing ROS to appropriate concentrations is an efficient way to reduce desiccation damage and improve germination rates of recalcitrant seeds. PMID:21120520

Chen, Qi; Yang, Liming; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Wan, Xiaochun; Hu, Xiangyang

2011-03-01

25

Alterations in Plasma Lipid Peroxidation and Total Antioxidant Status During Storage of Blood  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was designed to determine the alteration of plasma lipid peroxidation-(by measuring the level of MDA and total antioxidant status in stored blood. This study is carried out to find out the quantitative alterations and the useful length of stored blood. The whole blood were taken from 10 donors. Red Blood Cells (RBC were counted in whole blood. The levels of Potassium (P and lactate dehydrogenate activity(LDH were measured in plasma for determination of hemolysis. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and Total Antioxidant Status (TAS were studied in plasma for determination of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system, respectively. The measurement were performed at the day 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33 and 35 of the storage. The levels of malondialdehyde and Potassium and lactate dehydrogenate activity increased (p<0.05 depending on storage time whereas Total Antioxidant Status (TAS and Red Blood Cells decreased (p<0.05. The alterations of MDA, TAS, P, LDH and RBC in the measurement days were as follows: MDA, P and LDH significantly increased at the day 9, 5 and 5 whereas TAS and RBC decreased at the day 13 and 29, respectively. These results suggest that increased level of MDA and decreased level of TAS in the stored blood can not improve the vialibilty and longevity of RBC by increasing cell damage caused by free radicals at the day mentioned above. To improve the quality of stored blood is to supplement blood donors with antioxidants and vitamins at least one week before blood collection to keep and store the stored blood for longer time until using for transfusion. We conclude that increased level of MDA and decreased TAS in stored blood which can cause the beginning of hemolysis. It is therefore necessary to control these factors before blood transfusion.

Abdoljalal Marjani

2006-01-01

26

The evolution of mate choice and mating biases.  

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We review the current status of three well-established models (direct benefits, indirect benefits and sensory drive) and one newcomer (antagonistic chase-away) of the evolution of mate choice and the biases that are expressed during choice. We highlight the differences and commonalities in the underlying genetics and evolutionary dynamics of these models. We then argue that progress in understanding the evolution of mate choice is currently hampered by spurious distinctions among models and a...

Kokko, Hanna; Brooks, Robert; Jennions, Michael D.; Morley, Josephine

2003-01-01

27

Highly Efficient Generation of Transgenic Sheep by Lentivirus Accompanying the Alteration of Methylation Status  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Low efficiency of gene transfer and silence of transgene expression are the critical factors hampering the development of transgenic livestock. Recently, transfer of recombinant lentivirus has been demonstrated to be an efficient transgene delivery method in various animals. However, the lentiviral transgenesis and the methylation status of transgene in sheep have not been well addressed. Methodology/Principle Findings EGFP transgenic sheep were generated by injecting recombinant lentivirus into zygotes. Of the 13 lambs born, 8 carried the EGFP transgene, and its chromosomal integration was identified in all tested tissues. Western blotting showed that GFP was expressed in all transgenic founders and their various tissues. Analysis of CpG methylation status of CMV promoter by bisulfate sequencing unraveled remarkable variation of methylation levels in transgenic sheep. The average methylation levels ranged from 37.6% to 79.1% in the transgenic individuals and 34.7% to 83% in the tested tissues. Correlative analysis of methylation status with GFP expression revealed that the GFP expression level was inversely correlated with methylation density. The similar phenomenon was also observed in tested tissues. Transgene integration determined by Southern blotting presented multiple integrants ranging from 2 to 6 copies in the genome of transgenic sheep. Conclusions/Significance Injection of lentiviral transgene into zygotes could be a promising efficient gene delivery system to generate transgenic sheep and achieved widespread transgene expression. The promoter of integrants transferred by lentiviral vector was subjected to dramatic alteration of methylation status and the transgene expression level was inversely correlative with promoter methylation density. Our work illustrated for the first time that generation of transgenic sheep by injecting recombinant lentivirus into zygote could be an efficient tool to improve sheep performance by genetic modification. PMID:23382924

Liu, Chenxi; Wang, Liqin; Li, Wenrong; Zhang, Xuemei; Tian, Yongzhi; Zhang, Ning; He, Sangang; Chen, Tong; Huang, Juncheng; Liu, Mingjun

2013-01-01

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Genomic and Transcriptional Alterations in Lung Adenocarcinoma in Relation to EGFR and KRAS Mutation Status  

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Introduction In lung adenocarcinoma, the mutational spectrum is dominated by EGFR and KRAS mutations. Improved knowledge about genomic and transcriptional alterations in and between mutation-defined subgroups may identify genes involved in disease development or progression. Methods Genomic profiles from 457 adenocarcinomas, including 113 EGFR-mutated, 134 KRAS-mutated and 210 EGFR and KRAS-wild type tumors (EGFRwt/KRASwt), and gene expression profiles from 914 adenocarcinomas, including 309 EGFR-mutated, 192 KRAS-mutated, and 413 EGFRwt/KRASwt tumors, were assembled from different repositories. Genomic and transcriptional differences between the three mutational groups were analyzed by both supervised and unsupervised methods. Results EGFR-mutated adenocarcinomas displayed a larger number of copy number alterations and recurrent amplifications, a higher fraction of total loss-of-heterozygosity, higher genomic complexity, and a more distinct expression pattern than EGFR-wild type adenocarcinomas. Several of these differences were also consistent when the three mutational groups were stratified by stage, gender and smoking status. Specific copy number alterations were associated with mutation status, predominantly including regions of gain with the highest frequency in EGFR-mutated tumors. Differential regions included both large and small regions of gain on 1p, 5q34-q35.3, 7p, 7q11.21, 12p12.1, 16p, and 21q, and losses on 6q16.3-q21, 8p, and 9p, with 20-40% frequency differences between the mutational groups. Supervised gene expression analyses identified 96 consistently differentially expressed genes between the mutational groups, and together with unsupervised analyses these analyses highlighted the difficulty in broadly resolving the three mutational groups into distinct transcriptional entities. Conclusions We provide a comprehensive overview of the genomic and transcriptional landscape in lung adenocarcinoma stratified by EGFR and KRAS mutations. Our analyses suggest that the overall genomic and transcriptional landscape of lung adenocarcinoma is affected, but only to a minor extent, by EGFR and KRAS mutation status. PMID:24205279

Planck, Maria; Edlund, Karolina; Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick; Isaksson, Sofi; Staaf, Johan

2013-01-01

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Balanced anesthesia with sevoflurane does not alter redox status in patients undergoing surgical procedures.  

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Despite the effectiveness and safety of anesthetics, some unanswered questions remain concerning their toxicity and effects on cellular redox balance. To test for possible toxic effects of balanced anesthesia maintained with the volatile anesthetic sevoflurane, we evaluated oxidative stress during and after general anesthesia in 15 adult patients without comorbidities who underwent elective minor surgical procedures. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline, before anesthesia (t0); after anesthesia induction and immediately before surgery (t1); 2h after the beginning of anesthesia (t2); and on the day following surgery (t3). Antioxidant defense was determined by fluorometry. Oxidative stress markers included oxidative DNA damage, evaluated by the alkaline comet assay, and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). No increase in oxidized DNA damage or antioxidant defense was observed. Plasma MDA increased only at t3 compared with t2. Balanced sevoflurane-maintained anesthesia appears neither to damage DNA nor to alter redox status. PMID:25308703

Orosz, José Eduardo B; Braz, Leandro G; Ferreira, Ana Lucia A; Amorim, Rosa Beatriz; Salvadori, Daisy Maria F; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Braz, José Reinaldo C; Braz, Mariana G

2014-10-01

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Altered oxidant-antioxidant status in non-obese men with moderate essential hypertension  

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Full Text Available Background : Although a wide number of experimental evidences are available regarding oxidant-antioxidant disturbance in hypertension, clinical data supporting it is lacking in men in early stages of hypertension. Aims: The objective of the study was to evaluate oxidative status and antioxidant activities in males with stage I essential hypertension. Materials and Methods : Thirty hypertensives and 21 normotensives were included in the study. Protein carbonyl, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and fasting glucose were assessed in both the groups. Statistical Analysis : Results were analyzed by student?s ?t? test and linear regression analysis test. Results : Plasma protein carbonyl and glutathione peroxidase were significantly increased, and catalase and GSH were significantly reduced in the hypertensive group compared to normotensive subjects. There was a significant negative correlation between glutathione peroxidase and catalase in the test group. Conclusions : The data from the present study indicates an alteration in oxidant-antioxidant status in non-obese men in early stages of essential hypertension.

Nandeesha H

2007-06-01

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A comparative study into alterations of coenzyme Q redox status in ageing pigs, mice, and worms.  

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Coenzyme Q derivatives (CoQ) are lipid soluble antioxidants that are synthesized endogenously in almost all species and function as an obligatory cofactor of the respiratory chain. There is evidence that CoQ status is altered by age in several species. Here we determined level and redox-state of CoQ in different age groups of pigs, mice and Caenorhabditis elegans. Since these species are very different with respect to lifespan, reproduction and physiology, our approach could provide some general tendencies of CoQ status in ageing organisms. We found that CoQ level decreases with age in pigs and mice, whereas CoQ content increases in older worms. As observed in all three species, ubiquinone, the oxidized form of CoQ, increases with age. Additionally, we were able to show that supplementation of ubiquinol-10, the reduced form of human CoQ10 , slightly increases lifespan of post-reproductive worms. In conclusion, the percentage of the oxidized form of CoQ increases with age indicating higher oxidative stress or rather a decreased anti-oxidative capacity of aged animals. PMID:24578032

Onur, Simone; Niklowitz, Petra; Fischer, Alexandra; Metges, Cornelia C; Grune, Tilman; Menke, Thomas; Rimbach, Gerald; Döring, Frank

2014-01-01

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Dietary selenium and nutritional plane alter specific aspects of maternal endocrine status during pregnancy and lactation.  

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Objectives were to examine effects of selenium (Se) supply and maternal nutritional plane during gestation on placental size at term and maternal endocrine profiles throughout gestation and early lactation. Ewe lambs (n = 84) were allocated to treatments that included Se supply of adequate Se (ASe; 11.5 ?g/kg BW) or high Se (HSe; 77 ?g/kg BW) initiated at breeding and nutritional plane of 60% (RES), 100% (CON), or 140% (EXC) of requirements beginning on day 40 of gestation. At parturition, lambs were removed from their dams, and ewes were transitioned to a common diet that met requirements of lactation. Blood samples were taken from a subset of ewes (n = 42) throughout gestation, during parturition, and throughout lactation to determine hormone concentrations. Cotyledon number was reduced (P = 0.03) in RES and EXC ewes compared with CON ewes. Placental delivery time tended (P = 0.08) to be shorter in HSe ewes than in ASe ewes, whereas placental delivery time was longer (P = 0.02) in RES ewes than in CON and EXC ewes. During gestation, maternal progesterone, estradiol-17?, and GH were increased (P EXC ewes compared with CON ewes. In contrast, maternal cortisol, IGF-I, prolactin, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were decreased in RES ewes and increased in EXC ewes compared with CON ewes during gestation. Selenium supply did not alter maternal hormone profiles during gestation. During parturition and lactation, maternal hormone concentrations were influenced by both Se and maternal nutritional plane. During the parturient process, HSe ewes tended to have greater (P = 0.06) concentrations of estradiol-17? than ASe ewes. Three hours after parturition a surge of GH was observed in ASe-RES ewes that was muted in HSe-RES ewes and not apparent in other ewes. Growth hormone area under the curve during the parturient process was increased (P < 0.05) in ASe-RES vs HSe-RES ewes. Ewes that were overfed during gestation had reduced (P < 0.05) estradiol-17? but greater IGF-I, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine (P < 0.05) compared with RES ewes. Even though ewes were transitioned to a common diet after parturition, endocrine status continued to be affected into lactation. Moreover, it appears that gestational diet may partially affect lactational performance through altered endocrine status. PMID:24183757

Lemley, C O; Meyer, A M; Neville, T L; Hallford, D M; Camacho, L E; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Wilmoth, T A; Wilson, M E; Perry, G A; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S; Vonnahme, K A

2014-01-01

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Cypermethrin alters the status of oxidative stress in the peripheral blood: relevance to Parkinsonism.  

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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a motor scarcity disorder characterized by the striatal dopamine deficiency owing to the selective degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. While oxidative stress is implicated in PD, prolonged exposure to moderate dose of cypermethrin induces Parkinsonism. The study aimed to investigate the status of oxidative stress indicators and antioxidant defence system of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), platelets and plasma to delineate the effect of Parkinsonian dose of cypermethrin in the peripheral blood of rats and its subsequent relevance to Parkinsonism. Nitrite content, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were measured in the PMNs, platelets and plasma of control and cypermethrin-treated rats in the presence or absence of a microglial activation inhibitor, minocycline or a dopamine precursor containing the peripheral 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase inhibitor, named syndopa, employing the standard procedures. The striatal dopamine was measured to assess the degree of neurodegeneration/neuroprotection. Cypermethrin increased nitrite and LPO in the plasma, platelets and PMNs while it reduced the striatal dopamine content. Catalase and GST activity were increased in the PMNs and platelets; however, it was reduced in the plasma. Conversely, SOD and GR activities were reduced in the PMNs and platelets but increased in the plasma. Minocycline or syndopa reduced the cypermethrin-mediated changes towards normalcy. The results demonstrate that cypermethrin alters the status of oxidative stress indicators and impairs antioxidant defence system of the peripheral blood, which could be effectively salvaged by minocycline or syndopa. The results could be of value for predicting the nigrostriatal toxicity relevant to Parkinsonism. PMID:25270427

Tripathi, Pratibha; Singh, Ashish; Agrawal, Sonal; Prakash, Om; Singh, Mahendra Pratap

2014-12-01

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Uncoupling the links between male mating tactics and female attractiveness.  

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Because not all females are equally attractive, and because mating reduces the chances of getting further copulations, males should prefer better-quality mates. In this paper, we use the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) to explore the effects of two non-correlated measures of female quality--size and reproductive status--on male mating decisions. All male guppies employ two alternative mating tactics. We found that large females, particularly those from a high predation site, were the ...

Ojanguren, Alfredo F.; Magurran, Anne E.

2004-01-01

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Cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment alter the somatostatin status of delta cells  

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Research highlights: {yields} TGP52 cells display enhanced functionality in pseudoislet form. {yields} Somatostatin content was reduced, but secretion increased in high glucose conditions. {yields} Cellular interactions and environment alter the somatostatin status of TGP52 cells. -- Abstract: Introduction: Somatostatin, released from pancreatic delta cells, is a potent paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion. Islet cellular interactions and glucose homeostasis are essential to maintain normal patterns of insulin secretion. However, the importance of cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment in the regulation of somatostatin release remains unclear. Methods: This study employed the somatostatin-secreting TGP52 cell line maintained in DMEM:F12 (17.5 mM glucose) or DMEM (25 mM glucose) culture media. The effect of pseudoislet formation and culture medium on somatostatin content and release in response to a variety of stimuli was measured by somatostatin EIA. In addition, the effect of pseudoislet formation on cellular viability (MTT and LDH assays) and proliferation (BrdU ELISA) was determined. Results: TGP52 cells readily formed pseudoislets and showed enhanced functionality in three-dimensional form with increased E-cadherin expression irrespective of the culture environment used. However, culture in DMEM decreased cellular somatostatin content (P < 0.01) and increased somatostatin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli including arginine, calcium and PMA (P < 0.001) when compared with cells grown in DMEM:F12. Configuration of TGP52 cells as pseudoislets reduced the proliferative rate and increased cellular cytotoxicity irrespective of culture medium used. Conclusions: Somatostatin secretion is greatly facilitated by cell-to-cell interactions and E-cadherin expression. Cellular environment and extracellular glucose also significantly influence the function of delta cells.

Kelly, Catriona, E-mail: catriona.kelly@qub.ac.uk [SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine (United Kingdom); Flatt, Peter R.; McClenaghan, Neville H. [SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine (United Kingdom)

2010-08-20

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Cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment alter the somatostatin status of delta cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? TGP52 cells display enhanced functionality in pseudoislet form. ? Somatostatin content was reduced, but secretion increased in high glucose conditions. ? Cellular interactions and environment alter the somatostatin status of TGP52 cells. -- Abstract: Introduction: Somatostatin, released from pancreatic delta cells, is a potent paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion. Islet cellular interactions and glucose homeostasis are essential to maintain normal patterns of insulin secretion. However, the importance of cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment in the regulation of somatostatin release remains unclear. Methods: This study employed the somatostatin-secreting TGP52 cell line maintained in DMEM:F12 (17.5 mM glucose) or DMEM (25 mM glucose) culture media. The effect of pseudoislet formation and culture medium on somatostatin content and release in response to a variety of stimuli was measured by somatostatin EIA. In addition, the effect of pseudoislet formation on cellular viability (MTT and LDH assays) and proliferation (BrdU ELISA) was determined. Results: TGP52 cells readily formed pseudoislets and showed enhanced functionality in three-dimensional form with increased E-cadherin expression irrespective of the culture environment used. However, culture in DMEM decreased cellular somatostatin content (P < 0.01) and increased somatostatin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli including arginine, calcium and PMA (P < 0.001) when compared with cells grown in DMEM:F12. Configuration of TGP52 cells as pseudoislets reduced the proliferative rate and increased cellular cytotoxicity irrespective of culture medium used. Conclusions: Somatostatin secretion is greatly facilitated by cell-to-cell interactions and E-cadherin expression. Cellular environment and extracellular glucose also significantly influence the function of delta cells.

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76 FR 60447 - Florigene Pty., Ltd.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Altered Color Roses  

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...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...

2011-09-29

38

Prolonged Postoperative Altered Mental Status After Methylene Blue Infusion During Parathyroidectomy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

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Methylene blue (5 mg/kg) is routinely given at our institution during parathyroidectomy. The dye stains the parathyroid glands and helps in better surgical visualisation. The technique is generally considered to be safe except for causing pseudo-cyanosis. We report a case of a patient who had confusion, agitation and altered mental status during the early postoperative course probably secondary to methylene blue infusion.

Khan, Mas; North, Ap; Chadwick, Dr

2007-01-01

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Patients with Altered Mental Status Due to Suicide: The Clinics of Follow-up and the Role of Emergency Departments.  

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Objectives The patients with suicide attempt require a multidisciplinary approach. Today, a large proportion of treatment and follow-up is made in the emergency departments (EDs) and intensive care units (ICUs). In our study, we aimed to investigate which clinics make treatment and follow-up and psychiatric evaluation of these patients and differences in follow-up between patients with and without altered mental status (AMS) in our hospital. Methods The patients admitted to our ED be...

Murat Sar?temur; Sultan Tuna Akgöl Gür; At?f Bayramo?lu; Ayhan Aköz; Mücahit Emet

2013-01-01

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The Effect of Desmostachya bipinnata (Linn. Extract on Physiologically Altered Glycemic Status in Non-diabetic Rats  

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Full Text Available Desmostachya bipinnata (Linn. Stapf (Poaceae/Gramineae is one of the official drugs of ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Various parts of this plant were used in different parts of world, extensively in Indian traditional and folklore medicine to cure range of human ailments like asthma, jaundice, vaginal discharges, vesicle calculi, diseases of bladder and skin eruptions, also used as analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, diuretic…etc. Based on its folkloric anti-diabetic effect, the present study was carried out to assess the effect of its hydro-alcoholic extract on glycemic status in non-diabetic rats. In contrast to usual chemical diabetic animal models, alterations in glycemic status were induced by physiological exercises. The results showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract has no effect on euglycemic levels with minimal insignificant alterations. But, the supplementation of this extract in hypoglycemic (food deprivation or swim exercise induced rats reduced the extent of hypoglycemia significantly. In addition, this extract reduced the degree of hyperglycemia induced by exogenous administration of dextrose significantly. Altogether, the results of current study suggest that the constituents present in Desmostachya bipinnata hydro-alcoholic extract have distinctive property of retaining euglycemic status irrespective of induced glycemic alterations. These significant findings suggest that the concomitant use or supplementation of this plant extract with current therapies will be beneficial to maintain euglycemic status. Taken together, this study supported its folkloric anti-diabetic use and lends pharmacological credence to the ethno-medical use of this plant in traditional system of medicine, demands further studies to elaborate its use, its active constituents and safety.

Solomon Sunder Raj B

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Desiring mates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discourse of gay liberation reads silence surrounding personal participation in same-sex sexualized pleasures as a sign of repression, oppression and a positioning in the closet. In contrast, coming out is an important step towards accepting one's true homosexual self. The demand for the emancipation of the homosexual type further suggests that all same-sex sexualized contact signifies the homosexuality of the subjects involved, regardless of whether they recognize this or not. This compulsory homosexualization of men who have sexualized contact with men does not apply to relationships between male friends ("mates"). A "mateship" union grants a level of privacy otherwise eradicated by a gay liberation movement insistent on the public confession of a homosexual orientation. To remain silent about corporeal pleasures poses a threat to the modernist preference for control of bodies and to the established gay identity. Silence offers a space for the construction of new modes of same-sex intimate relationships within a queer framework. PMID:17287193

Durber, Dean

2006-01-01

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Altered Antioxidant Status and Increased Lipid Per-Oxidation in Seminal Plasma of Tunisian Infertile Men  

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Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) for t...

Fatma Atig, Monia Raffa

2012-01-01

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Sudden altered mental state in the elderly: nonconvulsive status epilepticus and the role of the Emergency Department  

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Full Text Available In the elderly, new onset of epilepsy is often associated with vague complaints such as confusion, altered mental status, or memory problems. The absence of clinically apparent convulsions in association with an electroencephalogram showing continuous or recurrent seizure activity has been called nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE. The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical and electroencephalographic features of NCSE in older adults. NCSE is an important, under-recognised and reversible cause of acute prolonged confusion. Although attempts have been made to define and classify this disorder, there is no universally accepted definition or classification yet that encompasses all subtypes or electroclinical scenarios. A urgent electroencephalogram is considered as the method of choice in the diagnostic evaluation of NCSE. Further researches are needed to better define NCSE.

Rocco Galimi

2011-03-01

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Alterations in hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotidegated cation channel (HCN expression in the hippocampus following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus  

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Full Text Available To understand the effects of HCN as potential mediators in thepathogenesis of epilepsy that evoke long-term impairedexcitability; the present study was designed to elucidate whetherthe alterations of HCN expression induced by status epilepticus(SE is responsible for epileptogenesis. Although HCN1 immunoreactivitywas observed in the hippocampus, its immunoreactivitieswere enhanced at 12 hrs following SE. Although, HCN1immunoreactivities were reduced in all the hippocampi at 2weeks, a re-increase in the expression at 2-3 months followingSE was observed. In contrast to HCN1, HCN 4 expressions wereun-changed, although HCN2 immunoreactive neurons exhibitedsome changes following SE. Taken together, our findings suggestthat altered expressions of HCN1 following SE may be mainlyinvolved in the imbalances of neurotransmissions to hippocampalcircuits; thus, it is proposed that HCN1 may play animportant role in the epileptogenic period as a compensatoryresponse.

Yun-Jung Oh, Jongju Na, Ji-Heon Jeong, Dae-Kyoon Park, Kyung-Ho Park, Jeong-Sik Ko & Duk-Soo Kim*

2012-11-01

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Male mating biology  

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Abstract Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious ...

Howell Paul I; Gj, Knols Bart

2009-01-01

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Hyperspectral Imaging Techniques for Rapid Identification of Arabidopsis Mutants with Altered Leaf Pigment Status  

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The spectral reflectance signature of living organisms provides information that closely reflects their physiological status. Because of its high potential for the estimation of geomorphic biological parameters, particularly of gross photosynthesis of plants, two-dimensional spectroscopy, via the use of hyperspectral instruments, has been widely used in remote sensing applications. In genetics research, in contrast, the reflectance phenotype has rarely been the subject of quantitative analysi...

Matsuda, Osamu; Tanaka, Ayako; Fujita, Takao; Iba, Koh

2012-01-01

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Genomic and Transcriptional Alterations in Lung Adenocarcinoma in Relation to EGFR and KRAS Mutation Status.  

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Introduction: In lung adenocarcinoma, the mutational spectrum is dominated by EGFR and KRAS mutations. Improved knowledge about genomic and transcriptional alterations in and between mutation-defined subgroups may identify genes involved in disease development or progression. Methods: Genomic profiles from 457 adenocarcinomas, including 113 EGFR-mutated, 134 KRAS-mutated and 210 EGFR and KRAS-wild type tumors (EGFRwt/KRASwt), and gene expression profiles from 914 adenocarcinomas, including 30...

Planck, Maria; Edlund, Karolina; Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick; Isaksson, Sofi; Staaf, Johan

2013-01-01

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Pancreatic undifferentiated rhabdoid carcinoma: KRAS alterations and SMARCB1 expression status define two subtypes.  

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Pancreatic undifferentiated carcinoma is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, including pleomorphic giant cell, sarcomatoid, round cell, and rhabdoid carcinomas, the molecular profiles of which have so far been insufficiently characterized. We studied 14 undifferentiated carcinomas with prominent rhabdoid cells, occurring as advanced tumors in seven females and seven males aged 44-96 years (mean: 65 years). Histologically, 10 tumors qualified as pleomorphic giant cell and 4 as monomorphic anaplastic carcinomas. A glandular component, either in the primary or in the metastases, was seen in 5 out of 14 tumors (4 out of 10 pleomorphic giant cell and 1 out of 4 monomorphic anaplastic subtypes, respectively). Osteoclast-like giant cells were absent. Immunohistochemistry revealed coexpression of cytokeratin and vimentin, and loss of membranous ?-catenin and E-cadherin staining in the majority of cases. Nuclear SMARCB1 (INI1) expression was lost in 4 out of 14 cases (28%), representing all 4 tumors of the monomorphic anaplastic subtype. FISH and mutation testing of KRAS revealed KRAS amplification in 5 out of 13 (38%) and exon 2 mutations in 6 out of 11 (54%) successfully analyzed cases. A strong correlation was found between KRAS alterations (mutation and/or copy number changes) and intact SMARCB1 expression (7 out of 8; 87%). On the other hand, loss of SMARCB1 expression correlated with the absence of KRAS alterations (3 out of 5 cases; 60%). The results suggest that rhabdoid phenotype in pancreatic undifferentiated rhabdoid carcinomas has a heterogeneous genetic background. SMARCB1 loss is restricted to the anaplastic monomorphic subtype and correlates with the absence of KRAS alterations, whereas the pleomorphic giant cell subtype is characterized by KRAS alterations and intact SMARCB1 expression. Recognition and appropriate subtyping of these rare variants might become necessary for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25103069

Agaimy, Abbas; Haller, Florian; Frohnauer, Judith; Schaefer, Inga-Marie; Ströbel, Philipp; Hartmann, Arndt; Stoehr, Robert; Klöppel, Günter

2015-02-01

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Iron and exercise induced alterations in antioxidant status. Protection by dietary milk proteins.  

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Lipid peroxidation stress induced by iron supplementation can contribute to the induction of gut lesions. Intensive sports lead to ischemia reperfusion, which increases free radical production. Athletes frequently use heavy iron supplementation, whose effects are unknown. On the other hand, milk proteins have in vitro antioxidant properties, which could counteract these potential side effects. The main aims of the study were: (1) to demonstrate the effects of combined exercise training (ET) and iron overload on antioxidant status; (2) to assess the protective properties of casein in vivo; (3) to study the mechanisms involved in an in vitro model. Antioxidant status was assessed by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD); glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)), and on the onset of aberrant crypts (AC) in colon, which can be induced by lipid peroxidation. At day 30, all ET animals showed an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, in iron concentration in colon mucosa and liver and in the number of AC compared to untrained rats. It was found that Casein's milk protein supplementation significantly reduced these parameters. Additional information on protective effect of casein was provided by measuring the extent of TBARS formation during iron/ascorbate-induced oxidation of liposomes. Free casein and casein bound to iron were found to significantly reduce iron-induced lipid peroxidation. The results of the overall study suggest that Iron supplementation during intensive sport training would decrease anti-oxidant status. Dietary milk protein supplementation could at least partly prevent occurrence of deleterious effects to tissue induced by iron overload. PMID:17390518

Zunquin, Gautier; Rouleau, Vincent; Bouhallab, Said; Bureau, Francois; Theunynck, Denis; Rousselot, Pierre; Arhan, Pierre; Bougle, Dominique

2006-05-01

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A rare cause of altered mental status and fever in a young military recruit in Puerto Rico.  

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Heat stroke (HS) is a medical emergency characterized by increased core body temperature with associated systemic inflammatory response leading to a syndrome of multi-organ damage in which encephalopathy predominates. We describe a case of a 29 year old male recruit presenting with altered mental status during military training in Puerto Rico. Associated symptoms included high grade fever, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision and profuse sweating followed by loss of consciousness. Upon arrival to medical evaluation the patient was found with dry skin and depressed Glasgow Coma Score. Initial laboratories, clinical evolution of symptoms and imaging studies were consistent with the diagnosis of HS. Patient was managed with mechanical ventilatory support, intravenous fluids and external cooling measures. He was later discharged home without any neurological sequelae. To our knowledge this is the first documented case of HS in Puerto Rico. PMID:25563039

Boodosingh, Dev Richard; Robles-Arias, Carlos; Alemán-Ortiz, Jesse R; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William

2014-12-01

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Alteration of Enzyme Aspartate Transaminase in Goat Milk related to Udder health status  

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Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to study variations in milk SCC and pH, along with activity of whey enzyme Aspartate transaminase (AST in relation to different udder health status of goats. The average values of milk SCC, pH, and AST differed significantly (P<0.01 among various udder health status of goat. The mean difference for SCC of milk showed significant (P<0.01 differences for all the comparisons varying from 6.88 to 41.88 x 105 cells/ml. The average milk pH values ranged from 6.40 ± 0.09 to 7.36 ± 0.01. The milk SCC and pH increased by 1.039 x 105 cells/ml and 0.24 respectively for each unit rise in CMT score. Similarly, the activity of AST increased by 14.04 AST U/ml for each unit rise in CMT scores. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 24-26

Bonde,S.W. and Ambade

2009-02-01

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Altered Antioxidant Status and Increased Lipid Per-Oxidation in Seminal Plasma of Tunisian Infertile Men  

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Full Text Available Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF for the first tentative. Patients were characterized by an idiopathic infertility. They were divided into three groups: normozoospermics who were considered as controls (n=40, asthenozoospermics (Astheno; n=45 and oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (OAT; n=35. Seminal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX and the levels of glutathione (GSH, zinc (Zn and malondialdehyde (MDA were measured. With the significant increase of the seminal activities of SOD and GPX in normozoospermics group, there were positive correlations observed between this enzymes and sperm quality. Also, significant elevated rates of seminal zinc and GSH were observed in control group, but there was contradictory associations reflecting the effects of these antioxidants on semen parameters. However, we noted significant increase of MDA levels in groups with abnormal seminogram. We showed negative associations between this per-oxidative marker and sperm parameters. These results obviously suggested that impairment on seminal antioxidants is an important risk factor for low sperm quality associated to idiopathic infertility and as a result can lead to poor IVF outcome.

Fatma Atig, Monia Raffa, Habib Ben Ali, Kerkeni Abdelhamid, Ali Saad, Mounir Ajina

2012-01-01

53

Endoplasmic reticulum stress due to altered cellular redox status positively regulates murine hepatic CYP2A5 expression.  

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Murine hepatic cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) is uniquely induced by a variety of agents that cause liver injury and inflammation, conditions that are typically associated with downregulation of P450s. We hypothesized that induction of CYP2A5 occurs in response to hepatocellular damage resulting in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Treatment of mice in vivo and mouse hepatocytes in primary culture with the CYP2A5 inducer pyrazole resulted in overexpression of the ER stress biomarker glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78. Treatment of primary hepatocytes with ER stress activators thapsigargin, tunicamycin, and trans-4,5-dihydroxy-1,2-dithiane (DTT(ox)) and the calcium ionophore A23187 (calcimycin) resulted in elevated GRP78 mRNA levels; however, only the reducing agent DTT(ox) induced levels of CYP2A5 mRNA, protein, and coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. To test the hypothesis that CYP2A5 induction is due to liver injury resulting from altered cellular redox status, we demonstrated that CYP2A5 induction, elevated serum alanine aminotransferase, and oxidative protein damage occur concurrently in pyrazole-treated mice. Pyrazole also induced the expression of cytosolic alpha and mu class glutathione S-transferase expression both in vivo and in primary mouse hepatocytes. Moreover, treatment of hepatocytes with the redox cycling quinone menadione resulted in overexpression of CYP2A5 and GSTM1 mRNA. Finally, pretreatment of hepatocytes with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and vitamin E attenuated pyrazole-mediated increases in CYP2A5 mRNA levels. These findings clearly indicate that induction of mouse hepatic CYP2A5 during liver injury occurs via a novel mechanism involving ER stress due to altered cellular redox status. PMID:14610226

Gilmore, W James; Kirby, Gordon M

2004-02-01

54

Cystine alters the renal and hepatic disposition of inorganic mercury and plasma thiol status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study, we determined whether cystine can inhibit, under certain conditions, the renal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury in vivo. We co-injected (i.v.) cystine with a non-toxic dose of mercuric chloride to rats and then studied the disposition of inorganic mercury during the next 24 h. We also determined if pretreatment with cystine influences the disposition of administered inorganic mercury. Moreover, plasma thiol status was examined after the intravenous administration of cystine with or without mercuric chloride. During the initial hour after co-injection, the renal tubular uptake of mercuric ions was diminished significantly relative to that in control rats. The inhibitory effects of cystine were evident in both the renal cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla. In contrast, the renal accumulation of mercury increased significantly between the 1st and 12th hour after co-treatment. Urinary excretion and fecal excretion of mercury were greatly elevated in the rats co-treated with cystine and mercuric chloride. Thus, when cystine and mercury are administered simultaneously, cystine can serve as an inhibitor of the renal tubular uptake of mercury during the initial hour after co-treatment. In rats pretreated with cystine, the renal uptake of inorganic mercury was enhanced significantly relative to that in rats not pretreated with cystine. This enhanced accumulation of inorganic mercury correlated with the increased circulating concentrations of t increased circulating concentrations of the reduced cysteine and glutathione. Additionally, the present findings indicate that thiol status is an important determinant of renal and hepatic disposition, and urinary and fecal excretion, of inorganic mercury

55

Mate choice for a male carotenoid-based ornament is linked to female dietary carotenoid intake and accumulation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The coevolution of male traits and female mate preferences has led to the elaboration and diversification of sexually selected traits; however the mechanisms that mediate trait-preference coevolution are largely unknown. Carotenoid acquisition and accumulation are key determinants of the expression of male sexually selected carotenoid-based coloration and a primary mechanism maintaining the honest information content of these signals. Carotenoids also influence female health and reproduction in ways that may alter the costs and benefits of mate choice behaviours and thus provide a potential biochemical link between the expression of male traits and female preferences. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the dietary carotenoid levels of captive female house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus and assessed their mate choice behavior in response to color-manipulated male finches. Results Females preferred to associate with red males, but carotenoid supplementation did not influence the direction or strength of this preference. Females receiving a low-carotenoid diet were less responsive to males in general, and discrimination among the colorful males was positively linked to female plasma carotenoid levels at the beginning of the study when the diet of all birds was carotenoid-limited. Conclusions Although female preference for red males was not influenced by carotenoid intake, changes in mating responsiveness and discrimination linked to female carotenoid status may alter how this preference is translated into choice. The reddest males, with the most carotenoid rich plumage, tend to pair early in the breeding season. If carotenoid-related variations in female choice behaviour shift the timing of pairing, then they have the potential to promote assortative mating by carotenoid status and drive the evolution of carotenoid-based male plumage coloration.

Toomey Matthew B

2012-01-01

56

Diet, age, and prior injury status differentially alter behavioral outcomes following concussion in rats.  

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Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion affects a large portion of the population and although many of these individuals recover completely, a small subset of people experience lingering symptomology and poor outcomes. Little is known about the factors that affect individual susceptibility or resilience to poor outcomes after mTBI and there are currently no biomarkers to delineate mTBI diagnosis or prognosis. Based upon the growing literature associated with caloric intake and altered neurological aging and the ambiguous link between repetitive mTBI and progressive neurodegeneration, the current study was designed to examine the effect of a high fat diet (HFD), developmental age, and repetitive mTBI on behavioral outcomes following a mTBI. In addition, telomere length was examined before and after experimental mTBI. Sprague Dawley rats were maintained on a HFD or standard rat chow throughout life (including the prenatal period) and then experienced an mTBI/concussion at P30, P30 and P60, or only at P60. Behavioral outcomes were examined using a test battery that was administered between P61-P80 and included; beam-walking, open field, elevated plus maze, novel context mismatch, Morris water task, and forced swim task. Animals with a P30 mTBI often demonstrated lingering symptomology that was still present during testing at P80. Injuries at P30 and P60 rarely produced cumulative effects, and in some tests (i.e., beam walking), the first injury may have protected the brain from the second injury. Exposure to the high fat diet exacerbated many of the behavioral deficits associated with concussion. Finally, telomere length was shortened following mTBI and was influenced by the animal's dietary intake. Diet, age at the time of injury, and the number of prior concussion incidents differentially contribute to behavioral deficits and may help explain individual variations in susceptibility and resilience to poor outcomes following an mTBI. PMID:25270295

Mychasiuk, Richelle; Hehar, Harleen; van Waes, Linda; Esser, Michael J

2015-01-01

57

Prevalence of Non-convulsive Seizure and Other Electroencephalographic Abnormalities In Emergency Department Patients With Altered Mental Status  

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Four to ten percent of patients evaluated in emergency departments (ED) present with altered mental status (AMS). The prevalence of non-convulsive seizure (NCS) and other electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities in this population is unknown Objectives To identify the prevalence of NCS and other EEG abnormalities in ED patients with AMS. Methods A prospective observational study at two urban ED. Inclusion: patients ?13 years old with AMS. Exclusion: An easily correctable cause of AMS (e.g. hypoglycemia). A 30-minute standard 21-electrode EEG was performed on each subject upon presentation. Outcome: prevalence of EEG abnormalities interpreted by a board-certified epileptologist. EEGs were later reviewed by two blinded epileptologists. Inter-rater agreement (IRA) of the blinded EEG interpretations is summarized with kappa. A multiple logistic regression model was constructed to identify variables that could predict the outcome. Results 259 patients were enrolled (median age: 60, 54% female). Overall, 202/259 of EEGs were interpreted as abnormal (78%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 73–83%). The most common abnormality was background slowing (58%, 95%CI, 52–68%) indicating underlying encephalopathy. NCS (including non-convulsive status epilepticus [NCSE]) was detected in 5% (95%CI, 3–8%) of patients. The regression analysis predicting EEG abnormality showed a highly significant effect of age (p<0.001, adjusted odds ratio 1.66 [95%CI, 1.36–2.02] per 10-year age increment). IRA for EEG interpretations was modest (kappa: 0.45, 95% CI, 0.36–0.54). Conclusions The prevalence of EEG abnormalities in ED patients with undifferentiated AMS is significant. ED physicians should consider EEG in the evaluation of patients with AMS and a high suspicion of NCS/NCSE. PMID:24070982

Zehtabchi, Shahriar; Baki, Samah G Abdel; Omurtag, Ahmet; Sinert, Richard; Chari, Geetha; Malhotra, Shweta; Weedon, Jeremy; Fenton, André A; Grant, Arthur C

2013-01-01

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Mycophenolate mofetil alters the antioxidant status in duodenum of rats: Implication for silymarin usage in mycophenolate mofetil induced gastrointestinal disorders  

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Full Text Available Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF as an immunosuppressive agent is used to prevent graftrejection. One of the adverse effects of long time administration of MMF is the gastrointestinaldisorder. This study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective effect of silymarin (SMN onMMF-induced gastrointestinal (GI disorders. Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats wereassigned into three groups including the control and test groups. The control animals receivedsaline(5 mL kg-1andthe test animals were treated with MMF (40 mg kg-1, orally and saline,MMF and silymarin (SMN, 50 mg kg-1, orally for 14 consecutive days, respectively. To evaluatethe GI disorders due to the MMF-induced oxidative stress and subsequently the protective effectof SMN, malondialdehyde (MDA,total thiol molecules(TTM levels and total anti-oxidantcapacity (TAC were determined. Additionally, histopathological examinations in the duodenalregion of small intestine were performed. The MMF-increased level of MDA was reduced bySMN administration, while the MMF-reduced level of TTM increased significantly (p< 0.05 bySMN administration. Histopathological examinations showed the goblet cell reduction andcongestion in the MMF-received animals; while SMN was able to improve the MMF-inducedgoblet cell reduction and congestion. Our data suggest that the MMF-induced GI disorders arecharacterized by changes in antioxidant status, which presented by the elevation of MDA leveland reduction of TTM concentration. Moreover, the improved biochemical alterations andhistopathologic damages by SMN indicating its gastroprotective and antioxidant effects

Sanaz Sheikhzadeh

2013-06-01

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ERYTHROCYTE BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS AND ALTERATIONS OF THE HORMONAL STATUS AMONG THE REPRODUCTIVE AGE WOMEN WITH BREAST TUMORS  

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Full Text Available The significance of ABO blood system groups antigens in development of some malignant tumors is already established. The alteration of  hormonal homeostasis must also be taken into account. Hence the aim  of   the investigation was to study ABO  and Rh blood system antigens and hormonal status among  reproductive age  women with benign and malignant breast   tumors. Methods: The determination of  hormones was made by the enzymatic analysis method (ELAIZA, provided by proper ELAIZA kits. For the study of ABO and Rh-Hr system antigens, internationally recognized immunoserology methods were used.Results: High index of  the breast gland tumors  were  revealed  in  patients with A(II phenotypic group,  according to the  ABO  system.  The frequency distribution of O(I phenotypic group was low  among women with breast tumors. Among  D, C, E, c and e antigens of  the Rh system, the frequency of D and E antigens were increased in benign and malignant breast tumors patients. The study of hormonal balance revealed thyroid gland hypofunction and increased level of estradiol on the background of  increased testosterone and decreased progesterone levels. Such hormonal imbalance and  excess  production of estradiol creates conditions for malignant tumor formation in reproductive age women.Conclusion: The highest frequency of breast cancer in reproductive age was revealed in A(II group patients. The wide spectrum of hormonal disorders were revealed in breast tumor patients of the reproductive age, which was especially clear in cases of malignant tumor.

Irina Nakashidze

2014-04-01

60

Combined analysis of copy number alterations by single-nucleotide polymorphism array and MYC status in non-metastatic breast cancer patients: comparison according to the circulating tumor cell status.  

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Recent technological advances have made it possible to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as a prognostic marker in operable breast cancer patients. Whether the presence of CTCs in cancer patients correlates with molecular alterations in the primary tumor has not been widely explored. We identified 14 primary breast cancer specimens with known CTC status, in order to evaluate the presence of differential genetic aberrations by using SNP array assay. There was a global increase of altered genome, CNA, and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (cn-LOH) observed in the CTC-positive (CTC(+)) versus CTC-negative (CTC(-)) cases. As the preliminary results showed a higher proportion of copy number alteration (CNA) at 8q24 (MYC loci) and the available evidence supporting the role of MYC in the processes cancer metastases is conflicting, MYC status was determined in tissue microarray sections in a larger series of patients (n?=?49) with known CTC status using FISH. MYC was altered in 62 % (16/26) CTC(+) patients and in 43 % (6/14) CTC(-) patients (p?=?0.25). Based on the observation in our study, future studies involving a larger number of patients should be performed in order to definitively define if this correlation exists. PMID:25286758

Nadal, R; Salido, M; Nonell, L; Rodríguez-Rivera, M; Puigdecanet, E; Garcia-Puche, J L; Macià, M; Corominas, J M; Serrano, M J; Lorente, J A; Solé, F

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
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Patients with Altered Mental Status Due to Suicide Attempts: Follow-up Clinics and the Role of Emergency Departments  

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Full Text Available ObjectivesPatients who have attempted suicide require a multidisciplinary approach. Currently, a large proportion of treatment and follow-up is performed in emergency departments (EDs and intensive care units (ICUs. In our study, we aimed to investigate which clinics perform treatment, follow-up, and psychiatric evaluation of these patients, and differences in follow-up between patients with and without altered mental status (AMS in our hospital.MethodsPatients older than 16 years admitted to our ED between December 10, 2008 and February 15, 2011 for suicide attempts were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with Glasgow Coma scores ?14 were determined to have AMS.ResultsA total of 304 patients were included in the study, 84 of which had AMS. Of the patients, 67.1% (n=204 were female and the mean age was 25.8±9.1 years. Of the patients with AMS, 92.9% (n=78 were admitted to the hospital, and 48.8% (n=41 were admitted to the observation room of the ED. The percentage of patients without AMS who were admitted was 69.5% (n=153, and 43.2% (n=95 were admitted to the ED. Of the patients, 13.1% (n=11 with AMS and 16.8% (n=37 without AMS had previously attempted suicide. The rate of suicide attempts with more than one drug was similar and quite high in both groups.ConclusionsIn cases of suicide attempts associated with trauma, EDs, ICUs, and surgical clinics play key roles in the treatment of these patients. Therefore, improved awareness of optimal treatment for AMS patients at these clinics will enhance the quality of care.

Ayhan AKÖZ

2013-01-01

62

Size, Mates, and Fates  

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This perspective introduces a special section on pathways initiated by three different types of receptors: brassinosteroid receptors that control plant size, G protein-coupled receptors that control mating responses in yeast, and Notch receptors that control cell fate in animals.

Nancy Gough (AAAS;); Elizabeth Adler (AAAS;); L. Bryan Ray (AAAS;)

2006-12-01

63

Casanovas are liars: behavioral syndromes, sperm competition risk, and the evolution of deceptive male mating behavior in live-bearing fishes [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1ko  

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Full Text Available Male reproductive biology can by characterized through competition over mates as well as mate choice. Multiple mating and male mate choice copying, especially in internally fertilizing species, set the stage for increased sperm competition, i.e., sperm of two or more males can compete for fertilization of the female’s ova. In the internally fertilizing fish Poecilia mexicana, males respond to the presence of rivals with reduced expression of mating preferences (audience effect, thereby lowering the risk of by-standing rivals copying their mate choice. Also, males interact initially more with a non-preferred female when observed by a rival, which has been interpreted in previous studies as a strategy to mislead rivals, again reducing sperm competition risk (SCR. Nevertheless, species might differ consistently in their expression of aggressive and reproductive behaviors, possibly due to varying levels of SCR. In the current study, we present a unique data set comprising ten poeciliid species (in two cases including multiple populations and ask whether species can be characterized through consistent differences in the expression of aggression, sexual activity and changes in mate choice under increased SCR. We found consistent species-specific differences in aggressive behavior, sexual activity as well as in the level of misleading behavior, while decreased preference expression under increased SCR was a general feature of all but one species examined. Furthermore, mean sexual activity correlated positively with the occurrence of potentially misleading behavior. An alternative explanation for audience effects would be that males attempt to avoid aggressive encounters, which would predict stronger audience effects in more aggressive species. We demonstrate a positive correlation between mean aggressiveness and sexual activity (suggesting a hormonal link as a mechanistic explanation, but did not detect a correlation between aggressiveness and audience effects. Suites of correlated behavioral tendencies are termed behavioral syndromes, and our present study provides correlational evidence for the evolutionary significance of SCR in shaping a behavioral syndrome at the species level across poeciliid taxa.

David Bierbach

2013-08-01

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The Best Timing of Mate Search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea)  

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Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different m...

Beauche, Fanny; Richard, Freddie-jeanne

2013-01-01

65

Habitat change influences mate search behaviour in three-spined sticklebacks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mate choice is one of the main mechanisms of sexual selection, with profound implications for individual fitness. Changes in environmental conditions can cause individuals to alter their mate search behaviour, with consequences for mate choice. Human-induced eutrophication of water bodies is a global problem that alters habitat structure and visibility in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated whether changes in habitat complexity and male cue modality, visual or olfactory, influence mate search behaviour of female three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. We allowed gravid females to search for mates in experimental pools that contained two nesting males and one social female, under low and high structural complexity (created from green Plexiglas sheets), with access to either visual or olfactory cues of the individuals. We found increased habitat complexity reduced the number of visits to nesting males, while a switch from visual to olfactory cues reduced the time spent searching for males, the numberof visits to nesting males, the time spent evaluating males, and the relative time spent associating with males rather than females. Thus, females decreased mate searching and mate evaluation in the absence of visual stimulation. This reduced the rate of mate encounters and probably also the opportunity for choice. Our results show that changes in habitat structure and visibility can alter female mate searching, with potential consequences for the opportunity for sexual selection.

Heuschele, Jan; Salminen, Tiina

2012-01-01

66

Stress exposure prior to fear acquisition interacts with estradiol status to alter recall of fear extinction in humans.  

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Classical fear acquisition and extinction are important models for the etiology and treatment of anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women are at a higher risk for PTSD than men. Levels of circulating 17-? estradiol (E2) in women have been linked to deficits in fear extinction and extinction recall. In PTSD, fear learning coincides with acute traumatic stress. However, little is known about the possible interaction between stress exposure and hormone status on fear acquisition and extinction learning. In a 2-day, 2×3 between-subjects design with healthy participants, we examined the effects of stress (psychosocial stressor vs. control, placed 45 min prior to conditioning) and natural E2-status on differential fear conditioning, covering fear acquisition, immediate extinction (Day 1), and 24h-delayed extinction recall (Day 2). To operationalize E2-status, we compared women in the early follicular phase (EF) of their menstrual cycle (low E2, low progesterone plasma levels), women in the midcycle phase (MC, high E2, low progesterone), and men. Conditioning was indicated by differential skin conductance responses. We found an interaction between stress exposure and natural E2-status in women only: In MC-women, extinction recall on Day 2 (24h after initial extinction training) was better when fear acquisition had been preceded by stress. In EF-women, the inverse was true. We show that extinction recall of conditioned fear acquired after stress depends on estrogen status in women. Therefore, extinction-based exposure therapy in free-cycling female anxiety patients should take cycle status into account. PMID:25080403

Antov, Martin I; Stockhorst, Ursula

2014-11-01

67

Ondansetron can enhance cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity via inhibition of multiple toxin and extrusion proteins (MATEs)  

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The nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application of cisplatin. Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) work in concert in the elimination of cationic drugs such as cisplatin from the kidney. We hypothesized that co-administration of ondansetron would have an effect on cisplatin nephrotoxicity by altering the function of cisplatin transporters. The inhibitory potencies of ondansetron on metformin accumulation mediated by OCT2 and MATEs were determined in the stable HEK-293 cells expressing these transporters. The effects of ondansetron on drug disposition in vivo were examined by conducting the pharmacokinetics of metformin, a classical substrate for OCTs and MATEs, in wild-type and Mate1?/? mice. The nephrotoxicity was assessed in the wild-type and Mate1?/? mice received cisplatin with and without ondansetron. Both MATEs, including human MATE1, human MATE2-K, and mouse Mate1, and OCT2 (human and mouse) were subject to ondansetron inhibition, with much greater potencies by ondansetron on MATEs. Ondansetron significantly increased tissue accumulation and pharmacokinetic exposure of metformin in wild-type but not in Mate1?/? mice. Moreover, ondansetron treatment significantly enhanced renal accumulation of cisplatin and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity which were indicated by increased levels of biochemical and molecular biomarkers and more severe pathohistological changes in mice. Similar increases in nephrotoxicity were caused by genetic deficiency of MATE function in mice. Therefore, the potent inhibition of MATEs by ondansetron enhances the nephrotoxicity associated with cisplatin treatment in mice. Potential nephrotoxic effects of combining the chemotherapeutic cisplatin and the antiemetic 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT{sub 3}) receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron, should be investigated in patients. - Highlights: • Nephrotoxicity significantly limits clinical use of the chemotherapeutic cisplatin. • The antiemetic ondansetron is frequently co-administrated with cisplatin. • Ondansetron was here demonstrated as a potent inhibitor of MATE transporters. • Ondansetron enhanced cisplatin nephrotoxicity likely via Mate1 inhibition in mice. • Ondansetron may increase patient risk of nephrotoxicity in cisplatin chemotherapy.

Li, Qing [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Guo, Dong [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Dong, Zhongqi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhang, Wei [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei [Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Polli, James E. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Shu, Yan, E-mail: yshu@rx.umaryland.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States)

2013-11-15

68

Ondansetron can enhance cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity via inhibition of multiple toxin and extrusion proteins (MATEs)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application of cisplatin. Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) work in concert in the elimination of cationic drugs such as cisplatin from the kidney. We hypothesized that co-administration of ondansetron would have an effect on cisplatin nephrotoxicity by altering the function of cisplatin transporters. The inhibitory potencies of ondansetron on metformin accumulation mediated by OCT2 and MATEs were determined in the stable HEK-293 cells expressing these transporters. The effects of ondansetron on drug disposition in vivo were examined by conducting the pharmacokinetics of metformin, a classical substrate for OCTs and MATEs, in wild-type and Mate1?/? mice. The nephrotoxicity was assessed in the wild-type and Mate1?/? mice received cisplatin with and without ondansetron. Both MATEs, including human MATE1, human MATE2-K, and mouse Mate1, and OCT2 (human and mouse) were subject to ondansetron inhibition, with much greater potencies by ondansetron on MATEs. Ondansetron significantly increased tissue accumulation and pharmacokinetic exposure of metformin in wild-type but not in Mate1?/? mice. Moreover, ondansetron treatment significantly enhanced renal accumulation of cisplatin and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity which were indicated by increased levels of biochemical and molecular biomarkers and more severe pathohistological changes in mice. Similar increases in nephrotoxicity were caused by genetic deficiency of MATE function in mice. Therefore, the potent inhibition of MATEs by ondansetron enhances the nephrotoxicity associated with cisplatin treatment in mice. Potential nephrotoxic effects of combining the chemotherapeutic cisplatin and the antiemetic 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron, should be investigated in patients. - Highlights: • Nephrotoxicity significantly limits clinical use of the chemotherapeutic cisplatin. • The antiemetic ondansetron is frequently co-administrated with cisplatin. • Ondansetron was here demonstrated as a potent inhibitor of MATE transporters. • Ondansetron enhanced cisplatin nephrotoxicity likely via Mate1 inhibition in mice. • Ondansetron may increase patient risk of nephrotoxicity in cisplatin chemotherapy

69

The mating behaviour and reproduction performance in a multi-sire mating system for pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An important aim of organic animal production is to allow natural animal behaviour. Regarding reproduction techniques, artificial insemination is permitted but natural mating is preferred. The outdoor multi-sire system, where the sows are placed in large paddocks with a group of boars, is one example of a service system, which complies well with the organic ideals of facilitating natural animal behavior. However, very little knowledge is available about such system. Seven groups of in total of 47 sows and 31 boars were observed to study the mating behavior in an outdoor multi-sire mating system and the subsequent reproduction results. The time of start of courtship, behavior and the cause of disruption if the courtship was terminated, were recorded each time a boar courted a sow. All aggressive interactions between the boars were also recorded to estimate the boar ranking order. The observations revealed numerous poor quality matings, a huge variation in the number of times sows are mated, and overworked boars. Only 35% of all copulations lasted 2 min or more and 63% of all copulations were disrupted, mainly by competitor boars. The higher social status of the boar, the more copulations did it disrupt (p < 0.05). The outcome was an unacceptable variation in reproduction results. Only 71% of all estrus sows conceived, corresponding to a pregnancy rate of 77% of all mated sows. A large inter-group variation in reproduction performance was observed, indicating scope for improvements. In some groups all sows showed estrus and all sows conceived. Recommendations for improvement of the system are proposed

Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

2008-01-01

70

Type 2 diabetic patients and their offspring show altered parameters of iron status, oxidative stress and genes related to mitochondrial activity.  

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Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is directly related to alterations in iron status, oxidative stress and decreased mitochondrial activity, but the possible interaction of these parameters among T2D patients and their offspring is unclear. The whole study included 301 subjects: 77 T2D patients and one of their offspring and 51 control subjects with one of their offspring. The offspring were older than 20 years old. We measured parameters of iron status (serum iron, ferritin and transferrin receptor), diabetes (pre and post-prandial glucose, insulin, lipids), oxidative stress (Heme oxygenase activity, TBARS, SOD, GSH, Vitamin E), as well as the expression of genes in blood leukocytes related to mitochondrial apopotosis (mitofusin and Bcl/Bax ratios). The offspring of T2D patients had increased levels of serum ferritin (P < 0.01) and lower transferrin receptor (P < 0.008); higher insulin (P < 0.03) and total and LDL cholesterol; higher heme oxygenase and SOD activities increased TBARS and lower GSH; decreased mitofusin and Bcl/Bax expression ratios compared to offspring of normal subjects. These results suggest that the offspring of T2D patients could have an increased metabolic risk of develop a cardiovascular disease mediated by oxidative stress and iron status. PMID:22450556

Le Blanc, Solange; Villarroel, Pia; Candia, Valeria; Gavilán, Natalia; Soto, Néstor; Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Arredondo, Miguel

2012-08-01

71

Altered mental status and low anion gap in a patient with sickle cell anemia: a case report  

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Abstract Introduction It is challenging to diagnose two coexisting medical conditions if the symptoms are overlapping. This is further confounded if the patient presents with an unexplained deterioration in mental status. A low anion gap or a zero anion gap is an uncommon clinical finding and has few differential diagnoses. This test therefore has important implications in correctly identifying underlying medical conditions. Case presentation A 50-year-old Afric...

Wartak Siddharth A; Mehendale Reshma A; Freda Benjamin; Verma Ashish; Rose David N

2012-01-01

72

Dopamine receptor alterations in female rats with diet-induced decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): interactions with reproductive status  

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Decreased tissue levels of n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are implicated in the etiologies of non-puerperal and postpartum depression. This study examined the effects of a diet-induced loss of brain DHA content and concurrent reproductive status on dopaminergic parameters in adult female Long–Evans rats. An ?-linolenic acid-deficient diet and breeding protocols were used to produce virgin and parous female rats with cortical phospholipid DHA levels 20?...

Davis, Paul F.; Ozias, Marlies K.; Carlson, Susan E.; Reed, Gregory A.; Winter, Michelle K.; Mccarson, Kenneth E.; Levant, Beth

2010-01-01

73

The Ca(2+) status of the endoplasmic reticulum is altered by induction of calreticulin expression in transgenic plants  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores in plant cells, we generated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum; NT1) suspension cells and Arabidopsis plants with altered levels of calreticulin (CRT), an ER-localized Ca(2+)-binding protein. NT1 cells and Arabidopsis plants were transformed with a maize (Zea mays) CRT gene in both sense and antisense orientations under the control of an Arabidopsis heat shock promoter. ER-enriched membrane fractions from NT1 cells were used to examine how altered expression of CRT affects Ca(2+) uptake and release. We found that a 2.5-fold increase in CRT led to a 2-fold increase in ATP-dependent (45)Ca(2+) accumulation in the ER-enriched fraction compared with heat-shocked wild-type controls. Furthermore, after treatment with the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin, ER microsomes from NT1 cells overproducing CRT showed a 2-fold increase in the amount of (45)Ca(2+) released, and a 2- to 3-fold increase in the amount of (45)Ca(2+) retained compared with wild type. These data indicate that altering the production of CRT affects the ER Ca(2+) pool. In addition, CRT transgenic Arabidopsis plants were used to determine if altered CRT levels had any physiological effects. We found that the level of CRT in heat shock-induced CRT transgenic plants correlated positively with the retention of chlorophyll when the plants were transferred from Ca(2+)-containing medium to Ca(2+)-depleted medium. Together these data are consistent with the hypothesis that increasing CRT in the ER increases the ER Ca(2+) stores and thereby enhances the survival of plants grown in low Ca(2+) medium.

Persson, S.; Wyatt, S. E.; Love, J.; Thompson, W. F.; Robertson, D.; Boss, W. F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

2001-01-01

74

Energy status and immune system alterations in Elliptio complanata after ingestion of cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyanobacteria have often been described as nutritionally poor for herbivorous organisms. To gain additional information on the potential impacts of invertebrates feeding on cyanobacteria, we fed Elliptio complanata mussels with two types of algae: Anabaena flos-aquae (cyanobacteria) and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (green algae). Physiological parameters were examined at the energy status, immune system and oxidative stress levels. Energy status was examined by following the rate of electron transport activity in mitochondria (a measure of cellular energy expense) and lipid/sugar stores in the visceral mass. The cyanobacteria were not actively producing toxins. Based on the digestive gland index, the mussels fed equally on either regime. However, the energy status in mussels fed A. flos-aquae revealed that the total sugar was lower in the digestive gland, whereas mitochondrial electron transport activity (MET), once corrected against the digestive gland somatic index, showed increased energy expenses. Acetylcholinesterase activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were also higher in mussels fed with A. flos-aquae compared with mussels fed with P. subcapitata. LPO was correlated by mitochondrial activity in both the digestive gland and gills, suggesting that oxidative stress resulted from metabolic respiration. Immunocompetence (phagocytic activity, natural killer cell-like activity, haemocyte count and viability) and humoral level of lysozyme were not affected in mussels by the algae or cyanobacteria regime. Moreover, the xenobiotic conjugating enzyme, glutathione S-transferase, hemoprotein oxidase and vitellogenin-like proteins were not affected in mussel organs via ingestion of A. flos-aquae. Our study suggests that ingestion of cyanobacteria leads to increased energy expenses, oxidative stress and increased acetylcholine turnover in mussels. PMID:23354932

Gélinas, Malorie; Fortier, Marlène; Lajeunesse, André; Fournier, Michel; Gagnon, Christian; Gagné, François

2013-04-01

75

Thanatosis as an adaptive male mating strategy in the nuptial gift-giving spider Pisaura mirabilis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Males and females often experience different optima in mating rate, which may cause evolution of female resistance to matings and male counter adaptations to increase mating rate. Males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis display a spectacular mating behavior involving a nuptial gift and thanatosis (death feigning). Thanatosis in a sexual context is exceptional and was suggested to function as an antipredation strategy toward potentially cannibalistic females. If thanatosis serves as a protection strategy, males should death feign in response to female aggression or when they are more vulnerable to attack. We tested these predictions in a factorial design: males that were handicapped (1 leg removed) and hence vulnerable and control males were paired with females that were more or less aggressive intrinsically (measured toward prey). In mating trials, we recorded the tendency of males to death feign, copulation success, and copulation duration. In addition, we investigated the effect of female mating status (virgin or mated) on these male mating components. Intrinsically aggressive females showed increased mating aggression toward males. Neither female aggressiveness, mating status, nor male vulnerability increased the propensity of males to perform thanatosis. Instead, death-feigning males were more successful in obtaining copulations and gained longer copulations. Hence, our results suggest that thanatosis functions as an adaptive male mating strategy to overcome female resistance. All males were capable of performing thanatosis although some males use it more frequently than others, suggesting a cost of death feigning which maintains the variation in thanatosis during courtship.

Hansen, Line S.; Gonzalez, Sofía F.

2008-01-01

76

Mating behavior of Daphnia: impacts of predation risk, food quantity, and reproductive phase of females.  

Science.gov (United States)

High predation risk and food depletion lead to sexual reproduction in cyclically parthenogenetic Daphnia. Mating, the core of sexual reproduction, also occurs under these conditions. Assessment of the environmental conditions and alteration of mating efforts may aid in determining the success of sexual reproduction. Here, we evaluated the impacts of predation risk, food quantity, and reproductive phase of females on the mating behavior of Daphnia obtusa males including contact frequency and duration using video analysis. Mating-related behavior involved male-female contact (mating) as well as male-male contact (fighting). Mating frequency increased while unnecessary fighting decreased in the presence of predation risk. In addition, low food concentration reduced fighting between males. Males attempted to attach to sexual females more than asexual females, and fighting occurred more frequently in the presence of sexual females. Duration of mating was relatively long; however, males separated shortly after contact in terms of fighting behavior. Thus, assessment of environmental factors and primary sexing of mates were performed before actual contact, possibly mechanically, and precise sex discrimination was conducted after contact. These results suggest that mating in Daphnia is not a random process but rather a balance between predation risk and energetic cost that results in changes in mating and fighting strategies. PMID:25111600

La, Geung-Hwan; Choi, Jong-Yun; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Jang, Min-Ho; Joo, Gea-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Woo

2014-01-01

77

Mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling identifies alterations in salivary redox status and fatty acid metabolism in response to inflammation and oxidative stress in periodontal disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontal diseases represent the most common chronic inflammatory diseases in humans and a major cause of tooth loss. Combining mass spectrometry-based ionomics and targeted lipidomics on fatty acid metabolites, we identified significant alterations in redox status and fatty acid metabolism in saliva in response to chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in periodontal disease in a cohort of nonsmoker subjects with chronic periodontitis. For the first time, ionomic profiling of around 30 ions in saliva revealed significantly decreased levels of redox-active metal ions including Mn, Cu, and Zn in the periodontal group, which is consistent with decreased levels of superoxide dismutases in saliva and serum. A targeted lipidomic approach was employed to monitor the major metabolites of arachidonic acid and linoleic acid in saliva. We observed increased levels of cyclooxygenase products including PGE2, PGD2, and PGF2? and TXB2, but decreased level of PGI2 in the periodontal group. A unique pattern of the lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid and linoleic acid was observed with increased level of 5-HETE but decreased levels of 13-HODE and 9-HODE. Levels of salivary F2-isoprostanes, free radical lipid peroxidation products, and a gold standard for oxidative stress in vivo were also significantly elevated. Taking these data together, our study using multiple powerful omics techniques demonstrates that local redox alteration contributes significantly to periodontitis through the modulation of fatty acid metabolism in response to inflammation and oxidative stress. This study highlights the importance of redox status in periodontitis and provides a rationale for preventing periodontal disease by dietary interventions aiming to restore redox balance. PMID:24607715

Huang, Yijing; Zhu, Mingjiang; Li, Zi; Sa, Rina; Chu, Qianqian; Zhang, Qingli; Zhang, Haifeng; Tang, Wen; Zhang, Meifang; Yin, Huiyong

2014-05-01

78

Oral administration of a nephrotoxic dose of potassium bromate, a food additive, alters renal redox and metabolic status and inhibits brush border membrane enzymes in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The time dependent effect of orally administered KBrO(3) on redox status and enzymes of brush border membrane (BBM) and carbohydrate metabolism has been studied in rat kidney. Animals were given a single oral dose of KBrO(3) (100mg/kg body weight) and sacrificed at different times after this treatment; control animals were not given KBrO(3). The administration of KBrO(3) resulted in nephrotoxicity, a decline in the specific activities of several BBM marker enzymes and also induced oxidative stress in kidney. The specific activities of enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism were also altered and suggest a shift in energy metabolism from the aerobic to anaerobic mode. The renal effects of single oral dose of KBrO(3) appeared to be reversible; maximum changes in all the parameters were 48 h after administration of KBrO(3) after which recovery took place, in many cases almost to control values, after 168 h. These results suggest that the administration of a single nephrotoxic dose of KBrO(3) inhibits brush border membrane enzymes, induces oxidative stress and alters energy metabolism of the renal system in a reversible manner. PMID:23107716

Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Naqshbandi, Ashreeb; Fareed, Mohd; Mahmood, Riaz

2012-09-15

79

Ondansetron can enhance cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity via inhibition of multiple toxin and extrusion proteins (MATEs).  

Science.gov (United States)

The nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application of cisplatin. Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) work in concert in the elimination of cationic drugs such as cisplatin from the kidney. We hypothesized that co-administration of ondansetron would have an effect on cisplatin nephrotoxicity by altering the function of cisplatin transporters. The inhibitory potencies of ondansetron on metformin accumulation mediated by OCT2 and MATEs were determined in the stable HEK-293 cells expressing these transporters. The effects of ondansetron on drug disposition in vivo were examined by conducting the pharmacokinetics of metformin, a classical substrate for OCTs and MATEs, in wild-type and Mate1-/- mice. The nephrotoxicity was assessed in the wild-type and Mate1-/- mice received cisplatin with and without ondansetron. Both MATEs, including human MATE1, human MATE2-K, and mouse Mate1, and OCT2 (human and mouse) were subject to ondansetron inhibition, with much greater potencies by ondansetron on MATEs. Ondansetron significantly increased tissue accumulation and pharmacokinetic exposure of metformin in wild-type but not in Mate1-/- mice. Moreover, ondansetron treatment significantly enhanced renal accumulation of cisplatin and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity which were indicated by increased levels of biochemical and molecular biomarkers and more severe pathohistological changes in mice. Similar increases in nephrotoxicity were caused by genetic deficiency of MATE function in mice. Therefore, the potent inhibition of MATEs by ondansetron enhances the nephrotoxicity associated with cisplatin treatment in mice. Potential nephrotoxic effects of combining the chemotherapeutic cisplatin and the antiemetic 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron, should be investigated in patients. PMID:24001450

Li, Qing; Guo, Dong; Dong, Zhongqi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Polli, James E; Shu, Yan

2013-11-15

80

Future oceanic warming and acidification alter immune response and disease status in a commercial shellfish species, Mytilus edulis L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments. PMID:24927423

Mackenzie, Clara L; Lynch, Sharon A; Culloty, Sarah C; Malham, Shelagh K

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Future Oceanic Warming and Acidification Alter Immune Response and Disease Status in a Commercial Shellfish Species, Mytilus edulis L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments. PMID:24927423

Mackenzie, Clara L.; Lynch, Sharon A.; Culloty, Sarah C.; Malham, Shelagh K.

2014-01-01

82

The nutritional status of astronauts is altered after long-term space flight aboard the International Space Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Defining optimal nutrient requirements is critical for ensuring crew health during long-duration space exploration missions. Data pertaining to such nutrient requirements are extremely limited. The primary goal of this study was to better understand nutritional changes that occur during long-duration space flight. We examined body composition, bone metabolism, hematology, general blood chemistry, and blood levels of selected vitamins and minerals in 11 astronauts before and after long-duration (128-195 d) space flight aboard the International Space Station. Dietary intake and limited biochemical measures were assessed during flight. Crew members consumed a mean of 80% of their recommended energy intake, and on landing day their body weight was less (P = 0.051) than before flight. Hematocrit, serum iron, ferritin saturation, and transferrin were decreased and serum ferritin was increased after flight (P assessed by several markers, did not consistently rise 1 d after landing. These data provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin D status, and oxidative damage are among critical nutritional concerns for long-duration space travelers.

Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Block, Gladys; Rice, Barbara L.; Davis-Street, Janis E.

2005-01-01

83

Chronic intermittent stress-induced alterations in the spermatogenesis and antioxidant status of the testis are irreversible in albino rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was undertaken to find out whether or not chronic stress-induced alterations in spermatogenesis are accompanied by oxidative damage in the testis and reversibility of these effects. Adult male rats (n?=?10) were subjected to restraint for 1 h and later after a gap of 4 h to forced swimming exercise for 15 min daily for 60 days and controls (n?=?5) were maintained without disturbance. After treatment period, controls and 5 rats in stress group were killed and remaining rats in stress group were maintained without any treatment for 4 months and then autopsied to find out whether effects are reversible or not. The body and testicular weight, total sperm count, and mean number of type A spermatogonia, mid-pachytene spermatocytes, stage 7 spermatids, and elongated spermatids (cellular association in stage VII of spermatogenesis) showed a significant decrease whereas the abnormal sperm count and germ cell apoptosis were increased in stressed and recovery group rats compared to controls. Activities of testicular SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST were significantly decreased whereas MDA levels were significantly increased in stressed rats compared to controls. The SOD, GST, and CAT activities of recovery groups were significantly lower than controls, whereas MDA levels and GPx activity of these rats did not differ from controls. The results, for the first time, reveal that stress-induced loss of germ cells leading to decrease in sperm count may be due to oxidative damage caused by chronic stress and majority of these changes are not reversible. PMID:22820994

Nirupama, M; Devaki, M; Nirupama, R; Yajurvedi, H N

2013-03-01

84

Mate guarding, intrasexual competition and mating success in males of the non- territorial lizard Lacerta schreiberi  

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Schreiber’s green lizard Lacerta schreiberi showed a high degree of overlap in individual home ranges which the males did not actively defend. The number of mates and estimated mating success of males were not related to the size of male home ranges. The population sex ratio was skewed towards males and a pro- miscuous mating system was detected; individual males mated with 0-4 females. Mating frequency, number of mates, and mating success of males were positively correlat...

Marco, Adolfo; Pe?rez-mellado, V.

1999-01-01

85

Congenital hypothyroidism alters the oxidative status, enzyme activities and morphological parameters in the hippocampus of developing rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital hypothyroidism is associated with delay in cell migration and proliferation in brain tissue, impairment of synapse formation, misregulation of neurotransmitters, hypomyelination and mental retardation. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuropsychological deficits observed in congenital hypothyroidism are not completely understood. In the present study we proposed a mechanism by which hypothyroidism leads to hippocampal neurotoxicity. Congenital hypothyroidism induces c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway activation leading to hyperphosphorylation of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin and neurofilament subunits from hippocampal astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Moreover, hyperphosphorylation of the cytoskeletal proteins was not reversed by T3 and poorly reversed by T4. In addition, congenital hypothyroidism is associated with downregulation of astrocyte glutamate transporters (GLAST and GLT-1) leading to decreased glutamate uptake and subsequent influx of Ca(2+) through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. The Na(+)-coupled (14)C-?-methyl-amino-isobutyric acid ((14)C-MeAIB) accumulation into hippocampal cells also might cause an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration by opening voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC). The excessive influx of Ca(2+) through NMDA receptors and VDCCs might lead to an overload of Ca(2+) within the cells, which set off glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. The inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity might also induce Ca(2+) influx. The inhibited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities, associated with altered glutamate and neutral amino acids uptake could somehow affect the GSH turnover, the antioxidant defense system, as well as the glutamate-glutamine cycle. Reduced levels of S100B and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) take part of the hypothyroid condition, suggesting a compromised astroglial/neuronal neurometabolic coupling which is probably related to the neurotoxic damage in hypothyroid brain. PMID:23693027

Cattani, Daiane; Goulart, Paola Bez; Cavalli, Vera Lúcia de Liz Oliveira; Winkelmann-Duarte, Elisa; Dos Santos, André Quincozes; Pierozan, Paula; de Souza, Daniela Fraga; Woehl, Viviane Mara; Fernandes, Marilda C; Silva, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina; Zamoner, Ariane

2013-08-15

86

Alteration of DNA ploidy status and cell proliferation induced by preoperative radiotherapy is a prognostic factor in rectal cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

To identify predictors of prognosis after preoperative radiotherapy, DNA ploidy and cell proliferation were investigated in 116 patients with rectal cancer. For flow cytometry, a nuclear suspension was prepared by pepsin digestion of paraffin samples of biopsies taken before preoperative radiotherapy (15 x 2 Gy) and also of the resected rectal tumors after radiotherapy. The median follow-up period was 6 years. The proportion of tumor necrosis was evaluated in histological sections before and after irradiation. There was a significant decrease (74 to 48%) in aneuploid tumors after radiation. Of 86 patients with aneuploid biopsies, 28 revealed no reduction in the proportion of aneuploid tumor cells [group AN(=/increase)], and 58 showed a reduction (mean 48.9%) or complete elimination of aneuploid tumor cells [group AN(decrease/psi)]. The incidence of local or distal failure was significantly reduced in the group AN(decrease/psi) (7.8%/20%), compared with the group AN (=/increase) (27%/54%) and the group of constant diploid tumors (n = 22; 13.6%/31.8 %; P = 0.034). There was a trend of decreased recurrence rate in diploid tumors with a reduced fraction of cells in S-phase after radiotherapy. Survival was significantly increased in group AN(decrease/psi) (P < 0.0001). In a multivariate regression analysis, variables of independent prognostic significance were increased proportion of necrosis after irradiation and DNA ploidy group and the postoperative tumor stage. These results suggest that alterations in tumor DNA ploidy and cell proliferation induced by preoperative radiotherapy might help to identify patients likely to benefit from preoperative radiation in rectal cancer. PMID:10955806

Lammering, G; Taher, M M; Gruenagel, H H; Borchard, F; Porschen, R

2000-08-01

87

Clinical implications of altered thyroid status in male testicular function Implicações clínicas das alterações tireoidianas na função gonadal masculina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are involved in the development and maintenance of virtually all tissues. Although for many years the testis was thought to be a thyroid-hormone unresponsive organ, studies of the last decades have demonstrated that thyroid dysfunction is associated not only with abnormalities in morphology and function of testes, but also with decreased fertility and alterations of sexual activity in men. Nowadays, the participation of triiodothyronine (T3 in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation, testicular maturation, and steroidogenesis is widely accepted, as well as the presence of thyroid hormone transporters and receptors in testicular cells throughout the development process and in adulthood. But even with data suggesting that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects, there is still controversy regarding the impact of thyroid diseases on human spermatogenesis and fertility, which can be in part due to the lack of well-controlled clinical studies. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of recent clinical data about the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function.Os hormônios da tireoide estão envolvidos virtualmente no desenvolvimento e na manutenção de todos os tecidos. As gônadas masculinas foram, por décadas, consideradas insensíveis aos hormônios tireoidianos. No entanto, estudos mais recentes têm demonstrado que disfunções tireoidianas estão associadas não somente a anormalidades na morfologia e na função dos testículos, mas também à diminuição da fertilidade e alterações na atividade sexual masculina. Atualmente, o papel da triiodotironina (T3 no controle da proliferação das células de Sertoli e Leydig, maturação testicular e esteroidogênese é amplamente aceito, bem como a presença de transportadores e receptores para o hormônio tireoidiano nos testículos durante o período de desenvolvimento e a idade adulta. No entanto, apesar dos dados que indicam que o T3 atua diretamente nos testículos humanos, persistem controvérsias em relação ao impacto das doenças tireoidianas sobre a espermatogênese e a fertilidade, o que pode ser em parte devido à escassez de estudos clínicos nessa área. Essa revisão tem por objetivo apresentar um panorama de dados clínicos atualizados sobre o papel dos hormônios tireoidianos na função gonadal masculina.

Simone Magagnin Wajner

2009-11-01

88

Assessing the mating 'health' of commercial honey bee queens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Honey bee queens mate with multiple males, which increases the total genetic diversity within colonies and has been shown to confer numerous benefits for colony health and productivity. Recent surveys of beekeepers have suggested that 'poor queens' are a top management concern, thus investigating the reproductive quality and mating success of commercially produced honey bee queens is warranted. We purchased 80 commercially produced queens from large queen breeders in California and measured them for their physical size (fresh weigh and thorax width), insemination success (stored sperm counts and sperm viability), and mating number (determined by patriline genotyping of worker offspring). We found that queens had an average of 4.37 +/- 1.446 million stored sperm in their spermathecae with an average viability of 83.7 +/- 13.33%. We also found that the tested queens had mated with a high number of drones (average effective paternity frequency: 17.0 +/- 8.98). Queen "quality" significantly varied among commercial sources for physical characters but not for mating characters. These findings suggest that it may be more effective to improve overall queen reproductive potential by culling lower-quality queens rather than systematically altering current queen production practices. PMID:22420250

Tarpy, David R; Keller, Jennifer J; Caren, Joel R; Delaney, Deborah A

2012-02-01

89

?????????????????????? The Influence of Mate-Rejection on Self-Perceived Mate Value: Testing the Mating Sociometer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????????????????/?????????????????????????????1 ?????????????/???????????????????????????2 ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Kirkpatrick?Ellis(2001?????????????——???????????????????????????????????????????????The present study which using recall paradigm aimed to investigate the effect of  mate-rejection on positive affect and negative affect, self-esteem, self-perceived mate value, mate standard. The result showed: 1  Mate-rejection makes an impact on positive affect and negative affect, while self-esteem plays fully the mediating role among them; 2 Self-esteem fully mediated the impact of mate-rejection on self-perceived mate value, and self-perceived mate value fully mediated the impact of self-esteem on mate standard, thus a process model was built. This research supports and expands a conceptualization of the domain-specific sociometer, which is derived from Kirkpatrick and Ellis (2001: self-esteem as a mechanism functions to calibrate self-perceived mate value in response to experiences of mate-rejection, and makes an indirect effect on mate standard.

??

2012-11-01

90

Strain-speccific differences in mating, oviposition, and host-seeking behavior between Wolbachia-infected and uninfected Aedes albopictus  

Science.gov (United States)

Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacteria that cause various reproductive alterations in their arthropod hosts including cytoplasmic incompatibility. In this study, we compared mating, oviposition and host-seeking behaviors of Wolbachia-infected [Houston (HOU), Gainesville (GNV)] and Houston uninf...

91

Singing and mating success in water pipits: one specific song element makes all the difference.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Positive correlations between male vocalization and reproductive success have been documented for many animal species. They are usually based on differences between males in vocalization rate, duration or repertoire size. Here, we present probably the first field study linking differences in territorial overlap and mating status to differences in a single, clearly definable song element, the ‘Snarr’. Male water pipits,Anthus spinoletta, with high Snarr scores were mated more often than ma...

Rehsteiner, U.; Geisser, H.; Reyer, H. U.

1998-01-01

92

The Structure and Content of Long-Term and Short-Term Mate Preferences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study addresses two limitations in the mate preferences literature. First, research all-too-often relies on single-item assessments of mate preferences precluding more advanced statistical techniques like factor analysis. Second, when factor analysis could be done, it exclusively has done for long-term mate preferences, at the exclusion of short-term mate preferences. In this study (N = 401, we subjected 20 items designed to measure short- and long-term mate preferences to both principle components (n = 200 and confirmatory factor analysis (n = 201. In the long-term context, we replicated previous findings that there are three different categories of preferences: physical attractiveness, interpersonal warmth, and social status. In the short-term context, physical attractiveness occupied two parts of the structure, social status dropped out, and interpersonal warmth remained. Across short- and long-term contexts, there were slight changes in what defined the shared dimensions (i.e., physical attractiveness and interpersonal warmth, suggesting prior work that applies the same inventory to each context might be flawed. We also replicated sex differences and similarities in mate preferences and correlates with sociosexuality and mate value. We adopt an evolutionary paradigm to understand our results.

Peter K. Jonason

2013-12-01

93

Ondansetron Can Enhance Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity via Inhibition of Multiple Toxin and Extrusion Proteins (MATEs)  

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The nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application of cisplatin. Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) work in concert in the elimination of cationic drugs such as cisplatin from the kidney. We hypothesized that co-administration of ondansetron would have an effect on cisplatin nephrotoxicity by altering the function of cisplatin transporters. The inhibitory potencies of ondansetron on metformin accumulation mediated by OCT2 and MATEs wer...

Li, Qing; Guo, Dong; Dong, Zhongqi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lei K.; Huang, Shiew-mei; Polli, James E.; Shu, Yan

2013-01-01

94

F1 sterility of Diatraea saccharalis (Fab.), Lepidoptera: Crambidae. II. mating dynamics and effects on progeny  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of irradiation of Diatraea saccharalis pupae at substerilizing gamma doses on the competitiveness of adult males emerging from the irradiated pupae and on their sterile progeny was evaluated on the basis of mating dynamics, mating duration and the length of the pre-mating period, as well as the sex ratio and the variation of pupal weights in the progeny. It is concluded that substerilizing gamma doses do not affect the indicators evaluated and that in the progeny the sex ratio is altered in favour of males and F1 pupal weights are reduced significantly. (author). 8 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

95

No Detectable Fertility Benefit from a Single Additional Mating in Wild Stalk-Eyed Flies  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Multiple mating by female insects is widespread, and the explanation(s) for repeated mating by females has been the subject of much discussion. Females may profit from mating multiply through direct material benefits that increase their own reproductive output, or indirect genetic benefits that increase offspring fitness. One particular direct benefit that has attracted significant attention is that of fertility assurance, as females often need to mate multiply to achieve high fertility. This hypothesis has never been tested in a wild insect population. Methodology/Principal Findings Female Malaysian stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni) mate repeatedly during their lifetime, and have been shown to be sperm limited under both laboratory and field conditions. Here we ask whether receiving an additional mating alleviates sperm limitation in wild females. In our experiment one group of females received a single additional mating, while a control group received an interrupted, and therefore unsuccessful, mating. Females that received an additional mating did not lay more fertilised eggs in total, nor did they lay proportionately more fertilised eggs. Female fertility declined significantly through time, demonstrating that females were sperm limited. However, receipt of an additional mating did not significantly alter the rate of this decline. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that the fertility consequences of a single additional mating were small. We discuss this effect (or lack thereof), and suggest that it is likely to be attributed to small ejaculate size, a high proportion of failed copulations, and the presence of X-linked meiotic drive in this species. PMID:21179210

Harley, Elisabeth; Fowler, Kevin; Cotton, Samuel

2010-01-01

96

Female choice for heterozygous mates changes along successive matings in a lizard.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female mate choice and female multiple mating are major focuses of studies on sexual selection. In a multiple mating context, the benefits of mate choice can change along successive matings, and female choice would be expected to change accordingly. We investigated sequential female mate choice in the moderately polyandrous common lizard (Zootoca vivipara, synonym Lacerta vivipara). Along successive mating opportunities, we found that females were relatively unselective for the first mate, but accepted males of higher heterozygosity for subsequent mating, consistent with the trade-up choice hypothesis. We discuss the evidence of trade-up mate choice in squamates and generally trade-up for mate heterozygosity in order to motivate new studies to fill gaps on these questions. PMID:21889973

Laloi, David; Eizaguirre, Christophe; Fédérici, Pierre; Massot, Manuel

2011-11-01

97

Investigation Romance and Mate Selection Myths of University Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among the developmental responsibilities expected from the early adulthood period are selecting one’s mate and managing to live together with him/her. The way in which individuals select their mates and the ideas and beliefs that guide them are among the most curious of subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not myths regarding romance and mate selection among university students change according to relationship status, gender and age whether or not they have had a romantic relationship before and, if so, how many they have had. The study sample consisted of 370 students attending different departments of the Faculty of Education at Ondokuz May?s University. In the study, Romance and Mate Selection Attitude Scale (RMSAS was used. The results of the study indicated that in terms of gender, while the difference among the averages of the total scores was significant. In terms of kinds of relationship, total scores the difference was not significant. Regarding whether or not participants had experienced a romantic relationship before, there was not such a significant difference in the total scores. In terms of age, the difference among the averages in all the RMSAS subscales and the total scores is not significant.

Muge Y?lmaz

2013-02-01

98

Costs of mate-guarding in wild male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis): physiological stress and aggression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mate-guarding is an important determinant of male reproductive success in a number of species. However, it is known to potentially incur costs. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of mate-guarding on male physiological stress and aggression in long-tailed macaques, a species in which males mate-guard females to a lesser extent than predicted by the Priority of Access model (PoA). The study was carried out during two mating periods on three groups of wild long-tailed macaques in Indonesia by combining behavioral observations with non-invasive measurements of fecal glucocorticoid (fGC) levels. Mate-guarding was associated with a general rise in male stress hormone levels but, from a certain threshold of mate-guarding onwards, increased vigilance time was associated with a decrease in stress hormone output. Mate-guarding also increased male-male aggression rate and male vigilance time. Overall, alpha males were more physiologically stressed than other males independently of mating competition. Increased glucocorticoid levels during mate-guarding are most likely adaptive since it may help males to mobilize extra-energy required for mate-guarding and ultimately maintain a balanced energetic status. However, repeated exposure to high levels of stress over an extended period is potentially deleterious to the immune system and thus may carry costs. This potential physiological cost together with the cost of increased aggression mate-guarding male face may limit the male's ability to mate-guard females, explaining the deviance from the PoA model observed in long-tailed macaques. Comparing our results to previous findings we discuss how ecological factors, reproductive seasonality and rank achievement may modulate the extent to which costs of mate-guarding limit male monopolization abilities. PMID:25236888

Girard-Buttoz, Cédric; Heistermann, Michael; Rahmi, Erdiansyah; Agil, Muhammad; Fauzan, Panji Ahmad; Engelhardt, Antje

2014-09-01

99

Mating preferences of zebra finches  

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Kurzfassung zu: "Causes of between-individual differences in mating preferences". Dissertation an der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Fakultät für Biologie, durchgeführt am Max-Planck-Institut für Ornithologie in Seewiesen, betreut von Dr. Wolfgang Forstmeier und Prof. Bart Kempenaers (2009).

Schielzeth, Holger

2012-01-01

100

Mate choice decisions by searchers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For more than two decades rudimentary versions of the fixed sample and sequential search strategies have provided the primary theoretical foundation for the study of mate choice decisions by searchers. The theory that surrounds these models has expanded markedly over this time period. In this paper, we review and extend results derived from these models, with a focus on the empirical analysis of searcher behavior. The basic models are impractical for empirical purposes because they rely on the assumption that searchers—and, for applied purposes, researchers—assess prospective mates based on their quality, the fitness consequences of mate choice decisions. Here we expound versions of the models that are more empirically useful, reformulated to reflect decisions based on male phenotypic characters. For some organisms, it may be possible to use preference functions to derive predictions from the reformulated models and thereby avoid difficulties associated with the measurement of male quality per se. But predictions derived from the two models are difficult to differentiate empirically, regardless of how the models are formulated. Here we develop ideas that illustrate how this goal might be accomplished. In addition, we clarify how the variability of male quality should be evaluated and we extend what is known about how this variability influences searcher behavior under each model. More general difficulties associated with the empirical study of mate choice decisions by searchers are also discussed [Current Zoology 59 (2: 184–199, 2013].

Daniel D. WIEGMANN, Lisa M. ANGELONI, Steven M. SEUBERT, J. Gordon WADE

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

Effects of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene and dietary protein on male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating success.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of access to dietary protein (P) and the topical application of a juvenile hormone analogue (methoprene (M)) on mating behaviour of male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae was assessed in the laboratory and in field cages. Age, dietary protein and methoprene application increased the mating success and influenced the mating behaviour. Treatment with methoprene (M+) to protein-deprived (P-) males had only a modest effect on the acceleration of sexual maturity, but application of methoprene (M+) to protein-fed (P+) males greatly accelerated sexual maturity. Protein diet (P+) increased mating success of males in comparison to protein-deprived (P-) males. Protein and methoprene have a synergistic effect on mating behaviour, since M+P+ treated males exhibit reduced mating latency and achieved higher mating in younger ages than methoprene and/or protein-deprived males. Copulation duration was correlated with nutritional status and M+P+ males copulated longer at the age of advanced sexual maturity than M-P+ males. Our results suggest that in this species with a lek mating system, females discriminate between the males based on their sexual signals, which were influenced by protein in the adult diet, methoprene application and age. The results are discussed in the light of mating competitiveness of precocious treated young males and their relevance to Sterile Insect Technique application against this pest species. PMID:20438735

ul Haq, Ihsan; Cáceres, Carlos; Hendrichs, Jorge; Teal, Peter; Wornoayporn, Viwat; Stauffer, Christian; Robinson, Alan S

2010-11-01

102

Feminization of pheromone-sensing neurons affects mating decisions in Drosophila males.  

Science.gov (United States)

The response of individual animals to mating signals depends on the sexual identity of the individual and the genetics of the mating targets, which represent the mating social context (social environment). However, how social signals are sensed and integrated during mating decisions remains a mystery. One of the models for understanding mating behaviors in molecular and cellular terms is the male courtship ritual in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). We have recently shown that a subset of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) that are enriched in the male appendages and express the ion channel ppk23 play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of male courtship via the perception of cuticular contact pheromones, and are likely to represent the main chemosensory pathway that influences mating decisions by males. Here we show that genetic feminization of ppk23-expressing GRNs in male flies resulted in a significant increase in male-male sexual attraction without an apparent impact on sexual attraction to females. Furthermore, we show that this increase in male-male sexual attraction is sensory specific, which can be modulated by variable social contexts. Finally, we show that feminization of ppk23-expressing sensory neurons lead to major transcriptional shifts, which may explain the altered interpretation of the social environment by feminized males. Together, these data indicate that the sexual cellular identity of pheromone sensing GRNs plays a major role in how individual flies interpret their social environment in the context of mating decisions. PMID:24463366

Lu, Beika; Zelle, Kathleen M; Seltzer, Raya; Hefetz, Abraham; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

2014-01-01

103

Female-borne cues affecting Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) male behavior during courtship and mating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate courtship and mating behavior in Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti)-a koinobiont endophagous solitary parasitoid of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and of other fruit flies-is essential to its mass rearing and management. Augmentative releases of P. concolor for olive fruit fly control started in the Mediterranean areas in the 1950s and still continue with limited success. We determined the influence of visual and chemical cues on courtship and mating behavior of this braconid and the possible effect of the mating status of males and females in the perception of these cues. Our results suggest that integration of visual and chemical stimuli are fundamental for mate location and courtship. Indeed, the optimal response of the male was achieved when physical and chemical cues were simultaneously presented and vision and olfaction worked synergistically. PMID:23955889

Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni; Lucchi, Andrea

2013-06-01

104

Nutritional enrichment increases courtship intensity and improves mating success in male spiders  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The development of male sexual ornaments and the intensity of male courtship behavior are often used by females as criteria for mate choice and by other males to evaluate the strength of a rival. We tested the hypotheses that courtship intensity and mating success depend on the males' nutritional status (enriched or deficient) and that courtship intensity predicts mating success in males of the same nutritional status. We used wolf spiders, Pardosa prativaga, which have an elaborate display of courtship behaviors, including encircling, palp vibrations, abdomen vibrations, hopping, etc. Viability parameters indicated enhanced condition of enriched males. Mating success was higher for nutrient-enriched males in direct competition with deficient males. Enriched males had higher courtship intensity and were also larger (carapace width) but not heavier than deficient males. The statistical analysis indicated that diet effects on courtship intensity were indirect, through its effect on size. In competition tests between males of equal mass and the same diet treatment, the previously most active male (high levels of palp vibrating, abdomen vibrating, and hopping) had the highest mating success, though this result depended on male nutrient status. The widely used residual condition index (RCI) did not distinguish the treatments. It is suggested that the index is unsuitable in a situation of nutritional stress caused by nutrient imbalance. The results underscore the importance of nutrient balancing to all aspects of performance also in predatory animals.

Lomborg, Johannes Peter; Toft, SØren

2009-01-01

105

Mammalian MATE (SLC47A) transport proteins: impact on efflux of endogenous substrates and xenobiotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs; SLC47A) are mammalian transporters being predominately expressed in the brush-border membrane of proximal tubule epithelial cells in the kidney and the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. Functionally, MATEs act as efflux transporters for organic compounds, thereby mediating the elimination process. Two isoforms, MATE1 and 2, have been identified, and, so far, only a limited number of substrates, including clinically used drugs such as metformin and cimetidine, are known. A knockout mouse model has been established, as well, and is a valuable tool for further systematic pharmacokinetic analyses. In this review, we summarize the progress in MATE research on structural, molecular, functional, and pathophysiological aspects. Consequences of genetic variants for pharmacokinetic alterations and drug therapy are discussed. PMID:21923552

Damme, Katja; Nies, Anne T; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias

2011-11-01

106

Multiple matings among glossina and the sterile male technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fact that multiple matings are a common phenomenon among glossina turns the sterile male technique into a competition not between adult insects but between two types of sperm, and the proportion of females inseminated with the one or the other is given by the binomial (p+q)sup(n), where p is the percentage of normal males, q the percentage of sterile males and n the average number of matings per female. However, multiple matings cannot damage the effectiveness of the technique unless two conditions are present either separately or simultaneously: precocious death of the spermatozoa and reduced inseminating potential among the sterile males. Study of the factors which can alter the inseminating potential is thus important for those who wish to use the sterile male technique. These factors are of three kinds: factors connected with quality, with quantity and with availability. The first are associated with the nature and intensity of the alterations brought about in the spermatozoa by the sterilizing agent, the second with possible variations in the amount of sperm reaching the spermotheca, the third with the behaviour of the sterile males in the nature - that is, the question whether sterilization has a favourable or unfavourable influence on their chances of mating with wild females. The author describes his observations of the quantity of sperm produced by Glossina morsitans submorsitans males from the colony reared at the Institute for Tropical Hygiene and Medice Institute for Tropical Hygiene and Medicine in Lisbon, compares them with the observations of other authors and discusses their practical significance. Specific research is suggested. Advantages from assessing the behaviour of colonies not by female productivity but by male inseminating potential, and appropriate laboratory techniques

107

Costs of and Investment in Mate-Guarding in Wild Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis): Influences of Female Characteristics and Male-Female Social Bonds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Male primates living in multimale groups tend to direct mate and mate-guarding choices toward females of high reproductive value, i.e., high-ranking, parous females, or females with which they share strong bonds. Little is known, however, about the constraints that may limit male mate-guarding choices (the costs of this behavior) and the influence of the females' quality on male investment in mate-guarding. We aimed to study the effects of female rank, parity status, and male-female social bond strength on the costs of and investment in mate-guarding by males. We carried out our study during two reproductive seasons on three groups of wild long-tailed macaques in Indonesia. We combined behavioral observations on male locomotion and activity with noninvasive measurements of fecal glucocorticoids (fGC). Males spent less time feeding when mate-guarding nulliparous females than when mate-guarding parous females and tended to have higher fGC levels when mate-guarding low-ranking nulliparous females than when mate-guarding high-ranking nulliparous ones. Evolution should thus favor male choice for high-ranking parous females because such a decision brings benefits at proximate (reduced costs of mate-guarding) and ultimate (higher reproductive value) levels. Further, male investment in mate-guarding was flexible and contingent on female reproductive and social value. Males were more vigilant and more aggressive toward other males when mate-guarding females to which they were strongly bonded and/or high-ranking ones than when mate-guarding other females. Our findings bring a new dimension to the study of mate choice by showing that males not only mate preferentially with high-quality females but may also aim to secure paternity with these females through optimized monopolization. PMID:25152554

Girard-Buttoz, Cédric; Heistermann, Michael; Rahmi, Erdiansyah; Agil, Muhammad; Fauzan, Panji Ahmad; Engelhardt, Antje

2014-01-01

108

Mate attraction, retention and expulsion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual selection theory and parental investment theory have guided much of the evolutionary psychological research on human mating. Based on these theories, researchers have predicted and found sex differences in mating preferences and behaviors. Men generally prefer that their long-term partners are youthful and physically attractive. Women generally prefer that their long-term partners have existing resources or clear potential for securing resources and display a willingness to invest those resources in children the relationship might produce. Both men and women, however, desire long-term partners who are kind and intelligent. Once a partner is obtained, men and women act in sex-specific ways to ensure the continuation and exclusivity of the relationship. Men, in particular, engage in behaviors designed to prevent, correct, and anticipate their partner's sexual infidelity. Relationships dissolve for evolutionarily-relevant reasons: infidelity, childlessness, and infertility. The discussion addresses directions for future research. PMID:20100421

Miner, Emily J; Shackelford, Todd K

2010-02-01

109

Mating duration and sperm precedence in the spider Linyphia triangularis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In many animal species, mating behaviour is highly ritualised, which may allow us to relate some of its consequences, e.g. male paternity and female receptivity, to the progression of phases in the mating sequence; at the same time, ritualisation raises the question of to what extent the partners, especially the males, are able to influence the outcome of mating for their own benefit. We studied the linyphiid spider Linyphia triangularis in which mating follows a strict sequence during which the male inducts two droplets of sperm and transfers them to the female. We performed sperm competition experiments (sterile-male technique) including four treatments, in which the copulation of the first male was interrupted at prescribed phases of the mating sequence, while the second male was allowed a complete mating. Second males spent a shorter time than first males on the behaviours prior to sperm transfer, but the amount of sperm (2 droplets) and the time spent in sperm transfer were independent of the females’ mating status. The proportion of females accepting the second male depended on the mating duration of the first male, i.e. whether the first male had transferred one or two sperm droplets. After a complete first mating, most females accepted no further males. A last-male sperm precedence was apparent if only half of the first sperm droplet had been transferred by the first male, but this switched to a first male precedence if one full sperm droplet had been transferred. Thus, even in the face of sperm competition, it is sufficient for the first male to transfer one sperm droplet. The second sperm droplet and the extended copulatory courtship associated with its transfer may serve to induce a lack of receptivity in the female, but the males seem unable to enhance their reproductive success through variable copulatory tactics.

Weldingh, Ditte L.; Toft, SØren

2011-01-01

110

Mating order-dependent female mate choice in the polygynandrous common lizard Lacerta vivipara.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies indicate that directional female mate choice and order-dependent female mate choice importantly contribute to non-random mating patterns. In species where females prefer larger sized males, disentangling different hypotheses leading to non-random mating patterns is especially difficult, given that male size usually correlates with behaviours that may lead to non-random mating (e.g. size-dependent emergence from hibernation, male fighting ability). Here we investigate female mate choice and order-dependent female mate choice in the polygynandrous common lizard (Lacerta vivipara). By sequentially presenting males in random order to females, we exclude non-random mating patterns potentially arising due to intra-sexual selection (e.g. male-male competition), trait-dependent encounter probabilities, trait-dependent conspicuousness, or trait-dependent emergence from hibernation. To test for order-dependent female mate choice we investigate whether the previous mating history affects female choice. We show that body size and body condition of the male with which a female mated for the first time were bigger and better, respectively, than the average body size and body condition of the rejected males. There was a negative correlation between body sizes of first and second copulating males. This indicates that female mate choice is dependent on the previous mating history and it shows that the female's choice criteria are non-static, i.e. non-directional. Our study therefore suggests that context-dependent female mate choice may not only arise due to genotype-environment interactions, but also due to other female mating strategies, i.e. order-dependent mate choice. Thus context-dependent female mate choice might be more frequent than previously thought. PMID:19779935

Fitze, Patrick S; Cote, Julien; Clobert, Jean

2010-02-01

111

Mating populations of Gibberella fujikuroi (Sawada) S. Ito species complex isolating from maize, sorghum and wheat in Serbia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The status of fertility and distribution of mating populations in the G. fujikuroi species complex, isolating from maize, sorghum and wheat cultivated under various agroecological conditions of Serbia, have been studied. A total of 79 field isolates of Fusarium spp. in the section Liseola, which had been reciprocally crossed to standard testers (MAT-1 and MAT-2) from each of the four mating populations of the G. fujikuroi species complex, were selected for ...

Kova?evi? Tamara; Levi? Jelena; Stankovi? Slavica; Vukojevi? Jelena

2013-01-01

112

Communication and choice in yeast mating  

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Cell-cell communication is essential for all organisms and a hallmark of multicellularity. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mating occurs when two haploid cells of opposite mating types (a and ?), communicate through secreted pheromones and the corresponding transmembrane receptors, to find each other and fuse. I focused on the mating system of S. cerevisiae and used a quantitative approach to ask how yeast cells communicate with each other. I show that ? cells advertise thei...

Gonc?alves Sa?, Maria Joana Patri?cio

2010-01-01

113

Precopulatory Mate Guarding, Mating System and Pairing Parental Care in Hyale rubra (Peracarida; Amphipoda; Gammaridae)  

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Mating behaviour of the gammarid amphipod, Hyale rubra, was observed. H. rubra displayedprecopulatory mate guarding: males clasped females with their gnathopods during copulation, forming a pair.Males also participated in embryo care during the incubation period. The population was small, and the sex ratiowas almost equal. Energy allocation for mating effort and parental effort in the two sexes appear to be almostequal. The mating system was sequentially polygamous (or promiscuous) and there ...

Kim, Sunghan

2008-01-01

114

Alterations in the telomere length distribution and the subtelomeric methylation status in human vascular endothelial cells under elevated temperature in culture condition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperature-associated alteration in the telomere lengths of vascular endothelial cells has not been well investigated. Telomere length of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured at a high temperature (42 °C) was analyzed. Here described are heat-associated phenotypical alterations of human vascular endothelial cell under prolonged heat stress in terms of telomere length, telomerase activity, and the expression of telomere associated proteins and heat shock proteins. The genomic DNA extracted from HUVECs cultured for 3 days under 42 °C was digested with methylation-sensitive and -insensitive isoschizomers and was subjected to genomic Southern blot probed with a telomere DNA fragment. Their telomere lengths and telomere length distributions were analyzed. Telomerase activity and the expressions of telomere-associated RNA, telomere-associated proteins (TERC, TERT, TRF1, and TRF2), and heat shock proteins (Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90) were also analyzed. At 42 °C, cell growth was suppressed and the cell senescence rate was transiently elevated. A proportional decrease in the number of long telomeres was observed transiently at 42 °C. A trend of subtelomeric hypomethylation and lowered telomerase activity were observed at 42 °C after 3-day culture. The altered phenotypes on day 1 seemed reactive responses for cell protection to heat, and those on day 3 seemed exhausted reactions after 3-day culture. Maintained expression was observed in Hsps, TRF2, and TERC. These altered phenotypes might contribute to cell-survival under prolonged heat stress. PMID:23740586

Maeda, Toyoki; Guan, Jing-Zhi; Koyanagi, Masamichi; Makino, Naoki

2013-06-01

115

The best timing of mate search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea).  

Science.gov (United States)

Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different moult stages. We found that the attractiveness of individuals was mediated by short-distance chemical cues and tested individuals were able to discriminate and prefer individuals of the opposite sex. Moreover, male preference to female increased during their moulting status as they matured. Males were particularly more attracted by females with appearing white calcium plates, which corresponds to the beginning of their higher receptivity period. These differences in attractiveness due to sex and physiological status are likely to shape the composition of aggregates and facilitate mate finding and optimize the reproductive success for both males and females. Thus aggregation pheromones could be linked to sex pheromones in terrestrial isopods. PMID:23469225

Beauché, Fanny; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne

2013-01-01

116

The role of perfusion CT in identifying stroke mimics in the emergency room: a case of status epilepticus presenting with perfusion CT alterations  

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Emergency medicine physicians are often faced with the challenging task of differentiating true acute ischemic strokes from stroke mimics. We present a case that was initially diagnosed as acute stroke. However, perfusion CT and EEG eventually led to the final diagnosis of status epilepticus. This case further asserts the role of CT perfusion in the evaluation of patients with stroke mimics in the emergency room setting.

Guerrero, Waldo R.; Dababneh, Haitham; Eisenschenk, Stephan

2012-01-01

117

Podisus nigrispinus requer cópulas longas para o sucesso reprodutivo / Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) requires long matings for successful reproduction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A realização de múltiplas e longas cópulas parece ser importante para a reprodução de percevejos predadores como Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas), mas o comportamento governando essas características permanece desconhecido. Neste estudo foram investigados o comportamento de cópula e a reprodução de P. n [...] igrispinus em função do tamanho do macho, seu status prévio de acasalamento, risco de predação e interrupção de cópulas. A escolha da fêmea para o acasalamento foi estudada sob múltipla escolha, parcial ou sem chance de escolha por machos grandes ou pequenos. O comportamento para o início do acasalamento e tempo de cópula sob risco de predação quando na presença de Polistes versicolor Oliver foi comparado àquele de casais sem risco de predação. Machos e fêmeas de P. nigrispinus acasalaram independentemente do tamanho e status prévio de acasalamento dos machos, além de não apresentarem preferência por parceiros. A duração da cópula, escolha do parceiro e fertilidade das fêmeas não foram influenciadas pelo tamanho do macho, nem a presença do predador alterou o comportamento de acasalamento e duração de cópula. Fêmeas com cópulas interrompidas após 30, 60, 120 e 240 min apresentaram baixa viabilidade de ovos (0; 3,1; 7,7 e 34%, respectivamente), enquanto aquelas com tempo natural de cópula (338 a 671 min) obtiveram 74,2% de viabilidade. Portanto, o sucesso reprodutivo de P. nigrispinus não depende do tamanho do macho ou de seu status de acasalamento, mas requer longas cópulas para a transferência de espermatozóides. Abstract in english The occurrence of multiple and long matings seem to play an important role in the reproduction of the predatory stinkbugs such as Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas). However, the mechanisms underlying these behaviors remain unclear. In this study, the reproduction of P. nigrispinus was investigated as fun [...] ction of females' choice for their mating pair based on male body size and previous mating status, risk of predation and duration of mating. The female mating behavior was studied with female having multiple, partial or no partner choice based on male body size. Time to initiate a mating and its duration was observed after pairing males and females under risk of predation imposed by the presence of the predatory wasp Polistes versicolor Oliver. In addition, aiming to determine the reasons for long lasting matings, female had their mating interrupted at different intervals. Our data indicated that P. nigrispinus females do not select male partners as function of their body size and mating status. Duration of mating, mating partners' choice, and female fecundity and fertility were not influenced by the male size and risk of predation imposed by the predatory wasps. Mating interrupted after 30, 60, 120 and 240 min resulted in only 0, 3.1, 7.7 and 34% of egg hatching compared to 74.2% under uninterrupted mating (338 to 671 min long). Therefore, the reproductive success of P. nigrispinus females does not depend on male size and male mating status, but requires long-lasting mating as a condition for adequate spermatozoa transference to females instead.

Agna R S, Rodrigues; Jorge B, Torres; Herbert A A, Siqueira; Valéria W, Teixeira.

2009-12-01

118

Evolution of mating systems in coral reef gobies and constraints on mating system plasticity  

Science.gov (United States)

Social and mating systems can be influenced by the distribution, abundance, and economic defendability of breeding partners and essential resources. Polygyny is predicted where males can economically defend multiple females or essential resources used by females. In contrast, monogamy is predicted where neither sex can monopolise multiple partners, either directly or through resource control, but where one mate is economically defendable. The mating system and reproductive behaviour of five species of coral reef goby were investigated and contrasted with population density and individual mobility. The two most abundant species ( Asterropteryx semipunctatus and Istigobius goldmanni) were polygynous. In contrast, the less populous and more widely dispersed epibenthic species ( Amblygobius bynoensis, Amblygobius phalaena and Valenciennea muralis) were pair forming and monogamous. All five species had low mobility, mostly remaining within metres (3 epibenthic species) or centimetres (2 cryptobenthic species) of a permanent shelter site. Interspecific differences in the mating system may have been shaped by differences in population density and the ability of reproductive individuals to economically defend breeding partners/sites. However, in a test of mating system plasticity, males of the three monogamous species did not mate polygynously when given the opportunity to do so in experimental manipulations of density and sex ratio. Mate guarding and complex spawning characteristics, which have likely co-evolved with the monogamous mating system, could contribute to mating system inflexibility by making polygynous mating unprofitable for individuals of the pair forming species, even when presented with current-day ecological conditions that usually favour polygyny.

Hernaman, V.; Munday, P. L.

2007-09-01

119

Courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Lourenço & Qi, 2005 (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae from Xizang province, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the current work, the courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Lourenço & Qi, 2005 (Euscorpiidae from Xizang province (Tibet, China, were studied for the first time in the laboratory. Most of the mating behaviors in Scorpiops luridus are not remarkably different from those exhibited by other scorpions. However, for the first time a male pulling a female with its chelicerae to rapidly accomplish the sperm uptake was observed. Additionally, the sexual stinging behavior displayed by the male occurred in the initial stage, not during the promenade stage as previously described in several scorpion species. Through observation and analysis, we speculate that venom injection during sexual stinging is selective, possibly relying on the status shown by the stung scorpion (passive or aggressive. In order to clearly describe the process of courtship and mating, both sequences are represented in a flow chart, while the main behavior components of these processes were identified, analyzed and discussed.

GB Jiao

2010-01-01

120

Mate Tea Prevents Oxidative Stress in the Blood and Hippocampus of Rats with Acute or Chronic Ethanol Administration  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of acute and chronic intake of mate tea on the effects elicited by acute and chronic administration of ethanol. Methods. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), as well as the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hippocampus and blood of rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups, for both acute and chronic treatment: (1) control group, (2) treated group, (3) intoxicated group, (4) and intoxicated group treated with mate tea. Results. Both ethanol administrations significantly increased TBARS in plasma and hippocampus of rats and altered antioxidant enzyme activities, changes which were reverted by mate tea administration. Conclusions. Data indicate that acute and chronic ethanol administration induced oxidative stress in hippocampus and blood and that mate tea treatment was able to prevent this situation. PMID:22530075

Scolaro, Bianca; Delwing-de Lima, Daniela; da Cruz, José Geraldo Pereira; Delwing-Dal Magro, Débora

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Alterations in antioxidant status, protein concentration, acetylcholinesterase, Na+, K+-ATPase, and Mg2+-ATPase activities in rat brain after forced swimming.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate whether exercise stress (short [2 h] or prolonged [5 h] forced swimming in rats) could modulate brain total antioxidant status (TAS), tissue protein concentration, and the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na +, K +-ATPase, and Mg 2+-ATPase. Protein concentration, TAS and enzyme activities in homogenized rat brain were determined spectrophotometrically. Protein concentration was decreased by 15 % (p 0.05). In conclusion, short or prolonged forced swimming induces oxidative stress in rats, probably resulting in a reduction in brain protein concentration and AChE activity. In addition, a Na +, K +-ATPase and Mg 2+-ATPase activation was observed under the above mentioned experimental conditions. This stress condition may modulate brain intracellular Mg 2+ concentration, neural excitability, metabolic energy production, and neurotransmission. PMID:16388437

Tsakiris, T; Angelogianni, P; Tesseromatis, C; Tsakiris, S; Tsopanakis, C

2006-01-01

122

Altered vitamin D status in liver tissue and blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study compared vitamin D3 (vitD3) and 25-OH vitamin D3 (25OHD3) status in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) given either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber high in organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) or clean porcine (Suis scrofa) fat for up to 636 days. A group of six exposed and six control sister bitches (maternal generation) and their three exposed and four control pups, respectively, were daily fed 112g whale blubber (193µg ?PCB/day) or porcine fat (0.17µg ?PCB/day). Mean level of ?PCB in adipose tissue of exposed bitches and their pups was 3106 and 2670ng/g lw, respectively, which was significantly higher than the mean concentration of 53ng/g lw for all controls (p

Sonne, Christian; Kirkegaard, Maja

2014-01-01

123

Prism adaptation does not alter configural processing of faces [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1wk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patients with hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’ following a brain lesion show difficulty responding or orienting to objects and events on the left side of space. Substantial evidence supports the use of a sensorimotor training technique called prism adaptation as a treatment for neglect. Reaching for visual targets viewed through prismatic lenses that induce a rightward shift in the visual image results in a leftward recalibration of reaching movements that is accompanied by a reduction of symptoms in patients with neglect. The understanding of prism adaptation has also been advanced through studies of healthy participants, in whom adaptation to leftward prismatic shifts results in temporary neglect-like performance. Interestingly, prism adaptation can also alter aspects of non-lateralised spatial attention. We previously demonstrated that prism adaptation alters the extent to which neglect patients and healthy participants process local features versus global configurations of visual stimuli. Since deficits in non-lateralised spatial attention are thought to contribute to the severity of neglect symptoms, it is possible that the effect of prism adaptation on these deficits contributes to its efficacy. This study examines the pervasiveness of the effects of prism adaptation on perception by examining the effect of prism adaptation on configural face processing using a composite face task. The composite face task is a persuasive demonstration of the automatic global-level processing of faces: the top and bottom halves of two familiar faces form a seemingly new, unknown face when viewed together. Participants identified the top or bottom halves of composite faces before and after prism adaptation. Sensorimotor adaptation was confirmed by significant pointing aftereffect, however there was no significant change in the extent to which the irrelevant face half interfered with processing. The results support the proposal that the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation are limited to dorsal stream processing.

Janet H. Bultitude

2013-10-01

124

Effect of 60Co radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10 kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10 kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and qualitative profile of bioactive compounds. (author)

125

Effect of 60CO radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and qualitative profile of bioactive compounds. (author)

126

Fenthion, an organophosphorus pesticide, induces alterations in oxidant/antioxidant status and histopathological disorders in cerebrum and cerebellum of suckling rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fenthion (FEN) is an organophosphorus pesticide known for its wide toxic manifestations. In this study, the effects of FEN were evaluated on the cerebrum and cerebellum oxidant/antioxidant status and histopathological disorders in the suckling rats. Pregnant rats were divided into two groups: control group received pure water, while FEN group received daily by their drinking water 551 ppm of FEN from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery. Acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity was inhibited in both the cerebrum and cerebellum of suckling rats whose mothers were treated with FEN. The cerebrum and cerebellum oxidative damage was demonstrated by a significant increase of malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein product and glutathione (GSH) levels and disturbance in the antioxidant enzyme activities. A significant decline of non-protein thiol and vitamin C levels was also observed. These changes were confirmed by histopathological observations which were marked by pyknotic neurons in the cerebrum and apoptotic cells in the cerebellum of FEN-treated rats. In the cerebellum of FEN-treated rats, the most conspicuous damage was the absence of external granular layer, indicating growth retardation. These data suggested that exposure of pregnant and lactating rats to FEN induced oxidative stress and histopathological disorders in the cerebrum and cerebellum of their pups. Thus, the use of FEN must be under strict control, especially for pregnant and lactating mothers. PMID:25296500

Ben Amara, Ibtissem; Sefi, Mediha; Troudi, Afef; Soudani, Nejla; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

2014-08-01

127

Male reproductive senescence causes potential for sexual conflict over mating.  

Science.gov (United States)

The realization that senescence, age-dependent declines in survival and reproductive performance, pervades natural populations has brought its evolutionary significance into sharper focus. However, reproductive senescence remains poorly understood because it is difficult to separate male and female mechanisms underpinning reproductive success. We experimentally investigated male reproductive senescence in feral fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus, where socially dominant males monopolize access to females and the ejaculates of multiple males compete for fertilization. We detected the signal of senescence on multiple determinants of male reproductive success. The effect of age on status was dependent upon the intensity of intrasexual competition: old males were less likely to dominate male-biased groups where competition is intense but were as likely as young males to dominate female-biased groups. Mating and fertilization success declined sharply with male age largely as a result of population-level patterns. These age-dependent declines translated into sexually antagonistic payoffs: old males fertilized more eggs when they were dominant, but this resulted in females suffering a drastic reduction in fertility. Thus, male senescence causes potential for sexual conflict over mating, and the intensity of this conflict is modulated socially, by the probability of old males dominating reproductive opportunities. PMID:20579882

Dean, Rebecca; Cornwallis, Charlie K; Løvlie, Hanne; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso

2010-07-13

128

Altered vitamin D status in liver tissue and blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared vitamin D3 (vitD3) and 25-OH vitamin D3 (25OHD3) status in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) given either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber high in organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) or clean porcine (Suis scrofa) fat for up to 636 days. A group of six exposed and six control sister bitches (maternal generation) and their three exposed and four control pups, respectively, were daily fed 112g whale blubber (193µg ?PCB/day) or porcine fat (0.17µg ?PCB/day). Mean level of ?PCB in adipose tissue of exposed bitches and their pups was 3106 and 2670ng/g lw, respectively, which was significantly higher than the mean concentration of 53ng/g lw for all controls (p<0.001). The vitamin analyses showed that 25OHD3 in liver of maternal exposed bitches were significantly lower than in controls (p=0.004) while vitD3 was significantly highest in liver of exposed pups (p<0.003). Regarding blood plasma concentrations, exposed F generation pups had significantly higher concentrations of 25OHD3 than controls (p=0.009). Correlation analyses showed that blood 25OHD3 decreased significantly with increased adipose tissue concentrations of ?PCB in exposed dogs (R(2)=0.64, p=0.005) and a similar trend was found for liver 25OHD3 (R(2)=0.32, p=0.08). The results indicate that the homeostasis and metabolism of vitamin D compounds may respond differently to the dietary composition of fatty acids and OHC exposure. It is unknown if the lower level of 25OHD3 in the liver of exposed dogs would have any negative effects on immunity and reproduction and more focus should be conducted on this compound in Arctic wildlife. PMID:24725758

Sonne, Christian; Kirkegaard, Maja; Jakobsen, Jette; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Letcher, Robert J; Dietz, Rune

2014-06-01

129

Calidad microbiológica de yerba mate canchada / Microbiological quality of canchada yerba mate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Yerba mate canchada es una de las formas de comercialización de la yerba mate. Se obtiene en las primeras etapas del proceso de elaboración, mediante la trituración gruesa de las hojas secas luego del sapecado y secado de las mismas, constituyendo la materia prima de los molinos. Los objetivos de nu [...] estro trabajo fueron evaluar la calidad microbiológica de yerba mate canchada, y observar si el período de estacionamiento influye en la proliferación de microorganismos en el procesamiento de la yerba mate. Se realizó el análisis microbiológico de 20 muestras de yerba mate canchada mediante recuentos de bacterias aeróbicas mesófilas totales (BAMT), coliformes totales (CT), coliformes termotolerantes (CTT), hongos y levaduras (RHL) y detección de Escherichia coli. Los recuentos microbiológicos presentaron valores en promedio para BAMT de 2,2 x 10³ UFC/g; para CT de 5,5 x 10² NMP/g; para CTT Abstract in english Milled (canchada) yerba mate is one of the commercial forms of yerba mate. It is obtained in the early stages of the manufacturing process, through the coarse grinding of dry leaves after sapecado and drying, which constitute the raw material for mills. The objectives of our work were to assess the [...] microbiological quality of canchada yerba mate, and to observe if the ageing period influences the proliferation of microorganisms in yerba mate processing. Microbiological analysis of 20 samples of canchada yerba mate was carried out by total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (BAMT), total coliform (RCT), fecal coliforms (RCTT), fungi and yeasts (RHL) counting, and Escherichia coli detection. Microbiological counting showed average values of 2.2 xl0³ UFC/g for BAMT, of 5.5 x 10² NMP/g for CT;

Marta A, Horianski; María L, Castrillo; Ayelen B, Tayagui; Gladis, Jerke.

2012-06-01

130

Overexpression of miR-146a in basal-like breast cancer cells confers enhanced tumorigenic potential in association with altered p53 status.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tumor suppressor p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers, mutated in 25-30% of breast cancers. However, mutation rates differ according to breast cancer subtype, being more prevalent in aggressive estrogen receptor-negative tumors and basal-like and HER2-amplified subtypes. This heterogeneity suggests that p53 may function differently across breast cancer subtypes. We used RNAi-mediated p53 knockdown (KD) and antagomir-mediated KD of microRNAs to study how gene expression and cellular response to p53 loss differ in luminal versus basal-like breast cancer. As expected, p53 loss caused downregulation of established p53 targets (e.g. p21 and miR-34 family) and increased proliferation in both luminal and basal-like cell lines. However, some p53-dependent changes were subtype specific, including expression of miR-134, miR-146a and miR-181b. To study the cellular response to miR-146a upregulation in p53-impaired basal-like lines, antagomir KD of miR-146a was performed. KD of miR-146a caused decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis, effectively ablating the effects of p53 loss. Furthermore, we found that miR-146a upregulation decreased NF-?B expression and downregulated the NF-?B-dependent extrinsic apoptotic pathway (including tumor necrosis factor, FADD and TRADD) and antagomir-mediated miR-146a KD restored expression of these components, suggesting a plausible mechanism for miR-146a-dependent cellular responses. These findings are relevant to human basal-like tumor progression in vivo, since miR-146a is highly expressed in p53 mutant basal-like breast cancers. These findings suggest that targeting miR-146a expression may have value for altering the aggressiveness of p53 mutant basal-like tumors. PMID:25123132

Sandhu, Rupninder; Rein, Jessica; D'Arcy, Monica; Herschkowitz, Jason I; Hoadley, Katherine A; Troester, Melissa A

2014-11-01

131

The Medusa Algorithm for Polynomial Matings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Medusa algorithm takes as input two postcritically finite quadratic polynomials and outputs the quadratic rational map which is the mating of the two polynomials (if it exists). Specifically, the output is a sequence of approximations for the parameters of the rational map, as well as an image of its Julia set. Whether these approximations converge is answered using Thurston's topological characterization of rational maps. This algorithm was designed by John Hamal Hubbard, and implemented in 1998 by Christian Henriksen and REU students David Farris and Kuon Ju Liu. In this paper we describe the algorithm and its implementation, discuss some output from the program (including many pictures) and related questions. Specifically, we include images and a discussion for some shared matings, Lattès examples, and tuning sequences of matings.

Boyd, Suzanne Hruska; Henriksen, Christian

2012-01-01

132

Not Only Single Mating in Stingless Bees  

Science.gov (United States)

Queens of the large, pantropical and fully eusocial taxon Meliponinae (stingless bees) are generally considered to be singly mated. We indirectly estimated queen mating frequency in two meliponids, Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona postica, by examining genotypes of workers at microsatellite DNA loci. Microsatellites were highly variable, providing suitable markers with which to assign patrilinial origin of workers within colonies headed by single queens. Queen mating frequency varied between 1 and 3 (M. beecheii) and 1 and 6 (S. postica), representing the first clear documentation of polyandry in the Meliponinae. Effective paternity frequency, me, was lower, although above 2 for S. postica. Stingless bees may provide suitable subjects for the testing of recent inclusive fitness arguments describing intracolony kin conflict in social Hymenoptera.

Paxton, Robert J.; Weißschuh, Nicole; Engels, Wolf; Hartfelder, Klaus; Quezada-Euan, J. Javier G.

133

Realization of the chess mate solver application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents details of the chess mate solver application, which is a part of the author’s Geniss general chess application. The problem chess is an important domain connected with solving of the chess problems. The Geniss Mate Solver (G.M.S. application solves Mate-in-N-move problems. Main techniques used for the implementation of the application are full-width searching with Alpha-Beta pruning technique and zero evaluation function. The application is written in Delphi for Windows programming environment and the searching engine is completely coded in assembly language (about 10000 lines. This hybrid software structure enables efficient program development by using high-level programming environment and the realization of a very fast searching engine at the same time. The machine code is manually coded and could achieve above 7 million generated positions per second on the 1Ghz Celeron PC.

Vu?kovi? Vladan V.

2004-01-01

134

Bird mating optimizer: An optimization algorithm inspired by bird mating strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Thanks to their simplicity and flexibility, evolutionary algorithms (EAs) have attracted significant attention to tackle complex optimization problems. The underlying idea behind all EAs is the same and they differ only in technical details. In this paper, we propose a novel version of EAs, bird mating optimizer (BMO), for continuous optimization problems which is inspired by mating strategies of bird species during mating season. BMO imitates the behavior of bird species metaphorically to breed broods with superior genes for designing optimum searching techniques. On a large set of unimodal and multimodal benchmark functions, BMO represents a competitive performance to other EAs.

Askarzadeh, Alireza

2014-04-01

135

Mating behavior of a Northern Italian population of Fusarium verticillioides associated with maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fusarium verticillioides, the most common causal organism of Fusarium stalk and ear rot of maize in Northern Italy, produces important mycotoxins such as fumonisins. Reproductive biology of F. verticillioides has been widely studied in numerous maize growing areas, but up to now no information is available on the mating behavior and genetic structure of this plant pathogen in Italy. Mating type and female fertility distribution and effective population number, N ( e ), were assessed for a population of 181 F. verticillioides strains isolated from three fields located in Lombardia region (Northern Italy) during 2007-2008 maize growing season. The ratio of MAT-1:MAT-2 was significantly different from the theoretical 1:1 ratio expected in an idealized population in which individuals mate at random. The frequency of hermaphroditic strains was 20 % of the total population. N ( e ) for mating type was 89 % of the count (total population) and the N ( e ) for male or hermaphrodite status was 55 %. The number of isolates that can function as the female parent limited N ( e ) in the examined population. Under equilibrium cycle, assuming that female fertility has been lost due to selection and mutation rate during asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction needed to occur only once per 40 to 118 asexual generations to maintain this level of sexual fertility. PMID:21503672

Venturini, Giovanni; Assante, Gemma; Toffolatti, Silvia L; Vercesi, Annamaria

2011-08-01

136

Courtship and mating in Heterometrus petersii (Thorell, 1876 (Scorpiones: Scorpionidae.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Courtship and mating in Heterometrus petersii (Thorell, 1876 (Scorpiones: Scorpionidae was observed in the laboratory. In this paper the behavior components displayed in courtship and mating are identified, analyzed and discussed.

Jiao, Guo-Bin

2009-06-01

137

No evidence for size-assortative mating in the wild despite mutual mate choice in sex-role-reversed pipefishes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Size-assortative mating is a nonrandom association of body size between members of mating pairs and is expected to be common in species with mutual preferences for body size. In this study, we investigated whether there is direct evidence for size-assortative mating in two species of pipefishes, Syngnathus floridae and S. typhle, that share the characteristics of male pregnancy, sex-role reversal, and a polygynandrous mating system. We take advantage of microsatellite-based "genetic-capture" techniques to match wild-caught females with female genotypes reconstructed from broods of pregnant males and use these data to explore patterns of size-assortative mating in these species. We also develop a simulation model to explore how positive, negative, and antagonistic preferences of each sex for body size affect size-assortative mating. Contrary to expectations, we were unable to find any evidence of size-assortative mating in either species at different geographic locations or at different sampling times. Furthermore, two traits that potentially confer a fitness advantage in terms of reproductive success, female mating order and number of eggs transferred per female, do not affect pairing patterns in the wild. Results from model simulations demonstrate that strong mating preferences are unlikely to explain the observed patterns of mating in the studied populations. Our study shows that individual mating preferences, as ascertained by laboratory-based mating trials, can be decoupled from realized patterns of mating in the wild, and therefore, field studies are also necessary to determine actual patterns of mate choice in nature. We conclude that this disconnect between preferences and assortative mating is likely due to ecological constraints and multiple mating that may limit mate choice in natural populations. PMID:24455162

Mobley, Kenyon B; Abou Chakra, Maria; Jones, Adam G

2014-01-01

138

Using probability modelling and genetic parentage assignment to test the role of local mate availability in mating system variation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The formal testing of mating system theories with empirical data is important for evaluating the relative importance of different processes in shaping mating systems in wild populations. Here, we present a generally applicable probability modelling framework to test the role of local mate availability in determining a population's level of genetic monogamy. We provide a significance test for detecting departures in observed mating patterns from model expectations based on mate availability alone, allowing the presence and direction of behavioural effects to be inferred. The assessment of mate availability can be flexible and in this study it was based on population density, sex ratio and spatial arrangement. This approach provides a useful tool for (1) isolating the effect of mate availability in variable mating systems and (2) in combination with genetic parentage analyses, gaining insights into the nature of mating behaviours in elusive species. To illustrate this modelling approach, we have applied it to investigate the variable mating system of the mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus cunninghami) and compared the model expectations with the outcomes of genetic parentage analysis over an 18-year study. The observed level of monogamy was higher than predicted under the model. Thus, behavioural traits, such as mate guarding or selective mate choice, may increase the population level of monogamy. We show that combining genetic parentage data with probability modelling can facilitate an improved understanding of the complex interactions between behavioural adaptations and demographic dynamics in driving mating system variation. PMID:21899620

Blyton, Michaela D J; Banks, Sam C; Peakall, Rod; Lindenmayer, David B

2012-02-01

139

Inversion of the chromosomal region between two mating type loci switches the mating type in Hansenula polymorpha.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yeast mating type is determined by the genotype at the mating type locus (MAT). In homothallic (self-fertile) Saccharomycotina such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluveromyces lactis, high-efficiency switching between a and ? mating types enables mating. Two silent mating type cassettes, in addition to an active MAT locus, are essential components of the mating type switching mechanism. In this study, we investigated the structure and functions of mating type genes in H. polymorpha (also designated as Ogataea polymorpha). The H. polymorpha genome was found to harbor two MAT loci, MAT1 and MAT2, that are ?18 kb apart on the same chromosome. MAT1-encoded ?1 specifies ? cell identity, whereas none of the mating type genes were required for a identity and mating. MAT1-encoded ?2 and MAT2-encoded a1 were, however, essential for meiosis. When present in the location next to SLA2 and SUI1 genes, MAT1 or MAT2 was transcriptionally active, while the other was repressed. An inversion of the MAT intervening region was induced by nutrient limitation, resulting in the swapping of the chromosomal locations of two MAT loci, and hence switching of mating type identity. Inversion-deficient mutants exhibited severe defects only in mating with each other, suggesting that this inversion is the mechanism of mating type switching and homothallism. This chromosomal inversion-based mechanism represents a novel form of mating type switching that requires only two MAT loci. PMID:25412462

Maekawa, Hiromi; Kaneko, Yoshinobu

2014-11-01

140

Progress of the Mars Array Technology Experiment (MATE) on the 2001 Lander  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA is planning missions to Mars every two years until 2010, these missions will rely on solar power. Sunlight on the surface of Mars is altered by airborne dust and fluctuates from day to day. The MATE flight experiment was designed to evaluate solar cell performance and will fly on the Mars 2001 surveyor Lander as part of the Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor (MIP) package. MATE will measure several solar cell technologies and characterize the Martian environment's solar power. This will be done by measuring full IV curvers on solar cells, direct and global insolation, temperature, and spectral content. The lander is scheduled to launch in April 2001 and arrive on Mars in January of 2002. The site location has not been identified but will be near the equator, is a powered landing, and is baselined for 90 sols. The intent of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the MATE experiment and progress to date. The MATE Development Unit (DU) hardware has been built and has completed testing, work is beginning in the Qualification Unit which will start testing later this year, Flight Hardware is to be delivered next spring.

Scheiman, David A.; Baraona, Cosmo; Wilt, Dave; Jenkins, Phil; Krasowski, Michael; Greer, Lawrence; Lekki, John; Spina, Daniel; Landis, Geoff

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Mating Type Switching in the Tetrapolar Basidiomycete Agrocybe Aegerita  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study of fruiting in the basidiomycete Agrocybe aegerita has shown that some haploid homokaryotic strains can spontaneously switch their mating specificities at the two unlinked A and B mating type factors. This event causes the dikaryotisation of primary homokaryons without plasmogamy and leads to the differentiation of sporulating fruit-bodies (pseudo-homokaryotic fruiting). For each mating type factor, the genetic analyses have revealed that: (1) parental and switched mating types segr...

Labarere, J.; Noel, T.

1992-01-01

142

On the origin of species by means of assortative mating.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Assortative mating may split a population even in the absence of natural selection. Here, we study when this happens if mating depends on one or two quantitative traits. Not surprisingly, the modes of assortative mating that can cause sympatric speciation without selection are rather strict. However, some of them may occur in nature. Slow elimination of intermediate individuals caused by the gradual tightening of assortative mating, which evolves owing to relatively weak disruptive selection,...

Kondrashov, A. S.; Shpak, M.

1998-01-01

143

Simple heuristics as equilibrium strategies in mutual sequential mate search  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we study whether simple heuristics can arise as equilibrium strategies in mutual sequential mate search. To this aim, we extend the mate search model of Todd and Miller (1999), involving an adolescence (learning) phase followed by an actual mating phase, to a strategic game where the players, as the individuals in the mating population, choose before starting the adolescence phase, the best rule - among the four available search (aspiration adjustment) rules - to maximize t...

Saglam, Ismail

2013-01-01

144

The role of male contest competition over mates in speciation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research on the role of sexual selection in the speciation process largely focuses on the diversifying role of mate choice. In particular, much attention has been drawn to the fact that population divergence in mate choice and in the male traits subject to choice directly can lead to assortative mating. However, male contest competition over mates also constitutes an important mechanism of sexual selection. We review recent empirical studies and argue that sexual selection through male contes...

Anna Qvarnstro?m, Niclas Vallin

2012-01-01

145

AA, mating of BST magnet halves  

CERN Multimedia

The AA had 2 types of bending magnets: BLG (window-frame,long and narrow) and BST (H-type, short and wide). The BST had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the mating of two BST halves.

1980-01-01

146

Mating triggers dynamic immune regulations in wood ant queens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mating can affect female immunity in multiple ways. On the one hand, the immune system may be activated by pathogens transmitted during mating, sperm and seminal proteins, or wounds inflicted by males. On the other hand, immune defences may also be down-regulated to reallocate resources to reproduction. Ants are interesting models to study post-mating immune regulation because queens mate early in life, store sperm for many years, and use it until their death many years later, while males typically die after mating. This long-term commitment between queens and their mates limits the opportunity for sexual conflict but raises the new constraint of long-term sperm survival. In this study, we examine experimentally the effect of mating on immunity in wood ant queens. Specifically, we compared the phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of mated and virgin Formica paralugubris queens. Queens had reduced levels of active phenoloxidase after mating, but elevated antibacterial activity 7 days after mating. These results indicate that the process of mating, dealation and ovary activation triggers dynamic patterns of immune regulation in ant queens that probably reflect functional responses to mating and pathogen exposure that are independent of sexual conflict. PMID:19170815

Castella, G; Christe, P; Chapuisat, M

2009-03-01

147

MATING DESIGNS: HELPFUL TOOL FOR QUANTITATIVE PLANT BREEDING ANALYSIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Selection of parental materials and good mating designs in conventional plant breeding are the keys to the successful plant breeding programme. However, there are several factors affecting the choices of mating designs. Mating design refers to the procedure of producing the progenies, in plant breeding, plant breeders and geneticists, theoretically and practically, they use diff...

Athanase Nduwumuremyi; Pangirayi Tongoona; Slyvestre Habimana

2013-01-01

148

Multiple mating and sequential mate choice in guppies: females trade up.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The trade-up hypothesis outlines a behavioural strategy that females could use to maximize the genetic benefits to their offspring. The hypothesis proposes that females should be more willing to accept a mate when the new male encountered is a superior genetic source to previous mates. We provide a direct test of the trade-up hypothesis using guppies (Poecilia reticulata), and evaluate both behavioural and paternity data. Virgin female guppies were presented sequentially with two males of var...

Pitcher, Trevor E.; Neff, Bryan D.; Rodd, F. Helen; Rowe, Locke

2003-01-01

149

Mating choice of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of male ageing on mating success  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of male ageing on male pheromone release and mating success of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The effects of male ageing on mating were evaluated on fi ve and 21 d-old males by assessing their mating success (males chosen by a female for copulation) and the amount of males releasing the sex pheromone. The mating success was evaluated by using several ratios of young to older males by increasing the number of older males:young males from 1:1 to 5:1. The mating success of the 1:1 ratio was also evaluated in fi eld cages. The evaluation of the mating success (in the 1:1 ratio) showed a clear preference of the females for young males. Sex pheromone emission was much more common on young than older males. Even in cases were older males were more abundant (ratios 2:1 and 3:1), females still chose the young males. However, females could not distinguish young from older males in ratios of 4:1 or 5:1. Our data indicate that the ageing of C. capitata males has a considerable negative effect on their reproductive success, especially if they are found in a proportion any lower than 3:1. (author)

150

Distinct and redundant roles of exonucleases in Cryptococcus neoformans: Implications for virulence and mating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Opportunistic pathogens like Cryptococcus neoformans are constantly exposed to changing environments, in their natural habitat as well as when encountering a human host. This requires a coordinated program to regulate gene expression that can act at the levels of mRNA synthesis and also mRNA degradation. Here, we find that deletion of the gene encoding the major cytoplasmic 5'?3' exonuclease Xrn1p in C. neoformans has important consequences for virulence associated phenotypes such as growth at 37°C, capsule and melanin. In an invertebrate model of cryptococcosis the alteration of these virulence properties corresponds to avirulence of the xrn1? mutant strains. Additionally, deletion of XRN1 impairs uni- and bisexual mating. On a molecular level, the absence of XRN1 is associated with the upregulation of other major exonuclease encoding genes (i.e. XRN2 and RRP44). Using inducible alleles of RRP44 and XRN2, we show that artificial overexpression of these genes alters LAC1 gene expression and mating. Our data thus suggest the existence of a complex interdependent regulation of exonuclease encoding genes that impact upon virulence and mating in C. neoformans. PMID:25267175

Wollschlaeger, Carolin; Trevijano-Contador, Nuria; Wang, Xuying; Legrand, Mélanie; Zaragoza, Oscar; Heitman, Joseph; Janbon, Guilhem

2014-12-01

151

Aedes albopictus (Skuse) males in laboratory and semi-field cages: release ratios and mating competitiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

To control the container-breeding mosquito and major vector of dengue and chikungunya Aedes albopictus, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is proposed as a component of integrated vector management programs in endemic areas. For the technique to be successful, released males, sterilized with 35 Gy of ionizing radiation during the pupal stage, must be able to compete for mating opportunities with wild counterparts and successfully copulate with wild females to induce sterility in the population. Any reduction in competitiveness can be compensated for by increasing the ratio of released sterile to wild males, a ratio which must be optimized for effectiveness and efficiency. Fruit fly SIT programs use field enclosures to test the competitiveness of sterile males to monitor the quality of the colony and adjust release ratios. This is laborious and time consuming, and for mosquito programs it would be advantageous if similarly useful results could be obtained by smaller scale laboratory tests, conducted on a more regular basis. In the present study we compared the competitiveness, as measured by hatching rate of resulting egg batches, of irradiated males measured in small and large laboratory cages and semi-field enclosures in a greenhouse setting, when competing in a 1:1, 3:1, and 5:1 ratio with fertile males. The sterile males were found to be equally competitive when compared to unirradiated counterparts, and a 5:1 ratio was sufficient to reduce, but not eliminate, the fertility of the female populations, irrespective of cage size. Variability in hatch rate in eggs laid by individual females and so-called indeterminate matings, when we could not be certain whether a female had mated a fertile or a sterile male, could be investigated by closer investigation of mating status and the frequency of multiple matings in Ae. albopictus. The laboratory results are encouraging for the effectiveness of the SIT using irradiated males of this species, and we support further assessment in the field. PMID:24299924

Madakacherry, Odessa; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Gilles, Jeremie Roger Lionel

2014-04-01

152

Why do female Callosobruchus maculatus kick their mates?  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other's matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs) was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings. PMID:24752530

van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B; Simmons, Leigh W

2014-01-01

153

The mating sociometer and attractive others: a double-edged sword in romantic relationships.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighty-one participants were recruited to test the sensitivity of the mating sociometer to mate-value feedback in the context of ongoing intimate relationships. Experiences of social rejection/acceptance by attractive opposite-sex confederates were manipulated. The effects of this manipulation on self-esteem, relationship satisfaction and commitment, perceptions of dating alternatives, and friendship-dedication were assessed. Social rejection/acceptance by members of the opposite sex altered relationship satisfaction and commitment; this causal link was amplified by changes in state self-esteem; and these effects were specific to intimate relationships and did not generalize to friendship-dedication. This research supports a domain-specific conceptualization of sociometer theory, extending the theory in important directions. PMID:24765818

Kavanagh, Phillip Sean; Fletcher, Garth J O; Ellis, Bruce J

2014-01-01

154

Mating strategy, disgust, and food neophobia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food neophobia and disgust are commonly thought to be linked, but this hypothesis is typically implicitly assumed rather than directly tested. Evidence for the connection has been based on conceptually and empirically unsound measures of disgust, unpublished research, and indirect findings. This study (N?=?283) provides the first direct evidence of a relationship between trait-level food neophobia and trait-level pathogen disgust. Unexpectedly, we also found that food neophobia varies as a function of sexual disgust and is linked to mating strategy. Using an evolutionary framework, we propose a novel hypothesis that may account for these previously undiscovered findings: the food neophilia as mating display hypothesis. Our discussion centers on future research directions for discriminatively testing this novel hypothesis. PMID:25450899

Al-Shawaf, Laith; Lewis, David M G; Alley, Thomas R; Buss, David M

2015-02-01

155

Multiple benefits of multiple mating in guppies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rewards of promiscuity for males are undisputed. But why should a female mate promiscuously, particularly when her partners offer no resources other than sperm and increase her chances of succumbing to predation or disease? This question has been hotly debated but at present remains largely unresolved [Jennions, M. D. & Petrie, M. (2000) Biol. Rev. 75, 21–64]. One possibility is that females exploit postcopulatory mechanisms, such as sperm competition, to increase both the quality and q...

Evans, J. P.; Magurran, A. E.

2000-01-01

156

Incidence of "mate" drinking in Theophylline therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible incidence in the dosage adjustment of Theophylline. An in vivo study was carried out with 6 healthy volunteers after the administration of an infusion of "mate herb" for a period of 7 days. Plasma Theophilline and Caffeine levels were analysed by high performance iiquid chromatography (HLPC), revealing the formation of Theophylline as a metabolism product of Caffeine. The analysis of the infusion showed presence of Caffeine and Theobromine, bu...

Paysse?, Helena; Orosa, Elsa; Fagiolino, Pietro

1991-01-01

157

Mating type switching in the tetrapolar basidiomycete Agrocybe aegerita.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of fruiting in the basidiomycete Agrocybe aegerita has shown that some haploid homokaryotic strains can spontaneously switch their mating specificities at the two unlinked A and B mating type factors. This event causes the dikaryotisation of primary homokaryons without plasmogamy and leads to the differentiation of sporulating fruit-bodies (pseudo-homokaryotic fruiting). For each mating type factor, the genetic analyses have revealed that: (1) parental and switched mating types segregate meiotically as Mendelian markers, (2) a total of six switched mating type factors (two parental and four nonparental) were obtained from a wild strain, (3) most of the nonparental factors have specificities differing from those of a large series of wild factors, (4) strains with the same expressed mating type can generate different specificities, (5) switching is always restricted to the same mating type in a homokaryon, (6) nonparental types can switch again, and (7) meiosis fixes the specificities to which switching can occur. This suggests, for the first time in filamentous fungi, the existence of a mechanism analogous to the mating type switching in yeasts. We hypothese that both A and B mating type regions in A. aegerita are constituted of three loci, one specialized in expression and two other carrying silent information. Mating type switching in homokaryotic strains would occur by copy transposition of silent A and B information into the expression loci. Moreover, we propose that during meiosis the silent loci are substituted by copies of the expressed loci. PMID:1644274

Labarère, J; Noël, T

1992-06-01

158

Male mate preferences in mutual mate choice: finches modulate their songs across and within male-female interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Male songbirds use song to advertise their attractiveness as potential mates, and the properties of those songs have a powerful influence on female mate preferences. One idea is that males may exert themselves maximally in each song performance, consistent with female evaluation and formation of mate preferences being the primary contributors to mate choice. Alternatively, males may modulate their song behaviour to different degrees in the presence of different females, consistent with both male and female mate preferences contributing to mutual mate choice. Here we consider whether male Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata domestica, express mate preferences at the level of individual females, and whether those preferences are manifest as changes in song behaviour that are sufficient to influence female mate choice. We tested this idea by recording songs performed by individual unmated males during a series of 1 h interactions with each of many unmated females. Across recording sessions, males systematically varied both the quantity and the quality of the songs that they performed to different females. Males also varied their song properties throughout the course of each interaction, and behavioural tests using female birds revealed that songs performed at the onset of each interaction were significantly more attractive than songs performed by the same male later during the same interaction. This demonstration of context-specific variation in the properties of male reproductive signals and a role for that variation in shaping female mate preference reveals that male mate preferences play an important role in mutual mate choice in this species. Because these birds thrive so well in the laboratory and are so amenable to observation and experimentation across generations, these results yield a new model system that may prove especially advantageous in disentangling the role of male and female mate preferences in shaping mutual mate choice and its long-term benefits or consequences. PMID:25242817

Heinig, Abbie; Pant, Santosh; Dunning, Jeffery; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

2014-10-01

159

Exceptionally high levels of multiple mating in an army ant  

Science.gov (United States)

Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, although there are notable exceptions. Competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of high levels of multiple mating, but this issue is far from resolved. Here we use microsatellites to investigate mating frequency in the army ant Eciton burchellii and show that queens mate with an exceptionally large number of males, eclipsing all but one other social insect species for which data are available. In addition we present evidence that suggests that mating is serial, continuing throughout the lifetime of the queen. This is the first demonstration of serial mating among social hymenoptera. We propose that high paternity within colonies is most likely to have evolved to increase genetic diversity and to counter high pathogen and parasite loads.

Denny, A. Jay; Franks, Nigel R.; Powell, Scott; Edwards, Keith J.

160

Homothallic and heterothallic mating in the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans, causing both debilitating mucosal infections and potentially life-threatening systemic infections1,2. Until recently, C. albicans was thought to be strictly asexual, existing only as an obligate diploid. A cryptic mating cycle has since been uncovered in which diploid a and ? cells undergo efficient cell and nuclear fusion, resulting in tetraploid a/? mating products (refs. 3–6). Whereas mating between a and ? cells has been ...

Alby, Kevin; Schaefer, Dana; Bennett, Richard J.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Multiple mating and reproductive skew in Trinidadian guppies.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Male offspring production in promiscuously mating species is typically more skewed than female offspring production. It is therefore advantageous for males to seek as many mating partners as possible. However, given the documented benefits of polyandry we expect females, as well as males, to mate multiply. We tested these ideas using Trinidadian guppies, Poecilia reticulata. Fishes were collected from the wild, housed in groups of 10 males and 10 females and allowed to reproduce freely over a...

Becher, S. A.; Magurran, A. E.

2004-01-01

162

Both Geography and Ecology Contribute to Mating Isolation in Guppies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Local adaptation to different environments can promote mating isolation – either as an incidental by-product of trait divergence, or as a result of selection to avoid maladaptive mating. Numerous recent empirical examples point to the common influence of divergent natural selection on speciation based largely on evidence of strong pre-mating isolation between populations from different habitat types. Accumulating evidence for natural selection's influence on speciation is therefore no longe...

Schwartz, Amy K.; Weese, Dylan J.; Bentzen, Paul; Kinnison, Michael T.; Hendry, Andrew P.

2010-01-01

163

Sexual Display and Mate Choice in an Energetically Costly Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sexual displays and mate choice often take place under the same set of environmental conditions and, as a consequence, may be exposed to the same set of environmental constraints. Surprisingly, however, very few studies consider the effects of environmental costs on sexual displays and mate choice simultaneously. We conducted an experiment, manipulating water flow in large flume tanks, to examine how an energetically costly environment might affect the sexual display and mate choice behavior ...

Head, Megan L.; Wong, Bob B. M.; Brooks, Robert

2010-01-01

164

Romantic love: a mammalian brain system for mate choice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mammals and birds regularly express mate preferences and make mate choices. Data on mate choice among mammals suggest that this behavioural ‘attraction system’ is associated with dopaminergic reward pathways in the brain. It has been proposed that intense romantic love, a human cross-cultural universal, is a developed form of this attraction system. To begin to determine the neural mechanisms associated with romantic attraction in humans, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMR...

Fisher, Helen E.; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy L.

2006-01-01

165

Courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Lourenço & Qi, 2005 (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae) from Xizang province, China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the current work, the courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Lourenço & Qi, 2005 (Euscorpiidae) from Xizang province (Tibet), China, were studied for the first time in the laboratory. Most of the mating behaviors in Scorpiops luridus are not remarkably different from those exhibited by oth [...] er scorpions. However, for the first time a male pulling a female with its chelicerae to rapidly accomplish the sperm uptake was observed. Additionally, the sexual stinging behavior displayed by the male occurred in the initial stage, not during the promenade stage as previously described in several scorpion species. Through observation and analysis, we speculate that venom injection during sexual stinging is selective, possibly relying on the status shown by the stung scorpion (passive or aggressive). In order to clearly describe the process of courtship and mating, both sequences are represented in a flow chart, while the main behavior components of these processes were identified, analyzed and discussed.

GB, Jiao; MS, Zhu.

166

Male Mating Strategies through Manipulation of Female-perceived Predation Risk: A Minireview and a Hypothesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this minireview we focus on how males may exploit female’s sensitivity to predation risk in thecontext of mating. It has been shown in studies on guppies and jumping spiders that in response to alteredfemale behaviors, which are adaptations to the unfavorable environment and a consequence of females’ highersensitivity to predator’s presence as well as females’ higher predation risk, males can adopt condition-dependentmating tactics. It appears that in such cases males do not modify their reproductive behavior directly in responseto their own perception of predation risk, but indirectly in response to changes in female behavior induced bypredator presence. It has also been recently shown in crabs that males can exploit female behavior by creatingsafer habitat spots, which increases the male mating success. Hence all the evidence suggests that males notonly respond to female sensitivity to the natural variation in predation risk, but that males can also exploit femalebehavior by altering the environment. As a logical extension of these findings, we present a hypothesis that incertain conditions males can manipulate the environment in order to increase the predation risk and to inducefemale behaviors that enhance the male’s mating success with the increased predation risk. We propose thatsuch a manipulation to increase predation risk is expected to evolve in males of species with a strong sexualconflict and female-biased predation risk. Although empirical evidence has not been yet shown, initialobservations in a water strider species in Korea, Gerris gracilicornis, seem to support this hypothesis.

Han, Chang S

2008-02-01

167

Social discrimination of cage-mates and non-cage-mates by rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to discriminate between group-mates and non-group-mates likely underpins the occurrence of affiliative and aggressive behaviour towards 'in-group' and 'out-group' individuals. Here we present two experiments aimed at testing the ability of rats (Rattus norvegicus) to discriminate between cage-mate (CM: animals residing in the subject's home cage) and non-cage-mate (NCM) conspecifics. In experiment 1, rats were trained to discriminate between different exemplars of CM and NCM using a lever pressing task employing symmetrical reinforcement. Subjects did not reach performance criterion, but they did show some evidence of discrimination between the two types of stimuli. In experiment 2, we employed a digging task to determine if rats can discriminate between odour cues from CM and NCM presented simultaneously on two sand-filled bowls. Subjects reached performance criterion on the first pair of odours, and on three more different pairs of CM and NCM odours. The results of a reversal task, using a fifth pair of odours, indicate that the rats were using a common factor to discriminate between social cues from CM and NCM conspecifics, rather than learning each pair independently. Possible candidates include a group-specific odour cue, or the development of a CM/NCM category concept. PMID:24878518

Jones, Samantha; Burman, Oliver; Mendl, Michael

2014-07-01

168

On classical and quantum error-correction in ciliate mate selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ciliated protozoa sensing pheromones secreted from nonself mating types engage in preconjugal "courtship" dances and contacts. Using simulated "social" trials, I recently showed the heterotrich ciliate, Spirostomum ambiguum, can learn to advertise degrees of mating fitness to "suitors" and "rivals" when serially contracting or (ciliary) reversing at variable rates. Conspicuous consumers signal higher quality reproductive status by playing "harder-to-get" via metabolically wasteful avoidance displays that hinder the exchange of preconjugal touches between "courting" couples. Conversely, prudent savers conserve energy pending situations more favorable for conjugating a partner. These ciliates reply with lower avoidance frequencies, guaranteeing nearby conspecifics of being "easier-to-get". By deciding to switch from behavioral strategies signaling conspicuous consumption to those signaling prudent savings, fitter ciliates learn to altruistically sacrifice net payoffs and persuade suitors to participate in paired reproduction. Less fit ciliates, unable to sustain long periods of high response rates, switch their behavioral strategies of prudent savings to briefly emit conspicuous consumption and thus learn to opportunistically cheat superior rivals. Mating competency depends, in part, on the efficiency of heuristics formed from recursive strategy searches and use. Heuristics represent stored patterns of action which evolve into ordered computational networks supporting entire courting repertoires. As ciliates expand signaling skills over many trials, the connectivity between strategies strengthens from Hebbian-like learning, leading to faster decisions about the appropriateness of courting messages and replies. The best experts master signaling decisions at efficiencies comparable to finding target solutions from superposed states with Grover's quantum search algorithm. I here append these findings with a critique on the feasibility of serial behavioral strategies to perfect ciliate mate selection via classical repetition and quantum bit-flip error-correction codes that safeguard transmitted social information from noise and might be exploited for signal encryption. PMID:20798831

Clark, Kevin B

2010-07-01

169

Progress of the Mars Array Technology Experiment (MATE) on the '01 Lander  

Science.gov (United States)

Future missions to Mars will rely heavily on solar power from the sun, various solar cell types and structures must be evaluated to find the optimum. Sunlight on the surface of Mars is altered by air-borne dust that fluctuates in density from day to day. The dust affects both the intensity and spectral content of the sunlight. The MATE flight experiment was designed for this purpose and will fly on the Mars 2001 Surveyor Lander as part of the Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor (MIP) package. MATE will measure the performance of several solar cell technologies and characterize the Martian environment in terms of solar power. This will be done by measuring full IV curves on solar cells, direct and global insolation, temperature, and spectral content. The Lander is is scheduled to launch in April 2001 and arrive on Mars in January of 2002. The site location has not been identified but will be near the equator and last from 100 to 300 days. The intent of this of this paper is to describe and update the progress on MATE. MATE has four main objectives for its mission to Mars. First is to measure the performance of solar cells daily on the surface of Mars, this will determine the day to day fluctuations in sunlight and temperature and provide a nominal power output. Second, in addition to measuring solar cell performance, it will allow for an intercomparison of different solar cell technologies. Third, It will study the long term effects of dust on the solar cells. Fourth and last, it will characterize the mars environment as viewed by the solar cell, measuring spectrum, insolation, and temperature. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Scheiman, D. A.; Baraona, C. R.; Jenkins, P.; Wilt, D.; Krasowski, M.; Greer, L.; Lekki, J.; Spina, D.

1999-01-01

170

Embryonic mortality in buffalo naturally mated  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the incidence of embryonic mortality in three different period of year in buffaloes naturally mated. The trial was carried out in a buffalo farm located in Caserta province between 2000-2006. In this period were registered natural insemination on 200 buffaloes. Pregnancy diagnosis was carried out on Day 30, confirmed on Day 45 and every 15th days until 90 days after natural mating. Buffaloes that were pregnant on Day 30 but not on Day 45 or Day 90 were considered to have undergone embryonic (EM or fetal mortality (FM respectively. EM and FM were 8.8% and 13.4% respectively throughout the experimental period. A high incidence (P<0.01 of FM was found in the transitional period (December-March than in other months of the year. The incidence of embryonic mortality was significantly (P<0.01 higher between 28-60 days of gestation and lower after 71 day of gestation. The higher fetal mortality found in this study could be due the lower serum levels of progesterone normally found in transitional period in buffalo cows.

G. Campanile

2010-02-01

171

Effect of potassium fertilization on yield and nutrition of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) / Produção e nutrição da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) influenciadas pela adubação potássica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis), espécie arbórea nativa das regiões subtropicais da América do Sul, ocorre no Brasil predominantemente na Região Sul. Apesar da histórica importância da cultura nessa região, até o momento, raros foram os trabalhos realizados sobre sua nutrição no intuito de melhora [...] r a produtividade. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a influência de doses de K e sua disponibilidade no solo, na produtividade e no estado nutricional da erva-mate. O experimento foi conduzido em São Mateus do Sul, PR, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro álico, onde se avaliaram as doses 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 e 320 kg ha-1 de K2O em cultivo com sete anos de idade. A colheita, 24 meses após a instalação do experimento, consistiu na remoção de aproximadamente 95 % da copa, que brotou da colheita anterior. Avaliou-se, no solo, a disponibilidade de K nas profundidades de 0-10, 0-20, 10-20 e 20-40 cm. Na planta, avaliaram-se a massa verde de folhas (FO), galhos finos (GF), galhos grossos (GG) e erva-mate comercial (ECOM), correspondente a FO+GF. Foi, também, avaliada a relação entre massa verde/massa seca (MV/MS) e o teor de K nas FO, GF e GG. A adubação elevou a disponibilidade de K em todas as camadas do solo avaliadas, indicando boa mobilidade do nutriente mesmo em pequenas doses. A erva-mate respondeu positivamente ao aumento das doses de K2O, com incremento da produtividade de todos os componentes colhidos. A cultura evidenciou-se exigente em K, tendo a máxima produção de ECOM de 28,5 t ha-1, quando a disponibilidade do nutriente no solo, na camada de 0-20 cm, era de 72 mg dm-3. A erva-mate em fase de produção requer disponibilidade de K no solo entre o nível médio a alto, e, em solo argiloso e com baixo teor de K disponível, a dose de 300 kg ha-1de K2O deve ser aplicada em intervalo de 24 meses para obtenção de alta produtividade. O teor de K foliar de 16,0 g kg-1 é adequado para a cultura da erva-mate em fase de produção. Abstract in english Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a tree species native to the subtropical regions of South America, and is found in Brazil predominantly in the southern region. Despite the historical importance in this region, so far, studies on crop nutrition to improve yields are scarce. Thus, this study evalu [...] ated the effect of potassium rates on K soil availability, and the yield and nutritional status of yerba mate. The experiment was conducted in São Mateus do Sul, State of Paraná, on a Humox soil, where K2O rates of 0, 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 kg ha-1 were tested on 7-year-old plantations. The experiment was harvested 24 months after installation by removing approximately 95 % of the canopy that had sprouted from the previous harvest. The soil was evaluated for K availability in the layers 0-10, 0-20, 10-20, and 20-40 cm. The plant parts leaf fresh matter (LM), twigs (TW), thick branches (BR) and commercial yerba mate (COYM), i.e., LM+TW, were analyzed. In addition, the relationship between fresh matter/dry matter (FM/DM) and K concentration in LM, AG and BR were evaluated. The fertilization increased K availability in all evaluated soil layers, indicating good mobility of the nutrient even at low rates. Yerba mate responded positively to increasing K2O rates with higher yields of all harvested components. The crop proved K-demanding, with a maximum COYM yield of 28.5 t ha-1, when 72 mg dm-3 K was available in the 0-20 cm layer. Yerba mate in the plant production stage requires soil K availability at medium to high level; in clayey soil with low K availability, a rate of 300 kg ha-1 K2O should be applied at 24 month intervals to obtain high yields. A leaf K concentration of 16.0 g ha-1 is suitable for yerba mate in the growth stage.

Delmar, Santin; Eliziane Luiza, Benedetti; Nairam Félix de, Barros; Igor Carvalho de, Almeida; Greice Pereira, Leal; Lucas, Fontes; Júlio César Lima, Neves; Ivar, Wendling; Carlos Bruno, Reissmann.

1469-14-01

172

Male inbreeding status affects female fitness in a seed-feeding beetle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inbreeding generally reduces male mating activity such that inbred males are less successful in male-male competition. Inbred males can also have smaller accessory glands, transfer less sperm and produce sperm that are less motile, less viable or have a greater frequency of abnormalities, all of which can reduce the fertilization success and fitness of inbred males relative to outbred males. However, few studies have examined how male inbreeding status affects the fitness of females with whom they mate. In this study, we examine the effect of male inbreeding status (inbreeding coefficient f = 0.25 vs. f = 0) on the fecundity, adult longevity and the fate of eggs produced by outbred females in the seed-feeding beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Females mated to inbred males were less likely to lay eggs. Of those that laid eggs, females mated to inbred males laid 6-12% fewer eggs. Females mated to inbred males lived on average 5.4% longer than did females mated to outbred males, but this effect disappeared when lifetime fecundity was used as a covariate in the analysis. There was no effect of male inbreeding status on the proportion of a female's eggs that developed or hatched, and no evidence that inbred males produced smaller nuptial gifts. However, ejaculates of inbred males contained 17-33% fewer sperm, on average, than did ejaculates of outbred males. Our study demonstrates that mating with inbred males has significant direct consequences for the fitness of female C. maculatus, likely mediated by effects of inbreeding status on the number of sperm in male ejaculates. Direct effects of male inbreeding status on female fitness should be more widely considered in theoretical models and empirical studies of mate choice. PMID:21995954

Fox, Charles W; Xu, J; Wallin, W G; Curtis, C L

2012-01-01

173

Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera)  

Science.gov (United States)

Males of the honeybee ( Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen’s visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F. A.

2010-03-01

174

Mating does not influence reproductive investment, in a viviparous lizard.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mating is crucial for females that reproduce exclusively sexually and should influence their investment into reproduction. Although reproductive adjustments in response to mate quality have been tested in a wide range of species, the effect of exposure to males and mating per se has seldom been studied. Compensatory mechanisms against the absence of mating may evolve more frequently in viviparous females, which pay higher direct costs of reproduction, due to gestation, than oviparous females. To test the existence of such mechanisms in a viviparous species, we experimentally manipulated the mating opportunity of viviparous female lizard, Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara. We assessed the effect of mating on ovulation, postpartum body condition and parturition date, as well as on changes in locomotor performances and body temperatures during the breeding cycle. Female lizards ovulated spontaneously and mating had no influence on litter size, locomotor impairment or on selected body temperature. However, offspring production induced a more pronounced locomotor impairment and physical burden than the production of undeveloped eggs. Postpartum body condition and parturition dates were not different among females. This result suggests that gestation length is not determined by an embryonic signal. In the common lizard, viviparity is not associated with facultative ovulation and a control of litter size after ovulation, in response to the absence of mating. PMID:21732546

Bleu, Josefa; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Meylan, Sandrine; Massot, Manuel; Fitze, Patrick S

2011-10-01

175

Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones (Apis mellifera).  

Science.gov (United States)

Males of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen's visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens. PMID:20012931

Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F A

2010-03-01

176

A novel case of canine disseminated aspergillosis following mating  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An intact bitch with a history of mating was presented with severe lameness and a vulvar discharge. A mixed lytic, proliferative tibial lesion and open pyometra were diagnosed. Bone biopsy and uterine culture revealed disseminated aspergillosis. This is the first report of Aspergillus pyometra with dissemination following mating in the dog.

Walker, Jackson T.; Frazho, Jean K.; Randell, Susan C.

2012-01-01

177

Lifetime Number of Mates Interacts with Female Age to Determine Reproductive Success in Female Guppies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using...

Evans, Jonathan P.

2012-01-01

178

Social vole parents force their mates to baby-sit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parental care has been categorized into direct and indirect investment. The former includes direct contact with the offspring, as in lactation or huddling with the pups, and the latter includes activities such as nest building or hoarding food for the guarding mate. We report here an unfamiliar type of parental behavior in which one parent aggressively forces its mate to stay in the nest with the pups. In this "forced baby-sitting," one parent grasps the fur of its mate and drags it toward the nest. The behavior was observed in 6 of 10 pairs of the social vole (Microtus socilalis guentheri) and was typically executed by the male. Dragging the mate to the nest was not correlated with other parental behaviors; neither could we explain why/when it occurred. However, this behavioral pattern was eye catching, and its goal was obviously to enforce the mate to stay in the nest with the pups. PMID:12325138

Libhaber, Noga; Eilam, David

2002-11-01

179

Effect of {sup 60}CO radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis); Efeito do processamento por radiacao de {sup 60}CO na erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and qualitative profile of bioactive compounds. (author)

Furgeri, Camilo

2009-07-01

180

Effect of {sup 60}Co radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis); Efeito do processamento por radiacao de {sup 60}Co na erva-mate (llex paraguariensis)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10 kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10 kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and qualitative profile of bioactive compounds. (author)

Furgeri, Camilo

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Mating ecology explains patterns of genome elimination  

Science.gov (United States)

Genome elimination – whereby an individual discards chromosomes inherited from one parent, and transmits only those inherited from the other parent – is found across thousands of animal species. It is more common in association with inbreeding, under male heterogamety, in males, and in the form of paternal genome elimination. However, the reasons for this broad pattern remain unclear. We develop a mathematical model to determine how degree of inbreeding, sex determination, genomic location, pattern of gene expression and parental origin of the eliminated genome interact to determine the fate of genome-elimination alleles. We find that: inbreeding promotes paternal genome elimination in the heterogametic sex; this may incur population extinction under female heterogamety, owing to eradication of males; and extinction is averted under male heterogamety, owing to countervailing sex-ratio selection. Thus, we explain the observed pattern of genome elimination. Our results highlight the interaction between mating system, sex-ratio selection and intragenomic conflict. PMID:25328085

Gardner, Andy; Ross, Laura

2014-01-01

182

Optimal mate choice patterns in pelagic copepods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The importance of sexual selection for the evolution, dynamics and adaptation of organisms is well known for many species. However, the topic is rarely studied in marine plankton, the basis of the marine food web. Copepods show behaviors that suggest the existence of sexually selected traits, and recent laboratory experiments identified some selected morphological traits. Here, we use a ‘life history-based’ model of sex roles to determine the optimal choosiness behavior of male and female copepods for important copepod traits. Copepod females are predicted to be choosy at population densities typically occurring during the main breeding season, whereas males are not. The main drivers of this pattern are population density and the difference in non-receptive periods between males and females. This suggests that male reproductive traits have evolved mainly due to mate competition. The model can easily be parameterized for other planktonic organisms, and be used to plan experiments about sexual selection

Heuschele, Jan; Eliassen, Sigrun

2013-01-01

183

Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms  

Science.gov (United States)

The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included.

Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A.

2014-09-01

184

Análisis microbiológico en yerba mate compuesta / Microbiological analysis in composite yerba mate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudiaron 41 muestras de yerba mate compuesta (YMC) de Posadas, Misiones, Argentina: 21 muestras conteniendo menos de 15% de hierbas (YMC15%). El análisis microbiológico se realizó mediante recuentos de bacterias aeróbicas mesófilas totales (BAMT), coliformes totales (CT), coliformes termotolera [...] ntes (CTT), mohos y levaduras (RML) y detección de Escherichia coli. Los recuentos microbiológicos presentaron valores en promedio para YMC15%: BAMT=3,4x106 UFC/g, CT=6.8x102 NMP/g, CTT=3.4 x101 NMP/g y RML=1,0x105 UFC/g. En YMC>15% se detectó Escherichia coli. YMC presenta una importante contaminación microbiana, siendo mayor en YMC>15%. Los parámetros microbiológicos analizados son superiores a los reportados en yerba mate elaborada destacando la importancia de realizar controles microbiológicos en YMC. Abstract in english Forty one samples of composite yerba mate (CYM) from Posadas, Misiones, Argentina were studied: 21 samples containing less than 15% of herbs (CYM 15%). The analysis was performed by microbiological counts of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), total coliforms (TC), coliforms thermotolerant (CT [...] T), moulds and yeasts (MY) and Escherichia coli detection. Microbiological counts showed average values CYM15%: TMAB=3.4x106 CFU/g, TC=6.8x102 MPN/g, NMP CTT=3.4x101 CFU/g and MY=1.0x105 CFU/g. In YMC>15% Escherichia coli was detected. CYM presents significant microbial contamination, being higher in CYM>15%. Microbiological parameters analyzed are higher than those reported in elaborated yerba mate, showing the importance of microbiological controls to CYM.

G, Jerke; M.A, Horianski; S, Bargardi; M.L, Martínez.

2011-06-01

185

Polygyny, mate-guarding, and posthumous fertilization as alternative male mating strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alternative male mating strategies within populations are thought to be evolutionarily stable because different behaviors allow each male type to successfully gain access to females. Although alternative male strategies are widespread among animals, quantitative evidence for the success of discrete male strategies is available for only a few systems. We use nuclear microsatellites to estimate the paternity rates of three male lizard strategies previously modeled as a ...

Zamudio, Kelly R.; Sinervo, Barry

2000-01-01

186

Desenvolvimento de gelatina funcional de erva-mate / Development of functional yerba-mate jelly  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver formulações para gelatina funcional com extrato de erva-mate verde e fibras solúveis como inulina (INU), frutooligossacarídeos (FOS) e a polidextrose (PD), avaliando o efeito desses ingredientes na gelatina funcional por meio da análise física da textura (firm [...] eza, consistência e coesividade), análise sensorial (sabor e preferência de compra) e composição química. As formulações INU, PD e composição INU/PD/FOS apresentaram textura desejável para uma sobremesa de gelatina, não diferindo (P>0,05) do padrão com sacarose. Pela análise sensorial, a gelatina funcional com INU obteve o maior índice hedônico para sabor e preferência de compra acima de 70%, superior ao padrão. Considerando os resultados obtidos neste estudo, a aplicação tecnológica do extrato de erva-mate verde e das fibras solúveis apresenta evidente potencial para o desenvolvimento de alimentos saudáveis e funcionais. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to develop formulations for functional jelly with extract of green yerba-mate and soluble fibers as inulin (INU), fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and polidextrose (PD), evaluating the effect of those ingredients in the functional jelly through texture physical analysis ( [...] firmness, consistence, cohesiveness), sensorial analysis (flavor and purchase preference) and chemical composition. The formulations INU, PD and composition INU/PD/FOS presented desirable texture for jelly dessert and not differing (P>0.05) of the reference standard with sucrose. For the sensorial analysis the functional jelly with INU obtained the largest index hedonic for flavor and purchase preference above 70%, higher than the reference standard. Considering the results obtained in this study, the technological application of green yerba-mate extract and of soluble fibers, presents evident potential for the development of healthy and functional foods.

Kleber Alves Santos, Berté; Dayane Rosalyn, Izidoro; Fabiana Lemos Goularte, Dutra; Rosemary, Hoffmann-Ribani.

2011-02-01

187

The dermatophyte species Arthroderma benhamiae: intraspecies variability and mating behaviour.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arthroderma benhamiae is a zoophilic dermatophyte belonging to the Trichophyton mentagrophytes species complex. Here, a population of A. benhamiae wild strains from the same geographical area (Switzerland) was studied by comparing their morphology, assessing their molecular variability using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 28S rRNA gene sequencing, and evaluating their interfertility. Sequencing of the ITS region and of part of the 28S rRNA gene revealed the existence of two infraspecific groups with markedly different colony phenotypes: white (group I) and yellow (group II), respectively. For all strains, the results of mating type identification by PCR, using HMG (high-mobility group) and ?-box genes in the mating type locus as targets, were in total accordance with the results of mating type identification by strain confrontation experiments. White-phenotype strains were of mating type + (mt+) or mating type - (mt-), whilst yellow-phenotype strains were all mt-. White and yellow strains were found to produce fertile cleistothecia after mating with A. benhamiae reference tester strains, which belonged to a third group intermediate between groups I and II. However, no interfertility was observed between yellow strains and white strains of mt+. A significant result was that white strains of mt- were able to mate and produce fertile cleistothecia with the white A. benhamiae strain CBS 112371 (mt+), the genome of which has recently been sequenced and annotated. This finding should offer new tools for investigating the biology and genetics of dermatophytes using wild-type strains. PMID:23180475

Symoens, Françoise; Jousson, Olivier; Packeu, Ann; Fratti, Marina; Staib, Peter; Mignon, Bernard; Monod, Michel

2013-03-01

188

Post-mating clutch piracy in an amphibian.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female multiple mating and alternative mating systems can decrease the opportunity for sexual selection. Sperm competition is often the outcome of females mating with multiple males and has been observed in many animals, and alternative reproductive systems are widespread among species with external fertilization and parental care. Multiple paternity without associated complex behaviour related to mating or parental care is also seen in simultaneously spawning amphibians and fishes that release gametes into water. Here we report 'clutch piracy' in a montane population of the common frog Rana temporaria, a reproductive behaviour previously unknown in vertebrates with external fertilization. Males of this species clasp the females and the pair deposits one spherical clutch of eggs. No parental care is provided. 'Pirate' males search for freshly laid clutches, clasp them as they would do a female and fertilize the eggs that were left unfertilized by the 'parental' male. This behaviour does not seem to be size-dependent, and some males mate with a female and perform clutch piracy in the same season. Piracy affected 84% of the clutches and in some cases increased the proportion of eggs fertilized, providing direct fitness benefits both for the pirate males and the females. Sexual selection--probably caused by a strong male-biased sex ratio--occurs in this population, as indicated by size-assortative mating; however, clutch piracy may reduce its impact. This provides a good model to explore how alternative mating strategies can affect the intensity of sexual selection. PMID:15372032

Vieites, David R; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Barluenga, Marta; Palanca, Antonio; Vences, Miguel; Meyer, Axel

2004-09-16

189

Effects of irradiation on mating ability of Anoplophora glabripennis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sperm of long horned beetles (LHBs), A. glabripennis, developed into mature form and became active in testes 10-14 days after emergency. A eupyrene sperm and an apyrene sperm combined together forming a normal mature sperm, and the function of apyrene sperm was helping eupyrene sperm to swim. Irradiation had no influences on sperm transfer, but had some negative influences on sperm activity. Under the cage condition, mating frequencies of different mating types were approximately accorded with the value calculated by probability. Released irradiated LHBs effectively suppressed the reproduction of normal LHBs in releasing cage. Irradiation had no evident influences on mating competitive ability of released LHBs under field-cage condition

190

Code Status  

Science.gov (United States)

... Home Clinical Critical Care Information for Patients | | More Code Status Information for Patients Introduction General Information Common ... Approaches in Critical Care Commonly Asked Questions Credits "Code status" are the words used by hospital staff ...

191

Relationship between female mating strategy, litter success and offspring dispersal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between mating systems and dispersal has generally been studied at the population and species levels. It has hardly ever been investigated at the individual level, by studying the variations of mating and dispersal strategies between individuals. We investigated this relationship in a natural population of the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara). Assuming that dispersal has a genetic basis, juvenile dispersal would be expected to be more family-dependent in monoandrous litters than in polyandrous litters. The opposite pattern was observed. Thus, maternal effects and/or litter effects play a greater role than genetic determinism in shaping the dispersal phenotype of juveniles. Moreover, the relationship between female mating strategy and offspring dispersal depended on litter success, in a way consistent with an influence of mother-offspring competition. Such a link between mating and dispersal strategies of individuals may have major repercussions for the way we consider the roles of these processes in population functioning. PMID:19527273

Laloi, David; Richard, Murielle; Fédérici, Pierre; Clobert, Jean; Teillac-Deschamps, Pauline; Massot, Manuel

2009-08-01

192

Protecting artificial team-mates : more seems like less  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Previous research on conversational, competitive, and cooperative systems suggests that people respond differently to humans and AI agents in terms of perception and evaluation of observed team-mate behavior. However, there has not been research examining the relationship between participants' protective behavior toward human/AI team-mates and their beliefs about their behavior. A study was conducted in which 32 participants played two sessions of a cooperative game, once with a "presumed" human and once with an AI team-mate; players could "draw fire" from a common enemy by "yelling" at it. Overwhelmingly, players claimed they "drew fire" on behalf of the presumed human more than for the AI team-mate; logged data indicates the opposite. The main contribution of this paper is to provide evidence of the mismatch in player beliefs about their actions and actual behavior with humans or agents and provides possible explanations for the differences.

Merritt, Timothy; McGee, Kevin

193

Long-term alteration of cementitious materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Long-term alteration of cementitious materials in the geological condition has been discussed for the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. This paper describes the status of understanding long-term chemical alteration of cement, by reviewing some of our investigations on this issue in which we developed a thermodynamic incongruent C-S-H dissolution/precipitation model and a reactive transport calculation code. Alteration of C-S-H gel in a saline groundwater and the change of chemical barrier performance of cementitious materials due to the alteration are also discussed. Some key issues to be discussed further are given and suggested for the future studies on the long-term alteration of cementitious materials in the repository environment. (author)

194

More than just a pretty face and a hot body: multiple cues in mate-choice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mate preferences have been well studied in social and evolutionary psychology. In two studies (N = 490), using two different measurement techniques, we examined mate preferences for the body and the face in the context of other traits. Results replicated prior research on mate preferences across the sex of the participant and mating duration but clarified the nature of preferences for physical attractiveness. Generally, physical attractiveness was a necessity in short-term mating and for men and traits like kindness were a necessity in long-term mating and for women. Men wanted a short-term mate who had a good body, likely because that body advertises fertility whereas both sexes wanted a mate with a nice face for a long-term mate, which is likely because the face is a cue based on structural properties related to health. Sex and mating-duration differences on preferences for attractive faces and bodies were robust to differences in measurement technique. PMID:22468419

Jonason, Peter K; Raulston, Tara; Rotolo, Ashley

2012-01-01

195

Virgin ant queens mate with their own sons to avoid failure at colony foundation  

Science.gov (United States)

Mother-son mating (oedipal mating) is practically non-existent in social Hymenoptera, as queens typically avoid inbreeding, mate only early in life and do not mate again after having begun to lay eggs. In the ant genus Cardiocondyla mating occurs among sib in the natal nests. Sex ratios are extremely female-biased and young queens face the risk of remaining without mating partners. Here, we show that virgin queens of Cardiocondyla argyrotricha produce sons from their own unfertilized eggs and later mate with them to produce female offspring from fertilized eggs. Oedipal mating may allow C. argyrotricha queens to found new colonies when no mating partners are available and thus maintains their unusual life history combining monogyny, mating in the nest, and low male production. Our result indicates that a trait that sporadically occurs in solitary haplodiploid animals may evolve also in social Hymenoptera under appropriate ecological and social conditions.

Schmidt, Christine Vanessa; Frohschammer, Sabine; Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jürgen

2014-01-01

196

Gore Selects Senator Lieberman As Running Mate  

Science.gov (United States)

Yesterday, Democratic Presidential candidate Al Gore announced his selection of Connecticut Senator Joseph Lieberman as his running mate. The choice is widely seen as an attempt to separate Gore from the President's ethical controversies and to appeal to independent and Republican voters. Lieberman, the first orthodox Jew to be named to a major party's presidential ticket, was also the first Democrat to publicly criticize Clinton for his conduct in the Lewinsky affair and is known for his traditional stands on moral issues. Politically, Lieberman tends to be a centrist, even taking some typically Republican positions, such as his support of school vouchers and the privatization of Social Security. However, Republicans have already sought to paint him as a tax-loving liberal with deep ties to big business interests in health insurance and pharmaceuticals. While the choice clearly represents Gore's desire to position himself away from Clinton and in the center, some Democrats have worried that the moderate Lieberman will do little to appeal to the base of the Democratic party, namely labor, minorities, the left, and women. Unlike Bush, Gore has not yet solidified his support among these traditional Democratic constituencies. Some have also wondered aloud if Lieberman's religious affiliation will have an impact on the political race.

Charbonneau, David D.

197

Male Mating Signaling in Social Dilemma Games  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

According to sexual selection theory and costly signaling theory, men benefit from signaling costly mate qualities to attractive women. To date, several studies have investigated whether men use conspicuous altruism to attract women, but the findings are mixed. This study investigated whether men being observed by an attractive woman engage in competitive economic altruism in three social dilemma games—the Dictator Game, Trust Game (2nd mover), and Public Goods Game—in comparison to men being observed by a non-attractive woman. Results showed that altruistic contributions in the games were not significantly larger in the attractive observer group than in the non-attractive observer group. Exploratory analyses did reveal, however, that amongst participants with an attractive observer only, dispositional generosity had a strongly positive effect on altruism while dispositional dominance had a negative effect on altruism. Moderating effects of key individual differences suggest that the mixed findings within theempirical literature may be attributed to the existence of multiple male courtship signaling strategies. As such, the findings suggest a promising way for future studies to identify different signaling strategies, but until the findings can be replicated with specific hypothesis-driven studies they should be considered with caution.

Jensen, Niels Holm

2013-01-01

198

MATING DESIGNS: HELPFUL TOOL FOR QUANTITATIVE PLANT BREEDING ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Selection of parental materials and good mating designs in conventional plant breeding are the keys to the successful plant breeding programme. However, there are several factors affecting the choices of mating designs. Mating design refers to the procedure of producing the progenies, in plant breeding, plant breeders and geneticists, theoretically and practically, they use different form of mating designs and arrangements for targeted purpose. The choice of a mating design for estimating genetic variances should be dictated by the objectives of the study, time, space, cost and other biological limitations. In all mating designs, the individuals are taken randomly and crossed to produce progenies which are related to each other as half-sibs or full-sibs. A form of multivariate analysis or the analysis of variance can be adopted to estimate the components of variances. Therefore, this review aimed at highlighting the most used mating design in plant breeding and genetics studies. It provides easy and quick insight of the different form of mating designs and some statistical components for successful plant breeding. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

Athanase Nduwumuremyi

2013-12-01

199

An Automated Safe-to-Mate (ASTM) Tester  

Science.gov (United States)

Safe-to-mate testing is a common hardware safety practice where impedance measurements are made on unpowered hardware to verify isolation, continuity, or impedance between pins of an interface connector. A computer-based instrumentation solution has been developed to resolve issues. The ASTM is connected to the circuit under test, and can then quickly, safely, and reliably safe-to-mate the entire connector, or even multiple connectors, at the same time.

Nguyen, Phuc; Scott, Michelle; Leung, Alan; Lin, Michael; Johnson, Thomas

2013-01-01

200

Mating type loci inFusarium: structure and function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex in fungi is regulated by highly dissimilar mating type loci named idiomorphs. The genus Fusarium harbours both sexual as well as esexual species and each appears to contain one or the other idiomorph. The structure of these loci is highly conserved, suggesting a cryptic sexual cycle in these socalled asexual species. Alternatively, idiomorphs could regulate additional hitherto unrecognized biological processes. Such processes could be elucidated by expression profiling using mutants disrupted in their mating type loci. PMID:23605502

Waalwijk, C; Keszthelyi, A; van der Lee, T; Jeney, A; de Vries, I; Kerenyi, Z; Mendes, O; Hornok, L

2006-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Mating system and multiple paternity in Hedysarum coronarium L. (Fabaceae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mating system was studied in four populations of Hedysarum coronarium under the mixed-mating model (MMM) and the effective selfing model (ESM) by analysis of progeny arrays. Multilocus population outcrossing rates ranged from 0.822 to 1.013. Pollination experiments indicated that H. coronarium is self-compatible, and therefore the high outcrossing rates were attributed to inbreeding depression. This view was supported by high levels of seed abortion in self pollination when compared to op...

Louati-namouchi, Imene; Louati, Mehdi; Chriki, Ali

2000-01-01

202

Mating type sequences in asexually reproducing Fusarium species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To assess the potential for mating in several Fusarium species with no known sexual stage, we developed degenerate and semidegenerate oligonucleotide primers to identify conserved mating type (MAT) sequences in these fungi. The putative ? and high-mobility-group (HMG) box sequences from Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. poae, and F. semitectum were compared to similar sequences that were described previously for other members of the genus. The DNA sequences of the regions flanking the ampl...

Kene?nyi, Z.; Moretti, A.; Waalwijk, C.; Ola?h, B.; Hornok, L.

2004-01-01

203

Concordant female mate preferences in the cichlid fish Tropheus moorii  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Discriminating female mate preferences enhance the variance in reproductive success among males of a population and create a potential for sexual selection, which can account for trait evolution and diversification. Fish color patterns are among the prime targets of mate choice-driven sexual selection. Populations of the cichlid Tropheus from Lake Tanganyika display remarkable geographic color pattern variation, but the role of female choice in their rapid and rich phenotypic diversification ...

Steinwender, Bernd; Koblmu?ller, Stephan; Sefc, Kristina M.

2012-01-01

204

Cytonuclear interactions and the economics of mating in seed beetles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have uncovered an abundance of nonneutral cytoplasmic genetic variation within species, which suggests that we should no longer consider the cytoplasm an idle intermediary of evolutionary change. Nonneutrality of cytoplasmic genomes is particularly intriguing, given that these genomes are maternally transmitted. This means that the fate of any given cytoplasmic genetic mutation is directly tied to its performance when expressed in females. For this reason, it has been hypothesized that cytoplasmic genes will coevolve via a sexually antagonistic arms race with the biparentally transmitted nuclear genes with which they interact. We assess this prediction, examining the intergenomic contributions to the costs and benefits of mating in Callosobruchus maculatus females subjected to a mating treatment with three classes (kept virgin, mated once, or forced to cohabit with a male). We find no evidence that the economics of mating are determined by interactions between cytoplasmic genes expressed in females and nuclear genes expressed in males and, therefore, no support for a sexually antagonistic intergenomic arms race. The cost of mating to females was, however, shaped by an interaction between the cytoplasmic and nuclear genes expressed within females. Thus, cytonuclear interactions are embroiled in the economics of mating. PMID:20524843

Dowling, Damian K; Meerupati, Tejashwari; Arnqvist, Göran

2010-08-01

205

Pest management programmes in vineyards using male mating disruption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Israeli vine growers have been reluctant to adopt the mating disruption technique for control of the European vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. Since the chemically controlled honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., coexists with the European vine moth, growers have maintained that the use of mating disruption would fail to bring about a significant reduction in pesticide use. In this study, the efficacy of mating disruption techniques against C. gnidiella was tested, as well as the effect of these methods on pesticide use and damage to clusters when the method was employed against both of the pests in wine grapes. Comparisons were made between plots treated with (1) L. botrana mating disruption pheromone, (2) L. botrana and C. gnidiella mating disruption pheromones and (3) control plots. A significant difference in the number of clusters infested with the developmental stages of the moths was seen between pheromone-treated plots and controls, while no such difference was observed between plots treated with one versus two pheromones. A similar pattern was observed in the number of insecticide applications; the greatest number of applications was used in control plots, followed by plots treated with L. botrana mating disruption pheromone and by plots treated with pheromones against both pests, in which no pesticides were applied. PMID:17523143

Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Gordon, Dvora; Anshelevich, Leonid; Harel, Miriam; Ovadia, Shmulik; Dunkelblum, Ezra

2007-08-01

206

Non-Random Mating, Parent-of-Origin, and Maternal-Fetal Incompatibility Effects in Schizophrenia  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the association of common genetic variation in the extended MHC region with schizophrenia is the most significant yet discovered, the MHC region is one of the more complex regions of the human genome, with unusually high gene density and long-range linkage disequilibrium. The statistical test on which the MHC association is based is a relatively simple, additive model which uses logistic regression of SNP genotypes to predict case-control status. However, it is plausible that more complex models underlie this association. Using a well-characterized sample of trios, we evaluated more complex models by looking for evidence for: (a) non-random mating for HLA alleles, schizophrenia risk profiles, and ancestry; (b) parent-of-origin effects for HLA alleles; and (c) maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility in the HLA. We found no evidence for non-random mating in the parents of individuals with schizophrenia in terms of MHC genotypes or schizophrenia risk profile scores. However, there was evidence of non-random mating that appeared mostly to be driven by ancestry. We did not detect over-transmission of HLA alleles to affected offspring via the general TDT test (without regard to parent of origin) or preferential transmission via paternal or maternal inheritance. We evaluated the hypothesis that maternal-fetal HLA incompatibility may increase risk for schizophrenia using eight classical HLA loci. The most significant alleles were in HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DQB1, and HLA-DRB1 but none was significant after accounting for multiple comparisons. We did not find evidence to support more complex models of gene action, but statistical power may have been limiting. PMID:23177929

Kim, Yunjung; Ripke, Stephan; Kirov, George; Sklar, Pamela; Purcell, Shaun; Owen, Michael; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Sullivan, Patrick F.

2014-01-01

207

Proportions of myosin heavy chain mRNAs, protein isoforms and fiber types in the slow and fast skeletal muscles are maintained after alterations of thyroid status in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently we have established that slow soleus (SOL) and fast extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of euthyroid (EU) Lewis rats posses the same proportions between their four myosin heavy chain (MyHC) mRNAs, protein isoforms and fiber types as determined by real time RT-PCR, SDS-PAGE and 2-D stereological fiber type analysis, respectively. In the present paper we investigated if these proportions are maintained in adult Lewis rats with hyperthyroid (HT) and hypothyroid (HY) status. Although HT and HY states change MyHC isoform expression, results from all three methods showed that proportion between MyHC mRNA-1, -2a, -2x/d, -2b, protein isoforms MyHC-1, -2a, -2x/d, -2b and to lesser extent also fiber types 1, 2A, 2X/D, 2B were preserved in both SOL and EDL muscles. Furthermore, in the SOL muscle mRNA expression of slow MyHC-1 remained up to three orders higher compared to fast MyHC transcripts, which explains the predominance of MyHC-1 isoform and fiber type 1 even in HT rats. Although HT status led in the SOL to increased expression of MyHC-2a mRNA, MyHC-2a isoform and 2A fibers, it preserved extremely low expression of MyHC-2x and -2b mRNA and protein isoforms, which explains the absence of pure 2X/D and 2B fibers. HY status, on the other hand, almost completely abolished expression of all three fast MyHC mRNAs, MyHC protein isoforms and fast fiber types in the SOL muscle. Our data present evidence that a correlation between mRNA, protein content and fiber type composition found in EU status is also preserved in HT and HY rats. PMID:25194137

Soukup, T

2014-09-01

208

Specific and common epitopes in mating pheromones of Euplotes raikovi revealed by monoclonal antibodies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Polypeptide mating pheromones Er-1 and Er-2, purified from the supernatant of Euplotes raikovi cultures of mating type I and mating type II, respectively, were used to immunize mice and obtain monoclonal antibodies. Five hybridoma clones producing antibodies specific to the mating pheromones were selected. They were analyzed for immunospecificity by immunoperoxidase assay, immunoblotting, and for their efficacy in inhibition of mating pheromone activity. Monoclonal antibodies from two hybrido...

Fiori, Pier Luigi; Miceli, Cristina; Raffioni, Simona; Vallesi, Adriana

1990-01-01

209

Elevated predation risk changes mating behaviour and courtship in a fiddler crab  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fiddler crab, Uca beebei, lives in individually defended burrows, in mixed-sex colonies on intertidal mud flats. Avian predation is common, especially of crabs unable to escape into burrows. Mating pairs form in two ways. Females either mate on the surface at their burrow entrance ('surface mating') or leave their own burrow and sequentially enter and leave ('sample') courting males' burrows, before staying in one to mate underground ('burrow mating'). We tested whether perceived predatio...

Koga, T.; Backwell, P. R. Y.; Jennions, M. D.; Christy, J. H.

1998-01-01

210

Genes Controlling Mating-Type Specificity in PARAMECIUM CAUDATUM: Three Loci Revealed by Intersyngenic Crosses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In mating interactions in Paramecium caudatum, initial mating agglutination is strictly mating-type specific, but subsequent conjugating pair formation is not mating-type specific. Using this nonspecificity of pair formation, intersyngenic (intersibling species) pairs were induced by mixing four mating types of two different syngens. To distinguish intersyngenic pairs from intrasyngenic ones, the behavioral marker CNR (Takahashi 1979) was mainly used. Clones of intersyngenic hybrids showed hi...

Tsukii, Yuuji; Hiwatashi, Koichi

1983-01-01

211

Dynamic mate-searching tactic allows female satin bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus violaceus to reduce searching.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Females can maximize the benefits of mate choice by finding high-quality mates while using search tactics that limit the costs of searching for mates. Mate-searching models indicate that specific search tactics would best optimize this trade-off under different conditions. These models do not, however, consider that females may use information from previous years to improve mate searching and reduce search costs in subsequent years. We followed female satin bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus violaceu...

Uy, J. A.; Patricelli, G. L.; Borgia, G.

2000-01-01

212

Effect of the Sterilizing dose of Gamma Irradiation on Mating Performance and Female re-mating of Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The population suppression success of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) using sterile insect technique (SIT) depends mainly upon the ability of sterilized males to locate and mate with wild females. The efficiency of the SIT also depends upon the relative frequencies of re-mating by wild females following first mating with sterilized or wild males. A semi field cage test was conducted to study the effect of three different sterilizing doses of gamma irradiation on the male mating performance. No significant differences were found in the ability of mating, the mating duration and mating site between the un-irradiated males and irradiated ones with the doses (80, 90 and 100 Gy) The irradiated males with the dose 80 Gy revealed mating ability higher than the irradiated males with the other doses (90 and 100 Gy) although un-irradiated males had a general higher ability than irradiated ones.

213

Cancer and yerba mate consumption: a review of possible associations Cáncer y consumo de yerba mate: revisión de posibles asociaciones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To identify any possible link between mate consumption and cancer, mainly of the esophagus, larynx, and oral cavity. METHODS: A review of literature, published through August 2008, pertaining to the carcinogenic risk of mate consumption was undertaken by searching the two databases, MEDLINE and TOXLINE, for relevant articles. The bibliographies of the articles were examined for additional relevant sources. In addition, a search on the name of each author having published on the top...

Dora Loria; Enrique Barrios; Roberto Zanetti

2009-01-01

214

Local Mate Competition, and Mechanisms, Functions and Fitness Consequences of Courtship and Mating Behaviour in the Parasitoid Wasp Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Males and females of the egg parasitoid wasp Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) emerge as sexually mature adults from gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), host egg masses. Sibling or non-sibling males compete intensely for mating opportunities with spatially clustered monandrous females who are briefly receptive. Mated females typically disperse prior to ovipositing, whereas males disperse in search of mates. My main objectives were to examine the occurrence of local mate com...

Ablard, Kelly Michelle

2012-01-01

215

Variable assortative mating in replicate mating trials using Drosophila melanogaster populations derived from contrasting opposing slopes of 'Evolution Canyon', Israel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Significant assortative mating in laboratory studies has been previously shown between two populations of Drosophila melanogaster collected from micro-climactically contrasting and opposing slopes of 'Evolution Canyon' (Lower Nahal Oren, Israel; Korol et al., 2000). Coupled with evidence that the two populations are adapted to their respective environments, this has been suggested as a rare example of ongoing behaviourally mediated speciation occurring in the face of gene flow. Reproductive isolation between these populations, however, has never been confirmed by replicate experiments in an independent laboratory. For this reason, we tested recent collections of these populations for premating isolation in both the original (Haifa) and a new (Burnaby) laboratory under a variety of experimental protocols. Although non-random mating was found in the majority of trials conducted in Haifa, we were unable to replicate these strong results in Burnaby. Most notably, we failed to detect assortative mating in four separate double choice experiments. Significant non-random mating was detected, however, in three of six single choice experiments in Burnaby, suggesting that the populations are behaviourally differentiated in some manner. Why nonrandom mating was weaker in Burnaby than Haifa is not understood, but suggests that assortative mating may be sensitive to unknown environmental factors. PMID:16033586

Drake, A; Rashkovetsky, E; Wong, D; Rundle, H D; Mooers, A Ø

2005-07-01

216

Alterações agudas dos níveis de neurotransmissores em corpo estriado de ratos jovens após estado epiléptico induzido por pilocarpina / Acute alterations of neurotransmitters levels in striatum of young rat after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Altas doses de agonista colinérgico muscarínico, pilocarpina, produzem alterações comportamentais, convulsões e estado epiléptico em ratos. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar as alterações nas concentrações dos neurotransmissores em corpo estriado de ratos em desenvolvimento após estado epiléptic [...] o induzido pela pilocarpina. Ratas Wistar foram tratadas com uma única dose de pilocarpina (400mg/Kg; s.c.). Controles receberam salina. A concentração dos neurotransmissores foi determinada através do HPLC, no corpo estriado de ratos que no período de observação de 1 e 24h desencadearam estado epiléptico e não sobreviveram à fase aguda do quadro convulsivo. Foi observada redução nos níveis de dopamina, serotonina, ácido dihidroxifenilacético, ácido 5-hidroxiindolacético, e aumento no ácido 4-hidroxi-3-metoxi-fenilacético. Os resultados mostraram que a ativação do sistema colinérgico pode interagir com os sistemas dopaminérgico e serotonérgico nos mecanismos referentes à fase aguda do processo convulsivo. Abstract in english High doses of the muscarinic cholinergic agonist, pilocarpine, result in behavioural changes, seizures and status epilepticus in rats. The purpose of the present work is to invetigate the striatal neurotransmissors level in young rats after status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine. Wistar rats were [...] treated with a single dose of pilocarpine (400mg/Kg; s.c.). Controls received saline. Young animals were closed observed for behavioural changes during 1 and 24h. In these periods, the animals that developed status epilepticus and didn't survive this acute phase of seizures had the brains removed and striatal neurotransmissors level determined by HPLC. The concentration of dopamine, serotonine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid was reduced and an increase in 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenylacetic acid was observed. These results suggest that cholinergic activation can interage with dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in acute phase of the convulsive process in immature striatum.

Rivelilson Mendes de, Freitas; Francisca Cléa Florenço de, Sousa; Silvânia Maria Mendes, Vasconcelos; Glauce Socorro Barros, Viana; Marta Maria de França, Fonteles.

2003-06-01

217

Alterações agudas dos níveis de neurotransmissores em corpo estriado de ratos jovens após estado epiléptico induzido por pilocarpina Acute alterations of neurotransmitters levels in striatum of young rat after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Altas doses de agonista colinérgico muscarínico, pilocarpina, produzem alterações comportamentais, convulsões e estado epiléptico em ratos. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar as alterações nas concentrações dos neurotransmissores em corpo estriado de ratos em desenvolvimento após estado epiléptico induzido pela pilocarpina. Ratas Wistar foram tratadas com uma única dose de pilocarpina (400mg/Kg; s.c.. Controles receberam salina. A concentração dos neurotransmissores foi determinada através do HPLC, no corpo estriado de ratos que no período de observação de 1 e 24h desencadearam estado epiléptico e não sobreviveram à fase aguda do quadro convulsivo. Foi observada redução nos níveis de dopamina, serotonina, ácido dihidroxifenilacético, ácido 5-hidroxiindolacético, e aumento no ácido 4-hidroxi-3-metoxi-fenilacético. Os resultados mostraram que a ativação do sistema colinérgico pode interagir com os sistemas dopaminérgico e serotonérgico nos mecanismos referentes à fase aguda do processo convulsivo.High doses of the muscarinic cholinergic agonist, pilocarpine, result in behavioural changes, seizures and status epilepticus in rats. The purpose of the present work is to invetigate the striatal neurotransmissors level in young rats after status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine. Wistar rats were treated with a single dose of pilocarpine (400mg/Kg; s.c.. Controls received saline. Young animals were closed observed for behavioural changes during 1 and 24h. In these periods, the animals that developed status epilepticus and didn't survive this acute phase of seizures had the brains removed and striatal neurotransmissors level determined by HPLC. The concentration of dopamine, serotonine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid was reduced and an increase in 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenylacetic acid was observed. These results suggest that cholinergic activation can interage with dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in acute phase of the convulsive process in immature striatum.

Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

2003-06-01

218

The role of calcium in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mating reaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mating reaction of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii entails a rapid series of cell-cell interactions leading to cell fusion. We have demonstrated (Pasquale, S. M., and U. Goodenough. 1987. J. Cell Biol. 105:2279-2293) that cAMP plays a key role in this process: gametic flagellar adhesion elicits a sharp increase in intracellular cAMP, and presentation of dibutyryl-cAMP to unmated gametes elicits all known mating responses. The present study evaluates the role of Ca2+ in this system. We document that the mating-induced increase in cAMP, and hence the mating responses themselves, are blocked by a variety of drugs known to interfere with Ca(2+)-sensitive processes. These data suggest that Ca(2+)-mediated events may couple adhesion to the generation of cAMP. Such events, however, appear to be localized to the flagellar membrane; we find no evidence for the mating-related increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ that has been postulated by others. Indeed, by monitoring the length of the Ca(2+)-sensitive centrin-containing nucleus-basal body connector, we show that cytosolic free Ca2+ levels, if anything, decrease in response to cAMP signaling. We confirm a previous report that Ca2+ levels increase in the mating medium, but document that this represents a response to augmented cAMP levels and not a prelude. Finally, we show that IP3 levels remain constant throughout the mating reaction. These results are discussed in terms of the various signal transduction systems that have now been identified in Chlamydomonas. PMID:8385672

Goodenough, U W; Shames, B; Small, L; Saito, T; Crain, R C; Sanders, M A; Salisbury, J L

1993-04-01

219

Chemical characterization of candy made of Erva-Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil.) residue.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemical properties of the residues from erva-mate processing and also to determine the candy-making performance with addition of residues from erva-mate on consumers' acceptance and purchase intent of this new product. The candies containing different amounts of mate powder were evaluated through overall acceptability test and purchase intent. Mate powder showed high contents of dietary fiber, total ash, and total polyphenols. The total dietary fiber content of the mate candies ranged from 5.7 to 6.29% on a dry matter basis. Supplementation with mate powder caused significant increases in polyphenol and mineral contents of mate candies. The incorporation of mate powder increased the hardness of the candies and produced desirable results in their nutritional characteristics. The sensory tests indicated that mate candies were acceptable and approved in relation to purchase intent. PMID:18500809

Vieira, Manoela A; Rovaris, Angela A; Maraschin, Marcelo; De Simas, Karina N; Pagliosa, Cristiane M; Podestá, Rossana; Amboni, Renata D M C; Barreto, Pedro L M; Amante, Edna R

2008-06-25

220

Accumulated expression level of cytosolic glutamine synthetase 1 gene (OsGS1;1 or OsGS1;2) alter plant development and the carbon-nitrogen metabolic status in rice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maintaining an appropriate balance of carbon to nitrogen metabolism is essential for rice growth and yield. Glutamine synthetase is a key enzyme for ammonium assimilation. In this study, we systematically analyzed the growth phenotype, carbon-nitrogen metabolic status and gene expression profiles in GS1;1-, GS1;2-overexpressing rice and wildtype plants. Our results revealed that the GS1;1-, GS1;2-overexpressing plants exhibited a poor plant growth phenotype and yield and decreased carbon/nitrogen ratio in the stem caused by the accumulation of nitrogen in the stem. In addition, the leaf SPAD value and photosynthetic parameters, soluble proteins and carbohydrates varied greatly in the GS1;1-, GS1;2-overexpressing plants. Furthermore, metabolite profile and gene expression analysis demonstrated significant changes in individual sugars, organic acids and free amino acids, and gene expression patterns in GS1;1-, GS1;2-overexpressing plants, which also indicated the distinct roles that these two GS1 genes played in rice nitrogen metabolism, particularly when sufficient nitrogen was applied in the environment. Thus, the unbalanced carbon-nitrogen metabolic status and poor ability of nitrogen transportation from stem to leaf in GS1;1-, GS1;2-overexpressing plants may explain the poor growth and yield. PMID:24743556

Bao, Aili; Zhao, Zhuqing; Ding, Guangda; Shi, Lei; Xu, Fangsen; Cai, Hongmei

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

The Mutator Gene Swi8 Effects Specific Mutations in the Mating-Type Region of Schizosaccharomyces Pombe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The swi8(+) gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe appears to be involved in the termination step of copy synthesis during mating-type (MT) switching. Mutations in swi8 confer a general mutator phenotype and, in particular, generate specific mutations in the MT region. Sequencing of the MT cassettes of the h(90) swi8-137 mutant revealed three altered sites. One is situated at the switching (smt) signal adjacent to the H1 homology box of the expression locus mat1:1. It reduces the rate of MT switch...

Fleck, O.; Rudolph, C.; Albrecht, A.; Lorentz, A.; Schar, P.; Schmidt, H.

1994-01-01

222

Does mating interfere in the biological characteristics of a population of Trichogramma pretiosum?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Trichogramma spp. são parasitoides utilizados na regulação de populações de insetos que podem causar danos econômicos. Para que esses tenham bom desempenho é essencial o conhecimento de algumas de suas características biológicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se o acasalamento interfere nas [...] características biológicas de uma população de Trichogramma pretiosum coletada em campo. Em todos os experimentos, grupos de fêmeas acasaladas e não acasaladas foram utilizados. Além disso, foi verificada a interferência do acasalamento nas características biológicas dos descendentes. Foi constatado que o acasalamento é capaz de alterar o parasitismo e a longevidade das fêmeas genitoras, além de alterar a longevidade entre os descendentes, porém, uma vez parasitados, os ovos se desenvolvem normalmente, apresentando viabilidade e número de descendentes similares aos das fêmeas não acasaladas. Verificamos ainda, que a população de T. pretiosum coletada em campo apresentou indivíduos com características reprodutivas telítocas e arrenótocas. Esse fato ressalta a importância de investigações cuidadosas sobre o modo de reprodução das populações coletadas em campo, evitando assim problemas de eficiência no manejo de populações de insetos. Abstract in english Trichogramma spp. are parasitoids used in the regulation of insect populations that can cause economic damage. In order to ensure good performance, understanding some of their biological characteristics is essential. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether mating interferes with the biol [...] ogical characteristics of a population of Trichogramma pretiosum collected in the field. In all experiments, groups of mated and unmated females were used. We also verified any interference from mating on the biological characteristics of the offspring. We found that mating can alter the parasitism and longevity of genitor females, in addition to changing longevity among the descendants, but once parasitized, the eggs develop normally, showing similar emergence percentage and number of offspring as those from unmated females. In addition, we verified that the population of T. pretiosum collected in the field presented individuals with reproductive thelytokous and arrhenotokous characteristics. This fact highlights the importance of careful investigation on the reproduction mode of populations collected in the field, thus avoiding problems in the effective management of insect populations.

DIRCEU, PRATISSOLI; THIAGO G., KLOSS; FERNANDO D., ZINGER; JOSÉ R. DE, CARVALHO; ULYSSES R., VIANNA; JOÃO P.P., PAES.

2014-03-01

223

Cancer and yerba mate consumption: a review of possible associations Cáncer y consumo de yerba mate: revisión de posibles asociaciones  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify any possible link between mate consumption and cancer, mainly of the esophagus, larynx, and oral cavity. METHODS: A review of literature, published through August 2008, pertaining to the carcinogenic risk of mate consumption was undertaken by searching the two databases, MEDLINE and TOXLINE, for relevant articles. The bibliographies of the articles were examined for additional relevant sources. In addition, a search on the name of each author having published on the topic was conducted. The epidemiological studies are presented by cancer site; experimental works are examined in dedicated sections; and the discussion combines epidemiological and experimental evidence. RESULTS: Almost all epidemiological studies shared similar methodology: hospital-based, case-control studies where participants were personally interviewed on the main risk factors, using similar questionnaires. Several studies found an association between the temperature of the mate infusion and oral, esophageal, and/or laryngeal cancer risks; while a few focused on carcinogenic contaminants introduced during the industrial processing of the leaves. The cancer most frequently mentioned in association with hot mate with bombilla (drunk through a metal straw was the esophagus. Size, exposure assessment, methods of analysis, and quality were different among the studies reviewed. The results varied greatly. The higher risk estimate (odds ratio = 34.6 was found for women who drank 1 L or more daily; for men it was only 4.8. Risk increased with duration, daily quantity, and temperature at drinking. The synergic action between mate, alcohol, and tobacco was a clear result in several studies, and in some, nutritional deficiencies and poor oral hygiene played a role. No increased risk was associated with cold mate beverages. CONCLUSIONS: The role of hot mate in increasing the risk of cancer of esophagus, larynx, and oral cavity seems to be supported by several epidemiological studies. The temperature could act by damaging the mucosa or accelerating metabolic reactions, including those with carcinogenic substances in tobacco and alcohol. However, there is no sound population-based casecontrol study on mate consumption as a risk factor for cancer. This, coupled with the range of results on mate risk, make assessing the etiological fraction difficult. More research needs to be done before a definitive statement can be made regarding cancer risk associated with any of the various forms of mate consumption. Future research should include population-based studies; collection of data on consumption of tobacco, alcohol, hot drinks, fresh fruit, and vegetables; and, a method to precisely measure volume and temperature of mate intake.OBJETIVO: Identificar posibles vínculos entre el consumo de mate y el cáncer, en particular de esófago, laringe y cavidad bucal. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una revisión de la bibliografía publicada hasta agosto de 2008 sobre el riesgo carcinogénico del consumo de mate en dos bases de datos, MEDLINE y TOXLINE. Se revisaron las referencias bibliográficas de los artículos para encontrar fuentes adicionales y se buscó por cada autor que hubiera publicado sobre el tema. Los estudios epidemiológicos se presentan según la localización del cáncer, los trabajos experimentales se examinan en secciones separadas y en la discusión se combinaron los datos epidemiológicos y experimentales. RESULTADOS: Casi todos los estudios epidemiológicos siguieron la misma metodología: estudios de casos y controles basados en hospitales donde se entrevistaba personalmente a los participantes acerca de los principales factores de riesgo mediante cuestionarios similares. En algunos estudios se encontró una asociación entre la temperatura de la infusión de mate y el riesgo de cáncer bucal, de esófago y de laringe, mientras que unos pocos se concentraron en los contaminantes carcinogénicos introducidos durante el procesamiento industrial de las hojas. El tipo de cáncer más frecuentemente mencionado en asociación co

Dora Loria

2009-06-01

224

Evaluation of phenolic compounds in mate (Ilex paraguariensis) processed by gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation food processing has been demonstrating great effectiveness in the attack of pathogenic agents, while little compromising nutritional value and sensorial properties of foods. The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), widely consumed product in South America, generally in the form of infusions with hot or cold water, calls of chimarrao or terere, it is cited in literature as one of the best sources phenolic compounds. The antioxidants action of these constituent has been related to the protection of the organism against the free radicals, generated in alive, currently responsible for the sprouting of some degenerative illness as cancer, arteriosclerosis, rheumatic arthritis and cardiovascular clutters among others. The objective of that work was to evaluate the action of the processing for gamma radiation in phenolic compounds of terere beverage in the doses of 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. The observed results do not demonstrate significant alterations in phenolic compounds of terere beverage processed by gamma radiation.

225

The Study and Analysis of the Mating Behavior and Sound Production of Male Cicada Psalmocharias alhageos (Kol. (Homoptera:Cicadidae to Make Disruption in Mating  

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Full Text Available Psalmocharias alhageos is an important pest of vine in most parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, southern areas of Russia, Turkey and Iraq. This cicada is spread in most provinces in Iran such as Esfahan, Hamedan, Qazvin, Markazi, Lorestan, Qom, Kerman, Tehran and Kordestan. In addition to vine, this insect damages some other fruit trees, such as apple, sour cherry, quince, peach, pomegranate and pear trees and some non-fruit trees, namely white poplar, ash, elm, eglantine, silk and black poplar trees. The nymphs of cicada damage the trees by feeding on root, adult insects on young bud and by oviposition under branch barks. Nourishing root by nymph leads to the weakness of the tree and hinder its growth. The high density oviposition of adult insects inside young barks causes withering of branches. The resulted damage on vine products is 40% which is one of the most important factors in product reduction in vineyard. This research was conducted in Takestan in Qazvin. It was conducted for the first time to study the behaviors of the mates of this vine cicada in order to manage it. Two systems were used to record the sound of male cicada called analog voice-recorder and digital voice recorder. To analyze the recorded sound of the male cicada we used of spectrum analyzer, digital storage oscilloscope and protens 7 computer softwares. We could call the attention of natural enemies an disturb the male insect`s attracting sound by producing natural and artificial sound in the range of 1-6 kHz in two different ripeness status of the fruits and could prevent mating and oviposition of female cicadas.

H. Zamanian

2008-01-01

226

The study and analysis of the mating behavior and sound production of male cicada Psalmocharias alhageos (Kol.) (Homoptera:Cicadidae) to make disruption in mating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psalmocharias alhageos is an important pest of vine in most parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, southern areas of Russia, Turkey and Iraq. This cicada is spread in most provinces in Iran such as Esfahan, Hamedan, Qazvin, Markazi, Lorestan, Qom, Kerman, Tehran and Kordestan. In addition to vine, this insect damages some other fruit trees, such as apple, sour cherry, quince, peach, pomegranate and pear trees and some non-fruit trees, namely white poplar, ash, elm, eglantine, silk and black poplar trees. The nymphs of cicada damage the trees by feeding on root, adult insects on young bud and by oviposition under branch barks. Nourishing root by nymph leads to the weakness of the tree and hinder its growth. The high density oviposition of adult insects inside young barks causes withering of branches. The resulted damage on vine products is 40% which is one of the most important factors in product reduction in vineyard. This research was conducted in Takestan in Qazvin. It was conducted for the first time to study the behaviors of the mates of this vine cicada in order to manage it. Two systems were used to record the sound of male cicada called analog voice-recorder and digital voice recorder. To analyze the recorded sound of the male cicada we used of spectrum analyzer, digital storage oscilloscope and protens 7 computer softwares. We could call the attention of natural enemies an disturb the male insect's attracting sound by producing natural and artificial sound in the range of 1-6 kHz in two different ripeness status of the fruits and could prevent mating and oviposition of female cicadas. PMID:19266919

Zamanian, H; Mehdipour, M; Ghaemi, N

2008-09-01

227

Structure of social networks in a passerine bird: consequences for sexual selection and the evolution of mating strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The social environment is a critical determinant of fitness and, in many taxa, is shaped by an individual's behavioral discrimination among social contexts, suggesting that animals can actively influence the selection they experience. In competition to attract females, males may modify sexual selection by choosing social environments in which they are more attractive relative to rivals. Across the population, such behaviors should influence sexual selection patterns by altering the relationship between male mating success and sexual ornament elaboration. Here we use network analysis to examine patterns of male social behavior in relation to plumage ornamentation and mating success in a free-living population of house finches. During the nonbreeding season, less elaborate males changed associations with distinct social groups more frequently, compared to more elaborate males that showed greater fidelity to a single social group. By the onset of pair formation, socially labile males effectively increased their attractiveness relative to other males in the same flocks. Consequently, males that frequently moved between social groups had greater pairing success than less social individuals with equivalent sexual ornamentation. We discuss these results in relation to conditional mating tactics and the role of social behavior in evolutionary change by sexual selection. PMID:20608873

Oh, Kevin P; Badyaev, Alexander V

2010-09-01

228

Concordant female mate preferences in the cichlid fish Tropheus moorii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discriminating female mate preferences enhance the variance in reproductive success among males of a population and create a potential for sexual selection, which can account for trait evolution and diversification. Fish color patterns are among the prime targets of mate choice-driven sexual selection. Populations of the cichlid Tropheus from Lake Tanganyika display remarkable geographic color pattern variation, but the role of female choice in their rapid and rich phenotypic diversification is unclear. Males and females establish a pair bond prior to spawning monogamously, but as brood care is strictly maternal, female investment in reproduction is high and the operational sex ratio is male-biased. Therefore, variance in male reproductive success can accrue if individual males succeed repeatedly in securing a mate. To test this prediction in the red colored Tropheus moorii "Chimba", four pairs of males were presented to a series of females and female mate preferences were inferred from pairwise interactions. There was a significant difference in mating success between the males of each pair (P < 0.001 over all trials), as-with one exception-females shared preferences for the same males. Male courtship activity was strongly correlated with female choice. Our experiment suggests that female choice contributes to the variance in male reproductive success in the tested population. PMID:24293682

Steinwender, Bernd; Koblmüller, Stephan; Sefc, Kristina M

2012-02-01

229

The role of male contest competition over mates in speciation  

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Full Text Available Research on the role of sexual selection in the speciation process largely focuses on the diversifying role of mate choice. In particular, much attention has been drawn to the fact that population divergence in mate choice and in the male traits subject to choice directly can lead to assortative mating. However, male contest competition over mates also constitutes an important mechanism of sexual selection. We review recent empirical studies and argue that sexual selection through male contest competition can affect speciation in ways other than mate choice. For example, biases in aggression towards similar competitors can lead to disruptive and negative frequency-dependent selection on the traits used in contest competition in a similar way as competition for other types of limited resources. Moreover, male contest abilities often trade-off against other abilities such as parasite resistance, protection against predators and general stress tolerance. Populations experiencing different ecological conditions should therefore quickly diverge non-randomly in a number of traits including male contest abilities. In resource based breeding systems, a feedback loop between competitive ability and habitat use may lead to further population divergence. We discuss how population divergence in traits used in male contest competition can lead to the build up of reproductive isolation through a number of different pathways. Our main conclusion is that the role of male contest competition in speciation remains largely scientifically unexplored [Current Zoology 58 (3: 490–506, 2012].

Anna QVARNSTRÖM, Niclas VALLIN, Andreas RUDH

2012-06-01

230

Mating Opportunities in Sangalopsis veliterna Females: Costs and Benefits  

Science.gov (United States)

In nature, females of several animal taxa exhibit considerable variation in their mating system, and this variation involves different balances of costs (e.g., energetic, reproductive) and benefits (e.g., increased net reproductive rate of the female, increased longevity). Many studies have focused on discovering the potential advantages and disadvantages that females could have when increasing their mating rate and the possible evolutionary consequences that may result. Butterflies and moths are an ideal study system because it is easy to determine and to manipulate experimentally their mating frequency. In this study, the effect of continuous availability of different numbers of males (1, 2, 4, 8) on female mating rate and fitness components was estimated by comparing the number of spermatophores in the corpus bursa (an estimate of the number of copulations, but not of the number males involved in these copulations), female longevity, lifetime number of laid eggs (fecundity), and proportion of hatching eggs (fertility) in the moth Sangalopsis veliterna Druce (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). The results showed that there were no significant differences in either fertility or fecundity when treatments were compared, but longevity and in some cases fecundity increased when females had several matings. PMID:25205137

Duran, Linda C. Hernández; Quintero, Luz S. Fuentes

2014-01-01

231

Borderline personality disorder features and mate retention tactics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and mate retention tactics as a means of examining an evolutionary perspective on the association between BPD features and interpersonal problems and violence in romantic relationships. Two-hundred twenty-five college student participants completed the Personality Assessment Inventory for Borderlines (PAI-BOR; Morey, 1991) and the Mate Retention Inventory-Short Form (MRI-SF; Buss, Shackelford, & McKibbin, 2008) embedded within other measures. There was a strong association between BPD features and cost-inflicting mate retention tactics, including the specific tactics of vigilance, punishing mate's infidelity threat, intrasexual threats, and sexual inducements for both men and women. There were also gender-specific associations for additional tactics. These results contribute to our understanding of problems in romantic relationships among men and women with BPD features, including violence, and to our understanding of impulsive sexual behavior among individuals with BPD features by showing how these behaviors are used as extreme, maladaptive attempts at mate retention. PMID:22686222

Tragesser, Sarah L; Benfield, Jacob

2012-06-01

232

Effects of a parasitic nematode on male mate choice in a livebearing fish with a coercive mating system (western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis).  

Science.gov (United States)

I examined the effects of the parasitic larval nematode, Eustrongylides ignotus, on male mate choice in the western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis. I hypothesized that parasite presence influences male mate choice either directly (via reduction in male mating behavior due to presence of parasite in females) or indirectly (via reduction in male mating behavior due to reduced condition of infected females). Specifically, I tested the predictions that (1) males would mate preferentially with uninfected over infected females (scoring both mating attempts and association time with females); (2) parasitized females would be in poorer condition than non-parasitized females (measured as soluble fat stores); and (3) parasitized females would have reduced fecundity (measured as number of developing embryos). Males preferred to mate with non-parasitized over parasitized females, but showed no differences in association time between females. The nematode did not decrease female body condition, but did decrease female mass, and appeared to decrease female fecundity via reduction in broods (# embryos). Results support that parasites affect male mate choice in mosquitofish; however, the mechanisms used by males to differentiate between parasitized and non-parasitized females remain untested. This study provides the first empirical evidence of parasite affects on male mate choice in livebearing fishes, and suggest a potentially important role for parasite-mediated sexual selection in organisms that use coercive mating as the primary mechanism of obtaining mates. PMID:18765273

Deaton, Raelynn

2009-01-01

233

Mating activity of gamma irradiated codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella (L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mating of 30-krad treated codling moths, Laspeyresia pomonella, under field cage conditions occurred mainly at temperatures ranging from 14 to 200C. Irradiation applied to diet-reared moths produced neither an apparent shift in the time (hours) of copulation nor a decrease of the mating activity. However, a significant reduction in the mating ability was induced by Calco Oil Red added to the larval diet, and also by handling and transporting the moths about 140 km to the irradiation facilities. The morning time was found to be the best time to release irradiated moths in the field. Males reared on thinning apples were two times more active sexually than ones reared on an artificial medium. (author)

234

Diffusion approximation of a multilocus model with assortative mating  

CERN Document Server

To understand the effect of non-random mating on the genetic evolution of a population, we consider a finite population in which each individual is defined by a sequence of n diallelic loci. We assume that the population evolves according to a Moran model with assortative mating, recombination and mutation. Under weak assortative mating, loose linkage and low mutation rates, we obtain a class of diffusion approximations for allelic frequencies. We present some features of the limiting diffusions (in particular their boundary behaviour and conditions under which the allelic frequencies at different loci evolve independently). If mutation rates are strictly positive then the limiting diffusions are reversible and, under some assumptions, the critical points of the stationary density can be characterised.

Etheridge, Alison M

2011-01-01

235

Turtle mating systems: behavior, sperm storage, and genetic paternity.  

Science.gov (United States)

As evidenced by the articles in this volume, a recent increase in interest in the mating systems of poikilothermic vertebrates has focused primarily on fishes, a few amphibians, and squamate reptiles. Turtles by contrast have received relatively little attention, yet they display a wide variety of mating behaviors and life-history characteristics that make them excellent candidates for addressing several aspects of genetic parentage that should contribute to a broader understanding of animal reproductive strategies. Here we focus on genetic studies of the mating systems and reproductive patterns of turtles, specifically with respect to multiple paternity and long-term sperm storage. These phenomena highlight the importance of a temporally extended perspective on patterns of individual reproductive success. PMID:11396580

Pearse, D E; Avise, J C

2001-01-01

236

Structures of the Mating-Type Loci of Cordyceps takaomontana  

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Nucleotide sequences of the mating-type loci MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 of Cordyceps takaomontana were determined, which is the first such report for the clavicipitaceous fungi. MAT1-1 contains two mating-type genes, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2, but MAT1-1-3 could not be found. On the other hand, MAT1-2 has MAT1-2-1. A pseudogene of MAT1-1-1 is located next to MAT1-2.

Yokoyama, Eiji; Yamagishi, Kenzo; Hara, Akira

2003-01-01

237

Intraclonal mating occurs during tsetse transmission of Trypanosoma brucei  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mating in Trypanosoma brucei is a non-obligatory event, triggered by the co-occurrence of different strains in the salivary glands of the vector. Recombinants that result from intra- rather than interclonal mating have been detected, but only in crosses of two different trypanosome strains. This has led to the hypothesis that when trypanosomes recognize a different strain, they release a diffusible factor or pheromone that triggers mating in any cell in the vicinity whether it is of the same or a different strain. This idea assumes that the trypanosome can recognize self and non-self, although there is as yet no evidence for the existence of mating types in T. brucei. Results We investigated intraclonal mating in T. b. brucei by crossing red and green fluorescent lines of a single strain, so that recombinant progeny can be detected in the fly by yellow fluorescence. For strain 1738, seven flies had both red and green trypanosomes in the salivary glands and, in three, yellow trypanosomes were also observed, although they could not be recovered for subsequent analysis. Nonetheless, both red and non-fluorescent clones from these flies had recombinant genotypes as judged by microsatellite and karyotype analyses, and some also had raised DNA contents, suggesting recombination or genome duplication. Strain J10 produced similar results indicative of intraclonal mating. In contrast, trypanosome clones recovered from other flies showed that genotypes can be transmitted with fidelity. When a yellow hybrid clone expressing both red and green fluorescent protein genes was transmitted, the salivary glands contained a mixture of fluorescent-coloured trypanosomes, but only yellow and red clones were recovered. While loss of the GFP gene in the red clones could have resulted from gene conversion, some of these clones showed loss of heterozygosity and raised DNA contents as in the other single strain transmissions. Our observations suggest that many recombinants are non-viable after intraclonal mating. Conclusion We have demonstrated intraclonal mating during fly transmission of T. b. brucei, contrary to previous findings that recombination occurs only when another strain is present. It is thus no longer possible to assume that T. b. brucei remains genetically unaltered after fly transmission.

Ferris Vanessa

2009-09-01

238

Mating system and size advantage of male mating in the protogynous swamp eel Monopterus albus with paternal care.  

Science.gov (United States)

In fish with paternal care, protogynous sex change (female to male) is rare and has only been reported from species with haremic polygyny. The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is a protogynous fish with paternal care, but little is known about its mating system. To understand protogyny in this species, we examined the mating system and male size advantage in mating in M. albus under semi-natural condition. Females swam over wide ranges and visited multiple male nests. Males defended a narrow territory around nests against other males that approached nests; at these nests, males courted and accepted visiting females. After spawning inside nests, caring males continued to perform courtship activities, and multiple breeding was observed. These observations suggest that the M. albus mating system is male-territory-visiting (MTV)-polygamy. Larger males had nests, and mated more frequently compared with small males. Because small initial males of this species are not found in nature, and because M. albus does not engage in sneaking tactics, larger nesting males do not suffer from reproductive parasitism. Thus, protogyny in this fish is likely consistent with the predictions of the size-advantage model. Biting attacks by territorial males of this predatory fish seriously wounded intruding males, occasionally resulting in the death of the intruder. We discuss the possibility that sexual differences in mortality rates in small fish may facilitate the evolution of protogyny in this species. Protogyny of the swamp eel is, to our knowledge, the first example of an MTV-polygamous mating system in a fish with paternal care. PMID:21557660

Matsumoto, Seiji; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Ohnishi, Nobuhiro; Kohda, Masanori

2011-05-01

239

[A case of Legionnaires' pneumonia accompanied by clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) with transient altered mental status and cerebellar symptoms, which responded to treatment by antibiotics and corticosteroid].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 60-year-old man was admitted because of fever, headache, and difficulty in walking. Respiratory symptoms included only mild cough, but crackles were present on auscultation at the right lung base, the chest roentgenogram and computed tomography scans showed consolidation in the right lower lobe. Laboratory findings revealed hyponatremia, elevated liver function test values and creatine phosphokinase, and Legionella pneumophila antigen in urine. Neurological examination revealed mild mental status change, dysmetria, dysarthria, and ataxic gait. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, performed at the time of admission, revealed regions of high intensity in the splenium corpus callosum. We diagnosed Legionnaires' pneumonia accompanied by clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS), and started treatment with ciprofloxacin and methylprednisolone at 1 mg/kg/day. Neurological symptoms gradually improved. On day 6 after admission, mild dysarthria and ataxic gait remained, a 123-IMP single photon emission computed tomography revealed no abnormality. On day 15 after admission, the only neurological symptom was mild ataxic gait; the MRI scans showed no abnormalities. On day 29 after admission, neurological symptoms were completely resolved. This is the first reported case of Legionnaires' pneumonia accompanied by clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) was treated with not only antibiotics but also corticosteroid. PMID:22073610

Hibino, Makoto; Hibi, Michiko; Akazawa, Kenichiro; Hikino, Koji; Oe, Motoki

2011-09-01

240

Using Dissortative Mating Genetic Algorithms to Track the Extrema of Dynamic Deceptive Functions  

CERN Document Server

Traditional Genetic Algorithms (GAs) mating schemes select individuals for crossover independently of their genotypic or phenotypic similarities. In Nature, this behaviour is known as random mating. However, non-random schemes - in which individuals mate according to their kinship or likeness - are more common in natural systems. Previous studies indicate that, when applied to GAs, negative assortative mating (a specific type of non-random mating, also known as dissortative mating) may improve their performance (on both speed and reliability) in a wide range of problems. Dissortative mating maintains the genetic diversity at a higher level during the run, and that fact is frequently observed as an explanation for dissortative GAs ability to escape local optima traps. Dynamic problems, due to their specificities, demand special care when tuning a GA, because diversity plays an even more crucial role than it does when tackling static ones. This paper investigates the behaviour of dissortative mating GAs, namely...

Fernandes, C M; Rosa, A C

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Light wavelength dependency of mating activity in the drosophila melanogaster species subgroup  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The action spectra of mating activity among the six species of the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup were compared to understand how light wavelength affects mating activity. The species fell into three groups with respect to the action spectrum of mating activity. We chose one representative species from each of the three types for detailed study: D. melanogaster, D. sechellia and D. yakuba. The mating activities were investigated under three different light intensities of three monochromatic lights stimulus. Each species showed a unique spectral and intensity response. To know the evolutionary meaning of the light wavelength dependency of mating activity, we superimposed the type of action spectrum of mating activity in these six species on a cladogram. Mating inhibition under UV was conserved in evolution among these species. Furthermore we clarified that D. melanogaster showed low mating activity under UV because males courted less under UV. (author)

242

46 CFR 11.462 - Endorsements for master or mate of uninspected fishing industry vessels.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endorsements for master or mate of uninspected...SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.462 Endorsements for master or mate of...

2010-10-01

243

Codling moth: mating of irradiated and unirradiated laboratory-reared and native moths in the field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unirradiated, laboratory-reared males of Laspeyresia pomonella (L.) mated 29.6% less than native males in field tests. Laboratory-reared males irradiated with 30 krad of gamma irradiation mated 62.6% less than native males

244

Positive or negative allosteric modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 does not alter expression of behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/o0  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigated the role of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5 in methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization. The mGluR5 positive allosteric modulator (3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl benzamide (CDPPB and negative allosteric modulator fenobam were tested in separate experiments. Sprague-Dawley rats were repeatedly injected with 1 mg/kg methamphetamine or saline, and then given a locomotor challenge test using a dose of 0.5 mg/kg methamphetamine. Prior to the challenge test session, rats were injected with CDPPB, fenobam, or a vehicle.  Doses from previous studies showed reduced drug-conditioned behavior; however in this study neither CDPPB nor fenobam pretreatment resulted in an altered expression of behavioral sensitization, indicating a lack of mGluR5 involvement in sensitized methamphetamine-induced locomotion. Additionally, the high dose (30 mg/kg of fenobam resulted in decreased methamphetamine-induced locomotion in rats regardless of drug exposure history, which suggests evidence of nonspecific behavioral inhibition.

Peter R Kufahl

2013-03-01

245

Determinants of male reproductive health disorders: the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between reproductive health disorders and lifestyle factors in middle-aged and older men is not clear. The aim of this study is to describe lifestyle and biomedical associations as possible causes of erectile dysfunction (ED, prostate disease (PD, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and perceived symptoms of androgen deficiency (pAD in a representative population of middle-aged and older men, using the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS. Methods A representative sample (n = 5990 of men aged 40+ years, stratified by age and State, was contacted by random selection of households, with an individual response rate of 78%. All men participated in a 20-minute computer-assisted telephone interview exploring general and reproductive health. Associations between male reproductive health disorders and lifestyle and biomedical factors were analysed using multivariate logistic regression (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]. Variables studied included age, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, co-morbid disease and medication use for hypertension, high cholesterol and symptoms of depression. Results Controlling for age and a range of lifestyle and co-morbid exposures, sedentary lifestyle and being underweight was associated with an increased likelihood of ED (1.4 [1.1-1.8]; 2.9 [1.5-5.8], respectively and pAD (1.3 [1.1-1.7]; 2.7 [1.4-5.0], respectively. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease were both associated with ED, with hypertension strongly associated with LUTS and pAD. Current smoking (inverse association and depressive symptomatology were the only variables independently associated with PD. All reproductive disorders showed consistent associations with depression (measured either by depressive symptomatology or medication use in both age-adjusted and multivariate analyses. Conclusion A range of lifestyle factors, more often associated with chronic disease, were significantly associated with male reproductive health disorders. Education strategies directed to improving general health may also confer benefits to male reproductive health.

Wittert Gary

2010-02-01

246

Strong Reproductive Skew Among Males in the Multiply Mated Swordtail Xiphophorus multilineatus (Teleostei)  

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Male swordtails in the genus Xiphophorus display a conspicuous ventral elongation of the caudal fin, the sword, which arose through sexual selection due to female preference. Females mate regularly and are able to store sperm for at least 6 months. If multiple mating is frequent, this would raise the intriguing question about the role of female choice and male-male competition in shaping the mating systemof these fishes. Size-dependent alternate mating strategies occur in Xiphophorus; one suc...

Luo, Jing; Sanetra, Matthias; Schartl, Manfred; Meyer, Axel

2005-01-01

247

Interspecies pheromone signaling promotes biofilm formation and same-sex mating in Candida albicans  

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The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a parasexual mating cycle in which cells must switch from the conventional “white” form to the alternative “opaque” form to become mating competent. Pheromones secreted by opaque cells induce the formation of polarized mating projections and result in cell–cell conjugation. In contrast, white cells are unable to undergo mating, but can still respond to pheromone by expression of adhesion genes that promote biofilm formation. In t...

Alby, Kevin; Bennett, Richard J.

2011-01-01

248

Identifying the transition between single and multiple mating of queens in fungus-growing ants.  

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Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants is known to include evolutionarily derived genera with obligate multiple mating (the Acromyrmex and Atta leafcutter ants) as well as phylogenetically basal genera with exclusively single mating (e.g....

Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

2002-01-01

249

Ovarian activation in Melipona quadrifasciata queens triggered by mating plug stimulation (Hymenoptera, Apidae)  

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The effect of the detached male genital capsule on ovarian activation in queens of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, and the amount of time the genital capsule remains attached to the queen genital chamber after mating, were investigated. Twenty-four controlled matings were carried out and the male capsules were manually removed at preset time intervals. The results indicate that the experimental removal of the mating plug on the first three days after mating inhibits ovarian activat...

Melo, Gabriel; Maria Luisa T. Buschini,; Campos, Lucio

2001-01-01

250

Female extrapair mate choice in a cooperative breeder: trading sex for help and increasing offspring heterozygosity  

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Sexual conflict between males and females over mating is common. Females that copulate with extrapair mates outside the pair-bond may gain (i) direct benefits such as resources or increased paternal care, (ii) indirect genetic benefits for their offspring, or (iii) insurance against infertility in their own social mate. Few studies have been able to demonstrate the different contexts in which females receive varying types of benefits from extrapair mates. Here, I examined sexual conflict, fem...

Rubenstein, Dustin R.

2007-01-01

251

Do women pretend orgasm to retain a mate?  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study tested the hypothesis that women pretend orgasm as part of a broader strategy of mate retention. We obtained self-report data from 453 heterosexual women (M age, 21.8 years) in a long-term relationship (M length, 32.8 months) drawn from universities and surrounding communities in the southeastern United States. The results indicated that (1) women who perceived higher risk of partner infidelity were more likely to report pretending orgasm, (2) women who reported greater likelihood of pretending orgasm also reported performing more mate retention behaviors, and (3) women's perceptions of partner infidelity risk mediated the relationship between pretending orgasm and the performance of cost-inflicting mate retention behaviors, such as Intersexual Negative Inducements ("Flirted with someone in front of my partner") and Intrasexual Negative Inducements ("Yelled at a woman who looked at my partner"). Thus, pretending orgasm may be part of a broader strategy of mate retention performed by women who perceive higher risk of partner infidelity. PMID:22089325

Kaighobadi, Farnaz; Shackelford, Todd K; Weekes-Shackelford, Viviana A

2012-10-01

252

Sequence diversity of mating-type genes in Phaeosphaeria avenaria.  

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Phaeosphaeria avenaria, one of the causal agents of stagonospora leaf blotch diseases in cereals, is composed of two subspecies, P. avenaria f. sp. triticea (Pat) and P. avenaria f. sp. avenaria (Paa). The Pat subspecies was grouped into Pat1-Pat3, based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences in previous studies. Mating-type genes and their potential use in phylogeny and molecular classification were studied by DNA hybridization and PCR amplification. The majority of Pat1 isolates reported to be homothallic and producing sexual reproduction structures on cultural media had only the MAT1-1 gene. Minor sequence variations were found in the conserved region of MAT1-1 gene in Pat1 isolates. However, both mating-type genes, MAT1-1 and MAT1-2, were identified in P. avenaria isolates represented by ATCC12277 from oats (Paa) and the Pat2 isolates from foxtail barley ( Hordeum jubatum L.). Cluster analyses based on mating-type gene conserved regions revealed that cereal Phaeosphaeria is not phylogenetically closely related to other ascomycetes, including Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph Septoria tritici). The sequence diversity of mating-type genes in Pat and Paa supports our previous phylogenetic relationship and molecular classification based on RFLP fingerprinting and rDNA ITS sequences. PMID:12695852

Ueng, Peter P; Dai, Qun; Cui, Kai-rong; Czembor, Pawe? C; Cunfer, Barry M; Tsang, H; Arseniuk, Edward; Bergstrom, Gary C

2003-05-01

253

Sexual Dimorphism and Mating Behavior in Anomala testaceipennis.  

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The beetle, Anomala testaceipennis Blanchard (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), occurs in central-western Brazil where larvae feed on the roots of plants causing damage. This research aimed to study sexual dimorphism and mating behavior of A. testaceipennis. Adults of A. testaceipennis were collected with light traps in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. Laboratory experiments were performed to describe copulation behavior and adult morphology of males and females. In males the last abdominal segment has a pronounced constriction, which is absent in females, and the male's last segment of the first pair of legs has a ventral projection, which is poorly developed in females. The mating activities of adults begin soon after sunset, when adults leave the soil and fly. When the male encounters a female, he touches her with antennae and tarsi. If accepted, the male climbs on the female and remains on her back, and soon after the copulation begins. When the female does not accept the male for mating, she moves rapidly and can roll on the ground, and by so removing the male. In the field, adults feed and mate on bloomed trees of Oiti, Licania tomentosa Benth (Malpighiales: Chrysobalanaceae) and Louro, Cordia glabrata Martius (Boraginaceae). In trees without inflorescences no adults of this species were found. PMID:25502043

Rodrigues, Sérgio Roberto; Gomes, Elias Soares; Bento, José Maurício Simões

2014-01-01

254

Trace elements in different brands of yerba mate tea.  

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Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a widely consumed beverage in South America, contains various biochemically active substances, among them are several minerals. This paper reports on the results of a survey of trace elements in the yerba mate infusions. Three different commercially available trademarks of I. paraguariensis were evaluated, simulating the popular mode of preparation. Atomic absorption analyses for cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, iron, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, and silver were performed using a graphite furnace. The levels ranged from 0.03 to 0.06 mg/L for copper, from 0.41 to 1.0 mg/L for zinc, from 0.32 to 1.7 mg/L for aluminum, from 0.12 to 0.23 mg/L for iron, from 2.3 to 7.0 mg/L for manganese, and from 0.01 to 0.03 mg/L for silver. The levels of chromium did not exceed 0.005 mg/L, while molybdenum, cadmium, and lead were lower than <0.01 mg/L. Metal content in mate tea infusions depends on a number of factors, some of which are controllable and others not, but the differences among various sources are admissible. Trace elements in mate plants seem to be weakly bounded to the substrate. The concentration of biometals does not exceed the limits accepted by Brazilian and international legislation when available. PMID:21487890

Bragança, Victor Luiz Cordoba; Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Zélia

2011-12-01

255

Kinetic-energy absorber employs frictional force between mating cylinders  

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A kinetic energy absorbing device uses a series of coaxial, mating cylindrical surfaces. These surfaces have high frictional resistance to relative motion when axial impact forces are applied. The device is designed for safe deceleration of vehicles impacting on landing surfaces.

Conrad, E. W.

1964-01-01

256

Boatswain's Mate F1 and C: Naval Rate Training Manual.  

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The Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package that enables Aviation Boatswain's Mate F to fulfill the requirements for advancement to ABF1 and the ABF1 for advancement to the rank of ABFC. In preparing for advancement examinations, the manual should be studied in conjunction with Military Requirements…

Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

257

The Mating Game: A Classroom Activity for Undergraduates that Explores the Evolutionary Basis of Sex Roles  

Science.gov (United States)

In species that reproduce sexually, an individual's fitness depends on its ability to secure a mate (or mates). Although both males and females are selected to maximize their reproductive output, the mating strategies of the two sexes can differ dramatically. We present a classroom simulation that allows undergraduates to actively experience how…

Moore, Dani; Holbrook, C. Tate; Meadows, Melissa G.; Taylor, Lisa A.

2012-01-01

258

A gene–culture coevolutionary model for brother–sister?mating  

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We present a gene–culture coevolutionary model for brother–sister mating in the human. It is shown that cultural—as opposed to innate—determination of mate preference may evolve, provided the inbreeding depression is sufficiently high. At this coevolutionary equilibrium, sib mating is avoided because of cultural pressures.

Aoki, Kenichi; Feldman, Marcus W.

1997-01-01

259

Delayed mating reduces reproductive output of female European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

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Virgin females of Lobesia botrana Denis & Schiffermüller were mated at ages of 1, 3, 5, 8, 12 and 16 days and the effect of mating delay on reproductive output assessed. Delayed mating did not affect female mating success but fertilization was reduced in 16-day-old females. Increased mating delays substantially affected daily oviposition pattern and resulted in a significant reduction of both fecundity and fertility, so that mean number of viable eggs laid decreased from 150 to 22 in 1- and 16-day-old mated females, respectively. Heavier females were more constrained than lighter ones by mating delays and female reproductive efficiency (no. viable eggs/female body weight) was also significantly reduced. Female longevity significantly increased and oviposition period gradually declined with mating delay. The number of viable eggs was positively correlated with both female weight and oviposition period; female longevity and female weight were also significantly correlated. However, the significance of these correlations declined with increased mating delay. Results overall indicated that mating delay drastically reduces female L. botrana reproductive output. The implications of delayed mating of females are discussed from an ecological perspective in relation to L. botrana control using mating disruption. PMID:12088541

Torres-Vila, L M; Rodríguez-Molina, M C; Stockel, J

2002-06-01

260

Mating behaviour in a slave-making ant, Rossomyrmex minuchae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)  

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The mating behaviour of the ant Rossomyrmex minuchae, a rare, protected slave-making species in Spain, seems to be significantly affected by its particular life history and patchy habitat. The mating behaviour of the entire genus Rossomyrmex is virtually unknown. We present here the results of a 3-year study of mating behaviour in R. minuchae.

Ruano, Francisca; Tinaut, Alberto

2005-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

Crossing boundaries: nativity, ethnicity, and mate selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influx of immigrants has increased diversity among ethnic minorities and indicates that they may take multiple integration paths in American society. Previous research on ethnic integration has often focused on panethnic differences, and few have explored ethnic diversity within a racial or panethnic context. Using 2000 U.S. census data for Puerto Rican-, Mexican-, Chinese-, and Filipino-origin individuals, we examine differences in marriage and cohabitation with whites, with other minorities, within a panethnic group, and within an ethnic group by nativity status. Ethnic endogamy is strong and, to a lesser extent, so is panethnic endogamy. Yet, marital or cohabiting unions with whites remain an important path of integration but differ significantly by ethnicity, nativity, age at arrival, and educational attainment. Meanwhile, ethnic differences in marriage and cohabitation with other racial or ethnic minorities are strong. Our analysis supports that unions with whites remain a major path of integration, but other paths of integration also become viable options for all ethnic groups. PMID:22350840

Qian, Zhenchao; Glick, Jennifer E; Batson, Christie D

2012-05-01

262

[Classification of dermatophytes by mating type (MAT) gene analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Trichophyton mentagrophytes is epidemiologically divided into two distinct forms, zoophilic and anthropophilic. The zoophilic isolates of T.mentagrophytes have generally been identified by morphological and biochemical examination as well as through mating experiments. The confirmed teleomorphs of the zoophilic isolates of the T.mentagrophytes complex are Arthroderma benhamiae, A. simii and A. vanbreuseghemii. On the other hand, no teleomorph has been identified in an anthropophilic isolate of T. mentagrophytes, such as T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (T. interdigitale) or in the other anthropophilic strains. In the present study, the mating type (MAT) (-)-specific gene of the MAT1-1 (alpha-box) and the MAT (+)-specific gene of the MAT1-2 (high-mobility-group : HMG) DNA binding domain were confirmed in zoophilic dermatophytes of A. benhamiae, A. simii and A. vanbreuseghemii. The sequence of the MAT1-1 was about 1.3 kbp, containing 2 exons in the A. benhamiae, A. simii and A. vanbreuseghemii (-) mating type strain. The sequence of the MAT1-2 was 1.9 kbp, containing 2 exons in the A. benhamiae, A. simii and A. vanbreuseghemii (+) mating type strain. Of 15 animal isolates and 72 human isolates examined, the MAT1-1 was detected in 5 of the animal isolates and in none of the human isolates, while the MAT1-2 was detected in the other 10 of the animal isolates and in all of the human isolates. These results indicate that anthropophilic T. mentagrophytes evolved from the A. vanbreuseghemii (+) mating strain. PMID:23149351

Kano, Rui

2012-01-01

263

Conditioned mate-guarding behavior in the female rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female and male rats are often described as having a promiscuous mating strategy, yet simple Pavlovian conditioning paradigms, in which a neutral odor or strain-related cues are paired with preferred sexual reward states during an animal's first sexual experiences, shift this strategy toward copulatory and mate preferences for partners bearing the familiar odor or strain cue. We examined whether female rats given exclusive rewarding copulation with one particular male would display mate-guarding behavior, a strong index of monogamous mating. Ovariectomized, hormone-primed female Long-Evans rats were given their first 10 paced sexual experiences at 4-day intervals with a particular unscented male of the same strain. A final test was conducted in an open field 4-days later in which the primed, partnered female was given access to the male partner and a fully-primed competitor female. In this situation, the partnered females mounted the competitor female repeatedly if she came near the vicinity of the male. This behavior prevented the male from copulating with the competitor, and was not displayed if partnered females could not pace the rate of copulatory behavior efficiently during the training trials, nor was it displayed by the competitor females. Fos expression was examined in both the partnered and competitor females after the final open field test. Partnered females had significantly higher expression within the supraoptic nucleus and nucleus accumbens shell compared to partnered females that did not develop this behavior or competitor females. These data show that females engaged in paced copulation with the same male display mate-guarding when exposed to that male and a competitor female. Increased activation of the SON and NAc may underlie this behavior. PMID:24768651

Holley, Amanda; Shalev, Shy; Bellevue, Shannon; Pfaus, James G

2014-05-28

264

Alteraciones del estado nutricional y la tensión arterial como señales tempranas de aterosclerosis en adolescentes Alterations of nutritional status and blood pressure as early signals of atherosclerosis in adolescents  

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Full Text Available Introducción: la aterosclerosis constituye la primera causa de muerte en Cuba y cada día priva de la vida a personas más jóvenes. Objetivos: identificar alteraciones del estado nutricional y la tensión arterial e intentar establecer relación entre ellas, en adolescentes aparentemente sanos. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de sección transversal en 302 estudiantes de la Secundaria Básica "Josué País" perteneciente al área de atención del Policlínico Docente "Puentes Grandes", en edades entre los 12 y 14 años. Se realizó interrogatorio y examen físico individual de acuerdo al Modelo de Recolección del Dato Primario del Centro de Investigaciones y Referencia de Aterosclerosis de La Habana. Las variables estudiadas fueron edad, sexo, peso, talla, tensión arterial sistólica, tensión arterial diastólica e índice de masa corporal. Se tuvieron en consideración los principios éticos de toda investigación científica. Resultados: se halló el 15,5 % de sobrepesos y el 4,96 % de obesos. Se identificó el 7,9 % de prehipertensos y el 0,66 % de hipertensos y se encontró que dos alumnos clasificados como hipertensos grado I según tablas de valores percentilares, eran obesos. Conclusiones: los resultados alcanzados son fuente de motivación para continuar la búsqueda de La Señal Aterosclerótica Temprana para la prevención de enfermedades de origen aterosclerótico en la adultez.Introduction: atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in Cuba and every day more young people lost their lives. Objectives: to identify the nutritional status and blood pressure ant to try to establish if there is some relation between them in apparently healthy adolescents aged between 12 and 14 from "Josué País" Secondary School from the Puentes Grandes Teaching Polyclinic health area. Methods: a cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study was conducted in 302 students aged between 12 and 14 from "Josué País" Secondary School of "Puentes Grandes" Teaching Polyclinic care area. A individual questioning and physical examination was carried out according to the Collection Model of Primary Information from the Research and Reference Center of Atherosclerosis of La Habana. Study variable included: age, sex height, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and body mass index. Ethical principles of a scientific research were taken into account. Results: the was a 15.5 % of excess weight and a 4.96 % of obeses, as well as a 7.9 % of pre-hypertensive and a 0.66 % of hypertensive with a increasing trend in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive percentages in so far as increased the values of body mass index in study group. Conclusions: results obtained are the reason to continue the search of the Early Atherosclerosis Signal to prevent atherosclerotic-origin diseases in adulthood.

María de los Ángeles Cabal Giner

2010-06-01

265

The Chlamydomonas Mating Type Plus Fertilization Tubule, a Prototypic Cell Fusion Organelle: Isolation, Characterization, and In Vitro Adhesion to Mating Type Minus Gametes  

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In the biflagellated alga Chlamydomonas, adhesion and fusion of the plasma membranes of gametes during fertilization occurs via an actin-filled, microvillus-like cell protrusion. Formation of this ?3-?m-long fusion organelle, the Chlamydomonas fertilization tubule, is induced in mating type plus (mt+) gametes during flagellar adhesion with mating type minus (mt?) gametes. Subsequent adhesion between the tip of the mt+ fertilization tubule and the apex of a mating...

Wilson, Nedra F.; Foglesong, Mary J.; Snell, William J.

1997-01-01

266

Sperm precedence in female apple maggots alternately mated to normal and irradiated males  

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A dose of irradiation (Cesium 137) of 3 krad was sufficient to sterilize both sexes of the apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh). When the irradiated male (IM) mated with normal female (NF), egg production was not reduced compared with a normal mating, but the eggs were not viable. Also, two matings of 1 NF with either 2 IM or with 1 NM and 1 IM, produced fewer eggs than a single mating with 1 normal male. Sperm precedence exhibited for the 2nd of the 2 matings was not complete.

Myers, H.S.; Barry, B.D.; Burnside, J.A.; Rhode, R.H.

1976-01-15

267

Sperm precedence in female apple maggots alternately mated to normal and irradiated males  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dose of irradiation (Cesium 137) of 3 krad was sufficient to sterilize both sexes of the apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh). When the irradiated male (IM) mated with normal female (NF), egg production was not reduced compared with a normal mating, but the eggs were not viable. Also, two matings of 1 NF with either 2 IM or with 1 NM and 1 IM, produced fewer eggs than a single mating with 1 normal male. Sperm precedence exhibited for the 2nd of the 2 matings was not complete

268

Alteraciones del estado nutricional y la tensión arterial como señales tempranas de aterosclerosis en adolescentes / Alterations of nutritional status and blood pressure as early signals of atherosclerosis in adolescents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: la aterosclerosis constituye la primera causa de muerte en Cuba y cada día priva de la vida a personas más jóvenes. Objetivos: identificar alteraciones del estado nutricional y la tensión arterial e intentar establecer relación entre ellas, en adolescentes aparentemente sanos. Métodos: [...] se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de sección transversal en 302 estudiantes de la Secundaria Básica "Josué País" perteneciente al área de atención del Policlínico Docente "Puentes Grandes", en edades entre los 12 y 14 años. Se realizó interrogatorio y examen físico individual de acuerdo al Modelo de Recolección del Dato Primario del Centro de Investigaciones y Referencia de Aterosclerosis de La Habana. Las variables estudiadas fueron edad, sexo, peso, talla, tensión arterial sistólica, tensión arterial diastólica e índice de masa corporal. Se tuvieron en consideración los principios éticos de toda investigación científica. Resultados: se halló el 15,5 % de sobrepesos y el 4,96 % de obesos. Se identificó el 7,9 % de prehipertensos y el 0,66 % de hipertensos y se encontró que dos alumnos clasificados como hipertensos grado I según tablas de valores percentilares, eran obesos. Conclusiones: los resultados alcanzados son fuente de motivación para continuar la búsqueda de La Señal Aterosclerótica Temprana para la prevención de enfermedades de origen aterosclerótico en la adultez. Abstract in english Introduction: atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in Cuba and every day more young people lost their lives. Objectives: to identify the nutritional status and blood pressure ant to try to establish if there is some relation between them in apparently healthy adolescents aged between 12 and [...] 14 from "Josué País" Secondary School from the Puentes Grandes Teaching Polyclinic health area. Methods: a cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study was conducted in 302 students aged between 12 and 14 from "Josué País" Secondary School of "Puentes Grandes" Teaching Polyclinic care area. A individual questioning and physical examination was carried out according to the Collection Model of Primary Information from the Research and Reference Center of Atherosclerosis of La Habana. Study variable included: age, sex height, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and body mass index. Ethical principles of a scientific research were taken into account. Results: the was a 15.5 % of excess weight and a 4.96 % of obeses, as well as a 7.9 % of pre-hypertensive and a 0.66 % of hypertensive with a increasing trend in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive percentages in so far as increased the values of body mass index in study group. Conclusions: results obtained are the reason to continue the search of the Early Atherosclerosis Signal to prevent atherosclerotic-origin diseases in adulthood.

María de los Ángeles, Cabal Giner; Giselle, Hernández Oviedo; Gertrudis, Torres Díaz; Maricela, Guerra Ma rín.

2010-06-01

269

Analysis of the mating and reproductive traits of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The reproductive traits of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) were investigated and analyzed by different analytical methods. Simple statistical analysis showed relatively higher mating rates maintained from 21:00 to 2:00, thereafter dropping to a minimum at about 18:00. Mating rates were affected by female and male age. Mating was most likely to take place between females and males that were 1 d old. Correlation and factor analysis indicated that mating delayed females have a relatively lower and unsuccessful mating rate and relatively shorter copulation duration, with lower egg hatchability and fecundity; in addition, the mating delayed male would reduce female's fertility. Delay of mating prolonged life of both males and females. A higher and successful mating rate would cause a higher egg hatchability and fecundity. Canonical correlation analysis showed that mating age and successful copulation of female play a decisive role for her fecundity and longevity, and mating age and mating rates of male play a decisive role for his longevity. PMID:25434041

Song, Wen; Liu, Li; Li, Pengyan; Sun, Hui; Qin, Yuchuan

2014-01-01

270

Interactive cueing with walk-Mate for Hemiparetic Stroke Rehabilitation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many techniques that compensate for locomotion problems in daily life using externally controlled stimulation have recently been reported. These techniques are beneficial for effortlessly supporting patients’ locomotive functions, but the users of such devices must necessarily remain dependent on them. It is possible that some individuals with gait impairment may be prevented recovering locomotive function. From a rehabilitation viewpoint, it may therefore be supposed that ideally, devices that can be used in daily life to improve the locomotive functions of the body itself should be proposed. Methods We evaluate the effectiveness of Walk-Mate, which has been used mainly as a gait compensation device, as a gait rehabilitation training device by analyzing improvement in locomotion before, during and after rehabilitation in hemiparetic patients and comparing it with a previous gait training method. Walk-Mate generates a model walking rhythm in response to a user’s locomotion in real time, and by indicating this rhythm using auditory stimuli, provides a technology that supports walking by reducing asymmetries and fluctuations in foot contact rhythm. If patients can use the system to learn a regulated walking rhythm, then it may also be expected to fulfil the functions of a gait rehabilitation training device for daily life. Results With regard to asymmetry, significantly improvements were seen for compensatory movement during training using Walk-Mate, but improvements were not retained as rehabilitative results. Regarding fluctuations in the foot contact period, significant improvement was observed for compensatory movement during training and these significant improvements were retained as rehabilitative results. In addition, it became clear that such improvement could not be adequately obtained by the previously proposed training technique utilizing constant rhythmic auditory stimulation. Conclusions Walk-Mate effectively compensated for locomotion problems of hemiparetic patients by improving gait rhythm both during and after training, suggesting that locomotive function can be effectively recovered in some patients. The interactive mechanism of Walk-Mate may be capable of simultaneously achieving the aims of gait compensation and gait rehabilitation training methods previously developed under individual frameworks. Walk-Mate is a promising technology for assisting the reintegration of disabled persons into society.

Muto Takeshi

2012-08-01

271

Evolution of mate choice and the so-called magic traits in ecological speciation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-random mating provides multiple evolutionary benefits and can result in speciation. Biological organisms are characterised by a myriad of different traits, many of which can serve as mating cues. We consider multiple mechanisms of non-random mating simultaneously within a unified modelling framework in an attempt to understand better which are more likely to evolve in natural populations going through the process of local adaptation and ecological speciation. We show that certain traits that are under direct natural selection are more likely to be co-opted as mating cues, leading to the appearance of magic traits (i.e. phenotypic traits involved in both local adaptation and mating decisions). Multiple mechanisms of non-random mating can interact so that trait co-evolution enables the evolution of non-random mating mechanisms that would not evolve alone. The presence of magic traits may suggest that ecological selection was acting during the origin of new species. PMID:23782866

Thibert-Plante, Xavier; Gavrilets, Sergey

2013-08-01

272

Fitness consequences of female multiple mating: A direct test of indirect benefits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The observation that females mate multiply when males provide nothing but sperm - which sexual selection theory suggests is unlikely to be limiting - continues to puzzle evolutionary biologists. Here we test the hypothesis that multiple mating is prevalent under such circumstances because it enhances female fitness. We do this by allowing female Trinidadian guppies to mate with either a single male or with multiple males, and then tracking the consequences of these matings across two generations. Results Overall, multiply mated females produced 67% more F2 grand-offspring than singly mated females. These offspring, however, did not grow or mature faster, nor were they larger at birth, than F2 grand-offspring of singly mated females. Our results, however, show that multiple mating yields benefits to females in the form of an increase in the production of F1. The higher fecundity among multiply mated mothers was driven by greater production of sons but not daughters. However, contrary to expectation, individually, the offspring of multiply mated females do not grow at different rates than offspring of singly mated females, nor do any indirect fitness benefits or costs accrue to second-generation offspring. Conclusions The study provides strong evidence that multiple mating is advantageous to females, even when males contribute only sperm. This benefit is achieved through an increase in fecundity in the first generation, rather than through other fitness correlates such as size at birth, growth rate, time to sexual maturation and survival. Considered alongside previous work that female guppies can choose to mate with multiple partners, our results provide compelling evidence that direct fitness benefits underpin these mating decisions.

Barbosa Miguel

2012-09-01

273

Compliance status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford`s compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute.

Black, D.G.

1995-06-01

274

Compliance status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford's compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute

275

Impact of sex, age, and mating status on flight behavior of the navel orangeworm (NOW)  

Science.gov (United States)

The current flight mill study shows that single-night median flight distance of unmated navel orangeworm adults is 4.5-6.6 miles for males and 4.1-8.7 miles for females depending on age during the first five days of adult life. Maximum distances were 16.6-24.5 miles for males and 33.9-41.1 miles for...

276

Weighing costs and benefits of mating in bushcrickets (Insecta: Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae, with an emphasis on nuptial gifts, protandry and mate density  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Sexual selection is a major force driving evolution and is intertwined with ecological factors. Differential allocation of limited resources has a central role in the cost of reproduction. In this paper, I review the costs and benefits of mating in tettigoniids, focussing on nuptial gifts, their trade-off with male calling songs, protandry and how mate density influences mate choice. Tettigoniids have been widely used as model systems for studies of mating costs and benefits; they can provide useful general insights. The production and exchange of large nuptial gifts by males for mating is an important reproductive strategy in tettigoniids. As predicted by sexual selection theory spermatophylax size is condition dependent and is constrained by the need to invest in calling to attract mates also. Under some circumstances, females benefit directly from the nuptial gifts by an increase in reproductive output. However, compounds in the nuptial gift can also benefit the male by prolonging the period before the female remates. There is also a trade-off between adult male maturation and mating success. Where males mature before females (protandry the level of protandry varies in the direction predicted by sperm competition theory; namely, early male maturation is correlated with a high level of first inseminations being reproductively successful. Lastly, mate density in bushcrickets is an important environmental factor influencing the behavioural decisions of individuals. Where mates are abundant, individuals are more choosey of mates; when they are scarce, individuals are less choosey. This review reinforces the view that tettigoniids provide excellent models to test and understand the economics of matings in both sexes.

Lehmann Gerlind U C

2012-08-01

277

Simple Model of Mating Preference and Extinction Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a simple model of a population of individuals characterized by their genetic structure in the form of a double string of bits and the phenotype following from it. The population is living in an unchanging habitat preferring a certain type of phenotype (optimum). Individuals are unisex, however a pair is necessary for breeding. An individual rejects a mate if the latter's phenotype contains too many bad, i.e. different from the optimum, genes in the same places as the individual's. We show that such strategy, analogous to disassortative mating based on the major histocompatibility complex, avoiding inbreeding and incest, could be beneficial for the population and could reduce considerably the extinction risk, especially in small populations.

P?KALSKI, Andrzej

278

Ultraviolet plumage colors predict mate preferences in?starlings  

Science.gov (United States)

Avian plumage has long been used to test theories of sexual selection, with humans assessing the colors. However, many birds see in the ultraviolet (<400 nm), to which humans are blind. Consequently, it is important to know whether natural variation in UV reflectance from plumage functions in sexual signaling. We show that female starlings rank males differently when UV wavelengths are present or absent. Principal component analysis of ?1300 reflectance spectra (300–700 nm) taken from sexually dimorphic plumage regions of males predicted preference under the UV+ treatment. Under UV? conditions, females ranked males in a different and nonrandom order, but plumage reflectance in the human visible spectrum did not predict choice. Natural variation in UV reflectance is thus important in avian mate assessment, and the prevailing light environment can have profound effects on observed mating preferences. PMID:9238026

Bennett, Andrew T. D.; Cuthill, Innes C.; Partridge, Julian C.; Lunau, Klaus

1997-01-01

279

Ultraviolet plumage colors predict mate preferences in starlings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Avian plumage has long been used to test theories of sexual selection, with humans assessing the colors. However, many birds see in the ultraviolet (<400 nm), to which humans are blind. Consequently, it is important to know whether natural variation in UV reflectance from plumage functions in sexual signaling. We show that female starlings rank males differently when UV wavelengths are present or absent. Principal component analysis of approximately 1300 reflectance spectra (300-700 nm) taken from sexually dimorphic plumage regions of males predicted preference under the UV+ treatment. Under UV- conditions, females ranked males in a different and nonrandom order, but plumage reflectance in the human visible spectrum did not predict choice. Natural variation in UV reflectance is thus important in avian mate assessment, and the prevailing light environment can have profound effects on observed mating preferences. PMID:9238026

Bennett, A T; Cuthill, I C; Partridge, J C; Lunau, K

1997-08-01

280

Honey Bee Mating Optimization Vector Quantization Scheme in Image Compression  

Science.gov (United States)

The vector quantization is a powerful technique in the applications of digital image compression. The traditionally widely used method such as the Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) algorithm always generated local optimal codebook. Recently, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is adapted to obtain the near-global optimal codebook of vector quantization. In this paper, we applied a new swarm algorithm, honey bee mating optimization, to construct the codebook of vector quantization. The proposed method is called the honey bee mating optimization based LBG (HBMO-LBG) algorithm. The results were compared with the other two methods that are LBG and PSO-LBG algorithms. Experimental results showed that the proposed HBMO-LBG algorithm is more reliable and the reconstructed images get higher quality than those generated form the other three methods.

Horng, Ming-Huwi

 
 
 
 
281

Mechanical seal having a single-piece, perforated mating ring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) with reduced contact surface temperature, reduced contact surface wear, or increased life span. The mechanical seal comprises a rotating ring and a single-piece, perforated mating ring, which improves heat transfer by controllably channeling coolant flow through the single-piece mating ring such that the coolant is in substantially uniform thermal contact with a substantial portion of the interior surface area of the seal face, while maintaining the structural integrity of the mechanical seal and minimizing the potential for coolant flow interruptions to the seal face caused by debris or contaminants (e.g., small solids and trash) in the coolant.

Khonsari, Michael M. (Baton Rouge, LA); Somanchi, Anoop K. (Fremont, CA)

2007-08-07

282

Dominant marker vectors for selecting yeast mating products.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed plasmid vectors to enable selection of diploids from mating reactions between haploid strains that lack compatible recessive genetic markers. The plasmids bear one of five different dominant selectable markers, kanMX4, hphMX4, natMX4, patMX3 or ZEO, a yeast origin of replication, and the URA3 gene. Diploids can be selected from mating reactions between haploids transformed with plasmids expressing different dominant markers, by using a combination of drugs that select for both markers. Following non-selective growth, diploids that subsequently become cured of the plasmids can be directly selected on 5-FOA, for ura3 auxotrophs, or identified by replica-plating onto appropriate selective media. PMID:18613257

Sadowski, Ivan; Lourenco, Pedro; Parent, Jennifer

2008-08-01

283

MATING BEHAVIOUR AND CANNIBALISM IN PRAYING MANTIS (MANTIS RELIGIOSA  

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This paper intends to study the reproductive behaviour of praying mantis (Mantis religiosa L.), describing the whole sequences of mating behaviour, approaching wholeness behavioural sequences related to reproduction of species, with special reference to cannibalistic behaviour, observed both in laboratory and natural environment of the insect. The investigations undertaken deduce the complexity of the problem and the need for further studies to elucidate and other aspects reguarding this ty...

Ionut? Bogdan, Daniel –.; Sta?nescu, Dan

2010-01-01

284

MATING BEHAVIOUR AND CANNIBALISM IN PRAYING MANTIS (MANTIS RELIGIOSA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper intends to study the reproductive behaviour of praying mantis (Mantis religiosa L., describing the whole sequences of mating behaviour, approaching wholeness behavioural sequences related to reproduction of species, with special reference to cannibalistic behaviour, observed both in laboratory and natural environment of the insect. The investigations undertaken deduce the complexity of the problem and the need for further studies to elucidate and other aspects reguarding this type of behaviour.

Daniel – Ionu? BOGDAN

2010-01-01

285

Treatment of Persistent Mating Induced Endometritis in Arabian Maiden Mares  

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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the treatment of Persistent Mating Induced Endometritis (PMIE) in Arabian maiden mares using uterine lavage containing antibiotics alone or with uterotonic agents. Maiden mares (n = 42) with PMIE were subjected to detailed clinical examinations including palpation per rectum, vaginoscopy and cytological examination. The mares were qualified as PMIE due to accumulation of uterine fluid 1-2 days post breeding. Uterine lavage containing crystall...

Taha, M. B.

2007-01-01

286

Why Do Female Callosobruchus maculatus Kick Their Mates?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from ex...

Lieshout, Emile; Mcnamara, Kathryn B.; Simmons, Leigh W.

2014-01-01

287

Brief Communication: Polarized light as a butterfly mating signal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Iridescent butterfly scales are visually stunning structures that reflect highly saturated colour. They also create an array of non-chromatic optical phenomena, such as polarization, polarization mixing and highly directional flashes (1,2) but the ecological purpose of these effects is unclear (3,4). Here we show that polarized light is used in mate recognition by Heliconius butterflies, a genus that is known to rely on visual cues in sexual selection and speciat...

Sweeney, Alison; Jiggins, Christopher; Johnsen, So?nke

2003-01-01

288

Fluoxetine does not prevent interspecific mating between two hamster species  

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In a recent study we showed that female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) from a laboratory stock readily mated with male Turkish hamsters (M. brandti). We hypothesized that captivity and/or unconscious selection of the most receptive females by researchers or animal caretakers results in heightened female sexual receptivity and reduces the tendency to reject heterospecific males. To test this hypothesis, we decided to decrease female receptivity by injection of fluoxetine, which increas...

Delbarco-trillo, Javier; Johnston, Robert E.

2010-01-01

289

Assortative Mating and Divorce: Evidence from Austrian Register Data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper documents that changes in assortative mating patterns over the last four decades along the dimensions of age, ethnicity, religion and education are not responsible for the increasing marital instability in Austria. Quite the contrary, without the rise in the age at marriage, divorce rates would be considerably higher. Immigration and secularization, and the resulting supply of spouses with diverse ethnicity and religious denominations had no overall effect on divorce rates. Counter...

Frimmel, Wolfgang; Halla, Martin; Winter-ebmer, Rudolf

2009-01-01

290

Biogenesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mating Pheromone a-Factor  

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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating pheromone a-factor is a prenylated and carboxyl methylated extracellular peptide signaling molecule. Biogenesis of the a-factor precursor proceeds via a distinctive multistep pathway that involves COOH-terminal modification, NH2-terminal proteolysis, and a nonclassical export mechanism. In this study, we examine the formation and fate of a-factor biosynthetic intermediates to more precisely define the events that occur during a-factor biogenesis. We have...

Chen, Peng; Sapperstein, Stephanie K.; Choi, Jonathan D.; Michaelis, Susan

1997-01-01

291

The genetic structure and mating system of Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae)  

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Acrocomia aculeata is a perennial, fruit-producing palm tree, native to tropical forests. Its fruits have spurred interest because of their significant potential for use in the cosmetic industry and as feedstock for biofuel. In the present study, the genetic structure and mating system in Acrocomia aculeata were analyzed, using eight nuclear micro-satellite loci and samples from São Paulo and Minas Gerais states, Brazil. By means of Bayesian analysis, these populations were clustered into tw...

Aluana Gonçalves Abreu; Regina Helena Geribello Priolli; Joaquim Adelino Azevedo-Filho; Stella Maris Nucci; Maria Imaculada Zucchi; Ricardo Marques Coelho; Carlos Augusto Colombo

2012-01-01

292

Effect of gamma irradiation on sperm utilization in twice-mated female of potato tuber moth (Lep., Noctuidae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of second mating on fecundity and fertility of potato tuber moth female mated with 450 Gy - irradiated and normal males or vice versa were studied. Percentage of eggs fertilized by sperm from the 2 nd mate (P2) was 0.99, indicating that sperm transferred during the last mating were predominantly utilized in egg fertilization. Females mated first with irradiated males, remated after 2 days, while those mated first with normal males, remated after 3.3 days. Fecundity of twice-mated females was higher than those mated only once. Females laid their eggs 1.9 days after mating, while unmated females did not lay eggs at all. Duration of mating varied from 102 to 117 minutes for normal and irradiated males, respectively. (author)

293

Environmentally Realistic Exposure to the Herbicide Atrazine Alters Some Sexually Selected Traits in Male Guppies  

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Male mating signals, including ornaments and courtship displays, and other sexually selected traits, like male-male aggression, are largely controlled by sex hormones. Environmental pollutants, notably endocrine disrupting compounds, can interfere with the proper functioning of hormones, thereby impacting the expression of hormonally regulated traits. Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, can alter sex hormone levels in exposed animals. I tested the effects of environmentally rele...

Shenoy, Kausalya

2012-01-01

294

Variation in mate preference across a house mouse hybrid zone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reproductive character displacement is known to occur at the borders of a secondary contact zone between the two European subspecies of the house mouse (in Jutland, Denmark), where selection against hybridization occurs. This study assessed patterns of mate preference in naturally occurring hybrids of the two subspecies. Mate odour choice was investigated in male and female mice sampled across the hybrid zone. Odour samples comprised urine (from the opposite sex to the test animal) obtained from populations geographically distant from the hybrid zone. Urine is known to carry subspecies recognition signals. The behavioural results changed across the hybrid zone, and were analysed by a model of clinal variation. This behavioural cline was compared with the allozyme cline across the same hybrid zone. Males on both sides of the hybrid zone showed an assortative preference, which shifted significantly and abruptly approximately 10 km from the genetic centre of the hybrid zone on the Mus musculus musculus side. Directional preference was not detected in females, which could relate to variation in sexual receptivity. Our model indicates that the peculiar pattern of male preference could involve several genes and be characterized by mild to strong epistasis favouring the expression of M. m. domesticus-like preference over a large portion of the hybrid zone. This study may provide the first picture of the genetic determination of mate preference in a mammal. PMID:18414506

Ganem, G; Litel, C; Lenormand, T

2008-06-01

295

First Recorded Mating Flight of the Hypogeic Ant, Acropyga epedana, with its Obligate Mutualist Mealybug, Rhizoecus colombiensis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On 26-July, 2005 a mating aggregation of Acropyga epedana Snelling (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) was observed in the Chiricahua Mountains in south-eastern Arizona. This is the first record of a mating flight of A. epedana, the only nearctic member of this pantropical genus. Mating behavior was observed, newly mated queens were collected, and a complete colony was excavated. New information is reported on the natural history and mating behavior of the species. The identity of a mealybug mutualist,...

Smith, Chris R.; Oettler, Jan; Kay, Adam; Deans, Carrie

2007-01-01

296

Mating Success of Female Dungeness Crabs (Cancer magister) in Oregon Coastal Waters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Dungeness crab is an important commercial and sports fishing species in Oregon. The fishery is regulated by sex, size, and season. This study examined whether female crabs are mating despite the removal of almost all legal-size male crabs each year. Of particular concern is whether large females are finding large enough mates. Females were collected from three Oregon fishing ports, dissected, and checked for evidence of mating. Captured male and female crabs were also measured to estimate population size distributions. The majority of female crabs examined (69%) mated in the collection year, and when combined with crabs that carried sperm from previous mating encounters (females store sperm), the percent of females that would have produced viable eggs was 83%. Crabs that definitely molted during the collection year showed higher mating success (95%). The largest females examined (carapace width, 160-169 mm) showed high mating success (84% Mated in the collection year, 95% could have produced viable eggs).These numbers compare favorably with a similar survey conducted in northern California, in which 69% of molting females had mated. We conclude from the data that molting females in these Oregon fishing ports are finding mates successfully, regardless of size.

Dunn, Paul; Shanks, Alan

2012-01-01

297

A comparison of two methods to assess audience-induced changes in male mate choice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multidirectional communicative interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior. Male Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana exhibit weaker mating preferences when an audience male is presented. This could be a male strategy to reduce sperm competition risk: interacting more equally with different females may be advantageous because rivals might copy mate choice decisions. In line with this hypothesis, a previous study found males to show a strong audience effect when being observed while exercising mate choice, but not when the rival was presented only before the choice tests. Audience effects on mate choice decisions have been quantified in poeciliid fishes using association preference designs, but it remains unknown if patterns found from measuring association times translate into actual mating behavior. Thus, we created five audience treatments simulating different forms of perceived sperm competition risk and determined focal males’ mating preferences by scoring pre-mating (nipping and mating behavior (gonopodial thrusting. Nipping did not reflect the pattern that was found when association preferences were measured, while a very similar pattern was uncovered in thrusting behavior. The strongest response was observed when the audience could eavesdrop on the focal male’s behavior. A reduction in the strength of focal males’ preferences was also seen after the rival male had an opportunity to mate with the focal male’s preferred mate. In comparison, the reduction of mating preferences in response to an audience was greater when measuring association times than actual mating behavior. While measuring direct sexual interactions between the focal male and both stimulus females not only the male’s motivational state is reflected but also females’ behavior such as avoidance of male sexual harassment [Current Zoology 58 (1: 84–94, 2012].

Madlen ZIEGE, Carmen HENNIGE-SCHULZ, Frauke MUECKSCH,David BIERBACH, Ralph TIEDEMANN, Bruno STREIT, Martin PLATH

2012-02-01

298

Size-assortative mating and sexual size dimorphism are predictable from simple mechanics of mate-grasping behavior  

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Abstract Background A major challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand the typically complex interactions between diverse counter-balancing factors of Darwinian selection for size assortative mating and sexual size dimorphism. It appears that rarely a simple mechanism could provide a major explanation of these phenomena. Mechanics of behaviors can predict animal morphology, such like adaptations to locomotion in animals from various of taxa, but its potential to predi...

Jablonski Piotr G; Han Chang S; Kim Beobkyun; Park Frank C

2010-01-01

299

Co-occurrence of mated workers and a mated queen in a colony of Platythyrea arnoldi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A colony of Platythyrea arnoldi was found to contain a functional queen and laying workers, both virgin and mated. This form of social organization has never been reported in ants before.**************AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Gepaarde en ongepaarde leende werkers en 'n funksionele koningin is in 'n kolonie van Platythyrea arnoldi gevind. Die vorm van sosiale struktuur is nog nooit tevore in miere gerapporteer nie.

Martin Villet

2012-01-01

300

Inhibition of female mating receptivity by male-derived extracts in two Callosobruchus species: consequences for interspecific mating.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the effects of injecting male-derived extracts on congeneric female receptivity in two species of Callosobruchus beetle, C. chinensis and C. maculatus. We also examined the influence of interspecific mating on female remating behaviour in these two species. Male-derived extracts reduced congeneric female receptivity in both species. As quick-acting components, extracts of C. chinensis male seminal vesicles reduced the receptivity of C. maculatus females, whereas extracts of C. maculatus male testes reduced the receptivity of C. chinensis females. As slow-acting components, extracts of male accessory glands of other species reduced the receptivity of both C. maculatus and chinensis females. After interspecific mating, the sperm of C. maculatus males were transferred to the reproductive organs of C. chinensis females, thereby reducing their receptivity. In contrast, no C. chinensis sperm were transferred to the reproductive organs of C. maculatus females; accordingly, the latter's receptivity was not reduced. Furthermore, the survival rate of C. chinensis females decreased markedly after interspecific mating. These results raise the possibility that under circumstances where populations of these two species share the same habitat, reproductive interference would occur only in the interactions between C. maculatus males and C. chinensis females. PMID:20493873

Yamane, Takashi; Miyatake, Takahisa

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
301

Effect of adult diet on signaling activity, mate attraction, and mating success in male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field experiments were performed to examine the effect of adult diet on calling activity, female attraction, and mating success in male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). In all tests, comparisons were drawn between males fed sugar only ('protein-deprived' males) and males fed a protein-sugar mixture ('protein-fed' males). In tests of long-distance attraction, aggregations consisting of protein-deprived males exclusively or protein-fed males exclusively were established in a coffee field, and females were released from a central release point. Protein-fed and protein-deprived males displayed similar calling levels, but approximately twice as many female sightings were recorded at groups of protein-fed males than at groups of protein-deprived males. A second test of female attraction compared single groups of protein-deprived and protein-fed males within the canopy of a field-caged host plant. As before, calling activity did not vary with diet, and in this case numbers of female sightings were also similar between aggregations of protein-fed vs. protein-deprived males. In mating trials conducted on field-caged host plants, protein-fed males achieved significantly more matings than protein-deprived males. These results are compared with other recent studies on the nutritional ecology of male Mediterranean fruit flies. (author)

302

The use of rapid quality control in determining mating propensity and mating competitiveness of irradiated Mediterranean fruit flies. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedeman) at various ages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Success of using irradiation to sterile males of various insect species for control or eradication by the sterile-insect release technique requires a certain dose for sterilizing without effects on mating behavior. This study was conducted at the Tropical Fruit and Vegetable Research Laboratory, Hawaii, to observe some radiation effects of this laboratory's currently used sterilizing dose on mating propensity and competitiveness of flies. The results of this study would be useful information for future research and use of this technique in Thailand. Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedeman) were irradiated with 145 gray of gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source in a nitrogen atmosphere 2 days before eclosion. Mating behavior of 3-6 day old flies were observed for 3 replications. The test of mating propensity was conducted by using two plexiglas cages containing 25 pairs of irradiated and non-irradiated flies in each cage. The results showed that there was no significant effect on mating propensity of treated 3-5 day old flies (P=0.05), however, treated 6 day old flies, radiation effects were observed. The mating propensity increased with age of both non-irradiated and irradiated flies. Studies on the mating behavior of 20 pairs of non-irradiated and irradiated flies in a competitive situation showed that 3 and 5-6 day old non-irradiated flies of both sexes had higher mating competitiveness than irradiated flies (P=0.01). The irradiated flies were more competitive than the 4 days old non-irradiated flies. Results of possible mating combination between irradiated and non-irradiated flies showed no significant difference in mating index (P=0.05)

303

Metabolic alteration in tumorigenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Altered metabolism in cancer was first discovered by Otto Warburg early last century. Although the Warburg Effect has been widely used in tumor detection, relatively little progress had been made in mechanistic understanding of cancer metabolism in the subsequent eight decades. Genetic studies have recently identified mutations in human cancer targeting multiple enzymes involved in intermediate metabolism. One emerging mechanism common to these mutant enzymes is the accumulation of a metabolite that alters the epigenetic control. PMID:24114443

Yang, Hui; Xiong, Yue; Guan, KunLiang

2013-12-01

304

Pleiotropic mutations at the TUP1 locus that affect the expression of mating-type-dependent functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The umr7-1 mutation, previously identified in a set of mutants that had been selected for defective uv-induced mutagenesis at CAN1, affects other cellular functions, including many of those regulated by the mating-type locus (MAT) in heterothallic Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recessive umr7-1 allele, mapping approximately 20 cM distal to thr4 on chromosome III, causes clumpy growth in both a and ? cells and has no apparent effect on a mating functions. The most striking property of a umr7 strains is their altered morphology, in which mitotic cells develop an asymmetric pear shape, like that of normal a cells induced to form shmoos by interaction with a-factor. Some a/?-specific diploid functions are also affected by umr7; instead of polar budding patterns, a/? umr7/umr7 diploids have medial budding like a/a, ?/? and haploid strains. Moreover, a/? umr7/umr7 diploids have lost the ability to sporulate and are Bar+ like a or a/a strains. Revertant studies indicate that umr7-1 is a single point mutation. The umr7 mutant fails to complement mutants of both tup1 and cyc9 and all three isolates have similar genetic and phenotypic properties. It is suggested that the product of this gene plays some common central role in the complex regulation of the expression of both MAT-dependent and MAT-independent functions

305

Prioritization of Potential Mates' History of Sexual Fidelity During a Conjoint Ranking Task.  

Science.gov (United States)

This series of studies is the first to use conjoint analysis to examine how individuals make trade-offs during mate selection when provided information about a partner's history of sexual infidelity. Across three studies, participants ranked profiles of potential mates, with each profile varying across five attributes: financial stability, physical attractiveness, sexual fidelity, emotional investment, and similarity. They also rated each attribute separately for importance in an ideal mate. Overall, we found that for a long-term mate, participants prioritized a potential partner's history of sexual fidelity over other attributes when profiles were ranked conjointly. For a short-term mate, sexual fidelity, physical attractiveness, and financial stability were equally important, and each was more important than emotional investment and similarity. These patterns contrast with participants' self-reported importance ratings of each individual attribute. Our results are interpreted within the context of previous literature examining how making trade-offs affect mate selection. PMID:24769738

Mogilski, Justin K; Wade, T Joel; Welling, Lisa L M

2014-04-25

306

Cryptococcus gattii sero-mating type allelic pattern determined by multiplex PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular methods to differentiate serotypes, mating types and molecular types of Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii are important tools to understand epidemiology and pathogenesis of these pathogens. In this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was applied to sero-mating typing of C. gattii strains. Four pairs of primers were designed to target 4 allele-specific genes located in the mating-type locus. Twenty-three C. gattii strains, presenting different mating types and serotypes, were tested to validate the method. The method was able to identify all sero-mating allelic patterns including hybrid combinations, and therefore, it represents a simple one-step PCR for sero-mating typing of C. gattii strains. PMID:25658561

Cogliati, M; D'Amicis, R; Tortorano, A M

2015-02-01

307

The early sperm gets the good egg: mating order effects in free spawners.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mating order can have important consequences for the fertilization success of males whose ejaculates compete to fertilize a clutch of eggs. Despite an excellent body of literature on mating-order effects in many animals, they have rarely been considered in marine free-spawning invertebrates, where both sexes release gametes into the water column. In this study, we show that in such organisms, mating order can have profound repercussions for male reproductive success. Using in vitro fertilizat...

Marshall, Dustin J.; Steinberg, Peter D.; Evans, Jonathan P.

2004-01-01

308

Assortative mating among Lake Malawi cichlid fish populations is not simply predictable from male nuptial colour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the evolution of reproductive isolation in African cichlid fishes has largely focussed on the role of male colours and female mate choice. Here, we tested predictions from the hypothesis that allopatric divergence in male colour is associated with corresponding divergence in preference. Methods We studied four populations of the Lake Malawi Pseudotropheus zebra complex. We predicted that more distantly-related populations that independently evolved similar colours would interbreed freely while more closely-related populations with different colours mate assortatively. We used microsatellite genotypes or mesh false-floors to assign paternity. Fisher's exact tests as well as Binomial and Wilcoxon tests were used to detect if mating departed from random expectations. Results Surprisingly, laboratory mate choice experiments revealed significant assortative mating not only between population pairs with differently coloured males, but between population pairs with similarly-coloured males too. This suggested that assortative mating could be based on non-visual cues, so we further examined the sensory basis of assortative mating between two populations with different male colour. Conducting trials under monochromatic (orange light, intended to mask the distinctive male dorsal fin hues (blue v orange of these populations, did not significantly affect the assortative mating by female P. emmiltos observed under control conditions. By contrast, assortative mating broke down when direct contact between female and male was prevented. Conclusion We suggest that non-visual cues, such as olfactory signals, may play an important role in mate choice and behavioural isolation in these and perhaps other African cichlid fish. Future speciation models aimed at explaining African cichlid radiations may therefore consider incorporating such mating cues in mate choice scenarios.

Taylor Martin I

2009-03-01

309

Geographical variation in reproductive character displacement in mate choice by male sailfin mollies.  

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Female Amazon mollies, Poecilia formosa, are a unisexual species that reproduce by gynogenesis. They must coexist and mate with males of other species (usually the mollies Poecilia latipinna or Poecilia mexicana) to induce embryogenesis, but inheritance is strictly maternal. We examined the mating preference of the male sailfin molly, P. latipinna, for female sailfin mollies versus Amazon mollies, P. formosa. We compared the mating preferences of sympatric and allopatric populations collected...

Gabor, C. R.; Ryan, M. J.

2001-01-01

310

A comparison of two methods to assess audience-induced changes in male mate choice  

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Multidirectional communicative interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior. Male Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana exhibit weaker mating preferences when an audience male is presented. This could be a male strategy to reduce sperm competition risk: interacting more equally with different females may be advantageous because rivals might copy mate choice decisions. In line with this hypothesis, a previous study found males to show a strong audience effect w...

Madlen Ziege, Carmen Hennige-schulz

2012-01-01

311

Does foreplay matter? Gammarus pulex females may benefit from long-lasting precopulatory mate guarding  

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Precopulatory mate guarding (PCMG) is generally assumed to be costly for both sexes. However, males may gain by displaying long-lasting mate guarding under strong male–male competition. Surprisingly, the potential for females to benefit from being held by males has been largely overlooked in previous studies. In Gammarus pulex, an amphipod crustacean, PCMG lasts several weeks, yet females are described as bearing only cost from such male mating strategy. We investigated potential female ben...

Galipaud, Matthias; Dechaume-moncharmont, Franc?ois-xavier; Oughadou, Abderrahim; Bollache, Loi?c

2010-01-01

312

Notes and observations on courtship and mating in Tityus (Atreus magnimanus Pocock, 1897 (Scorpiones: Buthidae  

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Full Text Available Courtship and mating behaviors of the scorpion Tityus (Atreus magnimanus are herein described, consisting of various components that pertain to four distinct behavioral stages. The courtship and mating rituals of Tityus (Atreus magnimanus are similar to those of other scorpions. Behavioral components are presented in an ethogram to demonstrate their occurrence during mating sequences. The current report is presented as observational data that were acquired during life history studies of this species.

LK Ross

2009-01-01

313

Notes and observations on courtship and mating in Tityus (Atreus) magnimanus Pocock, 1897 (Scorpiones: Buthidae)  

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Courtship and mating behaviors of the scorpion Tityus (Atreus) magnimanus are herein described, consisting of various components that pertain to four distinct behavioral stages. The courtship and mating rituals of Tityus (Atreus) magnimanus are similar to those of other scorpions. Behavioral components are presented in an ethogram to demonstrate their occurrence during mating sequences. The current report is presented as observational data that were acquired during life history studies of thi...

Lk, Ross

2009-01-01

314

Differences in mating strategies in two closely related small ermine moth species (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae)  

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The degree of polyandry in a species is linked to other life history traits such as egg maturation, life span, and male ejaculate size and quality. The study of differences in mating strategies between closely related species can provide a better understanding of the evolution of these strategies and of sperm competition. Mating patterns of two closely related species of small ermine moths (Yponomeuta) were investigated in the laboratory. The average female age at first mating was higher in Y...

Bakker, A. C.; Ginkel, W. E.; Roessingh, P.; Menken, S. B. J.

2008-01-01

315

Mate choice theory and the mode of selection in sexual populations  

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Indirect new data imply that mate and/or gamete choice are major selective forces driving genetic change in sexual populations. The system dictates nonrandom mating, an evolutionary process requiring both revised genetic theory and new data on heritability of characters underlying Darwinian fitness. Successfully reproducing individuals represent rare selections from among vigorous, competing survivors of preadult natural selection. Nonrandom mating has correlated demographic effects: re...

Carson, Hampton L.

2003-01-01

316

Evolutionary Strata in a Small Mating-Type-Specific Region of the Smut Fungus Microbotryum violaceum  

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DNA sequence analysis and genetic mapping of loci from mating-type-specific chromosomes of the smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum demonstrated that the nonrecombining mating-type-specific region in this species comprises ?25% (?1 Mb) of the chromosome length. Divergence between homologous mating-type-linked genes in this region varies between 0 and 8.6%, resembling the evolutionary strata of vertebrate and plant sex chromosomes. Copyright © 2009 by the Genetics Society of America.

Votintseva, Aa; Filatov, Da

2009-01-01

317

Evolutionary strata in a small mating-type-specific region of the smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum.  

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DNA sequence analysis and genetic mapping of loci from mating-type-specific chromosomes of the smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum demonstrated that the nonrecombining mating-type-specific region in this species comprises approximately 25% ( approximately 1 Mb) of the chromosome length. Divergence between homologous mating-type-linked genes in this region varies between 0 and 8.6%, resembling the evolutionary strata of vertebrate and plant sex chromosomes. PMID:19448270

Votintseva, Antonina A; Filatov, Dmitry A

2009-08-01

318

Mating behavior of the Atlantic bobtail squid sepiola atlantica (Cephalopoda: sepiolidae)  

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The mating behavioral pattern of the bobtail squid (Sepiola atlantica) was observed and described for the first time in laboratory conditions. A total of five matings were recorded. No courtship was noted in any of the mating events. In all the cases, the male moved quickly towards the female holding her by the middle of the ventral region of the mantle with his arms. The male, situated below the female, introduced his dorsal arms (the left dorsal arm is hectocotylized and pass...

Rodrigues, Marcelo; Garci, Manuel E.; Guerra, A?ngel; Troncoso, Jesu?s S.

2009-01-01

319

Production of Single Oospore Progeny (SOP) of Phytophtora infestans: Inheritance of Mating Type and Mycelial Morphotypes  

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The aim of this study was to produce sexual progeny (oospores), of the causal agent of late blight, Phytophthora infestans, study the inheritance of mating type and morphological appearances of these progeny. This pseudofungus exists in two distinct mating types: A1 and A2 mainly in Mexico. However, reports indicate presence of both mating types in many countries all over the world which indicates possibilities of sexual reproduction. The experiment was conducted at the University of Wales, B...

Earnshaw, Diana M.

2012-01-01

320

An experimental test of condition-dependent male and female mate choice in zebra finches  

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In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choic...

Holveck, Marie-jeanne; Geberzahn, Nicole; Riebel, Katharina

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Compatibility counts: MHC-associated mate choice in a wild promiscuous primate  

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The mechanisms and temporal aspects of mate choice according to genetic constitution are still puzzling. Recent studies indicate that fitness is positively related to diversity in immune genes (MHC). Both sexes should therefore choose mates of high genetic quality and/or compatibility. However, studies addressing the role of MHC diversity in pre- and post-copulatory mate choice decisions in wild-living animals are few. We investigated the impact of MHC constitution and of neutral microsatelli...

Schwensow, Nina; Eberle, Manfred; Sommer, Simone

2008-01-01

322

Evidence for Multiple mating in the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia Marginata (Lep.) (Hymenoptera : Vespidae)  

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Assymetries in genetic relatedness ceated by haplodiploidy have been considered to be crucially important for the evolution of worker behaviour in Hymenoptera. Multiple mating by the queens destroys this assymetry and should make kin selection less powerful. The number of males that social insect queens mate with is thus of considerable theoretical interest especially in prmitively eusocial species. The results presented here provide evidence for multiple mating by foundresses of the primiti...

Muralidharan, K.; Shaila, Ms; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

1986-01-01

323

Mating type gene analysis in apparently asexual Cercospora species is suggestive of cryptic sex  

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The genus Cercospora consists of numerous important, apparently asexual plant pathogens. We designed degenerate primers from homologous sequences in related species to amplify part of the C. apii, C. apiicola, C. beticola, C. zeae-maydis and C. zeina mating type genes. Chromosome walking was used to determine the full length mating type genes of these species. Primers were developed to amplify and sequence homologous portions of the mating type genes of additional species. Phylogenetic analys...

Groenewald, M.; Groenewald, J. Z.; Harrington, T. C.; Abeln, E. C. A.; Crous, P. W.

2006-01-01

324

Sex identification and mating in the blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena lunulata.  

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We studied the reproductive behaviour of the blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena lunulata, in the laboratory by examining 15 male-male and nine male-female interactions. The initiation of physical contact was independent of sex, size or residency status, and there were no noticeable changes in behaviour such as sexual displays associated with courtship or aggression prior to contact. Males did not distinguish between females or other males and copulated (defined as the insertion of the hectocotylus into the mantle cavity of another octopus) readily with both. Spermatophores were released in all copulations with females but not with males. The duration of copulation was significantly longer in male-female interactions (median 160.5 min) than in male-male interactions (median 30 s). Although male-male copulations ended passively with the withdrawal of the hectocotylus by the initiating animal, male-female copulations were always terminated by the females following an intense struggle. These studies suggest the inability of male H. lunulata to determine the sexual identity of potential mates prior to the insertion of the hectocotylus and demonstrate the active role of the female during copulation. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10924200

Cheng; Caldwell

2000-07-01

325

Commercial Fungicide Formulations Induce In Vitro Oospore Formation and Phenotypic Change in Mating Type in Phytophthora infestans.  

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ABSTRACT A wide range of commercially formulated fungicides cause in vitro effects on mating behavior in specific isolates of Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight of potato and tomato. Four isolates of P. infestans representing each of the four common US genotypes, US-1, US-6, US-7, and US-8 and varying in their sensitivity to metalaxyl, were exposed to a variety of fungicides used to control late blight in petri dish assays at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 mug a.i./ml. Exposure of each of these normally heterothallic single mating type isolates of P. infestans to 9 of the 11 commercial fungicide formulations tested resulted in the formation of oospores after 2 to 4 weeks. The highest numbers of oospores were formed on media amended with Ridomil 2E (metalaxyl) and Ridomil Gold EC (mefenoxam) at 0.1 to 10 mug a.i./ml, averaging as many as 471 and 450 oospores per petri dish, respectively. Several other fungicides including Maneb, Manzate (Mancozeb), Curzate (cymoxanil + mancozeb), and Acrobat MZ (dimethomorph + mancozeb) also induced oospore formation, producing from 0 to 200 oospores per plate at fungicide concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mug a.i./ml. The metalaxyl resistant isolates formed oospores in response to the fungicides more often than the metalaxyl sensitive isolates. No oospores were formed on media amended with Bravo (chlorothalonil) or Tattoo C (chlorothalonil + propamocarb HCl) and these compounds completely suppressed growth of the isolates at 0.1 and 1 mug a.i./ml. Three metalaxyl resistant A2 isolates mated with both A1 and A2 isolates after exposure to the fungicides Ridomil 2E and Ridomil Gold EC. Alterations in mating type expression were also observed in a metalaxyl sensitive A1 isolate after exposure to Benlate (benomyl). Copious amounts of chemicals are applied annually to potato and tomato production areas to control late blight. Our results indicate that a wide range of chemically diverse fungicides can induce normally heterothallic metalaxyl resistant isolates of P. infestans to form oospores in vitro after short exposures to the fungicides. PMID:18944421

Groves, C T; Ristaino, J B

2000-11-01

326

Prenatal exposure to low doses of atrazine affects mating behaviors in male guppies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Performing appropriate mating behaviors is crucial to male reproductive success, especially in species where mating is predominantly via female mate choice. Mating behaviors are hormonally regulated and may be sexually selected traits: courtship displays are selected via mate choice, while forced copulations and aggressive behaviors are selected for via intrasexual competition. Endocrine disrupting compounds interfere with proper hormonal functioning in exposed animals. Exposures during developmentally crucial life stages can have irreversible effects lasting through adulthood. I tested the effects of prenatal exposure to environmentally relevant doses of a commonly used herbicide, atrazine (1 and 13.5?g/L) on mating behaviors in male guppies. Guppies were used as a model organism to test the effects of atrazine exposure on wildlife reproductive health. Adult female guppies were mated and exposed to the treatments throughout the gestation period, and offspring born to them were raised without further treatment. At adulthood, the males were tested for the effects of prenatal exposure on their mating behaviors such as courtship displays, gonopodium swings, forced copulatory attempts, and competitive and aggressive behaviors towards rivals who were not exposed to atrazine. I also tested female preference for treated males compared to control males. Atrazine-exposed males were less likely to perform the mating behaviors, and performed them less frequently, than control males. Atrazine exposure also made males less aggressive towards rivals. Females preferred untreated males over atrazine-treated males. In all cases, a non-monotonic pattern was seen, highlighting the significance of low-dose exposures. PMID:25014197

Shenoy, Kausalya

2014-07-01

327

De novo fragment assembly with short mate-paired reads: Does the read length matter?  

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Increasing read length is currently viewed as the crucial condition for fragment assembly with next-generation sequencing technologies. However, introducing mate-paired reads (separated by a gap of length, GapLength) opens a possibility to transform short mate-pairs into long mate-reads of length ? GapLength, and thus raises the question as to whether the read length (as opposed to GapLength) even matters. We describe a new tool, EULER-USR, for assembling mate-paired short reads and use it ...

Chaisson, Mark J.; Brinza, Dumitru; Pevzner, Pavel A.

2009-01-01

328

Is size-assortative mating important for rapid pigment differentiation in a freshwater isopod?  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifying mechanisms behind assortative mating is central to the understanding of ecological divergence and speciation. Recent studies show that populations of the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus can rapidly become locally differentiated when submerged Chara vegetation expands in lakes. In the novel Chara habitat, isopods have become lighter pigmented and smaller than in ancestral reed stands. In this study, we used a laboratory multiple-choice experiment to investigate assortative mating as a possible prezygotic reproductive barrier between Chara and reed isopods. Mating was assortative when Chara isopods were experimentally mixed with isopods from an adjacent reed site with large-size individuals, suggesting a partial prezygotic reproductive barrier. No deviation from random mating could, however, be detected when Chara isopods were mixed with smaller sized isopods from another reed site. In both experiments, assortative mating was apparently based on size, as Chara isopods were larger and reed isopods smaller in mixed pairs than in assortative pairs. Pigmentation did not have any clear influence on mating. We suggest that divergence in pigmentation evolved through natural selection in conjunction with size-assortative mating indirectly causing assortative mating between Chara and reed isopods. Size-assortative mating is likely a by-product of natural selection, but its importance may hypothetically be transient, if selection erodes the correlation between pigmentation and size over time. PMID:17040388

Hargeby, A; Erlandsson, J

2006-11-01

329

White Cells Facilitate Opposite- and Same-Sex Mating of Opaque Cells in Candida albicans  

Science.gov (United States)

Modes of sexual reproduction in eukaryotic organisms are extremely diverse. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a phenotypic switch from the white to the opaque phase in order to become mating-competent. In this study, we report that functionally- and morphologically-differentiated white and opaque cells show a coordinated behavior during mating. Although white cells are mating-incompetent, they can produce sexual pheromones when treated with pheromones of the opposite mating type or by physically interacting with opaque cells of the opposite mating type. In a co-culture system, pheromones released by white cells induce opaque cells to form mating projections, and facilitate both opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells. Deletion of genes encoding the pheromone precursor proteins and inactivation of the pheromone response signaling pathway (Ste2-MAPK-Cph1) impair the promoting role of white cells (MTLa) in the sexual mating of opaque cells. White and opaque cells communicate via a paracrine pheromone signaling system, creating an environment conducive to sexual mating. This coordination between the two different cell types may be a trade-off strategy between sexual and asexual lifestyles in C. albicans. PMID:25329547

Liang, Weihong; Guan, Guobo; Zhang, Qiuyu; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Huang, Guanghua

2014-01-01

330

Potentials-attract or likes-attract in human mate choice in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

To explain how individuals' self-perceived long-term mate value influences their mate preference and mate choice, two hypotheses have been presented, which are "potentials-attract" and "likes-attract", respectively. The potentials-attract means that people choose mates matched with their sex-specific traits indicating reproductive potentials; and the likes-attract means that people choose mates matched with their own conditions. However, the debate about these two hypotheses still remains unsolved. In this paper, we tested these two hypotheses using a human's actual mate choice data from a Chinese online dating system (called the Baihe website), where 27,183 users of Baihe website are included, in which there are 590 paired couples (1180 individuals) who met each other via the website. Our main results show that not only the relationship between individuals' own attributes and their self-stated mate preference but also that between individuals' own attributes and their actual mate choice are more consistent with the likes-attract hypothesis, i.e., people tend to choose mates who are similar to themselves in a variety of attributes. PMID:23565153

He, Qiao-Qiao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Wang, Zhi-Guo; Tu, Ying; Ji, Ting; Tao, Yi

2013-01-01

331

Social organization and mating success in local song populations of village indigobirds, Vidua chalybeata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Behavioral interactions among color-marked individual Vidua chalybeata that shared common song dialects were observed for 5 years in two populations at Lochinvar National Park, Zambia. Social interactions involved males visiting and competing for mating sites and female visiting male in an apparent sampling of potential copulating partners. Differences in mating success among the polygynous males were compared with male behavior and territory resources, and criteria were developed to test the importance of intrasexual male competition and female mate choice in explaining the mating system of the populations. Song behavior best explained differences in mating success of males, with lesser effects of neighboring males and the defensible resources around the call-sites. The social organization of song populations resembles that of a dispersed lek with females visiting many males but mating with few males. We discuss the observations on indigobirds in relation to behavioral selection, sexual selection, and mating systems. Mating systems of certain populations and species are compared using statistics of individual mating success. PMID:564106

Payne, R B; Payne, K

1977-10-01

332

Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis beverages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

Carla Carolina Batista Machado

2007-06-01

333

Examining the phenotypic plasticity in ejaculates of the Arctic charr by experimentally inducing successive changes in social status.  

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According to theory, a male’s reproductive role should predict investment in ejaculate quality, i.e. subordinate males should invest in ejaculate quality to compensate for mating in unfavourable roles, and vice versa for dominant males. The Arctic charr is known to possess fluctuating characteristics of its sperm triggered by rapid changes in social status. The relationship between social status and phenotypic plasticity in Arctic charr ejaculates was examined through a caging experiment. C...

Strøm, Bjørnar

2007-01-01

334

MATE Module 11: Computer Control: Intro to Programming  

Science.gov (United States)

This module from the Marine Advanced Technology Education Center introduces students to "LabVIEW programming concepts using the Arduino processor and the MATE ROV Control System." Students will learn to develop a basic processing loop, read the state of an input pin and control and output based upon that state, incorporate a delay timer in the processing loop and add a sub-VI to the main processing loop. PowerPoint and PDF versions of the lecture material are available for download here along with links to other tutorials and tools.

335

Do Women Pretend Orgasm to Retain a Mate?  

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The current study tested the hypothesis that women pretend orgasm as part of a broader strategy of mate retention. We obtained self-report data from 453 heterosexual women (M age, 21.8 years) in a long-term relationship (M length, 32.8 months) drawn from universities and surrounding communities in the southeastern United States. The results indicated that (1) women who perceived higher risk of partner infidelity were more likely to report pretending orgasm, (2) women who reported greater like...

Kaighobadi, Farnaz; Shackelford, Todd K.; Weekes-shackelford, Viviana A.

2011-01-01

336

Altered Genes, Altered Metabolism - Longer Life?  

Science.gov (United States)

Studying a tiny worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, scientists discovered that a gene which regulates glucose (sugar) metabolism may also enhance longevity. The principle investigator, Dr. David Finkelstein, says, "this finding suggests that altering glucose metabolism could be a key to slowing aging in higher organisms, even perhaps in humans." Working with a variety of taxa from mice to monkeys, scientists interested in the causes of aging have recently made significant advances in scientists' understanding of the aging process. Researchers have long realized that aging and the pathologies associated with it have evolutionary, physiological and genetic causes, although the relative influence of each of these has been debated. By testing hypotheses in diverse fields, and with a variety of species (from short-lived to long-lived), researchers are growing closer to building an understanding of the mechanisms underlying the aging process.

National Institutes of Health (U.S.). National Institute on Aging.

1997-01-01

337

Music and Alterity Processes  

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Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.

Josep Martí

2014-10-01

338

Findings on sperm alterations and DNA fragmentation, nutritional, hormonal and antioxidant status in an elite triathlete: case report / Descoberta das alterações no sêmen, nutricionais, hormonais, o antioxidante status e fragmentação de DNA em triatleta de elite: relato do caso / Hallazgo de alteraciones en semen, nutricionales, hormonales, del estado antioxidante y fragmentación de ADN en un triatleta de élite: caso clínico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: O presente estudo de caso analisa a qualidade de sêmen, padrões nutricionais, estado hormonal e oxidativo de um triatleta internacional de alto nível com carga de treinamento de baixo volume e alta intensidade. Método: Atleta de 26 anos de idade, com uma pratica esportiva desde os 13 anos [...] e cinco anos de triátlon profissional. Os parâmetros qualitativos analisados no sêmen foram: volume, contagem espermática, motilidade, morfologia, e fragmentação de DNA com testes adicionais dada necessidade. Os testes hormonais salivares foram: Testosterona, Cortisol e a razão testosterona/cortisol. A capacidade antioxidante total foi medida no plasma seminal. Também foi analisado o consumo máximo de oxigênio e características do treinamento. Para determinar a ingesta alimentar habitual e sua possível repercussão sobre o estado oxidativo, foi utilizado um questionário de frequência de consumo quali-quantitativo de 136 alimentos, a partir do uso de um software especifico. Resultados: os valores e parâmetros hormonais e físicos seminais estavam dentro da normalidade. A morfologia e fragmentação do DNA espermático mostraram valores anormais (3,9% e 38,33%). Apresentando um elevado número de células redondas (2,3 milhoes/mL), com presença de macrófagos. Se observaram eventos apoptóticos e necróticos. A capacidade antioxidante total, ainda que não alterada, estava baixa. A ingesta dietética foi caracterizada por um excesso proteico e consumo adequado de antioxidantes (com ligeiro déficit excesso de alguns nutrientes específicos) segundo valores recomendados. Conclusões: o exercício de resistência de alta intensidade altera os parâmetros espermáticos, principalmente morfologia e fragmentação do DNA. Faz-se necessário obter maiores informações sobre o efeito de antioxidantes e outras estratégias dietéticas com relação ao dano oxidativo no sêmen de triatletas de alto rendimento, e traçar estratégias nutricionais adequadas para atenuar os efeitos do exercício sobre a qualidade do sêmen. Abstract in spanish Objetivo: El presente estudio de caso analiza la calidad de semen, patrones nutricionales y status hormonal y oxidativo de un triatleta internacional de alto nivel con carga de entrenamiento de bajo volumen y alta intensidad. Método: Atleta de 26 años de edad, con una práctica deportiva competitiva [...] desde los 13 años, y cinco años de triatlón profesional. Los parámetros cualitativos analizados en semen fueron: volumen, contaje espermático, motilidad, morfología, y fragmentación de ADN, con pruebas adicionales según necesidad. Las hormonas salivares cuantificadas fueron: T, C, y T/C. La capacidad antioxidante total fue medida en plasma seminal. También se analizó el consumo máximo de oxígeno y características de entrenamiento. Para determinar la ingesta alimentaria habitual y su posible repercusión sobre el estado oxidativo, se utilizó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo cuali-cuantitativa, de 136 alimentos, analizado mediante software informático. Resultados: Los valores hormonales y parámetros físicos seminales estaban dentro de la normalidad. La morfología y fragmentación de ADN espermático mostraron valores anormales (3.9% y 38.33%). Aparecía un elevado número de células redondas (2.3 millones/mL), con presencia de macrófagos. Se observaron eventos apoptóticos y necróticos. La capacidad antioxidante total, aunque no alterada, estaba baja. La ingesta dietética se caracterizó por un exceso proteico y consumo adecuado de antioxidantes (con ligero déficit y exceso de algunos nutrientes específicos), según valores recomendados. Conclusiones: El ejercicio de resistencia de alta intensidad altera los parámetros espermáticos, principalmente morfología y fragmentación de ADN. Es necesario obtener mayor información sobre el efecto de antioxidantes y otras estrategias dietéticas con relación al daño oxidativo en el semen de triatletas de alto rendimiento,

D., Vaamonde; M.E. Da, Silva-Grigoletto; J.M., Fernandez; C., Algar-Santacruz; J.M., García-Manso.

2014-12-01

339

Self-referent phenotype matching and its role in female mate choice in arthropods  

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Full Text Available A growing body of empirical evidence shows that females of many animal species gain benefits by mating polyandrously, and often prefer to mate with novel males over previous mates. Although a female preference for novel males has been demonstrated for multiple animal taxa, the mechanisms used by females to discriminate between novel and previous mates remain largely unknown. However, recent studies suggest that in decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus, females actually imbue males with their own chemical cues, known as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs during mating, and utilize chemosensory self-referencing to recognize recent mates. Here we review evidence that self-referent phenotype matching is a widespread mechanism of recognition in arthropods, and explore how CHCs are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions. There is substantial evidence that CHCs are used as recognition cues to discriminate between species, kin, sexes, mates, individuals, and self and non-self, and are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions in a wide range of arthropod taxa. There is also evidence that CHCs are often transferred between individuals during direct physical contact, including copulation. Chemosensory self-referencing via cuticular hydrocarbons could provide a simple, but reliable mechanism for identifying individuals from previous mating encounters. This mechanism does not require any specialized cognitive abilities because an individual’s phenotype is always available for reference. Given the ubiquitous use of CHCs among arthropods, chemosensory self-referencing may be a widespread mechanism used by female arthropods to facilitate female mate-choice decisions and to enhance opportunities for polyandry [Current Zoology 59 (2: 239-248, 2013].

Carie B. WEDDLE, John HUNT, Scott K. SAKALUK

2013-04-01

340

Mating compatibility between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

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The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, is a highly polyphagous fruit pest that occurs predominantly in Africa yet has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. It is extremely morphologically and genetically similar to the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel); as such the specific relationship between these two species is unresolved. We assessed prezygotic compatibility between B. dorsalis and B. invadens using standardized field cage mating tests, which have proven effectiveness in tephritid cryptic species studies. These tests were followed by an assessment of postzygotic compatibility by examining egg viability, larval and pupal survival, and sex ratios of offspring produced from parental and subsequent F1 crosses to examine for hybrid breakdown as predicted under a two-species hypothesis. B. dorsalis was sourced from two countries (Pakistan and China), and each population was compared with B. invadens from its type locality of Kenya. B. invadens mated randomly with B. dorsalis from both localities, and there were generally high levels of hybrid viability and survival resulting from parental and F1 crosses. Furthermore, all but one hybrid cross resulted in equal sex ratios, with the single deviation in favor of males and contrary to expectations under Haldane's rule. These data support the hypothesis that B. dorsalis and B. invadens represent the same biological species, an outcome that poses significant implications for pest management and international trade for sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24772542

Bo, W; Ahmad, S; Dammalage, T; Tomas, U Sto; Wornoayporn, V; Ul Haq, I; Cáceres, C; Vreysen, M J B; Schutze, M K

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Treatment of Persistent Mating Induced Endometritis in Arabian Maiden Mares  

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Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the treatment of Persistent Mating Induced Endometritis (PMIE in Arabian maiden mares using uterine lavage containing antibiotics alone or with uterotonic agents. Maiden mares (n = 42 with PMIE were subjected to detailed clinical examinations including palpation per rectum, vaginoscopy and cytological examination. The mares were qualified as PMIE due to accumulation of uterine fluid 1-2 days post breeding. Uterine lavage containing crystalline penicillin and streptomycin sulphate was performed (n = 36 6 h post-breeding. After 8 h of mating maiden mares were randomly divided into 3 groups, 12 animals in each group. The first group injected with 250 ?g of cloprostenol (PGF2 S.C. and the second group received oxytocin 20 I.U. I.M., while the third group with no hormonal treatment. Control maiden mares (n = 6 received neither uterine lavage nor hormonal preparations. Results of pregnancy rate revealed 83.3% pregnancy of maiden mares treated with uterine lavage and PGF2 and 66.6% in mares treated with uterine lavage and oxytocin. In a conclusion, maiden mares with PMIE could be successfully treated with uterine lavage and PGF2 .

M.B. Taha

2007-01-01

342

Plant mating systems affect adaptive plasticity in response to herbivory.  

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The fitness consequences of mating system variation (e.g. inbreeding) have been studied for at least 200 years, yet the ecological consequences of this variation remain poorly understood. Most plants are capable of inbreeding, and also exhibit a remarkable suite of adaptive phenotypic responses to ecological stresses such as herbivory. We tested the consequences of experimental inbreeding on phenotypic plasticity in resistance and growth (tolerance) traits in Solanum carolinense (Solanaceae). Inbreeding reduced the ability of plants to up-regulate resistance traits following damage. Moreover, inbreeding disrupted growth trait responses to damage, indicating the presence of deleterious mutations at loci regulating growth under stress. Production of the phytohormones abscisic and indole acetic acid, and wounding-induced up-regulation of the defence signalling phytohormone jasmonic acid were all significantly reduced under inbreeding, indicating a phytohormonal basis for inbreeding effects on growth and defence trait regulation. We conclude that the plasticity of induced responses is negatively affected by inbreeding, with implications for fragmented populations facing mate limitation and stress as a consequence of environmental change. PMID:24580720

Campbell, Stuart A; Halitschke, Rayko; Thaler, Jennifer S; Kessler, André

2014-05-01

343

Male aggression and mating opportunity in a poeciliid fish  

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Full Text Available  One function of aggression in animals is to gain access to mates. Aggression may therefore be avoured by sexual selection, the strength of which can be assessed using repeatability of ggressive behaviour. Here, we tested the hypotheses that male swordtails, Xiphophorus sp., are consistent in the aggressive and mating behaviours exhibited and in the time spent at a close distance to females (female attendance, and that aggressive males gain increased opportunity to attempt copulation compared to their less aggressive conspecifics (sneak frequency. As predicted, aggression between males, and male display and sneak frequency were repeatable. However, male aggression was not significantly correlated with sneak frequency. The function of aggression in this species is not clear-cut and may have an indirect female access function through formation of dominance hierarchies or defence of resources. A surprising finding highlighted by this study was the contradictory results for consistency in female contact, with high repeatability scores indicating consistency in behaviour but the within-subjects component of repeated measures ANOVA showing differences in female contact between trials. The possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

Horst Kaiser

2011-10-01

344

Mating advantage for rare males in wild guppy populations.  

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To understand the processes that maintain genetic diversity is a long-standing challenge in evolutionary biology, with implications for predicting disease resistance, response to environmental change, and population persistence. Simple population genetic models are not sufficient to explain the high levels of genetic diversity sometimes observed in ecologically important traits. In guppies (Poecilia reticulata), male colour pattern is both diverse and heritable, and is arguably one of the most extreme examples of morphological polymorphism known. Negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS), a form of selection in which genotypes are favoured when they are rare, can potentially maintain such extensive polymorphism, but few experimental studies have confirmed its operation in nature. Here we use highly replicated experimental manipulations of natural populations to show that males with rare colour patterns have higher reproductive fitness, demonstrating NFDS mediated by sexual selection. Rare males acquired more mates and sired more offspring compared to common males and, as previously reported, had higher rates of survival. Orange colour, implicated in other studies of sexual selection in guppies, did predict male reproductive success, but only in one of three populations. These data support the hypothesis that NFDS maintains diversity in the colour patterns of male guppies through two selective agents, mates and predators. Similar field-based manipulations of genotype frequencies could provide a powerful approach to reveal the underlying ecological and behavioural mechanisms that maintain genetic and phenotypic diversity. PMID:24172904

Hughes, Kimberly A; Houde, Anne E; Price, Anna C; Rodd, F Helen

2013-11-01

345

Developmental environment, cultural transmission, and mate choice copying  

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Using female mate choice copying as a rudimentary form of cultural transmission, this study provides evidence that social environment during development has a significant effect on the tendency to use culturally acquired information. Groups of newborn guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were raised for 35 days in 1 of 5 “developmental environments”. Groups of 15 newborns were raised in pools with no adults (treatment 1), both adult male and female guppies (treatments 2 and 3), only adult females (treatment 4) or only adult males (treatment 5). Mature females raised in treatments 1 and 2, but not treatments 3, 4, and 5, copied the mate choice of others. Treatments 1 and 2 correspond to social structures that guppies experience during their development in the wild. Newborn guppies swim together in shoals (analogous to treatment 1). As they mature, juveniles join schools of adult males and females (analogous to treatments 2). At no time during the normal developmental process are juveniles found with males, but only unreceptive females (as was the case for long periods in treatment 3) or in the presence of adults of only one sex (analogous to treatments 4 and 5). As such, normal developmental environments prime guppies for cultural transmission, while unnatural environments fail to do so.

Dugatkin, Lee Alan

2007-08-01

346

How Misinformation Alters Memories.  

Science.gov (United States)

Notes that a multitude of studies have demonstrated that misleading postevent information affects people's memories. Contents that the fuzzy-trace theory is a positive step toward understanding the malleability of memory. Discusses fuzzy-trace theory in terms of three primary areas of study: altered response format, maximized misinformation…

Wright, Daniel B.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

1998-01-01

347

Fahrkompetenz im Alter  

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Im Zuge der zunehmenden Mobilität erfährt das Thema der Fahrkompetenz im Alter und bei neurologischen Erkrankungen eine wachsende Relevanz. Hinsichtlich der diagnostischen Abklärung der Fahrfähigkeit sind einige Fragen offen, da Testverfahren oftmals ausschließlich an jüngeren, gesunden Probanden validiert werden. Der Bedeutung ausgewählter kognitiver, psychologischer und sensorischer Einzelfunktionen für die Vorhersage der Fahrleistung wird in dieser Studie nachgegangen. Mit einer Ba...

Burgard, Esther

2005-01-01

348

Roles of information in mate finding, mate choice and sex allocation in parasitic wasps -- example of Venturia Canescens Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera : Ichneumonidae).  

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The decision making processes, and the behaviors that result from them, influence reproductive sucess. Consequently, under variable environmental conditions, the acquisition of reliable information appears essential to maximize fitness. In the theoretical framework of sexual selection and mating system theories, the main objective of this thesis is to understand which information is used during the different steps of mating sequences in the hymenopteran parasitoids. The manuscript begins with...

Metzger, Marie

2008-01-01

349

Musculoskeletal performance and hydration status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maximal performance during competition is the drive many competitors use to train harder. However, there are several variables that contribute to impair a competitor's performance. These variables work by altering the homeostatic mechanisms within the body. Once homeostasis is altered the competitor's body is no longer optimized to face the stresses of the athletic competition. The environment works as an all encompassing variable that will affect sweat rate. During increased environmental heat strain, one must adjust for critical variables, such as temperature regulation, hydration status, and electrolyte levels, as they can contribute to impaired performance. Acclimatization through training and competition will reduce or slow down the effects of these stress factors. Ever evolving recommendations are produced to aid competitors in maintaining homeostasis. Despite all the generic recommendations that are made, however, every athlete needs to individualize their training and competition regimens to optimize personal performance. PMID:19468886

Rothenberg, Joseph A; Panagos, André

2008-06-01

350

Sex differences in developmental plasticity and canalization shape population divergence in mate preferences.  

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Sexual selection of high-quality mates can conflict with species recognition if traits that govern intraspecific mate preferences also influence interspecific recognition. This conflict might be resolved by developmental plasticity and learned mate preferences, which could drive preference divergence in populations that differ in local species composition. We integrate field and laboratory experiments on two calopterygid damselfly species with population genetic data to investigate how sex differences in developmental plasticity affect population divergence in the face of gene flow. Whereas male species recognition is fixed at emergence, females instead learn to recognize heterospecifics. Females are therefore more plastic in their mate preferences than males. We suggest that this results from sex differences in the balance between sexual selection for high-quality mates and selection for species recognition. As a result of these sex differences, females develop more pronounced population divergence in their mate preferences compared with males. Local ecological community context and presence of heterospecifics in combination with sex differences in plasticity and canalization therefore shape population divergence in mate preferences. As ongoing environmental change and habitat fragmentation bring formerly allopatric species into secondary contact, developmental plasticity of mate preferences in either or both sexes might facilitate coexistence and prevent local species extinction. PMID:25377451

Svensson, Erik I; Runemark, Anna; Verzijden, Machteld N; Wellenreuther, Maren

2014-12-22

351

The role of heliothine hairpencil compounds in female Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) behavior and mate acceptance.  

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Studies on numerous insect species suggest that male-produced sex pheromones play a role in attracting females; as aphrodisiacs, making females more quiescent; or as a means of inhibiting competing males. Male heliothine moths display abdominal hairpencils during courtship, but the specific effects of the odors released on female behavior have not yet been elucidated. This study investigates the role of male hairpencil compounds in female Heliothis virescens mating behavior. Female H. virescens were exposed to filter paper loaded with hairpencil extracts of male H. virescens, Heliothis subflexa and Helicoverpa zea, and observed for behavioral responses to odors. Single synthetic compounds found in the H. virescens hairpencil blend were also tested. In mating assays between single male and female H. virescens it was found that: (i) antennectomized females mated less frequently than sham-operated females; (ii) females mated less frequently with males whose hairpencils had been surgically removed; (iii) females mated with males with ablated hairpencils if a filter paper loaded with one male equivalent of H. virescens hairpencil extract was presented simultaneously; and (iv) this effect was species-specific, as presentation of H. subflexa or H. zea hairpencil extracts did not restore mate acceptance. This study suggests that odors released by male hairpencils are important in mate acceptance by female H. virescens, and may play a role in mate choice and species isolation. PMID:15269122

Hillier, N K; Vickers, N J

2004-07-01

352

Effect of non-random mating on genomic and BLUP selection schemes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of long-term unequal contribution of mating pairs to the gene pool is that deleterious recessive genes can be expressed. Such consequences could be alleviated by appropriately designing and optimizing breeding schemes i.e. by improving selection and mating procedures. Methods We studied the effect of mating designs, random, minimum coancestry and minimum covariance of ancestral contributions on rate of inbreeding and genetic gain for schemes with different information sources, i.e. sib test or own performance records, different genetic evaluation methods, i.e. BLUP or genomic selection, and different family structures, i.e. factorial or pair-wise. Results Results showed that substantial differences in rates of inbreeding due to mating design were present under schemes with a pair-wise family structure, for which minimum coancestry turned out to be more effective to generate lower rates of inbreeding. Specifically, substantial reductions in rates of inbreeding were observed in schemes using sib test records and BLUP evaluation. However, with a factorial family structure, differences in rates of inbreeding due mating designs were minor. Moreover, non-random mating had only a small effect in breeding schemes that used genomic evaluation, regardless of the information source. Conclusions It was concluded that minimum coancestry remains an efficient mating design when BLUP is used for genetic evaluation or when the size of the population is small, whereas the effect of non-random mating is smaller in schemes using genomic evaluation.

Nirea Kahsay G

2012-04-01

353

Mating behavior of a flower-visiting longhorn beetle Zorion guttigerum (Westwood) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-range sex pheromones have been demonstrated for several cerambycid beetle species. Our field study on the mating behavior of Zorion guttigerum, on the basis of its temporal and spatial distributions on mating and feeding sites (flowers), and longevity, however, suggests that such pheromones are not used by this species. Plant characteristics rather than long-range sex pheromones may play an important role in bringing both sexes together. Adult activities on flowers occur exclusively during the day with two peaks, one around midday and the other in the late afternoon. Overall operational sex ratio is male-biased (?1 ?:1.5 ?) but it becomes very highly male-biased (?1 ?:9 ?) when mating and feeding activities decrease to the minimum in mid-afternoon, suggesting that females leave flowers to oviposit during that period of time. For cerambycid species whose females oviposit alone, and in which mating and oviposition occur on different plants or different plant parts, the operational sex ratio appears to vary significantly over time on the mating sites. The number and duration of pair-bondings also vary over time for Z. guttigerum. Fewer and shorter pair-bondings in the morning may suggest a strong sexual selection process. After ?2 h of selection, both sexes tend to engage in longer pair-bondings and mate more times before females leave the mating sites in mid-afternoon. Details of the mating behavior are described here.

Wang, Qiao; Chen, Li-Yuan

2005-05-01

354

Evolutionary transition from single to multiple mating in fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Queens of leafcutter ants exhibit the highest known levels of multiple mating (up to 10 mates per queen) among ants. Multiple mating may have been selected to increase genetic diversity among nestmate workers, which is hypothesized to be critical in social systems with large, long-lived colonies under severe pressure of pathogens. Advanced fungus-growing (leafcutter) ants have large numbers (104-106 workers) and long-lived colonies, whereas basal genera in the attine tribe have small (<200 workers) colonies with probably substantially shorter lifespans. Basal attines are therefore expected to have lower queen mating frequencies, similar to those found in most other ants. We tested this prediction by analysing queen mating frequency and colony kin structure in three basal attine species: Myrmicocrypta ednaella, Apterostigma collare and Cyphomyrmex longiscapus. Microsatellite marker analyses revealed that queens in all three species were single mated, and that worker-to-worker relatedness in these basal attine species is very close to 0.75, the value expected under exclusively single mating. Fungus growing per se has therefore not selected for multiple queen mating. Instead, the advanced and highly productive social structure of the higher attine ants, which is fully dependent on the rearing of an ancient clonal fungus, may have necessitated high genetic diversity among nestmate workers. This is not the case in the lower attines, which rear fungi that were more recently derived from free-living fungal populations.

Villesen, Poul; Gertsch, P J

1999-01-01

355

Evolutionary transition from single to multiple mating in fungus-growing ants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Queens of leafcutter ants exhibit the highest known levels of multiple mating (up to 10 mates per queen) among ants. Multiple mating may have been selected to increase genetic diversity among nestmate workers, which is hypothesized to be critical in social systems with large, long-lived colonies under severe pressure of pathogens. Advanced fungus-growing (leafcutter) ants have large numbers (104-106 workers) and long-lived colonies, whereas basal genera in the attine tribe have small (queen mating frequencies, similar to those found in most other ants. We tested this prediction by analysing queen mating frequency and colony kin structure in three basal attine species: Myrmicocrypta ednaella, Apterostigma collare and Cyphomyrmex longiscapus. Microsatellite marker analyses revealed that queens in all three species were single mated, and that worker-to-worker relatedness in these basal attine species is very close to 0.75, the value expected under exclusively single mating. Fungus growing per se has therefore not selected for multiple queen mating. Instead, the advanced and highly productive social structure of the higher attine ants, which is fully dependent on the rearing of an ancient clonal fungus, may have necessitated high genetic diversity among nestmate workers. This is not the case in the lower attines, which rear fungi that were more recently derived from free-living fungal populations. PMID:10620226

Villesen, P; Gertsch, P J; Frydenberg, J; Mueller, U G; Boomsma, J J

1999-11-01

356

Divergent selection and the evolution of signal traits and mating preferences.  

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Full Text Available Mating preferences are common in natural populations, and their divergence among populations is considered an important source of reproductive isolation during speciation. Although mechanisms for the divergence of mating preferences have received substantial theoretical treatment, complementary experimental tests are lacking. We conducted a laboratory evolution experiment, using the fruit fly Drosophila serrata, to explore the role of divergent selection between environments in the evolution of female mating preferences. Replicate populations of D. serrata were derived from a common ancestor and propagated in one of three resource environments: two novel environments and the ancestral laboratory environment. Adaptation to both novel environments involved changes in cuticular hydrocarbons, traits that predict mating success in these populations. Furthermore, female mating preferences for these cuticular hydrocarbons also diverged among populations. A component of this divergence occurred among treatment environments, accounting for at least 17.4% of the among-population divergence in linear mating preferences and 17.2% of the among-population divergence in nonlinear mating preferences. The divergence of mating preferences in correlation with environment is consistent with the classic by-product model of speciation in which premating isolation evolves as a side effect of divergent selection adapting populations to their different environments.

2005-11-01

357

Sex differences in developmental plasticity and canalization shape population divergence in mate preferences  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sexual selection of high-quality mates can conflict with species recognition if traits that govern intraspecific mate preferences also influence interspecific recognition. This conflict might be resolved by developmental plasticity and learned mate preferences, which could drive preference divergence in populations that differ in local species composition. We integrate field and laboratory experiments on two calopterygid damselfly species with population genetic data to investigate how sex differences in developmental plasticity affect population divergence in the face of gene flow. Whereas male species recognition is fixed at emergence, females instead learn to recognize heterospecifics. Females are therefore more plastic in their mate preferences than males. We suggest that this results from sex differences in the balance between sexual selection for high-quality mates and selection for species recognition. As a result of these sex differences, females develop more pronounced population divergence in their mate preferences compared with males. Local ecological community context and presence of heterospecifics in combination with sex differences in plasticity and canalization therefore shape population divergence in mate preferences. As ongoing environmental change and habitat fragmentation bring formerly allopatric species into secondary contact, developmental plasticity of mate preferences in either or both sexes might facilitate coexistence and prevent local species extinction.

Svensson, Erik I; Runemark, Anna

2014-01-01

358

The effects of perceived mating opportunities on patterns of reproductive investment by male guppies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Males pay considerable reproductive costs in acquiring mates (precopulatory sexual selection) and in producing ejaculates that are effective at fertilising eggs in the presence of competing ejaculates (postcopulatory sexual selection). Given these costs, males must balance their reproductive investment in a given mating to optimise their future reproductive potential. Males are therefore expected to invest in reproduction prudently according to the likelihood of obtaining future matings. In this study we tested this prediction by determining whether male reproductive investment varies with expected future mating opportunities, which were experimentally manipulated by visually exposing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to high or low numbers of females in the absence of competing males. Our experiment did not reveal consistent effects of perceived future mating opportunity on either precopulatory (male mate choice and mating behaviour) or postcopulatory (sperm quality and quantity) investment. However, we did find that male size and female availability interacted to influence mating behaviour; large males visually deprived of females during the treatment phase became more choosy and showed greater interest in their preferred female than those given continuous visual access to females. Overall, our results suggest males tailor pre- rather than postcopulatory traits according to local female availability, but critically, these effects depend on male size. PMID:24705713

Barrett, Luke T; Evans, Jonathan P; Gasparini, Clelia

2014-01-01

359

Developing Wax-Based Granule Formulations for Mating Disruption of Oriental Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Turfgrass  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory experiments were conducted to generate basic information about the volatility of oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, synthetic mating pheromone, (Z) and (E)-7-tetradecen-2-one, in order to develop wax-based granule formulations to disrupt mating of this pest infesting turfgras...

360

The relationship between intraspecific assortative mating and reproductive isolation between divergent populations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term 'assortative mating' has been applied to describe two very different phenomena: (1 the tendency for individuals to choose phenotypically similar mates from among conspecifics; or (2 the tendency to prefer conspecific over hete- rospecific mates (behavioral reproductive isolation. Both forms of assortative mating are widespread in nature, but the relationship between these behaviors remains unclear. Namely, it is plausible that a preference for phenotypically similar conspecifics incidentally reduces the probability of mating with phenotypically divergent heterospecifics. We present a model to calculate how the level of reproductive isolation depends on intraspecific assortative mating and the phenotypic divergence between species. For empirically reasonable levels of intraspecific assortment on a single trait axis, we show that strong reproductive isolation requires very substantial phenotypic divergence. We illustrate this point by applying our model to empirical data from threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus and Darwin’s Finches (Geospiza spp. We conclude that typical levels of intraspecific assortment cannot generally be extrapolated to explain levels of interspecific reproductive isolation. Instead, reproductive isolation between species likely arises from different mate choice behaviors, or multivariate assortative mating [Current Zoology 58 (3: 481–489, 2012].

Daniel I. BOLNICK, Mark KIRKPATRICK

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

Influence of experimental illumination and seasonal variation on crossbreending mating in the snail Biomphalaria Glabrata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The crossbreeding activities of the Schistosoma mansoni vector snail Biomphalaria glabrata were counted in a laboratory aquarium throughout the year under two regimes of 12h light: 12h dark from 7 A., M. to 10 P. M. Mating increased significantly in Authmn and Winter and just missed a significant in [...] verse correlation with temperature and a direct one with locomotion. Other similar experiments were carried out to compare mating under various ilumination conditions in complete daily cycle measurements. Mating counts decreased under the regimes which submited snail to a total exposure of 12h light and 12 dark during a daily cycle in the following sequence: 12h light: 12h dark alternating hourly with light gradient, 12h light: 12h dark, 1h light: 1h dark and 12h dark: 12h light. Under two constant illuminations, the mating scored less than under the previous conditions, except under 12h light. Under darkeness the mating count was lower than light conditions. There was no way to differentiate the night and day rhythms of mating on different days in each regime, except for mating under 12h light: 12 dark alternating with light gradient, constant dark and 12h dark: 12h light conditions. Mating increased in certain light and temperature conditions, in wich the intensities, should have an optimum value.

F., Pimentel-Souza; V. T., Schall; N. D. C., Barbosa; M., Schettino; R., Lautner Júnior..

1988-03-01

362

Influence of experimental illumination and seasonal variation on crossbreending mating in the snail Biomphalaria Glabrata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The crossbreeding activities of the Schistosoma mansoni vector snail Biomphalaria glabrata were counted in a laboratory aquarium throughout the year under two regimes of 12h light: 12h dark from 7 A., M. to 10 P. M. Mating increased significantly in Authmn and Winter and just missed a significant inverse correlation with temperature and a direct one with locomotion. Other similar experiments were carried out to compare mating under various ilumination conditions in complete daily cycle measurements. Mating counts decreased under the regimes which submited snail to a total exposure of 12h light and 12 dark during a daily cycle in the following sequence: 12h light: 12h dark alternating hourly with light gradient, 12h light: 12h dark, 1h light: 1h dark and 12h dark: 12h light. Under two constant illuminations, the mating scored less than under the previous conditions, except under 12h light. Under darkeness the mating count was lower than light conditions. There was no way to differentiate the night and day rhythms of mating on different days in each regime, except for mating under 12h light: 12 dark alternating with light gradient, constant dark and 12h dark: 12h light conditions. Mating increased in certain light and temperature conditions, in wich the intensities, should have an optimum value.

F. Pimentel-Souza

1988-03-01

363

Negative public information in mate choice copying helps the spread of a novel trait.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous field and laboratory experiments have shown that many species have the capacity for social learning, including mate choice decisions that can be influenced by witnessing the mating decisions of others. Here we develop a numerical model of mate choice copying that follows the population genetics tradition, consisting in tracking allele frequencies in a population over time under various scenarios. In contrast to previous evolutionary models, we consider both positive social information and negative social information because many mating systems are driven by males in pursuit of a mate and female refusal of copulation may provide negative social information. The inclusion of negative social information to mate choice copying helps the spread of a novel trait, even if female innate mate choice preference is biased toward the common male type. We argue that the presence or absence of copying might simply mirror the associated cost-benefit relationship of the mating system of a given species and suggest how to test this prediction. PMID:25325749

Santos, Mauro; Matos, Margarida; Varela, Susana A M

2014-11-01

364

Inbreeding avoidance mechanism : how premating conditions may influence the mating system in a quasi-gregarious parasitoid of aphids, Aphidius matricariae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The theory of sexual selection was formulated by Darwin (1871) to explain the origin of sexually dimorphic traits that are detrimental to survival. He believed that sexual selection arises from either mate choice or intra-sexual competition for mates, reasoning that such traits could evolve if they conferred a fitness advantage on their bearer. It is well conceded that males and females do not mate randomly and that mate choice is an important aspect of mating systems. Mate choice can operate...

Bourdais, Delphine

2012-01-01

365

The effect of sterile insects on population of crocidolomia binotalis zell and the relation between fertility and mating competitiveness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A significat correlation (r=0.8774) was found between fertility and mating competitiveness of crocidolomia binotalis zell. The lower fertility of insects, the less their mating competitiveness became. (author)

366

Self-perceived sociosexuality and mate value asymmetry in heterosexual romantic relationships  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous works have shown that sociosexuality may affect mate choice and correspond to partners’ mate value (MV. However, there is a lack of studies that directly show how a difference between both partners’ mate values (MVD relates to reproductive strategies. In this study we investigated a possible link between self-reported measures of individual differences in human mating strategies (SOI-R and self-perceived mate value asymmetry (difference between partners’ MV in heterosexual romantic relationships. Two hundred forty-nine heterosexual participants (all in romantic relationships completed an online questionnaire. Their sociosexuality was measured using Revised Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI-R (Penke and Asendorpf 2008. The assessment of the participant’s and his/her partner’s MVs were obtained using the MV measure by Graham-Kevan and Archer (2009. MVD was calculated by deducting the assessment of partner’s MV and MV self-assessment.

Gomula Aleksandra

2014-12-01

367

Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini Represents a Distinct Mating Population in the Gibberella fujikuroi Species Complex†  

Science.gov (United States)

Fusarium strains in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex cause diseases on a variety of economically important plants. One of these diseases, pitch canker of Pinus spp., is caused by strains identified as Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini. Fertile crosses were detected between F. subglutinans f. sp. pini strains from South Africa, California, and Florida. F. subglutinans f. sp. pini strains were not cross-fertile with the standard tester strains of six of the seven other mating populations of G. fujikuroi. Sporadic perithecia with ascospores were obtained in two crosses with the mating population B tester strains. These perithecia were homothallic, and the ascospores derived from these perithecia were vegetatively compatible with the mating population B tester strain parent. We concluded that fertile F. subglutinans f. sp. pini isolates represent a new mating population (mating population H) of G. fujikuroi and that they belong to a unique biological species in a distinct taxon. PMID:10049883

Britz, H.; Coutinho, T. A.; Wingfield, M. J.; Marasas, W. F. O.; Gordon, T. R.; Leslie, J. F.

1999-01-01

368

Male topi antelopes alarm snort deceptively to retain females for mating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite intense interest in the role of deception in animal communication, empirical evidence is wanting that nonhuman animals are capable of actively falsifying signals to manipulate mates for reproductive benefits. Tactical use of false positive signals has thus been documented mainly where interests are consistently opposed, such as between predator and prey and between competitors for food and for mates. Here we report that male topi antelopes alarm snort deceptively to retain receptive females in their territories and thereby secure mating opportunities. The finding reveals that sexual conflict over mating, which is known to promote various forms of coercion and sensory bias exploitation, can also lead to active signal falsification. However, because honesty in sexual signals is generally assured by physical or cost-enforced constraints on signal production, sexually selected mate deception is likely to target mainly signals, such as alarm calls, that were originally not under sexual selection. PMID:20477537

Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Pangle, Wiline M

2010-07-01

369

A neural mechanism underlying mating preferences for familiar individuals in medaka fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

Social familiarity affects mating preference among various vertebrates. Here, we show that visual contact of a potential mating partner before mating (visual familiarization) enhances female preference for the familiarized male, but not for an unfamiliarized male, in medaka fish. Terminal-nerve gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 (TN-GnRH3) neurons, an extrahypothalamic neuromodulatory system, function as a gate for activating mating preferences based on familiarity. Basal levels of TN-GnRH3 neuronal activity suppress female receptivity for any male (default mode). Visual familiarization facilitates TN-GnRH3 neuron activity (preference mode), which correlates with female preference for the familiarized male. GnRH3 peptides, which are synthesized specifically in TN-GnRH3 neurons, are required for the mode-switching via self-facilitation. Our study demonstrates the central neural mechanisms underlying the regulation of medaka female mating preference based on visual social familiarity. PMID:24385628

Okuyama, Teruhiro; Yokoi, Saori; Abe, Hideki; Isoe, Yasuko; Suehiro, Yuji; Imada, Haruka; Tanaka, Minoru; Kawasaki, Takashi; Yuba, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Okubo, Kataaki; Shimada, Atsuko; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Oka, Yoshitaka; Kubo, Takeo; Takeuchi, Hideaki

2014-01-01

370

The influence of pleiotropy between viability and pollen fates on mating system evolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Floral displays are functionally and genetically integrated structures, so modifications to display will likely affect multiple fitness components (pleiotropy), including pollen export and self-pollination, and therefore selfing rate. Consequently, the great diversities of floral displays and of mating systems found among angiosperms have likely co-evolved. I extend previous models of mating system evolution to determine how pleiotropy that links viability (e.g., probability of survival to reproduction) and the allocation of pollen for export and selfing affects the evolution of selfing, outcrossing, and in particular, mixed mating. I show that the outcome depends on how pollen shifts from being exported, unused, or used for selfing. Furthermore, pleiotropy that affects viability can explain observations not addressed by previous theory, including the evolution of mixed mating despite high inbreeding depression in the absence of pollen-limitation. Therefore, pleiotropy may play a key role in explaining selfing rates for such species that exhibit otherwise enigmatic mating systems. PMID:25448089

Jordan, Crispin Y

2015-02-01

371

Incestuous mate preference by a simultaneous hermaphrodite with strong inbreeding depression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inbreeding depression and its consequences for mate choice have been extensively studied in free-living animals. However, very little is known about its significance for parasites, although it is well recognized that the mating systems of parasites can have important implications for their epidemiology and evolution. In this article, we show that the cestode Schistocephalus solidus shows incestuous mate preference despite evidence for very strong inbreeding depression. When given the simultaneous choice between mating with a sibling and an unrelated partner, on average, the cestode preferred its sibling. To explain this surprising result, we present three hypotheses that suggest different benefits to fitness of incestuous mating, which could, alone or in concert, outweigh the cost of inbreeding depression. PMID:17348951

Schjørring, Solveig; Jäger, Ilonka

2007-02-01

372

Biosynthesis of lipids in female tsetse flies following matings with radiation-sterilized or normal males  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tsetse females mated to radiation-sterilized males have a pattern of lipid synthesis identical to those mated normally through nearly all levels of lipid content except one. Synthesis of lipids from injected (14C)-1,2-acetate shows no mating condition correlation for total lipids, total phospholipids, total neutral lipids or for major sub-classes of phospholipids or most neutral lipids. Only the 1,2-diacylglycerols show a distinct depression of synthesis and then only in the uterine gland of a female mated to an irradiated male. Thus without carrying lipid analyses to a level distinguishing isomeric forms in a specific type of tissue, one could not discern an ultimate difference in the lipid biochemistry of the abnormally mated female. (author). 13 refs, 6 tabs

373

Mating type gene analysis in apparently asexual Cercospora species is suggestive of cryptic sex.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Cercospora consists of numerous important, apparently asexual plant pathogens. We designed degenerate primers from homologous sequences in related species to amplify part of the C. apii, C. apiicola, C. beticola, C. zeae-maydis and C. zeina mating type genes. Chromosome walking was used to determine the full length mating type genes of these species. Primers were developed to amplify and sequence homologous portions of the mating type genes of additional species. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences revealed little variation among members of the C. apii complex, whereas C. zeae-maydis and C. zeina were found to be dissimilar. The presence of both mating types in approximately even proportions in C. beticola, C. zeae-maydis and C. zeina populations, in contrast to single mating types in C. apii (MAT1) and C. apiicola (MAT2), suggests that a sexual cycle may be active in some of these species. PMID:16839791

Groenewald, Marizeth; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Harrington, Thomas C; Abeln, Edwin C A; Crous, Pedro W

2006-12-01

374

MHC-disassortative mate choice and inbreeding avoidance in a solitary primate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual selection theory suggests that choice for partners carrying dissimilar genes at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) may play a role in maintaining genetic variation in animal populations by limiting inbreeding or improving the immunity of future offspring. However, it is often difficult to establish whether the observed MHC dissimilarity among mates drives mate choice or represents a by-product of inbreeding avoidance based on MHC-independent cues. Here, we used 454-sequencing and a 10-year study of wild grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus), small, solitary primates from western Madagascar, to compare the relative importance on the mate choice of two MHC class II genes, DRB and DQB, that are equally variable but display contrasting patterns of selection at the molecular level, with DRB under stronger diversifying selection. We further assessed the effect of the genetic relatedness and of the spatial distance among candidate mates on the detection of MHC-dependent mate choice. Our results reveal inbreeding avoidance, along with disassortative mate choice at DRB, but not at DQB. DRB-disassortative mate choice remains detectable after excluding all related dyads (characterized by a relatedness coefficient r > 0), but varies slightly with the spatial distance among candidate mates. These findings suggest that the observed deviations from random mate choice at MHC are driven by functionally important MHC genes (like DRB) rather than passively resulting from inbreeding avoidance and further emphasize the need for taking into account the spatial and genetic structure of the population in correlative tests of MHC-dependent mate choice. PMID:23889546

Huchard, Elise; Baniel, Alice; Schliehe-Diecks, Susanne; Kappeler, Peter M

2013-08-01

375

Segmental chromosomal alterations have prognostic impact in neuroblastoma: a report from the INRG project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: In the INRG dataset, the hypothesis that any segmental chromosomal alteration might be of prognostic impact in neuroblastoma without MYCN amplification (MNA) was tested. Methods: The presence of any segmental chromosomal alteration (chromosome 1p deletion, 11q deletion and/or chromosome 17q gain) defined a segmental genomic profile. Only tumours with a confirmed unaltered status for all three chromosome arms were considered as having no segmental chromosomal alterations. Results: ...

Schleiermacher, G.; Mosseri, V.; London, W. B.; Maris, J. M.; Brodeur, G. M.; Attiyeh, E.; Haber, M.; Khan, J.; Nakagawara, A.; Speleman, F.; Noguera, R.; Tonini, G. P.; Fischer, M.; Ambros, I.; Monclair, T.

2012-01-01

376

Water turbidity by algal blooms causes mating system breakdown in a shallow-water fish, the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eutrophication as a result of human activity has resulted in increased algal blooms and turbidity in aquatic environments. We investigated experimentally the effect of algal turbidity on the mating system and sexual selection in the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas), a marine fish with a resource-defence mating system and paternal care. Owing to male-male competition and female choice, large males can monopolize multiple mates, while some males do not achieve mating at all. We show t...

Ja?rvenpa?a?, Marja; Lindstro?m, Kai

2004-01-01

377

Female sperm limitation in natural populations of a sexual/asexual mating complex (Poecilia latipinna, Poecilia formosa)  

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In sperm-dependent sexual/asexual mating systems, male mate choice is critical for understanding the mechanisms behind apparent stability observed in natural populations. The gynogenetic Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa) requires sperm from sexual males (e.g. Poecilia latipinna) to trigger embryogenesis, but inheritance is strictly maternal. Consequently, males should try to avoid or reduce the cost of mating with asexuals. We investigated male mate choice by documenting the presence of sperm i...

Riesch, Ru?diger; Schlupp, Ingo; Plath, Martin

2008-01-01

378

The role of male age, sperm age and mating history on fecundity and fertilization success in the hide beetle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Models of age-related mate choice predict female preference for older males as they have proven survival ability. However, these models rarely address differences in sperm age and male mating history when evaluating the potential benefits to females from older partners. We used a novel experimental design to assess simultaneously the relative importance of these three parameters in the hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus. In a two-part experiment we first explored age-related male mating success and subsequently examined the consequences of male age, sperm age and male mating history on female fecundity and fertilization success. In a competitive mating environment, intermediate-age males gained significantly higher mating success than younger or older males. To test the consequences for females of aged-related male mating success, a second set of females were mated to males varying in age (young, intermediate-age and old), in numbers of matings and in timing of the most recent mating. We found that male age had a significant impact on female fecundity and fertilization success. Females mated to intermediate-age males laid more eggs and attained consistently higher levels of fertilization success than females with young and old mates. A male's previous mating history determined his current reproductive effort; virgin males spent longer in copula than males with prior mating opportunities. However, differences in copulation duration did not translate into increased fecundity or fertilization success. There was also little evidence to suggest that fertilization success was dependent on the age of a male's sperm. The experiment highlights the potential direct benefits accrued by females through mating with particular aged males. Such benefits are largely ignored by traditional viability models of age-related male mating success. PMID:15306356

Jones, Therésa M; Elgar, Mark A

2004-06-22

379

Reproductive and Productive Performance of Iraqi Buffaloes as Influenced by Pre-Mating and Pre-Calving Concentrate Supplementation  

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The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of pre-mating and pre-calving concentrate supplementation of Iraqi buffaloes on some of the reproductive (estrus, mating, pregnancy and calving rates) and productive (daily milk yield and calves birth weight) traits. This study was carried out in 4 Iraqi South-central governorates using 596 pre-mating and 628 pregnant buffaloes (during the last two months of gestation). Pre-mating buffaloes were divided randomly into 496 conc...

Talal Anwer Abdulkareem, Sawsan Ali Al-sharifi

2012-01-01

380

Patterns of racial and educational assortative mating in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exchange of racial for educational status has been documented for black/white marriages in the United States. Exchange may be an idiosyncratic feature of U.S. society, resulting from unusually strong racial boundaries historically developed there. We examine status exchange across racial lines in Brazil. In contrast to the United States, Brazil features greater fluidity of racial boundaries and a middle tier of "brown" individuals. If exchange is contingent on strong racial boundaries, it should be weak or non-existent in Brazilian society. Contrary to this expectation, we find strong evidence of status exchange. However, this pattern results from a generalized penalty for darkness, which induces a negative association between higher education and marrying darker spouses ("market exchange") rather than from a direct trading of resources by partners ("dyadic exchange"). The substantive and methodological distinction between market and dyadic exchange helps clarify and integrate prior findings in the status exchange literature. PMID:24811134

Gullickson, Aaron; Torche, Florencia

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
381

Pronóstico de vida a tres meses y factores asociados de pacientes con alteración del estado mental en emergencia de medicina de un hospital nacional en Perú / Three-month life prognosis and associated factors in patients with altered mental status admimtted to the emergency room of a national hospital in Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos. Determinar el pronóstico de vida a tres meses y factores asociados en pacientes con alteración del estado mental (AEM). Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal analítico que incluyó pacientes mayores de 18 años admitidos por emergencia de medicina de un hospital nacional, con AEM, dentr [...] o de las veinticuatro horas de iniciado el cuadro y que requirieron observación. La información demográfica, clínica y valoración funcional fueron tomadas de historias clínicas. El seguimiento a los tres meses se hizo por vía telefónica. Resultados. Se incluyó a 290 pacientes. Esta entidad representa el 4,1% del total de atenciones de emergencia. La mortalidad global fue 24,2%, mientras que en el subgrupo de adultos mayores fue de 28,1%; 19,3% en adultos y 15,2% en adultos jóvenes. La edad promedio fue 63,5 años y el grupo de adultos mayores constituyó casi 2/3 de la población. El 51% estuvo compuesto por varones. El promedio de estancia hospitalaria fue de 7 días. Las causas asociadas, más frecuentes, fueron: enfermedades infecciosas (44,1%), neurológicas (40,3%), respiratorias (28,3%), metabólicos (18,6%) y cardiovasculares (17,2%). La asociación de mortalidad con nivel Abstract in english Objectives. Determine the prognosis at three months and associated factors of patients with altered mental status (AMS). Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study that included patients over 18 years of age admitted to the emergency room in a national hospital, with AMS, within twenty-four hours [...] of onset and that required observation. The demographic, clinical and functional assessment information were taken from the medical record. A follow-up was made at three months by telephone. Results. The study included 290 patients, representing 4.1% of the total patients in the emergency room. Overall mortality was 24.2%, whereas in the subgroup of older adults was 28.1%; 19.3% in adults and 15.2% in young adults. The average age was 63.5 years and the elderly group constituted nearly two thirds of the population. 51% were males. The average hospital stay was 7 days. The most frequently associated causes were infectious diseases (44.1%), neurological (40.3%), respiratory (28.3%), metabolic (18.6%), and cardiovascular (17.2%) disorders. Mortality was associated with a) GCS levels

Delia, Alva-Rodriguez; María, de los Ángeles Lazo; Javier D, Loza-Herrera; Germán, Málaga.

2014-07-01

382

Pronóstico de vida a tres meses y factores asociados de pacientes con alteración del estado mental en emergencia de medicina de un hospital nacional en Perú / Three-month life prognosis and associated factors in patients with altered mental status admimtted to the emergency room of a national hospital in Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos. Determinar el pronóstico de vida a tres meses y factores asociados en pacientes con alteración del estado mental (AEM). Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal analítico que incluyó pacientes mayores de 18 años admitidos por emergencia de medicina de un hospital nacional, con AEM, dentr [...] o de las veinticuatro horas de iniciado el cuadro y que requirieron observación. La información demográfica, clínica y valoración funcional fueron tomadas de historias clínicas. El seguimiento a los tres meses se hizo por vía telefónica. Resultados. Se incluyó a 290 pacientes. Esta entidad representa el 4,1% del total de atenciones de emergencia. La mortalidad global fue 24,2%, mientras que en el subgrupo de adultos mayores fue de 28,1%; 19,3% en adultos y 15,2% en adultos jóvenes. La edad promedio fue 63,5 años y el grupo de adultos mayores constituyó casi 2/3 de la población. El 51% estuvo compuesto por varones. El promedio de estancia hospitalaria fue de 7 días. Las causas asociadas, más frecuentes, fueron: enfermedades infecciosas (44,1%), neurológicas (40,3%), respiratorias (28,3%), metabólicos (18,6%) y cardiovasculares (17,2%). La asociación de mortalidad con nivel Abstract in english Objectives. Determine the prognosis at three months and associated factors of patients with altered mental status (AMS). Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study that included patients over 18 years of age admitted to the emergency room in a national hospital, with AMS, within twenty-four hours [...] of onset and that required observation. The demographic, clinical and functional assessment information were taken from the medical record. A follow-up was made at three months by telephone. Results. The study included 290 patients, representing 4.1% of the total patients in the emergency room. Overall mortality was 24.2%, whereas in the subgroup of older adults was 28.1%; 19.3% in adults and 15.2% in young adults. The average age was 63.5 years and the elderly group constituted nearly two thirds of the population. 51% were males. The average hospital stay was 7 days. The most frequently associated causes were infectious diseases (44.1%), neurological (40.3%), respiratory (28.3%), metabolic (18.6%), and cardiovascular (17.2%) disorders. Mortality was associated with a) GCS levels

Delia, Alva-Rodriguez; María, de los Ángeles Lazo; Javier D, Loza-Herrera; Germán, Málaga.

2014-09-01

383

Music and Alterity Processes  

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The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological is...

Josep Martí

2014-01-01

384

24 CFR 3285.403 - Sidewall, over-the-roof, mate-line, and shear wall straps.  

Science.gov (United States)

...over-the-roof, mate-line, and shear wall straps. 3285.403 Section 3285.403...over-the-roof, mate-line, and shear wall straps. If sidewall, over-the-roof, mate-line, or shear wall straps are installed on the home, they...

2010-04-01

385

24 CFR 3285.403 - Sidewall, over-the-roof, mate-line, and shear wall straps.  

Science.gov (United States)

...over-the-roof, mate-line, and shear wall straps. 3285.403 Section 3285...over-the-roof, mate-line, and shear wall straps. If sidewall, over-the-roof, mate-line, or shear wall straps are installed on the...

2010-04-01

386

Feederism: an exaggeration of a normative mate selection preference?  

Science.gov (United States)

Quinsey and Lalumière (1995) suggested that some, if not most, paraphilias are exaggerated manifestations of more normative and functional mate selection preferences. The present study tested whether Feederism, a fat fetish focused on erotic eating, feeding, and gaining weight, is an exaggeration of a sexual arousal pattern commonly seen in the general population. Thirty participants (15 men and 15 women) recruited from the general population were assessed using penile plethysmography and vaginal photoplethysmography, respectively. None of the participants were self-identified Feeders or Feedees. Participants were shown sexual, neutral, and feeding still images while listening to audio recordings of sexual, neutral, and feeding stories. Participants did not genitally respond to feeding stimuli. However, both men and women subjectively rated feeding stimuli as more sexually arousing than neutral stimuli. We discuss the discordance between physiological and self-reported sexual arousal in the context of sex differences in sexual concordance and implications for future research. PMID:22392517

Terry, Lesley L; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L; Vasey, Paul L

2012-02-01

387

The genetic structure and mating system of Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Acrocomia aculeata is a perennial, fruit-producing palm tree, native to tropical forests. Its fruits have spurred interest because of their significant potential for use in the cosmetic industry and as feedstock for biofuel. In the present study, the genetic structure and mating system in Acrocomia [...] aculeata were analyzed, using eight nuclear microsatellite loci and samples from São Paulo and Minas Gerais states, Brazil. By means of Bayesian analysis, these populations were clustered into two or three groups. A high multilocus outcrossing rate suggests that outcrosses were predominant, although a certain degree of biparental inbreeding also occurred. Thus, although monoecious and self-compatible, there is every indication that A. aculeata bears a mixed reproductive system, with a predominance of outcrossing. Given the genetic structure revealed hereby, future conservation strategies and germplasm collecting should be focussed on sampling and preserving individuals from different clusters.

Aluana Gonçalves, Abreu; Regina Helena Geribello, Priolli; Joaquim Adelino, Azevedo-Filho; Stella Maris, Nucci; Maria Imaculada, Zucchi; Ricardo Marques, Coelho; Carlos Augusto, Colombo.

388

The genetic structure and mating system of Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Acrocomia aculeata is a perennial, fruit-producing palm tree, native to tropical forests. Its fruits have spurred interest because of their significant potential for use in the cosmetic industry and as feedstock for biofuel. In the present study, the genetic structure and mating system in Acrocomia aculeata were analyzed, using eight nuclear micro-satellite loci and samples from São Paulo and Minas Gerais states, Brazil. By means of Bayesian analysis, these populations were clustered into two or three groups. A high multilocus outcrossing rate suggests that outcrosses were predominant, although a certain degree of biparental inbreeding also occurred. Thus, although monoecious and self-compatible, there is every indication that A. aculeata bears a mixed reproductive system, with a predominance of outcrossing. Given the genetic structure revealed hereby, future conservation strategies and germplasm collecting should be focussed on sampling and preserving individuals from different clusters. PMID:22481883

Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves; Priolli, Regina Helena Geribello; Azevedo-Filho, Joaquim Adelino; Nucci, Stella Maris; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Coelho, Ricardo Marques; Colombo, Carlos Augusto

2012-01-01

389

The genetic structure and mating system of Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae  

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Full Text Available Acrocomia aculeata is a perennial, fruit-producing palm tree, native to tropical forests. Its fruits have spurred interest because of their significant potential for use in the cosmetic industry and as feedstock for biofuel. In the present study, the genetic structure and mating system in Acrocomia aculeata were analyzed, using eight nuclear microsatellite loci and samples from São Paulo and Minas Gerais states, Brazil. By means of Bayesian analysis, these populations were clustered into two or three groups. A high multilocus outcrossing rate suggests that outcrosses were predominant, although a certain degree of biparental inbreeding also occurred. Thus, although monoecious and self-compatible, there is every indication that A. aculeata bears a mixed reproductive system, with a predominance of outcrossing. Given the genetic structure revealed hereby, future conservation strategies and germplasm collecting should be focussed on sampling and preserving individuals from different clusters.

Aluana Gonçalves Abreu

2012-01-01

390

Sexual segregation and flexible mating patterns in temperate bats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Social structure evolves from a trade-off between the costs and benefits of group-living, which are in turn dependent upon the distribution of key resources such as food and shelter. Males and females, or juveniles and adults, may have different priorities when selecting habitat due to differences in physiological or behavioural imperatives, leading to complex patterns in group composition. We studied social structure and mating behaviour in the insectivorous bat Myotis daubentonii along an altitudinal gradient, combining field studies with molecular genetics. With increasing altitude the proportion of males in summer roosts increased and only males were present in the highest roosts. With increasing altitude environmental temperature decreased, nightly variation in temperature increased, and bat foraging activity decreased, supporting the hypothesis that the harsher, high elevation sites cannot support breeding females. We found that offspring in female-dominated lowland roosts had a very high probability of being fathered by bats caught during autumn swarming at hibernation sites, in contrast to those in intermediate roosts, which had a high probability of being fathered by males sharing the nursery roost with the females. Whilst females normally appear to exclude males from nursery colonies, for those in marginal habitats, one explanation for the presence of males is that the thermoregulatory benefits to the females may outweigh disadvantages, such as competition for food, and give some males an opportunity to increase their breeding success. We suggest that the environment, and its effects on resource distribution, thus determine social structure, which in turn determines the mating pattern that has evolved. PMID:23365652

Angell, Ruth L; Butlin, Roger K; Altringham, John D

2013-01-01

391