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Sample records for mating status alters

  1. Mating alters gene expression patterns in Drosophila melanogaster male heads

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    Ellis Lisa L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavior is a complex process resulting from the integration of genetic and environmental information. Drosophila melanogaster rely on multiple sensory modalities for reproductive success, and mating causes physiological changes in both sexes that affect reproductive output or behavior. Some of these effects are likely mediated by changes in gene expression. Courtship and mating alter female transcript profiles, but it is not known how mating affects male gene expression. Results We used Drosophila genome arrays to identify changes in gene expression profiles that occur in mated male heads. Forty-seven genes differed between mated and control heads 2 hrs post mating. Many mating-responsive genes are highly expressed in non-neural head tissues, including an adipose tissue called the fat body. One fat body-enriched gene, female-specific independent of transformer (fit, is a downstream target of the somatic sex-determination hierarchy, a genetic pathway that regulates Drosophila reproductive behaviors as well as expression of some fat-expressed genes; three other mating-responsive loci are also downstream components of this pathway. Another mating-responsive gene expressed in fat, Juvenile hormone esterase (Jhe, is necessary for robust male courtship behavior and mating success. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that mating causes changes in male head gene expression profiles and supports an increasing body of work implicating adipose signaling in behavior modulation. Since several mating-induced genes are sex-determination hierarchy target genes, additional mating-responsive loci may be downstream components of this pathway as well.

  2. Assortative mating by occupational status during early industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Zijdeman, R. L.; Maas, I.

    2010-01-01

    According to the logic of industrialism thesis during industrialization, the influence of, achieved characteristics on mate selection increased, while the influence of ascribed, characteristics decreased. Other processes that accompanied industrialization, such as, the development of mass communication, urbanization, increasing regional mobility, modern transport, and educational expansion, were hypothesized to break down, cultural differences and cause a decline of status based mate...

  3. Chemosensory cues allow male Tenebrio molitor beetles to assess the reproductive status of potential mates

    OpenAIRE

    Carazo, P.; Sanchez, E.; Font, E; Desfilis, E

    2004-01-01

    Males of many insect species, including beetles, choose their mates according to their reproductive status. However, the ways in which male beetles evaluate female reproductive status have received little attention. We tested the existence of male mate choice in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by observing mating and courtship behaviour of males given simultaneous access to pairs of females differing in their reproductive status: (1) mature versus immature; (2) virgin versus previously...

  4. Mate retention tactics in Spain: personality, sex differences, and relationship status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Adelia; Buss, David M

    2011-06-01

    Mate retention is an important problem in romantic relationships because of mate poachers, infidelity, and the risk of outright defection. The current study (N=892) represents the first study of mate retention tactics conducted in Spain. We tested hypotheses about the effects of gender, relationship commitment status, and personality on mate retention tactics. Women and men differed in the use of resource display, appearance enhancement, intrasexual violence, and submission/self-abasement as mate retention tactics. Those in more committed relationships reported higher levels of resource display, appearance enhancement, love, and verbal signals of possession. Those in less committed relationships more often reported intentionally evoking jealousy in their partner as a mate retention tactic. Personality characteristics, particularly Neuroticism and Agreeableness, correlated in coherent ways with mate retention tactics, supporting two evolution-based hypotheses. Discussion focuses on the implications, future research directions, and interdisciplinary syntheses emerging between personality and social psychology and evolutionary psychology. PMID:21534964

  5. The Treatment of Relationship Status in Research on Dating and Mate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surra, Catherine A; Boettcher-Burke, Tyfany M. J.; Cottle, Nathan R.; West, Adam R.; Gray, Christine R.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship status of study participants (e.g., daters, cohabitors, marrieds, or unmarrieds) has implications for understanding dating and mate selection. Procedures used in studies may blur or ignore status distinctions. The authors examined methods used in 791 studies published from 1991-2001. Most commonly, status of participants is…

  6. Autonomic Reactivity With Altered Thyroid Status

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    Anjali Nadir Bhat, Leela Kalsotra, Sabita Yograj

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to test the effect of altered thyroid status on the autonomic reactivity in 60subjects (age group 20-50 years. The para meters recorded and the tests used were pulse rate, bloodpressure, orthostasis, cold pressor test, mental arithmetic and QTc interval for assessment of sympatheticactivity and valsalva ratio, heart rate response, expiratory-inspiratory ratio (E.I. ratio, heart rate variability,standing-lying ratio (S.L. ratio and 30: 15 ratio for assessment of parasympathetic activity. Our findingsshow that the changes in thyroid hormone levels - in both hypothyroids and hyperthyroids are associatedwith altered sympathetic reactivity, with no significant difference in the parasympathetic activity - ineither hypothyroids or hyperthyroids- as compared to euthyroid controls.

  7. Effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil response to aggregation pheromone

    OpenAIRE

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; A.; van Huis; Ragama, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    The banana (Musa spp.) weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine whether the response of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to its aggregation pheromone was influenced by age, female mating status and weevil density. Laboratory bioassays were conducted using a double ...

  8. The relevance of age and nutritional status on the mating competitiveness of medfly males (Diptera: Teprhitidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alzira Kelly Passos, Roriz; Iara Sordi, Joachim-Bravo.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of previous investigations trying to ascertain which physiological factors are more important to the mating success of medfly males are controversial. In part, this controversy owes to the fact that each factor was evaluated by an independent study using different experimental designs and po [...] pulations. In the present study we compare the roles of age and nutritional status (immature and adult phases) on the mating competitiveness of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) males. Three parameters were used to evaluate the male mating success: calling behavior (pheromone emission), lek participation and copulation (ability to be chosen by a female). Females gave preference to the males that were given a high protein diet in the larval phase. By contrast, females did not give preference to males that had been well-nourished in the adult phase only. The other parameters evaluated followed the same pattern: young males and males that had been fed a high protein diet during their immature phase had a greater participation in leks and called more often than older males and males that had been fed a diet poor in protein during their larval phase. Therefore, we conclude that the mating success of C. capitata males is determined both by age and nourishment during the immature stage.

  9. Mate-guarding constrains feeding activity but not energetic status of wild male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard-Buttoz, Cédric; Heistermann, Michael; Rahmi, Erdiansyah; Marzec, Anna; Agil, Muhammad; Fauzan, Panji Ahmad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Mate-guarding is an important determinant of male reproductive success in a number of species. Little is known however about the constraints of this behaviour, e.g. the associated energetic costs. We investigated these costs in long-tailed macaques where alpha males mate guard females to a lesser extent than predicted by the priority of access model. The study was carried out during two mating periods on three wild groups living in the Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia. We combined behavioural observations on males' locomotion and feeding activity, GPS records of distance travelled and non-invasive measurements of urinary C-peptide (UCP), a physiological indicator of male energetic status. Mate-guarding led to a decrease in feeding time and fruit consumption suggesting a reduced intake of energy. At the same time, vertical locomotion was reduced, which potentially saved energy. These findings, together with the fact that we did not find an effect of mate-guarding on UCP levels, suggest that energy intake and expenditure was balanced during mate-guarding in our study males. Mate-guarding thus seems to not be energetically costly under all circumstances. Given that in strictly seasonal rhesus macaques, high-ranking males lose physical condition over the mating period, we hypothesise that the energetic costs of mate-guarding vary inter-specifically depending on the degree of seasonality and that males of non-strictly seasonal species might be better adapted to maintain balanced energetic condition year-round. Finally, our results illustrate the importance of combining behavioural assessments of both energy intake and expenditure with physiological measures when investigating energetic costs of behavioural strategies. PMID:24659851

  10. Variation in adult sex ratio alters the association between courtship, mating frequency and paternity in the lek-forming fruitfly Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leftwich, P T; Edward, D A; Alphey, L; Gage, M J G; Chapman, T

    2012-09-01

    The intensity with which males deliver courtship and the frequency with which they mate are key components of male reproductive success. However, we expect the strength of the relationship between these traits and a male's overall paternity to be strongly context dependent, for example to be altered significantly by the extent of post-mating competition. We tested this prediction in a lekking insect, Ceratitis capitata (medfly). We examined the effect of manipulating the sex ratio from male- to female-biased (high and low male competition, respectively) on courtship behaviour, mating frequency and paternity of focal males. Under high male competition, focal males delivered significantly more courtship but gained lower paternity than under lower competition. Paternity was positively associated with mating frequency and small residual testes size. However, the association between mating frequency and paternity was significantly stronger under low competition. We conclude that manipulation of sex ratio significantly altered the predictors of mating success and paternity. The relationship between pre- and post-mating success is therefore plastic and alters according to the prevailing level of competition. The results highlight the importance of post-copulatory processes in lekking species and illuminate selection pressures placed on insects such as medflies that are mass reared for pest control. PMID:22725666

  11. Audience Effect Alters Male Mating Preferences in Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Fre?de?rique; Belzile, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The social environment of animals strongly influences the mating preferences of both the choosing and the observing individuals. Notably, there is recent evidence that polygamous males decrease their selectivity when being observed by competitors in order to direct their rivals’ attention away from their true interest and, consequently, reduce sperm competition risk. Yet, other mechanisms, whose importance remains unexplored, could induce similar effects. In monogamous species with mutual c...

  12. Female Moth Calling and Flight Behavior Are Altered Hours Following Pheromone Autodetection: Possible Implications for Practical Management with Mating Disruption

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    Lukasz Stelinski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female moths are known to detect their own sex pheromone—a phenomenon called “autodetection”. Autodetection has various effects on female moth behavior, including altering natural circadian rhythm of calling behavior, inducing flight, and in some cases causing aggregations of conspecifics. A proposed hypothesis for the possible evolutionary benefits of autodetection is its possible role as a spacing mechanism to reduce female-female competition. Here, we explore autodetection in two species of tortricids (Grapholita molesta (Busck and Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris. We find that females of both species not only “autodetect,” but that learning (change in behavior following experience occurs, which affects behavior for at least 24 hours after pheromone pre-exposure. Specifically, female calling in both species is advanced at least 24 hours, but not 5 days, following pheromone pre-exposure. Also, the propensity of female moths to initiate flight and the duration of flights, as quantified by a laboratory flight mill, were advanced in pre-exposed females as compared with controls. Pheromone pre-exposure did not affect the proportion of mated moths when they were confined with males in small enclosures over 24 hours in laboratory assays. We discuss the possible implications of these results with respect to management of these known pest species with the use of pheromone-based mating disruption.

  13. A matter of taste: direct detection of female mating status in the bedbug.

    OpenAIRE

    Siva-Jothy, Michael T.; Stutt, Alistair D

    2003-01-01

    Males of the bedbug, Cimex lectularius, traumatically inseminate females by inserting a needle-like intromittent organ (penis) through the female's abdominal wall after she has fed. We demonstrate that: (i) mating duration determines ejaculate size; (ii) a female's first copulation in a bout of copulations always lasts longer than subsequent copulations; (iii) the intromittent organ bears sensillae; (iv) males use their intromittent organ to 'taste' whether their current mate has recently cop...

  14. Altered volatile profile associated with precopulatory mate guarding attracts spider mite males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Keiko; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Poelman, Erik H; De Jong, Peter W; Dicke, Marcel

    2015-02-01

    Proximate factors affecting animal behavior include stimuli generated by conspecifics. In spider mites of the genus Tetranychus (Acari: Tetranychidae), males guard pre-reproductive quiescent females, because only the first mating results in fertilization. In a dual-choice experiment, more adult males of T. urticae were attracted to females guarded by a male than to solitary females. Because spider mites are known to perceive volatiles, we hypothesized that guarded and solitary females differ in the volatile blends emitted. To test this hypothesis, headspace volatiles of guarded females, solitary females, and solitary males were collected, respectively. GC/MS analysis detected octanal, methyl salicylate, ethyl 4-ethoxybenzoate, and methyl cis-dihydrojasmonate in all of the groups. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) of the blends clearly discriminated guarded females from solitary females, supporting our hypothesis. Individual compounds did not show significant difference in emission rates for guarded females vs. solitary females, suggesting that differences lay in the total blend composition. OPLS-DA did not discriminate between the blends emitted by guarded females and solitary males. In conclusion, the differences in the volatile blends are likely to mediate male discrimination between guarded and solitary females. PMID:25612522

  15. Women's Hormonal Status and Mate Value Influence Relationship Satisfaction and Perceived Male Attractiveness

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    Ivana Hromatko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous findings suggest that female preferences for certain features of male faces vary during the menstrual cycle. Similarly, changes during the cycle have also been found in women's commitment to a current relationship. Furthermore, from the perspective of securing benefits from extra-pair affairs, the differences between women with high vs. low mate value could be expected. In this study we have tried to connect these sets of findings: first, we explored differences between partnered and single women in their ratings of male facial attractiveness in different phases of the menstrual cycle; and second, their satisfaction with the current relationship in relation to the cycle phase and selfperceived mate value. Two groups of women (single vs. partnered rated the attractiveness of two sets of male faces (normal vs. symmetrical. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that women in a relationship gave higher ratings of attractiveness for both normal and symmetrical faces in the luteal phase compared to the early follicular phase of a cycle, while single women showed the opposite pattern. Analyses of satisfaction with their current relationship in relation to cycle phase and self-perceived mate value showed that women with higher mate value are generally more satisfied with their current partners, and show smaller differences in satisfaction in various phases of the cycle. The results are interpreted in terms of content-specificity of hormone mediated adaptive design.

  16. Organic and Conventional Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil Improves Metabolic Redox Status of Liver and Serum in Wistar Rats

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    Cátia S. Branco

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic and conventional yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis is widely used in South America to prepare nonalcoholic drinks rich in polyphenols. These compounds are able to prevent the generation of reactive species, thus minimizing the incidence of several diseases. In this perspective, we hypothesized that yerba mate may have protective effects against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ-induced oxidative damage in liver and serum of rats. Animals (n = 42 received distilled water (control or yerba mate (organic or conventional for fifteen days. Then, half of the rats of each group received 60 mg/kg PTZ intraperitoneally or saline solution. After 30 min the animals were euthanized and the liver and blood were collected. The results showed that organic and conventional yerba mate avoided PTZ-induced oxidative damage and nitric oxide production in the liver and serum of the rats. Moreover, both kinds of yerba mate prevented the decrease in enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and catalase and non-enzymatic (sulfhydryl protein content defenses in the liver and serum. In addition, histopathologic analysis of the liver showed that yerba mate reduced PTZ-induced cell damage. These findings indicate that yerba mate provides hepatoprotection and improves antioxidant status in the serum, which may contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies using nutraceuticals drinks.

  17. Bred to breed?! Implications of continuous mating on the emotional status of mouse offspring.

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    Lerch, Sandra; Brandwein, Christiane; Dormann, Christof; Gass, Peter; Chourbaji, Sabine

    2015-02-15

    Working with mice represents a smart method to study pathophysiological mechanisms in vivo. However, using animals as model organisms also bears immense caveats. While many aspects in animal research are meanwhile standardized (e.g. nutrition, housing, health) the breeding environment remains unaddressed. Moreover, since the "production" of mice is mostly performed pragmatically, continuous mating (CM) represents a common method to boost the amount of offspring. This condition implies simultaneous pregnancy and lactation in presence of the male, which is associated with increased costs for the breeding dam. Facing the widely-accepted impact of perinatal conditions, our aim was to elucidate how CM affects emotional behaviour of mouse offspring. We therefore compared pregnant mice in CM with mice raising their pups without potentially disturbing influences. According to our hypothesis CM-deriving offspring should demonstrate increased anxiety and depression-like behaviour shaped by pre- and postnatal stress of the mother. Maternal care, i.e. nest building and pup retrieval, was analysed around delivery. To assess the emotional state of the offspring, males and females of either condition were exposed to a behavioural test battery for exploration, anxiety and fear, social and despair behaviour. In addition we analysed corticosterone as stressphysiological correlate. Our study demonstrates that CM affects the emotional phenotype regarding nearly all parameters addressed. These findings emphasize (i) the impact of the perinatal environment on stress-associated behaviour such as depression, and (ii) the need to imply perinatal conditions in the experimental design to decrease the risk of artefacts and increase the overall validity of animal studies. PMID:25446740

  18. Effects of stress on human mating preferences: stressed individuals prefer dissimilar mates

    OpenAIRE

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E.; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, André; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Although humans usually prefer mates that resemble themselves, mating preferences can vary with context. Stress has been shown to alter mating preferences in animals, but the effects of stress on human mating preferences are unknown. Here, we investigated whether stress alters men's preference for self-resembling mates. Participants first underwent a cold-pressor test (stress induction) or a control procedure. Then, participants viewed either neutral pictures or pictures of erotic female nude...

  19. Alteration of Oxidative Status in Rats Following Administration of Acrylamide

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    Hanaa H. El-Sayed1, Shawkia S. Abd El- Halim1,

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acrylamide (ACR is a known industrial neurotoxic and carcinogenic chemical in rodents. The recent discovery of acrylamide in wide variety of commonly consumed foods has energized research efforts worldwide to define toxic mechanisms. Objective: The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of acrylamide administration on in vivo malondialdehyde (MDA, a product of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH as well as copper and zinc superoxide dismutase enzyme activity (Cu/Zn SOD of rats. Material and Methods: Fourteen adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups each containing "7" rats. Group 1 served as negative control fed on basal diet and group 2 (positive control received basal diet and acrylamide (0.34g/ kg diet for 11 days. Levels of MDA, GSH and activity of SOD were determined in liver, kidneys, brain, heart, testes, spleen and lungs of rats. Results: ACR treatment significantly increased MDA in all organs; the highest increase was detected in testis (87.9% and heart (71.5% while the lowest one was found in kidneys (28.2%. On the other hand, GSH levels and SOD activities were significantly reduced in ACR treated rats. However, the reduction of GSH level ranged from 10.2% to 36.5 %.The inhibition of SOD activities were higher in testis (57.3% and lungs (38.5%. Conclusion: The present study showed that ACR exerts deteriorated effects on oxidative status of rats

  20. Alterations of nutritional status: impact of chemotherapy and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nutritional status of a cancer patient may be affected by the tumor, the chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy directed against the tumor, and by complications associated with that therapy. Chemotherpay-radiotherapy is not confined exclusively to malignant cell populations; thus, normal tissues may also be affected by the therapy and may contribute to specific nutritional problems. Impaired nutrition due to anorexia, mucositis, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may be dependent upon the specific chemotherapeutic agent, dose, or schedule utilized. Similar side effects from radiation therapy depend upon the dose, fractionation, and volume irradiated. When combined modality treatment is given the nutritional consequences may be magnified. Prospective, randomized clinical trials are underway to investigate the efficacy of nutritional support during chemotherapy-radiotherapy on tolerance to treatment, complications from treatment, and response rates to treatment. Preliminary results demonstrate that the administration of total parenteral nutrition is successful in maintaining weight during radiation therapy and chemotherapy, but that weight loss occurs after discontinuation of nutritional support. Thus, longterm evaluation is mandatory to learn the impact of nutritional support on survival, diease-free survival, and complication rates, as well as on the possible prevention of morbidity associated with aggressive chemotherapy-radiation therapytion therapy

  1. Heliothis zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): effects of radiation and inherited sterility on mating competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal and irradiated laboratory-reared Heliothis zea (Boddie) moths were released in screened field cages and in fields of tobacco and cotton. The nocturnal activities and incidence of mating of laboratory-reared and wild moths were observed. Laboratory-reared moths irradiated with 10 krad and released in field cages were competitive with nonirradiated laboratory-reared moths. The competitiveness of irradiated moths was not altered by the time interval (5 and 30 h) between irradiation and release, the mating status of the male, or by the time interval (24 and 48 h) between mating and release. Normal and irradiated, laboratory-reared males released in the field in either the presence or absence of laboratory-reared females were not significantly different in their nocturnal behavior and mating competitiveness. The interaction of wild and laboratory-reared moths was largely limited to wild males mating with laboratory-reared females

  2. Undifferentiated Altered Mental Status: A Late Presentation of Toxic Acetaminophen Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas E. Robey; Melnick, Edward R.

    2012-01-01

    Altered mental status is a common undifferentiated presentation in the emergency department. We describe a case of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure that was diagnosed and treated prior to obtaining definitive historical or laboratory information about the etiology. The physical exam finding of scleral icterus in this case was a key element to rapid identification and treatment of this life-threatening condition. A discussion of appropriate N-acetylcysteine treatment for acute liver f...

  3. The value of electroencephalography in differential diagnosis of altered mental status in emergency departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the value of electroencephalography in patients with altered mental status in emergency departments. Methods: Demographical characteristics, types and aetiologies of seizures, and clinical outcomes of the patients were recorded. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the complaints of admission: findings and symptoms of seizure; stroke and symptoms of stroke-related seizures; syncope; and metabolic abnormalities and other causes of altered mental status. The electroencephalography findings were classified into 3 groups: epileptiform discharges; paroxysmal electroencephalography abnormalities; and background slowing. Electroencephalography abnormalities in each subgroup were evaluated. SPSS 21 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total 190 patients in the study, 117(61.6%) had pathological electroencephalography findings. The main reason for electroencephalography in the emergency department was the presence of seizure findings and symptoms in 98(51.6%) patients. The ratio of electroencephalography abnormality was higher in patients who were admitted with complaints of metabolic abnormality-related consciousness disturbances (p<0.001). A total of 124(65.3%) patients had neuroimagings. Electroencephalography abnormalities were found to be significantly higher in patients with neuroimagings compared to those without neuroimagings (p<0.003). Conclusion: Despite advanced neuroimaging techniques, electroencephalography is still an important tool in the differential diagnosis of altered mental status such as epileptic seizures, metabolic abnormalities, pseudo-seizures and syncope. (author)

  4. Loss of preferred mates forces female satin bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus) to increase mate searching.

    OpenAIRE

    Uy, J. A.; Patricelli, G. L.; Borgia, G.

    2001-01-01

    Variation in mate choice among females can have important consequences for the operation of sexual selection, and can result from differences in the way females search for mates. Our previous work indicates that female satin bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus violaceus alter their mate-searching patterns according to long-term experience. Females which mate with very attractive males mate with the same males in the following year, thereby reducing their search. In contrast, females which fail to enco...

  5. Siblings, friends, course-mates, club-mates: how adolescent health behavior homophily varies by race, class, gender, and health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Jonathan; Margolis, Rachel; Verdery, Ashton M

    2015-01-01

    Many unhealthy behaviors develop during adolescence, and these behaviors can have fundamental consequences for health and mortality in adulthood. Social network structure and the degree of homophily in a network affect how health behaviors and innovations are spread. However, the degree of health behavior homophily across different social ties and within subpopulations is unknown. This paper addresses this gap in the literature by using a novel regression model to document the degree of homophily across various relationship types and subpopulations for behaviors of interest that are related to health outcomes. These patterns in health behavior homophily have implications for which behaviors and ties should be the subjects of future research and for predicting how homophily may shape health programs focused on specific subpopulations (gender, race, class, health status) or a specific social context (families, peer groups, classrooms, or school activities). PMID:24673889

  6. Individual differences in valuing mates' physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W; Bielser, Abby; Cassell, Ticcarra; Summers, Sarah; Witowski, Aggie

    2006-10-01

    To investigate correlates of valuing physical attractiveness in a mate, it was hypothesized that valuing physical attractiveness in a mate would correlate with sex and valuing promiscuous sex, status, personal physical attractiveness, beauty, and order. Men and women college students completed measures of the extent to which they valued physical attractiveness in a mate and other variables. Valuing physical attractiveness in a mate was correlated with sex (men valued physical attractiveness in a mate more than did women) and valuing promiscuous sex and status, and, for women, valuing personal physical attractiveness. The results were explained in terms of evolutionary theory. PMID:17153821

  7. A comparative study into alterations of coenzyme Q redox status in ageing pigs, mice, and worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onur, Simone; Niklowitz, Petra; Fischer, Alexandra; Metges, Cornelia C; Grune, Tilman; Menke, Thomas; Rimbach, Gerald; Döring, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Coenzyme Q derivatives (CoQ) are lipid soluble antioxidants that are synthesized endogenously in almost all species and function as an obligatory cofactor of the respiratory chain. There is evidence that CoQ status is altered by age in several species. Here we determined level and redox-state of CoQ in different age groups of pigs, mice and Caenorhabditis elegans. Since these species are very different with respect to lifespan, reproduction and physiology, our approach could provide some general tendencies of CoQ status in ageing organisms. We found that CoQ level decreases with age in pigs and mice, whereas CoQ content increases in older worms. As observed in all three species, ubiquinone, the oxidized form of CoQ, increases with age. Additionally, we were able to show that supplementation of ubiquinol-10, the reduced form of human CoQ10 , slightly increases lifespan of post-reproductive worms. In conclusion, the percentage of the oxidized form of CoQ increases with age indicating higher oxidative stress or rather a decreased anti-oxidative capacity of aged animals. PMID:24578032

  8. Mating Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Nebraska State Museum

    2002-01-01

    In this game (on pages 14-21), learners explore how each human being inherits genetic traits such as eye color. Learners use "Smiley Mother's Genes" cards and "Smiley Father's Genes" cards to "mate" them into a Smiley Face Baby that the learner draws. The Mating Game Results page shows how the pairs translate into features such as face, eye, and mouth shape, skin color, hair type, and sex. The Thinking It Over section asks questions about how learners would feel if their baby had "Upsidedown Smile Syndrome," which can open up a discussion about genetic engineering.

  9. From vigilance to violence: mate retention tactics in married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, D M; Shackelford, T K

    1997-02-01

    Although much research has explored the adaptive problems of mate selection and mate attraction, little research has investigated the adaptive problem of mate retention. We tested several evolutionary psychological hypotheses about the determinants of mate retention in 214 married people. We assessed the usage of 19 mate retention tactics ranging from vigilance to violence. Key hypothesized findings include the following: Men's, but not women's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's youth and physical attractiveness. Women's, but not men's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's income and status striving. Men's mate retention positively covaried with perceived probability of partner's infidelity. Men, more than women, reported using resource display, submission and debasement, and intrasexual threats to retain their mates. Women, more than men, reported using appearance enhancement and verbal signals of possession. Discussion includes an evolutionary psychological analysis of mate retention in married couples. PMID:9107005

  10. Kinship alters the effects of forced cohabitation on body weight, mate choice and fitness in the rat-like hamster Tscheskia triton

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    Lin CONG

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been documented that social isolation imparts deleterious effects on gregarious rodents species, but caging in group imparts such effects on solitary rodents. This study was attempted at examining how kinship to affect body weight, behavioral interaction, mate choice and fitness when we caged male and female rat-like hamsters Tscheskia triton in pair, a solitary species. We found that females paired with nonsibling males became heavier than the females paired with sibling males, but both agonistic and amicable behavior between paired males and females did not differ between sibling and nonsibling groups. This indicated that kinship might reduce females’ obesity in response to forced cohabitation, and dissociation might exist between physiological and behavioral responses. Furthermore, binary choice tests revealed that social familiarity between either siblings or nonsiblings decreased their investigating time spent in opposite sex conspecific of cage mates and/or their scents as compared with those of non-mates, suggesting effects of social association on mate and kin selection of the hamsters. On the other side, both females and males caged in pair with siblings show a preference between unfamiliar siblings or their scents and the counterparts of nonsiblings after two month separation, indicating that the kin recognition of the hamsters might also rely on phenotype matching. In addition, cohabitation (or permanent presence of fathers elicited a lower survival of pups in nonsibling pairs than sibling pairs, but did not affect litter size, suggesting that kinship affects fitness when housing male and female ratlike hamsters together. Therefore, inbreeding might be adapted for rare and endangered animals [Current Zoology 55(1: 41–47, 2009].

  11. Increased oxidative stress and altered antioxidants status in patients with chronic allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiefa Sequeira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disorder of the upper airways. Although several oxidants and antioxidants are likely to be involved, alterations in only limited parameters have been studied. Objective: In this study an attempt has been made to study the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance by investigating changes in a wide range of oxidants and antioxidants in the blood. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 39 chronic allergic rhinitis patients (males 24, females 15, aged 20-70 (mean age 36.33 ± 2.03 years and 53 individuals (36 males, 17 females; aged 24 to 64 (mean age 45.42 ± 1.36 years. Duration of allergic rhinitis was 1.77 ± 0.237 years. In the study group, nasal symptoms were scored and the results were recorded. The patients were classified as having perennial Allergic rhinitis (PAR if they had had at least 2 rhinitis symptoms (sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, itching for at least 6 months a year in the previous 2 years and if they had a positive skin prick test response to at least 1 clinically significant perennial allergen (e.g., house dust mites, molds, cockroach, cockroach excrement grass and tree pollen, cat and dog epithelia and molds, or animal dander. They had no other allergic diseases except persistent allergic rhinitis diagnosed by the physical and history examination. Erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, erythrocyte antioxidants viz., glutathione, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and plasma antioxidants viz., ceruloplasmin, glutathione-S-transferase, vitamin C, total antioxidant activity were estimated in the above two groups. Results: Erythrocyte lipid peroxidation (0 hour, p < 0.01 and superoxide dismutase (p < 0.01 were significantly higher, whereas plasma vitamin C (p < 0.001, ceruloplasmin (p < 0.05 and total antioxidant activity (p < 0.001 were significantly lower in chronic allergic rhinitis patients when compared to controls. Plasma Glutathione S transferase and erythrocyte catalase, glutathione, and glutathione reductase remained unchanged from normal subjects. Conclusion: The changes in different parameters indicate an imbalance in the oxidant and antioxidant status in chronic allergic rhinitis patients. Further studies are required to investigate the potential for antioxidant supplements to be used as routine therapy in chronic allergic rhinitis patients. Capsule summery: The study shows that the body is trying to cope for the oxidative stress by altering the enzyme levels. But external supplement may also be required as the total antioxidant levels are very much depleted.

  12. Cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment alter the somatostatin status of delta cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? TGP52 cells display enhanced functionality in pseudoislet form. ? Somatostatin content was reduced, but secretion increased in high glucose conditions. ? Cellular interactions and environment alter the somatostatin status of TGP52 cells. -- Abstract: Introduction: Somatostatin, released from pancreatic delta cells, is a potent paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion. Islet cellular interactions and glucose homeostasis are essential to maintain normal patterns of insulin secretion. However, the importance of cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment in the regulation of somatostatin release remains unclear. Methods: This study employed the somatostatin-secreting TGP52 cell line maintained in DMEM:F12 (17.5 mM glucose) or DMEM (25 mM glucose) culture media. The effect of pseudoislet formation and culture medium on somatostatin content and release in response to a variety of stimuli was measured by somatostatin EIA. In addition, the effect of pseudoislet formation on cellular viability (MTT and LDH assays) and proliferation (BrdU ELISA) was determined. Results: TGP52 cells readily formed pseudoislets and showed enhanced functionality in three-dimensional form with increased E-cadherin expression irrespective of the culture environment used. However, culture in DMEM decreased cellular somatostatin content (P < 0.01) and increased somatostatin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli including arginine, calcium and PMA (P < 0.001) when compared with cells grown in DMEM:F12. Configuration of TGP52 cells as pseudoislets reduced the proliferative rate and increased cellular cytotoxicity irrespective of culture medium used. Conclusions: Somatostatin secretion is greatly facilitated by cell-to-cell interactions and E-cadherin expression. Cellular environment and extracellular glucose also significantly influence the function of delta cells.

  13. Fasting, but Not Aging, Dramatically Alters the Redox Status of Cysteine Residues on Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja E. Menger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Altering the redox state of cysteine residues on protein surfaces is an important response to environmental challenges. Although aging and fasting alter many redox processes, the role of cysteine residues is uncertain. To address this, we used a redox proteomic technique, oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT, to assess cysteine-residue redox changes in Drosophila melanogaster during aging and fasting. This approach enabled us to simultaneously identify and quantify the redox state of several hundred cysteine residues in vivo. Cysteine residues within young flies had a bimodal distribution with peaks at ?10% and ?85% reversibly oxidized. Surprisingly, these cysteine residues did not become more oxidized with age. In contrast, 24 hr of fasting dramatically oxidized cysteine residues that were reduced under fed conditions while also reducing cysteine residues that were initially oxidized. We conclude that fasting, but not aging, dramatically alters cysteine-residue redox status in D. melanogaster.

  14. HIV Status, Burden of Comorbid Disease, and Biomarkers of Inflammation, Altered Coagulation, and Monocyte Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Armah, Kaku A.; McGinnis, Kathleen; Baker, Jason; GIBERT, Cynthia; Butt, Adeel A.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Goetz, Matthew; Tracy, Russell; Oursler, Krisann K.; RIMLAND, David; CROTHERS, Kristina; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria; Crystal, Steve; Gordon, Adam; Kraemer, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and prevalence of elevated biomarkers of inflammation, altered coagulation, and monocyte activation in a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected veterans who had a comparable burden of comorbid conditions.

  15. Mating-induced reduction in accessory reproductive organ size in the stalk-eyed fly Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowler Kevin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internal reproductive organ size is an important determinant of male reproductive success. While the response of testis length to variation in the intensity of sperm competition is well documented across many taxa, few studies address the importance of testis size in determining other components of male reproductive success (such as mating frequency or the significance of size variation in accessory reproductive organs. Accessory gland length, but not testis length, is both phenotypically and genetically correlated with male mating frequency in the stalk-eyed fly Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni. Here we directly manipulate male mating status to investigate the effect of copulation on the size of both the testes and the accessory glands of C. dalmanni. Results Accessory gland length was positively correlated with male mating frequency. Copulation induced a significant decrease in accessory gland size. The size of the accessory glands then recovered slowly over the next 8–48 hours. Neither testis length nor testis area was altered by copulation. Conclusion These results reveal that the time course of accessory gland recovery corresponds to field observations of mating behaviour and suggest that accessory gland size may limit male mating frequency in C. dalmanni.

  16. Mate-choice copying in single and coupled women: the influence of mate acceptance and mate rejection decisions of other women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Zheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Studies of humans and non-human animals indicate that females tend to change the likelihood of choosing a potential mate based on the decisions of other females; this is known as mate-choice copying. In a sample of both single and coupled women, we examined the influence of other women's (model) mate-choice decisions, including mate acceptance and mate rejection, on participants' attractiveness ratings of men (target) and willingness of mate selection. We also examined whether different types of relationships between the target men and the model women affected mate-choice copying. We found that both the single and coupled women showed mate-choice copying, but their response patterns differed. The significant effects for single women were dependent on a decrease in attractiveness ratings when they perceived the models' mate rejection. However, the significant findings for coupled women relied on an increase in attractiveness ratings when they observed the models' mate acceptance. Furthermore, the relationship status between the target men and the model women affected the magnitude of mate-choice copying effects for the single women. Specifically, they showed less mate-choice copying when the targets and models were in a committed romantic relationship than when in a temporary relationship. PMID:25622338

  17. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer results in alterations in preoperative tumor marker status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, G L; Patel, N A; Patel, J A; Malay, M B; Julian, T B

    2004-12-01

    Neoadjuvant therapy followed by breast-conserving surgery has become an acceptable option for patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Although a distinct survival benefit has not been demonstrated using this approach, several questions have been raised following such therapy including its effects on receptor status and tumor markers. The current study retrospectively reviews estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2-neu status in 55 consecutive patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Preoperative and postoperative tumor markers were available for 43 of the 55 patients (78%). The pathologic complete tumor response rate (pCR) for this group was 19 per cent (8/43). Of those patients who did not achieve a pCR (n = 35), a change in tumor markers was seen in 25.7 per cent (9/35) of patients. When compared to a control group not undergoing neoadjuvant therapy, a significantly higher percent change in marker expression was noted in the neoadjuvant group (25.7% vs 5.9%, P = 0.046). ER, PR, and HER2-neu status remain important prognostic indicators for breast cancer. Tumor markers are useful in planning adjuvant therapy regimens. In this review, nearly 19 per cent of patients achieved a pCR. In patients not achieving a pCR, one in four patients had at least one change in tumor marker status. This study demonstrates the importance of establishing receptor and marker status prior to neoadjuvant therapy, as many patients will achieve a pCR and make tumor analysis impossible. Postoperative marker studies should be performed given the possibility of a change in status. The clinical relevance of this data will require further long-term follow-up. Until such data becomes available, caution should be considered when basing adjuvant therapy regimens on preoperative tumor marker studies alone. PMID:15663054

  18. Alteration of Enzyme Aspartate Transaminase in Goat Milk related to Udder health status

    OpenAIRE

    Bonde,S.W. and Ambade; M.V. Van; Khodke; Dell, R B

    2009-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to study variations in milk SCC and pH, along with activity of whey enzyme Aspartate transaminase (AST) in relation to different udder health status of goats. The average values of milk SCC, pH, and AST differed significantly (P<0.01) among various udder health status of goat. The mean difference for SCC of milk showed significant (P<0.01) differences for all the comparisons varying from 6.88 to 41.88 x 105 cells/ml. The average milk pH values ranged...

  19. Expression of calsequestrin in skeletal and heart muscles of rats with altered thyroid status.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr; Škajeva, Maria; Marková, Vladimíra; Sulimenko, Vadym; Soukup, Tomáš

    Martin : Univerzita Komenského, 2008. s. 86-86. [Fyziologické dny /84./. 06.02.2008-08.02.2008, Martin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ?R(CZ) GA304/05/0327 Grant ostatní: Myores(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : spr2 * calsequestrin * thyroid status * rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  20. Expression of Calcium Binding Proteins in Skeletal and Heart Muscles of Rats with Altered Thyroid Status.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Marková, Vladimíra; Sulimenko, Vadym; Soukup, Tomáš

    Kyoto, Japan : Physiological society, 2009. s. 5-5. [International congress of Physiological Sciences /36./. 27.07.2009-01.08.2009, Kyoto] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545; GA ?R(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : calsequestrin * muscle * thyroid status Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  1. Expression of calsequestrin in skeletal and heart muscles of rats with altered thyroid status.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr; Škajeva, Maria; Marková, Vladimíra; Sulimenko, Vadym; Soukup, Tomáš

    Fyziologický ústav AV ?R, v. v. i.. Ro?. 57, ?. 2 (2008), 24P-24P ISSN 0862-8408. [Fyziologické dny /84./. 06.02.2008-08.02.2008, Martin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ?R(CZ) GA304/05/0327 Grant ostatní: Myores(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : cpr1 * calsequestrin * thyroid status * rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  2. Altered mental status, an unusual manifestation of early disseminated Lyme disease: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chabria Shiven B; Lawrason Jock

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Early disseminated Lyme disease can have a myriad of central nervous system manifestations. These run the gamut from meningitis to radiculopathy and cranial neuropathy. Here we present a case that manifested with only acute mental status change in the setting of central nervous system involvement with Lyme disease. A paucity of other central nervous system manifestations is rare, especially with positive serum and cerebrospinal fluid markers. This article underscores the importance o...

  3. Electron beam radiation induced oxidative stress on alteration of enzymatic antioxidant status of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation causes damage to living tissues through a series of molecular events, such as photoelectric, Compton and Auger effects, depending on the radiation energy. Because human tissues contain 80% water, the major radiation damage is due to the aqueous free radicals, generated by the action of radiation on water. It was found to be 10 Gy was the lethal dose for mice. Different dosages (4 Gy, 6 Gy and 8 Gy) of electron beam radiation were used to study the level of lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidant status of irradiated mice. The results showed higher the radiation dosage, increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant level. (author)

  4. Alteration of Enzyme Aspartate Transaminase in Goat Milk related to Udder health status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonde,S.W. and Ambade

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to study variations in milk SCC and pH, along with activity of whey enzyme Aspartate transaminase (AST in relation to different udder health status of goats. The average values of milk SCC, pH, and AST differed significantly (P<0.01 among various udder health status of goat. The mean difference for SCC of milk showed significant (P<0.01 differences for all the comparisons varying from 6.88 to 41.88 x 105 cells/ml. The average milk pH values ranged from 6.40 ± 0.09 to 7.36 ± 0.01. The milk SCC and pH increased by 1.039 x 105 cells/ml and 0.24 respectively for each unit rise in CMT score. Similarly, the activity of AST increased by 14.04 AST U/ml for each unit rise in CMT scores. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 24-26

  5. Male mating biology

    OpenAIRE

    Howell Paul I; Gj, Knols Bart

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes...

  6. A combined chemometric and quantitative NMR analysis of HIV/AIDS serum discloses metabolic alterations associated with disease status

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Tracy R.; Yoshihara, Hikari A. I.; Sitole, Lungile J.; Martin, Jeffery N.; Steffens, Francois; Meyer, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often suffer from concomitant metabolic complications. Treatment with antiretroviral therapy has also been shown to alter the metabolism of patients. Although chemometric analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of human sera can distinguish normal sera (HIVneg) from HIV-infected sera (HIVpos) and sera from HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), quantitative analysis of the discriminating metabolites and their relationship to disease status has yet to be determined. The objectives of the study were to analyze NMR spectra of HIVneg, HIVpos, and ART serum samples with a combination of chemometric and quantitative methods and to compare the NMR data with disease status as measured by viral load and CD4 count. High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) NMR spectroscopy was performed on HIVneg (N = 10), HIVpos (N = 10), and ART (N = 10) serum samples. Chemometric linear discriminant analysis classified the three groups of spectra with 100% accuracy. Concentrations of 12 metabolites were determined with a semi-parametric metabolite quantification method named high-resolution quantum estimation (HR-QUEST). CD4 count was directly associated with alanine (p = 0.008), and inversely correlated with both glutamine (p = 0.017) and glucose (p = 0.022) concentrations. A multivariate linear model using alanine, glutamine and glucose as covariates demonstrated an association with CD4 count (p = 0.038). The combined chemometric and quantitative analysis of the data disclosed previously unknown associations between specific metabolites and disease status. The observed associations with CD4 count are consistent with metabolic disorders that are commonly seen in HIV-infected patients. PMID:25105420

  7. Mate-sampling costs and sexy sons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, H; Booksmythe, I; Jennions, M D

    2015-01-01

    Costly female mating preferences for purely Fisherian male traits (i.e. sexual ornaments that are genetically uncorrelated with inherent viability) are not expected to persist at equilibrium. The indirect benefit of producing 'sexy sons' (Fisher process) disappears: in some models, the male trait becomes fixed; in others, a range of male trait values persist, but a larger trait confers no net fitness advantage because it lowers survival. Insufficient indirect selection to counter the direct cost of producing fewer offspring means that preferences are lost. The only well-cited exception assumes biased mutation on male traits. The above findings generally assume constant direct selection against female preferences (i.e. fixed costs). We show that if mate-sampling costs are instead derived based on an explicit account of how females acquire mates, an initially costly mating preference can coevolve with a male trait so that both persist in the presence or absence of biased mutation. Our models predict that empirically detecting selection at equilibrium will be difficult, even if selection was responsible for the location of the current equilibrium. In general, it appears useful to integrate mate sampling theory with models of genetic consequences of mating preferences: being explicit about the process by which individuals select mates can alter equilibria. PMID:25399634

  8. Mate Selection Preferences among African American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Louie E.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the attitudes and preferences of African American college students toward physical characteristics, social status, and related variables regarding dating and future mate selection. Findings mostly confirmed that females would differ from males on social status variables (willing to date persons from lower social status), and males would…

  9. Mate Selection among Married and Cohabiting Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Debra L.; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2000-01-01

    Examines comparative patterns of educational and racial assortative mating or homogany among married and cohabiting couples, and evaluates whether women and men trade in socioeconomic status and racial caste prestige. Lists several findings, including married/cohabiting couples are highly homogenous with respect to race and education. Suggests…

  10. Reduced activity of Arabidopsis chromosome-cohesion regulator gene CTF7/ECO1 alters cytosine methylation status and retrotransposon expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños-Villegas, Pablo; Jauh, Guang-Yuh

    2015-05-01

    Multicellular organisms such as higher plants require timely regulation of DNA replication and cell division to grow and develop. Recent work in Arabidopsis has shown that chromosome segregation during meiosis and mitosis depends on the activity of several genes that in yeast are involved in the establishment of chromosomal cohesion. In this process, proteins of the STRUCTURAL MAINTENANCE OF CHROMOSOMES (SMC) family tether chromosomes and establish inter- and intrachromosomal connections. In Arabidopsis, recruitment of SMC proteins and establishment of cohesion during key stages of the cell cycle depend on the activity of CHROMOSOME TRANSMISSION FIDELITY 7/ESTABLISHMENT OF COHESION 1 (CTF7/ECO1). Here we show that loss of CTF7/ECO1 activity alters the status of cytosine methylation in both intergenic regions and transposon loci. An increase in expression was also observed for transposon copia28, which suggests a link between CTF7/ECO1 activity, DNA methylation and gene silencing. More work is needed to determine the mechanistic relationships that intervene in this process. PMID:26039473

  11. Mycophenolate mofetil alters the antioxidant status in duodenum of rats: Implication for silymarin usage in mycophenolate mofetil induced gastrointestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Sheikhzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF as an immunosuppressive agent is used to prevent graftrejection. One of the adverse effects of long time administration of MMF is the gastrointestinaldisorder. This study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective effect of silymarin (SMN onMMF-induced gastrointestinal (GI disorders. Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats wereassigned into three groups including the control and test groups. The control animals receivedsaline(5 mL kg-1andthe test animals were treated with MMF (40 mg kg-1, orally and saline,MMF and silymarin (SMN, 50 mg kg-1, orally for 14 consecutive days, respectively. To evaluatethe GI disorders due to the MMF-induced oxidative stress and subsequently the protective effectof SMN, malondialdehyde (MDA,total thiol molecules(TTM levels and total anti-oxidantcapacity (TAC were determined. Additionally, histopathological examinations in the duodenalregion of small intestine were performed. The MMF-increased level of MDA was reduced bySMN administration, while the MMF-reduced level of TTM increased significantly (p< 0.05 bySMN administration. Histopathological examinations showed the goblet cell reduction andcongestion in the MMF-received animals; while SMN was able to improve the MMF-inducedgoblet cell reduction and congestion. Our data suggest that the MMF-induced GI disorders arecharacterized by changes in antioxidant status, which presented by the elevation of MDA leveland reduction of TTM concentration. Moreover, the improved biochemical alterations andhistopathologic damages by SMN indicating its gastroprotective and antioxidant effects

  12. Parallel divergence in mate guarding behaviour following colonization of a novel habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, K; Eroukhmanoff, F; Härdling, R; Svensson, E I

    2010-12-01

    Ecological factors can have profound effects on mating system and mating behaviour. We investigated the effect of altered ecological conditions, following colonization of a novel habitat, on precopulatory mate guarding in a freshwater isopod (Asellus aquaticus). This isopod occurs in two different ecotypes, which coexist within several different lakes in Sweden but which utilize different habitats. These ecotypes have rapidly (ca. 40 generations) diverged in parallel among lakes in several phenotypic characters, presumably as a response to different predatory pressures. Here, we demonstrate that also mate guarding characteristics have diverged in parallel between the ecotypes in different lakes. This is one of the few studies reporting parallel evolution of mating behaviour. Furthermore, our results also indicate a potential sexual conflict, as the length of mate guarding appears to lower components of female fitness. We discuss how novel environments might have strong and rapid effects on mate guarding dynamics and mating behaviour. PMID:20939835

  13. Global cardiac alterations detected by speckle-tracking echocardiography in Fabry disease: left ventricular, right ventricular, and left atrial dysfunction are common and linked to worse symptomatic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Daniel A; Blaschke, Daniela; Canaan-Kühl, Sima; Krebs, Alice; Knobloch, Gesine; Walter, Thula C; Haverkamp, Wilhelm

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that in patients with Fabry disease, 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) could detect functional myocardial alterations such as left ventricular (LV), right ventricular (RV), and left atrial (LA) dysfunction, even when conventional cardiac measurements are normal. In addition, we hypothesized that these global cardiac alterations could be linked to worse symptomatic status in these patients. Fifty patients with Fabry disease and a control group of 118 healthy subjects of similar age and gender were included. The myocardial function and structural changes of the LV, RV, and LA were analyzed by 2DSTE and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with Fabry disease had significantly lower functional myocardial values of the LV, RV, and LA than healthy subjects (LV, RV, and LA strain -18.1 ± 4.0, -21.4 ± 4.9, and 29.7 ± 9.9 % vs. -21.6 ± 2.2, -25.2 ± 4.0, and 44.8 ± 11.1 %, respectively, P TAPSE, and LAVI were normal. LV septal wall thickness ?15 mm, RV free wall thickness ?7 mm, and LV longitudinal dysfunction were the principal factors linked to reduced LV, RV, and LA strain, respectively. In addition, but to a lesser extent, LV and RV fibrosis were linked to reduced LV and RV strain. Patients with reduced LV, RV, and LA strain had worse functional class (dyspnea-NYHA classification) than those with normal cardiac function. In conclusion, in patients with Fabry disease, 2DSTE analyses detect LV, RV, and LA functional myocardial alterations, even when conventional cardiac measurements are normal. These functional myocardial alterations are common and significantly associated with worse symptomatic status in Fabry patients. Therefore, these findings provide important evidence to introduce global myocardial analyses using 2DSTE in the early detection of functional cardiac alterations in Fabry disease. PMID:25315709

  14. Mating and immunity in invertebrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawniczak, MK; Barnes, AI; Linklater, JR; Boone, JM; Wigby, S; Chapman, T.

    2007-01-01

    Mating and immunity are intimately linked to fitness. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, recent investigations into mate choice for immunity, tradeoffs between reproduction and immunity, and the relationships between post-mating processes and immune function have revealed that mating and immunity are also intimately linked to each other. Here, we focus on invertebrates and critically examine the evidence that immunity is under sexual selection, both pre- and post-mating, and explore other...

  15. Field crickets change mating preferences using remembered social information

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Nathan W.; Zuk, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    Plasticity in female mate choice can fundamentally alter selection on male ornaments, but surprisingly few studies have examined the role of social learning in shaping female mating decisions in invertebrates. We used the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus to show that females retain information about the attractiveness of available males based on previous social experience, compare that information with incoming signals and then dramatically reverse their preferences to produce final, pred...

  16. Investigation Romance and Mate Selection Myths of University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Muge Y?lmaz; Hudayar Cihan Gungor; Seher Balc? Celik

    2013-01-01

    Among the developmental responsibilities expected from the early adulthood period are selecting one’s mate and managing to live together with him/her. The way in which individuals select their mates and the ideas and beliefs that guide them are among the most curious of subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not myths regarding romance and mate selection among university students change according to relationship status, gender and age whether or not they have had a rom...

  17. Mating behaviour of female Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): polyandry increases reproductive output

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, M.S.; Albajes Garcia, Ramon; Eizaguirre Altuna, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is an important pest of tomato. Mass trapping of males has seldom proved an effective control measure, probably due to the pest"s reproductive biology. There are few studies on female mating behaviour. For this reason, this study aimed to determine female mating frequency and its effects on reproductive output and female longevity; the effects of male mating status on female reproductive output and longevity and the fate of the spermatophore inside the bursa copulatrix...

  18. Yeast pheromone response pathway: characterization of a suppressor that restores mating to receptorless mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, K L; Sprague, G F

    1989-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid cells, alpha and a, mate after being appropriately stimulated by the pheromone secreted by the opposite cell type (a-factor and alpha-factor, respectively). The binding of a pheromone to its receptor is a signal that initiates a series of intracellular changes that lead to the specific physiological alterations required for mating. To identify components of the signal transduction pathway, we sought pseudorevertants that restored mating competence to receptor ...

  19. Mating Behavior of Daphnia: Impacts of Predation Risk, Food Quantity, and Reproductive Phase of Females

    OpenAIRE

    La, Geung-Hwan; Choi, Jong-Yun; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Jang, Min-Ho; Joo, Gea-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2014-01-01

    High predation risk and food depletion lead to sexual reproduction in cyclically parthenogenetic Daphnia. Mating, the core of sexual reproduction, also occurs under these conditions. Assessment of the environmental conditions and alteration of mating efforts may aid in determining the success of sexual reproduction. Here, we evaluated the impacts of predation risk, food quantity, and reproductive phase of females on the mating behavior of Daphnia obtusa males including contact frequency and d...

  20. Protection Against 1,2-Di-methylhydrazine-Induced Systemic Oxidative Stress and Altered Brain Neurotransmitter Status by Probiotic Escherichia coli CFR 16 Secreting Pyrroloquinoline Quinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sumeet; Singh, Ashish; Chaudhari, Nirja; Nampoothiri, Laxmipriya P; Kumar, G Naresh

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutant 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) is attributed to systemic oxidative stress and is known to cause neurotropic effect by altering brain neurotransmitter status. Probiotics are opted as natural therapeutic against oxidative stress and also have the ability to modulate gut-brain axis. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is water-soluble, heat-stable antioxidant molecule. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant efficacy of PQQ-producing probiotic E. coli CFR 16 on DMH-induced systemic oxidative damage and altered neurotransmitter status in rat brain. Adult virgin Charles Forster rats (200-250 g) were given DMH dose (25 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) for 8 weeks. Blood lipid peroxidation levels exhibited a marked increase while antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase were found to be reduced in DMH-treated rats. Likewise, brain serotonin and norepinephrine levels displayed a significant decrease, whereas epinephrine levels demonstrated a marked increase in brain of these rats. PQQ-producing E. coli CFR 16 supplementation reduced systemic oxidative stress and also restored brain neurotransmitter status. However, E. coli CFR 16 did not show any effect on these parameters. In contrast, E. coli CFR 16:: vgb-gfp and E. coli CFR 16:: vgb-gfp vector exhibited some degree of protection again oxidative stress but they were not able to modulate neurotransmitter levels. In conclusion, continuous and sustained release of PQQ by probiotic E. coli in rat intestine ameliorates systemic oxidative stress and restored brain neurotransmitter levels. PMID:25586077

  1. Casanovas are liars: behavioral syndromes, sperm competition risk, and the evolution of deceptive male mating behavior in live-bearing fishes [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1ko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bierbach

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive biology can by characterized through competition over mates as well as mate choice. Multiple mating and male mate choice copying, especially in internally fertilizing species, set the stage for increased sperm competition, i.e., sperm of two or more males can compete for fertilization of the female’s ova. In the internally fertilizing fish Poecilia mexicana, males respond to the presence of rivals with reduced expression of mating preferences (audience effect, thereby lowering the risk of by-standing rivals copying their mate choice. Also, males interact initially more with a non-preferred female when observed by a rival, which has been interpreted in previous studies as a strategy to mislead rivals, again reducing sperm competition risk (SCR. Nevertheless, species might differ consistently in their expression of aggressive and reproductive behaviors, possibly due to varying levels of SCR. In the current study, we present a unique data set comprising ten poeciliid species (in two cases including multiple populations and ask whether species can be characterized through consistent differences in the expression of aggression, sexual activity and changes in mate choice under increased SCR. We found consistent species-specific differences in aggressive behavior, sexual activity as well as in the level of misleading behavior, while decreased preference expression under increased SCR was a general feature of all but one species examined. Furthermore, mean sexual activity correlated positively with the occurrence of potentially misleading behavior. An alternative explanation for audience effects would be that males attempt to avoid aggressive encounters, which would predict stronger audience effects in more aggressive species. We demonstrate a positive correlation between mean aggressiveness and sexual activity (suggesting a hormonal link as a mechanistic explanation, but did not detect a correlation between aggressiveness and audience effects. Suites of correlated behavioral tendencies are termed behavioral syndromes, and our present study provides correlational evidence for the evolutionary significance of SCR in shaping a behavioral syndrome at the species level across poeciliid taxa.

  2. Casanovas are liars: behavioral syndromes, sperm competition risk, and the evolution of deceptive male mating behavior in live-bearing fishes [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1zi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bierbach

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive biology can by characterized through competition over mates as well as mate choice. Multiple mating and male mate choice copying, especially in internally fertilizing species, set the stage for increased sperm competition, i.e., sperm of two or more males can compete for fertilization of the female’s ova. In the internally fertilizing fish Poecilia mexicana, males respond to the presence of rivals with reduced expression of mating preferences (audience effect, thereby lowering the risk of by-standing rivals copying their mate choice. Also, males interact initially more with a non-preferred female when observed by a rival, which has been interpreted in previous studies as a strategy to mislead rivals, again reducing sperm competition risk (SCR. Nevertheless, species might differ consistently in their expression of aggressive and reproductive behaviors, possibly due to varying levels of SCR. In the current study, we present a unique data set comprising ten poeciliid species (in two cases including multiple populations and ask whether species can be characterized through consistent differences in the expression of aggression, sexual activity and changes in mate choice under increased SCR. We found consistent species-specific differences in aggressive behavior, sexual activity as well as in the level of misleading behavior, while decreased preference expression under increased SCR was a general feature of all but one species examined. Furthermore, mean sexual activity correlated positively with the occurrence of potentially misleading behavior. An alternative explanation for audience effects would be that males attempt to avoid aggressive encounters, which would predict stronger audience effects in more aggressive species. We demonstrate a positive correlation between mean aggressiveness and sexual activity (suggesting a hormonal link as a mechanistic explanation, but did not detect a correlation between aggressiveness and audience effects. Suites of correlated behavioral tendencies are termed behavioral syndromes, and our present study provides correlational evidence for the evolutionary significance of SCR in shaping a behavioral syndrome at the species level across poeciliid taxa.

  3. Harmful mating tactics in hermaphrodites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, T; Mao, Y; Garrahan, J P; Davison, A

    2009-05-01

    While empirical data suggest that sperm competition and multiple mating both contribute to the evolution of harmful mating tactics in hermaphrodites, a precise understanding of their interaction is lacking. We therefore formulate a game-theoretical model of mating behavior in hermaphrodites, where harmful mating tactics confer an advantage in sperm competition while simultaneously reducing the mating partner's survival. The model predicts evolutionarily stable values of resource allocation between sexual functions and the degree of harmful mating. Our analysis provides support for the empirical observation that harmful mating is associated with multiply mating species in which sperm precedence strongly favors the first mate. The model also shows that this criterion becomes less important as harmful mating tactics become more efficient. As harmful tactics make sperm displacement more effective, a consequence is a more female-biased resource allocation. Provided that fertilized egg production is not limited by availability of sperm, a more female-biased allocation should increase the number of offspring produced, but the model instead shows that harmful mating tactics more than countercompensate, leading to reduced fitness. Hermaphrodites that use harmful mating tactics may therefore be at a disadvantage when competing with other species for a limited resource. PMID:19302031

  4. Habitat change influences mate search behaviour in three-spined sticklebacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Salminen, Tiina

    2012-01-01

    Mate choice is one of the main mechanisms of sexual selection, with profound implications for individual fitness. Changes in environmental conditions can cause individuals to alter their mate search behaviour, with consequences for mate choice. Human-induced eutrophication of water bodies is a global problem that alters habitat structure and visibility in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated whether changes in habitat complexity and male cue modality, visual or olfactory, influence mate search behaviour of female three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. We allowed gravid females to search for mates in experimental pools that contained two nesting males and one social female, under low and high structural complexity (created from green Plexiglas sheets), with access to either visual or olfactory cues of the individuals. We found increased habitat complexity reduced the number of visits to nesting males, while a switch from visual to olfactory cues reduced the time spent searching for males, the numberof visits to nesting males, the time spent evaluating males, and the relative time spent associating with males rather than females. Thus, females decreased mate searching and mate evaluation in the absence of visual stimulation. This reduced the rate of mate encounters and probably also the opportunity for choice. Our results show that changes in habitat structure and visibility can alter female mate searching, with potential consequences for the opportunity for sexual selection.

  5. Evolution of mating isolation between populations of Drosophila ananassae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Malcolm D; Baines, John F; Killon-Atwood, Amanda; Mohanty, Sujata; Das, Aparup; Grath, Sonja; Smith, Shelly G; Zargham, Shiva; McEvey, Shane F; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2008-06-01

    Prezygotic mating isolation has been a major interest of evolutionary biologists during the past several decades because it is likely to represent one of the first stages in the transition from populations to species. Mate discrimination is one of the most commonly measured forms of prezygotic isolation and appears to be relatively common among closely related species. In some cases, it has been used as a measure to distinguish populations from subspecies, races, and sister species, yet the influences of various evolutionary mechanisms that may generate mate discrimination are largely unknown. In this study, we measured the level and pattern of mate discrimination among 18 populations of a cosmopolitan drosophilid species, Drosophila ananassae, from throughout its geographical range and its sister species, Drosophila pallidosa, which has a restricted geographical distribution in the South Pacific Islands. In addition, we measured genetic differentiation between all 18 populations using mitochondrial DNA polymorphism data. Mate discrimination varies considerably throughout the species range, being higher among populations outside the ancestral Indonesian range, and highest in the South Pacific. Our results suggest that colonization and genetic differentiation may have an influence on the evolutionary origin of mate discrimination. Our phylogeographical approach clarifies the ancestral relationships of several populations from the South Pacific that show particularly strong mate discrimination and suggests that they may be in the early stages of speciation. Furthermore, both the genetic and behavioral results cast doubt on the status of D. pallidosa as a good species. PMID:18466237

  6. Chemotherapy and remission status do not alter pre-existing innate immune dysfunction in dogs with lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axiak-Bechtel, S; Fowler, B; Yu, D H; Amorim, J; Tsuruta, K; DeClue, A

    2014-10-01

    Dogs with lymphoma have altered innate immunity and little is known about the effects of chemotherapy on innate immune function in dogs. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PG) - induced leukocyte cytokine production capacity, and phagocytosis and respiratory burst were evaluated in dogs prior to and following 6 weeks of chemotherapy. Dogs had decreased TNF production following LPS stimulation and increased IL-10 production following PG stimulation, which did not improve following remission of lymphoma. Dogs also had reduced E. coli-induced respiratory burst function after chemotherapy induced complete or partial remission. Dogs with lymphoma have an imbalance in pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokine production which did not improve with remission, and, following treatment, a decrease in respiratory burst function. Altered immune responses following exposure to bacterial pathogen associated molecular pattern motifs and bacteria may have many implications in the management of canine lymphoma. PMID:25108839

  7. Ondansetron can enhance cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity via inhibition of multiple toxin and extrusion proteins (MATEs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qing [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Guo, Dong [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Dong, Zhongqi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhang, Wei [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei [Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Polli, James E. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Shu, Yan, E-mail: yshu@rx.umaryland.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application of cisplatin. Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) work in concert in the elimination of cationic drugs such as cisplatin from the kidney. We hypothesized that co-administration of ondansetron would have an effect on cisplatin nephrotoxicity by altering the function of cisplatin transporters. The inhibitory potencies of ondansetron on metformin accumulation mediated by OCT2 and MATEs were determined in the stable HEK-293 cells expressing these transporters. The effects of ondansetron on drug disposition in vivo were examined by conducting the pharmacokinetics of metformin, a classical substrate for OCTs and MATEs, in wild-type and Mate1?/? mice. The nephrotoxicity was assessed in the wild-type and Mate1?/? mice received cisplatin with and without ondansetron. Both MATEs, including human MATE1, human MATE2-K, and mouse Mate1, and OCT2 (human and mouse) were subject to ondansetron inhibition, with much greater potencies by ondansetron on MATEs. Ondansetron significantly increased tissue accumulation and pharmacokinetic exposure of metformin in wild-type but not in Mate1?/? mice. Moreover, ondansetron treatment significantly enhanced renal accumulation of cisplatin and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity which were indicated by increased levels of biochemical and molecular biomarkers and more severe pathohistological changes in mice. Similar increases in nephrotoxicity were caused by genetic deficiency of MATE function in mice. Therefore, the potent inhibition of MATEs by ondansetron enhances the nephrotoxicity associated with cisplatin treatment in mice. Potential nephrotoxic effects of combining the chemotherapeutic cisplatin and the antiemetic 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT{sub 3}) receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron, should be investigated in patients. - Highlights: • Nephrotoxicity significantly limits clinical use of the chemotherapeutic cisplatin. • The antiemetic ondansetron is frequently co-administrated with cisplatin. • Ondansetron was here demonstrated as a potent inhibitor of MATE transporters. • Ondansetron enhanced cisplatin nephrotoxicity likely via Mate1 inhibition in mice. • Ondansetron may increase patient risk of nephrotoxicity in cisplatin chemotherapy.

  8. Tissue remodeling: a mating-induced differentiation program for the Drosophila oviduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoy Ronald R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In both vertebrates and invertebrates, the oviduct is an epithelial tube surrounded by visceral muscles that serves as a conduit for gamete transport between the ovary and uterus. While Drosophila is a model system for tubular organ development, few studies have addressed the development of the fly's oviduct. Recent studies in Drosophila have identified mating-responsive genes and proteins whose levels in the oviduct are altered by mating. Since many of these molecules (e.g. Muscle LIM protein 84B, Coracle, Neuroglian have known roles in the differentiation of muscle and epithelia of other organs, mating may trigger similar differentiation events in the oviduct. This led us to hypothesize that mating mediates the last stages of oviduct differentiation in which organ-specific specializations arise. Results Using electron- and confocal-microscopy we identified tissue-wide post-mating changes in the oviduct including differentiation of cellular junctions, remodeling of extracellular matrix, increased myofibril formation, and increased innervation. Analysis of once- and twice-mated females reveals that some mating-responsive proteins respond only to the first mating, while others respond to both matings. Conclusion We uncovered ultrastructural changes in the mated oviduct that are consistent with the roles that mating-responsive proteins play in muscle and epithelial differentiation elsewhere. This suggests that mating triggers the late differentiation of the oviduct. Furthermore, we suggest that mating-responsive proteins that respond only to the first mating are involved in the final maturation of the oviduct while proteins that remain responsive to later matings are also involved in maintenance and ongoing function of the oviduct. Taken together, our results establish the oviduct as an attractive system to address mechanisms that regulate the late stages of differentiation and maintenance of a tubular organ.

  9. Ondansetron can enhance cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity via inhibition of multiple toxin and extrusion proteins (MATEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application of cisplatin. Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) work in concert in the elimination of cationic drugs such as cisplatin from the kidney. We hypothesized that co-administration of ondansetron would have an effect on cisplatin nephrotoxicity by altering the function of cisplatin transporters. The inhibitory potencies of ondansetron on metformin accumulation mediated by OCT2 and MATEs were determined in the stable HEK-293 cells expressing these transporters. The effects of ondansetron on drug disposition in vivo were examined by conducting the pharmacokinetics of metformin, a classical substrate for OCTs and MATEs, in wild-type and Mate1?/? mice. The nephrotoxicity was assessed in the wild-type and Mate1?/? mice received cisplatin with and without ondansetron. Both MATEs, including human MATE1, human MATE2-K, and mouse Mate1, and OCT2 (human and mouse) were subject to ondansetron inhibition, with much greater potencies by ondansetron on MATEs. Ondansetron significantly increased tissue accumulation and pharmacokinetic exposure of metformin in wild-type but not in Mate1?/? mice. Moreover, ondansetron treatment significantly enhanced renal accumulation of cisplatin and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity which were indicated by increased levels of biochemical and molecular biomarkers and more severe pathohistological changes in mice. Similar increases in nephrotoxicity were caused by genetic deficiency of MATE function in mice. Therefore, the potent inhibition of MATEs by ondansetron enhances the nephrotoxicity associated with cisplatin treatment in mice. Potential nephrotoxic effects of combining the chemotherapeutic cisplatin and the antiemetic 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron, should be investigated in patients. - Highlights: • Nephrotoxicity significantly limits clinical use of the chemotherapeutic cisplatin. • The antiemetic ondansetron is frequently co-administrated with cisplatin. • Ondansetron was here demonstrated as a potent inhibitor of MATE transporters. • Ondansetron enhanced cisplatin nephrotoxicity likely via Mate1 inhibition in mice. • Ondansetron may increase patient risk of nephrotoxicity in cisplatin chemotherapy

  10. The mating behaviour and reproduction performance in a multi-sire mating system for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2008-01-01

    An important aim of organic animal production is to allow natural animal behaviour. Regarding reproduction techniques, artificial insemination is permitted but natural mating is preferred. The outdoor multi-sire system, where the sows are placed in large paddocks with a group of boars, is one example of a service system, which complies well with the organic ideals of facilitating natural animal behavior. However, very little knowledge is available about such system. Seven groups of in total of 47 sows and 31 boars were observed to study the mating behavior in an outdoor multi-sire mating system and the subsequent reproduction results. The time of start of courtship, behavior and the cause of disruption if the courtship was terminated, were recorded each time a boar courted a sow. All aggressive interactions between the boars were also recorded to estimate the boar ranking order. The observations revealed numerous poor quality matings, a huge variation in the number of times sows are mated, and overworked boars. Only 35% of all copulations lasted 2 min or more and 63% of all copulations were disrupted, mainly by competitor boars. The higher social status of the boar, the more copulations did it disrupt (p < 0.05). The outcome was an unacceptable variation in reproduction results. Only 71% of all estrus sows conceived, corresponding to a pregnancy rate of 77% of all mated sows. A large inter-group variation in reproduction performance was observed, indicating scope for improvements. In some groups all sows showed estrus and all sows conceived. Recommendations for improvement of the system are proposed

  11. Altered DNA methylation status of human brain derived neurotrophis factor gene could be useful as biomarker of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yixuan; Miyaki, Koichi; Suzuki, Tomoko; Sasaki, Yasuharu; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Kawakami, Norito; Shimazu, Akihito; Takahashi, Masaya; Inoue, Akiomi; Kan, Chiemi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro

    2014-06-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the survival, development, and synaptic plasticity of neurons. BDNF is believed to be associated with the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Several studies have suggested the relevance of DNA methylation in its promoter region with depression. Here, we report different methylation statuses in groups with different depressive scores or undergoing different levels of job-stress. DNA samples were extracted from the saliva of 774 Japanese workers, and the methylation status was determined using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450?K Microarray. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Kessler's K6 questionnaire. Job-stress scales were assessed via a self-administered questionnaire. Independent DNA pools were formed based on K6 and job-strain scores, and the methylation levels were compared among these pools. The average DNA methylation rate was significantly decreased in the highest K6 score group compared to the lowest group (methylated signals, 14.2% vs. 16.5%, P?=?2?·?16?×?10(-198)). This difference remained for the CpG island in the promoter region (10.4% vs. 5.8%, P?=?3?·?67?×?10(-133)). Regarding the job-strain score, there was a slight increase in the methylation level of the whole gene in the group with the highest score compared to that with the lowest score; however, these groups showed no difference in the promoter region. Our results revealed significant changes in the DNA methylation status of the complete human BDNF gene in persons with depression compared to normal individuals, especially in the promoter region of exon 1. This indicates that DNA methylation in this gene is a promising biomarker for diagnosing depression. PMID:24801253

  12. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling identifies alterations in salivary redox status and fatty acid metabolism in response to inflammation and oxidative stress in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijing; Zhu, Mingjiang; Li, Zi; Sa, Rina; Chu, Qianqian; Zhang, Qingli; Zhang, Haifeng; Tang, Wen; Zhang, Meifang; Yin, Huiyong

    2014-05-01

    Periodontal diseases represent the most common chronic inflammatory diseases in humans and a major cause of tooth loss. Combining mass spectrometry-based ionomics and targeted lipidomics on fatty acid metabolites, we identified significant alterations in redox status and fatty acid metabolism in saliva in response to chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in periodontal disease in a cohort of nonsmoker subjects with chronic periodontitis. For the first time, ionomic profiling of around 30 ions in saliva revealed significantly decreased levels of redox-active metal ions including Mn, Cu, and Zn in the periodontal group, which is consistent with decreased levels of superoxide dismutases in saliva and serum. A targeted lipidomic approach was employed to monitor the major metabolites of arachidonic acid and linoleic acid in saliva. We observed increased levels of cyclooxygenase products including PGE2, PGD2, and PGF2? and TXB2, but decreased level of PGI2 in the periodontal group. A unique pattern of the lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid and linoleic acid was observed with increased level of 5-HETE but decreased levels of 13-HODE and 9-HODE. Levels of salivary F2-isoprostanes, free radical lipid peroxidation products, and a gold standard for oxidative stress in vivo were also significantly elevated. Taking these data together, our study using multiple powerful omics techniques demonstrates that local redox alteration contributes significantly to periodontitis through the modulation of fatty acid metabolism in response to inflammation and oxidative stress. This study highlights the importance of redox status in periodontitis and provides a rationale for preventing periodontal disease by dietary interventions aiming to restore redox balance. PMID:24607715

  13. Different cognitive processes underlie human mate choices and mate preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Peter M.; Penke, Lars; Fasolo, Barbara; Lenton, Alison P.

    2007-01-01

    Based on undergraduates' self-reports of mate preferences for various traits and self-perceptions of their own levels on those traits, Buston and Emlen [Buston PM, Emlen ST (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:8805–8810] concluded that modern human mate choices do not reflect predictions of tradeoffs from evolutionary theory but instead follow a “likes-attract” pattern, where people choose mates who match their self-perceptions. However, reported preferences need not correspond to actual m...

  14. Reversal of an aluminium induced alteration in redox status in different regions of rat brain by administration of centrophenoxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehru, Bimla; Bhalla, Punita

    2006-10-01

    Aluminium is one of the most studied neurotoxin, and its effects on nervous system are both structural and functional, involving various regions of brain. Aluminium toxicity is known to have multiple mechanisms of action in the central nervous system. Affinity of aluminium for thiol substrates is considered a possible molecular mechanism involved in aluminium neurotoxicity. The reduced glutathione (GSH) is especially important for cellular defence against aluminium toxicity. This study pertains to the modulatory action of centrophenoxine on GSH status in aluminium exposed different brain regions of the female rats. Aluminium was administered orally at a dose of 40 mg/Kg x b x wt x /day for a period of eight weeks whereas, centrophenoxine was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 100 mg/Kg x b x wt x /day for a period of six weeks. The study was carried out in different regions of brain namely cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata and hypothalamus. Animals exposed to aluminum, registered a significant decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione, and oxidized glutathione as well as in the activity of glutathione reductase in all the different regions studied when compared to normal control animals. Post-treatment with centrophenoxine, showed a significant improvement in the thiol levels in different regions. Centrophenoxine when administered alone also had a profound effect on the levels of reduced glutathione as well as on the activity of glutathione reductase. From the present results, it can be stated that centrophenoxine administration, as a thiol-antioxidant, arrests the aluminium induced cellular damage by improving the thiol status in brain regions. PMID:16969688

  15. A character demonstrating the occurrence of mating in male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 ?m in size. In mated males, the posterior simplex is clear and contains no granules. The presence or absence of these characters was found to be highly reliable and should be of value in determining mating status in marked-recaptured males of this species in a sterile insect release program directed against Cactoblastis. (author)

  16. Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShinjiNagata

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most insect species exhibit characteristic behavioral changes after mating. Typical post-mating behaviors in female insects include noticeable increases in food intake, elevated oviposition rates, lowered receptivity to courting males, and enhanced immune response. Although it has been reported that mated females of several insect species including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster increase the amount of food intake and change their dietary preferences, the limited number of comparative studies prevent the formulation of generalities regarding post-mating behaviors in other insects in particular amongst orthopteran species. Here, we investigated whether females of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, alter their feeding behavior after mating. Although significant differences in the amount of food intake after mating were not observed, all experimental data indicated a clear trend among crickets towards the ingestion of larger quantities of food. Geometric framework analyses revealed that the mated female crickets preferred food with higher protein content compared to virgin female crickets. This implies that this species required different nutritional demands after mating. These findings further expand our understanding of the behavioral and biological changes that are triggered in female insects post-mating, and highlight the potential for this species in investigating the molecular-based nutritional dependent activities that are linked to post-mating behaviors.

  17. Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Most insect species exhibit characteristic behavioral changes after mating. Typical post-mating behaviors in female insects include noticeable increases in food intake, elevated oviposition rates, lowered receptivity to courting males, and enhanced immune response. Although it has been reported that mated females of several insect species including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster increase the amount of food intake and change their dietary preferences, the limited number of comparative studies prevent the formulation of generalities regarding post-mating behaviors in other insects in particular amongst orthopteran species. Here, we investigated whether females of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, alter their feeding behavior after mating. Although significant differences in the amount of food intake after mating were not observed, all experimental data indicated a clear trend among crickets toward the ingestion of larger quantities of food. Geometric framework analyses revealed that the mated female crickets preferred food with higher protein content compared to virgin female crickets. This implies that this species required different nutritional demands after mating. These findings further expand our understanding of the behavioral and biological changes that are triggered in female insects post-mating, and highlight the potential for this species in investigating the molecular-based nutritional dependent activities that are linked to post-mating behaviors. PMID:24659970

  18. Altered redox status in Escherichia coli cells enhances pyruvate production in pH-adjusting culture with a fermenter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Yoshihiro; Matsuo, Nahoko; Suparman, Asep; Suryadarma, Prayoga; Taya, Masahito

    2014-03-01

    Improvements in pyruvate production process were examined using Escherichia coli BW25113Dpta/ pHfdh strain carrying the formate dehydrogenase gene of Mycobacterium vaccae to change the redox status of the cells. Glucose and formate concentrations, and oxygenation levels determined previously in a shake-flask culture were applied for pyruvate production in a 1 l fermenter. However, pyruvate was not produced under the examined conditions. Detailed pH measurements during the fermenter culture using CaCO3 revealed that maintaining the pH value around 6.0 plays an important role in stabilizing the pyruvate accumulation. In the pH-adjusting culture around 6.0 with NaOH solution, the concentration and yield of pyruvate were 8.96 g l-1 and 0.48 g pyruvate g glucose-1, respectively, which were significantly higher than the values reported in the shake-flask culture (6.79 g l-1 and 0.32 g pyruvate g glucose-1). PMID:23797477

  19. Bioecologia e manejo de Gyropsylla spegazziniana em erva-mate / Bioecology and management of Gyropsylla spegazziniana in yerba mate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ionete Lucia Milani, Barzotto; Luis Francisco Angeli, Alves.

    Full Text Available A erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) compõe um dos segmentos agroindustriais mais antigos e característicos da região Sul do Brasil, caracterizando-se como uma importante atividade socioeconômica. Para abastecer o mercado consumidor de derivadsupos da erva-mate, foi necessário reflorestar área [...] s com essa planta, o que simplificou o ecossistema e favoreceu algumas espécies de insetos fitófagos, os quais adquiriram status de praga. Nesse contexto, destaca-se a "ampola" da erva-mate Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) (Lizer e Treles) pela severidade de danos. Não existem inseticidas registrados para o controle dessa praga no Brasil, e diversos estudos apontam para o manejo populacional da praga. Assim, o objetivo desta revisão é reunir informações sobre a bioecologia e as alternativas de manejo de forma a facilitar o entendimento da complexidade do controle de pragas no agroecossistema da erva-mate. Abstract in english Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) composes one of the oldest and more characteristic agribusiness segments of southern Brazil, composing a very important socioeconomic activity. In order to provide the market with yerba mate derivatives, it was necessary to reforest areas with this species, [...] which simplified the ecosystem and generated impacts that favored some species of phytophagous insects, and then they acquired blight status. In this context, we indicate Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) (Lizer e Treles) by the severity of the damage. There is no registered insecticide to control this pest in Brazil, and several studies point out to handling the population of this blight. The objective of this review is to gather information on bioecology and alternatives to control this insect in order to explain the complexity of pest control in yerba mate agroecosystem.

  20. Resources, attractiveness, family commitment; reproductive decisions in human mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereczkei, T; Voros, S; Gal, A; Bernath, L

    1997-08-01

    This study of reproductive decisions in human mate selection used data from "lonely hearts" advertisements to examine a series of predictions based on the mate preferences of male and females relating to age; physical appearance; financial condition and socioeconomic status; family commitment and personal traits; short- and long-term mating; and marital status and preexisting children. The sample consisted of 1000 personal advertisements (500 male) placed in two daily, national papers between February and October 1994 in Hungary. The research procedure included a pilot study of 150 advertisers (75 male) to refine the categories examined. Analysis was performed using 1) a matrix with one axis referring to offers and the other to demands of males and females separately; 2) a matrix of offers only to derive correlated traits of claims by males and females; and 3) a matrix with columns describing sex, offers, demands, advertiser's age, and required age and a row for each of the 1000 samples. It was found that men preferred younger mates, while women preferred older ones. Men were more likely to seek physical attractiveness, while women were more likely to seek financial resources (ranked 7th) and high status (ranked 6th). Women strongly preferred male domestic virtue and family commitment, and twice as many women as men demanded long-term relationships. Women more frequently declared preexisting children, and men exhibited a reluctance to accept these children. Both males and females employed "trade-off" strategies, making greater demands if they felt they had attractive offers. PMID:12293453

  1. Influence of Nutritional Flushing Prior to Mating on the Performance of West African Dwarf Goats Mated in the Rainy Season

    OpenAIRE

    Karikari, P. K.; Blasu, E. Y.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nutritional flushing for a period of six weeks prior to mating on the physical condition, serum metabolic and hormonal status at mating and litter size at birth of 32 pluriparous West African Dwarf (WAD) goats was studied using a 2 x 2 factorial design. The factors in the design were age (young, 3-4 years old versus old, 5-6 years old) and nutritional flushing regime (pasture alone versus pasture plus concentrate supplementation). The young does gained more weight and body condi...

  2. Clinical implications of altered thyroid status in male testicular function Implicações clínicas das alterações tireoidianas na função gonadal masculina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Magagnin Wajner

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are involved in the development and maintenance of virtually all tissues. Although for many years the testis was thought to be a thyroid-hormone unresponsive organ, studies of the last decades have demonstrated that thyroid dysfunction is associated not only with abnormalities in morphology and function of testes, but also with decreased fertility and alterations of sexual activity in men. Nowadays, the participation of triiodothyronine (T3 in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation, testicular maturation, and steroidogenesis is widely accepted, as well as the presence of thyroid hormone transporters and receptors in testicular cells throughout the development process and in adulthood. But even with data suggesting that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects, there is still controversy regarding the impact of thyroid diseases on human spermatogenesis and fertility, which can be in part due to the lack of well-controlled clinical studies. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of recent clinical data about the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function.Os hormônios da tireoide estão envolvidos virtualmente no desenvolvimento e na manutenção de todos os tecidos. As gônadas masculinas foram, por décadas, consideradas insensíveis aos hormônios tireoidianos. No entanto, estudos mais recentes têm demonstrado que disfunções tireoidianas estão associadas não somente a anormalidades na morfologia e na função dos testículos, mas também à diminuição da fertilidade e alterações na atividade sexual masculina. Atualmente, o papel da triiodotironina (T3 no controle da proliferação das células de Sertoli e Leydig, maturação testicular e esteroidogênese é amplamente aceito, bem como a presença de transportadores e receptores para o hormônio tireoidiano nos testículos durante o período de desenvolvimento e a idade adulta. No entanto, apesar dos dados que indicam que o T3 atua diretamente nos testículos humanos, persistem controvérsias em relação ao impacto das doenças tireoidianas sobre a espermatogênese e a fertilidade, o que pode ser em parte devido à escassez de estudos clínicos nessa área. Essa revisão tem por objetivo apresentar um panorama de dados clínicos atualizados sobre o papel dos hormônios tireoidianos na função gonadal masculina.

  3. Clinical implications of altered thyroid status in male testicular function / Implicações clínicas das alterações tireoidianas na função gonadal masculina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simone Magagnin, Wajner; Márcia Santos, Wagner; Ana Luiza, Maia.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Os hormônios da tireoide estão envolvidos virtualmente no desenvolvimento e na manutenção de todos os tecidos. As gônadas masculinas foram, por décadas, consideradas insensíveis aos hormônios tireoidianos. No entanto, estudos mais recentes têm demonstrado que disfunções tireoidianas estão associadas [...] não somente a anormalidades na morfologia e na função dos testículos, mas também à diminuição da fertilidade e alterações na atividade sexual masculina. Atualmente, o papel da triiodotironina (T3) no controle da proliferação das células de Sertoli e Leydig, maturação testicular e esteroidogênese é amplamente aceito, bem como a presença de transportadores e receptores para o hormônio tireoidiano nos testículos durante o período de desenvolvimento e a idade adulta. No entanto, apesar dos dados que indicam que o T3 atua diretamente nos testículos humanos, persistem controvérsias em relação ao impacto das doenças tireoidianas sobre a espermatogênese e a fertilidade, o que pode ser em parte devido à escassez de estudos clínicos nessa área. Essa revisão tem por objetivo apresentar um panorama de dados clínicos atualizados sobre o papel dos hormônios tireoidianos na função gonadal masculina. Abstract in english Thyroid hormones are involved in the development and maintenance of virtually all tissues. Although for many years the testis was thought to be a thyroid-hormone unresponsive organ, studies of the last decades have demonstrated that thyroid dysfunction is associated not only with abnormalities in mo [...] rphology and function of testes, but also with decreased fertility and alterations of sexual activity in men. Nowadays, the participation of triiodothyronine (T3) in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation, testicular maturation, and steroidogenesis is widely accepted, as well as the presence of thyroid hormone transporters and receptors in testicular cells throughout the development process and in adulthood. But even with data suggesting that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects, there is still controversy regarding the impact of thyroid diseases on human spermatogenesis and fertility, which can be in part due to the lack of well-controlled clinical studies. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of recent clinical data about the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function.

  4. Chronic exposure to pollutants in Madín Reservoir (Mexico) alters oxidative stress status and flesh quality in the common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morachis-Valdez, Gabriela; Dublán-García, Octavio; López-Martínez, Leticia Xochitl; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Saucedo-Vence, Karinne; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Madín Reservoir (MR) is located on the Río Tlalnepantla in Mexico. Previous studies seeking to identify pollutants at this site evidence that MR water contains a considerable metal load as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) at concentrations above those determined suitable for aquatic life. This study aimed to evaluate whether chronic exposure to pollutants in MR alters oxidative stress status and flesh quality in muscle of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. The following biomarkers were evaluated in muscle of carp caught in the general area of discharge from the town of Viejo Madín: hydroperoxide content (HPC), lipid peroxidation (LPX), protein carbonyl content (PCC), and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Physicochemical and textural properties of muscle were also evaluated. Results show that the metals Al and Fe were accumulated in muscle of C. carpio at levels of 21.3 and 29.6 ?g L(-1), respectively, and the NSAIDs diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen at levels from 0.08 to 0.21 ng L(-1). Fish exposed to discharge from the town of Viejo Madín showed significant increases in HPC (9.77 %), LPX (69.33 %), and PCC (220 %) with respect to control specimens (p?activity increased significantly: SOD (80.82 %), CAT (98.03 %), and GPx (49.76 %). In muscle, physicochemical properties evidenced mainly significant reductions compared to control values while textural properties showed significant increases. Thus, water in this reservoir is contaminated with xenobiotics that alter some biological functions in C. carpio, a fish species consumed by the local human population. PMID:25583264

  5. Assortative mating without assortative preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Cheng, Siwei; Zhou, Xiang

    2015-05-12

    Assortative mating-marriage of a man and a woman with similar social characteristics-is a commonly observed phenomenon. In the existing literature in both sociology and economics, this phenomenon has mainly been attributed to individuals' conscious preferences for assortative mating. In this paper, we show that patterns of assortative mating may arise from another structural source even if individuals do not have assortative preferences or possess complementary attributes: dynamic processes of marriages in a closed system. For a given cohort of youth in a finite population, as the percentage of married persons increases, unmarried persons who newly enter marriage are systematically different from those who married earlier, giving rise to the phenomenon of assortative mating. We use microsimulation methods to illustrate this dynamic process, using first the conventional deterministic Gale-Shapley model, then a probabilistic Gale-Shapley model, and then two versions of the encounter mating model. PMID:25918366

  6. Assessing the mating 'health' of commercial honey bee queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpy, David R; Keller, Jennifer J; Caren, Joel R; Delaney, Deborah A

    2012-02-01

    Honey bee queens mate with multiple males, which increases the total genetic diversity within colonies and has been shown to confer numerous benefits for colony health and productivity. Recent surveys of beekeepers have suggested that 'poor queens' are a top management concern, thus investigating the reproductive quality and mating success of commercially produced honey bee queens is warranted. We purchased 80 commercially produced queens from large queen breeders in California and measured them for their physical size (fresh weigh and thorax width), insemination success (stored sperm counts and sperm viability), and mating number (determined by patriline genotyping of worker offspring). We found that queens had an average of 4.37 +/- 1.446 million stored sperm in their spermathecae with an average viability of 83.7 +/- 13.33%. We also found that the tested queens had mated with a high number of drones (average effective paternity frequency: 17.0 +/- 8.98). Queen "quality" significantly varied among commercial sources for physical characters but not for mating characters. These findings suggest that it may be more effective to improve overall queen reproductive potential by culling lower-quality queens rather than systematically altering current queen production practices. PMID:22420250

  7. DEFENSE OF MATE AND MATING CHAMBER IN A WOOD ROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RITTER, H

    1964-03-27

    Studies of the eastern wood roach, Cryptocercus punctulatus, reveal that, under laboratory conditions, the mating chambers in rotten wood are inhabited by mated pairs, the male of which will usually defend the chamber successfully against intruding males by a form of fighting. In every staged contest in which the intruder won the fight, it also won the resident female. Females, as well as unmated males singly inhabiting a chamber, could not be induced to defend against an intruder of either sex. PMID:14107455

  8. mRNA expression patterns for GH, PRL, SL, IGF-I and IGF-II during altered feeding status in rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayson, Felix G; de Jesus-Ayson, Evelyn Grace T; Takemura, Akihiro

    2007-01-15

    Feeding time is a major synchronizer of many physiological rhythms in many organisms. Alteration in the nutritional status, specifically fasting, also affects the secretion rhythms of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). In this study, we investigated whether the expression patterns for the mRNAs of GH, prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL) in the pituitary gland, and insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) in the liver of juvenile rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) follow a rhythm according to feeding time and whether these hormone rhythms changes with starvation. Hormone mRNA levels were determined by real time PCR. The daily expression pattern for the mRNAs of GH, PRL and SL was not altered whether food was given in the morning (10:00 h) or in the afternoon (15:00 h). The daily GH mRNA expression pattern, however, was affected when food was not available for 3 days. In contrast, the daily expression pattern for IGF-I mRNA reaches its peak at roughly 5-6h after feeding. This pattern, however, was not observed with IGF-II mRNA. During 15-day starvation, GH mRNA levels in starved fish were significantly higher than the control fish starting on the 9th day of starvation until day 15. The levels returned to normal after re-feeding. In contrast to GH, PRL mRNA levels in starved fish were significantly lower than the control group starting on the 6th day of starvation until 3 days after re-feeding. SL mRNA levels were not significantly different between the control and starved group at anytime during the experiment. Both IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA levels in starved group were significantly higher than the control fish on the 3rd and 6th day of starvation. mRNA levels of both IGF-I and II in the starved fish decreased starting on the 9th day of starvation. While IGF-I mRNA levels in the starved group continued to decrease as starvation progressed, IGF-II mRNA levels were not significantly different from the control during the rest of the starvation period. The results indicate that aside from GH and IGF-I, PRL and IGF-II are likewise involved in starvation in rabbitfish. PMID:16978626

  9. Strain-speccific differences in mating, oviposition, and host-seeking behavior between Wolbachia-infected and uninfected Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacteria that cause various reproductive alterations in their arthropod hosts including cytoplasmic incompatibility. In this study, we compared mating, oviposition and host-seeking behaviors of Wolbachia-infected [Houston (HOU), Gainesville (GNV)] and Houston uninf...

  10. Polyandry and alternative mating tactics

    OpenAIRE

    Neff, Bryan D.; Svensson, Erik I.

    2013-01-01

    Many species in the animal kingdom are characterized by alternative mating tactics (AMTs) within a sex. In males, such tactics include mate guarding versus sneaking behaviours, or territorial versus female mimicry. Although AMTs can occur in either sex, they have been most commonly described in males. This sex bias may, in part, reflect the increased opportunity for sexual selection that typically exists in males, which can result in a higher probability that AMTs evolve in that sex. Conseque...

  11. Sexual selection and mating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shuster, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual selection is among the most powerful of all evolutionary forces. It occurs when individuals within one sex secure mates and produce offspring at the expense of other individuals within the same sex. Darwin was first to recognize the power of sexual selection to change male and female phenotypes, and, in noting that sexual selection is nonubiquitous, Darwin was also first to recognize the importance of mating system—the “special circumstances” in which reproduction occurs within s...

  12. Polyandrous females discriminate against previous mates

    OpenAIRE

    Zeh, Jeanne A.; Newcomer, Scott D.; Zeh, David W.

    1998-01-01

    In most animal species, particularly those in which females engage in polyandry, mate choice is a sequential process in which a female must choose to mate or not to mate with each male encountered. Although a number of theoretical and empirical investigations have examined the effects of sequential mate choice on the operation of sexual selection, how females respond to solicitation by previous mates has received little attention. Here, we report the results of a study carried out on the poly...

  13. Mycophenolate mofetil alters the antioxidant status in duodenum of rats: Implication for silymarin usage in mycophenolate mofetil-induced gastrointestinal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Sanaz; Malekinejad, Hassan; Hobbenaghi, Rahim

    2013-01-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as an immunosuppressive agent is used to prevent graft rejection. One of the adverse effects of long time administration of MMF is the gastrointestinal disorder. This study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective effect of silymarin (SMN) on MMF-induced gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats were assigned into three groups including the control and test groups. The control animals received saline (5 mL kg-1) and the test animals were treated with MMF (40 mg kg-1, orally) and saline, MMF and silymarin (SMN, 50 mg kg-1, orally) for 14 consecutive days, respectively. To evaluate the GI disorders due to the MMF-induced oxidative stress and subsequently the protective effect of SMN, malondialdehyde (MDA), total thiol molecules (TTM) levels and total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. Additionally, histopathological examinations in the duodenal region of small intestine were performed. The MMF-increased level of MDA was reduced by SMN administration, while the MMF-reduced level of TTM increased significantly (p < 0.05) by SMN administration. Histopathological examinations showed the goblet cell reduction and congestion in the MMF-received animals; while SMN was able to improve the MMF-induced goblet cell reduction and congestion. Our data suggest that the MMF-induced GI disorders are characterized by changes in antioxidant status, which presented by the elevation of MDA level and reduction of TTM concentration. Moreover, the improved biochemical alterations and histopathologic damages by SMN indicating its gastroprotective and antioxidant effects. PMID:25653776

  14. On classical and quantum error-correction in ciliate mate selection

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Kevin B.

    2010-01-01

    Ciliated protozoa sensing pheromones secreted from nonself mating types engage in preconjugal “courtship” dances and contacts. Using simulated “social” trials, I recently showed the heterotrich ciliate, Spirostomum ambiguum, can learn to advertise degrees of mating fitness to “suitors” and “rivals” when serially contracting or (ciliary) reversing at variable rates. Conspicuous consumers signal higher quality reproductive status by playing “harder-to-get” via metabolically wasteful avoidance d...

  15. The Structure and Content of Long-Term and Short-Term Mate Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Jonason

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses two limitations in the mate preferences literature. First, research all-too-often relies on single-item assessments of mate preferences precluding more advanced statistical techniques like factor analysis. Second, when factor analysis could be done, it exclusively has done for long-term mate preferences, at the exclusion of short-term mate preferences. In this study (N = 401, we subjected 20 items designed to measure short- and long-term mate preferences to both principle components (n = 200 and confirmatory factor analysis (n = 201. In the long-term context, we replicated previous findings that there are three different categories of preferences: physical attractiveness, interpersonal warmth, and social status. In the short-term context, physical attractiveness occupied two parts of the structure, social status dropped out, and interpersonal warmth remained. Across short- and long-term contexts, there were slight changes in what defined the shared dimensions (i.e., physical attractiveness and interpersonal warmth, suggesting prior work that applies the same inventory to each context might be flawed. We also replicated sex differences and similarities in mate preferences and correlates with sociosexuality and mate value. We adopt an evolutionary paradigm to understand our results.

  16. The tomato leafminer reproduces without a mate: New case of parthenogenesis in Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Caparros Megido, Rudy; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François

    2012-01-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), originates from South America and is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the Mediterranean Basin countries of Europe and North Africa. The preventing pest mating control methods include: (1) the use of synthetic pheromones for male attraction and annihilation inside insecticide-contain- ing traps; (2) mating disruption by saturating the atmosphere with sex pheromones which alter the ability...

  17. F1 sterility of Diatraea saccharalis (Fab.), Lepidoptera: Crambidae. II. mating dynamics and effects on progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation of Diatraea saccharalis pupae at substerilizing gamma doses on the competitiveness of adult males emerging from the irradiated pupae and on their sterile progeny was evaluated on the basis of mating dynamics, mating duration and the length of the pre-mating period, as well as the sex ratio and the variation of pupal weights in the progeny. It is concluded that substerilizing gamma doses do not affect the indicators evaluated and that in the progeny the sex ratio is altered in favour of males and F1 pupal weights are reduced significantly. (author). 8 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  18. ?????????????????????? The Influence of Mate-Rejection on Self-Perceived Mate Value: Testing the Mating Sociometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ??

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ?????????????????????/?????????????????????????????1 ?????????????/???????????????????????????2 ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Kirkpatrick?Ellis(2001?????????????——???????????????????????????????????????????????The present study which using recall paradigm aimed to investigate the effect of  mate-rejection on positive affect and negative affect, self-esteem, self-perceived mate value, mate standard. The result showed: 1  Mate-rejection makes an impact on positive affect and negative affect, while self-esteem plays fully the mediating role among them; 2 Self-esteem fully mediated the impact of mate-rejection on self-perceived mate value, and self-perceived mate value fully mediated the impact of self-esteem on mate standard, thus a process model was built. This research supports and expands a conceptualization of the domain-specific sociometer, which is derived from Kirkpatrick and Ellis (2001: self-esteem as a mechanism functions to calibrate self-perceived mate value in response to experiences of mate-rejection, and makes an indirect effect on mate standard.

  19. No Detectable Fertility Benefit from a Single Additional Mating in Wild Stalk-Eyed Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Elisabeth; Fowler, Kevin; Cotton, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Background Multiple mating by female insects is widespread, and the explanation(s) for repeated mating by females has been the subject of much discussion. Females may profit from mating multiply through direct material benefits that increase their own reproductive output, or indirect genetic benefits that increase offspring fitness. One particular direct benefit that has attracted significant attention is that of fertility assurance, as females often need to mate multiply to achieve high fertility. This hypothesis has never been tested in a wild insect population. Methodology/Principal Findings Female Malaysian stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni) mate repeatedly during their lifetime, and have been shown to be sperm limited under both laboratory and field conditions. Here we ask whether receiving an additional mating alleviates sperm limitation in wild females. In our experiment one group of females received a single additional mating, while a control group received an interrupted, and therefore unsuccessful, mating. Females that received an additional mating did not lay more fertilised eggs in total, nor did they lay proportionately more fertilised eggs. Female fertility declined significantly through time, demonstrating that females were sperm limited. However, receipt of an additional mating did not significantly alter the rate of this decline. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that the fertility consequences of a single additional mating were small. We discuss this effect (or lack thereof), and suggest that it is likely to be attributed to small ejaculate size, a high proportion of failed copulations, and the presence of X-linked meiotic drive in this species. PMID:21179210

  20. Infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en varones y su asociación con las alteraciones ginecológicas de su compañera sexual / Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and its association to gynecologic alterations of his sexual mate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando M, Guerra-Infante; J. Ramón, Tapia-Yáñez; Marcela, López-Hurtado; Saúl, Flores-Medina; Francisco J, Díaz-García.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la frecuencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y comparar la información clínica y el estilo de vida de varones con y sin infección por este patógeno, así como su asociación con las alteraciones ginecológicas que presenta su compañera sexual en un grupo de parejas que asis [...] ten a la Clínica de Infertilidad del Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia de la Ciudad de México. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio abierto, longitudinal y prospectivo en un grupo de parejas con diagnóstico de infertilidad, que fueron tratadas en el Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia durante el periodo de junio del 2000 a abril del 2001. Se recolectaron muestras uretrales y cervicales de cada pareja para el diagnóstico de C. trachomatis mediante la prueba de hibridación en fase líquida (PACE-2). También se recolectaron muestras de semen para el análisis de espermatobioscopia y se hicieron cultivos microbiológicos de rutina a las muestras cervicales y de semen. Los datos microbiológicos, clínicos y ginecológicos de los participantes fueron comparados por %z, el análisis de tendencia para proporciones fue usado para establecer el nivel de riesgo en las variables (RR). Las diferencias fueron consideradas estadísticamente significativas si p Abstract in english Objective.To determinate the frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in male partners of infertile couples who attend to the infertility clinic at Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia, as well as to compare the clinical data and lifestyle between C. trachomatis-inifected and uninfected men to es [...] tablish a possible association with gynecological damage in their sexual female partners. Methods. An open prospective study was performed in infertile couples, whose follow up was carried out at Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia between June 2000 and April 2001. Urethral and cervical swabs were obtained from each couple and the specimens were subjected to a C. trachomatis-specific liquid-phase hibridization test (PACE-2) and routine microbiological analysis. Semen analysis were also included. A relative risk (RR) test was done to analyze variables and square chi test was used to analize clinical and gynecological data from female partners and data from semen examination. Statistical differences were considered as significant when the p value was below 0.05. Results. C. trachomatis active infection was found in 14 out of 384 urethral swabs (3.6%). No significant alterations were observed in semen samples of C. trachomatis-infected men, as compared to non-infected individuals. Microbiological analyses of semen showed a significant isolation o/Mycoplasma sp (RR = 5.87, IC95% 1.4-24.7). Eight out of fourteen female partners of C. trachomatis-infected men were also infected with C. trachomatis (RR= 10.57, IC95% 5.67-19.7), Candida albicans was other pathogen isolated from 8/14 of those women (RR = 1.89, IC95% 1.17-3.05). Gynecological and obstetrical associations found among female partners of C. trachomatis-infected men were as follows: tubal adhesions in 10/14 (RR = 1.54, IC95% 1.08-2.18), salpingitis in 2/14 (RR = 2.2), history of ectopic pregnancies in 11/14 (RR =2.94, IC95% 1.01-8.53) and abnormal pregnancy loss in 9/14 (RR = 1.5). Conclusion. A low prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was observed among male partners of infertile couples as compared with other reports, but this discrepancy could be attributable to the specimen collection and diagnostic assay used. Otherwise, this data suggests that a chronic pathogen's antigenic stimulation may result in an increased formation of tubal adhesions and/or in ectopic pregnancies among female partners of C. trachomatis-infected individuals. Thus, preventive and control measures must be introduced into men's healthcare services, through laboratory and clinical examination, since these subjects are the main reservoirs of C trachomatis.

  1. Investigation Romance and Mate Selection Myths of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Y?lmaz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the developmental responsibilities expected from the early adulthood period are selecting one’s mate and managing to live together with him/her. The way in which individuals select their mates and the ideas and beliefs that guide them are among the most curious of subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not myths regarding romance and mate selection among university students change according to relationship status, gender and age whether or not they have had a romantic relationship before and, if so, how many they have had. The study sample consisted of 370 students attending different departments of the Faculty of Education at Ondokuz May?s University. In the study, Romance and Mate Selection Attitude Scale (RMSAS was used. The results of the study indicated that in terms of gender, while the difference among the averages of the total scores was significant. In terms of kinds of relationship, total scores the difference was not significant. Regarding whether or not participants had experienced a romantic relationship before, there was not such a significant difference in the total scores. In terms of age, the difference among the averages in all the RMSAS subscales and the total scores is not significant.

  2. Reinforcement shapes clines in female mate discrimination in Drosophila subquinaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Emily R; Dyer, Kelly A

    2014-11-01

    Reinforcement of species boundaries may alter mate recognition in a way that also affects patterns of mate preference among conspecific populations. In the fly Drosophila subquinaria, females sympatric with the closely related species D. recens reject mating with heterospecific males as well as with conspecific males from allopatric populations. Here, we assess geographic variation in behavioral isolation within and among populations of D. subquinaria and use cline theory to understand patterns of selection on reinforced discrimination and its consequences for sexual isolation within species. We find that selection has fixed rejection of D. recens males in sympatry, while significant genetic variation in this behavior occurs within allopatric populations. In conspecific matings sexual isolation is also asymmetric and stronger in populations that are sympatric with D. recens. The clines in behavioral discrimination within and between species are similar in shape and are maintained by strong selection in the face of gene flow, and we show that some of their genetic basis may be either shared or linked. Thus, while reinforcement can drive extremely strong phenotypic divergence, the long-term consequences for incipient speciation depend on gene flow, genetic linkage of discrimination traits, and the cost of these behaviors in allopatry. PMID:25163510

  3. Mate Selection: A Propositional Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.

    With the intent of integrating partial theories that have developed in the area of mate selection, this paper presents propositions extracted from the research literature (1950-1976). A logical ordering of these propositions is suggested and new propositions are derived by interrelating selected propositions. These conclusions are reached: first,…

  4. Covariation and repeatability of male mating effort and mating preferences in a promiscuous fish

    OpenAIRE

    Godin, Jean-guy J.; Auld, Heather L.

    2013-01-01

    Although mate choice by males does occur in nature, our understanding of its importance in driving evolutionary change remains limited compared with that for female mate choice. Recent theoretical models have shown that the evolution of male mate choice is more likely when individual variation in male mating effort and mating preferences exist and positively covary within populations. However, relatively little is known about the nature of such variation and its maintenance within natural pop...

  5. Female-borne cues affecting Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) male behavior during courtship and mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni; Lucchi, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate courtship and mating behavior in Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti)-a koinobiont endophagous solitary parasitoid of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and of other fruit flies-is essential to its mass rearing and management. Augmentative releases of P. concolor for olive fruit fly control started in the Mediterranean areas in the 1950s and still continue with limited success. We determined the influence of visual and chemical cues on courtship and mating behavior of this braconid and the possible effect of the mating status of males and females in the perception of these cues. Our results suggest that integration of visual and chemical stimuli are fundamental for mate location and courtship. Indeed, the optimal response of the male was achieved when physical and chemical cues were simultaneously presented and vision and olfaction worked synergistically. PMID:23955889

  6. Nutritional enrichment increases courtship intensity and improves mating success in male spiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, Johannes Peter; Toft, SØren

    2009-01-01

    The development of male sexual ornaments and the intensity of male courtship behavior are often used by females as criteria for mate choice and by other males to evaluate the strength of a rival. We tested the hypotheses that courtship intensity and mating success depend on the males' nutritional status (enriched or deficient) and that courtship intensity predicts mating success in males of the same nutritional status. We used wolf spiders, Pardosa prativaga, which have an elaborate display of courtship behaviors, including encircling, palp vibrations, abdomen vibrations, hopping, etc. Viability parameters indicated enhanced condition of enriched males. Mating success was higher for nutrient-enriched males in direct competition with deficient males. Enriched males had higher courtship intensity and were also larger (carapace width) but not heavier than deficient males. The statistical analysis indicated that diet effects on courtship intensity were indirect, through its effect on size. In competition tests between males of equal mass and the same diet treatment, the previously most active male (high levels of palp vibrating, abdomen vibrating, and hopping) had the highest mating success, though this result depended on male nutrient status. The widely used residual condition index (RCI) did not distinguish the treatments. It is suggested that the index is unsuitable in a situation of nutritional stress caused by nutrient imbalance. The results underscore the importance of nutrient balancing to all aspects of performance also in predatory animals.

  7. Mating duration and sperm precedence in the spider Linyphia triangularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldingh, Ditte L.; Toft, SØren

    2011-01-01

    In many animal species, mating behaviour is highly ritualised, which may allow us to relate some of its consequences, e.g. male paternity and female receptivity, to the progression of phases in the mating sequence; at the same time, ritualisation raises the question of to what extent the partners, especially the males, are able to influence the outcome of mating for their own benefit. We studied the linyphiid spider Linyphia triangularis in which mating follows a strict sequence during which the male inducts two droplets of sperm and transfers them to the female. We performed sperm competition experiments (sterile-male technique) including four treatments, in which the copulation of the first male was interrupted at prescribed phases of the mating sequence, while the second male was allowed a complete mating. Second males spent a shorter time than first males on the behaviours prior to sperm transfer, but the amount of sperm (2 droplets) and the time spent in sperm transfer were independent of the females’ mating status. The proportion of females accepting the second male depended on the mating duration of the first male, i.e. whether the first male had transferred one or two sperm droplets. After a complete first mating, most females accepted no further males. A last-male sperm precedence was apparent if only half of the first sperm droplet had been transferred by the first male, but this switched to a first male precedence if one full sperm droplet had been transferred. Thus, even in the face of sperm competition, it is sufficient for the first male to transfer one sperm droplet. The second sperm droplet and the extended copulatory courtship associated with its transfer may serve to induce a lack of receptivity in the female, but the males seem unable to enhance their reproductive success through variable copulatory tactics.

  8. Individual differences in mate poaching: an examination of hormonal, dispositional, and behavioral mate-value traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderani, Shafik; Arnocky, Steven; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2013-05-01

    The personality and hormonal correlates of mate poaching (attempting to steal another person's partner away) and of the target of the seducer (the mate poached) were examined in a sample 154 undergraduate university students (91 females; 63 males). Thirteen variables were modeled into two regression equations to predict and profile mate poachers and the mate poached. Findings revealed that (1) male mate poachers were better looking and had higher cortisol levels, lower levels of testosterone, and reported being higher on self-esteem, cold affect, and criminal tendencies and (2) female mate poachers and targets of mate poachers reported being more physically attractive, as did male targets of mate poachers. Sex differences in the context of mate poaching attraction as well as the characteristics of those who are successful in their attempts to lure away another person's romantic partner were discussed. PMID:22695642

  9. Mating-induced changes in olfactory-mediated behavior of laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) mated to conspecific males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were mated with laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild male flies to assess the ability of males to alter olfactory-mediated behavioral responses of females to male-produced pheromone or host fruit odor. Virgin females of all 3 types showed a preferential attraction and arrestment on yellow spheres emitting male-produced pheromone in a laboratory flight tunnel. Laboratory-reared normal and wild females mated to laboratory reared normal, sterile, or wild males switched their behavior showing strong preferential attraction to, arrestment on, and egg-laying in (for laboratory-reared females) yellow spheres emitting host fruit odor (guava) over male-produced pheromone. Sterile females did not show a significant switch in behavior except when mated to sterile males. The olfactory-mediated behavioral switch was most evident in the laboratory-reared normal female × laboratory-reared normal male mating. These findings suggest that irradiation of males inducing gamete sterility does not affect the factor(s) from the male accessory gland associated with altering female olfactory behavior. The ability of sterile males to alter adequately olfactory-mediated behavior of wild females is discussed in the context of the sterile insect technique for control of Mediterranean fruit flies in the field

  10. Smelling wrong: hormonal contraception in lemurs alters critical female odour cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jeremy Chase; Boulet, Marylène; Drea, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Animals, including humans, use olfaction to assess potential social and sexual partners. Although hormones modulate olfactory cues, we know little about whether contraception affects semiochemical signals and, ultimately, mate choice. We examined the effects of a common contraceptive, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), on the olfactory cues of female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), and the behavioural response these cues generated in male conspecifics. The genital odorants of contracepted females were dramatically altered, falling well outside the range of normal female variation: MPA decreased the richness and modified the relative abundances of volatile chemicals expressed in labial secretions. Comparisons between treatment groups revealed several indicator compounds that could reliably signal female reproductive status to conspecifics. MPA also changed a female's individual chemical ‘signature’, while minimizing her chemical distinctiveness relative to other contracepted females. Most remarkably, MPA degraded the chemical patterns that encode honest information about genetic constitution, including individual diversity (heterozygosity) and pairwise relatedness to conspecifics. Lastly, males preferentially investigated the odorants of intact over contracepted females, clearly distinguishing those with immediate reproductive potential. By altering the olfactory cues that signal fertility, individuality, genetic quality and relatedness, contraceptives may disrupt intraspecific interactions in primates, including those relevant to kin recognition and mate choice. PMID:20667870

  11. 2012 International MATE ROV Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This video, created by the Marine Advanced Technology Education Center, shares highlights of the 2012 International MATE ROV competition, which was held in Orlando, Florida. 55 teams participated in the competition, which aims to get students interested in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM). Teams constructed their own ROVs and also integrated their own control systems in the competition. Running time for the video is 8:57.

  12. Mating-related behaviour of grizzly bears inhabiting marginal habitat at the periphery of their North American range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E

    2015-02-01

    In comparison to core populations, peripheral populations have low density and recruitment, and are subject to different selective pressures, such as environmental conditions, food type and availability, predation, disease, etc., which may result in behavioural modifications to mating. We test the roam-to-mate hypothesis for a peripheral population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) at the northern extent of their North American range, in Canada's Arctic. If bears are roaming-to-mate, we predicted greater range size and daily displacement, and more linear movements for receptive animals during the mating period compared to post-mating. In contrast to our predictions, we found that in general range size and displacement increased from mating to post-mating regardless of reproductive status. When considered across both periods, females with cubs-of-the-year had smaller range use metrics than other reproductive groups, which we attribute to a counter-strategy against sexually selected infanticide and the reduced mobility of cubs. Linearity of movements remained near zero during both periods across all groups, suggesting tortuous movements more characteristic of foraging than of mate-searching. We suggest that for this population, finding quality habitat takes precedence over mate-searching in this marginal Arctic landscape. Alternatively, a more monogamous mating system and sequestering behaviour may have obscured movement differences between the two periods. The behavioural differences in mating that we observed from what is typical of core populations may reflect local adaptation to marginal conditions and could benefit the species in the face of ongoing environmental change. PMID:25498148

  13. Parent-offspring conflict over mate choice

    OpenAIRE

    Dubbs, Shelli Lynn,

    2011-01-01

    Although parental influence over mate choice is important to human mating decisions, it is often overlooked within evolutionary psychology. Based on evolutionary theory, we predict that, while both parents likely influence a child’s mate choice, daughters will perceive having a low quality partner (i.e., traits indicating poor parental investment, a lack of creativity, and physical unattractiveness) would be more unacceptable to their mother when compared with the father. However, daughters...

  14. Computational mate choice: theory and empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cermelli, Paolo; Castellano, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The present review is based on the thesis that mate choice results from information-processing mechanisms governed by computational rules and that, to understand how females choose their mates, we should identify which are the sources of information and how they are used to make decisions. We describe mate choice as a three-step computational process and for each step we present theories and review empirical evidence. The first step is a perceptual process. It describes the acquisition of evi...

  15. Mitochondrial DNA alterations correlate with the pathological status and the immunological ER, PR, HER-2/neu, p53 and Ki-67 expression in breast invasive ductal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Sung; Chang, Shi-Chuan; Ou, Liang-Hung; Chen, Chien-Ming; Hsieh, Sophie Swen-Wan; Chung, Yu-Ping; King, Kuang-Liang; Lin, Shoei-Loong; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2015-06-01

    We analyzed the changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy numbers and the shifting of mtDNA D310 sequence variations (D310 mutation) with their relationships to pathological status and the expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2/neu), tumor-suppressor protein p53 and cellular proliferation protein Ki-67 in breast invasive ductal carcinoma (BIDC), respectively. Fifty-one paraffin-embedded BIDCs and their paired non-cancerous breast tissues were dissected for DNA extraction. The mtDNA copy number and mtDNA D310 sequence variations were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and PCR-based direct sequencing, respectively. The expression levels of ER, PR, HER-2/neu, p53 and Ki-67 were determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Compared to the paired non-cancerous breast tissues, 24 (47.1%) BIDCs had elevated mtDNA copy numbers and 29 (56.9%) harbored mtDNA D310 mutations. Advanced T-status (p=0.056), negative-ER (p=0.005), negative-PR (p=0.007), positive-p53 (p=0.050) and higher Ki-67 (p=0.004) expressions were related to a higher mtDNA copy ratio. In addition, advanced T-status (p=0.019) and negative-HER-2/neu expression (p=0.061) were associated with mtDNA D310 mutations. In conclusion, higher mtDNA copy ratio and D310 mutations may be relevant biomarkers correlated with pathological T-status and the expression levels of ER, PR, HER-2/neu, p53 and Ki-67 in BIDCs. PMID:25845386

  16. NUTRITION OF MATE-TREE WITH AMMONIUM SULFATE FERTILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Marzagão Ribeiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Mate tea leaves are the product of commercialization of the mate-tea tree (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., which leads to a great export of N, requiring its reposition. In previous nutritional studies of the mate-tea tree, it was observed that its production and metabolism was positively influenced by the ammonium form nitrogen fertilizer. This investigation tested different levels of nitrogen fertilization, in its ammonium form, in a commercial plantation, for verifying its effects on the nutritional status and on the productivity. The experiment was assembled in the region of Ivaí - Paraná, using, as fertilizer, the ammonium sulfate in the dosages of 00, 40, 60, 80 kg N ha-1. The statistical design was randomized blocks, with a split-plot arrangement, consisting of four treatments, two evaluation seasons with five replications and twenty plants per plot, being laid out in a 2,0 m x 3,5 m spacing. The evaluation of the plant’s nutritional status was performed through foliar analysis total N, K, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Al, in winter and summer, with fertilizations performed for two years. It was concluded that nitrogen supplied in the form of ammonium sulfate has a positive influence on the biomass up to the rate of 52,5 kg N ha-1. The harvesting season influences the plant’s chemical composition. The fertilization significantly influences the foliar contents of N, K and Mg and Zn during winter and Fe, Cu e Al during summer.

  17. 46 CFR 15.810 - Mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...minimum number of mariners holding a license or MMC officer endorsement as mate required...over must hold an appropriate license or MMC authorizing service as mate. (d...5) of this part or hold a license or MMC authorizing service as either—...

  18. Sociosexuality and Mate Retention in Romantic Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kardum

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available On a sample of 191 romantic couples the relations between mate retention strategies of one partner in the pair and sociosexuality of the other was examined. Mate retention strategies were measured by using self-reports, while sociosexuality was measured by self-report, as well as partner’s report. The results show that mate retention tactics, categories and domains are mainly positively related to both measures of partners’ sociosexuality in men and women, and particularly perceived sociosexuality of one’s partner. The results also show that relations between the overall frequency in the use of mate retention acts and partners’ sociosexuality do not differ between men and women. However, consistent differences in the relations between sociosexuality and mate retention strategies in men and women were obtained. When their partners are higher on sociosexuality women are more inclined to use intersexual manipulations, while men are more prone to intrasexual manipulations.

  19. Altered vitamin D status in liver tissue and blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Kirkegaard, Maja

    2014-01-01

    This study compared vitamin D3 (vitD3) and 25-OH vitamin D3 (25OHD3) status in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) given either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber high in organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) or clean porcine (Suis scrofa) fat for up to 636 days. A group of six exposed and six control sister bitches (maternal generation) and their three exposed and four control pups, respectively, were daily fed 112g whale blubber (193µg ?PCB/day) or porcine fat (0.17µg ?PCB/day). Mean level of ?PCB in adipose tissue of exposed bitches and their pups was 3106 and 2670ng/g lw, respectively, which was significantly higher than the mean concentration of 53ng/g lw for all controls (p

  20. Courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Lourenço & Qi, 2005 (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae) from Xizang province, China

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GB, Jiao; MS, Zhu.

    Full Text Available In the current work, the courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Lourenço & Qi, 2005 (Euscorpiidae) from Xizang province (Tibet), China, were studied for the first time in the laboratory. Most of the mating behaviors in Scorpiops luridus are not remarkably different from those exhibited by oth [...] er scorpions. However, for the first time a male pulling a female with its chelicerae to rapidly accomplish the sperm uptake was observed. Additionally, the sexual stinging behavior displayed by the male occurred in the initial stage, not during the promenade stage as previously described in several scorpion species. Through observation and analysis, we speculate that venom injection during sexual stinging is selective, possibly relying on the status shown by the stung scorpion (passive or aggressive). In order to clearly describe the process of courtship and mating, both sequences are represented in a flow chart, while the main behavior components of these processes were identified, analyzed and discussed.

  1. Prism adaptation does not alter configural processing of faces [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1wk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Bultitude

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’ following a brain lesion show difficulty responding or orienting to objects and events on the left side of space. Substantial evidence supports the use of a sensorimotor training technique called prism adaptation as a treatment for neglect. Reaching for visual targets viewed through prismatic lenses that induce a rightward shift in the visual image results in a leftward recalibration of reaching movements that is accompanied by a reduction of symptoms in patients with neglect. The understanding of prism adaptation has also been advanced through studies of healthy participants, in whom adaptation to leftward prismatic shifts results in temporary neglect-like performance. Interestingly, prism adaptation can also alter aspects of non-lateralised spatial attention. We previously demonstrated that prism adaptation alters the extent to which neglect patients and healthy participants process local features versus global configurations of visual stimuli. Since deficits in non-lateralised spatial attention are thought to contribute to the severity of neglect symptoms, it is possible that the effect of prism adaptation on these deficits contributes to its efficacy. This study examines the pervasiveness of the effects of prism adaptation on perception by examining the effect of prism adaptation on configural face processing using a composite face task. The composite face task is a persuasive demonstration of the automatic global-level processing of faces: the top and bottom halves of two familiar faces form a seemingly new, unknown face when viewed together. Participants identified the top or bottom halves of composite faces before and after prism adaptation. Sensorimotor adaptation was confirmed by significant pointing aftereffect, however there was no significant change in the extent to which the irrelevant face half interfered with processing. The results support the proposal that the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation are limited to dorsal stream processing.

  2. Ram mating behavior after long-term selection for reproductive rate in Rambouillet ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellflug, J N; Berardinelli, J G

    2002-10-01

    Mating behavior is known to be heritable in several species, but it is not known if selection schemes for ewe reproductive traits affect mating behavior of rams. Therefore, our objectives were to determine if divergent (high vs low index) selection of a female reproductive trait (lambs born divided by age of ewe minus one) affects mating behavior patterns of male offspring during training to service an artificial vagina (AV) in a less than natural setting (Exp. 1) or during serving capacity tests (SCT) in simulated natural mating conditions (Exp. 2). The method for evaluating male mating behavior was a series of serving capacity tests to estimate sexual performance. For Exp. 1, five, 30-min observations were conducted to assess the mating behavior of 29 rams (22 mo old) being trained to service an AV. In Exp. 1, percentages of rams mounting (73 vs 36%) and ejaculating (67 vs 29%) differed (P rams from high and low Rambouillet ewe selection lines, respectively. In Exp. 2, ram classification consisted of exposing each 22- to 24-mo-old ram (n = 48) to three unrestrained ewes in estrus for 18, 30-min tests. Any ram that had not mounted or ejaculated during SCT was evaluated for sexual orientation in a 30-min preference test in which each ram had access to both restrained estrual ewes and restrained rams. In Exp. 2, there was no difference (P > 0.2) in percentages of rams mounting (92 vs 78%) and ejaculating (88 vs 74%) between rams from high and low Rambouillet ewe selection lines, respectively. There was no difference (P > 0.33) between high and low ewe selection line rams for mounts or ejaculations for 18 SCT. Only one male-oriented ram was identified, which was from the high line. In Exp. 2, six SCT were necessary to obtain 95% reliability in sexual performance scores. Results of these studies indicate that long-term selection of ewes for litter size did not alter ram sexual performance after SCT under simulated natural mating conditions or affect incidence of male-oriented rams. Mating behavior observed during training to service an AV was lower for rams from ewes of the low selection line than for rams from ewes of the high selection line. We concluded that long-term selection for reproductive rate in ewes did not alter mating behavior patterns of male offspring; however, test conditions, such as restrained and unrestrained ewes and number of serving capacity tests, may affect conclusions in studies that evaluate sexual performance of rams. PMID:12413080

  3. Acp36DE is required for uterine conformational changes in mated Drosophila females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Frank W; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2009-09-15

    In a multitude of animals with internal fertilization, including insects and mammals, sperm are stored within a female's reproductive tract after mating. Defects in the process of sperm storage drastically reduce reproductive success. In Drosophila males, "Acp" seminal proteins alter female postmating physiology and behavior, and are necessary for several aspects of sperm storage. For example, Acps cause a series of conformational changes in the mated female's reproductive tract that occur during and immediately after mating. These conformational changes have been hypothesized to aid both in the movement of sperm within the female and in the subsequent storage of those sperm. We used RNAi to systematically knock down several Acps involved in sperm storage to determine whether they played a role in the mating-induced uterine conformational changes. Mates of males lacking the glycoprotein Acp36DE, which is needed for the accumulation of sperm in the storage organs, fail to complete the full sequence of the conformational changes. Our results show that uterine conformational changes are important for proper accumulation of sperm in storage and identify a seminal protein that mediates these changes. Four Acps included in this study, previously shown to affect sperm release from storage (CG9997, CG1656, CG1652, and CG17575), are not necessary for uterine conformational changes to occur. Rather, consistent with their role in later steps of sperm storage, we show here that their presence can affect the outcome of sperm competition situations. PMID:19805225

  4. Evaluation of potential gender-related differences in behavioral and cognitive alterations following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Clarissa Vasconcelos de; Grigoletto, Jéssica; Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider

    2015-05-01

    Together with pharmacoresistant seizures, the quality of life of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients is negatively impacted by behavioral comorbidities including but not limited to depression, anxiety and cognitive deficits. The pilocarpine model of TLE has been widely used to study characteristics of human TLE, including behavioral comorbidities. Since the outcomes of pilocarpine-induced TLE might vary depending on several experimental factors, we sought to investigate potential gender-related differences regarding selected behavioral alterations in C57BL6 mice. We found that epileptic mice, independent of gender, displayed increased anxiety-like behavior in the open-field test. In the object recognition test, epileptic mice, regardless of gender, showed a decreased recognition index at 24 (but not at 4) hours after training. On the other hand, no significant differences were found regarding mice learning and memory performance in the Barnes maze paradigm. Motor coordination and balance as assessed by the beam walk and rotarod tests were not impaired in epileptic mice of both genders. However, female mice, independent of epilepsy, performed the beam walk and rotarod tasks better than their male counterparts. We also found that only male epileptic mice displayed disturbed behavior in the forced swim test, but the mice of both genders displayed anhedonia-like behavior in the taste preference test. Lastly, we found that the extent of hilar cell loss is similar in both genders. In summary, both genders can be successfully employed to study behavioral comorbidities of TLE; however, taking the potential gender differences into account may help choose the more appropriated gender for a given task, which may be of value for the minimization of the number of animals used during the experiments. PMID:25749198

  5. Experimental constraints on mate preferences in Drosophila pseudoobscura decrease offspring viability and fitness of mated pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Wyatt W.; Kim, Yong-kyu; Gowaty, Patricia Adair

    2007-01-01

    Using Drosophila pseudoobscura, we tested the hypothesis that social constraints on the free expression of mate preferences, by both females and males, decrease offspring viability and reproductive success of mating pairs. Mate preference arenas eliminated intrasexual combat and intersexual coercion. The time female and male choosers spent in arena tests near either of two opposite-sex individuals measured the preferences of choosers. We placed choosers in breeding trials with their preferred...

  6. Gene-Mating Dynamic Evolution Theory II: Global stability of N-gender-mating polyploid systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Juven

    2015-01-01

    Extending the previous 2-gender dioecious biploid gene-mating evolution model, we attempt to answer "whether the Hardy-Weinberg global stability and the exact analytic dynamical solutions can be found in the generalized N-gender polyploid gene-mating system?'" For a 2-gender gene-mating evolution model, a pair of male and female determines the trait of their offspring. Each of the pair contributes one inherited character, the allele, to combine into the genotype of their off...

  7. A mating plug and male mate choice in Drosophila hibisci Bock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak; Starmer; Barker

    1998-10-01

    The functional significance of mating plugs and their relation to male mating behaviour in insects are obscure. In Drosophila hibisci, we describe a firm, gelatinous, mating plug that fills the entire uterus at copulation, and evaluate two nonmutually exclusive hypotheses for the plug's function: (1) retention of sperm near the openings of the sperm storage organs and (2) inhibition of further matings. Unlike full-sized plugs, smaller plugs produced by previously mated males failed to retain sperm at the anterior end of the uterus, indicating that full-sized plugs prevent sperm backflow away from female storage organs. Sexually mature males failed to copulate with previously mated, young females, suggesting that the plug may also deter rival matings. In newly emerged females, the plug remains within the uterus for up to 4 days after copulation, but in mature females, the plug and ejaculate are expelled whenever the next mature oocyte descends into the uterus from the common oviduct, which may be soon after copulation. Males remained in copula significantly longer with mature females, perhaps to compensate for this greater likelihood of ejaculate expulsion. Males showed a mating preference for young virgins over older virgin and nonvirgin females. This unusual mating preference may confer fertility benefits made available through the effectiveness of the plug in reducing sperm competition. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9790703

  8. Effect of 60Co radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10 kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10 kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and qualitative profile of bioactive compounds. (author)

  9. Effect of 60CO radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and qualitative profile of bioactive compounds. (author)

  10. Schizotypy, creativity and mating success in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Nettle, Daniel; Clegg, Helen

    2005-01-01

    There is an evolutionary puzzle surrounding the persistence of schizophrenia, since it is substantially heritable and associated with sharply reduced fitness. However, some of the personality traits which are predictive of schizophrenia are also associated with artistic creativity. Geoffrey Miller has proposed that artistic creativity functions to attract mates. Here, we investigate the relationship between schizotypal personality traits, creative activity, and mating success in a large sampl...

  11. An algorithm for efficient constrained mate selection

    OpenAIRE

    Kinghorn Brian P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Mate selection can be used as a framework to balance key technical, cost and logistical issues while implementing a breeding program at a tactical level. The resulting mating lists accommodate optimal contributions of parents to future generations, in conjunction with other factors such as progeny inbreeding, connection between herds, use of reproductive technologies, management of the genetic distribution of nominated traits, and management of allele/genotype frequencies ...

  12. Biased learning affects mate choice in a butterfly

    OpenAIRE

    Westerman, Erica L.; Hodgins-davis, Andrea; Dinwiddie, April; Monteiro, Anto?nia

    2012-01-01

    Early acquisition of mate preferences or mate-preference learning is associated with signal diversity and speciation in a wide variety of animal species. However, the diversity of mechanisms of mate-preference learning across taxa remains poorly understood. Using the butterfly Bicyclus anynana we uncover a mechanism that can lead to directional sexual selection via mate-preference learning: a bias in learning enhanced ornamentation, which is independent of preexisting mating biases. Naïve fe...

  13. Variation in Male Mate Choice in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Edward, Dominic A.; Chapman, Tracey

    2013-01-01

    Male mate choice has been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, even though males of this species were previously thought to maximise their fitness by mating with all available females. To understand the evolution of male mate choice it is important to understand variation in male mating preferences. Two studies, using different stock populations and different methods, have reported contrasting patterns of variation in male mate choice in D. melanogaster. Two possible explanatio...

  14. An algorithm for efficient constrained mate selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinghorn Brian P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mate selection can be used as a framework to balance key technical, cost and logistical issues while implementing a breeding program at a tactical level. The resulting mating lists accommodate optimal contributions of parents to future generations, in conjunction with other factors such as progeny inbreeding, connection between herds, use of reproductive technologies, management of the genetic distribution of nominated traits, and management of allele/genotype frequencies for nominated QTL/markers. Methods This paper describes a mate selection algorithm that is widely used and presents an extension that makes it possible to apply constraints on certain matings, as dictated through a group mating permission matrix. Results This full algorithm leads to simpler applications, and to computing speed for the scenario tested, which is several hundred times faster than the previous strategy of penalising solutions that break constraints. Conclusions The much higher speed of the method presented here extends the use of mate selection and enables implementation in relatively large programs across breeding units.

  15. Sex and the single (-eared) female: leg function, limb autotomy and mating history trade-offs in field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, Philip W.; Fleming, Patricia A.

    2005-01-01

    Both male and female field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) autotomize front (tympanal) limbs more slowly than hind limbs. Arguably, this pattern could reflect possible differences in the mechanism of limb autotomy. However, we demonstrate that, for females, limb autotomy is also dependent on their mating status: virgin females autotomize front legs significantly more slowly than mated females. This response suggests a central control for leg autotomy in these animals, and less readiness to aut...

  16. Does divergence in female mate choice affect male size distributions in two cave fish populations?

    OpenAIRE

    Tobler, M.; Schlupp, I.; Plath, M.

    2008-01-01

    Sexual selection by female choice can maintain male traits that are counter selected by natural selection. Alteration of the potential for sexual selection can thus lead to shifts in the expression of male traits. We investigated female mate choice for large male body size in a fish (Poecilia mexicana) that, besides surface streams, also inhabits two caves. All four populations investigated, exhibited an ancestral visual preference for large males. However, only one of the cave populations...

  17. Male mate choice and sperm allocation in a sexual/asexual mating complex of Poecilia (Poeciliidae, Teleostei)

    OpenAIRE

    Schlupp, I; Plath, M

    2005-01-01

    Male mate choice is critical for understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual/asexual mating complexes involving sperm-dependent, gynogenetic species. Amazon mollies (Poecilia formosa) require sperm to trigger embryogenesis, but the males (e.g. Poecilia mexicana) do not contribute genes. Males benefit from mating with Amazon mollies, because such matings make males more attractive to conspecific females, but they might control the cost of such matings by providing less sperm to Amazo...

  18. Evidence for minority male mating success and minority female mating disadvantage in Drosophila ananassae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Arundhati; Singh, Bashisth N

    2005-01-01

    Frequency-dependent mating success was tested for three pairs of wild-type and mutant strains of Drosophila ananassae, MY and yellow body color (y), PN and claret eye color (ca), and TIR and cut wing (ct). The two strains of each pair were chosen for their approximately equal mating propensities. Multiple-choice experiments, using different experimental procedures, were employed. The tests were carried out by direct observation in Elens-Wattiaux mating chambers with five different sex ratios (4:16, 8:12, 10:10, 12:8, and 16:4). There was no assortative mating and sexual isolation between the strains, based on 2 x 2 contingency chi2 analysis and isolation estimate values. One-sided rare male mating advantages were found in two experiments, one for ca males and the other for wild-type males (TIR). However, no advantage was found for rare males in the experiment with MY and y flies. Mating disadvantages for rare females were found for sex-linked mutants (y and ct). Two different observational methods (removal or direct observation of mating pairs) imparted no overall significant effects on the outcome of the frequency-dependent mating tests. PMID:15841431

  19. Precopulatory Mate Guarding, Mating System and Pairing Parental Care in Hyale rubra (Peracarida; Amphipoda; Gammaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Sunghan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Mating behaviour of the gammarid amphipod, Hyale rubra, was observed. H. rubra displayedprecopulatory mate guarding: males clasped females with their gnathopods during copulation, forming a pair.Males also participated in embryo care during the incubation period. The population was small, and the sex ratiowas almost equal. Energy allocation for mating effort and parental effort in the two sexes appear to be almostequal. The mating system was sequentially polygamous (or promiscuous and there was conspicuous sexualdimorphism in the size of the gnathopod, which was used for mate guarding. However, there appears to berelatively weak sexual competition for mating opportunities despite conspicuous sexual dimorphism. H. rubra didnot display territorial competition or external fertilization. Nevertheless, the male provided paternal care. SinceH. rubra inhabit tide pools and live on algae, the polygamous mating system of the species can be explainedby the polygyny threshold model. The evolution of mate guarding and parental care may have been favored bythe species’ low population density and harsh environments, an interpretation consistent with the optimalitymodel.

  20. Male choice of mates and mating resources in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Casalini, M.; Reichard, Martin; Phillips, A.; Smith, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 24, ?. 5 (2013), s. 1199-1204. ISSN 1045-2249 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : body size * fecundity * male mate choice * mating system * oviposition * sperm competition * territoriality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.157, year: 2013

  1. Associations of collectivism with relationship commitment, passion, and mate preferences: opposing roles of parental influence and family allocentrism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejanyan, Kathrine; Marshall, Tara C; Ferenczi, Nelli

    2015-01-01

    In collectivist cultures, families tend to be characterized by respect for parental authority and strong, interdependent ties. Do these aspects of collectivism exert countervailing pressures on mate choices and relationship quality? In the present research, we found that collectivism was associated with greater acceptance of parental influence over mate choice, thereby driving relationship commitment down (Studies 1 and 2), but collectivism was also associated with stronger family ties (referred to as family allocentrism), which drove commitment up (Study 2). Along similar lines, Study 1 found that collectivists' greater acceptance of parental influence on mate choice contributed to their reduced relationship passion, whereas Study 2 found that their greater family allocentrism may have enhanced their passion. Study 2 also revealed that collectivists may have reported a smaller discrepancy between their own preferences for mates high in warmth and trustworthiness and their perception of their parents' preferences for these qualities because of their stronger family allocentrism. However, their higher tolerance of parental influence may have also contributed to a smaller discrepancy in their mate preferences versus their perceptions of their parents' preferences for qualities signifying status and resources. Implications for the roles of collectivism, parental influence, and family allocentrism in relationship quality and mate selection will be discussed. PMID:25719563

  2. Mating regulates neuromodulator ensembles at nerve termini innervating the Drosophila reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heifetz, Yael; Lindner, Moshe; Garini, Yuval; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-03-31

    Upon mating, regions of the female reproductive tract mature and alter their function [1-3], for example to facilitate storage of sperm or control the release of eggs [4-6]. The female's nervous system and neuromodulators play important roles in her responses to mating [7-13]. However, it is difficult to reconcile the reproductive tract's many changing but coordinated events with the small set of neuromodulators present [14-18]. We hypothesized that each part of the reproductive tract contains a characteristic combination of neuromodulators that confer unique identities on each region and that postmating changes in these combinations coordinate subsequent actions. We examined the presence, locations, and levels of neuromodulators and related molecules ("signaling molecules") in the reproductive tract of Drosophila melanogaster females before and after mating: the biogenic amine octopamine, which regulates ovulation rate in Drosophila and locusts [7, 14-20]; serotonin, which regulates muscle contraction in locust oviducts [21]; and the FMRF amide dromyosuppressin, which regulates contraction of Drosophila heart muscle [22] and may regulate muscle contractions in the reproductive tract, if it is expressed there. We find that separate aspects of mating (sperm, seminal proteins, and physical effects) independently modulate the release of signaling molecules. Each reproductive tract subregion displays a characteristic combination of signaling molecule release, resulting in a unique functional identity. These patterns, and thus functions, change reproducibly after mating. Thus, one event (mating) promotes new combinations of signaling molecules that endow different parts of the reproductive tract with unique temporal and spatial identities that facilitate many aspects of fertilization. PMID:24631240

  3. Calidad microbiológica de yerba mate canchada / Microbiological quality of canchada yerba mate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta A, Horianski; María L, Castrillo; Ayelen B, Tayagui; Gladis, Jerke.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Yerba mate canchada es una de las formas de comercialización de la yerba mate. Se obtiene en las primeras etapas del proceso de elaboración, mediante la trituración gruesa de las hojas secas luego del sapecado y secado de las mismas, constituyendo la materia prima de los molinos. Los objetivos de nu [...] estro trabajo fueron evaluar la calidad microbiológica de yerba mate canchada, y observar si el período de estacionamiento influye en la proliferación de microorganismos en el procesamiento de la yerba mate. Se realizó el análisis microbiológico de 20 muestras de yerba mate canchada mediante recuentos de bacterias aeróbicas mesófilas totales (BAMT), coliformes totales (CT), coliformes termotolerantes (CTT), hongos y levaduras (RHL) y detección de Escherichia coli. Los recuentos microbiológicos presentaron valores en promedio para BAMT de 2,2 x 10³ UFC/g; para CT de 5,5 x 10² NMP/g; para CTT Abstract in english Milled (canchada) yerba mate is one of the commercial forms of yerba mate. It is obtained in the early stages of the manufacturing process, through the coarse grinding of dry leaves after sapecado and drying, which constitute the raw material for mills. The objectives of our work were to assess the [...] microbiological quality of canchada yerba mate, and to observe if the ageing period influences the proliferation of microorganisms in yerba mate processing. Microbiological analysis of 20 samples of canchada yerba mate was carried out by total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (BAMT), total coliform (RCT), fecal coliforms (RCTT), fungi and yeasts (RHL) counting, and Escherichia coli detection. Microbiological counting showed average values of 2.2 xl0³ UFC/g for BAMT, of 5.5 x 10² NMP/g for CT;

  4. The Medusa Algorithm for Polynomial Matings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Suzanne Hruska; Henriksen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The Medusa algorithm takes as input two postcritically finite quadratic polynomials and outputs the quadratic rational map which is the mating of the two polynomials (if it exists). Specifically, the output is a sequence of approximations for the parameters of the rational map, as well as an image of its Julia set. Whether these approximations converge is answered using Thurston's topological characterization of rational maps. This algorithm was designed by John Hamal Hubbard, and implemented in 1998 by Christian Henriksen and REU students David Farris and Kuon Ju Liu. In this paper we describe the algorithm and its implementation, discuss some output from the program (including many pictures) and related questions. Specifically, we include images and a discussion for some shared matings, Lattès examples, and tuning sequences of matings.

  5. Realization of the chess mate solver application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu?kovi? Vladan V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents details of the chess mate solver application, which is a part of the author’s Geniss general chess application. The problem chess is an important domain connected with solving of the chess problems. The Geniss Mate Solver (G.M.S. application solves Mate-in-N-move problems. Main techniques used for the implementation of the application are full-width searching with Alpha-Beta pruning technique and zero evaluation function. The application is written in Delphi for Windows programming environment and the searching engine is completely coded in assembly language (about 10000 lines. This hybrid software structure enables efficient program development by using high-level programming environment and the realization of a very fast searching engine at the same time. The machine code is manually coded and could achieve above 7 million generated positions per second on the 1Ghz Celeron PC.

  6. Predator-induced changes of female mating preferences: innate and experiential effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indy Jeane

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many species males face a higher predation risk than females because males display elaborate traits that evolved under sexual selection, which may attract not only females but also predators. Females are, therefore, predicted to avoid such conspicuous males under predation risk. The present study was designed to investigate predator-induced changes of female mating preferences in Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana. Males of this species show a pronounced polymorphism in body size and coloration, and females prefer large, colorful males in the absence of predators. Results In dichotomous choice tests predator-naïve (lab-reared females altered their initial preference for larger males in the presence of the cichlid Cichlasoma salvini, a natural predator of P. mexicana, and preferred small males instead. This effect was considerably weaker when females were confronted visually with the non-piscivorous cichlid Vieja bifasciata or the introduced non-piscivorous Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. In contrast, predator experienced (wild-caught females did not respond to the same extent to the presence of a predator, most likely due to a learned ability to evaluate their predators' motivation to prey. Conclusions Our study highlights that (a predatory fish can have a profound influence on the expression of mating preferences of their prey (thus potentially affecting the strength of sexual selection, and females may alter their mate choice behavior strategically to reduce their own exposure to predators. (b Prey species can evolve visual predator recognition mechanisms and alter their mate choice only when a natural predator is present. (c Finally, experiential effects can play an important role, and prey species may learn to evaluate the motivational state of their predators.

  7. Estimation of mating system parameters in an evolving gynodioecous population of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumet, M; Ostrowski, M-F; David, J; Tollon, C; Muller, M-H

    2012-01-01

    Cultivated plants have been molded by human-induced selection, including manipulations of the mating system in the twentieth century. How these manipulations have affected realized parameters of the mating system in freely evolving cultivated populations is of interest for optimizing the management of breeding populations, predicting the fate of escaped populations and providing material for experimental evolution studies. To produce modern varieties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), self-incompatibility has been broken, recurrent generations of selfing have been performed and male sterility has been introduced. Populations deriving from hybrid-F1 varieties are gynodioecious because of the segregation of a nuclear restorer of male fertility. Using both phenotypic and genotypic data at 11 microsatellite loci, we analyzed the consanguinity status of plants of the first three generations of such a population and estimated parameters related to the mating system. We showed that the resource reallocation to seed in male-sterile individuals was not significant, that inbreeding depression on seed production averaged 15–20% and that cultivated sunflower had acquired a mixed-mating system, with ?50% of selfing among the hermaphrodites. According to theoretical models, the female advantage and the inbreeding depression at the seed production stage were too low to allow the persistence of male sterility. We discuss our methods of parameter estimation and the potential of such study system in evolutionary biology. PMID:21915147

  8. Estimation of mating system parameters in an evolving gynodioecous population of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumet, M; Ostrowski, M-F; David, J; Tollon, C; Muller, M-H

    2012-04-01

    Cultivated plants have been molded by human-induced selection, including manipulations of the mating system in the twentieth century. How these manipulations have affected realized parameters of the mating system in freely evolving cultivated populations is of interest for optimizing the management of breeding populations, predicting the fate of escaped populations and providing material for experimental evolution studies. To produce modern varieties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), self-incompatibility has been broken, recurrent generations of selfing have been performed and male sterility has been introduced. Populations deriving from hybrid-F1 varieties are gynodioecious because of the segregation of a nuclear restorer of male fertility. Using both phenotypic and genotypic data at 11 microsatellite loci, we analyzed the consanguinity status of plants of the first three generations of such a population and estimated parameters related to the mating system. We showed that the resource reallocation to seed in male-sterile individuals was not significant, that inbreeding depression on seed production averaged 15-20% and that cultivated sunflower had acquired a mixed-mating system, with ?50% of selfing among the hermaphrodites. According to theoretical models, the female advantage and the inbreeding depression at the seed production stage were too low to allow the persistence of male sterility. We discuss our methods of parameter estimation and the potential of such study system in evolutionary biology. PMID:21915147

  9. Alteration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This session gathers 22 articles (posters) dealing with: natural systems evidence for the alteration of clay under alkaline conditions; stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel exposed to deep geological environment; the microstructure of compacted argillite submitted to an alkaline plume; the effect of the high pH alkaline solutions on the mineralogy and leachate chemistry of the Boom clay batch experiment at 60 deg. C; the effects of grouting and shotcreting on the backfill geochemistry of a KBS-3 HLNW repository; the evaluation of geochemical scenarios for iron/argillite interactions in a deep waste disposal: a density study on reaction rates and gas partial pressures; smectite interaction with metal iron; insights into long-term alteration of bentonite-cement system based on coupled mass-transport/chemical reaction analysis; the effects of alkaline alteration on water diffusivity in montmorillonite gels: NMR study; the investigation of smectite alteration and form of iron corrosion products in compacted bentonite being in contact with carbon steel for ten years; the TEM characterization of the FEBEX bentonite after two-years contact with iron corrosion products; the concrete/FEBEX bentonite interaction: preliminary results on short-term column experiments; IPHAP: background information on Philippine bentonites, hyper-alkaline waters and potential analogue sites; the Simulation of the degradation of a concrete/clay interface: influence of temperature, unsaturated ce: influence of temperature, unsaturated conditions and porosity variations; the integrated study of 6 years in-situ steels/ argillite interactions at Tournemire by mineralogical and modelling approaches; the study of nuclear glass / canister corrosion products / clay system by means of integral modular material tests; the influence of dissolution/precipitation kinetics on the porosity clogging effect during cement/clay interactions; the alkaline perturbation into the Tournemire argillite: Structural and mineralogical studies of a 15 years in-situ propagation; the geochemical behavior of clay material under neutral and alkaline conditions at low temperature; a migration technique applied to study alteration of compacted sand-bentonite mixture in contact with concrete; the hydrothermal alteration of Callovo- Oxfordian argillite from the Paris basin by neutral and alkaline solutions at 150 deg. C and 300 deg. C and in the presence of iron metal; and some thermodynamic considerations on the behavior of Kerogen under conditions of alkaline perturbation

  10. Uncertain paternity, mating market failure, and the institution of marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Bethmann, Dirk; Kvasnicka, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a first microeconomic foundation for the institution of marriage. Based on a model of reproduction, mating, and parental investment in children, we argue that marriage serves the purpose of attenuating the risk of mating market failure that arises from incomplete information on individual paternity. Raising the costs of mating to individuals, marriage circumscribes female infidelity and mate poaching among men, which reduces average levels of paternal uncertainty in societ...

  11. The evolution of female mate choice by sexual conflict.

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilets, S.; Arnqvist, G.; Friberg, U.

    2001-01-01

    Although empirical evidence has shown that many male traits have evolved via sexual selection by female mate choice, our understanding of the adaptive value of female mating preferences is still very incomplete. It has recently been suggested that female mate choice may result from females evolving resistance rather than attraction to males, but this has been disputed. Here, we develop a quantitative genetic model showing that sexual conflict over mating indeed results in the joint evolution ...

  12. Reversible frequency-dependent switches in male mate choice.

    OpenAIRE

    Gossum, H.; Stoks, R.; Bruyn, L.

    2001-01-01

    Current sexual-selection theories predict that mating should occur preferentially with the highest-quality partner, and assume that for distinguishing among potential mates the choosy sex applies an internal representation of the characteristics of the desired mate, i.e. a template. Binary choice experiments were performed to test male mate choice between two different female colour morphs in the damselfly Ischnura elegans. Choice experiments were conducted before and after an habituation per...

  13. Post-mating clutch piracy in an amphibian

    OpenAIRE

    Vieites, David R.; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Barluenga, Marta; Palanca, Antonio; Vences, Miguel; Meyer, Axel

    2004-01-01

    Female multiple mating and alternative mating systems can decrease the opportunity for sexual selection. Sperm competition is often the outcome of females mating with multiple males and has been observed in many animals, and alternative reproductive systems are widespread among species with external fertilization and parental care. Multiple paternity without associated complex behaviour related to mating or parental care is also seen in simultaneously spawning amphibians and fishes that relea...

  14. Spatial ecology of mating success in a sexually polymorphic plant

    OpenAIRE

    Stehlik, Ivana; Caspersen, John P; BARRETT, SPENCER C. H.

    2005-01-01

    The spatial context of reproduction is of crucial importance to plants because of their sessile habit. Since pollen and seed dispersal is often restricted, mating success is likely to depend on the quantity and quality of mates in local neighbourhoods. Here we use neighbourhood models to investigate the spatial ecology of pollination and mating in Narcissus assoanus, a sexually polymorphic plant with two mating morphs that differ in style length. By mapping individuals in eight populations fr...

  15. Development of the Attitudes about Romance and Mate Selection Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan P.; Larson, Jeffry H.; Watson, Wendy L.

    2003-01-01

    The 32-item Attitudes about Romance and Mate Selection Scale (ARMSS) was developed to measure constraining beliefs about mate selection. Results of factor analysis showed few gender differences in the degree to which constraining beliefs about mate selection are held by single young adults. However, significant differences were found when age,…

  16. AA, mating of BST magnet halves

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The AA had 2 types of bending magnets: BLG (window-frame,long and narrow) and BST (H-type, short and wide). The BST had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the mating of two BST halves.

  17. Alternative male mating tactics and reproductive parasitism.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, C.; Reichard, Martin

    Cardiff : Fisheries Society of the British Isles, 2008. -. [FSBI Annual International Symposium 2008. 21.07.2008-25.07.2008, Cardiff] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KJB600930802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mating tactics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  18. Cognitive processes underlying human mate choice: The relationship between self-perception and mate preference in Western society

    OpenAIRE

    Buston, Peter M.; Emlen, Stephen T.

    2003-01-01

    This study tested two hypotheses concerning the cognitive processes underlying human mate choice in Western society: (i) mate preference is conditional in that the selectivity of individuals' mate preference is based on their perception of themselves as long-term partners, and (ii) the decision rule governing such conditional mate preference is based on translating perception of oneself on a given attribute into a comparable selectivity of preference for the same attri...

  19. Determinants of male reproductive health disorders: the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS)

    OpenAIRE

    Wittert Gary; Cumming Robert; Pitts Marian; McLachlan Robert I; Holden Carol A; Ehsani Johnathon P; de Kretser David M; Handelsman David J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationship between reproductive health disorders and lifestyle factors in middle-aged and older men is not clear. The aim of this study is to describe lifestyle and biomedical associations as possible causes of erectile dysfunction (ED), prostate disease (PD), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and perceived symptoms of androgen deficiency (pAD) in a representative population of middle-aged and older men, using the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS). Methods ...

  20. Mating choice of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of male ageing on mating success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of male ageing on male pheromone release and mating success of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The effects of male ageing on mating were evaluated on fi ve and 21 d-old males by assessing their mating success (males chosen by a female for copulation) and the amount of males releasing the sex pheromone. The mating success was evaluated by using several ratios of young to older males by increasing the number of older males:young males from 1:1 to 5:1. The mating success of the 1:1 ratio was also evaluated in fi eld cages. The evaluation of the mating success (in the 1:1 ratio) showed a clear preference of the females for young males. Sex pheromone emission was much more common on young than older males. Even in cases were older males were more abundant (ratios 2:1 and 3:1), females still chose the young males. However, females could not distinguish young from older males in ratios of 4:1 or 5:1. Our data indicate that the ageing of C. capitata males has a considerable negative effect on their reproductive success, especially if they are found in a proportion any lower than 3:1. (author)

  1. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  2. Aggressive assembly of pyrosequencing reads with mates

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Jason R.; Delcher, Arthur L.; Koren, Sergey; Venter, Eli; Walenz, Brian P.; Brownley, Anushka; Johnson, Justin; Li, Kelvin; Mobarry, Clark; Sutton, Granger

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: DNA sequence reads from Sanger and pyrosequencing platforms differ in cost, accuracy, typical coverage, average read length and the variety of available paired-end protocols. Both read types can complement one another in a ‘hybrid’ approach to whole-genome shotgun sequencing projects, but assembly software must be modified to accommodate their different characteristics. This is true even of pyrosequencing mated and unmated read combinations. Without special modifications, assemble...

  3. Oestradiol level and opportunistic mating in women

    OpenAIRE

    Durante, Kristina M.; Li, Norman P.

    2009-01-01

    The ovarian steroid hormone oestradiol plays a crucial role in female fertility, sexual motivation and behaviour. We investigated the relationship between oestradiol and the likelihood that women would engage in opportunistic mating. Two salivary samples were taken from normally cycling women within the peri-ovulatory and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. At both testing sessions, participants also completed self-perceived desirability scales and provided subjective reports of sexual and s...

  4. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailer Frank

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same processes which have historically created dog breeds are still ongoing, and create further subdivision within current dog breeds.

  5. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Beckers, Oliver M.; Wagner, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and th...

  6. Insect mating signal and mate preference phenotypes covary among host plant genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, Darren; Rodríguez, Rafael L

    2015-03-01

    Sexual selection acting on small initial differences in mating signals and mate preferences can enhance signal-preference codivergence and reproductive isolation during speciation. However, the origin of initial differences in sexual traits remains unclear. We asked whether biotic environments, a source of variation in sexual traits, may provide a general solution to this problem. Specifically, we asked whether genetic variation in biotic environments provided by host plants can result in signal-preference phenotypic covariance in a host-specific, plant-feeding insect. We used a member of the Enchenopa binotata species complex of treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) to assess patterns of variation in male mating signals and female mate preferences induced by genetic variation in host plants. We employed a novel implementation of a quantitative genetics method, rearing field-collected treehoppers on a sample of naturally occurring replicated host plant clone lines. We found remarkably high signal-preference covariance among host plant genotypes. Thus, genetic variation in biotic environments influences the sexual phenotypes of organisms living on those environments in a way that promotes assortative mating among environments. This consequence arises from conditions likely to be common in nature (phenotypic plasticity and variation in biotic environments). It therefore offers a general answer to how divergent sexual selection may begin. PMID:25611556

  7. Fitness-based mating: A systematic analysis of a new preference model

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Natural populations exhibit a non-random mating behavior and it is assumed that mate preferences causing the non-random mating behavior play a role in sympatric speciation. In my thesis, I have proposed a new model of a mate preference that is based on ecological performance and I have named it fitness-based mating. Individuals that express this mate preference choose primarily fit partners. Fitness-based mating is modelled for haploid, diallelic populations. Individuals are distrib...

  8. Spatial distribution and male mating success of Anopheles gambiae swarms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huestis Diana L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae mates in flight at particular mating sites over specific landmarks known as swarm markers. The swarms are composed of males; females typically approach a swarm, and leave in copula. This mating aggregation looks like a lek, but appears to lack the component of female choice. To investigate the possible mechanisms promoting the evolution of swarming in this mosquito species, we looked at the variation in mating success between swarms and discussed the factors that structure it in light of the three major lekking models, known as the female preference model, the hotspot model, and the hotshot model. Results We found substantial variation in swarm size and in mating success between swarms. A strong correlation between swarm size and mating success was observed, and consistent with the hotspot model of lek formation, the per capita mating success of individual males did not increase with swarm size. For the spatial distribution of swarms, our results revealed that some display sites were more attractive to both males and females and that females were more attracted to large swarms. While the swarm markers we recognize help us in localizing swarms, they did not account for the variation in swarm size or in the swarm mating success, suggesting that mosquitoes probably are attracted to these markers, but also perceive and respond to other aspects of the swarming site. Conclusions Characterizing the mating system of a species helps understand how this species has evolved and how selective pressures operate on male and female traits. The current study looked at male mating success of An. gambiae and discussed possible factors that account for its variation. We found that swarms of An. gambiae conform to the hotspot model of lek formation. But because swarms may lack the female choice component, we propose that the An. gambiae mating system is a lek-like system that incorporates characteristics pertaining to other mating systems such as scramble mating competition.

  9. REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTER DISPLACEMENT OF EPICUTICULAR COMPOUNDS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO MATE CHOICE IN DROSOPHILA SUBQUINARIA AND DROSOPHILA RECENS

    OpenAIRE

    Dyer, Kelly A.; White, Brooke E.; Sztepanacz, Jacqueline L.; Bewick, Emily R.; Rundle, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between species can alter selection on sexual displays used in mate choice within species. Here we study the epicuticular pheromones of two Drosophila species that overlap partially in geographic range and are incompletely reproductively isolated. Drosophila subquinaria shows a pattern of reproductive character displacement against Drosophila recens, and partial behavioral isolation between conspecific sympatric versus allopatric populations, whereas D. recens shows no such varia...

  10. An improved method for evaluating ideal standards in self-perception and mate preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsena, Lasma; Dimdins, Girts

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to improve the methodology for measuring ideals of self-perception and mate preferences. The Ideal Standards Model (ISM; Fletcher, Simpson, Thomas & Giles, 1999) was used as a basis for development of the scale. It was further modified by adding a number of items from previous studies. Data were collected from 223 participants, aged 19 to 27 years. The results suggested that a modified five-factor version of the ISM is an appropriate method for evaluation of ideal characteristics. The five factors are warmth/ trustworthiness, status/ resources, intelligence, social skills and physical attractiveness. PMID:25580983

  11. Effect Of Gamma Irradiation On The Mating Activity And Mating Competitiveness Of The Black Cutworm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUFN.) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterility effects were examined on the P1 generation of the black cutworm; Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.), after gamma sterilization. The objective was to identify the dose of gamma radiation that would allow for maximum production of partially sterile P1 adults while inducing full sterility in the F1 generation. Full grown pupae of the black cutworm from laboratory culture were irradiated at 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 Gy. Results indicated that non-significant differences between untreated and treated groups in moth were observed in copula occurred and time of copulation while significant difference was recorded between the treated males and untreated once in spermatophore formation and percentage of females with sperm in their spermatheca at the last two doses. Low percentages of untreated female moths were mated when they were paired with previously mated males than when paired with virgin males. The sequence in which females were mated to an irradiated male did not affect the transfer of spermatophores. The percentage of eggs hatched was higher from the first mated females as compared to the second and third mated females. There were non-significant effects of 0 or 125 Gy exposures on female mating or time in copula. However, significant low percentages of mating of treated and untreated females were occurred with sequentially provided male moths on days 2, 3, to 5 following the first observed female mating. According to the mating competitiveness measured from dthe mating competitiveness measured from direct

  12. Codling moth: field-cage mating competitiveness of radiosterilized males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, L.D. (Agricultural Research Service, Yakima, WA); Koslinska, M.; Suski, Z.W.

    1977-02-15

    Adult males of Laspeyresia pomonella (L.), reared on thinning apples, treated with 30 krad of gamma irradiation, and released in a field cage, mated 42 percent less often than unirradiated controls. Those which were reared on artificial diet and irradiated mated 27 percent less often. During the 3-4 days in the field cage, irradiated and unirradiated males did not differ in mortality or time of mating.

  13. Codling moth: field-cage mating competitiveness of radiosterilized males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult males of Laspeyresia pomonella (L.), reared on thinning apples, treated with 30 krad of gamma irradiation, and released in a field cage, mated 42 percent less often than unirradiated controls. Those which were reared on artificial diet and irradiated mated 27 percent less often. During the 3-4 days in the field cage, irradiated and unirradiated males did not differ in mortality or time of mating

  14. Aesthetic evolution by mate choice: Darwin's really dangerous idea

    OpenAIRE

    Prum, Richard O.

    2012-01-01

    Darwin proposed an explicitly aesthetic theory of sexual selection in which he described mate preferences as a ‘taste for the beautiful’, an ‘aesthetic capacity’, etc. These statements were not merely colourful Victorian mannerisms, but explicit expressions of Darwin's hypothesis that mate preferences can evolve for arbitrarily attractive traits that do not provide any additional benefits to mate choice. In his critique of Darwin, A. R. Wallace proposed an entirely modern mechanism of...

  15. Familiarity adds to attractiveness in matters of siskin mate choice

    OpenAIRE

    Senar, J. C.; Mateos-gonzalez, F.; Uribe, F.; Arroyo, L.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently considerable controversy in evolutionary ecology revolving around whether social familiarity brings attraction when a female chooses a mate. The topic of familiarity is significant because by avoiding or preferring familiar individuals as mates, the potential for local adaptation may be reduced or favoured. The topic becomes even more interesting if we simultaneously analyse preferences for familiarity and sexual ornaments, because when familiarity influences female mating ...

  16. Balancing sexual selection through opposing mate choice and male competition

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, A. J.; Moore, P. J.

    1999-01-01

    Male–male competition and female mate choice act contemporaneously in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea and the social pheromone of males influences the outcome of both forms of sexual selection. We therefore examined the joint and separate effects of male–male competition and female mate choice to determine if the selective optima for the pheromone were the same or different. Dominant males in a newly established hierarchy mated more frequently, but not exclusively. Manipulations of the mu...

  17. Mutual Mate Choice in the Deep Snouted Pipefish Syngnathus typhle

    OpenAIRE

    Widemo, Maria

    2003-01-01

    This thesis integrates the fields of sexual selection, parental investment and sex role theory by investigating mutual mate choice and mate competition in the sex role reversed deep snouted pipefish Syngnathus typhle (Pisces: Syngnathidae) through a series of laboratory experiments. In S. typhle, the female transfers her eggs to the male's brood pouch where they are nourished and oxygenated for about a month, when the male gives birth to the independent fry. Mate choice was found to be adapti...

  18. Female copying increases the variance in male mating success.

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, M. J.; Pruett-jones, S. G.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical models of sexual selection assume that females choose males independently of the actions and choice of other individual females. Variance in male mating success in promiscuous species is thus interpreted as a result of phenotypic differences among males which females perceive and to which they respond. Here we show that, if some females copy the behavior of other females in choosing mates, the variance in male mating success and therefore the opportunity for sexual selection is gr...

  19. Homothallic and heterothallic mating in the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Alby, Kevin; Schaefer, Dana; Bennett, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans, causing both debilitating mucosal infections and potentially life-threatening systemic infections1,2. Until recently, C. albicans was thought to be strictly asexual, existing only as an obligate diploid. A cryptic mating cycle has since been uncovered in which diploid a and ? cells undergo efficient cell and nuclear fusion, resulting in tetraploid a/? mating products (refs. 3–6). Whereas mating between a and ? cells has been ...

  20. Inbreeding avoidance through non-random mating in sticklebacks

    OpenAIRE

    Frommen, Joachim G.; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Negative effects of inbreeding are well documented in a wide range of animal taxa. Hatching success and survival of inbred offspring is reduced in many species and inbred progeny are often less attractive to potential mates. Thus, individuals should avoid mating with close kin. However, experimental evidence for inbreeding avoidance through non-random mating in vertebrates is scarce. Here, we show that gravid female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) when given the choice betw...

  1. Sex allocation predicts mating rate in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    OpenAIRE

    Janicke, Tim; Scha?rer, Lukas

    2009-01-01

    Sexual selection theory for separate-sexed animals predicts that the sexes differ in the benefit they can obtain from multiple mating. Conventional sex roles assume that the relationship between the number of mates and the fitness of an individual is steeper in males compared with females. Under these conditions, males are expected to be more eager to mate, whereas females are expected to be choosier. Here we hypothesize that the sex allocation, i.e. the reproductive investment devoted to the...

  2. Evolution of multiple mating in the genus Apis

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Kellie; Oldroyd, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    Multiple mating by social insect queens is a widespread phenomenon. Because of the apparent inclusive fitness benefits of monandry, and the potential costs of polyandry, explanations for the evolution of multiple mating have been frequently sought. Current leading explanations are collectively known as "genetic variance" hypotheses which posit that both queen and colony fitness are increased by an increase in the intracolonial genetic diversity that accrues from multiple mating. However, the ...

  3. Actin polymerization driven mitochondrial transport in mating S. cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senning, Eric N.; Marcus, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic microenvironment of cells depends on macromolecular architecture, equilibrium fluctuations, and nonequilibrium forces generated by cytoskeletal proteins. We studied the influence of these factors on the motions of mitochondria in mating S. cerevisiae using Fourier imaging correlation spectroscopy (FICS). Our measurements provide detailed length-scale dependent information about the dynamic behavior of mitochondria. We investigate the influence of the actin cytoskeleton on mitochondrial motion and make comparisons between conditions in which actin network assembly and disassembly is varied either by using disruptive pharmacological agents or mutations that alter the rates of actin polymerization. Under physiological conditions, nonequilibrium dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton leads to 1.5-fold enhancement of the long-time mitochondrial diffusion coefficient and a transient subdiffusive temporal scaling of the mean-square displacement (MSD ? ??, with ? = 2/3). We find that nonequilibrium forces associated with actin polymerization are a predominant factor in driving mitochondrial transport. Moreover, our results lend support to an existing model in which these forces are directly coupled to mitochondrial membrane surfaces. PMID:20080741

  4. Mating behavior and sexual selection in a polygamous beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen LU, Qiao WANG, Mingyi TIAN, Jin XU, Jian LV, Aizhi QIN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mating behavior and sexual selection in relation to morphometric traits in a polygamous beetle, Glenea cantor (F. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, were investigated. Upon encounter, a male approached a female, mounted her, grasped her terminal abdomen with his hind tarsi, and attempted to mate. Successful mating lasted about 3.5 h. Although all traits measured in females and half of traits in males were significantly correlated with mating success, the primary selection on virgin females was the genital trait, the bursa copulatrix length, and that on males was the body length and hind tarsal length. Longer bursa copulatrix accommodated a larger ejaculate, suggesting that this female trait benefits the male that first mates with the female in terms of increasing ejaculate size to beat subsequent males in sperm competition. Under a female-biased sex ratio, more than 20% of matings failed within 20s after the male genitalia had been inserted into hers, suggesting that males assess genital features of the female before insemination and undertake cryptic male mate choice. Larger males were more capable of grasping females and achieving mating. During the premating struggle the male almost always used his hind tarsi to lift the female terminal abdomen to the position for his genitalia to insert, and as a result, males with longer hind tarsi achieved higher mating success [Current Zoology 59 (2 : 257-264, 2013].?

  5. Mating success and potential male-worker conflict in a male-dimorphic ant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrouzet Eric

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Males of many species adjust their reproductive tactics with regard to their condition and status. For example, large males may develop weapons and fight for access to females, whereas small or undernourished males do not express costly weapons or ornaments and sneak copulations. Different condition-dependent reproductive tactics may be associated with unequal average fitness, but the tactic chosen by a given male under given circumstances is thought to result in the highest possible fitness return. The ant species Cardiocondyla obscurior exhibits an environment-controlled polymorphism of docile, winged males and aggressive "ergatoid" males. Ergatoid males, which can replenish their sperm supply throughout their lives, engage in lethal fighting, and attempt to monopolize all female sexuals available in their nests, were previously assumed to gain higher lifetime reproductive success than the peaceful, winged males, which disperse to mate away from the nest and whose spermatogenesis is limited to the first days of adult life. However, precise data on male mating success have as yet not been available. Here, we compare the average mating success of the two male morphs, taking the high mortality rate of immature ergatoid males into account. Because individuals in insect societies may have opposing interests about their own development, we also investigate whether the interests of male larvae coincide with those of the workers and the rest of the society. Results When the survival probability of males is taken into account, winged males are more likely to mate multiply and in consequence have a higher estimated average mating success than ergatoid males. Therefore, male larvae are expected to prefer developing into winged instead of ergatoid adults. Conclusion Though male larvae can expect a higher average mating success when developing into winged males, most colonies produce only ergatoid males under standard conditions. This might point at a novel type of potential kin conflict within the social insect colony. Because workers in insect societies usually control male larval development, ergatoid male production under normal conditions probably reflects the optimal allocation strategy of workers to maximise their inclusive fitness.

  6. Mating and re-mating of medflies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Guatemala: Individual fly marking in field cages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) depends critically upon the ability of sterilized, released males to locate and mate with wild females. The overall efficiency of the method also depends upon the relative frequencies of re-mating by wild females following first matings to laboratory or wild males. Using a newly devised technique that individually marks the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), a field cage study was undertaken in a Guatemala coffee orchard to record individual fly mating behaviors between each of several laboratory strain and coffee-reared wild flies. Five laboratory strains were tested- a genetic sexing strain examined in sex ratios between 50%-100% sterile males, two standard bisexual strains, and two Fl hybrid strains. The marking technique revealed a substantial amount of information on individual fly mating and re-mating. Wild male flies significantly out-competed each of the lab strains in the first matings with both wild and lab females. Approx. 22% and 3% of wild males and females, respectively, re-mated in the field cages during two consecutive morning observation periods, while 4-8% of lab males, and 2-8% of lab females re-mated, respectively. Male flies from each lab strain averaged significantly shorter copulation times than wild males. Female flies, either lab or wild, tended to re-mate more often if they first mated to a lab male, but the differences were not statistically significant. An index was devised to providegnificant. An index was devised to provide a measure of relative male mating quality. Wild males tended to have higher individual index values than lab strain males. Average values of the latter ranged from ca. half to roughly equal that of wild males. (author)

  7. On classical and quantum error-correction in ciliate mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2010-07-01

    Ciliated protozoa sensing pheromones secreted from nonself mating types engage in preconjugal "courtship" dances and contacts. Using simulated "social" trials, I recently showed the heterotrich ciliate, Spirostomum ambiguum, can learn to advertise degrees of mating fitness to "suitors" and "rivals" when serially contracting or (ciliary) reversing at variable rates. Conspicuous consumers signal higher quality reproductive status by playing "harder-to-get" via metabolically wasteful avoidance displays that hinder the exchange of preconjugal touches between "courting" couples. Conversely, prudent savers conserve energy pending situations more favorable for conjugating a partner. These ciliates reply with lower avoidance frequencies, guaranteeing nearby conspecifics of being "easier-to-get". By deciding to switch from behavioral strategies signaling conspicuous consumption to those signaling prudent savings, fitter ciliates learn to altruistically sacrifice net payoffs and persuade suitors to participate in paired reproduction. Less fit ciliates, unable to sustain long periods of high response rates, switch their behavioral strategies of prudent savings to briefly emit conspicuous consumption and thus learn to opportunistically cheat superior rivals. Mating competency depends, in part, on the efficiency of heuristics formed from recursive strategy searches and use. Heuristics represent stored patterns of action which evolve into ordered computational networks supporting entire courting repertoires. As ciliates expand signaling skills over many trials, the connectivity between strategies strengthens from Hebbian-like learning, leading to faster decisions about the appropriateness of courting messages and replies. The best experts master signaling decisions at efficiencies comparable to finding target solutions from superposed states with Grover's quantum search algorithm. I here append these findings with a critique on the feasibility of serial behavioral strategies to perfect ciliate mate selection via classical repetition and quantum bit-flip error-correction codes that safeguard transmitted social information from noise and might be exploited for signal encryption. PMID:20798831

  8. Environmental influences on mate preferences as assessed by a scenario manipulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzoli, Daniele; Moretto, Francesco; Monti, Aura; Tocci, Ornella; Roberts, S Craig; Tommasi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Many evolutionary psychology studies have addressed the topic of mate preferences, focusing particularly on gender and cultural differences. However, the extent to which situational and environmental variables might affect mate preferences has been comparatively neglected. We tested 288 participants in order to investigate the perceived relative importance of six traits of an ideal partner (wealth, dominance, intelligence, height, kindness, attractiveness) under four different hypothetical scenarios (status quo/nowadays, violence/post-nuclear, poverty/resource exhaustion, prosperity/global well-being). An equal number of participants (36 women, 36 men) was allotted to each scenario; each was asked to allocate 120 points across the six traits according to their perceived value. Overall, intelligence was the trait to which participants assigned most importance, followed by kindness and attractiveness, and then by wealth, dominance and height. Men appraised attractiveness as more valuable than women. Scenario strongly influenced the relative importance attributed to traits, the main finding being that wealth and dominance were more valued in the poverty and post-nuclear scenarios, respectively, compared to the other scenarios. Scenario manipulation generally had similar effects in both sexes, but women appeared particularly prone to trade off other traits for dominance in the violence scenario, and men particularly prone to trade off other traits for wealth in the poverty scenario. Our results are in line with other correlational studies of situational variables and mate preferences, and represent strong evidence of a causal relationship of environmental factors on specific mate preferences, corroborating the notion of an evolved plasticity to current ecological conditions. A control experiment seems to suggest that our scenarios can be considered as realistic descriptions of the intended ecological conditions. PMID:24069291

  9. Personality and mate preferences: five factors in mate selection and marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwin, M D; Buss, D M; Shackelford, T K

    1997-03-01

    Although personality characteristics figure prominently in what people want in a mate, little is known about precisely which personality characteristics are most important, whether men and women differ in their personality preferences, whether individual women or men differ in what they want, and whether individuals actually get what they want. To explore these issues, two parallel studies were conducted, one using a sample of dating couples (N = 118) and one using a sample of married couples (N = 216). The five-factor model, operationalized in adjectival form, was used to assess personality characteristics via three data sources-self--report, partner report, and independent interviewer reports. Participants evaluated on a parallel 40-item instrument their preferences for the ideal personality characteristics of their mates. Results were consistent across both studies. Women expressed a greater preference than men for a wide array of socially desirable personality traits. Individuals differed in which characteristics they desired, preferring mates who were similar to themselves and actually obtaining mates who embodied what they desired. Finally, the personality characteristics of one's partner significantly predicted marital and sexual dissatisfaction, most notably when the partner was lower on Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Intellect-Openness than desired. PMID:9143146

  10. Mating portfolios: bet-hedging, sexual selection and female multiple mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Yasui, Yukio; Evans, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    Polyandry (female multiple mating) has profound evolutionary and ecological implications. Despite considerable work devoted to understanding why females mate multiply, we currently lack convincing empirical evidence to explain the adaptive value of polyandry. Here, we provide a direct test of the controversial idea that bet-hedging functions as a risk-spreading strategy that yields multi-generational fitness benefits to polyandrous females. Unfortunately, testing this hypothesis is far from trivial, and the empirical comparison of the across-generations fitness payoffs of a polyandrous (bet hedger) versus a monandrous (non-bet hedger) strategy has never been accomplished because of numerous experimental constraints presented by most 'model' species. In this study, we take advantage of the extraordinary tractability and versatility of a marine broadcast spawning invertebrate to overcome these challenges. We are able to simulate multi-generational (geometric mean) fitness among individual females assigned simultaneously to a polyandrous and monandrous mating strategy. Our approaches, which separate and account for the effects of sexual selection and pure bet-hedging scenarios, reveal that bet-hedging, in addition to sexual selection, can enhance evolutionary fitness in multiply mated females. In addition to offering a tractable experimental approach for addressing bet-hedging theory, our study provides key insights into the evolutionary ecology of sexual interactions. PMID:25411448

  11. "Some guys have all the luck": mate preference influences paced-mating behavior in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Jennifer L; Diehl, Abby; Joyce, Elizabeth; Cohn, Jenifer; Lopez, Jose; Guarraci, Fay A

    2007-03-16

    In the present study, mating behavior was observed in female rats that were given the opportunity to mate with two males simultaneously. Three groups of females were tested: 1) sexually naïve, naturally cycling rats in proestrous; 2) sexually naïve, hormone-primed, ovariectomized (OVX) rats; and 3) hormone-primed, OVX rats tested 1 week after sexual receptivity testing. One male rat was determined to be the preferred male for each female, if she spent more time with him during a mating test. Independent of sexual experience, female rats were less likely to leave their preferred male than their non-preferred male following intromissions. However, when they left their preferred male, they returned to him faster than to their non-preferred male. This effect of preference was slightly more robust in the OVX rats. When female rats from Group 2 were tested with the same pair of males for 3 additional tests, each female's preference for a particular male was stable. That is, a female rat preferred the same male in approximately 3 out of the 4 tests, which is more likely than would be expected by chance. In a final experiment, pairs of male rats were tested with different females once weekly to determine if different females would prefer particular males consistently. Although no male rat was preferred by all females, females consistently preferred the same male from each pair during approximately 70% of the tests. In conclusion, female mate preference may have adaptive significance for the reproductive success of rats. PMID:17178134

  12. Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2) (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 14 is being distributed for use in development and testing of automated fingerprint classification and matching systems on a set of images which approximate a natural horizontal distribution of the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) fingerprint classes. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  13. Assortative mating and differential male mating success in an ash hybrid zone population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frascaria-Lacoste Nathalie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure and evolution of hybrid zones depend mainly on the relative importance of dispersal and local adaptation, and on the strength of assortative mating. Here, we study the influence of dispersal, temporal isolation, variability in phenotypic traits and parasite attacks on the male mating success of two parental species and hybrids by real-time pollen flow analysis. We focus on a hybrid zone population between the two closely related ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash and F. angustifolia Vahl (narrow-leaved ash, which is composed of individuals of the two species and several hybrid types. This population is structured by flowering time: the F. excelsior individuals flower later than the F. angustifolia individuals, and the hybrid types flower in-between. Hybrids are scattered throughout the population, suggesting favorable conditions for their local adaptation. We estimate jointly the best-fitting dispersal kernel, the differences in male fecundity due to variation in phenotypic traits and level of parasite attack, and the strength of assortative mating due to differences in flowering phenology. In addition, we assess the effect of accounting for genotyping error on these estimations. Results We detected a very high pollen immigration rate and a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, counter-balanced by slight phenological assortative mating and short-distance pollen dispersal. Early intermediate flowering hybrids, which had the highest male mating success, showed optimal sex allocation and increased selfing rates. We detected asymmetry of gene flow, with early flowering trees participating more as pollen donors than late flowering trees. Conclusion This study provides striking evidence that long-distance gene flow alone is not sufficient to counter-act the effects of assortative mating and selfing. Phenological assortative mating and short-distance dispersal can create temporal and spatial structuring that appears to maintain this hybrid population. The asymmetry of gene flow, with higher fertility and increased selfing, can potentially confer a selective advantage to early flowering hybrids in the zone. In the event of climate change, hybridization may provide a means for F. angustifolia to further extend its range at the expense of F. excelsior.

  14. Regulation of yeast mating-type interconversion: feedback control of HO gene expression by the mating-type locus.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, R.; Sprague, G F; Herskowitz, I

    1983-01-01

    The ultimate product of yeast mating-type interconversion is a stable a/alpha diploid cell. A haploid cell carrying the HO gene gives rise to a diploid cell in a two-step process: first, the cell switches mating type as a result of genetic rearrangement (cassette substitution) catalyzed by HO; then, cells of opposite type mate to form a/alpha diploids. Mating-type interconversion does not occur in a/alpha diploids despite the presence of the HO gene. We have identified a plasmid carrying the ...

  15. Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus courtship and mating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Piñeyrúa Jéssica T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758, is a South American grazing deer categorized as "near threatened". However, knowledge about pampas deer behavior including courtship and mating is scarce and incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize the courtship and mating behavior of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, an endangered species from South America. Methods We performed focal observations of 5 males allocated at the Estación de Cría de Fauna Autóctona Cerro Pan de Azúcar, Uruguay, 4 times a day from 5 to 20 minutes each time on a daily basis from February to May. During that period we recorded all courtship and mating behaviors, as well as quantified the frequency of the specific behaviors shown. As mating were rarely observed, we recorded that behavior when it was observed in the context of other studies performed in the same population during the following 2 years. Results During the observation period we recorded 928 courtships and 5 mating periods. In addition, we recorded 10 more matings performed during other studies, totaling 15. The duration of each mating calculated from the 15 recordings was 3.9?±?0.4 s, and the total period of female receptivity (from first to last mating acceptance was 8.2?±?1.1 min. Main observed courtship behaviors in males were “chase” and “ostentation”, while the most observed close to mating were “chinning”, “raised head” and “anogenital sniffing”. The most observed behaviors in females during the mating period were “vulva exhibition” and “move away”. Conclusion This is the first detailed report in pampas deer mating behavior. Estrus lasted only 8 min accepting only 3 short copulations per estrus. However, female behavior during courtship can be characterized as highly proceptive.

  16. Effect of potassium fertilization on yield and nutrition of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) / Produção e nutrição da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) influenciadas pela adubação potássica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Delmar, Santin; Eliziane Luiza, Benedetti; Nairam Félix de, Barros; Igor Carvalho de, Almeida; Greice Pereira, Leal; Lucas, Fontes; Júlio César Lima, Neves; Ivar, Wendling; Carlos Bruno, Reissmann.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis), espécie arbórea nativa das regiões subtropicais da América do Sul, ocorre no Brasil predominantemente na Região Sul. Apesar da histórica importância da cultura nessa região, até o momento, raros foram os trabalhos realizados sobre sua nutrição no intuito de melhora [...] r a produtividade. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a influência de doses de K e sua disponibilidade no solo, na produtividade e no estado nutricional da erva-mate. O experimento foi conduzido em São Mateus do Sul, PR, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro álico, onde se avaliaram as doses 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 e 320 kg ha-1 de K2O em cultivo com sete anos de idade. A colheita, 24 meses após a instalação do experimento, consistiu na remoção de aproximadamente 95 % da copa, que brotou da colheita anterior. Avaliou-se, no solo, a disponibilidade de K nas profundidades de 0-10, 0-20, 10-20 e 20-40 cm. Na planta, avaliaram-se a massa verde de folhas (FO), galhos finos (GF), galhos grossos (GG) e erva-mate comercial (ECOM), correspondente a FO+GF. Foi, também, avaliada a relação entre massa verde/massa seca (MV/MS) e o teor de K nas FO, GF e GG. A adubação elevou a disponibilidade de K em todas as camadas do solo avaliadas, indicando boa mobilidade do nutriente mesmo em pequenas doses. A erva-mate respondeu positivamente ao aumento das doses de K2O, com incremento da produtividade de todos os componentes colhidos. A cultura evidenciou-se exigente em K, tendo a máxima produção de ECOM de 28,5 t ha-1, quando a disponibilidade do nutriente no solo, na camada de 0-20 cm, era de 72 mg dm-3. A erva-mate em fase de produção requer disponibilidade de K no solo entre o nível médio a alto, e, em solo argiloso e com baixo teor de K disponível, a dose de 300 kg ha-1de K2O deve ser aplicada em intervalo de 24 meses para obtenção de alta produtividade. O teor de K foliar de 16,0 g kg-1 é adequado para a cultura da erva-mate em fase de produção. Abstract in english Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a tree species native to the subtropical regions of South America, and is found in Brazil predominantly in the southern region. Despite the historical importance in this region, so far, studies on crop nutrition to improve yields are scarce. Thus, this study evalu [...] ated the effect of potassium rates on K soil availability, and the yield and nutritional status of yerba mate. The experiment was conducted in São Mateus do Sul, State of Paraná, on a Humox soil, where K2O rates of 0, 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 kg ha-1 were tested on 7-year-old plantations. The experiment was harvested 24 months after installation by removing approximately 95 % of the canopy that had sprouted from the previous harvest. The soil was evaluated for K availability in the layers 0-10, 0-20, 10-20, and 20-40 cm. The plant parts leaf fresh matter (LM), twigs (TW), thick branches (BR) and commercial yerba mate (COYM), i.e., LM+TW, were analyzed. In addition, the relationship between fresh matter/dry matter (FM/DM) and K concentration in LM, AG and BR were evaluated. The fertilization increased K availability in all evaluated soil layers, indicating good mobility of the nutrient even at low rates. Yerba mate responded positively to increasing K2O rates with higher yields of all harvested components. The crop proved K-demanding, with a maximum COYM yield of 28.5 t ha-1, when 72 mg dm-3 K was available in the 0-20 cm layer. Yerba mate in the plant production stage requires soil K availability at medium to high level; in clayey soil with low K availability, a rate of 300 kg ha-1 K2O should be applied at 24 month intervals to obtain high yields. A leaf K concentration of 16.0 g ha-1 is suitable for yerba mate in the growth stage.

  17. Effect of {sup 60}Co radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis); Efeito do processamento por radiacao de {sup 60}Co na erva-mate (llex paraguariensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furgeri, Camilo

    2009-07-01

    The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10 kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10 kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and qualitative profile of bioactive compounds. (author)

  18. Sperm economy between female mating frequency and male ejaculate allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Jun; Kamimura, Yoshitaka

    2015-03-01

    Why females of many species mate multiply is a major question in evolutionary biology. Furthermore, if females accept matings more than once, ejaculates from different males compete for fertilization (sperm competition), which confronts males with the decision of how to allocate their reproductive resources to each mating event. Although most existing models have examined either female mating frequency or male ejaculate allocation while assuming fixed levels of the opposite sex's strategies, these strategies are likely to coevolve. To investigate how the interaction of the two sexes' strategies is influenced by the level of sperm limitation in the population, we developed models in which females adjust their number of allowable matings and males allocate their ejaculate in each mating. Our model predicts that females mate only once or less than once at an even sex ratio or in an extremely female-biased condition, because of female resistance and sperm limitation in the population, respectively. However, in a moderately female-biased condition, males favor partitioning their reproductive budgets across many females, whereas females favor multiple matings to obtain sufficient sperm, which contradicts the predictions of most existing models. We discuss our model's predictions and relationships with the existing models and demonstrate applications for empirical findings. PMID:25674694

  19. Formal Mate Selection Networks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Davor

    1980-01-01

    Mate selection barriers beyond individuals' control are presented as reasons for development of formal mate selection networks. Network processes are described and classified according to the degree of third-party involvement and the degree to which anonymity of participants is protected. (Author)

  20. Sex Inequality, Aging, and Innovation in Preferential Mate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Davor

    1978-01-01

    Shows that older women are likely to seek mates through the less conventional modes of mate selection and that regardless of the mode of selection, women are consistently disadvantaged. This inequality is attributed to persistence of age preferences in favor of men. (Author)

  1. Sequential male mate choice under sperm competition risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ramm, Steven A.; Stockley, Paula

    2014-01-01

    New research shows that male house mice can be coy too. Male eagerness to mate is a central tenet of sexual selection theory, based on the expectation that male reproductive success is limited mainly by access to females. Here, we show that where sperm supplies are limited, males too can display considerable restraint in mating, targeting reproductive effort toward particular females.

  2. Female Campus Values in Mate Selection: A Replication and Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mary Evelyn; And Others

    With the advent of the feminist movement it is probable that attitudes of women regarding mate selection have undergone significant changes in the 1970's. A replication of a study first conducted in 1939 which concentrated on the values and attitudes of females toward mate selection was updated using 935 single college females from 31 different…

  3. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee ( Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen’s visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  4. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen's visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens. PMID:20012931

  5. Mechanical seal having a double-tier mating ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2005-09-13

    An apparatus and method to enhance the overall performance of mechanical seals in one of the following ways: by reducing seal face wear, by reducing the contact surface temperature, or by increasing the life span of mechanical seals. The apparatus is a mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) comprising a rotating ring and a double-tier mating ring. In a preferred embodiment, the double-tier mating ring comprises a first and a second stationary ring that together form an agitation-inducing, guided flow channel to allow for the removal of heat generated at the seal face of the mating ring by channeling a coolant entering the mating ring to a position adjacent to and in close proximity with the interior surface area of the seal face of the mating ring.

  6. ModelMate - A graphical user interface for model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Edward R.

    2011-01-01

    ModelMate is a graphical user interface designed to facilitate use of model-analysis programs with models. This initial version of ModelMate supports one model-analysis program, UCODE_2005, and one model software program, MODFLOW-2005. ModelMate can be used to prepare input files for UCODE_2005, run UCODE_2005, and display analysis results. A link to the GW_Chart graphing program facilitates visual interpretation of results. ModelMate includes capabilities for organizing directories used with the parallel-processing capabilities of UCODE_2005 and for maintaining files in those directories to be identical to a set of files in a master directory. ModelMate can be used on its own or in conjunction with ModelMuse, a graphical user interface for MODFLOW-2005 and PHAST.

  7. Effects of natural mating and CO2 narcosis on biogenic amine receptor gene expression in the ovaries and brain of queen honey bees, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergoz, Vanina; Lim, Julianne; Duncan, Michael; Cabanes, Guénaël; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2012-12-01

    A queen honey bee mates at ?6 days of age, storing the sperm in her spermatheca for life. Mating is associated with profound changes in the behaviour and physiology of the queen but the mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. What is known is that the presence of semen in the oviducts and spermatheca is insufficient to initiate laying, and that copulation or CO(2) narcosis is necessary for ovary activation. In this study we use real-time quantitative PCR to investigate the expression of biogenic amine receptor genes in the brain and ovarian tissue of queens in relation to their reproductive status. We show that dopamine, octopamine and serotonin receptor genes are expressed in the ovaries of queens, and that natural mating, CO(2) narcosis, and the presence of semen in the spermatheca differentially affect their expression. We suggest that these changes may be central to the hormonal cascades that are necessary to initiate oogenesis. PMID:22984778

  8. Degradation of a-factor by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-mating-type-specific endopeptidase: evidence for a role in recovery of cells from G1 arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, S; Xue, C B; Naider, F; Becker, J M

    1991-01-01

    Mating response between opposite mating types of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is dependent upon alpha factor, a tridecapeptide, and a-factor, an isoprenylated, methyl esterified dodecapeptide whose interaction with the alpha target cell has not been characterized. We report on the first biochemical and physiological evidence of an alpha-mating-type-specific a-factor-degrading activity. Radioiodinated a-factor was used to identify the a-factor-degrading activity, which is cell associated, endoproteolytic, and not required for response to pheromone. a-factor degradation was not energy dependent, nor did it require pheromone internalization or interaction with its receptor. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and tosyl-L-arginyl-methyl ester inhibited degradation of a-factor and increased the time required by alpha cells to recover from a-factor-induced growth arrest and morphological alteration, providing evidence that a-factor degradation plays a role in the recovery of alpha cells from the pheromone response. Images PMID:1990265

  9. Análisis microbiológico en yerba mate compuesta / Microbiological analysis in composite yerba mate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G, Jerke; M.A, Horianski; S, Bargardi; M.L, Martínez.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 41 muestras de yerba mate compuesta (YMC) de Posadas, Misiones, Argentina: 21 muestras conteniendo menos de 15% de hierbas (YMC15%). El análisis microbiológico se realizó mediante recuentos de bacterias aeróbicas mesófilas totales (BAMT), coliformes totales (CT), coliformes termotolera [...] ntes (CTT), mohos y levaduras (RML) y detección de Escherichia coli. Los recuentos microbiológicos presentaron valores en promedio para YMC15%: BAMT=3,4x106 UFC/g, CT=6.8x102 NMP/g, CTT=3.4 x101 NMP/g y RML=1,0x105 UFC/g. En YMC>15% se detectó Escherichia coli. YMC presenta una importante contaminación microbiana, siendo mayor en YMC>15%. Los parámetros microbiológicos analizados son superiores a los reportados en yerba mate elaborada destacando la importancia de realizar controles microbiológicos en YMC. Abstract in english Forty one samples of composite yerba mate (CYM) from Posadas, Misiones, Argentina were studied: 21 samples containing less than 15% of herbs (CYM 15%). The analysis was performed by microbiological counts of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), total coliforms (TC), coliforms thermotolerant (CT [...] T), moulds and yeasts (MY) and Escherichia coli detection. Microbiological counts showed average values CYM15%: TMAB=3.4x106 CFU/g, TC=6.8x102 MPN/g, NMP CTT=3.4x101 CFU/g and MY=1.0x105 CFU/g. In YMC>15% Escherichia coli was detected. CYM presents significant microbial contamination, being higher in CYM>15%. Microbiological parameters analyzed are higher than those reported in elaborated yerba mate, showing the importance of microbiological controls to CYM.

  10. Polygyny, mate-guarding, and posthumous fertilization as alternative male mating strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Zamudio, Kelly R.; Sinervo, Barry

    2000-01-01

    Alternative male mating strategies within populations are thought to be evolutionarily stable because different behaviors allow each male type to successfully gain access to females. Although alternative male strategies are widespread among animals, quantitative evidence for the success of discrete male strategies is available for only a few systems. We use nuclear microsatellites to estimate the paternity rates of three male lizard strategies previously modeled as a ...

  11. Desenvolvimento de gelatina funcional de erva-mate Development of functional yerba-mate jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Alves Santos Berté

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver formulações para gelatina funcional com extrato de erva-mate verde e fibras solúveis como inulina (INU, frutooligossacarídeos (FOS e a polidextrose (PD, avaliando o efeito desses ingredientes na gelatina funcional por meio da análise física da textura (firmeza, consistência e coesividade, análise sensorial (sabor e preferência de compra e composição química. As formulações INU, PD e composição INU/PD/FOS apresentaram textura desejável para uma sobremesa de gelatina, não diferindo (P>0,05 do padrão com sacarose. Pela análise sensorial, a gelatina funcional com INU obteve o maior índice hedônico para sabor e preferência de compra acima de 70%, superior ao padrão. Considerando os resultados obtidos neste estudo, a aplicação tecnológica do extrato de erva-mate verde e das fibras solúveis apresenta evidente potencial para o desenvolvimento de alimentos saudáveis e funcionais.The objective of this study was to develop formulations for functional jelly with extract of green yerba-mate and soluble fibers as inulin (INU, fructooligosaccharides (FOS and polidextrose (PD, evaluating the effect of those ingredients in the functional jelly through texture physical analysis (firmness, consistence, cohesiveness, sensorial analysis (flavor and purchase preference and chemical composition. The formulations INU, PD and composition INU/PD/FOS presented desirable texture for jelly dessert and not differing (P>0.05 of the reference standard with sucrose. For the sensorial analysis the functional jelly with INU obtained the largest index hedonic for flavor and purchase preference above 70%, higher than the reference standard. Considering the results obtained in this study, the technological application of green yerba-mate extract and of soluble fibers, presents evident potential for the development of healthy and functional foods.

  12. Desenvolvimento de gelatina funcional de erva-mate Development of functional yerba-mate jelly

    OpenAIRE

    Kleber Alves Santos Berté; Dayane Rosalyn Izidoro; Fabiana Lemos Goularte Dutra; Rosemary Hoffmann-Ribani

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver formulações para gelatina funcional com extrato de erva-mate verde e fibras solúveis como inulina (INU), frutooligossacarídeos (FOS) e a polidextrose (PD), avaliando o efeito desses ingredientes na gelatina funcional por meio da análise física da textura (firmeza, consistência e coesividade), análise sensorial (sabor e preferência de compra) e composição química. As formulações INU, PD e composição INU/PD/FOS apresentaram textura desejá...

  13. Desenvolvimento de gelatina funcional de erva-mate / Development of functional yerba-mate jelly

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kleber Alves Santos, Berté; Dayane Rosalyn, Izidoro; Fabiana Lemos Goularte, Dutra; Rosemary, Hoffmann-Ribani.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver formulações para gelatina funcional com extrato de erva-mate verde e fibras solúveis como inulina (INU), frutooligossacarídeos (FOS) e a polidextrose (PD), avaliando o efeito desses ingredientes na gelatina funcional por meio da análise física da textura (firm [...] eza, consistência e coesividade), análise sensorial (sabor e preferência de compra) e composição química. As formulações INU, PD e composição INU/PD/FOS apresentaram textura desejável para uma sobremesa de gelatina, não diferindo (P>0,05) do padrão com sacarose. Pela análise sensorial, a gelatina funcional com INU obteve o maior índice hedônico para sabor e preferência de compra acima de 70%, superior ao padrão. Considerando os resultados obtidos neste estudo, a aplicação tecnológica do extrato de erva-mate verde e das fibras solúveis apresenta evidente potencial para o desenvolvimento de alimentos saudáveis e funcionais. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to develop formulations for functional jelly with extract of green yerba-mate and soluble fibers as inulin (INU), fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and polidextrose (PD), evaluating the effect of those ingredients in the functional jelly through texture physical analysis ( [...] firmness, consistence, cohesiveness), sensorial analysis (flavor and purchase preference) and chemical composition. The formulations INU, PD and composition INU/PD/FOS presented desirable texture for jelly dessert and not differing (P>0.05) of the reference standard with sucrose. For the sensorial analysis the functional jelly with INU obtained the largest index hedonic for flavor and purchase preference above 70%, higher than the reference standard. Considering the results obtained in this study, the technological application of green yerba-mate extract and of soluble fibers, presents evident potential for the development of healthy and functional foods.

  14. Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A.

    2014-09-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included.

  15. Stochasticity in the yeast mating pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report stochastic simulations of the yeast mating signal transduction pathway. The effects of intrinsic and external noise, the influence of cell-to-cell difference in the pathway capacity, and noise propagation in the pathway have been examined. The stochastic temporal behaviour of the pathway is found to be robust to the influence of inherent fluctuations, and intrinsic noise propagates in the pathway in a uniform pattern when the yeasts are treated with pheromones of different stimulus strengths and of varied fluctuations. In agreement with recent experimental findings, extrinsic noise is found to play a more prominent role than intrinsic noise in the variability of proteins. The occurrence frequency for the reactions in the pathway are also examined and a more compact network is obtained by dropping most of the reactions of least occurrence

  16. Mating Instabilities Lead to Sympatric Speciation

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, C R; Almeida, Catarina R.; Abreu, Fern\\~ao Vistulo de

    2002-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues of evolutionary biology concerns speciation, the emergence of new species from an initial one. The huge amount of species found in nature demands a simple and robust mechanism. Yet, no consensus has been reached concerning a reasonable disruptive selection mechanism that prevents mixing genes among the emerging species, especially when they live in sympatry. Usually it is assumed that females select males according to their displaying traits, but males perform no selection on female traits. However, recent experimental evidence accumulates towards the existence of male choice. Here we propose a robust mechanism for sympatric speciation, based on the assumption that sexual selection operates in two directions: selection of males by females and of females by males. Complex mating instabilities emerge, creating differential fitness depending on the individuals displaying traits and preferences. When a secondary sexual trait is introduced in a population, due to mutations, the a...

  17. Optimal mate choice patterns in pelagic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Eliassen, Sigrun

    2013-01-01

    The importance of sexual selection for the evolution, dynamics and adaptation of organisms is well known for many species. However, the topic is rarely studied in marine plankton, the basis of the marine food web. Copepods show behaviors that suggest the existence of sexually selected traits, and recent laboratory experiments identified some selected morphological traits. Here, we use a ‘life history-based’ model of sex roles to determine the optimal choosiness behavior of male and female copepods for important copepod traits. Copepod females are predicted to be choosy at population densities typically occurring during the main breeding season, whereas males are not. The main drivers of this pattern are population density and the difference in non-receptive periods between males and females. This suggests that male reproductive traits have evolved mainly due to mate competition. The model can easily be parameterized for other planktonic organisms, and be used to plan experiments about sexual selection

  18. Efeito da Densidade de Presas e do Acasalamento na Taxa de Predação de Fêmeas de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) em Condições de Laboratório e Campo / Effect of Prey Density and Mating Status on Predation Rate of Females of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Laboratory and Field Conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOSÉ E.M., OLIVEIRA; JORGE B., TORRES; ALBERTO F., CARRANO-MOREIRA; JOSÉ C., ZANUNCIO.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a taxa de predação de fêmeas virgens ou acasaladas de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) em diferentes densidades de lagartas de Alabama argillacea (Huebner) em condições de laboratório e de campo. Em laboratório, empregaram-se potes plásticos de 500 ml contendo fêmeas do predador, uma folha de [...] algodão e lagartas de A. argillacea (50 ± 10 mg) nas densidades de uma, duas, quatro, oito e 16 lagartas. No campo, algodoeiros na fase de florescimento foram engaiolados, sendo empregadas as mesmas densidades de lagartas que no laboratório. Em ambas as condições, as fêmeas de P. nigrispinus apresentaram ganho de peso e aumento de sua taxa de predação com o aumento da densidade de lagartas de A. argillacea, mas com valores maiores para fêmeas em laboratório. Nas duas condições, o ganho de peso e a taxa de predação foram semelhantes para fêmeas virgens ou acasaladas. No campo, P. nigrispinus explorou 94,7% e 21,2% da área foliar disponível na menor e maior densidade de presas, respectivamente. O tempo de manipulação e a taxa de ataque estimadas foram de 3,37 ± 0,82h e de 0,076 ± 0,013h-1 em laboratório, e de 3,33 ± 0,93h e de 0,017 ± 0,003h-1 em campo. A resposta funcional em laboratório e no campo foi caracterizada como do Tipo II. Os números observados e estimados de lagartas predadas pelo modelo foram significativamente correlacionados com as condições de laboratório (r = 0,78) e de campo (r = 0,70). Abstract in english The predation rate of unmated and mated females of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) was evaluated on different densities of Alabama argillacea (Huebner) caterpillars (50 ± 10 mg), in laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, the predator females were maintained in 500 ml plastic jars with five [...] different densities of prey (one, two, four, eight, and 16). In the field, caterpillars at the same densities were caged on flowering cotton plants. Under both conditions, females gained weight and increased the predation rate when the availability of prey increased, although higher values were obtained for females kept in the laboratory. Weight gain and predation rate did not differ between unmated and mated females under both conditions. In the field, P. nigrispinus searched 94.7% of the available foliar area under low prey density, and 21.2% under high prey density. The estimated handling time and attack rate were, respectively, 3.37 ± 0,82h and 0.076 ± 0.013h-1 in the laboratory, and 3.33 ± 0.93h and 0.017 ± 0.003h-1 in the field. The functional response corresponded to a type II for both conditions. The number of killed caterpillars observed and estimated by the model were highly correlated for both laboratory (r = 0.78) and field (r = 0.70) conditions.

  19. Post-mating clutch piracy in an amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieites, David R; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Barluenga, Marta; Palanca, Antonio; Vences, Miguel; Meyer, Axel

    2004-09-16

    Female multiple mating and alternative mating systems can decrease the opportunity for sexual selection. Sperm competition is often the outcome of females mating with multiple males and has been observed in many animals, and alternative reproductive systems are widespread among species with external fertilization and parental care. Multiple paternity without associated complex behaviour related to mating or parental care is also seen in simultaneously spawning amphibians and fishes that release gametes into water. Here we report 'clutch piracy' in a montane population of the common frog Rana temporaria, a reproductive behaviour previously unknown in vertebrates with external fertilization. Males of this species clasp the females and the pair deposits one spherical clutch of eggs. No parental care is provided. 'Pirate' males search for freshly laid clutches, clasp them as they would do a female and fertilize the eggs that were left unfertilized by the 'parental' male. This behaviour does not seem to be size-dependent, and some males mate with a female and perform clutch piracy in the same season. Piracy affected 84% of the clutches and in some cases increased the proportion of eggs fertilized, providing direct fitness benefits both for the pirate males and the females. Sexual selection--probably caused by a strong male-biased sex ratio--occurs in this population, as indicated by size-assortative mating; however, clutch piracy may reduce its impact. This provides a good model to explore how alternative mating strategies can affect the intensity of sexual selection. PMID:15372032

  20. Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs (Volumes 1-5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs (Volumes 1-5) (PC database for purchase)   The NIST database of mated fingerprint card pairs (Special Database 9) consists of multiple volumes. Currently five volumes have been released. Each volume will be a 3-disk set with each CD-ROM containing 90 mated card pairs of segmented 8-bit gray scale fingerprint images (900 fingerprint image pairs per CD-ROM). A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  1. Size-assortative mating and sexual size dimorphism are predictable from simple mechanics of mate-grasping behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablonski Piotr G

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand the typically complex interactions between diverse counter-balancing factors of Darwinian selection for size assortative mating and sexual size dimorphism. It appears that rarely a simple mechanism could provide a major explanation of these phenomena. Mechanics of behaviors can predict animal morphology, such like adaptations to locomotion in animals from various of taxa, but its potential to predict size-assortative mating and its evolutionary consequences has been less explored. Mate-grasping by males, using specialized adaptive morphologies of their forelegs, midlegs or even antennae wrapped around female body at specific locations, is a general mating strategy of many animals, but the contribution of the mechanics of this wide-spread behavior to the evolution of mating behavior and sexual size dimorphism has been largely ignored. Results Here, we explore the consequences of a simple, and previously ignored, fact that in a grasping posture the position of the male's grasping appendages relative to the female's body is often a function of body size difference between the sexes. Using an approach taken from robot mechanics we model coercive grasping of females by water strider Gerris gracilicornis males during mating initiation struggles. We determine that the male optimal size (relative to the female size, which gives the males the highest grasping force, properly predicts the experimentally measured highest mating success. Through field sampling and simulation modeling of a natural population we determine that the simple mechanical model, which ignores most of the other hypothetical counter-balancing selection pressures on body size, is sufficient to account for size-assortative mating pattern as well as species-specific sexual dimorphism in body size of G. gracilicornis. Conclusion The results indicate how a simple and previously overlooked physical mechanism common in many taxa is sufficient to account for, or importantly contribute to, size-assortative mating and its consequences for the evolution of sexual size dimorphism.

  2. Alterações agudas dos níveis de neurotransmissores em corpo estriado de ratos jovens após estado epiléptico induzido por pilocarpina / Acute alterations of neurotransmitters levels in striatum of young rat after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rivelilson Mendes de, Freitas; Francisca Cléa Florenço de, Sousa; Silvânia Maria Mendes, Vasconcelos; Glauce Socorro Barros, Viana; Marta Maria de França, Fonteles.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Altas doses de agonista colinérgico muscarínico, pilocarpina, produzem alterações comportamentais, convulsões e estado epiléptico em ratos. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar as alterações nas concentrações dos neurotransmissores em corpo estriado de ratos em desenvolvimento após estado epiléptic [...] o induzido pela pilocarpina. Ratas Wistar foram tratadas com uma única dose de pilocarpina (400mg/Kg; s.c.). Controles receberam salina. A concentração dos neurotransmissores foi determinada através do HPLC, no corpo estriado de ratos que no período de observação de 1 e 24h desencadearam estado epiléptico e não sobreviveram à fase aguda do quadro convulsivo. Foi observada redução nos níveis de dopamina, serotonina, ácido dihidroxifenilacético, ácido 5-hidroxiindolacético, e aumento no ácido 4-hidroxi-3-metoxi-fenilacético. Os resultados mostraram que a ativação do sistema colinérgico pode interagir com os sistemas dopaminérgico e serotonérgico nos mecanismos referentes à fase aguda do processo convulsivo. Abstract in english High doses of the muscarinic cholinergic agonist, pilocarpine, result in behavioural changes, seizures and status epilepticus in rats. The purpose of the present work is to invetigate the striatal neurotransmissors level in young rats after status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine. Wistar rats were [...] treated with a single dose of pilocarpine (400mg/Kg; s.c.). Controls received saline. Young animals were closed observed for behavioural changes during 1 and 24h. In these periods, the animals that developed status epilepticus and didn't survive this acute phase of seizures had the brains removed and striatal neurotransmissors level determined by HPLC. The concentration of dopamine, serotonine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid was reduced and an increase in 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenylacetic acid was observed. These results suggest that cholinergic activation can interage with dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in acute phase of the convulsive process in immature striatum.

  3. Accumulated Expression Level of Cytosolic Glutamine Synthetase 1 Gene (OsGS1;1 or OsGS1;2) Alter Plant Development and the Carbon-Nitrogen Metabolic Status in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Aili; Zhao, Zhuqing; Ding, Guangda; Shi, Lei; Xu, Fangsen; Cai, Hongmei

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining an appropriate balance of carbon to nitrogen metabolism is essential for rice growth and yield. Glutamine synthetase is a key enzyme for ammonium assimilation. In this study, we systematically analyzed the growth phenotype, carbon-nitrogen metabolic status and gene expression profiles in GS1;1-, GS1;2-overexpressing rice and wildtype plants. Our results revealed that the GS1;1-, GS1;2-overexpressing plants exhibited a poor plant growth phenotype and yield and decreased carbon/nitr...

  4. Same-sex gaze attraction influences mate-choice copying in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Platt, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Mate-choice copying occurs when animals rely on the mating choices of others to inform their own mating decisions. The proximate mechanisms underlying mate-choice copying remain unknown. To address this question, we tracked the gaze of men and women as they viewed a series of photographs in which a potential mate was pictured beside an opposite-sex partner; the participants then indicated their willingness to engage in a long-term relationship with each potential mate. We found that both men and women expressed more interest in engaging in a relationship with a potential mate if that mate was paired with an attractive partner. Men and women's attention to partners varied with partner attractiveness and this gaze attraction influenced their subsequent mate choices. These results highlight the prevalence of non-independent mate choice in humans and implicate social attention and reward circuitry in these decisions. PMID:20161739

  5. More than just a pretty face and a hot body: multiple cues in mate-choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonason, Peter K; Raulston, Tara; Rotolo, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Mate preferences have been well studied in social and evolutionary psychology. In two studies (N = 490), using two different measurement techniques, we examined mate preferences for the body and the face in the context of other traits. Results replicated prior research on mate preferences across the sex of the participant and mating duration but clarified the nature of preferences for physical attractiveness. Generally, physical attractiveness was a necessity in short-term mating and for men and traits like kindness were a necessity in long-term mating and for women. Men wanted a short-term mate who had a good body, likely because that body advertises fertility whereas both sexes wanted a mate with a nice face for a long-term mate, which is likely because the face is a cue based on structural properties related to health. Sex and mating-duration differences on preferences for attractive faces and bodies were robust to differences in measurement technique. PMID:22468419

  6. Virgin ant queens mate with their own sons to avoid failure at colony foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christine Vanessa; Frohschammer, Sabine; Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Mother-son mating (oedipal mating) is practically non-existent in social Hymenoptera, as queens typically avoid inbreeding, mate only early in life and do not mate again after having begun to lay eggs. In the ant genus Cardiocondyla mating occurs among sib in the natal nests. Sex ratios are extremely female-biased and young queens face the risk of remaining without mating partners. Here, we show that virgin queens of Cardiocondyla argyrotricha produce sons from their own unfertilized eggs and later mate with them to produce female offspring from fertilized eggs. Oedipal mating may allow C. argyrotricha queens to found new colonies when no mating partners are available and thus maintains their unusual life history combining monogyny, mating in the nest, and low male production. Our result indicates that a trait that sporadically occurs in solitary haplodiploid animals may evolve also in social Hymenoptera under appropriate ecological and social conditions.

  7. Sexual selection and physical attractiveness : Implications for mating dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangestad, S W

    1993-09-01

    Sexual selection processes have received much attention in recent years, attention reflected in interest in human mate preferences. Among these mate preferences are preferences for physical attractiveness. Preferences in and of themselves, however, do not fully explain the nature of the relationships that individuals attain. A tacit negotiation process underlies relationship formation and maintenance. The notion that preferences for physical attractiveness evolved under parasite-driven "good genes" sexual selection leads to predictions about the nature of trade-offs that individuals make between mates' physical attractiveness and investment potential. These predictions and relevant data are explored, with a primary emphasis on women's preferences for men's qualities. In addition, further implications of trade-offs are examined, most notably (a) the impact of environmental variations on the nature of mating and (b) some effects of trade-offs on infidelity and male attempts to control women. PMID:24214365

  8. Educational assortative mating and income inequality in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Richard; Andersen, Signe Hald

    2012-08-01

    Many writers have expressed a concern that growing educational assortative mating will lead to greater inequality between households in their earnings or income. In this article, we examine the relationship between educational assortative mating and income inequality in Denmark between 1987 and 2006. Denmark is widely known for its low level of income inequality, but the Danish case provides a good test of the relationship between educational assortative mating and inequality because although income inequality increased over the period we consider, educational homogamy declined. Using register data on the exact incomes of the whole population, we find that change in assortative mating increased income inequality but that these changes were driven by changes in the educational distributions of men and women rather than in the propensity for people to choose a partner with a given level of education. PMID:22639010

  9. Mate Selection and Marriage: A Psychodynamic Family-Oriented Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Hendrika Vande

    1985-01-01

    A seminar for training psychologists and related professionals in the area of premarital education, via counseling testing, is described. Focus is specifically on mate selection factors operating at the unconscious level. (Author/RM)

  10. Parent-Offspring Conflict over Short-Term Mating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyroulla Georgiou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals engage in short-term mating strategies that enable them to obtain fitness benefits from casual relationships. These benefits, however, count for less and cost more to their parents. On this basis three hypotheses are tested. First, parents and offspring are likely to disagree over short-term mating strategies, with the former considering these as less acceptable than the latter. Second, parents are more likely to disapprove of the short-term mating strategies of their daughters than of their sons. Finally, mothers and fathers are expected to agree on how much they disagree over the short-term mating strategies of their children. Evidence from a sample of 148 Greek-Cypriot families (140 mothers, 105 fathers, 119 daughters, 77 sons provides support for the first two hypotheses and partial support for the third hypothesis. The implications of these findings for understanding family dynamics are further discussed.

  11. Signal transduction during mating and meiosis in S. pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Nielsen, Olaf

    1993-01-01

    When starved, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe responds by producing mating factors or pheromones that signal to cells of the opposite sex to initiate mating. Like its distant relative Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells of the two mating types of S. pombe each produce a distinct pheromone that binds to receptors on the opposite cell type to induce the morphological changes required for mating. While the pathways are basically very similar in the two yeasts, pheromone signalling in S. pombe differs in several important ways from that of the more familiar budding yeast. In this article, Olaf Nielsen describes the pheromones and their effects in S. pombe, and compares the signalling pathways of the two yeasts.

  12. Mate choice and genetic monogamy in a biparental, colonial fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Wouter F.D.; Wagner, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    In socially monogamous species, in which both sexes provide essential parental care, males as well as females are expected to be choosy. Whereas hundreds of studies have examined monogamy in biparental birds, only several such studies exist in fish. We examined mate choice in the biparental, colonial cichlid fish Neolamprologus caudopunctatus in Lake Tanganyika, Zambia. We genotyped more than 350 individuals at 11 microsatellite loci to investigate their mating system. We found no extrapair paternity, identifying this biparental fish as genetically monogamous. Breeders paired randomly according to their genetic similarity, suggesting a lack of selection against inbreeding avoidance. We further found that breeders paired assortatively by body size, a criterion of quality in fish, suggesting mutual mate choice. In a subsequent mate preference test in an aquarium setup, females showed a strong preference for male size by laying eggs near the larger of 2 males in 13 of 14 trials. PMID:26023276

  13. Turbidity alters pre-mating social interactions between native and invasive stream fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotzbecker, Gregory J.; Ward, Jessica L.; Walters, David M.; Blum, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental degradation can result in the loss of aquatic biodiversity if impairment promotes hybridisation between non-native and native species. Although aquatic biological invasions involving hybridisation have been attributed to elevated water turbidity, the extent to which impaired clarity influences reproductive isolation among non-native and native species is poorly understood.

  14. Concordant female mate preferences in the cichlid fish Tropheus moorii

    OpenAIRE

    Steinwender, Bernd; Koblmu?ller, Stephan; Sefc, Kristina M.

    2012-01-01

    Discriminating female mate preferences enhance the variance in reproductive success among males of a population and create a potential for sexual selection, which can account for trait evolution and diversification. Fish color patterns are among the prime targets of mate choice-driven sexual selection. Populations of the cichlid Tropheus from Lake Tanganyika display remarkable geographic color pattern variation, but the role of female choice in their rapid and rich phenotypic diversification ...

  15. Optimization of a crossing system using mate selection

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yongjun; Werf Julius; Kinghorn Brian P

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A simple model based on one single identified quantitative trait locus (QTL) in a two-way crossing system was used to demonstrate the power of mate selection algorithms as a natural means of opportunistic line development for optimization of crossbreeding programs over multiple generations. Mate selection automatically invokes divergent selection in two parental lines for an over-dominant QTL and increased frequency of the favorable allele toward fixation in the sire-line for a fully...

  16. MHC-mediated mate choice increases parasite resistance in salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Consuegra, Sofia; Garcia Leaniz, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Natural (parasite-driven) and sexual selection are thought to maintain high polymorphism in the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), but support for a link between mate choice, MHC variation and increased parasite resistance is circumstantial. We compared MHC diversity and Anisakis loads among anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) returning to four rivers to spawn, which had originated from natural spawning (parents allowed to mate freely) or artificial crosses (parents ...

  17. The biological meaning of preferences on the human mate market

    OpenAIRE

    Paw?owski, Bogus?aw

    2000-01-01

    Factors, which universally influence mate choice decisions, are: age, physical appearance, and resources. Different evidence of the biological relevance of these three factors on the human mate market is presented. The sex-specific preferences for partner's age reflect such values as Fisherian reproductive potential and fecundity for females and life expectancy related to the length of further time of paternal investment for males. Physical attractiveness is analyzed as a marker of female's a...

  18. Personality May Confound Common Measures of Mate-Choice

    OpenAIRE

    David, Morgan; Ce?zilly, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of female mating preferences is central to the study of the evolution of male ornaments. Although several different methods have been developed to assess sexual preference in some standardized way, the most commonly used procedure consists of recording female spatial association with different males presented simultaneously. Sexual preference is then inferred from time spent in front of each male. However, the extent to which the measurement of female mate-choice is related to...

  19. MATING DESIGNS: HELPFUL TOOL FOR QUANTITATIVE PLANT BREEDING ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanase Nduwumuremyi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of parental materials and good mating designs in conventional plant breeding are the keys to the successful plant breeding programme. However, there are several factors affecting the choices of mating designs. Mating design refers to the procedure of producing the progenies, in plant breeding, plant breeders and geneticists, theoretically and practically, they use different form of mating designs and arrangements for targeted purpose. The choice of a mating design for estimating genetic variances should be dictated by the objectives of the study, time, space, cost and other biological limitations. In all mating designs, the individuals are taken randomly and crossed to produce progenies which are related to each other as half-sibs or full-sibs. A form of multivariate analysis or the analysis of variance can be adopted to estimate the components of variances. Therefore, this review aimed at highlighting the most used mating design in plant breeding and genetics studies. It provides easy and quick insight of the different form of mating designs and some statistical components for successful plant breeding. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  20. PlateMate: Crowdsourcing Nutrition Analysis from Food Photographs

    OpenAIRE

    Noronha, Jon; Hysen, Eric; Zhang, Haoqi; Gajos, Krzysztof Z.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce PlateMate, a system that allows users to take photos of their meals and receive estimates of food intake and composition. Accurate awareness of this information can help people monitor their progress towards dieting goals, but current methods for food logging via self-reporting, expert observation, or algorithmic analysis are time-consuming, expensive, or inaccurate. PlateMate crowdsources nutritional analysis from photographs using Amazon Mechanical Turk, automatically coordinat...

  1. Misleading mollies: The effect of an audience on the expression of mating preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Plath, Martin; Schlupp, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    An increasing body of literature considers the question of how mate choice is influenced by the social environment of the choosing individual (non-independent mate choice). For example, individuals may copy the mate choice of others. A very simple form of socially influenced mate choice, however, remained comparatively little investigated: choosing individuals may adjust their mate choice to the mere presence of rivals. Recent studies in our groups1–4 have examined this question. Using live...

  2. Effects of Water Quality on Dissolution of Yerba Mate Extract Powders

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Ying Huang; Pei-Chi Lee; Jaw-Cherng Hsu; Yu-Ru Lin; Hui-Ju Chen; Yung-Sheng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Yerba mate tea is known as one of the most popular nonalcoholic beverages favoured by South Americans due to its nutrition facts and medicinal properties. The processing of yerba mate tea is found to affect the properties of its final forms. This study presents an investigation into the effects of water sources on the dissolution of yerba mate extract powders. Comparisons were conducted between yerba mate teas prepared by dissolving yerba mate extract powders into tap water and deionized wate...

  3. Mate preferences and infectious disease: theoretical considerations and evidence in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Tybur, Joshua M.; Gangestad, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    Mate preferences may operate in part to mitigate the threats posed by infectious disease. In this paper, we outline various ways in which preferring healthy mates can offer direct benefits in terms of pathogen avoidance and indirect benefits in terms of heritable immunity to offspring, as well as the costs that may constrain mate preferences for health. We then pay special attention to empirical work on mate preferences in humans given the depth and breadth of research on human mating. We rev...

  4. Dynamic mate-searching tactic allows female satin bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus violaceus to reduce searching.

    OpenAIRE

    Uy, J. A.; Patricelli, G. L.; Borgia, G.

    2000-01-01

    Females can maximize the benefits of mate choice by finding high-quality mates while using search tactics that limit the costs of searching for mates. Mate-searching models indicate that specific search tactics would best optimize this trade-off under different conditions. These models do not, however, consider that females may use information from previous years to improve mate searching and reduce search costs in subsequent years. We followed female satin bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus violaceu...

  5. Optimization of selection contribution and mate allocations in monoecious tree breeding populations

    OpenAIRE

    Waldmann Patrik; Hallander Jon

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The combination of optimized contribution dynamic selection and various mating schemes was investigated over seven generations for a typical tree breeding scenario. The allocation of mates was optimized using a simulated annealing algorithm for various object functions including random mating (RM), positive assortative mating (PAM) and minimization of pair-wise coancestry between mates (MCM) all combined with minimization of variance in family size and coancestry. The pres...

  6. Large Numbers of Matings Give Female Field Crickets a Direct Benefit but not a Genetic Benefit

    OpenAIRE

    Gershman, Susan N.

    2009-01-01

    Female crickets can potentially gain both direct and indirect benefits from mating multiple times with different males. Most studies have only examined the effects of small numbers of matings, although female crickets are capable of mating many times. The goal of this paper is to examine the direct and indirect benefits of mating large numbers of times for female reproductive success. In a previous experiment, female Gryllus vocalis were found to gain diminishing direct benefits from mating l...

  7. Male Mating Signaling in Social Dilemma Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm

    2013-01-01

    According to sexual selection theory and costly signaling theory, men benefit from signaling costly mate qualities to attractive women. To date, several studies have investigated whether men use conspicuous altruism to attract women, but the findings are mixed. This study investigated whether men being observed by an attractive woman engage in competitive economic altruism in three social dilemma games—the Dictator Game, Trust Game (2nd mover), and Public Goods Game—in comparison to men being observed by a non-attractive woman. Results showed that altruistic contributions in the games were not significantly larger in the attractive observer group than in the non-attractive observer group. Exploratory analyses did reveal, however, that amongst participants with an attractive observer only, dispositional generosity had a strongly positive effect on altruism while dispositional dominance had a negative effect on altruism. Moderating effects of key individual differences suggest that the mixed findings within theempirical literature may be attributed to the existence of multiple male courtship signaling strategies. As such, the findings suggest a promising way for future studies to identify different signaling strategies, but until the findings can be replicated with specific hypothesis-driven studies they should be considered with caution.

  8. Gore Selects Senator Lieberman As Running Mate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, David D.

    Yesterday, Democratic Presidential candidate Al Gore announced his selection of Connecticut Senator Joseph Lieberman as his running mate. The choice is widely seen as an attempt to separate Gore from the President's ethical controversies and to appeal to independent and Republican voters. Lieberman, the first orthodox Jew to be named to a major party's presidential ticket, was also the first Democrat to publicly criticize Clinton for his conduct in the Lewinsky affair and is known for his traditional stands on moral issues. Politically, Lieberman tends to be a centrist, even taking some typically Republican positions, such as his support of school vouchers and the privatization of Social Security. However, Republicans have already sought to paint him as a tax-loving liberal with deep ties to big business interests in health insurance and pharmaceuticals. While the choice clearly represents Gore's desire to position himself away from Clinton and in the center, some Democrats have worried that the moderate Lieberman will do little to appeal to the base of the Democratic party, namely labor, minorities, the left, and women. Unlike Bush, Gore has not yet solidified his support among these traditional Democratic constituencies. Some have also wondered aloud if Lieberman's religious affiliation will have an impact on the political race.

  9. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Oliver M; Wagner, William E

    2013-04-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  10. Effect of the Sterilizing dose of Gamma Irradiation on Mating Performance and Female re-mating of Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population suppression success of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) using sterile insect technique (SIT) depends mainly upon the ability of sterilized males to locate and mate with wild females. The efficiency of the SIT also depends upon the relative frequencies of re-mating by wild females following first mating with sterilized or wild males. A semi field cage test was conducted to study the effect of three different sterilizing doses of gamma irradiation on the male mating performance. No significant differences were found in the ability of mating, the mating duration and mating site between the un-irradiated males and irradiated ones with the doses (80, 90 and 100 Gy) The irradiated males with the dose 80 Gy revealed mating ability higher than the irradiated males with the other doses (90 and 100 Gy) although un-irradiated males had a general higher ability than irradiated ones.

  11. Male rock sparrows adjust their breeding strategy according to female ornamentation: parental or mating investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilastro, Andrea; Griggio, Matteo

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relations between female quality and ornamentation and between male breeding investment and female ornamentation in the rock sparrow, Petronia petronia, a passerine in which both sexes have a yellow breast patch. Breast patch size in females was positively correlated with body mass and breeding status; double-brooding and primary females of polygynous males had a larger patch, and patch size could therefore be an indicator of female phenotypic quality. We conducted a field experiment to test whether males allocate their parental effort in relation to female quality, as predicted by the differential allocation hypothesis. We increased and reduced the ornament sizes of paired females and compared the behaviour of their males before and after manipulation. Frequency of brood feeding by the male was not affected by female ornament manipulation; there was a nonsignificant trend for females with enlarged ornaments, contrary to predictions, to increase their feeding rate. Reducing female ornaments resulted in a decrease in male nest attendance, a measure of passive brood defence, whereas enlarging the ornament had no effect. Males concurrently reduced their territorial (song output) and sexual activity (courtship and copulation). The reduction in sexual activity suggests that males may have changed their nest attendance in response to their mate's renesting probability. Whatever the interpretation, these results provide some of the first evidence that not only female, but also male, birds change breeding strategy according to their mate's phenotype in the wild.

  12. Role of organic cation transporter OCT2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins MATE1 and MATE2-K for transport and drug interactions of the antiviral lamivudine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Fabian; König, Jörg; Hoier, Eva; Mandery, Kathrin; Fromm, Martin F

    2013-09-15

    The antiviral lamivudine is cleared predominantly by the kidney with a relevant contribution of renal tubular secretion. It is not clear which drug transporters mediate lamivudine renal secretion. Our aim was to investigate lamivudine as substrate of the renal drug transporters organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins MATE1 and MATE2-K. Uptake experiments were performed in OCT2, MATE1, or MATE2-K single-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK) cells. Transcellular transport experiments were performed in OCT2 and/or MATE1 single- or double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCK) cells grown on transwell filters. Lamivudine uptake was significantly increased in HEK-OCT2, HEK-MATE1, and HEK-MATE2-K cells compared to control cells. In transcellular experiments, OCT2 located in the basolateral membrane had no effect on transcellular lamivudine transport. MATE1 located in the apical membrane decreased intracellular concentrations and increased transcellular transport of lamivudine from the basal to the apical compartment. MATE1- or MATE2-K-mediated transport was increased by an oppositely directed pH gradient. Several simultaneously administered drugs inhibited OCT2- or MATE2-K-mediated lamivudine uptake. The strongest inhibitors were carvedilol for OCT2 and trimethoprim for MATE2-K (inhibition by 96.3 and 83.7% at 15 ?M, respectively, p<0.001). Trimethoprim inhibited OCT2- and MATE2-K-mediated lamivudine uptake with IC?? values of 13.2 and 0.66 ?M, respectively. Transcellular lamivudine transport in OCT2-MATE1 double-transfected cells was inhibited by trimethoprim with an IC?? value of 6.9 ?M. Lamivudine is a substrate of renal drug transporters OCT2, MATE1, and MATE2-K. Concomitant administration of drugs that inhibit these transporters could decrease renal clearance of lamivudine. PMID:23876341

  13. Weighing costs and benefits of mating in bushcrickets (Insecta: Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae), with an emphasis on nuptial gifts, protandry and mate density

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann Gerlind U C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Sexual selection is a major force driving evolution and is intertwined with ecological factors. Differential allocation of limited resources has a central role in the cost of reproduction. In this paper, I review the costs and benefits of mating in tettigoniids, focussing on nuptial gifts, their trade-off with male calling songs, protandry and how mate density influences mate choice. Tettigoniids have been widely used as model systems for studies of mating costs and benefits; they ca...

  14. Plasticity of the mate choice mind: courtship evokes choice-like brain responses in females from a coercive mating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S M T; Ramsey, M E; Cummings, M E

    2014-04-01

    Female mate choice is fundamental to sexual selection, and determining molecular underpinnings of female preference variation is important for understanding mating character evolution. Previously it was shown that whole-brain expression of a synaptic plasticity marker, neuroserpin, positively correlates with mating bias in the female choice poeciliid, Xiphophorus nigrensis, when exposed to conspecific courting males, whereas this relationship is reversed in Gambusia affinis, a mate coercive poeciliid with no courting males. Here we explore whether species-level differences in female behavioral and brain molecular responses represent 'canalized' or 'plastic' traits. We expose female G. affinis to conspecific males and females, as well as coercive and courting male Poecilia latipinna, for preference assays followed by whole-brain gene expression analyses of neuroserpin, egr-1 and early B. We find positive correlations between gene expression and female preference strength during exposure to courting heterospecific males, but a reversed pattern following exposure to coercive heterospecific males. This suggests that the neuromolecular processes associated with female preference behavior are plastic and responsive to different male phenotypes (courting or coercive) rather than a canalized response linked to mating system. Further, we propose that female behavioral plasticity may involve learning because female association patterns shifted with experience. Compared to younger females, we found larger, more experienced females spend less time near coercive males but associate more with males in the presence of courters. We thus suggest a conserved learning-based neuromolecular process underlying the diversity of female mate preference across the mate choice and coercion-driven mating systems. PMID:24548673

  15. Cancer and yerba mate consumption: a review of possible associations Cáncer y consumo de yerba mate: revisión de posibles asociaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Dora Loria; Enrique Barrios; Roberto Zanetti

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify any possible link between mate consumption and cancer, mainly of the esophagus, larynx, and oral cavity. METHODS: A review of literature, published through August 2008, pertaining to the carcinogenic risk of mate consumption was undertaken by searching the two databases, MEDLINE and TOXLINE, for relevant articles. The bibliographies of the articles were examined for additional relevant sources. In addition, a search on the name of each author having published on the top...

  16. Female mating preferences and offspring survival: testing hypotheses on the genetic basis of mate choice in a wild lekking bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardell, Rebecca J; Kempenaers, Bart; Duval, Emily H

    2014-02-01

    Indirect benefits of mate choice result from increased offspring genetic quality and may be important drivers of female behaviour. 'Good-genes-for-viability' models predict that females prefer mates of high additive genetic value, such that offspring survival should correlate with male attractiveness. Mate choice may also vary with genetic diversity (e.g. heterozygosity) or compatibility (e.g. relatedness), where the female's genotype influences choice. The relative importance of these nonexclusive hypotheses remains unclear. Leks offer an excellent opportunity to test their predictions, because lekking males provide no material benefits and choice is relatively unconstrained by social limitations. Using 12 years of data on lekking lance-tailed manakins, Chiroxiphia lanceolata, we tested whether offspring survival correlated with patterns of mate choice. Offspring recruitment weakly increased with father attractiveness (measured as reproductive success, RS), suggesting attractive males provide, if anything, only minor benefits via offspring viability. Both male RS and offspring survival until fledging increased with male heterozygosity. However, despite parent-offspring correlation in heterozygosity, offspring survival was unrelated to its own or maternal heterozygosity or to parental relatedness, suggesting survival was not enhanced by heterozygosity per se. Instead, offspring survival benefits may reflect inheritance of specific alleles or nongenetic effects. Although inbreeding depression in male RS should select for inbreeding avoidance, mates were not less related than expected under random mating. Although mate heterozygosity and relatedness were correlated, selection on mate choice for heterozygosity appeared stronger than that for relatedness and may be the primary mechanism maintaining genetic variation in this system despite directional sexual selection. PMID:24383885

  17. The effect of novel promoter variants in MATE1 and MATE2 on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metformin

    OpenAIRE

    Stocker, Sophie L; Morrissey, Kari M.; Yee, Sook Wah; Castro, Richard A.; XU, LU; Dahlin, Amber; Ramirez, Andrea H; RODEN, DAN M.; Wilke, Russ A.; McCarty, Cathy A.; Robert L. Davis; Brett, Claire M.; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Interindividual variation in response to metformin, first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes, is substantial. Given that transporters are determinants of metformin pharmacokinetics, we examined the effects of promoter variants in both multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1) (g.?66T?C, rs2252281) and MATE2 (g.?130G?A, rs12943590) on variation in metformin disposition and response. The pharmacokinetics and glucose-lowering effects of metformin were assessed in healthy volunteers (...

  18. Effect of multiple mating on reproduction and longevity of the phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus californicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Tetsuo; Tsuchiya, Akiko

    2008-03-01

    Females of some insects and mites that mate repeatedly (multiple-mated females) or that have limited food supply have a shortened life span, compared to females that are allowed to mate only once (single-mated females) or that have ample food. The present study focused on the relationship between mating frequency and various reproduction-related parameters in a commercial strain (Spical) of the phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). The impetus for this study came from the previous finding that single-mated females displayed an extremely long postoviposition period (ca. 60 days), accounting for more than 75% of the total adult longevity. In the present study it was found that the postoviposition period in the multiple-mated females was shorter than in the single-mated females and that longevity was gradually shortened with increasing mating frequency. Total egg production in females that mated twice or more was higher than in single-mated females, but egg production did not increase further with more than two matings. Single- and multiple-mated females ceased oviposition on the 24th and 34th day of adult life, respectively; multiple-mated females produced only male progeny on and after the 30th day. The postoviposition period of multiple-mated females was 40% shorter than that of single-mated females. Yet, the postoviposition period of the multiple-mated females is still more than 30 days, suggesting that other factors besides mating frequency have an influence on the prolonged postoviposition period. The reproductive ability of the Spical strain females gradually decreased with increasing virgin period (i.e. with increasing age), but they did not lose their reproductive potential--not even when mating was delayed for more than 2 months (i.e. females remained virgin for 70 days). PMID:18379888

  19. Human mate selection under competitive pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Hope, David

    2006-01-01

    Stable, cross-cultural, gender-based preferences in relationship choices have been identified by evolutionary psychologists (Buss 1987, Symons and Ellis 1989). This study furthered such research by collecting data from 20 participants (10 male, 10 female) using a mixed design. Participants completed three questionnaires on sexual orientation and relationship status, their attitudes towards aspects of relationships, and a trait-rating scale (a replication of Buss 1989). Participants then answe...

  20. A challenging case for protein crystal structure determination: the mating pheromone Er-1 from Euplotes raikovi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D H; Weiss, M S; Eisenberg, D

    1996-05-01

    Four different phasing methods have been applied to the determination of the crystal structure of the 40 amino-acid mating pheromone of the unicellular ciliated protozoan Euplotes raikovi. The difficulties, failures and successes in attempts to solve the structure by: (1) molecular replacement, (2) direct phasing using the 'Shake and Bake' algorithm, (3) isomorphous replacement, and (4) multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion are described. The structure was first solved by molecular replacement, and then was the first successful structure determination by 'Shake and Bake' without the direct involvement of its authors. A description of the current status of the high-resolution refinement of the structure is also given. The model is refined against 1 A resolution data to an R factor of 12.9%, and includes H atoms and discretely disordered side chains. PMID:15299668

  1. Actin Polymerization Driven Mitochondrial Transport in Mating S. cerevisiae by Fourier Imaging Correlation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senning, Eric; Marcus, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    The dynamic microenvironment of cells depends on macromolecular architecture, equilibrium fluctuations, and non-equilibrium forces generated by cytoskeletal proteins. We studied the influence of these factors on the motions of mitochondria in mating S. cerevisiae using Fourier imaging correlation spectroscopy (FICS). Our measurements provide detailed, length scale dependent information about the dynamic behavior of mitochondria. We investigate the influence of the actin cytoskeleton on mitochondrial motion, and make comparisons between conditions in which actin network assembly and disassembly is varied, either by using disruptive pharmacological agents, or mutations that alter the rates of actin polymerization. We find that non-equilibrium forces associated with actin polymerization lead to a 1.5-fold enhancement of the long-time mitochondrial diffusion coefficient, and a transient sub-diffusive temporal scaling of the mean-square displacement. Our results lend support to an existing model in which these forces are directly coupled to mitochondrial membrane surfaces.

  2. Evaluation of phenolic compounds in mate (Ilex paraguariensis) processed by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation food processing has been demonstrating great effectiveness in the attack of pathogenic agents, while little compromising nutritional value and sensorial properties of foods. The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), widely consumed product in South America, generally in the form of infusions with hot or cold water, calls of chimarrao or terere, it is cited in literature as one of the best sources phenolic compounds. The antioxidants action of these constituent has been related to the protection of the organism against the free radicals, generated in alive, currently responsible for the sprouting of some degenerative illness as cancer, arteriosclerosis, rheumatic arthritis and cardiovascular clutters among others. The objective of that work was to evaluate the action of the processing for gamma radiation in phenolic compounds of terere beverage in the doses of 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. The observed results do not demonstrate significant alterations in phenolic compounds of terere beverage processed by gamma radiation.

  3. Does mating interfere in the biological characteristics of a population of Trichogramma pretiosum?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    DIRCEU, PRATISSOLI; THIAGO G., KLOSS; FERNANDO D., ZINGER; JOSÉ R. DE, CARVALHO; ULYSSES R., VIANNA; JOÃO P.P., PAES.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma spp. são parasitoides utilizados na regulação de populações de insetos que podem causar danos econômicos. Para que esses tenham bom desempenho é essencial o conhecimento de algumas de suas características biológicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se o acasalamento interfere nas [...] características biológicas de uma população de Trichogramma pretiosum coletada em campo. Em todos os experimentos, grupos de fêmeas acasaladas e não acasaladas foram utilizados. Além disso, foi verificada a interferência do acasalamento nas características biológicas dos descendentes. Foi constatado que o acasalamento é capaz de alterar o parasitismo e a longevidade das fêmeas genitoras, além de alterar a longevidade entre os descendentes, porém, uma vez parasitados, os ovos se desenvolvem normalmente, apresentando viabilidade e número de descendentes similares aos das fêmeas não acasaladas. Verificamos ainda, que a população de T. pretiosum coletada em campo apresentou indivíduos com características reprodutivas telítocas e arrenótocas. Esse fato ressalta a importância de investigações cuidadosas sobre o modo de reprodução das populações coletadas em campo, evitando assim problemas de eficiência no manejo de populações de insetos. Abstract in english Trichogramma spp. are parasitoids used in the regulation of insect populations that can cause economic damage. In order to ensure good performance, understanding some of their biological characteristics is essential. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether mating interferes with the biol [...] ogical characteristics of a population of Trichogramma pretiosum collected in the field. In all experiments, groups of mated and unmated females were used. We also verified any interference from mating on the biological characteristics of the offspring. We found that mating can alter the parasitism and longevity of genitor females, in addition to changing longevity among the descendants, but once parasitized, the eggs develop normally, showing similar emergence percentage and number of offspring as those from unmated females. In addition, we verified that the population of T. pretiosum collected in the field presented individuals with reproductive thelytokous and arrhenotokous characteristics. This fact highlights the importance of careful investigation on the reproduction mode of populations collected in the field, thus avoiding problems in the effective management of insect populations.

  4. Radical loss of an extreme extra-pair mating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segelbacher Gernot

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mating outside the pair-bond is surprisingly common in socially monogamous birds, but rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP vary widely between species. Although differences in life-history and contemporary ecological factors may explain some interspecific variation, evolutionary forces driving extra-pair (EP mating remain largely obscure. Also, since there is a large phylogenetic component to the frequency of EPP, evolutionary inertia may contribute substantially to observed EP mating patterns. However, the relative importance of plasticity and phylogenetic constraints on the incidence of EP mating remains largely unknown. Results We here demonstrate very low levels of EPP (4.4% of offspring in the purple-crowned fairy-wren Malurus coronatus, a member of the genus with the highest known levels of EPP in birds. In addition, we show absence of the suite of distinctive behavioral and morphological adaptations associated with EP mating that characterize other fairy-wrens. Phylogenetic parsimony implies that these characteristics were lost in one speciation event. Nonetheless, many life-history and breeding parameters that are hypothesized to drive interspecific variation in EPP are not different in the purple-crowned fairy-wren compared to its promiscuous congeners. Conclusion Such radical loss of an extreme EP mating system with all associated adaptations from a lineage of biologically very similar species indicates that evolutionary inertia does not necessarily constrain interspecific variation in EPP. Moreover, if apparently minor interspecific differences regularly cause large differences in EPP, this may be one reason why the evolution of EP mating is still poorly understood.

  5. Female Sexual Polymorphism and Fecundity Consequences of Male Mating Harassment in the Wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosden, Thomas P.; Svensson, Erik I.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic and phenotypic variation in female response towards male mating attempts has been found in several laboratory studies, demonstrating sexually antagonistic co-evolution driven by mating costs on female fitness. Theoretical models suggest that the type and degree of genetic variation in female resistance could affect the evolutionary outcome of sexually antagonistic mating interactions, resulting in either rapid development of reproductive isolation and speciation or genetic clustering and female sexual polymorphisms. However, evidence for genetic variation of this kind in natural populations of non-model organisms is very limited. Likewise, we lack knowledge on female fecundity-consequences of matings and the degree of male mating harassment in natural settings. Here we present such data from natural populations of a colour polymorphic damselfly. Using a novel experimental technique of colour dusting males in the field, we show that heritable female colour morphs differ in their propensity to accept male mating attempts. These morphs also differ in their degree of resistance towards male mating attempts, the number of realized matings and in their fecundity-tolerance to matings and mating attempts. These results show that there may be genetic variation in both resistance and tolerance to male mating attempts (fitness consequences of matings) in natural populations, similar to the situation in plant-pathogen resistance systems. Male mating harassment could promote the maintenance of a sexual mating polymorphism in females, one of few empirical examples of sympatric genetic clusters maintained by sexual conflict. PMID:17593979

  6. The Study and Analysis of the Mating Behavior and Sound Production of Male Cicada Psalmocharias alhageos (Kol. (Homoptera:Cicadidae to Make Disruption in Mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zamanian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Psalmocharias alhageos is an important pest of vine in most parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, southern areas of Russia, Turkey and Iraq. This cicada is spread in most provinces in Iran such as Esfahan, Hamedan, Qazvin, Markazi, Lorestan, Qom, Kerman, Tehran and Kordestan. In addition to vine, this insect damages some other fruit trees, such as apple, sour cherry, quince, peach, pomegranate and pear trees and some non-fruit trees, namely white poplar, ash, elm, eglantine, silk and black poplar trees. The nymphs of cicada damage the trees by feeding on root, adult insects on young bud and by oviposition under branch barks. Nourishing root by nymph leads to the weakness of the tree and hinder its growth. The high density oviposition of adult insects inside young barks causes withering of branches. The resulted damage on vine products is 40% which is one of the most important factors in product reduction in vineyard. This research was conducted in Takestan in Qazvin. It was conducted for the first time to study the behaviors of the mates of this vine cicada in order to manage it. Two systems were used to record the sound of male cicada called analog voice-recorder and digital voice recorder. To analyze the recorded sound of the male cicada we used of spectrum analyzer, digital storage oscilloscope and protens 7 computer softwares. We could call the attention of natural enemies an disturb the male insect`s attracting sound by producing natural and artificial sound in the range of 1-6 kHz in two different ripeness status of the fruits and could prevent mating and oviposition of female cicadas.

  7. Cancer and yerba mate consumption: a review of possible associations Cáncer y consumo de yerba mate: revisión de posibles asociaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Loria

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify any possible link between mate consumption and cancer, mainly of the esophagus, larynx, and oral cavity. METHODS: A review of literature, published through August 2008, pertaining to the carcinogenic risk of mate consumption was undertaken by searching the two databases, MEDLINE and TOXLINE, for relevant articles. The bibliographies of the articles were examined for additional relevant sources. In addition, a search on the name of each author having published on the topic was conducted. The epidemiological studies are presented by cancer site; experimental works are examined in dedicated sections; and the discussion combines epidemiological and experimental evidence. RESULTS: Almost all epidemiological studies shared similar methodology: hospital-based, case-control studies where participants were personally interviewed on the main risk factors, using similar questionnaires. Several studies found an association between the temperature of the mate infusion and oral, esophageal, and/or laryngeal cancer risks; while a few focused on carcinogenic contaminants introduced during the industrial processing of the leaves. The cancer most frequently mentioned in association with hot mate with bombilla (drunk through a metal straw was the esophagus. Size, exposure assessment, methods of analysis, and quality were different among the studies reviewed. The results varied greatly. The higher risk estimate (odds ratio = 34.6 was found for women who drank 1 L or more daily; for men it was only 4.8. Risk increased with duration, daily quantity, and temperature at drinking. The synergic action between mate, alcohol, and tobacco was a clear result in several studies, and in some, nutritional deficiencies and poor oral hygiene played a role. No increased risk was associated with cold mate beverages. CONCLUSIONS: The role of hot mate in increasing the risk of cancer of esophagus, larynx, and oral cavity seems to be supported by several epidemiological studies. The temperature could act by damaging the mucosa or accelerating metabolic reactions, including those with carcinogenic substances in tobacco and alcohol. However, there is no sound population-based casecontrol study on mate consumption as a risk factor for cancer. This, coupled with the range of results on mate risk, make assessing the etiological fraction difficult. More research needs to be done before a definitive statement can be made regarding cancer risk associated with any of the various forms of mate consumption. Future research should include population-based studies; collection of data on consumption of tobacco, alcohol, hot drinks, fresh fruit, and vegetables; and, a method to precisely measure volume and temperature of mate intake.OBJETIVO: Identificar posibles vínculos entre el consumo de mate y el cáncer, en particular de esófago, laringe y cavidad bucal. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una revisión de la bibliografía publicada hasta agosto de 2008 sobre el riesgo carcinogénico del consumo de mate en dos bases de datos, MEDLINE y TOXLINE. Se revisaron las referencias bibliográficas de los artículos para encontrar fuentes adicionales y se buscó por cada autor que hubiera publicado sobre el tema. Los estudios epidemiológicos se presentan según la localización del cáncer, los trabajos experimentales se examinan en secciones separadas y en la discusión se combinaron los datos epidemiológicos y experimentales. RESULTADOS: Casi todos los estudios epidemiológicos siguieron la misma metodología: estudios de casos y controles basados en hospitales donde se entrevistaba personalmente a los participantes acerca de los principales factores de riesgo mediante cuestionarios similares. En algunos estudios se encontró una asociación entre la temperatura de la infusión de mate y el riesgo de cáncer bucal, de esófago y de laringe, mientras que unos pocos se concentraron en los contaminantes carcinogénicos introducidos durante el procesamiento industrial de las hojas. El tipo de cáncer más frecuentemente mencionado en asociación co

  8. Do assortative preferences contribute to assortative mating for adiposity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Claire I; Fincher, Corey L; Hahn, Amanda C; Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-11-01

    Assortative mating for adiposity, whereby levels of adiposity in romantic partners tend to be positively correlated, has implications for population health due to the combined effects of partners' levels of adiposity on fertility and/or offspring health. Although assortative preferences for cues of adiposity, whereby leaner people are inherently more attracted to leaner individuals, have been proposed as a factor in assortative mating for adiposity, there have been no direct tests of this issue. Because of this, and because of recent work suggesting that facial cues of adiposity convey information about others' health that may be particularly important for mate preferences, we tested the contribution of assortative preferences for facial cues of adiposity to assortative mating for adiposity (assessed from body mass index, BMI) in a sample of romantic couples. Romantic partners' BMIs were positively correlated and this correlation was not due to the effects of age or relationship duration. However, although men and women with leaner partners showed stronger preferences for cues of low levels of adiposity, controlling for these preferences did not weaken the correlation between partners' BMIs. Indeed, own BMI and preferences were uncorrelated. These results suggest that assortative preferences for facial cues of adiposity contribute little (if at all) to assortative mating for adiposity. PMID:24168811

  9. Human nonindependent mate choice: is model female attractiveness everything?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakirtzis, Antonios; Roberts, S Craig

    2012-01-01

    Following two decades of research on non-human animals, there has recently been increased interest in human nonindependent mate choice, namely the ways in which choosing women incorporate information about a man's past or present romantic partners ('model females') into their own assessment of the male. Experimental studies using static facial images have generally found that men receive higher desirability ratings from female raters when presented with attractive (compared to unattractive) model females. This phenomenon has a straightforward evolutionary explanation: the fact that female mate value is more dependent on physical attractiveness compared to male mate value. Furthermore, due to assortative mating for attractiveness, men who are paired with attractive women are more likely to be of high mate value themselves. Here, we also examine the possible relevance of model female cues other than attractiveness (personality and behavioral traits) by presenting video recordings of model females to a set of female raters. The results confirm that the model female's attractiveness is the primary cue. Contrary to some earlier findings in the human and nonhuman literature, we found no evidence that female raters prefer partners of slightly older model females. We conclude by suggesting some promising variations on the present experimental design. PMID:22947636

  10. The role of male contest competition over mates in speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna QVARNSTRÖM, Niclas VALLIN, Andreas RUDH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on the role of sexual selection in the speciation process largely focuses on the diversifying role of mate choice. In particular, much attention has been drawn to the fact that population divergence in mate choice and in the male traits subject to choice directly can lead to assortative mating. However, male contest competition over mates also constitutes an important mechanism of sexual selection. We review recent empirical studies and argue that sexual selection through male contest competition can affect speciation in ways other than mate choice. For example, biases in aggression towards similar competitors can lead to disruptive and negative frequency-dependent selection on the traits used in contest competition in a similar way as competition for other types of limited resources. Moreover, male contest abilities often trade-off against other abilities such as parasite resistance, protection against predators and general stress tolerance. Populations experiencing different ecological conditions should therefore quickly diverge non-randomly in a number of traits including male contest abilities. In resource based breeding systems, a feedback loop between competitive ability and habitat use may lead to further population divergence. We discuss how population divergence in traits used in male contest competition can lead to the build up of reproductive isolation through a number of different pathways. Our main conclusion is that the role of male contest competition in speciation remains largely scientifically unexplored [Current Zoology 58 (3: 490–506, 2012].

  11. Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveer, Ahmed M.; Kromann, Sophie H.; Birgersson, Göran; Bengtsson, Marie; Lindblom, Tobias; Balkenius, Anna; Hansson, Bill S.; Witzgall, Peter; Becher, Paul G.; Ignell, Rickard

    2012-01-01

    Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females fly instead to green-leaf odour of the larval host plant cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. This behavioural switch is owing to a marked change in the olfactory representation of floral and green odours in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). Calcium imaging, using authentic and synthetic odours, shows that the ensemble of AL glomeruli dedicated to either lilac or cotton odour is selectively up- and downregulated in response to mating. A clear-cut behavioural modulation as a function of mating is a useful substrate for studies of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioural decisions. Modulation of odour-driven behaviour through concerted regulation of odour maps contributes to our understanding of state-dependent choice and host shifts in insect herbivores. PMID:22319127

  12. Mating Opportunities in Sangalopsis veliterna Females: Costs and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Linda C. Hernández; Quintero, Luz S. Fuentes

    2014-01-01

    In nature, females of several animal taxa exhibit considerable variation in their mating system, and this variation involves different balances of costs (e.g., energetic, reproductive) and benefits (e.g., increased net reproductive rate of the female, increased longevity). Many studies have focused on discovering the potential advantages and disadvantages that females could have when increasing their mating rate and the possible evolutionary consequences that may result. Butterflies and moths are an ideal study system because it is easy to determine and to manipulate experimentally their mating frequency. In this study, the effect of continuous availability of different numbers of males (1, 2, 4, 8) on female mating rate and fitness components was estimated by comparing the number of spermatophores in the corpus bursa (an estimate of the number of copulations, but not of the number males involved in these copulations), female longevity, lifetime number of laid eggs (fecundity), and proportion of hatching eggs (fertility) in the moth Sangalopsis veliterna Druce (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). The results showed that there were no significant differences in either fertility or fecundity when treatments were compared, but longevity and in some cases fecundity increased when females had several matings. PMID:25205137

  13. Borderline personality disorder features and mate retention tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tragesser, Sarah L; Benfield, Jacob

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and mate retention tactics as a means of examining an evolutionary perspective on the association between BPD features and interpersonal problems and violence in romantic relationships. Two-hundred twenty-five college student participants completed the Personality Assessment Inventory for Borderlines (PAI-BOR; Morey, 1991) and the Mate Retention Inventory-Short Form (MRI-SF; Buss, Shackelford, & McKibbin, 2008) embedded within other measures. There was a strong association between BPD features and cost-inflicting mate retention tactics, including the specific tactics of vigilance, punishing mate's infidelity threat, intrasexual threats, and sexual inducements for both men and women. There were also gender-specific associations for additional tactics. These results contribute to our understanding of problems in romantic relationships among men and women with BPD features, including violence, and to our understanding of impulsive sexual behavior among individuals with BPD features by showing how these behaviors are used as extreme, maladaptive attempts at mate retention. PMID:22686222

  14. Multiple post-mating barriers to hybridization in field crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Frances; Harrison, Xavier A; Bretman, Amanda; Veen, Thor; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rolando; Tregenza, Tom

    2013-03-01

    Mechanisms that prevent different species from interbreeding are fundamental to the maintenance of biodiversity. Barriers to interspecific matings, such as failure to recognize a potential mate, are often relatively easy to identify. Those occurring after mating, such as differences in the how successful sperm are in competition for fertilisations, are cryptic and have the potential to create selection on females to mate multiply as a defence against maladaptive hybridization. Cryptic advantages to conspecific sperm may be very widespread and have been identified based on the observations of higher paternity of conspecifics in several species. However, a relationship between the fate of sperm from two species within the female and paternity has never been demonstrated. We use competitive microsatellite PCR to show that in two hybridising cricket species, Gryllus bimaculatus and G. campestris, sequential cryptic reproductive barriers are present. In competition with heterospecifics, more sperm from conspecific males is stored by females. Additionally, sperm from conspecific males has a higher fertilisation probability. This reveals that conspecific sperm precedence can occur through processes fundamentally under the control of females, providing avenues for females to evolve multiple mating as a defence against hybridization, with the counterintuitive outcome that promiscuity reinforces isolation and may promote speciation. PMID:23294288

  15. Unexpected male choosiness for mates in a spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel-Venner, M C; Dray, S; Allainé, D; Menu, F; Venner, S

    2008-01-01

    Sexual selection theory traditionally considers choosiness for mates to be negatively related to intra-sexual competition. Males were classically considered to be the competing, but not the choosy, sex. However, evidence of male choosiness is now accumulating. Male choosiness is expected to increase with an individual's competitive ability, and to decrease as intra-sexual competition increases. However, such predictions have never been tested in field conditions. Here, we explore male mate choice in a spider by studying size-assortative pairing in two natural sites that strongly differ in the level of male-male competition. Unexpectedly, our results demonstrate that mate choice shifts from opportunism to high selectivity as competition between males increases. Males experiencing weak competition did not exhibit size-related mating preferences. By contrast, when competition was intense we found strong size-assortative pairing due to male choice: while larger, more competitive males preferentially paired with larger, more fecund females, smaller males chose smaller females. Thus, we show that mating preferences of males vary with their competitive ability. The distinct preferences exhibited by males of different sizes seem to be an adaptive response to the lower reproductive opportunities arising from increased competition between males. PMID:17956845

  16. Same-Sex Gaze Attraction Influences Mate-Choice Copying in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Yorzinski, Jessica L.; Platt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Mate-choice copying occurs when animals rely on the mating choices of others to inform their own mating decisions. The proximate mechanisms underlying mate-choice copying remain unknown. To address this question, we tracked the gaze of men and women as they viewed a series of photographs in which a potential mate was pictured beside an opposite-sex partner; the participants then indicated their willingness to engage in a long-term relationship with each potential mate. We found that both men ...

  17. Cancer and yerba mate consumption: a review of possible associations / Cáncer y consumo de yerba mate: revisión de posibles asociaciones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dora, Loria; Enrique, Barrios; Roberto, Zanetti.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar posibles vínculos entre el consumo de mate y el cáncer, en particular de esófago, laringe y cavidad bucal. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una revisión de la bibliografía publicada hasta agosto de 2008 sobre el riesgo carcinogénico del consumo de mate en dos bases de datos, MEDLINE y TOXLI [...] NE. Se revisaron las referencias bibliográficas de los artículos para encontrar fuentes adicionales y se buscó por cada autor que hubiera publicado sobre el tema. Los estudios epidemiológicos se presentan según la localización del cáncer, los trabajos experimentales se examinan en secciones separadas y en la discusión se combinaron los datos epidemiológicos y experimentales. RESULTADOS: Casi todos los estudios epidemiológicos siguieron la misma metodología: estudios de casos y controles basados en hospitales donde se entrevistaba personalmente a los participantes acerca de los principales factores de riesgo mediante cuestionarios similares. En algunos estudios se encontró una asociación entre la temperatura de la infusión de mate y el riesgo de cáncer bucal, de esófago y de laringe, mientras que unos pocos se concentraron en los contaminantes carcinogénicos introducidos durante el procesamiento industrial de las hojas. El tipo de cáncer más frecuentemente mencionado en asociación con el mate caliente en bombilla (tomado a través de una cañita metálica) fue el de esófago. El tamaño de la muestra, la evaluación de la exposición, el método de análisis y la calidad variaron de un estudio a otro. Los resultados variaron considerablemente. Se estimó un mayor riesgo (razón de posibilidades = 34,6) en las mujeres que tomaban 1 L diario o más; en los hombres este riesgo fue solo de 4,8. El riesgo aumentó con el tiempo de consumo, la cantidad diaria y la temperatura de la infusión consumida. En algunos estudios se observó una clara sinergia entre el consumo de mate, alcohol y tabaco, mientras que en otros las deficiencias nutricionales y la inadecuada higiene bucal desempeñaron un papel importante. No se observó aumento en el riesgo asociado con el consumo de bebidas frías de mate. CONCLUSIONES: Varios estudios epidemiológicos parecen respaldar el papel de las bebidas calientes de mate en el aumento del riesgo de cáncer de esófago, laringe y cavidad bucal. La temperatura podría influir al dañar la mucosa o acelerar algunas reacciones metabólicas, entre ellas con algunas sustancias carcinogénicas del tabaco y el alcohol. No obstante, no se encontraron estudios robustos de casos y controles basados en la población sobre el consumo de mate como factor de riesgo de cáncer. Esto, unido a los resultados encontrados sobre el riesgo del consumo de mate, hace difícil estimar su fracción etiológica. Se requieren más investigaciones antes de establecer definitivamente el riesgo de cáncer asociado con alguna de las diversas formas de consumo de mate. Se deben realizar estudios basados en la población, obtener más datos sobre el consumo de tabaco, alcohol, bebidas calientes, frutas frescas y vegetales y se deben emplear métodos que permitan medir con precisión el volumen y la temperatura del mate consumido. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify any possible link between mate consumption and cancer, mainly of the esophagus, larynx, and oral cavity. METHODS: A review of literature, published through August 2008, pertaining to the carcinogenic risk of mate consumption was undertaken by searching the two databases, MEDLI [...] NE and TOXLINE, for relevant articles. The bibliographies of the articles were examined for additional relevant sources. In addition, a search on the name of each author having published on the topic was conducted. The epidemiological studies are presented by cancer site; experimental works are examined in dedicated sections; and the discussion combines epidemiological and experimental evidence. RESULTS: Almost all epidemiological studies shared similar methodology: hospital-based, case-control studies where participants were personally

  18. Mating activity of gamma irradiated codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella (L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labanowski, G.S.; Sokolowski, R.J.; Suski, Z. (Instytut Sadownictwa, Skierniewice (Poland))

    1979-01-01

    Mating of 30-krad treated codling moths, Laspeyresia pomonella, under field cage conditions occurred mainly at temperatures ranging from 14 to 20/sup 0/C. Irradiation applied to diet-reared moths produced neither an apparent shift in the time (hours) of copulation nor a decrease of the mating activity. However, a significant reduction in the mating ability was induced by Calco Oil Red added to the larval diet, and also by handling and transporting the moths about 140 km to the irradiation facilities. The morning time was found to be the best time to release irradiated moths in the field. Males reared on thinning apples were two times more active sexually than ones reared on an artificial medium.

  19. Mating activity of gamma irradiated codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mating of 30-krad treated codling moths, Laspeyresia pomonella, under field cage conditions occurred mainly at temperatures ranging from 14 to 200C. Irradiation applied to diet-reared moths produced neither an apparent shift in the time (hours) of copulation nor a decrease of the mating activity. However, a significant reduction in the mating ability was induced by Calco Oil Red added to the larval diet, and also by handling and transporting the moths about 140 km to the irradiation facilities. The morning time was found to be the best time to release irradiated moths in the field. Males reared on thinning apples were two times more active sexually than ones reared on an artificial medium. (author)

  20. Diffusion approximation of a multilocus model with assortative mating

    CERN Document Server

    Etheridge, Alison M

    2011-01-01

    To understand the effect of non-random mating on the genetic evolution of a population, we consider a finite population in which each individual is defined by a sequence of n diallelic loci. We assume that the population evolves according to a Moran model with assortative mating, recombination and mutation. Under weak assortative mating, loose linkage and low mutation rates, we obtain a class of diffusion approximations for allelic frequencies. We present some features of the limiting diffusions (in particular their boundary behaviour and conditions under which the allelic frequencies at different loci evolve independently). If mutation rates are strictly positive then the limiting diffusions are reversible and, under some assumptions, the critical points of the stationary density can be characterised.

  1. Irradiation detection of coffee mate by electron spin resonance (ESR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Un-irradiated coffee mate samples do not exhibit any ESR signal. However, the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiation exhibit an ESR singlet and a large unresolved ESR signal, respectively. The dose-response curves of the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiations were found to be described well by an exponential and linear functions, respectively. Variable temperature and fading studies at room temperature showed that the radiation-induced radicals in coffee mate sample are very sensitive to temperature. The discrimination between un-irradiated and irradiated coffee mate samples can be done just comparing their ESR spectra. However, determination of the radiation dose received by the sample cannot be possible because of the fast decay of signal intensity at room temperature.

  2. Irradiation detection of coffee mate by electron spin resonance (ESR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozsayin, Fulya [Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Polat, Mustafa, E-mail: polat@hacettepe.edu.t [Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-06-15

    Un-irradiated coffee mate samples do not exhibit any ESR signal. However, the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiation exhibit an ESR singlet and a large unresolved ESR signal, respectively. The dose-response curves of the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiations were found to be described well by an exponential and linear functions, respectively. Variable temperature and fading studies at room temperature showed that the radiation-induced radicals in coffee mate sample are very sensitive to temperature. The discrimination between un-irradiated and irradiated coffee mate samples can be done just comparing their ESR spectra. However, determination of the radiation dose received by the sample cannot be possible because of the fast decay of signal intensity at room temperature.

  3. Emergence of Polymorphic Mating Strategies in Robot Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfwing, Stefan; Doya, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphism has fascinated evolutionary biologists since the time of Darwin. Biologists have observed discrete alternative mating strategies in many different species. In this study, we demonstrate that polymorphic mating strategies can emerge in a colony of hermaphrodite robots. We used a survival and reproduction task where the robots maintained their energy levels by capturing energy sources and physically exchanged genotypes for the reproduction of offspring. The reproductive success was dependent on the individuals' energy levels, which created a natural trade-off between the time invested in maintaining a high energy level and the time invested in attracting mating partners. We performed experiments in environments with different density of energy sources and observed a variety in the mating behavior when a robot could see both an energy source and a potential mating partner. The individuals could be classified into two phenotypes: 1) forager, who always chooses to capture energy sources, and 2) tracker, who keeps track of potential mating partners if its energy level is above a threshold. In four out of the seven highest fitness populations in different environments, we found subpopulations with distinct differences in genotype and in behavioral phenotype. We analyzed the fitnesses of the foragers and the trackers by sampling them from each subpopulation and mixing with different ratios in a population. The fitness curves for the two subpopulations crossed at about 25% of foragers in the population, showing the evolutionary stability of the polymorphism. In one of those polymorphic populations, the trackers were further split into two subpopulations: (strong trackers) and (weak trackers). Our analyses show that the population consisting of three phenotypes also constituted several stable polymorphic evolutionarily stable states. To our knowledge, our study is the first to demonstrate the emergence of polymorphic evolutionarily stable strategies within a robot evolution framework. PMID:24717898

  4. Blackmailing: the keystone in the human mating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watve Milind G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human mating system is characterized by bi-parental care and faithful monogamy is highly valued in most cultures. Marriage has evolved as a social institution and punishment for extra pair mating (EPM or adultery is common. However, similar to other species with bi-parental care, both males and females frequently indulge in EPM in secrecy since it confers certain gender specific genetic benefits. Stability of faithful monogamy is therefore a conundrum. We model human mating system using game theory framework to study the effects of factors that can stabilize or destabilize faithful committed monogamy. Results Although mate guarding can partly protect the genetic interests, we show that it does not ensure monogamy. Social policing enabled by gossiping is another line of defense against adultery unique to humans. However, social policing has a small but positive cost to an individual and therefore is prone to free riding. We suggest that since exposure of adultery can invite severe punishment, the policing individuals can blackmail opportunistically whenever the circumstances permit. If the maximum probabilistic benefit of blackmailing is greater than the cost of policing, policing becomes a non-altruistic act and stabilizes in the society. We show that this dynamics leads to the coexistence of different strategies in oscillations, with obligate monogamy maintained at a high level. Deletion of blackmailing benefit from the model leads to the complete disappearance of obligate monogamy. Conclusions Obligate monogamy can be maintained in the population in spite of the advantages of EPM. Blackmailing, which makes policing a non-altruistic act, is crucial for the maintenance of faithful monogamy. Although biparental care, EPM, mate guarding and punishment are shared by many species, gossiping and blackmailing make the human mating system unique.

  5. Alteraciones del estado nutricional y la tensión arterial como señales tempranas de aterosclerosis en adolescentes / Alterations of nutritional status and blood pressure as early signals of atherosclerosis in adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María de los Ángeles, Cabal Giner; Giselle, Hernández Oviedo; Gertrudis, Torres Díaz; Maricela, Guerra Ma rín.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la aterosclerosis constituye la primera causa de muerte en Cuba y cada día priva de la vida a personas más jóvenes. Objetivos: identificar alteraciones del estado nutricional y la tensión arterial e intentar establecer relación entre ellas, en adolescentes aparentemente sanos. Métodos: [...] se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de sección transversal en 302 estudiantes de la Secundaria Básica "Josué País" perteneciente al área de atención del Policlínico Docente "Puentes Grandes", en edades entre los 12 y 14 años. Se realizó interrogatorio y examen físico individual de acuerdo al Modelo de Recolección del Dato Primario del Centro de Investigaciones y Referencia de Aterosclerosis de La Habana. Las variables estudiadas fueron edad, sexo, peso, talla, tensión arterial sistólica, tensión arterial diastólica e índice de masa corporal. Se tuvieron en consideración los principios éticos de toda investigación científica. Resultados: se halló el 15,5 % de sobrepesos y el 4,96 % de obesos. Se identificó el 7,9 % de prehipertensos y el 0,66 % de hipertensos y se encontró que dos alumnos clasificados como hipertensos grado I según tablas de valores percentilares, eran obesos. Conclusiones: los resultados alcanzados son fuente de motivación para continuar la búsqueda de La Señal Aterosclerótica Temprana para la prevención de enfermedades de origen aterosclerótico en la adultez. Abstract in english Introduction: atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in Cuba and every day more young people lost their lives. Objectives: to identify the nutritional status and blood pressure ant to try to establish if there is some relation between them in apparently healthy adolescents aged between 12 and [...] 14 from "Josué País" Secondary School from the Puentes Grandes Teaching Polyclinic health area. Methods: a cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study was conducted in 302 students aged between 12 and 14 from "Josué País" Secondary School of "Puentes Grandes" Teaching Polyclinic care area. A individual questioning and physical examination was carried out according to the Collection Model of Primary Information from the Research and Reference Center of Atherosclerosis of La Habana. Study variable included: age, sex height, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and body mass index. Ethical principles of a scientific research were taken into account. Results: the was a 15.5 % of excess weight and a 4.96 % of obeses, as well as a 7.9 % of pre-hypertensive and a 0.66 % of hypertensive with a increasing trend in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive percentages in so far as increased the values of body mass index in study group. Conclusions: results obtained are the reason to continue the search of the Early Atherosclerosis Signal to prevent atherosclerotic-origin diseases in adulthood.

  6. Alteraciones del estado nutricional y la tensión arterial como señales tempranas de aterosclerosis en adolescentes Alterations of nutritional status and blood pressure as early signals of atherosclerosis in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Cabal Giner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la aterosclerosis constituye la primera causa de muerte en Cuba y cada día priva de la vida a personas más jóvenes. Objetivos: identificar alteraciones del estado nutricional y la tensión arterial e intentar establecer relación entre ellas, en adolescentes aparentemente sanos. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de sección transversal en 302 estudiantes de la Secundaria Básica "Josué País" perteneciente al área de atención del Policlínico Docente "Puentes Grandes", en edades entre los 12 y 14 años. Se realizó interrogatorio y examen físico individual de acuerdo al Modelo de Recolección del Dato Primario del Centro de Investigaciones y Referencia de Aterosclerosis de La Habana. Las variables estudiadas fueron edad, sexo, peso, talla, tensión arterial sistólica, tensión arterial diastólica e índice de masa corporal. Se tuvieron en consideración los principios éticos de toda investigación científica. Resultados: se halló el 15,5 % de sobrepesos y el 4,96 % de obesos. Se identificó el 7,9 % de prehipertensos y el 0,66 % de hipertensos y se encontró que dos alumnos clasificados como hipertensos grado I según tablas de valores percentilares, eran obesos. Conclusiones: los resultados alcanzados son fuente de motivación para continuar la búsqueda de La Señal Aterosclerótica Temprana para la prevención de enfermedades de origen aterosclerótico en la adultez.Introduction: atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in Cuba and every day more young people lost their lives. Objectives: to identify the nutritional status and blood pressure ant to try to establish if there is some relation between them in apparently healthy adolescents aged between 12 and 14 from "Josué País" Secondary School from the Puentes Grandes Teaching Polyclinic health area. Methods: a cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study was conducted in 302 students aged between 12 and 14 from "Josué País" Secondary School of "Puentes Grandes" Teaching Polyclinic care area. A individual questioning and physical examination was carried out according to the Collection Model of Primary Information from the Research and Reference Center of Atherosclerosis of La Habana. Study variable included: age, sex height, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and body mass index. Ethical principles of a scientific research were taken into account. Results: the was a 15.5 % of excess weight and a 4.96 % of obeses, as well as a 7.9 % of pre-hypertensive and a 0.66 % of hypertensive with a increasing trend in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive percentages in so far as increased the values of body mass index in study group. Conclusions: results obtained are the reason to continue the search of the Early Atherosclerosis Signal to prevent atherosclerotic-origin diseases in adulthood.

  7. Mating programs including genomic relationships and dominance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C; VanRaden, P M; O'Connell, J R; Weigel, K A; Gianola, D

    2013-01-01

    Computerized mating programs using genomic information are needed by breed associations, artificial-insemination organizations, and on-farm software providers, but such software is already challenged by the size of the relationship matrix. As of October 2012, over 230,000 Holsteins obtained genomic predictions in North America. Efficient methods of storing, computing, and transferring genomic relationships from a central database to customers via a web query were developed for approximately 165,000 genotyped cows and the subset of 1,518 bulls whose semen was available for purchase at that time. This study, utilizing 3 breeds, investigated differences in sire selection, methods of assigning mates, the use of genomic or pedigree relationships, and the effect of including dominance effects in a mating program. For both Jerseys and Holsteins, selection and mating programs were tested using the top 50 marketed bulls for genomic and traditional lifetime net merit as well as 50 randomly selected bulls. The 500 youngest genotyped cows in the largest herd in each breed were assigned mates of the same breed with limits of 10 cows per bull and 1 bull per cow (only 79 cows and 8 bulls for Brown Swiss). A dominance variance of 4.1 and 3.7% was estimated for Holsteins and Jerseys using 45,187 markers and management group deviation for milk yield. Sire selection was identified as the most important component of improving expected progeny value, followed by managing inbreeding and then inclusion of dominance. The respective percentage gains for milk yield in this study were 64, 27, and 9, for Holsteins and 73, 20, and 7 for Jerseys. The linear programming method of assigning a mate outperformed sequential selection by reducing genomic or pedigree inbreeding by 0.86 to 1.06 and 0.93 to 1.41, respectively. Use of genomic over pedigree relationship information provided a larger decrease in expected progeny inbreeding and thus greater expected progeny value. Based on lifetime net merit, the economic value of using genomic relationships was >$3 million per year for Holsteins when applied to all genotyped females, assuming that each will provide 1 replacement. Previous mating programs required transferring only a pedigree file to customers, but better service is possible by incorporating genomic relationships, more precise mate allocation, and dominance effects. Economic benefits will continue to grow as more females are genotyped. PMID:24119810

  8. Intraclonal mating occurs during tsetse transmission of Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Vanessa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mating in Trypanosoma brucei is a non-obligatory event, triggered by the co-occurrence of different strains in the salivary glands of the vector. Recombinants that result from intra- rather than interclonal mating have been detected, but only in crosses of two different trypanosome strains. This has led to the hypothesis that when trypanosomes recognize a different strain, they release a diffusible factor or pheromone that triggers mating in any cell in the vicinity whether it is of the same or a different strain. This idea assumes that the trypanosome can recognize self and non-self, although there is as yet no evidence for the existence of mating types in T. brucei. Results We investigated intraclonal mating in T. b. brucei by crossing red and green fluorescent lines of a single strain, so that recombinant progeny can be detected in the fly by yellow fluorescence. For strain 1738, seven flies had both red and green trypanosomes in the salivary glands and, in three, yellow trypanosomes were also observed, although they could not be recovered for subsequent analysis. Nonetheless, both red and non-fluorescent clones from these flies had recombinant genotypes as judged by microsatellite and karyotype analyses, and some also had raised DNA contents, suggesting recombination or genome duplication. Strain J10 produced similar results indicative of intraclonal mating. In contrast, trypanosome clones recovered from other flies showed that genotypes can be transmitted with fidelity. When a yellow hybrid clone expressing both red and green fluorescent protein genes was transmitted, the salivary glands contained a mixture of fluorescent-coloured trypanosomes, but only yellow and red clones were recovered. While loss of the GFP gene in the red clones could have resulted from gene conversion, some of these clones showed loss of heterozygosity and raised DNA contents as in the other single strain transmissions. Our observations suggest that many recombinants are non-viable after intraclonal mating. Conclusion We have demonstrated intraclonal mating during fly transmission of T. b. brucei, contrary to previous findings that recombination occurs only when another strain is present. It is thus no longer possible to assume that T. b. brucei remains genetically unaltered after fly transmission.

  9. Structures of the Mating-Type Loci of Cordyceps takaomontana

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Eiji; Yamagishi, Kenzo; Hara, Akira

    2003-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences of the mating-type loci MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 of Cordyceps takaomontana were determined, which is the first such report for the clavicipitaceous fungi. MAT1-1 contains two mating-type genes, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2, but MAT1-1-3 could not be found. On the other hand, MAT1-2 has MAT1-2-1. A pseudogene of MAT1-1-1 is located next to MAT1-2.

  10. Rapid adjustments of sperm characteristics in relation to social status

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolfsen, Geir; Figenschou, Lars; Folstad, Ivar; Tveiten, Helge; Figenschou, Marie

    2005-01-01

    Sperm competition models predict that males typically mating in disfavoured roles should be selected to compensate for their disadvantage by investing more into sperm. We studied the effect of rapid changes in social status on ejaculate investments during experimental trials with an externally fertilizing teleost—the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). We document that males becoming dominant produce less sperm with lower velocity, but have higher sex steroid concentrations than subordinate ma...

  11. New insights into parental effects and toxicity: Mate availability and diet in the parental environment affect offspring responses to contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parental effects manifest as alterations in offspring phenotype resulting from the parental phenotype and/or parental environment. We evaluated the effects of parental diet quality and mating strategy on the toxicant tolerance of offspring in Biomphalaria glabrata snails. We raised snails either individually (self-fertilizing) or in groups of three (outcrossing) on a diet of uncooked lettuce, fish food, cooked lettuce, or cooked lettuce plus fish food. We then exposed their offspring to cadmium and malathion challenges. Cadmium tolerance varied with parental diet and was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails than self-fertilizing snails. Malathion tolerance was not affected by parental diet but was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails. These results indicate that offspring responses to stressors are heavily influenced by parental experience, but may depend on the specific stressor and the mechanism of action and/or detoxification. -- Highlights: •We reared parental snails either alone or in groups and fed them one of four diets. •We exposed their juvenile offspring to cadmium and malathion survival challenges. •Outcrossing increased toxicant tolerance of juveniles compared to self-fertilizing. •Parental diet affected juvenile offspring tolerance to cadmium but not malathion. •Toxicant characteristics likely influenced parental effects on toxicant tolerance. -- Both parental diet composition and mating strategy can significantly alter the toxicant tolerance of offspring, and toxicant characteristics likely influence the probability of parental effects

  12. Codling moth: mating of irradiated and unirradiated laboratory-reared and native moths in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, L.D.; Mantey, K.D.

    1977-12-15

    Unirradiated, laboratory-reared males of Laspeyresia pomonella (L.) mated 29.6% less than native males in field tests. Laboratory-reared males irradiated with 30 krad of gamma irradiation mated 62.6% less than native males.

  13. Codling moth: mating of irradiated and unirradiated laboratory-reared and native moths in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unirradiated, laboratory-reared males of Laspeyresia pomonella (L.) mated 29.6% less than native males in field tests. Laboratory-reared males irradiated with 30 krad of gamma irradiation mated 62.6% less than native males

  14. Using Dissortative Mating Genetic Algorithms to Track the Extrema of Dynamic Deceptive Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, C M; Rosa, A C

    2009-01-01

    Traditional Genetic Algorithms (GAs) mating schemes select individuals for crossover independently of their genotypic or phenotypic similarities. In Nature, this behaviour is known as random mating. However, non-random schemes - in which individuals mate according to their kinship or likeness - are more common in natural systems. Previous studies indicate that, when applied to GAs, negative assortative mating (a specific type of non-random mating, also known as dissortative mating) may improve their performance (on both speed and reliability) in a wide range of problems. Dissortative mating maintains the genetic diversity at a higher level during the run, and that fact is frequently observed as an explanation for dissortative GAs ability to escape local optima traps. Dynamic problems, due to their specificities, demand special care when tuning a GA, because diversity plays an even more crucial role than it does when tackling static ones. This paper investigates the behaviour of dissortative mating GAs, namely...

  15. Instrumental and Expressive Values in Mate Selection of Black and White College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Willie; Thomas, Darwin L.

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated differences between black and white college students' values concerning mate selection. The relative importance of 12 desired traits in a potential mate, divided equally into instrumental and expressive traits, is examined. Results are discussed. (Author)

  16. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus mating during late June on the pack ice of northern Svalbard, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polar bears are seasonal breeders and typically mate from late March to early May. Implantation is, however, delayed until autumn, which can allow plasticity in the date of mating. As for other seasonal breeders, a rapid return to estrus after the loss of dependent offspring can be expected, even into the summer. A few earlier observations and dissections of dead animals suggest that polar bears are able to mate in summer. We report on a mating incident on 29 June 2014, the first documented mating this late in the season among wild polar bears. The female had lost her dependent cub during the period prior to the mating event. We speculate that she lost this cub late in the mating season, entered estrus and successfully mated in late June.

  17. 46 CFR 11.462 - Endorsements for master or mate of uninspected fishing industry vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...master or mate of uninspected fishing industry vessels. 11.462 Section...master or mate of uninspected fishing industry vessels. (a) This section...documented to engage in the fishing industry, with the exception of:...

  18. Genetic determinants of mate recognition in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubanek Julia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mate choice is of central importance to most animals, influencing population structure, speciation, and ultimately the survival of a species. Mating behavior of male brachionid rotifers is triggered by the product of a chemosensory gene, a glycoprotein on the body surface of females called the mate recognition pheromone. The mate recognition pheromone has been biochemically characterized, but little was known about the gene(s. We describe the isolation and characterization of the mate recognition pheromone gene through protein purification, N-terminal amino acid sequence determination, identification of the mate recognition pheromone gene from a cDNA library, sequencing, and RNAi knockdown to confirm the functional role of the mate recognition pheromone gene in rotifer mating. Results A 29 kD protein capable of eliciting rotifer male circling was isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Two transcript types containing the N-terminal sequence were identified in a cDNA library; further characterization by screening a genomic library and by polymerase chain reaction revealed two genes belonging to each type. Each gene begins with a signal peptide region followed by nearly perfect repeats of an 87 to 92 codon motif with no codons between repeats and the final motif prematurely terminated by the stop codon. The two Type A genes contain four and seven repeats and the two Type B genes contain three and five repeats, respectively. Only the Type B gene with three repeats encodes a peptide with a molecular weight of 29 kD. Each repeat of the Type B gene products contains three asparagines as potential sites for N-glycosylation; there are no asparagines in the Type A genes. RNAi with Type A double-stranded RNA did not result in less circling than in the phosphate-buffered saline control, but transfection with Type B double-stranded RNA significantly reduced male circling by 17%. The very low divergence between repeat units, even at synonymous positions, suggests that the repeats are kept nearly identical through a process of concerted evolution. Information-rich molecules like surface glycoproteins are well adapted for chemical communication and aquatic animals may have evolved signaling systems based on these compounds, whereas insects use cuticular hydrocarbons. Conclusion Owing to its critical role in mating, the mate recognition pheromone gene will be a useful molecular marker for exploring the mechanisms and rates of selection and the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation using rotifers as a model system. The phylogenetic variation in the mate recognition pheromone gene can now be studied in conjunction with the large amount of ecological and population genetic data being gathered for the Brachionus plicatilis species complex to understand better the evolutionary drivers of cryptic speciation.

  19. Mating system and size advantage of male mating in the protogynous swamp eel Monopterus albus with paternal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Seiji; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Ohnishi, Nobuhiro; Kohda, Masanori

    2011-05-01

    In fish with paternal care, protogynous sex change (female to male) is rare and has only been reported from species with haremic polygyny. The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is a protogynous fish with paternal care, but little is known about its mating system. To understand protogyny in this species, we examined the mating system and male size advantage in mating in M. albus under semi-natural condition. Females swam over wide ranges and visited multiple male nests. Males defended a narrow territory around nests against other males that approached nests; at these nests, males courted and accepted visiting females. After spawning inside nests, caring males continued to perform courtship activities, and multiple breeding was observed. These observations suggest that the M. albus mating system is male-territory-visiting (MTV)-polygamy. Larger males had nests, and mated more frequently compared with small males. Because small initial males of this species are not found in nature, and because M. albus does not engage in sneaking tactics, larger nesting males do not suffer from reproductive parasitism. Thus, protogyny in this fish is likely consistent with the predictions of the size-advantage model. Biting attacks by territorial males of this predatory fish seriously wounded intruding males, occasionally resulting in the death of the intruder. We discuss the possibility that sexual differences in mortality rates in small fish may facilitate the evolution of protogyny in this species. Protogyny of the swamp eel is, to our knowledge, the first example of an MTV-polygamous mating system in a fish with paternal care. PMID:21557660

  20. Spatial distribution and male mating success of Anopheles gambiae swarms

    OpenAIRE

    Huestis Diana L; Diallo Moussa; Dao Adama; Yaro Alpha S; Diabaté Abdoulaye; Lehmann Tovi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae mates in flight at particular mating sites over specific landmarks known as swarm markers. The swarms are composed of males; females typically approach a swarm, and leave in copula. This mating aggregation looks like a lek, but appears to lack the component of female choice. To investigate the possible mechanisms promoting the evolution of swarming in this mosquito species, we looked at the variation in mating success between swarms and discussed the fact...

  1. Individual Differences in Sociosexual Orientation and Long Term Mate Value Preferences.

    OpenAIRE

    Raw, Charlotte J.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that an individual’s sociosexuality, a measure of sexual permissiveness, is influenced by self esteem, self perceived mate value and personality, however results from past research has been mixed. Furthermore, an individual’s long term mate value preference has been found to correlate with self perceived mate value, although there is a lack of research regarding how self-esteem and personality may relate to long term mate value preferences. The present stud...

  2. Multiple mating in the traumatically inseminating Warehouse pirate bug, Xylocoris flavipes: effects on fecundity and longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Backhouse, Amy; Sait, Steven M.; Cameron, Tom C.

    2012-01-01

    Optimal mating frequencies differ between sexes as a consequence of the sexual differentiation of reproductive costs per mating, where mating is normally more costly to females than males. In mating systems where sexual reproduction is costly to females, sexual conflict may cause both direct (i.e. by reducing female fecundity or causing mortality) and indirect (i.e. increased risk of mortality, reduced offspring viability) reductions in lifetime reproductive success of females, which have ind...

  3. Mate choice promotes inbreeding avoidance in the two-spotted spider mite

    OpenAIRE

    Tien, N. S. H.; Massourakis, G.; Sabelis, M. W.; Egas, M.

    2011-01-01

    Since inbreeding in Tetranychus urticae can reduce offspring fitness, sexual selection may favour disassortative mate choice with respect to relatedness of the mating partners. We tested whether T. urticae shows this preference for mating with unrelated partners. We chose an experimental set-up with high potential for female choosiness, since females only mate once and are therefore expected to be the choosier gender. An adult virgin female was placed together with two adult males from the sa...

  4. Adaptive genetic complementarity in mate choice coexists with selection for elaborate sexual traits

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Kevin P.; Badyaev, Alexander V.

    2006-01-01

    Choice of genetically unrelated mates is widely documented, yet it is not known how self-referential mate choice can co-occur with commonly observed directional selection on sexual displays. Across 10 breeding seasons in a wild bird population, we found strong fitness benefits of matings between genetically unrelated partners and show that self-referential choice of genetically unrelated mates alternates with sexual selection on elaborate plumage. Seasonal cycles of diminishing variation in o...

  5. Mate Choice in Mus musculus Is Relative and Dependent on the Estrous State

    OpenAIRE

    Zinck, Le?a; Lima, Susana Q.

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is a critical behavioral decision process with profound impact on evolution. However, the mechanistic basis of mate choice is poorly understood. In this study we focused on assortative mate choice, which is known to contribute to the reproductive isolation of the two European subspecies of house mouse, Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. To understand the decision process, we developed both full mating and limited-contact paradigms and tested musculus females' prefe...

  6. In the eye of the beholder: visual mate choice lateralization in a polymorphic songbird

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Jennifer J.; Mountjoy, D. James; Pryke, Sarah R.; Griffith, Simon C.

    2012-01-01

    Birds choose mates on the basis of colour, song and body size, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying these mating decisions. Reports that zebra finches prefer to view mates with the right eye during courtship, and that immediate early gene expression associated with courtship behaviour is lateralized in their left hemisphere suggest that visual mate choice itself may be lateralized. To test this hypothesis, we used the Gouldian finch, a polymorphic species in which individuals e...

  7. The role of model female quality in the mate choice copying behaviour of sailfin mollies

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Sarah E.; Ryan, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Female mate choice copying is a socially mediated mate choice behaviour, in which a male's attractiveness to females increases if he was previously chosen by another female as a mate. Although copying has been demonstrated in numerous species, little is known about the specific benefits it confers to copying females. Here we demonstrate that the mate choice behaviour of female sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) is influenced by the phenotypic quality of model females with whom males are obs...

  8. Sex at sea : alternative mating system in an extremely polygynous mammal

    OpenAIRE

    Bruyn, P. J. Nico; Tosh, Cheryl A.; Bester, Marthan Nieuwoudt; Cameron, Elissa Z.; Mcintyre, Trevor; Wilkinson, I. S.

    2011-01-01

    Polygyny is a widespread and evolutionarily significant mating system in vertebrates. The southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, has often been cited as an example of an animal with an extremely polygynous mating system, thus providing an important reference point for studies on mating systems. During the breeding season, these animals form terrestrial harems in which one dominant male controls tens to hundreds of females. Our current understanding of polygynous mating sy...

  9. Effects of temperature variation on male behavior and mating success in a montane beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Cynthia A; Rank, Nathan E; McCarthy, Meagan; McWeeney, Stephen; Hollis, Daniel; Dahlhoff, Elizabeth P

    2013-01-01

    Locomotion and mating ability are crucial for male reproductive success yet are energetically costly and susceptible to physiological stress. In the Sierra willow beetle Chrysomela aeneicollis, male mating success depends on locating and mating with as many females as possible. Variation at the glycolytic enzyme locus phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) is concordant with a latitudinal temperature gradient in these populations, with Pgi-1 frequent in the cooler north, Pgi-4 in the warmer south, and alleles 1 and 4 in relatively equal frequency in areas intermediate in geography and climate. Beetles experience elevated air temperatures during a mating season that causes differential physiological stress among Pgi genotypes, and running speeds of individuals homozygous for Pgi-4 are more tolerant of repeated thermal stress than individuals possessing Pgi-1. Here the importance of running behavior for male mating activity was examined, and differential effects of thermal stress among Pgi genotypes on male mating activity were measured. In nature, males run more than females, and nearly half of males mate or fight for a mate after running. In the laboratory, mating activity was positively correlated with running speed, and repeated mating did not reduce running speed or subsequent mating activity. Males homozygous for Pgi-4 mated longer and more frequently after heat treatment than 1-1 and 1-4 males. All heat-treated males had lower mating frequencies and higher heat shock protein expression than control males; however, mating frequency of recovering 4-4 males increased throughout mating trials, while treated 1-1 and 1-4 males remained low. These results suggest that effects of stress on mating activity differ between Pgi genotypes, implying a critical role for energy metabolism in organisms' response to stressful temperatures. PMID:23799837

  10. Alternative phenotypes of male mating behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Y.; Sabelis, M. W.; Egas, M.; Faraji, F

    2013-01-01

    Severe intraspecific competition for mates selects for aggressive individuals but may also lead to the evolution of alternative phenotypes that do not act aggressively, yet manage to acquire matings. The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, shows male mate-guarding behaviour and male–male combat for available females. This may provide opportunity for weaker males to avoid fighting by adopting alternative mating behaviour such as sneaker or satellite tactics as observed in other ani...

  11. Clinical relevance of SKP2 alterations in metastatic melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Amy E.; Wang, Guimin; Hanniford, Douglas; Monni, Stefano; Tu, Ting; Shapiro, Richard L.; Berman, Russell S.; Pavlick, Anna C.; Pagano, Michele; Darvishian, Farbod; Mazumdar, Madhu; Hernando, Eva; Osman, Iman

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s) of altered expression of protooncogene SKP2 in metastatic melanoma and its clinical relevance in patients with metastatic melanoma. The genomic status of SKP2 was assessed in cell lines by sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphism array, and genomic PCR. Copy number status was then evaluated for concordance with SKP2 mRNA and protein expression. SKP2 protein was further evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 93 human metastatic tissues. No mutati...

  12. Misleading mollies: The effect of an audience on the expression of mating preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, Martin; Schlupp, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    An increasing body of literature considers the question of how mate choice is influenced by the social environment of the choosing individual (non-independent mate choice). For example, individuals may copy the mate choice of others. A very simple form of socially influenced mate choice, however, remained comparatively little investigated: choosing individuals may adjust their mate choice to the mere presence of rivals. Recent studies in our groups1-4 have examined this question. Using live bearing fish (mollies, Poecilia spp.) as a model, we could show that (a) males will copy the mate choice of other males,5 (b) males cease expressing mating preferences in the presence of a conspecific rival male,1,2 whereas (c) females copy each other's mate choice, but are otherwise not affected by an audience.3 (d) Most importantly, males, when presented with an audience (potential rival), first approached the previously non-preferred female, suggesting that males attempt to lead the rival away from their preferred mate, thereby exploiting male mate choice copying behavior.4 We discuss that these effects are best explained as male adaptations to reduce the risk of sperm competition in a highly dynamic mating system with frequent multiple mating. PMID:19513259

  13. The Mating Game: A Classroom Activity for Undergraduates that Explores the Evolutionary Basis of Sex Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dani; Holbrook, C. Tate; Meadows, Melissa G.; Taylor, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    In species that reproduce sexually, an individual's fitness depends on its ability to secure a mate (or mates). Although both males and females are selected to maximize their reproductive output, the mating strategies of the two sexes can differ dramatically. We present a classroom simulation that allows undergraduates to actively experience how…

  14. Do women pretend orgasm to retain a mate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaighobadi, Farnaz; Shackelford, Todd K; Weekes-Shackelford, Viviana A

    2012-10-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that women pretend orgasm as part of a broader strategy of mate retention. We obtained self-report data from 453 heterosexual women (M age, 21.8 years) in a long-term relationship (M length, 32.8 months) drawn from universities and surrounding communities in the southeastern United States. The results indicated that (1) women who perceived higher risk of partner infidelity were more likely to report pretending orgasm, (2) women who reported greater likelihood of pretending orgasm also reported performing more mate retention behaviors, and (3) women's perceptions of partner infidelity risk mediated the relationship between pretending orgasm and the performance of cost-inflicting mate retention behaviors, such as Intersexual Negative Inducements ("Flirted with someone in front of my partner") and Intrasexual Negative Inducements ("Yelled at a woman who looked at my partner"). Thus, pretending orgasm may be part of a broader strategy of mate retention performed by women who perceive higher risk of partner infidelity. PMID:22089325

  15. Sib mating without inbreeding in the longhorn crazy ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcy, Morgan; Goodisman, Michael A D; Keller, Laurent

    2011-09-01

    Sib matings increase homozygosity and, hence, the frequency of detrimental phenotypes caused by recessive deleterious alleles. However, many species have evolved adaptations that prevent the genetic costs associated with inbreeding. We discovered that the highly invasive longhorn crazy ant, Paratrechina longicornis, has evolved an unusual mode of reproduction whereby sib mating does not result in inbreeding. A population genetic study of P. longicornis revealed dramatic differences in allele frequencies between queens, males and workers. Mother-offspring analyses demonstrated that these allele frequency differences resulted from the fact that the three castes were all produced through different means. Workers developed through normal sexual reproduction between queens and males. However, queens were produced clonally and, thus, were genetically identical to their mothers. In contrast, males never inherited maternal alleles and were genetically identical to their fathers. The outcome of this system is that genetic inbreeding is impossible because queen and male genomes remain completely separate. Moreover, the sexually produced worker offspring retain the same genotype, combining alleles from both the maternal and paternal lineage over generations. Thus, queens may mate with their brothers in the parental nest, yet their offspring are no more homozygous than if the queen mated with a male randomly chosen from the population. The complete segregation of the male and female gene pools allows the queens to circumvent the costs associated with inbreeding and therefore may act as an important pre-adaptation for the crazy ant's tremendous invasive success. PMID:21288949

  16. MATE 2005 Summer Institute (Remotely Operated Vehicles): Curriculum Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE) Center hosts summer institutes at their Monterey, CA campus each year. This institute, which took place in 2005, was on the topic of building remotely operated vehicles. This site includes the participant's names, their schools and educational resources/curriculum products.

  17. Out-of-Wedlock Childbearing, Marital Prospects and Mate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhenchao; Lichter, Daniel T.; Mellott, Leanna M.

    2005-01-01

    We apply marital search theory to examine whether out-of-wedlock childbearing affects mate selection patterns among American women. Using 1980-1995 CPS data, we apply probit models with selection to account for potential selection bias due to differences in "marriageability" between women in and not in unions. Compared to those without unmarried…

  18. Two Simple and Effective Simulations on Mate Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, F. Dale; Hendrix, Lewellyn

    1981-01-01

    Describes the use of simulation as a technique of increasing student awareness of the unconscious choices in dating and mate selection. The simulations are useful in arousing curiosity and interest and stimulating and focusing class discussion in courses which deal with marriage and family relationships. (Author)

  19. EFFECTS OF EXTROGENOUS ESTROGEN ON MATE SELECTION OF HOUSE FINCHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of exogenous estrogen on mate selection of house finches. Clark, J., Fairbrother, A*. Parametrix, Inc., Corvallis, OR; Brewer, L., EBA, Inc., Sisters, OR; Bennett, R.S., USEPA, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, Duluth, MN. Concern about the potential for endocrine...

  20. Campus Values in Mate Selection: A Replication and Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, John Richard; And Others

    Research indicates that traditional values regarding the family are learned early in life and tend to change slowly, if at all. Therefore, it is probable that values and preferences expressed in mate selection would vary little from one generation to the next. A replication of a study first conducted in 1939 which concentrated on male attitudes…

  1. Mate Selection Values of High School and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendel, Darwin D.

    1978-01-01

    This article describes an instrument which measures what characteristics students consider important in selecting a mate. The author examines differences in responses to the instrument by a sample of Minnesota high school and college students. Implications of these findings are discussed for high school and college counselors. (Author/JEL)

  2. Optimization of a crossing system using mate selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yongjun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A simple model based on one single identified quantitative trait locus (QTL in a two-way crossing system was used to demonstrate the power of mate selection algorithms as a natural means of opportunistic line development for optimization of crossbreeding programs over multiple generations. Mate selection automatically invokes divergent selection in two parental lines for an over-dominant QTL and increased frequency of the favorable allele toward fixation in the sire-line for a fully-dominant QTL. It was concluded that an optimal strategy of line development could be found by mate selection algorithms for a given set of parameters such as genetic model of QTL, breeding objective and initial frequency of the favorable allele in the base populations, etc. The same framework could be used in other scenarios, such as programs involving crossing to exploit breed effects and heterosis. In contrast to classical index selection, this approach to mate selection can optimize long-term responses.

  3. EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS ESTROGEN ON MATE SELECTION OF HOUSE FINCHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern about the potential for endocrine disrupting chemicals to interfere with normal breeding behaviors of wildlife has prompted this study of effects of exogenous estrogen on mate selection in songbirds. The house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) was selected as a model as it is ...

  4. Instrumental and Expressive Values in Mate Selection Among Black Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V. V. Prakasa; Rao, V. Nandini

    In order to examine the black college student's values toward mate selection, the potential desirable traits of a future spouse were divided into instrumental and expressive traits. Instrumental traits are those which serve the family's essential material needs, while expressive traits serve the family's emotional needs. Possible differences by…

  5. Rare male mating advantage for inversion karyotype in Drosophila ananassae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Arundhati; Singh, B N

    2004-05-01

    These experiments were conducted to study frequency-dependent sexual selection on the alpha inversion in the left arm of the second chromosome (2L) in Drosophila ananassae. Two different strains, ST/ST-standard gene arrangement and AL/AL-alpha inversion in 2L were used. Female-choice experiments were carried out in five different male ratios. Two different methods of observation have been employed, one in which copulating pairs are aspirated out and the other, in which pairs are not removed. Results were analyzed by chi(2) tests, and log odds plus regression analyses. Regression analyses revealed the presence of one-sided rare male mating advantages for AL/AL males. Preferential mating is present within the strain having AL/AL karyotype. The minority male advantage and preferential mating found in the AL/AL strain are different components of mating success. ANOVA fails to show any significant difference between the outcomes of rare-male experiments using these two different methods. PMID:14990872

  6. Sexual dimorphism and mating behavior in Anomala testaceipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sérgio Roberto; Gomes, Elias Soares; Bento, José Maurício Simões

    2014-01-01

    The beetle, Anomala testaceipennis Blanchard (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), occurs in central-western Brazil where larvae feed on the roots of plants causing damage. This research aimed to study sexual dimorphism and mating behavior of A. testaceipennis. Adults of A. testaceipennis were collected with light traps in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. Laboratory experiments were performed to describe copulation behavior and adult morphology of males and females. In males the last abdominal segment has a pronounced constriction, which is absent in females, and the male's last segment of the first pair of legs has a ventral projection, which is poorly developed in females. The mating activities of adults begin soon after sunset, when adults leave the soil and fly. When the male encounters a female, he touches her with antennae and tarsi. If accepted, the male climbs on the female and remains on her back, and soon after the copulation begins. When the female does not accept the male for mating, she moves rapidly and can roll on the ground, and by so removing the male. In the field, adults feed and mate on bloomed trees of Oiti, Licania tomentosa Benth (Malpighiales: Chrysobalanaceae) and Louro, Cordia glabrata Martius (Boraginaceae). In trees without inflorescences no adults of this species were found. PMID:25502043

  7. No evidence for learned mating discrimination in male Drosophila pseudoobscura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandul Ekaterina V

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since females often pay a higher cost for heterospecific matings, mate discrimination and species recognition are driven primarily by female choice. In contrast, frequent indiscriminate matings are hypothesized to maximize male fitness. However, recent studies show that previously indiscriminate males (e.g., Drosophila melanogaster and Poecilia reticulata can learn to avoid heterospecific courtship. This ability of males to discriminate against heterospecific courtship may be advantageous in populations where two species co-occur if courtship or mating is costly. Results Here, we tested whether Drosophila pseudoobscura males learn to discriminate against heterospecific females after being exposed to and rejected by D. persimilis females. In most of our assays, we failed to observe differences in D. pseudoobscura courtship intensity of heterospecific females by males that had previously courted heterospecific females vs. males that had been maintained in isolation. Conclusion We conclude that learning to avoid heterospecific courtship may not be universal, even within the genus Drosophila, and may possibly be dependent on the natural history of the species.

  8. Conditioned mate-guarding behavior in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Amanda; Shalev, Shy; Bellevue, Shannon; Pfaus, James G

    2014-05-28

    Female and male rats are often described as having a promiscuous mating strategy, yet simple Pavlovian conditioning paradigms, in which a neutral odor or strain-related cues are paired with preferred sexual reward states during an animal's first sexual experiences, shift this strategy toward copulatory and mate preferences for partners bearing the familiar odor or strain cue. We examined whether female rats given exclusive rewarding copulation with one particular male would display mate-guarding behavior, a strong index of monogamous mating. Ovariectomized, hormone-primed female Long-Evans rats were given their first 10 paced sexual experiences at 4-day intervals with a particular unscented male of the same strain. A final test was conducted in an open field 4-days later in which the primed, partnered female was given access to the male partner and a fully-primed competitor female. In this situation, the partnered females mounted the competitor female repeatedly if she came near the vicinity of the male. This behavior prevented the male from copulating with the competitor, and was not displayed if partnered females could not pace the rate of copulatory behavior efficiently during the training trials, nor was it displayed by the competitor females. Fos expression was examined in both the partnered and competitor females after the final open field test. Partnered females had significantly higher expression within the supraoptic nucleus and nucleus accumbens shell compared to partnered females that did not develop this behavior or competitor females. These data show that females engaged in paced copulation with the same male display mate-guarding when exposed to that male and a competitor female. Increased activation of the SON and NAc may underlie this behavior. PMID:24768651

  9. Evolution of the mating system in colonizing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, John R

    2015-05-01

    Colonization is likely to be more successful for species with an ability to self-fertilize and thus to establish new populations as single individuals. As a result, self-compatibility should be common among colonizing species. This idea, labelled 'Baker's law', has been influential in discussions of sexual-system and mating-system evolution. However, its generality has been questioned, because models of the evolution of dispersal and the mating system predict an association between high dispersal rates and outcrossing rather than selfing, and because of many apparent counter examples to the law. The contrasting predictions made by models invoking Baker's law versus those for the evolution of the mating system and dispersal urges a reassessment of how we should view both these traits. Here, I review the literature on the evolution of mating and dispersal in colonizing species, with a focus on conceptual issues. I argue for the importance of distinguishing between the selfing or outcrossing rate and a simple ability to self-fertilize, as well as for the need for a more nuanced consideration of dispersal. Colonizing species will be characterized by different phases in their life pattern: dispersal to new habitat, implying an ecological sieve on dispersal traits; establishment and a phase of growth following colonization, implying a sieve on reproductive traits; and a phase of demographic stasis at high density, during which new trait associations can evolve through local adaptation. This dynamic means that the sorting of mating-system and dispersal traits should change over time, making simple predictions difficult. PMID:25611580

  10. The Chlamydomonas Mating Type Plus Fertilization Tubule, a Prototypic Cell Fusion Organelle: Isolation, Characterization, and In Vitro Adhesion to Mating Type Minus Gametes

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Nedra F.; Foglesong, Mary J.; Snell, William J

    1997-01-01

    In the biflagellated alga Chlamydomonas, adhesion and fusion of the plasma membranes of gametes during fertilization occurs via an actin-filled, microvillus-like cell protrusion. Formation of this ?3-?m-long fusion organelle, the Chlamydomonas fertilization tubule, is induced in mating type plus (mt+) gametes during flagellar adhesion with mating type minus (mt?) gametes. Subsequent adhesion between the tip of the mt+ fertilization tubule and the apex of a mating ...

  11. The genetic mating system of a sea spider with male-biased sexual size dimorphism: evidence for paternity skew despite random mating success

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto, Felipe S.; Avise, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Male-biased size dimorphism is usually expected to evolve in taxa with intense male–male competition for mates, and it is hence associated with high variances in male mating success. Most species of pycnogonid sea spiders exhibit female-biased size dimorphism, and are notable among arthropods for having exclusive male parental care of embryos. Relatively little, however, is known about their natural history, breeding ecology, and mating systems. Here we first show that Ammothella biunguicul...

  12. Aphrodisiac Pheromone and its role in mating behaviour of Gamma irradiated SPODOPTERA LITTORALIS (BOISD.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aphrodisiac pheromone in male moth of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis, is secreted from a scent gland that lies in the fore wings and hair pencils. The damage of the gland by gamma irradiation or elimination of the fore wings reduced mating percentage and the other related mating aspects. Multiple mating seldom was occurred in the eliminated wing males and this mean that the wing gland was effective in mating behaviour. The knowledge on pheromone glands and their role in mating behaviour have been appeared to be essential in the integrated control programmes

  13. EFEITO DA ADIÇÃO DE RESÍDUOS DE PODA DA ERVA-MATE EM PAINÉIS AGLOMERADOS / EFFECT OF ADDING YERBA MATE PRUNING RESIDUES IN PARTICLEBOARD PANELS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amelia Guimarães, Carvalho; Bruno Geike de, Andrade; Carla Priscilla Távora, Cabral; Benedito Rocha, Vital.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade técnica da utilização de resíduos da poda de erva-mate na produção de painéis aglomerados. Foram produzidos painéis de aglomerados nas seguintes composições: 100% de pinus (T1), 100% de resíduos de erva-mate com casca (T2), 100% de resíduos de erva [...] -mate sem casca (T3), 50% de pinus com 50% de resíduos de erva-mate com casca (T4) e 50% de pinus com 50% de resíduos de erva-mate sem casca (T5). Os painéis foram produzidos com o adesivo ureia-formaldeído a um teor de 8%, com ciclo de prensagem de 8 min, a 170 ºC e 30 kgf.cm-2. Os painéis produzidos com os resíduos de erva-mate apresentaram menor umidade de equilíbrio higroscópico (UEH), assim como menor absorção de água após 24 h de imersão (AA 24 h). Não houve diferença estatística entre os tratamentos quanto às propriedades de compressão, arrancamento de parafusos, dureza Janka e ligação interna. Os painéis produzidos com resíduos de erva-mate, assim como as misturas deles com partículas de pinus, apresentaram valores de módulo de ruptura à flexão estática inferiores aos estipulados pela norma brasileira NBR 14810-2 (ABNT, 2002). Como não atenderam a um dos requisitos mínimos, painéis produzidos com resíduos de erva-mate não devem ser utilizados em substituição aos painéis de madeira aglomerada. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of using residues from pruning yerba mate for manufacturing particleboard panels. Particleboard panels were produced containing: 100% pine (T1), 100% residues of yerba mate with bark (T2), 100% residues of yerba mate without bark (T3), [...] 50% pine with 50% residues of yerba mate with bark (T4) and 50% pine with 50% residues of yerba mate without bark (T5). The panels were produced with an urea formaldehyde adhesive 8%, with a pressing cycle of 8 minutes at 170° C and 30 kgf.cm-2. The panels produced with residues of yerba mate showed less hygroscopic equilibrium moisture (HEM) and lower water absorption after 24 of immersion (AA 24 h). There was no statistical difference among the treatments as for the properties of compression, screws pullout, Janka hardness and internal bond. The panels produced with residues of yerba mate, as well as mixtures of these with pine particles, showed values of modulus of rupture in static bending lower than stipulated by the Brazilian standard NBR 14810-2 (ABNT, 2002). Since they did meet one of the basic requirements, panels produced with residues of yerba mate should not be used to substitute wood particleboard panels.

  14. Compliance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford`s compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute.

  15. Compliance status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford's compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute

  16. Influence of mating on ovarian follicle development in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asin

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available This works examines the influence of mating on ovarian follicle development in Triatoma infestans. The observations were carried out on both virgin and mated females, wich were killed at various times after their emergence. There was no difference in the ovarian development of both experimental groups during the first gonadotrofic cycle. By the 7th day mated females as well as virgn females showed vitellogenic oocytes. The coriogenesis and ovulation process began on the 13th day after imaginal moulting. However we could observe that egg-laying was dependent on mating. Mated females laid eggs whereas virgin females did not lay eggs. However ovarian production was significantly greater in the mated females. It is suggested that in T. infestans mating stimulates egg-laying but it does not influence the oogenesis and ovulation process.

  17. Influence of mating on ovarian follicle development in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Asin; L. Crocco de, Ayerbe.

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available This works examines the influence of mating on ovarian follicle development in Triatoma infestans. The observations were carried out on both virgin and mated females, wich were killed at various times after their emergence. There was no difference in the ovarian development of both experimental grou [...] ps during the first gonadotrofic cycle. By the 7th day mated females as well as virgn females showed vitellogenic oocytes. The coriogenesis and ovulation process began on the 13th day after imaginal moulting. However we could observe that egg-laying was dependent on mating. Mated females laid eggs whereas virgin females did not lay eggs. However ovarian production was significantly greater in the mated females. It is suggested that in T. infestans mating stimulates egg-laying but it does not influence the oogenesis and ovulation process.

  18. Interactive cueing with walk-Mate for Hemiparetic Stroke Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muto Takeshi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many techniques that compensate for locomotion problems in daily life using externally controlled stimulation have recently been reported. These techniques are beneficial for effortlessly supporting patients’ locomotive functions, but the users of such devices must necessarily remain dependent on them. It is possible that some individuals with gait impairment may be prevented recovering locomotive function. From a rehabilitation viewpoint, it may therefore be supposed that ideally, devices that can be used in daily life to improve the locomotive functions of the body itself should be proposed. Methods We evaluate the effectiveness of Walk-Mate, which has been used mainly as a gait compensation device, as a gait rehabilitation training device by analyzing improvement in locomotion before, during and after rehabilitation in hemiparetic patients and comparing it with a previous gait training method. Walk-Mate generates a model walking rhythm in response to a user’s locomotion in real time, and by indicating this rhythm using auditory stimuli, provides a technology that supports walking by reducing asymmetries and fluctuations in foot contact rhythm. If patients can use the system to learn a regulated walking rhythm, then it may also be expected to fulfil the functions of a gait rehabilitation training device for daily life. Results With regard to asymmetry, significantly improvements were seen for compensatory movement during training using Walk-Mate, but improvements were not retained as rehabilitative results. Regarding fluctuations in the foot contact period, significant improvement was observed for compensatory movement during training and these significant improvements were retained as rehabilitative results. In addition, it became clear that such improvement could not be adequately obtained by the previously proposed training technique utilizing constant rhythmic auditory stimulation. Conclusions Walk-Mate effectively compensated for locomotion problems of hemiparetic patients by improving gait rhythm both during and after training, suggesting that locomotive function can be effectively recovered in some patients. The interactive mechanism of Walk-Mate may be capable of simultaneously achieving the aims of gait compensation and gait rehabilitation training methods previously developed under individual frameworks. Walk-Mate is a promising technology for assisting the reintegration of disabled persons into society.

  19. Life at the margin: the mating system of Mediterranean conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Restoux

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Mixed mating, where a single tree progeny results from a mixture of selfing and outcrossing, is widespread in conifers and could be an evolutionary advantage at ecological margins when mating partners become scarce. This study analyzes how the mating system responds to bioclimate and density variations. We surveyed published data on the mating system of Abies, Picea and Pinus species when information on bioclimate and stand density was available. Our survey revealed that Mediterranean species demonstrate a lower selfing rate than other species and that the proportion of selfed versus outcrossed progeny is not fixed within species. The highest variability in mating types within populations was found when stand density was the most variable.

    To show how density affects the proportion of selfed versus outcrossed progeny, we used isozymes to genotype single tree seeds from a marginal Abies alba forest in Mediterranean France (Mont Ventoux where low-to high-density stands are found. We then tested the adaptive potential of the different high and low density progenies by sowing them under controlled nursery conditions and measuring germination rate and seedling survival after 4 yr under 3 different water regimes. Although the mean value of outcrossing rate was typical for mixed mating conifers (tm = 0.85, individual outcrossing rates varied from 0.05 to 0.99 and were strongly correlated with stand type and density (tm from 0.87 in high-density to 0.43 in low-density marginal stands. Significantly fewer seeds from the low density marginal stand germinated (32% vs. 53% in the high density mature stand, although seedlings from the marginal stand had a better 4-yr survival (81% than seedlings from the high-density mature stand (63% when the three water regimes (from least to most stressful were averaged.

    Trees from low density stands may be at a selective disadvantage because they produce more selfed progeny than trees from high-density stands. However, selfed seeds may be purged early on (at the embryo stage and the remaining seeds tend to produce seedlings with better fitness. Variability of the selfing rate might thus be an adaptive strategy for species in highly contrasted environments where selection of both reproductive assurance and avoidance of inbreeding depression may be density dependent.

  20. Weighing costs and benefits of mating in bushcrickets (Insecta: Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae, with an emphasis on nuptial gifts, protandry and mate density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann Gerlind U C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexual selection is a major force driving evolution and is intertwined with ecological factors. Differential allocation of limited resources has a central role in the cost of reproduction. In this paper, I review the costs and benefits of mating in tettigoniids, focussing on nuptial gifts, their trade-off with male calling songs, protandry and how mate density influences mate choice. Tettigoniids have been widely used as model systems for studies of mating costs and benefits; they can provide useful general insights. The production and exchange of large nuptial gifts by males for mating is an important reproductive strategy in tettigoniids. As predicted by sexual selection theory spermatophylax size is condition dependent and is constrained by the need to invest in calling to attract mates also. Under some circumstances, females benefit directly from the nuptial gifts by an increase in reproductive output. However, compounds in the nuptial gift can also benefit the male by prolonging the period before the female remates. There is also a trade-off between adult male maturation and mating success. Where males mature before females (protandry the level of protandry varies in the direction predicted by sperm competition theory; namely, early male maturation is correlated with a high level of first inseminations being reproductively successful. Lastly, mate density in bushcrickets is an important environmental factor influencing the behavioural decisions of individuals. Where mates are abundant, individuals are more choosey of mates; when they are scarce, individuals are less choosey. This review reinforces the view that tettigoniids provide excellent models to test and understand the economics of matings in both sexes.

  1. Weighing costs and benefits of mating in bushcrickets (Insecta: Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae), with an emphasis on nuptial gifts, protandry and mate density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Gerlind U C

    2012-01-01

    Sexual selection is a major force driving evolution and is intertwined with ecological factors. Differential allocation of limited resources has a central role in the cost of reproduction. In this paper, I review the costs and benefits of mating in tettigoniids, focussing on nuptial gifts, their trade-off with male calling songs, protandry and how mate density influences mate choice. Tettigoniids have been widely used as model systems for studies of mating costs and benefits; they can provide useful general insights. The production and exchange of large nuptial gifts by males for mating is an important reproductive strategy in tettigoniids. As predicted by sexual selection theory spermatophylax size is condition dependent and is constrained by the need to invest in calling to attract mates also. Under some circumstances, females benefit directly from the nuptial gifts by an increase in reproductive output. However, compounds in the nuptial gift can also benefit the male by prolonging the period before the female remates. There is also a trade-off between adult male maturation and mating success. Where males mature before females (protandry) the level of protandry varies in the direction predicted by sperm competition theory; namely, early male maturation is correlated with a high level of first inseminations being reproductively successful. Lastly, mate density in bushcrickets is an important environmental factor influencing the behavioural decisions of individuals. Where mates are abundant, individuals are more choosey of mates; when they are scarce, individuals are less choosey. This review reinforces the view that tettigoniids provide excellent models to test and understand the economics of matings in both sexes. PMID:22894685

  2. Lifetime offspring production in relation to breeding lifespan, attractiveness, and mating status in male collared flycatchers

    OpenAIRE

    Here?nyi, Marto?n; Garamszegi, La?szlo? Z.; Hargitai, R.; Michl, G. Rosivall; To?ro?k, Ja?nos

    2012-01-01

    As a comprehensive fitness parameter, lifetime reproductive success (LRS) is influenced by many different environmental and genetic factors, among which longevity is one of the most important. These factors can be reflected in secondary sexual characters, which may affect the life histories of individuals via social relations with conspecifics. Facultative polygyny in birds is another conspicuous reproductive trait that potentially increases male reproductive success, but lifetime success dat...

  3. Breeding success of a brood parasite is associated with social mating status of its host.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, A.; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Prokop, P.; Honza, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 66, ?. 8 (2012), s. 1187-1194. ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA600930903; GA ?R(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brood parasitism * cuckoo * great reed warbler * polygyny * reproductive success Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.752, year: 2012

  4. Effect of host social mating status on breeding success of a brood parasite.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    Hainan : Hainan Normal University, 2012. s. 16. [International Symposium on Avian Brood Parasitism - in Honour of Significant Brood Parasitism Scientists. 15.11.2012-19.11.2012, Hainan] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : cuckoo * great reed warbler Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on sperm utilization in twice-mated female of potato tuber moth (Lep., Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of second mating on fecundity and fertility of potato tuber moth female mated with 450 Gy - irradiated and normal males or vice versa were studied. Percentage of eggs fertilized by sperm from the 2 nd mate (P2) was 0.99, indicating that sperm transferred during the last mating were predominantly utilized in egg fertilization. Females mated first with irradiated males, remated after 2 days, while those mated first with normal males, remated after 3.3 days. Fecundity of twice-mated females was higher than those mated only once. Females laid their eggs 1.9 days after mating, while unmated females did not lay eggs at all. Duration of mating varied from 102 to 117 minutes for normal and irradiated males, respectively. (author)

  6. Experimental evolution reveals trade-offs between mating and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathryn B; Wedell, Nina; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-08-23

    Immune system maintenance and upregulation is costly. Sexual selection intensity, which increases male investment into reproductive traits, is expected to create trade-offs with immune function. We assayed phenoloxidase (PO) and lytic activity of individuals from populations of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, which had been evolving under different intensities of sexual selection. We found significant divergence among populations, with males from female-biased populations having lower PO activity than males from balanced sex ratio or male-biased populations. There was no divergence in anti-bacterial lytic activity. Our data suggest that it is the increased male mating demands in female-biased populations that trades-off against immunity, and not the increased investment in sperm transfer per mating that characterizes male-biased populations. PMID:23720521

  7. Mechanical seal having a single-piece, perforated mating ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonsari, Michael M. (Baton Rouge, LA); Somanchi, Anoop K. (Fremont, CA)

    2007-08-07

    A mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) with reduced contact surface temperature, reduced contact surface wear, or increased life span. The mechanical seal comprises a rotating ring and a single-piece, perforated mating ring, which improves heat transfer by controllably channeling coolant flow through the single-piece mating ring such that the coolant is in substantially uniform thermal contact with a substantial portion of the interior surface area of the seal face, while maintaining the structural integrity of the mechanical seal and minimizing the potential for coolant flow interruptions to the seal face caused by debris or contaminants (e.g., small solids and trash) in the coolant.

  8. Inositols affect the mating circadian rhythm of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Kazuki; Kawasaki, Haruhisa; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ito, Kumpei; Negishi, Osamu; Tsuno, Takuo; Tsuno, Hiromi; Yamazaki, Youta; Ishida, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the molecular circadian clock underlies the mating behavior of Drosophila melanogaster. However, information about which food components affect circadian mating behavior is scant. The ice plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum has recently become a popular functional food. Here, we showed that the close-proximity (CP) rhythm of D. melanogaster courtship behavior was damped under low-nutrient conditions, but significantly enhanced by feeding the flies with powdered ice plant. Among various components of ice plants, we found that myo-inositol increased the amplitude and slightly shortened the period of the CP rhythm. Real-time reporter assays showed that myo-inositol and D-pinitol shortened the period of the circadian reporter gene Per2-luc in NIH 3T3 cells. These data suggest that the ice plant is a useful functional food and that the ability of inositols to shorten rhythms is a general phenomenon in insects as well as mammals. PMID:26097456

  9. Fly transmission and mating of Trypanosoma brucei brucei strain 427

    OpenAIRE

    Peacock, Lori; Ferris, Vanessa; Bailey, Mick; Gibson, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Like yeast, Trypanosoma brucei is a model organism and has a published genome sequence. Although T. b. brucei strain 427 is used for studies of trypanosome molecular biology, particularly antigenic variation, in many labs worldwide, this strain was not selected for the genome sequencing project as it is monomorphic and unable to complete development in the insect vector. Instead, the fly transmissible, mating competent strain TREU 927 was used for the genome project, but is not as easily grow...

  10. Mating behavior and the evolution of sperm design

    OpenAIRE

    Scha?rer, Lukas; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Yoshida, Wataru; Vizoso, Dita B.

    2011-01-01

    Sperm are the most diverse of all animal cell types, and much of the diversity in sperm design is thought to reflect adaptations to the highly variable conditions under which sperm function and compete to achieve fertilization. Recent work has shown that these conditions often evolve rapidly as a consequence of multiple mating, suggesting a role for sexual selection and sexual conflict in the evolution of sperm design. However, very little of the striking diversity in sperm design is understo...

  11. Stratification in the Early Stages of Mate Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Sociologists have long studied mate choice patterns to understand the shape of stratification systems. Romantic pairing involves intimacy and trust, and is therefore a prime indicator of the extent to which members of different social groupings (race/ethnicity, social class, education, religion) accept each other as social equals. The majority of this literature focuses on marriage, given the commitment marriage implies and the availability of nationally-representative data. In this dissertat...

  12. MATING BEHAVIOUR AND CANNIBALISM IN PRAYING MANTIS (MANTIS RELIGIOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel – Ionu? BOGDAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study the reproductive behaviour of praying mantis (Mantis religiosa L., describing the whole sequences of mating behaviour, approaching wholeness behavioural sequences related to reproduction of species, with special reference to cannibalistic behaviour, observed both in laboratory and natural environment of the insect. The investigations undertaken deduce the complexity of the problem and the need for further studies to elucidate and other aspects reguarding this type of behaviour.

  13. Treatment of Persistent Mating Induced Endometritis in Arabian Maiden Mares

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, M. B.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the treatment of Persistent Mating Induced Endometritis (PMIE) in Arabian maiden mares using uterine lavage containing antibiotics alone or with uterotonic agents. Maiden mares (n = 42) with PMIE were subjected to detailed clinical examinations including palpation per rectum, vaginoscopy and cytological examination. The mares were qualified as PMIE due to accumulation of uterine fluid 1-2 days post breeding. Uterine lavage containing crystall...

  14. Assortative Mating and Divorce: Evidence from Austrian Register Data

    OpenAIRE

    Frimmel, Wolfgang; Halla, Martin; Winter-ebmer, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents that changes in assortative mating patterns over the last four decades along the dimensions of age, ethnicity, religion and education are not responsible for the increasing marital instability in Austria. Quite the contrary, without the rise in the age at marriage, divorce rates would be considerably higher. Immigration and secularization, and the resulting supply of spouses with diverse ethnicity and religious denominations had no overall effect on divorce rates. Counter...

  15. Sexual Segregation and Flexible Mating Patterns in Temperate Bats

    OpenAIRE

    Angell, Ruth L.; Butlin, Roger K.; Altringham, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Social structure evolves from a trade-off between the costs and benefits of group-living, which are in turn dependent upon the distribution of key resources such as food and shelter. Males and females, or juveniles and adults, may have different priorities when selecting habitat due to differences in physiological or behavioural imperatives, leading to complex patterns in group composition. We studied social structure and mating behaviour in the insectivorous bat Myotis daubentonii along an a...

  16. Insulin-receptors in diabetes and altered thyroidal status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats were made hypothyroid by treating with a single dose of 800 ?Ci of 131I and hyperthyroid condition was created by administering 90 ?g of thyroxine daily for 2 weeks. Diabetes was produced by administering single dose of alloxan monohydrate. Hypothyroid rats showed significant increase in 125I-insulin binding with its liver plasma membrane receptors with respect to normal rats. In the case of hypothyroid diabetic rats such binding was greater as compared to hypothyroid rats without diabetes. Hyperthyroid rats with respect to normal control rats showed a decrease in 125I-insulin binding to its liver plasma membrane receptors. When hyperthyroid rats were made diabetic, 125I-insulin binding to its receptors was further decreased. The study infers that hyper-thyrodism further decreases insulin binding to its receptors which has already been decreased in diabetes. Hypothyroidism, on the other hand, improves upon the decreased insulin binding to its receptors in diabetes. (author). 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Asymmetrical integration of sensory information during mating decisions in grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Jan; Krämer, Stefanie; Ronacher, Bernhard

    2014-11-18

    Decision-making processes, like all traits of an organism, are shaped by evolution; they thus carry a signature of the selection pressures associated with choice behaviors. The way sexual communication signals are integrated during courtship likely reflects the costs and benefits associated with mate choice. Here, we study the evaluation of male song by females during acoustic courtship in grasshoppers. Using playback experiments and computational modeling we find that information of different valence (attractive vs. nonattractive) is weighted asymmetrically: while information associated with nonattractive features has large weight, attractive features add little to the decision to mate. Accordingly, nonattractive features effectively veto female responses. Because attractive features have so little weight, the model suggests that female responses are frequently driven by integration noise. Asymmetrical weighting of negative and positive information may reflect the fitness costs associated with mating with a nonattractive over an attractive singer, which are also highly asymmetrical. In addition, nonattractive cues tend to be more salient and therefore more reliable. Hence, information provided by them should be weighted more heavily. Our findings suggest that characterizing the integration of sensory information during a natural behavior has the potential to provide valuable insights into the selective pressures shaping decision-making during evolution. PMID:25368152

  18. Selection and mating considering expected inbreeding of future progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanRaden, P M; Smith, L A

    1999-12-01

    Animals most related or least related to current members of their breed were revealed by calculating the expected inbreeding of their future progeny. A sample of potential mates was chosen by randomly selecting 600 females from a recent birth year (1995). Relationships among the sample were computed by the tabular method. Relationships of other animals to the sample population were computed quickly from the relationships of their parents or ancestors. To-Mar Blackstar-ET and Round Oak Rag Apple Elevation were most related to the Holstein breed with expected inbreeding of 7.9 and 7.7%, respectively. Corresponding Jersey bulls were Highland Magic Duncan and Soldierboy Boomer Sooner of CJF with expected inbreeding of 10.9 and 9.5%, respectively. The highest expected inbreeding was 11.1% for Selwood Bettys Commander, 8.6% for Forest Lawn Simon Jetway, 10.1% for Dutch Mill Telestars Fayette, and 7.4% for Korncrest Pacesetter for Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Guernsey, and Milking Shorthorn breeds, respectively. Regression on inbreeding in the genetic evaluation model removed effects of past inbreeding. Future inbreeding effects could be included for each potential mating or by adjusting breeding values for average inbreeding expected with random mating. The correlation between Holstein breeding values unadjusted and adjusted for inbreeding was 0.9976. The estimated genetic trend was 6% lower with future inbreeding included. PMID:10629825

  19. Mating system as a barrier to gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Understanding mating system as one of reproductive isolating barriers remains important although this barrier is classified in a different sense from behavioral, ecological, and mechanical isolating barriers. Selfing enhances incipient speciation while outcrossing facilitates species integrity. Here, I study how mating system affects gene exchanges between genetically diverging species in a hybrid zone. Results show that a predominant selfing species has a greater barrier to selective gene flow than does a predominant outcrossing species. Barrier to neutral gene flow convexly changes with the selfing rate due to linkage disequilibrium, with a maximum at around intermediate selfing rate. Asymmetric transient or steady-state barriers to neutral gene flow occur between two sides of a hybrid zone when the neutral gene is affected by its linked selective gene whose alternative alleles are adaptive to heterogeneous habitats. Selfing interacts with both a physical barrier and a density-dependent ecological regulation (a logarithmic model) to strengthen the barriers to neutral and selective gene flow. This theory helps to interpret incipient speciation driven by selfing or to explain the asymmetric gene flow or unequal genomic mixtures between closely related species caused by their asymmetric mating systems in natural hybrid zones. PMID:25873333

  20. A comparison of two methods to assess audience-induced changes in male mate choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlen ZIEGE, Carmen HENNIGE-SCHULZ, Frauke MUECKSCH,David BIERBACH, Ralph TIEDEMANN, Bruno STREIT, Martin PLATH

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Multidirectional communicative interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior. Male Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana exhibit weaker mating preferences when an audience male is presented. This could be a male strategy to reduce sperm competition risk: interacting more equally with different females may be advantageous because rivals might copy mate choice decisions. In line with this hypothesis, a previous study found males to show a strong audience effect when being observed while exercising mate choice, but not when the rival was presented only before the choice tests. Audience effects on mate choice decisions have been quantified in poeciliid fishes using association preference designs, but it remains unknown if patterns found from measuring association times translate into actual mating behavior. Thus, we created five audience treatments simulating different forms of perceived sperm competition risk and determined focal males’ mating preferences by scoring pre-mating (nipping and mating behavior (gonopodial thrusting. Nipping did not reflect the pattern that was found when association preferences were measured, while a very similar pattern was uncovered in thrusting behavior. The strongest response was observed when the audience could eavesdrop on the focal male’s behavior. A reduction in the strength of focal males’ preferences was also seen after the rival male had an opportunity to mate with the focal male’s preferred mate. In comparison, the reduction of mating preferences in response to an audience was greater when measuring association times than actual mating behavior. While measuring direct sexual interactions between the focal male and both stimulus females not only the male’s motivational state is reflected but also females’ behavior such as avoidance of male sexual harassment [Current Zoology 58 (1: 84–94, 2012].

  1. Parámetros de calidad higiénico-sanitaria para yerba mate elaborada / Parameters of hygienic - sanitary quality for elaborated yerba mate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sylvia A, Bordenave; Jorge A, Duce; Liliana R, Ybarra.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la calidad higiénico-sanitaria de 61 marcas comerciales distintas de Yerba Mate elaborada, con el objeto de determinar parámetros medios de calidad que pudieran ser propuestos como referencia. Se realizaron recuentos de microorganismos aerobios mesófilos totales, coliformes totales y fe [...] cales, hongos y levaduras siguiendo técnicas propuestas por Normas IRAM. Se encontró que, el 61% de las muestras presentaron valores de aerobios mesófilos totales Abstract in english The researcg of the hygienic-sanitary quality of 60 different trademarks of elaborated yerba mate was carried out to determine standard parameters that could be proposed as reference. The counting of microorganisms: total aerobic mesophilic, total and faecal coliforms, fungi and yeasts was carried o [...] ut in the samples following the techniques proposed by IRAM Norms. In 61% of the samples, values of total aerobic mesophilic

  2. Regulation of mating behavior by nutrition and the corpus allatum in both male and female Phormia regina (Meigen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, C -M.; Qin, W -H.; Stoffolano, J G.

    1999-09-01

    Both dietary protein and the corpus allatum (CA) were required for normal mating behavior in both male and female black blow fly, Phormia regina (Meigen). Nutrition (protein diet) activated the CA in both sexes. More than 10 mg of dietary liver was required for each male to result in 80% insemination of females, while 20 mg of liver was required for each female to allow 78% of females to become inseminated. Between 10 to 15 mg of protein meal (i.e., liver) was required to activate sexual receptivity in 71% of the females, while between 15 to 20 mg of liver was needed to support full oöcyte development in 70% of the females (Yin, C.-M., Zou, B.-X., Li, M.-F., Stoffolano, J.G., Jr. 1994. Discovery of a midgut peptide hormone which activates the endocrine cascade leading to oogenesis in Phormia regina Meigen. Journal of Insect Physiology, 40, 283-292). Allatectomy suppressed mating behavior more than 2-fold in both sexes. Topical application of 10 &mgr;g of S-methoprene (a juvenile hormone analogue) at 12 h after the onset of liver feeding restored sexual activity of both allatectomized males and females. Incidence of successful insemination increased as the oöcyte development progressed. Ovariectomy suppressed sexual receptivity more than 3-fold in liver-fed females. Thus, in addition to nutrition and the CA, ovaries and their developmentaal status can also affect the sexual receptivity in female P. regina. PMID:12770294

  3. Effect of group status on physical attractiveness preferences--from the Japanese case to a general cognitive perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowner, R

    1996-05-01

    The development of intergroup physical attractiveness preferences and the effect of national status on physical attractiveness judgments were examined. Study 1 reveals that ranking of national status and physical attractiveness are correlated. Study 2 shows that national labels attached to persons affect the ratings of their attractiveness. The results of Study 3 demonstrate that people tend to connect attractive people with nations of higher status. The author suggests that perceptions of national attractiveness derive from a categorization process linking status and appearance, as well as from indigenous dispositions toward certain physical features related to the preference of an ingroup mate. PMID:8674998

  4. Pleiotropic mutations at the TUP1 locus that affect the expression of mating-type-dependent functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The umr7-1 mutation, previously identified in a set of mutants that had been selected for defective uv-induced mutagenesis at CAN1, affects other cellular functions, including many of those regulated by the mating-type locus (MAT) in heterothallic Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recessive umr7-1 allele, mapping approximately 20 cM distal to thr4 on chromosome III, causes clumpy growth in both a and ? cells and has no apparent effect on a mating functions. The most striking property of a umr7 strains is their altered morphology, in which mitotic cells develop an asymmetric pear shape, like that of normal a cells induced to form shmoos by interaction with a-factor. Some a/?-specific diploid functions are also affected by umr7; instead of polar budding patterns, a/? umr7/umr7 diploids have medial budding like a/a, ?/? and haploid strains. Moreover, a/? umr7/umr7 diploids have lost the ability to sporulate and are Bar+ like a or a/a strains. Revertant studies indicate that umr7-1 is a single point mutation. The umr7 mutant fails to complement mutants of both tup1 and cyc9 and all three isolates have similar genetic and phenotypic properties. It is suggested that the product of this gene plays some common central role in the complex regulation of the expression of both MAT-dependent and MAT-independent functions

  5. Genetic Analysis of Mating Type Differentiation in PARAMECIUM TETRAURELIA. II. Role of the Micronuclei in Mating-Type Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Brygoo, Y.; Sonneborn, T. M.; Keller, A. M.; Dippell, R. V.; Schneller, M. V.

    1980-01-01

    The two complementary mating types, O and E, of Paramecium tetraurelia are normally inherited cytoplasmically. This property has generally been interpreted to indicate the presence of cytoplasmic factors that determine macronuclear differentiation towards O or E. In these macronuclear-cytoplasmic interactions, the micronuclei were held to be unbiased and the determination to be established in the course of macronuclear development. In order to ascertain whether the micronuclei were actually n...

  6. The use of rapid quality control in determining mating propensity and mating competitiveness of irradiated Mediterranean fruit flies. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedeman) at various ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Success of using irradiation to sterile males of various insect species for control or eradication by the sterile-insect release technique requires a certain dose for sterilizing without effects on mating behavior. This study was conducted at the Tropical Fruit and Vegetable Research Laboratory, Hawaii, to observe some radiation effects of this laboratory's currently used sterilizing dose on mating propensity and competitiveness of flies. The results of this study would be useful information for future research and use of this technique in Thailand. Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedeman) were irradiated with 145 gray of gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source in a nitrogen atmosphere 2 days before eclosion. Mating behavior of 3-6 day old flies were observed for 3 replications. The test of mating propensity was conducted by using two plexiglas cages containing 25 pairs of irradiated and non-irradiated flies in each cage. The results showed that there was no significant effect on mating propensity of treated 3-5 day old flies (P=0.05), however, treated 6 day old flies, radiation effects were observed. The mating propensity increased with age of both non-irradiated and irradiated flies. Studies on the mating behavior of 20 pairs of non-irradiated and irradiated flies in a competitive situation showed that 3 and 5-6 day old non-irradiated flies of both sexes had higher mating competitiveness than irradiated flies (P=0.01). The irradiated flies were more competitive than the 4 days old non-irradiated flies. Results of possible mating combination between irradiated and non-irradiated flies showed no significant difference in mating index (P=0.05)

  7. Effect of adult diet on signaling activity, mate attraction, and mating success in male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were performed to examine the effect of adult diet on calling activity, female attraction, and mating success in male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). In all tests, comparisons were drawn between males fed sugar only ('protein-deprived' males) and males fed a protein-sugar mixture ('protein-fed' males). In tests of long-distance attraction, aggregations consisting of protein-deprived males exclusively or protein-fed males exclusively were established in a coffee field, and females were released from a central release point. Protein-fed and protein-deprived males displayed similar calling levels, but approximately twice as many female sightings were recorded at groups of protein-fed males than at groups of protein-deprived males. A second test of female attraction compared single groups of protein-deprived and protein-fed males within the canopy of a field-caged host plant. As before, calling activity did not vary with diet, and in this case numbers of female sightings were also similar between aggregations of protein-fed vs. protein-deprived males. In mating trials conducted on field-caged host plants, protein-fed males achieved significantly more matings than protein-deprived males. These results are compared with other recent studies on the nutritional ecology of male Mediterranean fruit flies. (author)

  8. Tevatron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermilab Tevatron is both the world's highest energy accelerator system and first large-scale superconducting synchrotron. Since Tevatron commissioning in July 1983, the accelerator has operated in 1984, 1985 and 1987 with extracted beams of 800 GeV for three runs of fixed target physics, and in 1987, and 1988, with proton-antiproton colliding beams at 900 /times/ 900 GeV. This paper will focus on the collider operation of the Tevatron: its present status and the outlook for its longer-term future evolution. 18 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Is accoustic communication essential in the mating behavior of Empyreuma pugione (Erebidae: Arctiinae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohami Fernández

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and acoustic communication are involved in species recognition and in female mate-choice during the mating behavior of many nocturnal Lepidoptera. Here, we analyzed the effect of audition and sound production in Empyreuma pugione reproductive behavior. For this, we combine intact females and males with deaf-mute animals and measured the number of successful matings in three experimental conditions: (1 couples of intact females and males, (2 couples of deaf-mute males and intact females, (3 couples of intact males and deaf-mute females. We found successful matings for the three tested combinations without significant difference between experimental conditions. 29 % of the successful mating occurred between deaf-mute males and intact females and 24 % between deaf-mute females and intact males. Our results suggest that sound production in E. pugione is not essential during courtship behavior and probably the chemical communication combined with other sensory systems is enough for select and accept mates.

  10. Findings on sperm alterations and DNA fragmentation, nutritional, hormonal and antioxidant status in an elite triathlete: case report / Descoberta das alterações no sêmen, nutricionais, hormonais, o antioxidante status e fragmentação de DNA em triatleta de elite: relato do caso / Hallazgo de alteraciones en semen, nutricionales, hormonales, del estado antioxidante y fragmentación de ADN en un triatleta de élite: caso clínico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D., Vaamonde; M.E. Da, Silva-Grigoletto; J.M., Fernandez; C., Algar-Santacruz; J.M., García-Manso.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O presente estudo de caso analisa a qualidade de sêmen, padrões nutricionais, estado hormonal e oxidativo de um triatleta internacional de alto nível com carga de treinamento de baixo volume e alta intensidade. Método: Atleta de 26 anos de idade, com uma pratica esportiva desde os 13 anos [...] e cinco anos de triátlon profissional. Os parâmetros qualitativos analisados no sêmen foram: volume, contagem espermática, motilidade, morfologia, e fragmentação de DNA com testes adicionais dada necessidade. Os testes hormonais salivares foram: Testosterona, Cortisol e a razão testosterona/cortisol. A capacidade antioxidante total foi medida no plasma seminal. Também foi analisado o consumo máximo de oxigênio e características do treinamento. Para determinar a ingesta alimentar habitual e sua possível repercussão sobre o estado oxidativo, foi utilizado um questionário de frequência de consumo quali-quantitativo de 136 alimentos, a partir do uso de um software especifico. Resultados: os valores e parâmetros hormonais e físicos seminais estavam dentro da normalidade. A morfologia e fragmentação do DNA espermático mostraram valores anormais (3,9% e 38,33%). Apresentando um elevado número de células redondas (2,3 milhoes/mL), com presença de macrófagos. Se observaram eventos apoptóticos e necróticos. A capacidade antioxidante total, ainda que não alterada, estava baixa. A ingesta dietética foi caracterizada por um excesso proteico e consumo adequado de antioxidantes (com ligeiro déficit excesso de alguns nutrientes específicos) segundo valores recomendados. Conclusões: o exercício de resistência de alta intensidade altera os parâmetros espermáticos, principalmente morfologia e fragmentação do DNA. Faz-se necessário obter maiores informações sobre o efeito de antioxidantes e outras estratégias dietéticas com relação ao dano oxidativo no sêmen de triatletas de alto rendimento, e traçar estratégias nutricionais adequadas para atenuar os efeitos do exercício sobre a qualidade do sêmen. Abstract in spanish Objetivo: El presente estudio de caso analiza la calidad de semen, patrones nutricionales y status hormonal y oxidativo de un triatleta internacional de alto nivel con carga de entrenamiento de bajo volumen y alta intensidad. Método: Atleta de 26 años de edad, con una práctica deportiva competitiva [...] desde los 13 años, y cinco años de triatlón profesional. Los parámetros cualitativos analizados en semen fueron: volumen, contaje espermático, motilidad, morfología, y fragmentación de ADN, con pruebas adicionales según necesidad. Las hormonas salivares cuantificadas fueron: T, C, y T/C. La capacidad antioxidante total fue medida en plasma seminal. También se analizó el consumo máximo de oxígeno y características de entrenamiento. Para determinar la ingesta alimentaria habitual y su posible repercusión sobre el estado oxidativo, se utilizó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo cuali-cuantitativa, de 136 alimentos, analizado mediante software informático. Resultados: Los valores hormonales y parámetros físicos seminales estaban dentro de la normalidad. La morfología y fragmentación de ADN espermático mostraron valores anormales (3.9% y 38.33%). Aparecía un elevado número de células redondas (2.3 millones/mL), con presencia de macrófagos. Se observaron eventos apoptóticos y necróticos. La capacidad antioxidante total, aunque no alterada, estaba baja. La ingesta dietética se caracterizó por un exceso proteico y consumo adecuado de antioxidantes (con ligero déficit y exceso de algunos nutrientes específicos), según valores recomendados. Conclusiones: El ejercicio de resistencia de alta intensidad altera los parámetros espermáticos, principalmente morfología y fragmentación de ADN. Es necesario obtener mayor información sobre el efecto de antioxidantes y otras estrategias dietéticas con relación al daño oxidativo en el semen de triatletas de alto rendimiento, al igual que hallar estrategias nutricionales adecuadas

  11. Commercial Fungicide Formulations Induce In Vitro Oospore Formation and Phenotypic Change in Mating Type in Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, C T; Ristaino, J B

    2000-11-01

    ABSTRACT A wide range of commercially formulated fungicides cause in vitro effects on mating behavior in specific isolates of Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight of potato and tomato. Four isolates of P. infestans representing each of the four common US genotypes, US-1, US-6, US-7, and US-8 and varying in their sensitivity to metalaxyl, were exposed to a variety of fungicides used to control late blight in petri dish assays at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 mug a.i./ml. Exposure of each of these normally heterothallic single mating type isolates of P. infestans to 9 of the 11 commercial fungicide formulations tested resulted in the formation of oospores after 2 to 4 weeks. The highest numbers of oospores were formed on media amended with Ridomil 2E (metalaxyl) and Ridomil Gold EC (mefenoxam) at 0.1 to 10 mug a.i./ml, averaging as many as 471 and 450 oospores per petri dish, respectively. Several other fungicides including Maneb, Manzate (Mancozeb), Curzate (cymoxanil + mancozeb), and Acrobat MZ (dimethomorph + mancozeb) also induced oospore formation, producing from 0 to 200 oospores per plate at fungicide concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mug a.i./ml. The metalaxyl resistant isolates formed oospores in response to the fungicides more often than the metalaxyl sensitive isolates. No oospores were formed on media amended with Bravo (chlorothalonil) or Tattoo C (chlorothalonil + propamocarb HCl) and these compounds completely suppressed growth of the isolates at 0.1 and 1 mug a.i./ml. Three metalaxyl resistant A2 isolates mated with both A1 and A2 isolates after exposure to the fungicides Ridomil 2E and Ridomil Gold EC. Alterations in mating type expression were also observed in a metalaxyl sensitive A1 isolate after exposure to Benlate (benomyl). Copious amounts of chemicals are applied annually to potato and tomato production areas to control late blight. Our results indicate that a wide range of chemically diverse fungicides can induce normally heterothallic metalaxyl resistant isolates of P. infestans to form oospores in vitro after short exposures to the fungicides. PMID:18944421

  12. Variation of physicochemical and sensory properties during the aging of yerba mate

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Alexi Holowaty; Sergio Alejandro Surkan; Valeria D. Trela; German Darío Byczko; Miguel Eduardo Schmalko

    2014-01-01

    Yerba mate infusion is widely consumed in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. One of the processing steps used in Argentina is aging. The following three methods were used to age yerba mate: 1) air humidity and temperature-controlled aging; 2) temperature-controlled aging and 3) no control. The aim of this research was to determine the physicochemical and sensory attribute differences when yerba mate was aged using these three methods. The concentration of caffeine, glucose, fructose, maltose and...

  13. Sexual selection and mating advantages in the giant sperm species, Drosophila bifurca

    OpenAIRE

    Luck, Nathalie; Joly, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Mate choice may be exercised by either sex; however, females are generally choosier than males because they invest more in their gametes. Female choice is often based on direct benefits, such as better reproductive output, whereas male choice appears to be based on differences in female fecundity. However, when gamete production is limited, sexual selection theories predict that mate choice will be decisive for reproductive success in both sexes. Here, we investigate how mating advantage is a...

  14. Copulation corrupts immunity: A mechanism for a cost of mating in insects

    OpenAIRE

    Rolff, Jens; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2002-01-01

    There are well documented costs of mating in insects but little evidence for underlying mechanisms. Here, we provide experimental evidence for a hormone-based mechanism that reduces immunity as a result of mating. We examined the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor and show that (i) mating reduces a major humoral immune effector-system (phenoloxidase) in both sexes, and (ii) that this down-regulation is mediated by juvenile hormone. Because both juvenile hormone and phenoloxidase have highly con...

  15. Transcriptome Profiling of Sexual Maturation and Mating in the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    OpenAIRE

    Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Dimopoulos, George; Xi, Zhiyong; Scolari, Francesca; Gabrieli, Paolo; Siciliano, Paolo; Clarke, Anthony R.; Malacrida, Anna R.; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Sexual maturation and mating in insects are generally accompanied by major physiological and behavioural changes. Many of these changes are related to the need to locate a mate and subsequently, in the case of females, to switch from mate searching to oviposition behaviour. The prodigious reproductive capacity of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the factors that has led to its success as an invasive pest species. To identify the molecular changes related to maturatio...

  16. Interaction between natural and sexual selection during the evolution of mate recognition.

    OpenAIRE

    Blows, Mark W.

    2002-01-01

    The interaction between natural and sexual selection is central to many theories of how mate choice and reproductive isolation evolve, but their joint effect on the evolution of mate recognition has not, to my knowledge, been investigated in an evolutionary experiment. Natural and sexual selection were manipulated in interspecific hybrid populations of Drosophila to determine their effects on the evolution of a mate recognition system comprised of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). The effect of ...

  17. Phenotypic differentiation and pre-mating isolation between allopatric populations of Girardinichthys multiradiatus

    OpenAIRE

    Gonza?lez Zuarth, Cesar; Maci?as Garcia, Constantino

    2005-01-01

    Sexual selection may lead to reproductive isolation between populations through divergence in female mate choice, and population differentiation driven by female mate choice is expected to produce pre- but not post-mating isolation. We tested these hypotheses by looking at whether allopatric populations of the Amarillo (Girardinichthys multiradiatus), a sexually dimorphic viviparous fish with effective female choice, (i) have undergone phenotypical differentiation that may be attributed to di...

  18. Localizing Brain Regions Associated with Female Mate Preference Behavior in a Swordtail

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Ryan Y.; Ramsey, Mary E.; Cummings, Molly E.

    2012-01-01

    Female mate choice behavior is a critical component of sexual selection, yet identifying the neural basis of this behavior is largely unresolved. Previous studies have implicated sensory processing and hypothalamic brain regions during female mate choice and there is a conserved network of brain regions (Social Behavior Network, SBN) that underlies sexual behaviors. However, we are only beginning to understand the role this network has in pre-copulatory female mate choice. Using in situ hybri...

  19. Female mate preferences for male body size and shape promote sexual isolation in threespine sticklebacks

    OpenAIRE

    Head, Megan L.; Kozak, Genevieve M.; Boughman, Janette W.

    2013-01-01

    Female mate preferences for ecologically relevant traits may enhance natural selection, leading to rapid divergence. They may also forge a link between mate choice within species and sexual isolation between species. Here, we examine female mate preference for two ecologically important traits: body size and body shape. We measured female preferences within and between species of benthic, limnetic, and anadromous threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus species complex). We found that ...

  20. The strength of a female mate preference increases with predation risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae Won; Christy, John H.; Dennenmoser, Stefan; Choe, Jae C.

    2008-01-01

    When females search for mates and their perceived risk of predation increases, they less often express preferences for males that use conspicuous courtship signals, relaxing sexual selection on production of these signals. Here, we report an apparent exception to this general pattern. Courting male fiddler crabs Uca beebei sometimes build pillars of mud at the openings to their burrows in which crabs mate. Females visit several males before they choose a mate by staying and breeding in their ...

  1. The dilemma of female mate selection in the brown bear, a species with sexually selected infanticide

    OpenAIRE

    Bellemain, Eva; Zedrosser, Andreas; Manel, Ste?phanie; Waits, Lisette P.; Taberlet, Pierre; Swenson, Jon E.

    2005-01-01

    Because of differential investment in gametes between sexes, females tend to be the more selective sex. Based on this concept, we investigate mate selection in a large carnivore: the brown bear (Ursus arctos). We hypothesize that, in this species with sexually selected infanticide (SSI), females may be faced with a dilemma: either select a high-quality partner based on phenotypic criteria, as suggested by theories of mate choice, or rather mate with future potentially infanticidal males as a ...

  2. Socially transmitted mate preferences in a monogamous bird: a non-genetic mechanism of sexual selection

    OpenAIRE

    Swaddle, John P.; Cathey, Mark G.; Correll, Maureen; Hodkinson, Brendan P.

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that animals can acquire mate preferences through the use of public information, notably by observing (and copying) the mate preferences of others in the population. If females acquire preferences through social mechanisms, sexual selection could act very rapidly to spread the preference and drive elaboration of the preferred trait(s). Although there are reports of ‘mate-choice copying’ in polygynous species, there is no clear evidence for this process in mono...

  3. Cross-generational fitness benefits of mating and male seminal fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Priest, Nicholas K.; Roach, Deborah A.; Galloway, Laura F

    2007-01-01

    In many species, the physical act of mating and exposure to accessory gland proteins (Acps) in male seminal fluid reduces female survival and offspring production. It is not clear what males gain from harming their sexual partners or why females mate frequently despite being harmed. Using sterile strains of Drosophila melanogaster that differ in their production of Acps, we found that both the physical act of mating and exposure to male seminal fluid in mothers increase the fitness of daughte...

  4. The Indirect Benefits of Mating with Attractive Males Outweigh the Direct Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Head Megan L; Hunt John; Jennions Michael D; Brooks Robert

    2005-01-01

    The fitness consequences of mate choice are a source of ongoing debate in evolutionary biology. Recent theory predicts that indirect benefits of female choice due to offspring inheriting superior genes are likely to be negated when there are direct costs associated with choice, including any costs of mating with attractive males. To estimate the fitness consequences of mating with males of varying attractiveness, we housed female house crickets, Acheta domesticus, with either attractive or un...

  5. Reconciling sexual selection to species recognition: a process-based model of mating decision

    OpenAIRE

    Cermelli, Paolo; Castellano, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Mating signals often encode information important for both species recognition and mate quality assessment and endure selection pressures that combine both stabilizing and directional components. Here, we present a family of models of mate preference for multiplemessage signals. Our models are process based rather than purely normative, they assume the existence of one (or more) ‘‘utility function’’ that order signals along a scale of perceived appropriateness, and interpret preferenc...

  6. Notes and observations on courtship and mating in Tityus (Atreus) magnimanus Pocock, 1897 (Scorpiones: Buthidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LK, Ross.

    Full Text Available Courtship and mating behaviors of the scorpion Tityus (Atreus) magnimanus are herein described, consisting of various components that pertain to four distinct behavioral stages. The courtship and mating rituals of Tityus (Atreus) magnimanus are similar to those of other scorpions. Behavioral compone [...] nts are presented in an ethogram to demonstrate their occurrence during mating sequences. The current report is presented as observational data that were acquired during life history studies of this species.

  7. The sex peptide of Drosophila melanogaster: Female post-mating responses analyzed by using RNA interference

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Tracey; Bangham, Jenny; Vinti, Giovanna; Seifried, Beth; Lung, Oliver; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Smith, Hazel K.; Partridge, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Mating induces profound changes in female insect behavior and physiology. In Drosophila melanogaster, mating causes a reduction in sexual receptivity and an elevation in egg production for at least 5 days. Injection of the seminal fluid sex peptide (SP) induces both responses in virgin females, but only for 1–2 days. The role of SP in eliciting the responses to mating remains to be elucidated. Functional redundancy between seminal fluid components may occur. In addit...

  8. Behavioural and endocrine correlates to the mating system of the aardwolf Proteles cristata

    OpenAIRE

    Marneweck, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Mating systems are classifications of the outcome of individual strategies aimed at maximising reproductive success. These systems have two components; one describes how individuals socially relate and bond to mating partners and the other describes the genetic outcome of actual mating activities. Reproductive activity is under strong endocrine and behavioural regulation where inter-sexual discrepancies in the regulation of reproductive success have resulted in the majority of mammal species ...

  9. Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    OpenAIRE

    ShinjiNagata

    2014-01-01

    Most insect species exhibit characteristic behavioral changes after mating. Typical post-mating behaviors in female insects include noticeable increases in food intake, elevated oviposition rates, lowered receptivity to courting males, and enhanced immune response. Although it has been reported that mated females of several insect species including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster increase the amount of food intake and change their dietary preferences, the limited number of comparative ...

  10. Production of Single Oospore Progeny (SOP) of Phytophtora infestans: Inheritance of Mating Type and Mycelial Morphotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Diana M. Earnshaw

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce sexual progeny (oospores), of the causal agent of late blight, Phytophthora infestans, study the inheritance of mating type and morphological appearances of these progeny. This pseudofungus exists in two distinct mating types: A1 and A2 mainly in Mexico. However, reports indicate presence of both mating types in many countries all over the world which indicates possibilities of sexual reproduction. The experiment was conducted at the University of Wales, B...

  11. Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Carolina Batista Machado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

  12. Is size-assortative mating important for rapid pigment differentiation in a freshwater isopod?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargeby, A; Erlandsson, J

    2006-11-01

    Identifying mechanisms behind assortative mating is central to the understanding of ecological divergence and speciation. Recent studies show that populations of the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus can rapidly become locally differentiated when submerged Chara vegetation expands in lakes. In the novel Chara habitat, isopods have become lighter pigmented and smaller than in ancestral reed stands. In this study, we used a laboratory multiple-choice experiment to investigate assortative mating as a possible prezygotic reproductive barrier between Chara and reed isopods. Mating was assortative when Chara isopods were experimentally mixed with isopods from an adjacent reed site with large-size individuals, suggesting a partial prezygotic reproductive barrier. No deviation from random mating could, however, be detected when Chara isopods were mixed with smaller sized isopods from another reed site. In both experiments, assortative mating was apparently based on size, as Chara isopods were larger and reed isopods smaller in mixed pairs than in assortative pairs. Pigmentation did not have any clear influence on mating. We suggest that divergence in pigmentation evolved through natural selection in conjunction with size-assortative mating indirectly causing assortative mating between Chara and reed isopods. Size-assortative mating is likely a by-product of natural selection, but its importance may hypothetically be transient, if selection erodes the correlation between pigmentation and size over time. PMID:17040388

  13. Evolution of mating behavior between two populations adapting to common environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárbaro, Margarida; Mira, Mário S; Fragata, Inês; Simões, Pedro; Lima, Margarida; Lopes-Cunha, Miguel; Kellen, Bárbara; Santos, Josiane; Varela, Susana A M; Matos, Margarida; Magalhães, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Populations from the same species may be differentiated across contrasting environments, potentially affecting reproductive isolation among them. When such populations meet in a novel common environment, this isolation may be modified by biotic or abiotic factors. Curiously, the latter have been overlooked. We filled this gap by performing experimental evolution of three replicates of two populations of Drosophila subobscura adapting to a common laboratorial environment, and simulated encounters at three time points during this process. Previous studies showed that these populations were highly differentiated for several life-history traits and chromosomal inversions. First, we show initial differentiation for some mating traits, such as assortative mating and male mating rate, but not others (e.g., female mating latency). Mating frequency increased during experimental evolution in both sets of populations. The assortative mating found in one population remained constant throughout the adaptation process, while disassortative mating of the other population diminished across generations. Additionally, differences in male mating rate were sustained across generations. This study shows that mating behavior evolves rapidly in response to adaptation to a common abiotic environment, although with a complex pattern that does not correspond to the quick convergence seen for life-history traits. PMID:25937905

  14. Drip and Mate Operations Acting in Test Tube Systems and Tissue-like P systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, Rudolf; 10.4204/EPTCS.11.8

    2009-01-01

    The operations drip and mate considered in (mem)brane computing resemble the operations cut and recombination well known from DNA computing. We here consider sets of vesicles with multisets of objects on their outside membrane interacting by drip and mate in two different setups: in test tube systems, the vesicles may pass from one tube to another one provided they fulfill specific constraints; in tissue-like P systems, the vesicles are immediately passed to specified cells after having undergone a drip or mate operation. In both variants, computational completeness can be obtained, yet with different constraints for the drip and mate operations.

  15. Dual fitness benefits of post-mating sugar meals for female hawkmoths (Hyles lineata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Martin; Sullivan, Kayleigh A; Raguso, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    The white-lined sphinx moth (Hyles lineata: Sphingidae) is the most widespread and abundant hawkmoth pollinator in North America and plays a major role in the reproductive biology of many plant species. H. lineata visits a wide range of plants, which differ in the quality and quantity (e.g. caloric content, volume) of the nectar reward that they offer in exchange for pollination services. Some of these plants represent a suitable oviposition substrate as well as a profitable nectar source, allowing mated H. lineata females to mix foraging and oviposition bouts. We investigated the effects of post-mating nectar intake on the reproductive success of female H. lineata. While all experimental females had access to a 20% sucrose solution during the pre-mating phase (avg. 2.7 days) we manipulated the post-mating diet, assigning mated females to three experimental groups (sucrose fed, water fed, or unfed). Mated females with access to sucrose lived twice as long and produced more fertile eggs at double the rate of control moths that were starved or water-fed after mating. Thus, the sugar component of floral nectar positively affects the physiology of mated H. lineata at multiple levels, which translates into strong selection for mated females to continue nectar foraging during or between oviposition bouts. PMID:23376765

  16. Attention alters appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Marisa; Ling, Sam; Read, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Does attention alter appearance? This critical issue, debated for over a century, remains unsettled. From psychophysical evidence that covert attention affects early vision—it enhances contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution—and from neurophysiological evidence that attention increases the neuronal contrast sensitivity (contrast gain), one could infer that attention changes stimulus appearance. Surprisingly, few studies have directly investigated this issue. Here we developed a psycho...

  17. Vascular alterations in schwannoma

    OpenAIRE

    Papiez, Joseph; Rojiani, Mumtaz V; Rojiani, Amyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Schwannomas or neurilemmoma are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors, which most frequently occur at the cerebellopontine angle. This morphologic study examines vascular alterations in these tumors, comparing them to other benign spindle cell neoplasms of the nervous system, while correlating these findings with evidence of vascular permeability. Thirty-four nervous system spindle cell neoplasms, sixteen schwannomas, nine fibroblastic/transitional meningiomas and nine peripheral neurofibroma...

  18. Males of the two-spotted spider mite attempt to copulate with mated females: effects of double mating on fitness of either sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Keiko

    2010-02-01

    In Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), when the intervals between first and second copulation are more than 24 h, only the first copulation is effective for females. Therefore, adult males should copulate only with virgin females, but not with females that copulated more than 1 day ago. Indeed, T. urticae males preferred virgin females to mated females under dual choice conditions. In the absence of virgin females, however, 60% of males copulated with mated females (n = 30). Therefore, the effects of male copulation behaviour on male and mated-female fitness were examined, respectively. Since T. urticae is arrhenotokous (i.e., only daughters have genes derived from their father), the proportion of females among the offspring was used as an index of male fitness. After males had lived with/without a mated female, the males were allowed to copulate with a virgin female. The proportion of females among the offspring did not differ between males with and without a female. On the other hand, when mated females lived with an adult male, their egg production was lower than mated females without a male. These results suggest that males do not seem to obtain fitness benefit from the copulation behaviour and that mated females incur a fitness cost due to the male behaviour. PMID:19760507

  19. No size or density effect on alternative mate-locating tactics in the tropical damselfly Hetaerina rosea males (Odonata: Calopterygidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Enrique C. Peixoto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Males of the damselfly Hetaerina rosea may defend mating sites along river margins (resident males or, alternatively, wander among different areas presumably searching for mates (nonterritorial males. Although the occurrence of territorial and nonterritorial males of H. rosea is very common in Brazil, studies examining which factors may be responsible for the adoption of alternative mate-locating tactics in this species are inexistent. We investigated the relationship between the adoption of these alternative mate-locating tactics by males of H. rosea and two possible causes: body weight and male abundance. We carried the study in three areas: sites 1, 2 and 3. Samples were monthly undertaken in sites 1 and 2 between September/2001 and August/2002 and in site 3 between May/1999 and January/2001. Using the scan method with fixed areas and mark-resighting techniques, we did not find any relationship between the proportion of nonterritorial males and male abundance per month on sites 2 (n=6 and 3 (n=7, indicating that the adoption of alternative mate-locating tactics is not affected by competition for territories. In the same way, nonterritorial and resident males showed similar body and thoracic weight measures (n=30 and n=27 for sites 2 and 3 respectively. Maybe the nonterritorial tactic is adopted by individuals searching for better territories or males that were evicted from their defended sites. The absence of relationship between weight and male territorial status is in accordance with other Hetaerina species. However, other traits not investigated here such as parasitic load, fat content and age may influence the adoption of different mate-acquisition tactics in H. rosea males. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 361-370. Epub 2009 June 30.Los machos de la libélula Hetaerina rosea pueden defender sus sitios de apareamiento a lo largo de márgenes de ríos (machos residentes o, alternativamente, deambulan entre diferentes áreas presumiblemente buscando pareja (machos no territoriales. Aunque la existencia de machos territoriales y no territoriales de H. rosea es muy común en Brasil, no hay estudios que examinen cuáles factores pueden ser responsables para la adopción de tácticas alternativas para localizar pareja en esta especie. Investigamos la relación entre la adopción de estas tácticas alternativas para localizar pareja por machos de H. rosea, y dos posibles causas: peso del cuerpo y abundancia de machos. Realizamos el estudio en tres áreas: sitios 1, 2 y 3. Las muestras se tomaron mensualmente en sitios 1 y 2 entre setiembre 2001 y agosto 2002, y en sitio 3 entre mayo 1999 y enero 2001. La adopción de tácticas alternativas de localización de machos no se ve afectada por competencia por territorios. La ausencia de relación entre peso y estatus del macho territorial coincide con otras especies de Hetaerina. No obstante, otros rasgos que no fueron estudiados aquí, como la carga de parásitos, contenido de grasa y edad, pueden influenciar la adopción de diferentes tácticas de adquisición de pareja en machos de H. rosea.

  20. No size or density effect on alternative mate-locating tactics in the tropical damselfly Hetaerina rosea males (Odonata: Calopterygidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Enrique, C. Peixoto; Paulo, De Marco Jr.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Los machos de la libélula Hetaerina rosea pueden defender sus sitios de apareamiento a lo largo de márgenes de ríos (machos residentes) o, alternativamente, deambulan entre diferentes áreas presumiblemente buscando pareja (machos no territoriales). Aunque la existencia de machos territoriales y no t [...] erritoriales de H. rosea es muy común en Brasil, no hay estudios que examinen cuáles factores pueden ser responsables para la adopción de tácticas alternativas para localizar pareja en esta especie. Investigamos la relación entre la adopción de estas tácticas alternativas para localizar pareja por machos de H. rosea, y dos posibles causas: peso del cuerpo y abundancia de machos. Realizamos el estudio en tres áreas: sitios 1, 2 y 3. Las muestras se tomaron mensualmente en sitios 1 y 2 entre setiembre 2001 y agosto 2002, y en sitio 3 entre mayo 1999 y enero 2001. La adopción de tácticas alternativas de localización de machos no se ve afectada por competencia por territorios. La ausencia de relación entre peso y estatus del macho territorial coincide con otras especies de Hetaerina. No obstante, otros rasgos que no fueron estudiados aquí, como la carga de parásitos, contenido de grasa y edad, pueden influenciar la adopción de diferentes tácticas de adquisición de pareja en machos de H. rosea. Abstract in english Males of the damselfly Hetaerina rosea may defend mating sites along river margins (resident males) or, alternatively, wander among different areas presumably searching for mates (nonterritorial males). Although the occurrence of territorial and nonterritorial males of H. rosea is very common in Bra [...] zil, studies examining which factors may be responsible for the adoption of alternative mate-locating tactics in this species are inexistent. We investigated the relationship between the adoption of these alternative mate-locating tactics by males of H. rosea and two possible causes: body weight and male abundance. We carried the study in three areas: sites 1, 2 and 3. Samples were monthly undertaken in sites 1 and 2 between September/2001 and August/2002 and in site 3 between May/1999 and January/2001. Using the scan method with fixed areas and mark-resighting techniques, we did not find any relationship between the proportion of nonterritorial males and male abundance per month on sites 2 (n=6) and 3 (n=7), indicating that the adoption of alternative mate-locating tactics is not affected by competition for territories. In the same way, nonterritorial and resident males showed similar body and thoracic weight measures (n=30 and n=27 for sites 2 and 3 respectively). Maybe the nonterritorial tactic is adopted by individuals searching for better territories or males that were evicted from their defended sites. The absence of relationship between weight and male territorial status is in accordance with other Hetaerina species. However, other traits not investigated here such as parasitic load, fat content and age may influence the adoption of different mate-acquisition tactics in H. rosea males. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2): 361-370. Epub 2009 June 30.

  1. ENE-Mates - A public information program for women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan depends on import for more than 80 percent of its total energy supply. Nuclear energy is one of the most promising alternatives to oil. It plays a significant role for energy supply in terms of reliability, economic viability and reduction of CO2 emissions. In order to secure needed capacity, the Government concentrates its efforts on acquiring public acceptance of nuclear power as well as ensuring the safety of plants and improving plant capability and reliability. An opinion poll, done by the Japanese Government in Sep. of 1990, showed that 73.3 percent of man and 57.4 percent of women think that nuclear power is necessary to secure energy supply. Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) employs various methods for information services arid, in particular, electric power generation including nuclear with an assignment from the Japanese Government. Public information activities by the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) are as follows: a) Telephone QA service to respond to public inquiries; b) Publishing the 'Nuclear Newsletter' monthly and various brochures; c) Information service by personal computer network Atomnet concerning energy in general, and operation/trouble informations of nuclear plants; d) Distribution and service of personal computers to local governments offices/museums, etc., for users ranging from children to adults to gather nuclear related information; e) Organization of female monitors 'ENE-MATES' to have lecture meetings and site tours. ENE-MATES - A Public Information Program For Women. As a 1990 opinion poll shows, women's feelings about nuclear energy differ from that of men. Women are more sensitive and anxious than men on nuclear energy issues. To improve this situation several programs for women have been planned and implemented.'ENE-MATES' program is one of these cases. It's purpose is to encourage women, centering around house wives, to have unbiased understanding of energy-related issues

  2. Pseudo-Random Mating Populations. in Celebration of the 80th Anniversary of the Hardy-Weinberg Law

    OpenAIRE

    Li, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    That random mating leads to Hardy-Weinberg distribution of genotypes is well known. This report is to show that, if the deviations from random mating are of a certain pattern, the offspring generation will also be in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. This brings out the fact that random mating is a sufficient condition, not a necessary one, for the attainment of the Hardy-Weinberg proportions. Such nonrandom-mating populations are tentatively said to be pseudo-random mating. Pseudo-random-mating po...

  3. Do Women Pretend Orgasm to Retain a Mate?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaighobadi, Farnaz; Shackelford, Todd K.; Weekes-shackelford, Viviana A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that women pretend orgasm as part of a broader strategy of mate retention. We obtained self-report data from 453 heterosexual women (M age, 21.8 years) in a long-term relationship (M length, 32.8 months) drawn from universities and surrounding communities in the southeastern United States. The results indicated that (1) women who perceived higher risk of partner infidelity were more likely to report pretending orgasm, (2) women who reported greater like...

  4. MATE Module 11: Computer Control: Intro to Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module from the Marine Advanced Technology Education Center introduces students to "LabVIEW programming concepts using the Arduino processor and the MATE ROV Control System." Students will learn to develop a basic processing loop, read the state of an input pin and control and output based upon that state, incorporate a delay timer in the processing loop and add a sub-VI to the main processing loop. PowerPoint and PDF versions of the lecture material are available for download here along with links to other tutorials and tools.

  5. Emperor penguin mates: keeping together in the crowd

    OpenAIRE

    Ancel, André; Beaulieu, Michaël; Le Maho, Yvon; Gilbert, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    As emperor penguins have no breeding territories, a key issue for both members of a pair is not to be separated until the egg is laid and transferred to the male. Both birds remain silent after mating and thereby reduce the risk of having the pair bond broken by unpaired birds. However, silence prevents finding each other if the pair is separated. Huddles—the key to saving energy in the cold and the long breeding fast—continuously form and break up, but not all birds are involved simultan...

  6. Plasma membrane polarization during mating in yeast cells

    OpenAIRE

    Proszynski, Tomasz J.; Klemm, Robin; Bagnat, Michel; Gaus, Katharina; Simons, Kai

    2006-01-01

    The yeast mating cell provides a simple paradigm for analyzing mechanisms underlying the generation of surface polarity. Endocytic recycling and slow diffusion on the plasma membrane were shown to facilitate polarized surface distribution of Snc1p (Valdez-Taubas, J., and H.R. Pelham. 2003. Curr. Biol. 13:1636–1640). Here, we found that polarization of Fus1p, a raft-associated type I transmembrane protein involved in cell fusion, does not depend on endocytosis. Instead, Fus1p localization to t...

  7. Pronóstico de vida a tres meses y factores asociados de pacientes con alteración del estado mental en emergencia de medicina de un hospital nacional en Perú / Three-month life prognosis and associated factors in patients with altered mental status admimtted to the emergency room of a national hospital in Peru

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Delia, Alva-Rodriguez; María, de los Ángeles Lazo; Javier D, Loza-Herrera; Germán, Málaga.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar el pronóstico de vida a tres meses y factores asociados en pacientes con alteración del estado mental (AEM). Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal analítico que incluyó pacientes mayores de 18 años admitidos por emergencia de medicina de un hospital nacional, con AEM, dentr [...] o de las veinticuatro horas de iniciado el cuadro y que requirieron observación. La información demográfica, clínica y valoración funcional fueron tomadas de historias clínicas. El seguimiento a los tres meses se hizo por vía telefónica. Resultados. Se incluyó a 290 pacientes. Esta entidad representa el 4,1% del total de atenciones de emergencia. La mortalidad global fue 24,2%, mientras que en el subgrupo de adultos mayores fue de 28,1%; 19,3% en adultos y 15,2% en adultos jóvenes. La edad promedio fue 63,5 años y el grupo de adultos mayores constituyó casi 2/3 de la población. El 51% estuvo compuesto por varones. El promedio de estancia hospitalaria fue de 7 días. Las causas asociadas, más frecuentes, fueron: enfermedades infecciosas (44,1%), neurológicas (40,3%), respiratorias (28,3%), metabólicos (18,6%) y cardiovasculares (17,2%). La asociación de mortalidad con nivel Abstract in english Objectives. Determine the prognosis at three months and associated factors of patients with altered mental status (AMS). Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study that included patients over 18 years of age admitted to the emergency room in a national hospital, with AMS, within twenty-four hours [...] of onset and that required observation. The demographic, clinical and functional assessment information were taken from the medical record. A follow-up was made at three months by telephone. Results. The study included 290 patients, representing 4.1% of the total patients in the emergency room. Overall mortality was 24.2%, whereas in the subgroup of older adults was 28.1%; 19.3% in adults and 15.2% in young adults. The average age was 63.5 years and the elderly group constituted nearly two thirds of the population. 51% were males. The average hospital stay was 7 days. The most frequently associated causes were infectious diseases (44.1%), neurological (40.3%), respiratory (28.3%), metabolic (18.6%), and cardiovascular (17.2%) disorders. Mortality was associated with a) GCS levels

  8. Pronóstico de vida a tres meses y factores asociados de pacientes con alteración del estado mental en emergencia de medicina de un hospital nacional en Perú / Three-month life prognosis and associated factors in patients with altered mental status admimtted to the emergency room of a national hospital in Peru

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Delia, Alva-Rodriguez; María, de los Ángeles Lazo; Javier D, Loza-Herrera; Germán, Málaga.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar el pronóstico de vida a tres meses y factores asociados en pacientes con alteración del estado mental (AEM). Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal analítico que incluyó pacientes mayores de 18 años admitidos por emergencia de medicina de un hospital nacional, con AEM, dentr [...] o de las veinticuatro horas de iniciado el cuadro y que requirieron observación. La información demográfica, clínica y valoración funcional fueron tomadas de historias clínicas. El seguimiento a los tres meses se hizo por vía telefónica. Resultados. Se incluyó a 290 pacientes. Esta entidad representa el 4,1% del total de atenciones de emergencia. La mortalidad global fue 24,2%, mientras que en el subgrupo de adultos mayores fue de 28,1%; 19,3% en adultos y 15,2% en adultos jóvenes. La edad promedio fue 63,5 años y el grupo de adultos mayores constituyó casi 2/3 de la población. El 51% estuvo compuesto por varones. El promedio de estancia hospitalaria fue de 7 días. Las causas asociadas, más frecuentes, fueron: enfermedades infecciosas (44,1%), neurológicas (40,3%), respiratorias (28,3%), metabólicos (18,6%) y cardiovasculares (17,2%). La asociación de mortalidad con nivel Abstract in english Objectives. Determine the prognosis at three months and associated factors of patients with altered mental status (AMS). Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study that included patients over 18 years of age admitted to the emergency room in a national hospital, with AMS, within twenty-four hours [...] of onset and that required observation. The demographic, clinical and functional assessment information were taken from the medical record. A follow-up was made at three months by telephone. Results. The study included 290 patients, representing 4.1% of the total patients in the emergency room. Overall mortality was 24.2%, whereas in the subgroup of older adults was 28.1%; 19.3% in adults and 15.2% in young adults. The average age was 63.5 years and the elderly group constituted nearly two thirds of the population. 51% were males. The average hospital stay was 7 days. The most frequently associated causes were infectious diseases (44.1%), neurological (40.3%), respiratory (28.3%), metabolic (18.6%), and cardiovascular (17.2%) disorders. Mortality was associated with a) GCS levels

  9. Roving females and patient males: a new perspective on the mating strategies of chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2014-05-01

    Mating strategies are sets of decisions aimed at maximizing reproductive success. For male animals, the fundamental problem that these strategies address is attaining mating access to females in a manner that maximizes their chances of achieving paternity. For chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), despite substantial interest in mating strategies, very little attention has been paid to the most fundamental problem that mating strategies need to solve: finding mates. Only a single model, Dunbar's general model of male mating strategies, exists to explain mate-searching behaviour in chimpanzees. Under this model, males in most populations are regarded as pursuing a 'roving' strategy: searching for and sequestering fertile females who are essentially passive with respect to mate searching. The roving mating strategy is an assumption deeply embedded in the way chimpanzee behaviour is considered; it is implicit in the conventional model for chimpanzee social structure, which posits that male ranging functions both to monitor female reproductive state and to ward these females from other groups of males through collective territoriality: essentially, ranging as mating effort. This perspective is, however, increasingly at odds with observations of chimpanzee behaviour. Herein, I review the logic and evidence for the roving-male mating strategy and propose a novel alternative, a theoretical framework in which roving is a strategy pursued by female chimpanzees in order to engage successfully in promiscuous mating. Males, unable to thwart this female strategy, instead maximise the number of reproductive opportunities encountered by focusing their behaviour on countering threats to health, fertility and reproductive career. Their prolonged grooming bouts are seen, in consequence, as functioning to mitigate the negative impacts of socially induced physiological stress. In this new framework, the roving-male strategy becomes, at best, a 'best of a bad job' alternative for low-ranking males when faced with high levels of competition for mating access. Male chimpanzees do not search for mates, but for one another, for food, and, at times, for rivals in other communities. To the extent that female promiscuity functions to counter infanticide risk, mate searching by female chimpanzees-and any associated costs-can be seen as an unavoidable consequence of male sexual coercion. This novel framework is a better fit to the available data than is the conventional account. This review highlights the desperate need for additional work in an area of chimpanzee biology that has been somewhat neglected, perhaps in part because assumptions of roving males have remained unquestioned for too long. It also highlights the need, across taxa, to revisit and revise theory, and to test old assumptions, when faced with contrary data. PMID:24393574

  10. Self-referent phenotype matching and its role in female mate choice in arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carie B. WEDDLE, John HUNT, Scott K. SAKALUK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of empirical evidence shows that females of many animal species gain benefits by mating polyandrously, and often prefer to mate with novel males over previous mates. Although a female preference for novel males has been demonstrated for multiple animal taxa, the mechanisms used by females to discriminate between novel and previous mates remain largely unknown. However, recent studies suggest that in decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus, females actually imbue males with their own chemical cues, known as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs during mating, and utilize chemosensory self-referencing to recognize recent mates. Here we review evidence that self-referent phenotype matching is a widespread mechanism of recognition in arthropods, and explore how CHCs are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions. There is substantial evidence that CHCs are used as recognition cues to discriminate between species, kin, sexes, mates, individuals, and self and non-self, and are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions in a wide range of arthropod taxa. There is also evidence that CHCs are often transferred between individuals during direct physical contact, including copulation. Chemosensory self-referencing via cuticular hydrocarbons could provide a simple, but reliable mechanism for identifying individuals from previous mating encounters. This mechanism does not require any specialized cognitive abilities because an individual’s phenotype is always available for reference. Given the ubiquitous use of CHCs among arthropods, chemosensory self-referencing may be a widespread mechanism used by female arthropods to facilitate female mate-choice decisions and to enhance opportunities for polyandry [Current Zoology 59 (2: 239-248, 2013].

  11. A double role of sperm in scorpions: the mating plug of Euscorpius italicus (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae) consists of sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, Sarah; Jacob, Alain; Graber, Werner; Hofer, Deborah; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Kropf, Christian

    2010-04-01

    Mating plugs occluding the female gonopore after mating are a widespread phenomenon. In scorpions, two main types of mating plugs are found: sclerotized mating plugs being parts of the spermatophore that break off during mating, and gel-like mating plugs being gelatinous fluids that harden in the female genital tract. In this study, the gel-like mating plug of Euscorpius italicus was investigated with respect to its composition, fine structure, and changes over time. Sperm forms the major component of the mating plug, a phenomenon previously unknown in arachnids. Three parts of the mating plug can be distinguished. The part facing the outside of the female (outer part) contains sperm packages containing inactive spermatozoa. In this state, sperm is transferred. In the median part, the sperm packages get uncoiled to single spermatozoa. In the inner part, free sperm is embedded in a large amount of secretions. Fresh mating plugs are soft gelatinous, later they harden from outside toward inside. This process is completed after 3-5 days. Sperm from artificially triggered spermatophores could be activated by immersion in insect Ringer's solution indicating that the fluid condition in the females' genital tract or females' secretions causes sperm activation. Because of the male origin of the mating plug, it has likely evolved under sperm competition or sexual conflict. As females refused to remate irrespective of the presence or absence of a mating plug, females may have changed their mating behavior in the course of evolution from polyandry to monandry. PMID:20101728

  12. Emperor penguin mates: keeping together in the crowd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, André; Beaulieu, Michaël; Le Maho, Yvon; Gilbert, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    As emperor penguins have no breeding territories, a key issue for both members of a pair is not to be separated until the egg is laid and transferred to the male. Both birds remain silent after mating and thereby reduce the risk of having the pair bond broken by unpaired birds. However, silence prevents finding each other if the pair is separated. Huddles—the key to saving energy in the cold and the long breeding fast—continuously form and break up, but not all birds are involved simultaneously. We studied the behaviour of four pairs before laying. Temperature and light intensity measurements allowed us to precisely detect the occurrence of huddling episodes and to determine the surrounding temperature. The four pairs huddled simultaneously for only 6 per cent of the time when weather conditions were harshest. Despite this asynchrony, the huddling behaviour and the resulting benefits were similar between pairs. By contrast, the huddling behaviour of mates was synchronized for 84 per cent of events. By coordinating their huddling behaviour during courtship despite the apparent confusion within a huddle and its ever-changing structure, both individuals save energy while securing their partnership. PMID:19324739

  13. My Parents Know Best: No Mating With Members From Other Ethnic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham P. Buunk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the opposition against out-group mating and the attitude towards parental influence on mate choice among 107 Dutch, 69 Moroccan, and 69 Turkish participants aged between 15 and 25. The level of preferred parental influence on mate choice was considerably higher among the Turks and Moroccans than among the Dutch, but females in both ethnic groups were less in favor of parental influence on mate choice than males were. Overall, males showed a higher opposition against interethnic dating than females did, and the Turks showed a higher level of opposition to interethnic mating than both the Moroccans and the Dutch. In addition, the effect of opposition against interethnic mating on preferred parental influence on mate choice was especially pronounced among the Turks, somewhat less so among the Moroccans, and least strong among the Dutch. Especially young males with a Turkish and Moroccan background seem to hold on to the values of the cultures they come from, and particularly Turkish immigrants seem keen on keeping the cohesion of their ethnic group intact by opposing interethnic dating, and by favoring parental influence on mate choice as a way to achieve this goal.

  14. Male dominance, female mate choice and intersexual conflict in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Casalini, M.; Agbali, M.; Reichard, Martin; Kone?ná, Markéta; Bryjová, Anna; Smith, C.

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 63, ?. 2 (2009), s. 366-376. ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA AV ?R KJB600930501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : female mating preference * good genes * olfactory cues * mate choice * MHC * Rhodeus ocellatus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.429, year: 2009

  15. CLONING AND ANALYSIS OF THE MATING-TYPE IDIOMORPHS FROM THE BARLEY PATHOGENSEPTORIA PASSERINII

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hypothesis to explain the lack of a known sexual stage (teleomorph) for species of the fungal genus Septoria could be that many of them are recent, asexual derivatives of sexual species that have lost the ability to mate. To test this hypothesis, the mating-type region of S. passerinii, a specie...

  16. Fantasy-Testing-Assessment: A Proposed Model for the Investigation of Mate Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofz, Michael P.

    1984-01-01

    Proposes a model for mate selection which outlines three modes of interpersonal relating--fantasy, testing, and assessment (FTA). The model is viewed as a more accurate representation of mate selection processes than suggested by earlier theories, and can be used to clarify couples' understandings of their own relationships. (JAC)

  17. Mate-Selection Systems and Criteria: Variation according to Family Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary R.; Stone, Lorene Hemphill

    1980-01-01

    Autonomous mate selection based on romantic attraction is more likely to be institutionalized in societies with nuclear family systems. Neolocal residence customs increase the probability that mate selection is autonomous but decrease the probability that it is based on romantic attraction. (Author)

  18. Sex differences in developmental plasticity and canalization shape population divergence in mate preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Erik I; Runemark, Anna; Verzijden, Machteld N; Wellenreuther, Maren

    2014-12-22

    Sexual selection of high-quality mates can conflict with species recognition if traits that govern intraspecific mate preferences also influence interspecific recognition. This conflict might be resolved by developmental plasticity and learned mate preferences, which could drive preference divergence in populations that differ in local species composition. We integrate field and laboratory experiments on two calopterygid damselfly species with population genetic data to investigate how sex differences in developmental plasticity affect population divergence in the face of gene flow. Whereas male species recognition is fixed at emergence, females instead learn to recognize heterospecifics. Females are therefore more plastic in their mate preferences than males. We suggest that this results from sex differences in the balance between sexual selection for high-quality mates and selection for species recognition. As a result of these sex differences, females develop more pronounced population divergence in their mate preferences compared with males. Local ecological community context and presence of heterospecifics in combination with sex differences in plasticity and canalization therefore shape population divergence in mate preferences. As ongoing environmental change and habitat fragmentation bring formerly allopatric species into secondary contact, developmental plasticity of mate preferences in either or both sexes might facilitate coexistence and prevent local species extinction. PMID:25377451

  19. In the eye of the beholder: visual mate choice lateralization in a polymorphic songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer J.; Mountjoy, D. James; Pryke, Sarah R.; Griffith, Simon C.

    2012-01-01

    Birds choose mates on the basis of colour, song and body size, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying these mating decisions. Reports that zebra finches prefer to view mates with the right eye during courtship, and that immediate early gene expression associated with courtship behaviour is lateralized in their left hemisphere suggest that visual mate choice itself may be lateralized. To test this hypothesis, we used the Gouldian finch, a polymorphic species in which individuals exhibit strong, adaptive visual preferences for mates of their own head colour. Black males were tested in a mate-choice apparatus under three eye conditions: left-monocular, right-monocular and binocular. We found that black male preference for black females is so strongly lateralized in the right-eye/left-hemisphere system that if the right eye is unavailable, males are unable to respond preferentially, not only to males and females of the same morph, but also to the strikingly dissimilar female morphs. Courtship singing is consistent with these lateralized mate preferences; more black males sing to black females when using their right eye than when using their left. Beauty, therefore, is in the right eye of the beholder for these songbirds, providing, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of visual mate choice lateralization. PMID:23034172

  20. Mating disruption for control of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in dried beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared the impact of mating disruption and aerosol space treatment using synergized pyrethrins on Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella in 2200 to 2900 m3 structures at a dried bean storage and processing facility in Stanislaus County, CA USA. Mating disruption was applied using a high volume a...

  1. Sex differences in developmental plasticity and canalization shape population divergence in mate preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Erik I; Runemark, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Sexual selection of high-quality mates can conflict with species recognition if traits that govern intraspecific mate preferences also influence interspecific recognition. This conflict might be resolved by developmental plasticity and learned mate preferences, which could drive preference divergence in populations that differ in local species composition. We integrate field and laboratory experiments on two calopterygid damselfly species with population genetic data to investigate how sex differences in developmental plasticity affect population divergence in the face of gene flow. Whereas male species recognition is fixed at emergence, females instead learn to recognize heterospecifics. Females are therefore more plastic in their mate preferences than males. We suggest that this results from sex differences in the balance between sexual selection for high-quality mates and selection for species recognition. As a result of these sex differences, females develop more pronounced population divergence in their mate preferences compared with males. Local ecological community context and presence of heterospecifics in combination with sex differences in plasticity and canalization therefore shape population divergence in mate preferences. As ongoing environmental change and habitat fragmentation bring formerly allopatric species into secondary contact, developmental plasticity of mate preferences in either or both sexes might facilitate coexistence and prevent local species extinction.

  2. Sex Role Attitudes and Perceived Dating-Mating Choices of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Sally L.; Hicks, Mary W.

    1980-01-01

    Investigates the effects of gender, race, demographic, and sex role variables on date and mate preferences of 168 college students 18 to 22 years of age. Personality characteristics were found to be most important in choosing a date or mate. The study provides no support for the rating-dating complex described by Waller. (RMH)

  3. Creative Activity, Personality, Mental Illness, and Short-Term Mating Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Melanie L.; Kaufman, Scott Barry; Kaufman, James C.

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that creativity evolved, at least in part, through sexual selection to attract mates. Recent research lends support to this view and has also demonstrated a link between certain dimensions of schizotypy, creativity, and short-term mating. The current study delves deeper into these relationships by focusing on engagement in…

  4. The iron-responsive, GATA-type transcription factor Cir1 influences mating in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Won Hee; Kronstad, James W

    2011-01-01

    Mating and sexual development have been associated with virulence in various fungal pathogens including Cryptococcus neoformans. This fungus is a significant pathogen of humans because it causes life-threatening cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompromised people such as AIDS patients. The virulence of C. neoformans is known to be associated with the mating type of the cells (? or a), with the ? mating type being predominant among clinical isolates. However, the mechanisms by which mating and sexual development are controlled by environmental conditions and their relationship with virulence require further investigation. Cir1 is a GATA-type transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes required for utilization of essential metals such as iron and copper, and also genes required for major virulence factors including the polysaccharide capsule and melanin. Here we investigated the role of Cir1 in the mating of C. neoformans. Our results demonstrate that mutants lacking CIR1 are defective in mating, and that Cir1 contributes to copper mediated enhancement of sexual filamentation. Furthermore, we found that Cir1 influences the expression of mating pheromone genes suggesting that this protein plays a role in the early phase of sexual development on V8 mating medium. PMID:21120626

  5. Cognitive ability is heritable and predicts the success of an alternative mating tactic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, Carl; Philips, A.; Reichard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 282, ?. 1809 (2015). ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA ?R GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alternative mating tactics * cognition * learning * mating system * sexual selection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.292, year: 2013

  6. Studies on mating behaviour of radio-sterilized males of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on mating behaviour of normal and radio-sterilized males of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv were carried out under laboratory conditions with 12:12 Light: Dark photoperiodic cycle. Results indicated that both sterilized as well as unsterilized males mated equally well in both the phases of photoperiodic cycle and majority of the males mated in middle (5 to 8 hrs.) part of the phases. There was no significant change in mating behaviour of sterilized males, except slight increase in mating frequency and period of copulation. The maximum number of males mate only once in a single day, however some males were observed to mate more than 4 times in control and 6 times in irradiated regimen. The average respective mating frequency of control and sterilized male were 16.4 and 19.2 in dark phase, 17.8 and 18.8 in light phase. The period of copulation varied from 15 to 45 minutes in control males and 15 to 60 minutes in sterilized males. (author)

  7. Reliability of the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) Instrument with University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Michael L.; Sadler, Kim C.

    2007-01-01

    The Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument was initially designed to assess high school biology teachers' acceptance of evolutionary theory. To determine if the MATE instrument is reliable with university students, it was administered to students in a non-majors biology course (n = 61) twice over a 3-week period.…

  8. Identifying Context-Specific Gene Profiles of Social, Reproductive, and Mate Preference Behavior in a Fish Species with Female Mate Choice

    OpenAIRE

    MaryERamsey; TaraL.Maginnis; RyanY.Wong

    2012-01-01

    Sensory and social inputs interact with underlying gene suites to coordinate social behavior. Here we use a naturally complex system in sexual selection studies, the swordtail, to explore how genes associated with mate preference, receptivity, and social affiliation interact in the female brain under specific social conditions. We focused on 11 genes associated with mate preference in this species (neuroserpin, neuroligin-3, NMDA-receptor, tPA, stathmin-2,?-1 adrenergic receptor) or with fe...

  9. Composição mineral do produto comercial da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) Mineral composition of a commercial product from mate-herb (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.)

    OpenAIRE

    Reges Heinrichs; Eurípedes Malavolta

    2001-01-01

    Com o objetivo de quantificar e avaliar a concentração mineral na matéria seca e na infusão de erva-mate tipo chimarrão, selecionaram-se três amostras comerciais, com ampla aceitação pelo consumidor, as quais foram amostradas com quatro repetições. Na industrialização da erva-mate tipo chimarrão, são utilizadas folhas, pecíolos e ramos finos, tendo uma composição aproximada de 30% ramos e 70% folhas, que são beneficiados para posterior comercialização. O preparo das amostras e as análises for...

  10. Caracterização físico-química da erva mate: influência das etapas do processamento industrial Effects of industrial processing steps on the physico-chemical characteristics of mate tea leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Carolina Esmelindro; Geciane Toniazzo; Adroaldo Waczuk; Cláudio Dariva; Débora de Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    A erva-mate é uma matéria-prima de grande importância para a região Sul do Brasil, sendo que a produção anual é de aproximadamente 650.000 toneladas de folhas. Atualmente, problemas com o excesso de oferta têm incentivado pesquisadores e empresários a buscar alternativas para a utilização da erva-mate como matéria-prima para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos bem como promover melhorias no processamento industrial visando a obtenção de características organolépticas desejáve...

  11. Males of the two-spotted spider mite attempt to copulate with mated females: effects of double mating on fitness of either sex

    OpenAIRE

    Oku, K.

    2010-01-01

    In Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), when the intervals between first and second copulation are more than 24 h, only the first copulation is effective for females. Therefore, adult males should copulate only with virgin females, but not with females that copulated more than 1 day ago. Indeed, T. urticae males preferred virgin females to mated females under dual choice conditions. In the absence of virgin females, however, 60% of males copulated with mated females (n = 30). Therefore...

  12. Genomic analysis of post-mating changes in the honey bee queen (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Freddie-Jeanne

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms underlying the post-mating behavioral and physiological transitions undergone by females have not been explored in great detail. Honey bees represent an excellent model system in which to address these questions because they exhibit a range of "mating states," with two extremes (virgins and egg-laying, mated queens that differ dramatically in their behavior, pheromone profiles, and physiology. We used an incompletely-mated mating-state to understand the molecular processes that underlie the transition from a virgin to a mated, egg-laying queen. We used same-aged virgins, queens that mated once but did not initiate egg-laying, and queens that mated once and initiated egg-laying. Results Differences in the behavior and physiology among groups correlated with the underlying variance observed in the top 50 predictive genes in the brains and the ovaries. These changes were correlated with either a behaviorally-associated pattern or a physiologically-associated pattern. Overall, these results suggest that the brains and the ovaries of queens are uncoupled or follow different timescales; the initiation of mating triggers immediate changes in the ovaries, while changes in the brain may require additional stimuli or take a longer time to complete. Comparison of our results to previous studies of post-mating changes in Drosophila melanogaster identified common biological processes affected by mating, including stress response and alternative-splicing pathways. Comparison with microarray data sets related to worker behavior revealed no obvious correlation between genes regulated by mating and genes regulated by behavior/physiology in workers. Conclusion Studying the underlying molecular mechanisms of post-mating changes in honey bee queens will not only give us insight into how molecular mechanisms regulate physiological and behavioral changes, but they may also lead to important insights into the evolution of social behavior. Post-mating changes in gene regulation in the brains and ovaries of honey bee queens appear to be triggered by different stimuli and may occur on different timescales, potentially allowing changes in the brains and the ovaries to be uncoupled.

  13. Development status of the MU upper stage motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Masahiro; Onoda, Junjiro; Murakami, Takuji; Obata, Akira

    Two types of upper stage motors named KM-D and KM-M are now under development to mate with the M-3SII launch vehicles. In their design have been incorporated several new technologies — an HMX containing HTPB propellant, a pressure cured head-end web grain, a throat plug type aft-end pyrogen igniter, a 15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn titanium alloy (KM-D) and a carbon fiber-epoxy filament wound (KM-M) case, and an extendible exit cone deployed by helical spring extensor (KM-D). Design features of each motor and their development status are reported.

  14. Are narcissists sexy? Zeroing in on the effect of narcissism on short-term mate appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufner, Michael; Rauthmann, John F; Czarna, Anna Z; Denissen, Jaap J A

    2013-07-01

    This research was aimed to provide a comprehensive test of the classic notion that narcissistic individuals are appealing as short-term romantic or sexual partners. In three studies, we tested the hypotheses that narcissism exerts a positive effect on an individual's mate appeal and that this effect is mediated by high physical attractiveness and high social boldness. We implemented a multimethod approach and used ratings of opposite sex persons (Study 1), ratings of friends (Study 2), and records of courtship outcomes in naturalistic interactions (Study 3) as indicators of mate appeal. In all cases, narcissism had a positive effect on mate appeal, which was mainly due to the agentic self-enhancement aspects of narcissism (rather than narcissists' lacking communion). As predicted, physical attractiveness and social boldness mediated the positive effect of narcissism on mate appeal. Findings further indicated that narcissism was more strongly linked to mate appeal than to friend appeal. PMID:23554177

  15. Mating success and sexual selection in a pelagic copepod, Temora longicornis: Evidence from paternity analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichlau, Mie Hylstofte; Eg Nielsen, Einar

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about mating patterns is essential for understanding and explaining rates of reproduction and genetic potential of copepods populations. The aim of this study was to examine (1) the occurrence of multiple paternity in Temora longicornis, (2) the effect of multiple paternity (if present) on the females reproductive output, and (3) whether mating is random or some individuals have a higher than average chance of fertilizing or being fertilized (super individuals). We show that multiple paternity is common in this copepod species, that females benefit from multiple matings by increased offspring production, and that a relatively small fraction of the males and females in a population account for most of the offspring production. In both males and females, mating is nonrandom. Superior individuals with a higher than average matings success were identified both among females and among males.

  16. Serotypes and mating types of clinical isolates from feline cryptococcosis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Ken; Kano, Rui; Watanabe, Toshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Most isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans (teleomorph: Filobasidiella neoformans) from human patients and from environmental materials in Japan have been identified as serotype A mating type a by the seroagglutination test and mating experiments. A PCR method using the mating type alpha allele-specific primer of the STE12 gene and the serotype- and mating type-specific primers of the STE20 gene for identification of C. neoformans has been developed. Using the PCR method, conserved strains and clinical isolates from feline cryptococcosis were examined for serotype and the mating type. The results showed that all clinical isolates examined were identified as serotype A, MATalpha, indicating that feline cryptococcsis cases in Japan are caused by C. neoformans serotype A, MATalpha, as is the case in humans. PMID:16462126

  17. COMPORTAMENTO DA ERVA-MATE (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. EM CONSÓRCIO SILVICULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilson dos Santos Oliveira

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado no Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria e teve por objetivo determinar o comportamento da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. cultivada em sistemas de consórcio silvicultural. A metodologia adotada constituiu-se da implantação de três tratamentos, cortes aos sistemas de consórcio erva-mate x Pinus sp., erva-mate x bracatinga e erva-mate x capoeira. A análise dos resultados levou às setes conclusões: os melhores resultados de desenvolvimento de erva-mate são obdos nos consórcios com bracatinga e Pinus sp. e, o pior, na capoeira; as vazes extremas dos fatores do meio são amenizadas pelas outras espécies do consórcio; índices elevados de luminosidade não promovem maior produção de matéria seca, nem os índices muito baixos.

  18. Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini Represents a Distinct Mating Population in the Gibberella fujikuroi Species Complex†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, H.; Coutinho, T. A.; Wingfield, M. J.; Marasas, W. F. O.; Gordon, T. R.; Leslie, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    Fusarium strains in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex cause diseases on a variety of economically important plants. One of these diseases, pitch canker of Pinus spp., is caused by strains identified as Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini. Fertile crosses were detected between F. subglutinans f. sp. pini strains from South Africa, California, and Florida. F. subglutinans f. sp. pini strains were not cross-fertile with the standard tester strains of six of the seven other mating populations of G. fujikuroi. Sporadic perithecia with ascospores were obtained in two crosses with the mating population B tester strains. These perithecia were homothallic, and the ascospores derived from these perithecia were vegetatively compatible with the mating population B tester strain parent. We concluded that fertile F. subglutinans f. sp. pini isolates represent a new mating population (mating population H) of G. fujikuroi and that they belong to a unique biological species in a distinct taxon. PMID:10049883

  19. Assailing the competition: sexual selection, proximate mating motives, and aggressive behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Sarah E; Maner, Jon K

    2014-12-01

    Throughout history, men have tended to be more violent than women. Evolutionary theories suggest that this sex difference derives in part from their historically greater need to compete with other men over access to potential mates. In the current research, men and women (Experiment 1) or men only (Experiments 2 and 3) underwent a mating motive prime or control prime, and then performed a task designed to measure aggression toward a same-sex partner. The mating prime increased aggression among men, but not women (Experiment 1). Furthermore, mating-related increases in aggression were directed only toward men who were depicted as viable intrasexual rivals, including a dominant (vs. non-dominant) male partner (Experiment 2) and a man who was depicted as single (versus married) and looking for a mate (Experiment 3). This research provides a picture of male intrasexual aggression as highly selective and aimed strategically at asserting one's dominance over sexual rivals. PMID:25313098

  20. Mate replacement entails a fitness cost for a socially monogamous seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Daniel, Claire; Stephenson, Brent M.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the selective advantages of divorce in socially monogamous bird species have unravelled extensive variation among different lineages with diverse ecologies. We quantified the reproductive correlates of mate retention, mate loss and divorce in a highly philopatric, colonially breeding biparental seabird, the Australasian gannet Morus serrator. Estimates of annual divorce rates varied between 40-43% for M. serrator and were high in comparison with both the closely related Morus bassanus and the range of divorce rates reported across monogamous avian breeding systems. Mate retention across seasons was related to consistently higher reproductive success compared with mate replacement, while divorce per se contributed significantly to lower reproductive output only in one of two breeding seasons. Prior reproductive success was not predictive of mate replacement overall or divorce in particular. These patterns are in accordance with the musical chairs hypothesis of adaptive divorce theory, which operates in systems characterised by asynchronous territorial establishment.

  1. Parallelism between male mating propensity and chromosome arrangement frequency in natural populations of Drosophila ananassae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B N; Chatterjee, S

    1988-04-01

    Mating ability of different karyotypes due to sub-terminal (alpha or In(2L)A) inversion in 2L from two natural populations of Drosophila ananassae was investigated. The results show that the average number of females inseminated by a single male in 12-hour period varies for different karyotypes in males. The analysis of variance indicates that the differences are highly significant for males in both the populations studied. However, the averages for different karyotypes in females show no variation and thus homo- and heterokaryotypic females are equally receptive. The males heterozygous for inversion show greater mating propensity as compared with homokaryotypic males which provides evidence for heterosis associated with AL inversion in D. ananassae with respect to male mating activity. Furthermore, the comparison of male mating propensity with chromosome arrangement frequency in both the natural populations suggests that there is a correlation between mating propensity and chromosome arrangement frequency in natural populations of D. ananassae. PMID:3366629

  2. Effect of chromosome arrangements on mate recognition system leading to behavioral isolation in Drosophila ananassae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Punita; Singh, Bashisth N

    2011-02-01

    The mechanisms of speciation that appear in the early stages of reproductive isolation has been of recent interest to evolutionary biologists. Experiments were conducted to study behavioral isolation between karyotypically different homozygous strains derived from natural populations of Drosophila ananassae. Three mass cultures stocks established from flies collected from natural populations were employed and homozygous stocks (ST/ST and AL/AL) were made through selection for homozygosity. By employing male-choice technique, mating success was scored by direct observation in the Elens-Wattiaux mating chamber. There is preference for homogamic matings in all the three populations and the differences between homogamic and heterogamic matings are statistically significant in two populations (Lucknow and Varanasi). These findings provide evidence that there is incipient sexual isolation between karyotypically different strains of D. ananassae derived from natural populations which shows that chromosome arrangements may affect the mate recognition system in D. ananassae. PMID:21234646

  3. Incestuous mate preference by a simultaneous hermaphrodite with strong inbreeding depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjørring, Solveig; Jäger, Ilonka

    2007-02-01

    Inbreeding depression and its consequences for mate choice have been extensively studied in free-living animals. However, very little is known about its significance for parasites, although it is well recognized that the mating systems of parasites can have important implications for their epidemiology and evolution. In this article, we show that the cestode Schistocephalus solidus shows incestuous mate preference despite evidence for very strong inbreeding depression. When given the simultaneous choice between mating with a sibling and an unrelated partner, on average, the cestode preferred its sibling. To explain this surprising result, we present three hypotheses that suggest different benefits to fitness of incestuous mating, which could, alone or in concert, outweigh the cost of inbreeding depression. PMID:17348951

  4. Water turbidity by algal blooms causes mating system breakdown in a shallow-water fish, the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ja?rvenpa?a?, Marja; Lindstro?m, Kai

    2004-01-01

    Eutrophication as a result of human activity has resulted in increased algal blooms and turbidity in aquatic environments. We investigated experimentally the effect of algal turbidity on the mating system and sexual selection in the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas), a marine fish with a resource-defence mating system and paternal care. Owing to male-male competition and female choice, large males can monopolize multiple mates, while some males do not achieve mating at all. We show t...

  5. Reproductive and Productive Performance of Iraqi Buffaloes as Influenced by Pre-Mating and Pre-Calving Concentrate Supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Talal Anwer Abdulkareem, Sawsan Ali Al-sharifi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of pre-mating and pre-calving concentrate supplementation of Iraqi buffaloes on some of the reproductive (estrus, mating, pregnancy and calving rates) and productive (daily milk yield and calves birth weight) traits. This study was carried out in 4 Iraqi South-central governorates using 596 pre-mating and 628 pregnant buffaloes (during the last two months of gestation). Pre-mating buffaloes were divided randomly into 496 conc...

  6. Mate recognition and reproductive isolation in the sibling species Spodoptera littoralis and Spodoptera litura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AhmedMSaveer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mate recognition is crucial for reproductive isolation and for maintaining species integrity. Chemosensory-mediated sexual communication with pheromones is an essential component of mate recognition in moths. Confronted with sex pheromone stimuli released from conspecific and closely related heterospecific females, which partially overlap in chemical composition, male moths are under strong selection to recognize compatible mates. Here, we investigated the role of pheromone signals in premating communication in the sibling species Spodoptera littoralis and S. litura (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae. Further, we measured the reproductive consequence of conspecific vs. heterospecific matings. Both species use Z9,E11-14:Ac as the major pheromone compound, and the 11-component blend found in pheromone glands of S. littoralis comprises the compounds found in S. litura. Accordingly, S. littoralis and S. litura males readily responded to conspecific and heterospecific calling females in no-choice behavioural tests. In contrast, in a dual-choice test, S. littoralis males choose conspecific calling females, whereas S. litura males did not discriminate between conspecific and heterospecific females. In S. littoralis females, heterospecific matings had a negative fitness effect as compared to conspecific matings. Female longevity, egg-laying and hatching of larvae were significantly reduced by matings with heterospecific males. Reciprocal crossings, between S. litura females and S. littoralis males, were prevented by genital morphology, which is consistent with reduced heterospecific attraction of S. littoralis males in a dual-choice assay. On the other hand, matings between S. littoralis females and S. litura males, under a no-choice situation, show that interspecific matings occur in zones of geographical overlap and corroborate the idea that mate quality, in these closely related species, is a continuous and not a categorical trait.

  7. Women's preference for dominant male odour: effects of menstrual cycle and relationship status

    OpenAIRE

    Havlicek, Jan; Roberts, S Craig; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2005-01-01

    Body odour may provide significant cues about a potential sexual partner's genetic quality, reproductive status and health. In animals, a key trait in a female's choice of sexual partner is male dominance but, to date, this has not been examined in humans. Here, we show that women in the fertile phase of their cycle prefer body odour of males who score high on a questionnaire-based dominance scale (international personality items pool). In accordance with the theory of mixed mating strategies...

  8. Desenvolvimento e avaliação da eficácia de filmes biodegradáveis de amido de mandioca com nanocelulose como reforço e com extrato de erva-mate como aditivo antioxidante Development and evaluation of the effectiveness of biodegradable films of cassava starch with nanocelulose as reinforcement and yerba mate extract as an additive antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Aparecida Souza Machado

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver uma embalagem biodegradável utilizando como matriz polimérica o amido de mandioca plastificada com glicerol e reforçada com a incorporação de nanocelulose da fibra de coco, bem como, avaliar o efeito da adição de um aditivo natural (erva-mate nas formulações de nanobiocompósitos com ação antioxidante. Os nanocristais de celulose (L/D=39 foram obtidos por hidrólise ácida com H2SO4 a 65%. Os filmes foram preparados por casting contendo 4,5 e 6,0% de amido, 0,5 e 1,5% de glicerol, 0,3% de nanocelulose e 20% de extrato de erva-mate. O armazenamento do azeite de dendê embalado com os filmes contendo o aditivo foi monitorado por 40 dias sob condições de oxidação acelerada (63%UR/30°C. Constatou-se que, à medida que aumentam as perdas de Polifenóis Totais nos filmes, ocorre um menor aumento do Índice de Peróxidos do produto embalado, demonstrando, assim, que, ao invés do produto, os compostos da embalagem é quem estão sofrendo oxidação. A incorporação de extrato de erva-mate não alterou as propriedades mecânicas e de barreira desses filmes.The objective was to develop biodegradable packaging using a polymer matrix as the cassava starch plasticized with glycerol and reinforced with the incorporation of nanocelulose of coconut fiber, as well as to evaluate the effect of the addition of an additive nature (yerba mate in nanobiocompósitos formulations with antioxidant action. The nanocrystal cellulose (L/D=39 were obtained by acid hydrolysis with 65% H2SO4. The films were prepared by casting containing 4.5 and 6.0% starch, 0.5 and 1.5% glycerol, 0.3% nanocelulose and 20% extract of yerba mate. The palm oil storage packed with films containing the additive was monitored for 40 days under conditions of accelerated oxidation (63%UR/30°C. It was found that as the losses increase polyphenol films, there is a smaller increase of the peroxide value of the packaged product, thus demonstrating that instead of the product, the compounds of the package's who are suffering oxidation. The incorporation of yerba mate extract did not alter the mechanical and barrier properties of these films.

  9. Desenvolvimento e avaliação da eficácia de filmes biodegradáveis de amido de mandioca com nanocelulose como reforço e com extrato de erva-mate como aditivo antioxidante / Development and evaluation of the effectiveness of biodegradable films of cassava starch with nanocelulose as reinforcement and yerba mate extract as an additive antioxidant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruna Aparecida Souza, Machado; Itaciara Larroza, Nunes; Fabiano Vargas, Pereira; Janice Izabel, Druzian.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver uma embalagem biodegradável utilizando como matriz polimérica o amido de mandioca plastificada com glicerol e reforçada com a incorporação de nanocelulose da fibra de coco, bem como, avaliar o efeito da adição de um aditivo natural (erva-mate) nas formulações d [...] e nanobiocompósitos com ação antioxidante. Os nanocristais de celulose (L/D=39) foram obtidos por hidrólise ácida com H2SO4 a 65%. Os filmes foram preparados por casting contendo 4,5 e 6,0% de amido, 0,5 e 1,5% de glicerol, 0,3% de nanocelulose e 20% de extrato de erva-mate. O armazenamento do azeite de dendê embalado com os filmes contendo o aditivo foi monitorado por 40 dias sob condições de oxidação acelerada (63%UR/30°C). Constatou-se que, à medida que aumentam as perdas de Polifenóis Totais nos filmes, ocorre um menor aumento do Índice de Peróxidos do produto embalado, demonstrando, assim, que, ao invés do produto, os compostos da embalagem é quem estão sofrendo oxidação. A incorporação de extrato de erva-mate não alterou as propriedades mecânicas e de barreira desses filmes. Abstract in english The objective was to develop biodegradable packaging using a polymer matrix as the cassava starch plasticized with glycerol and reinforced with the incorporation of nanocelulose of coconut fiber, as well as to evaluate the effect of the addition of an additive nature (yerba mate) in nanobiocompósito [...] s formulations with antioxidant action. The nanocrystal cellulose (L/D=39) were obtained by acid hydrolysis with 65% H2SO4. The films were prepared by casting containing 4.5 and 6.0% starch, 0.5 and 1.5% glycerol, 0.3% nanocelulose and 20% extract of yerba mate. The palm oil storage packed with films containing the additive was monitored for 40 days under conditions of accelerated oxidation (63%UR/30°C). It was found that as the losses increase polyphenol films, there is a smaller increase of the peroxide value of the packaged product, thus demonstrating that instead of the product, the compounds of the package's who are suffering oxidation. The incorporation of yerba mate extract did not alter the mechanical and barrier properties of these films.

  10. Blood albumin alterations and lymphocyte populations in advanced cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Tija Zvagule; Laura Klimkane; Elena Kirilova; Natalja Kurjane; Inta Kalnina; Georgii Kirilov

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Patients with cancer (namely advanced cancer) exhibit poorly functionating immune system. It is now widely accepted that dynamics of changes, along the certain types of alterations in structures of lipid/protein themselves of immune system cells and blood plasma, plays a critical role in the maintenance of the immune status of organism. Biomarkers for prediction of disease outcome are of great interest in human medicine. Methods: The fluorescent probe ABM was used to characterize l...

  11. Plant viruses alter insect behavior to enhance their spread

    OpenAIRE

    Ingwell, Laura L.; Eigenbrode, Sanford D.; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A.

    2012-01-01

    Pathogens and parasites can induce changes in host or vector behavior that enhance their transmission. In plant systems, such effects are largely restricted to vectors, because they are mobile and may exhibit preferences dependent upon plant host infection status. Here we report the first evidence that acquisition of a plant virus directly alters host selection behavior by its insect vector. We show that the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, after acquiring Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) during in ...

  12. Female fecundity and longevity in Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in relation to multiple mating and body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    A single mating generally supplies female insects with enough sperm to fertilize a lifetime of eggs; however, many females mate repeatedly during their lifetime. It is believed that female northern corn rootworm mate only once in their lifetime. We paired combinations of large, small, and average si...

  13. The genetic structure and mating system of Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aluana Gonçalves, Abreu; Regina Helena Geribello, Priolli; Joaquim Adelino, Azevedo-Filho; Stella Maris, Nucci; Maria Imaculada, Zucchi; Ricardo Marques, Coelho; Carlos Augusto, Colombo.

    Full Text Available Acrocomia aculeata is a perennial, fruit-producing palm tree, native to tropical forests. Its fruits have spurred interest because of their significant potential for use in the cosmetic industry and as feedstock for biofuel. In the present study, the genetic structure and mating system in Acrocomia [...] aculeata were analyzed, using eight nuclear microsatellite loci and samples from São Paulo and Minas Gerais states, Brazil. By means of Bayesian analysis, these populations were clustered into two or three groups. A high multilocus outcrossing rate suggests that outcrosses were predominant, although a certain degree of biparental inbreeding also occurred. Thus, although monoecious and self-compatible, there is every indication that A. aculeata bears a mixed reproductive system, with a predominance of outcrossing. Given the genetic structure revealed hereby, future conservation strategies and germplasm collecting should be focussed on sampling and preserving individuals from different clusters.

  14. Geographic range size is predicted by plant mating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossenbacher, Dena; Briscoe Runquist, Ryan; Goldberg, Emma E; Brandvain, Yaniv

    2015-07-01

    Species' geographic ranges vary enormously, and even closest relatives may differ in range size by several orders of magnitude. With data from hundreds of species spanning 20 genera in 15 families, we show that plant species that autonomously reproduce via self-pollination consistently have larger geographic ranges than their close relatives that generally require two parents for reproduction. Further analyses strongly implicate autonomous self-fertilisation in causing this relationship, as it is not driven by traits such as polyploidy or annual life history whose evolution is sometimes correlated with selfing. Furthermore, we find that selfers occur at higher maximum latitudes and that disparity in range size between selfers and outcrossers increases with time since their evolutionary divergence. Together, these results show that autonomous reproduction-a critical biological trait that eliminates mate limitation and thus potentially increases the probability of establishment-increases range size. PMID:25980327

  15. The dance of male Anopheles gambiae in wild mating swarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butail, Sachit; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Diallo, Moussa; Ribeiro, José M C; Paley, Derek A

    2013-05-01

    An important element of mating in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles in nature is the crepuscular mating aggregation (swarm) composed almost entirely of males, where most coupling and insemination is generally believed to occur. In this study, we mathematically characterize the oscillatory movement of male An. gambiae in terms of an established individual-based mechanistic model that parameterizes the attraction of a mosquito toward the center of the swarm using the natural frequency of oscillation and the resistance to its motion, characterized by the damping ratio. Using three-dimensional trajectory data of ten wild mosquito swarms filmed in Mali, Africa, we show two new results for low and moderate wind conditions, and indicate how these results may vary in high wind. First, we show that in low and moderate wind the vertical component of the mosquito motion has a lower frequency of oscillation and higher damping ratio than horizontal motion. In high wind, the vertical and horizontal motions are similar to one another and the natural frequencies are higher than in low and moderate wind. Second, we show that the predicted average disagreement in the direction of motion of swarming mosquitoes moving randomly is greater than the average disagreement we observed between each mosquito and its three closest neighbors, with the smallest level of disagreement occurring for the nearest neighbor in seven out of 10 swarms. The alignment of the direction of motion between nearest neighbors is the highest in high wind. This result provides evidence for flight-path coordination between swarming male mosquitoes. PMID:23802449

  16. Optimal swimming strategies in mate searching pelagic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KiØrboe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Male copepods must swim to find females, but swimming increases the risk of meeting predators and is expensive in terms of energy expenditure. Here I address the trade-offs between gains and risks and the question of how much and how fast to swim using simple models that optimise the number of lifetime mate encounters. Radically different swimming strategies are predicted for different feeding behaviours, and these predictions are tested experimentally using representative species. In general, male swimming speeds and the difference in swimming speeds between the genders are predicted and observed to increase with increasing conflict between mate searching and feeding. It is high in ambush feeders, where searching (swimming) and feeding are mutually exclusive and low in species, where the matured males do not feed at all. Ambush feeding males alternate between stationary ambush feeding and rapid search swimming. Swimming speed and the fraction of time spent searching increase with food availability, as predicted. This response is different from the pattern in other feeding types. The swimming speeds of non-feeding males are predicted and observed to be independent of the magnitude of their energy storage and to scale with the square root of body length in contrast to the proportionality scaling in feeding copepods. Suspension feeding males may search and feed at the same time, but feeding is more efficient when hovering than when cruising. Therefore, females should mainly be hovering and males cruising, which is confirmed by observations. Differences in swimming behaviour between genders and feeding types imply different mortality rates and predict well the observed patterns in population sex ratios. Sex ratios may become so female-biased that male abundances limit population growth, demonstrating that behaviours that are optimal to the individual may be suboptimal to the population.

  17. The effect of methyl eugenol exposure on subsequent mating performance of sterile males of the oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of methyl eugenol (ME) on the total times of mating, consecutive mating, mating competitiveness, multiple mating, and the incidence of wild female remating were studied in sterile males from a genetic sexing strain of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Male pupae were irradiated at dose of 100 Gy by 137Cs at 2 d before emergence and the dose rate was 1.00 Gy/min. Sexually mature 10 day old sterile males were fed ME, while Non-ME-fed sterile males and normal wild males were used as control, and wild females as mating partners. The results showed that some ME-fed sterile males could mate continuously up to nine times, but the total times of consecutive mating and the mean value of continuous mating times were not significant (P> 0.05) compared with the control. The total mating times of ME-fed sterile males was 344.33±12.55 and the mean value was 6.88±0.25, but both have no significant difference compared with the control. The mating success rate of ME-fed and non- ME-fed sterile males mated with wild females were (44.67±2.40)% and (22.00±2.31)% separately. There were significant differences between them (t = -6.8, P = 0.002). The outcomes were that feeding on ME did not increase the frequency of multiple mating by sterile males, but significantly increased the mating competitiveness of sterile males against wild males. At the same time, sterile males fed ME did not significantly affect the remating of wild females 5 days after the initial mating, but increased the remating frequency of females 10 and 15 days after the initial mating. (authors)

  18. Assessment of Fertility and Mating Capabilities in Adult Male Rats after Single Intra-Testicular Injection of Formalin Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Beteiha Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty adult male Sprage-Dawley rats, assigned into groups (5 in each and given one dose (50 ?L of different concentrations of formalin solution (2.5, 5 and 10% intratestically. Weight, food and water consumptions were monitered. Animals were maintained in a controlled atmosphere 21?C?1?C under 12 hrs light: 12 hrs darkness schedule. Paraformeldehyde, prilled 95% obtained from Aldrich Chemical Company (Milwaukee, WI 53233, USA was dissolved in water and different concentrations were prepared. One and two months post injection animals were kept for ten days for mating with virgin untreated females to evaluate mating capability of treated rats. Animals were sacrificed and the following organs were collected for evaluation: testes, epididimidis, seminal vesicles, preputial glands, liver and kidneys. Testes and epididymidis were cut in halves, one half was placed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and processed following standard histological procedures. Formalin injection intratestically did not result in any apparent changes on condition or behavior of the treated rats. However, reduction in size and weights of the testes, epididymidis and seminal vesicles were obvious. Also, bilateral injection resulted in impairment of mating capabilities for all concentration used. These changes were less pronounced in unilateral groups. Sperm counts decreased in testes and epididymidis in all treated groups. Histological changes appeared to be more severe close to the locus of injection with the seminiferous tubules filled with connective tissue and sperm debris. The degree of changes beyond the central lesion showed poor structural status having one or two cell layers with no sperm inside the lumen or very few depending on the concentration of the formalin used. Intact and normal histological architecture were observed at the periphery of the testes and much larger number in the 2.5% group. Intertubular connective tissue thickened and cells were replaced with collagenous tissue especially in testes injected with 10% formalin solution. Epididymidis were devoid of sperms in their lumen. Besides, vacuoles were observed within the epithelium of the epididymis. No histological changes were observed within the liver and the kidneys of all groups. This study showed that a single dose intratesticular injection of formalin solution has as adverse effect on the reproductive system of the male rats. This experiment could be modified and used as a new method of chemical castration especially if it is used in young animals (before puberty.

  19. Mating in a viscous universe: the race is to the agile, not to the swift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Benedict; Thomason, Jeremy C; McLachlan, Athol

    2003-10-01

    Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection has at its focal point the mating success of organisms. Among male animals, large body size is widely seen as the principal determinant of mating success. However, where mating takes place in a three-dimensional arena such as water, the arboreal habitat or air, small size with its concomitant aerobatic advantages might be advantageous. Despite considerable interest, the relationship between aerobatic ability and mating success has not yet been demonstrated in a single animal species. Here, we test the hypothesis that the known mating success of small male midges is due to their greater aerobatic ability. To do this, male midges collected from leks in the wild were flown and their flight paths in free flight were recorded on high-speed cameras in the laboratory. Four flight parameters that would seem relevant to male mate acquisition in flight, i.e. acceleration, maximum speed, tortuosity and turn-rate, were analysed with respect to body size. We show that, while in terms of maximum speed there was no detectable difference between small and large males, small males outperformed larger ones with respect to acceleration, tortuosity and turn-rate. We conclude that the hypothesis that small males gain their mating advantage through aerobatic superiority is consistent with the observations reported here. PMID:14561286

  20. Multiple mating in the traumatically inseminating Warehouse pirate bug, Xylocoris flavipes: effects on fecundity and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, Amy; Sait, Steven M; Cameron, Tom C

    2012-10-23

    Optimal mating frequencies differ between sexes as a consequence of the sexual differentiation of reproductive costs per mating, where mating is normally more costly to females than males. In mating systems where sexual reproduction is costly to females, sexual conflict may cause both direct (i.e. by reducing female fecundity or causing mortality) and indirect (i.e. increased risk of mortality, reduced offspring viability) reductions in lifetime reproductive success of females, which have individual and population consequences. We investigated the direct and indirect costs of multiple mating in a traumatically inseminating (TI) predatory Warehouse pirate bug, Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), where the male penetrates the female's abdomen during copulation. This study aimed to quantify the effects of TI on female fecundity, egg viability, the lifetime fecundity schedule, longevity and prey consumption in this cosmopolitan biocontrol agent. We found no difference in the total reproductive output between mating treatments in terms of total eggs laid or offspring viability, but there were significant differences found in daily fecundity schedules and adult longevity. In terms of lifetime reproduction, female Warehouse pirate bugs appear to be adapted to compensate for the costs of TI mating to their longevity. PMID:22573833

  1. Assortative mate choice and dominance modification: alternative ways of removing heterozygote disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durinx, Michel; Van Dooren, Tom J M

    2009-02-01

    In genetic polymorphisms of two alleles, heterozygous individuals may contribute to the next generation on average more or fewer descendants than the homozygotes. Two different evolutionary responses that remove a disadvantageous heterozygote phenotype from the population are the evolution of strictly assortative mate choice, and that of a modifier making one of the two alleles completely dominant. We derive invasion fitness of mutants introducing dominance or assortative mate choice in a randomly mating population with a genetic polymorphism for an ecological trait. Mutations with small effects as well as mutants introducing complete dominance or perfect assorting are considered. Using adaptive dynamics techniques, we are able to calculate the ratio of fitness gradients for the effects of a dominance modifier and a mate choice locus, near evolutionary branching points. With equal resident allele frequencies, selection for mate choice is always stronger. Dominance is more strongly selected than assortative mating when the resident (common) alleles have very unequal frequencies at equilibrium. With female mate choice the difference in frequencies where dominance is more strongly selected is smaller than when mutants of both sexes can choose without costs. A symmetric resource-competition model illustrates the results. PMID:19054051

  2. A note on mate allocation for dominance handling in genomic selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toro Miguel A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Estimation of non-additive genetic effects in animal breeding is important because it increases the accuracy of breeding value prediction and the value of mate allocation procedures. With the advent of genomic selection these ideas should be revisited. The objective of this study was to quantify the efficiency of including dominance effects and practising mating allocation under a whole-genome evaluation scenario. Four strategies of selection, carried out during five generations, were compared by simulation techniques. In the first scenario (MS, individuals were selected based on their own phenotypic information. In the second (GSA, they were selected based on the prediction generated by the Bayes A method of whole-genome evaluation under an additive model. In the third (GSD, the model was expanded to include dominance effects. These three scenarios used random mating to construct future generations, whereas in the fourth one (GSD + MA, matings were optimized by simulated annealing. The advantage of GSD over GSA ranges from 9 to 14% of the expected response and, in addition, using mate allocation (GSD + MA provides an additional response ranging from 6% to 22%. However, mate selection can improve the expected genetic response over random mating only in the first generation of selection. Furthermore, the efficiency of genomic selection is eroded after a few generations of selection, thus, a continued collection of phenotypic data and re-evaluation will be required.

  3. Levels of mate recognition within and between two Drosophila species and their hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blows, M W; Allan, R A

    1998-12-01

    If sexual selection is to result in speciation, traits involved in mate choice within species need to be capable of producing sexual isolation between species. We investigated the association between mate choice and sexual isolation using interspecific hybrids between two sibling species, Drosophila serrata and Drosophila birchii. A perfuming experiment demonstrated that olfaction was involved in the sexual isolation between the two species. A quantitative genetic analysis using 30 populations of hybrids between the two species indicated that mating success in hybrid individuals was predominately determined by cuticular hydrocarbons; the average genetic correlation between mating success and cuticular hydrocarbon profile was 0.84, and in some instances exceeded 0.95. Multivariate analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbons of the two species revealed that there were three independent blends of cuticular hydrocarbons that separated three levels of organization: species, sex, and sex within species. The hydrocarbons used by hybrids in mate choice included those that separated the two species, demonstrating that species-specific characters may be used in mate choice within populations. The interspecific reciprocal cross had major effect on which cuticular hydrocarbons were associated with mating success, indicating that the expression of the cuticular hydrocarbons was strongly sex linked. PMID:18811430

  4. Consequences of snowy winters on male mating strategies and reproduction in a mountain ungulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, Marco; Brivio, Francesca; Rossi, Iva; Bassano, Bruno; Grignolio, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Alternative mating tactics (AMTs) are intrasexual variants in mating behaviour of several species ranging from arthropods to mammals. Male AMTs coexist between and within populations. In particular, male ungulates rarely adopt just one tactic throughout their lifetime. Tactics commonly change according to internal factors (age, body size, condition) and external conditions (weather, resources, predation, animal density). However, the influence of weather has not yet been investigated in upper vertebrates. Such influence may be relevant in species whose rutting period occurs late in fall or in winter, when environmental conditions and the snow cover in particular may vary considerably. We detected two AMTs in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) males: older and full-grown males mainly adopted the tending tactic, while younger males usually pursued an alternative one (coursing tactic). Weather was found to influence the use of AMTs by males: in snowy mating seasons, the coursing tactic was no longer used due to difficulties in moving through deep snow. In snowy rutting periods, males appeared to delay or even avoid mating activities and a decrease of births was reported in the second part of the following birth season. Snow cover may have a negative effect on population dynamics by reducing the recruitment and on population genetic variability, as a consequence of poorer mating opportunities. Studies on factors affecting mating behaviour and leading to a reduced availability of mates and a decrease in female productivity are especially relevant in species, like Alpine ibex, whose genetic variability is low. PMID:23669063

  5. Evolution of sexes from an ancestral mating-type specification pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Sa; De Hoff, Peter; Umen, James G

    2014-07-01

    Male and female sexes have evolved repeatedly in eukaryotes but the origins of dimorphic sexes and their relationship to mating types in unicellular species are not understood. Volvocine algae include isogamous species such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, with two equal-sized mating types, and oogamous multicellular species such as Volvox carteri with sperm-producing males and egg-producing females. Theoretical work predicts genetic linkage of a gamete cell-size regulatory gene(s) to an ancestral mating-type locus as a possible step in the evolution of dimorphic gametes, but this idea has not been tested. Here we show that, contrary to predictions, a single conserved mating locus (MT) gene in volvocine algae-MID, which encodes a RWP-RK domain transcription factor-evolved from its ancestral role in C. reinhardtii as a mating-type specifier, to become a determinant of sperm and egg development in V. carteri. Transgenic female V. carteri expressing male MID produced functional sperm packets during sexual development. Transgenic male V. carteri with RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdowns of VcMID produced functional eggs, or self-fertile hermaphrodites. Post-transcriptional controls were found to regulate cell-type-limited expression and nuclear localization of VcMid protein that restricted its activity to nuclei of developing male germ cells and sperm. Crosses with sex-reversed strains uncoupled sex determination from sex chromosome identity and revealed gender-specific roles for male and female mating locus genes in sexual development, gamete fitness and reproductive success. Our data show genetic continuity between the mating-type specification and sex determination pathways of volvocine algae, and reveal evidence for gender-specific adaptations in the male and female mating locus haplotypes of Volvox. These findings will enable a deeper understanding of how a master regulator of mating-type determination in an ancestral unicellular species was reprogrammed to control sexually dimorphic gamete development in a multicellular descendant. PMID:25003332

  6. A deviation from the bipolar-tetrapolar mating paradigm in an early diverged basidiomycete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marco A; Sampaio, José Paulo; Gonçalves, Paula

    2010-08-01

    In fungi, sexual identity is determined by specialized genomic regions called MAT loci which are the equivalent to sex chromosomes in some animals and plants. Usually, only two sexes or mating types exist, which are determined by two alternate sets of genes (or alleles) at the MAT locus (bipolar system). However, in the phylum Basidiomycota, a unique tetrapolar system emerged in which four different mating types are generated per meiosis. This occurs because two functionally distinct molecular recognition systems, each encoded by one MAT region, constrain the selection of sexual partners. Heterozygosity at both MAT regions is a pre-requisite for mating in both bipolar and tetrapolar basidiomycetes. Tetrapolar mating behaviour results from the absence of genetic linkage between the two regions bringing forth up to thousands of mating types. The subphylum Pucciniomycotina, an early diverged lineage of basidiomycetes encompassing important plant pathogens such as the rusts and saprobes like Rhodosporidium and Sporidiobolus, has been so far poorly explored concerning the content and organization of MAT loci. Here we show that the red yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor has a mating system unlike any previously described because occasional disruptions of the genetic cohesion of the bipolar MAT locus originate new mating types. We confirmed that mating is normally bipolar and that heterozygosity at both MAT regions is required for mating. However, a laboratory cross showed that meiotic recombination may occur within the bipolar MAT locus, explaining tetrapolar features like increased allele number and evolution rates of some MAT genes. This pseudo-bipolar system deviates from the classical bipolar-tetrapolar paradigm and, to our knowledge, has never been observed before. We propose a model for MAT evolution in the Basidiomycota in which the pseudo-bipolar system may represent a hitherto unforeseen gradual form of transition from an ancestral tetrapolar system to bipolarity. PMID:20700437

  7. The effect of bronchoscopy on oxidative and antioxidative status

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan, Erkan; Erel, Ozcan

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxemia often occurs during bronchoscopy. Pulmonologists managed it with supplement oxygen and sometimes stopping the procedure. We suggest that the main source of the reactive oxygen species is hypoxia during bronchoscopy.  We investigated the alterations in oxidative and antioxidative status during bronchoscopy using oxidative stress parameters including oxidative stress index (OSI) and total oxidant status (TOS). Twenty two patients included to the study for whom bronchoscopy was perfor...

  8. Discriminating males alter sperm production between species

    OpenAIRE

    Aspbury, Andrea S.; Gabor, Caitlin R.

    2004-01-01

    Prezygotic reproductive isolation and its importance in speciation is traditionally approached from the viewpoint of those events that occur before mating. However, recent interest in sperm competition theory has shown that prezygotic isolation can be affected by mechanisms that occur after mating but before fertilization. One neglected aspect of these studies is how the cost of sperm production might play a role in species isolation. We examined differential sperm production in a species who...

  9. An Artificial Light Source Influences Mating and Oviposition of Black Soldier Flies, Hermetia illucens

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jibin; Huang, Ling; He, Jin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Li, Jianhong; Lei, Chaoliang; Sun, Ming; Liu, Ziduo; Yu, Ziniu

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for mass-rearing black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), in the laboratory are dependent on sunlight. Quartz-iodine lamps and rare earth lamps were examined as artificial light sources for stimulating H. illucens to mate and lay eggs. Sunlight was used as the control. Adults in the quartz-iodine lamp treatment had a mating rate of 61% of those in the sunlight control. No mating occurred when the rare earth lamp was used as a substitute. Egg hatch ...

  10. Pheromones and Pheromone Receptors Are the Primary Determinants of Mating Specificity in the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bender; Sprague-Jr, G. F.

    1989-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two haploid cell types, a and ?, each of which produces a unique set of proteins that participate in the mating process. We sought to determine the minimum set of proteins that must be expressed to allow mating and to confer specificity. We show that the capacity to synthesize ?-factor pheromone and a-factor receptor is sufficient to allow mating by mat?1 mutants, mutants that normally do not express any ?- or a-specific products. Likewise, the capacity to syn...

  11. Using an immune system model to explore mate selection in genetic algorithms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C. F. (Chien-Feng)

    2003-01-01

    In the setting of multimodal function optimization, engineering and machine learning, identifying multiple peaks and maintaining subpopulations of the search space are two central themes when Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are employed. In this paper, an immune system model is adopted to develop a framework for exploring the role of mate selection in GAs with respect to these two issues. The experimental results reported in the paper will shed more light into how mate selection schemes compare to traditional selection schemes. In particular, we show that dissimilar mating is beneficial in identifying multiple peaks, yet harmful in maintaining subpopulations of the search space.

  12. Mating-Type Differentiation by Transposition of Controlling Elements in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    OpenAIRE

    Oshima, Takehiro; Takano, Isamu

    1981-01-01

    The nonfunctional mutation of the homothallic gene HML?, designated hml?, produced two mutant alleles, hml?-1 and hml?-2. Both mutant clones were mixed cultures consisting of a mating-type cells and nonmating haploid cells. The frequencies of the two cell types were different, and a few diploid cells able to sporulate were found in the hml?-2 mutant. Conversions of an a mating-type cell to nonmater, and vice versa, were observed in both mutants. The conversion of an a mating phenotype to...

  13. Early sexual experience alters voluntary alcohol intake in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John S; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-03-20

    Steroid hormones signaling before and after birth sexually differentiates neuronal circuitry. Additionally, steroid hormones released during adolescence can also have long lasting effects on adult behavior and neuronal circuitry. As adolescence is a critical period for the organization of the nervous system by steroid hormones it may also be a sensitive period for the effects of social experience on adult phenotype. Our previous study indicated that early adolescent sexual activity altered mood and prefrontal cortical morphology but to a much smaller extent if the sexual experience happened in late adolescence. In humans, both substance abuse disorders and mood disorders greatly increase during adolescence. An association among both age of first sexual activity and age of puberty with both mood and substance disorders has been reported with alcohol being the most commonly abused drug in this population. The goal of this experiment was do determine whether sexual experience early in adolescent development would have enduring effects on adult affective and drug-seeking behavior. Compared to sexually inexperienced hamsters and those that experienced sex for the first time in adulthood, animals that mated at 40 days of age and were tested either 40 or 80 days later significantly increased depressive- but not anxiety-like behaviors and increased self-administration of saccharine-sweetened ethanol. The results of this study suggest that an isolated, though highly relevant, social experience during adolescence can significantly alter depressive-like behavior and alcohol self-administration in adulthood. PMID:24486889

  14. Electron beam radiation dosage on antioxidant status of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation which results in the free radical formation and it leads to damage of biological system; mainly it alters the antioxidant status. Higher the radiation dosage antioxidant level will decrease. (author)

  15. Vascular alterations in schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papiez, Joseph; Rojiani, Mumtaz V; Rojiani, Amyn M

    2014-01-01

    Schwannomas or neurilemmoma are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors, which most frequently occur at the cerebellopontine angle. This morphologic study examines vascular alterations in these tumors, comparing them to other benign spindle cell neoplasms of the nervous system, while correlating these findings with evidence of vascular permeability. Thirty-four nervous system spindle cell neoplasms, sixteen schwannomas, nine fibroblastic/transitional meningiomas and nine peripheral neurofibromas were stained with H&E, Prussian-blue stain, and immunoreacted for factor VIII-related antigen and interstitial albumin. Schwannomas had focal clusters of vascular proliferation including groups of small thin-walled vessels, as well as larger vessels with extensive hyalinization. Neurofibromas and meningiomas almost uniformly had modest numbers of well-defined, thin walled individual vessels. Free hemosiderin and hemosiderin-laden macrophages were frequently identified in schwannomas. Prussian-blue stain for iron revealed focal or fairly widespread positivity in almost all schwannomas, only one meningioma and none of the neurofibromas. Immunoreaction for albumin demonstrated leakage of vascular proteins into the interstitium confirming tumor vessel permeability in schwannomas. Neither neurofibromas nor meningiomas displayed any detectable interstitial albumin. The above findings confirm a degree of reactive proliferation of vessels in schwannoma along with functional deficits in their vascular integrity with permeability to protein and blood. The presence of hyalinized vessels, hemosiderin, both free and within macrophages, and more readily evident Prussian blue staining, may provide an additional diagnostic clue in discriminating between histologically similar spindle cell lesions. The study however raises the possibility that these changes likely precede or facilitate the degenerative 'ancient change' seen in some schwannoma. PMID:25120781

  16. Rapid adjustments of sperm characteristics in relation to social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolfsen, Geir; Figenschou, Lars; Folstad, Ivar; Tveiten, Helge; Figenschou, Marie

    2006-02-01

    Sperm competition models predict that males typically mating in disfavoured roles should be selected to compensate for their disadvantage by investing more into sperm. We studied the effect of rapid changes in social status on ejaculate investments during experimental trials with an externally fertilizing teleost--the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). We document that males becoming dominant produce less sperm with lower velocity, but have higher sex steroid concentrations than subordinate males. These differences in sperm characteristics seem mainly to result from a decreased investment in sperm among fish that become dominant compared to pre-trial levels. Moreover, these adjustments of sperm production and sperm velocity seem not to be traded against sperm longevity. Our results support theoretical models of sperm competition, as males forced to mate in disfavoured roles seem to invest more into ejaculate quality than males in favoured roles. Additionally, we are the first to report that males, in a species with status-dependent shifts in reproductive tactics, have evolved rapid tactic specific adjustments of sperm production and sperm velocity corresponding to what could be predicted from their reproductive roles. PMID:16543175

  17. Status of EPR™ projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EPR licensing status, construction status and AREVA reactor portfolio are presented. Details are given for the construction of the Olkiluoto 3, Flamanville 3 Project (France) and Taishan 1 and 2 (China)

  18. Similar policing rates of eggs laid by virgin and mated honey-bee queens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, Madeleine; Martin, Caroline G.; Oldroyd, Benjamin P.

    2004-12-01

    Worker-policing is a well-documented mechanism that maintains functional worker sterility in queenright honey-bee colonies. Unknown, however, is the source of the egg-marking signal that is thought to be produced by the queen and used by policing workers to discriminate between queen- and worker-laid eggs. Here we investigate whether mating is necessary for the queen to produce the egg-marking signal. We compare the removal rate of eggs laid by virgin queens and compare this rate with that of eggs laid by mated queens. Our results show that mating does not affect the acceptability of eggs, suggesting that physiological changes linked to the act of mating do not play a role in the production of the queen’s egg-marking signal.

  19. S-MATE: Secure Coding-based Multipath Adaptive Traffic Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Aly, Salah A; Walid, Anwar I; Poor, H Vincent

    2010-01-01

    There have been several approaches to provisioning traffic between core network nodes in Internet Service Provider (ISP) networks. Such approaches aim to minimize network delay, increase network capacity, and enhance network security services. MATE (Multipath Adaptive Traffic Engineering) protocol has been proposed for multipath adaptive traffic engineering between an ingress node (source) and an egress node (destination). Its novel idea is to avoid network congestion and attacks that might exist in edge and node disjoint paths between two core network nodes. This paper builds an adaptive, robust, and reliable traffic engineering scheme for better performance of communication network operations. This will also provision quality of service (QoS) and protection of traffic engineering to maximize network efficiency. Specifically, we present a new approach, S-MATE (secure MATE) is developed to protect the network traffic between two core nodes (routers or switches) in a cloud network. S-MATE secures against a sin...

  20. Comportamento da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. em consórcio silvicultural.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisilvio Pes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O presente trabalho foi realizado no Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria e teve por objetivo determinar o comportamento da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. cultivada em sistema de consórcio silvicultural. A metodologia adotada constituiu-se da implantação de três tratamentos, correspondentes aos sistemas de consórcio erva-mata x Pinus sp., erva-mate x bracatinga e erva-mate x capoeira. A análise dos resultados levou às seguintes conclusões: os melhores resultados de desenvolvimento da erva-mate são obtidos nos consórcios com bracatinga e Pins sp. e, o pior, na caopeira; as variações externas dos fatores do meio são amenizadas pelas outras espécies do consórcio; índices elevados de luminosidade não promovem maior produção de matéria seca, nem os índices muito baixos.

  1. The Counterphobic Mechanism as a Force in Mate Selection and Marital Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raths, Otto N.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    One cause of marriage difficulty is the unconsciously motivated selection of an incompatible mate through the process of a counterphobic mechanism. Definition of counterphobia is given, along with brief examples and comments. (EK)

  2. X-34 Technology Testbed Demonstrator being mated with the L-1011 mothership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is the X-34 Technology Testbed Demonstrator being mated with the L-1011 mothership. The X-34 will demonstrate key vehicle and operational technologies applicable to future low-cost resuable launch vehicles.

  3. Mating frequency of normal vs sterile male boll weevils in the laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilakhe, S.S. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge); Earle, N.W.

    1976-08-16

    Male Anthonomus grandis Boheman, treated with a combination of ..gamma.. irradiation and hempa in the diet, mated ca. one-half as often as untreated males when paired individually with 4 virgin females/day. Examination of spermathecae showed that females mated to treated males contained an average of ca. /sup 1///sub 3/ as much sperm as females mated to untreated males. Thus, considering spermathecal filling and mating frequency, treated males transferred only ca. /sup 1///sub 6/ as much sperm as untreated males. When paired with females immediately after treatment, treated males inseminated an average of 18.3 female before aspermia occurred; however, when treated males were first held without females for 10 days, they were capable of inseminating an average of only 4.1 females.

  4. Mating frequency of normal vs sterile male boll weevils in the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male Anthonomus grandis Boheman, treated with a combination of ? irradiation and hempa in the diet, mated ca. one-half as often as untreated males when paired individually with 4 virgin females/day. Examination of spermathecae showed that females mated to treated males contained an average of ca. 1/3 as much sperm as females mated to untreated males. Thus, considering spermathecal filling and mating frequency, treated males transferred only ca. 1/6 as much sperm as untreated males. When paired with females immediately after treatment, treated males inseminated an average of 18.3 female before aspermia occurred; however, when treated males were first held without females for 10 days, they were capable of inseminating an average of only 4.1 females

  5. Studies on mating competitiveness of sterile oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An essential prerequisite for insect control by the sterile insect technique releasing method is mass rearing and sterilizing that do not have adverse effects on longevity and mating behavior of the released males. But many laboratory studies have shown that males irradiated at the completely sterility dose often could not compete with untreated males in mating. This paper studies the effects of gamma radiation at the sterile dose on mating, sexual and sperm competitiveness of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) under the laboratory condition. It is found that irradiation at the completely sterility dose (90 Gy) had reduced the mating and sperm competition ability of the males. Though the sexual competition was not

  6. Identifying context-specific gene profiles of social, reproductive and mate preference behavior in a fish species with female mate choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryERamsey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensory and social inputs interact with underlying gene suites to coordinate social behavior. Here we use a naturally complex system in sexual selection studies, the swordtail, to explore how genes associated with mate preference, receptivity, and social affiliation interact in the female brain under specific social conditions. We focused on 11 genes associated with mate preference in this species (neuroserpin, neuroligin-3, NMDA-receptor, tPA, stathmin-2,?-1 adrenergic receptor or with female sociosexual behaviors in other taxa (vasotocin, isotocin, brain aromatase, ?-1 adrenergic receptor, tyrosine hydroxylase. We exposed females to four social conditions, including pairings of differing mate choice complexity (large males, large/small males, small males, and a social control (two females. Female mate preference differed significantly by context. Multiple discriminant analysis (MDA of behaviors revealed a primary axis (explaining 50.2% between-group variance highlighting differences between groups eliciting high preference behaviors (LL, LS versus other contexts, and a secondary axis capturing general measures distinguishing a non-favored group (SS from other groups. Gene expression MDA revealed a major axis (68.4% between-group variance that distinguished amongst differential male pairings and was driven by suites of ‘preference and receptivity genes’; whereas a second axis, distinguishing high affiliation groups (large males, females from low (small males, was characterized by traditional affiliative-associated genes (isotocin, vasotocin. We found context-specific correlations between behavior and gene MDA, suggesting gene suites covary with behaviors in a socially relevant context. Distinct associations between ‘affiliative’ and ‘preference’ axes suggest mate preference may be mediated by distinct clusters from those of social affiliation. Our results highlight the need to incorporate natural complexity of mating systems into behavioral genomics.

  7. Investigación sobre la presencia de Bacillus cereus en Yerba Mate elaborada / Analysis for the presence of Bacillus cereus in manufactured Yerba Mate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge A, Duce; Sylvia A, Bordenave; Liliana, R, Ybarra.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se investigó la presencia de Bacillus cereus en yerba mate elaborada. El hábitat natural de este microorganismo es el suelo y se lo ha aislado de diferentes especias vegetales y sobre todo, de arroz hervido. El Bacillus cereus produce toxinas preformadas en el alimento de dos tipos, [...] la termorresistente o emética y la termolábil o diarreica. Se analizaron 32 muestras de Yerba Mate elaborada, de diferentes marcas comerciales, 18 presentaron resultados positivos y 6 fueron confirmadas mediante pruebas bioquímicas y tipificadas. Las bacterias aisladas fueron remitidas al Instituto INEI-ANLIS Dr. Carlos Malbrán, para su tipificación y confirmación definitiva. La presencia de Bacillus cereus en un alimento constituye un serio riesgo, sobre todo debido a la capacidad del mismo de producir toxinas que son termorresistentes. En la bibliografía se presentan referencias a su aislamiento en vegetales secos, por ello no es de extrañar su presencia en Yerba Mate. Abstract in english In this work, the presence of Bacillus cereus in manufactured yerba mate was investigated. The natural habitat of this microorganism is the soil: it was isolated from different plant species, but above all, from boiled rice. Bacillus cereus produces toxins of two kinds preformed in food, one thermo- [...] resistant or emetic and another thermolabile or diarrheogenic. Thirty two samples of manufactured yerba mate of different trademarks were analyzed, out of which 18 presented positive results, 6 of which were confirmed by means of biochemical tests. The bacteria isolated were delivered to the Instituto INEI-ANLIS Dr. Carlos Malbrán for their typification and eventual confirmation. The presence of Bacillus cereus in food constitutes a serious risk, above all due to its capacity to produce thermoresistant toxins. In the literature, reference to its isolation in dried vegetables was found, a reason for which its presence in yerba mate is feasible.

  8. Contests for Status

    OpenAIRE

    Moldovanu, Benny; Sela, Aner; Shi, Xianwen

    2005-01-01

    We study the optimal design of organizations under the assumption that agents in a contest care about their relative position. A judicious definition of status categories can be used by a principal in order to influence the agents' performance. We first consider a pure status case where there are no tangible prizes. Our main results connect the optimal partition in status categories to various properties of the distribution of ability among contestants. The top status category always contains...

  9. Major Phenolics in Yerba Mate Extracts (Ilex paraguariensis) and Their Contribution to the Total Antioxidant Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam N. Martino; Navarro, Alba S.; Molina García, Antonio D.; Lorena Deladino; Mario Reta; Aline Schneider Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is an indigenous crop which is highly consumed as an infusion in the South American subtropical forest. It has a high concentration of antioxidant substances, providing health benefits and helping to prevent diseases. The objectives of this work were to characterize an aqueous yerba mate extract by spectrophotometric and chromatographic (HPLC) methods and to study the effect of the freeze-drying process on the polyphenols profile and antioxidant activity, dete...

  10. Larval memory affects adult nest-mate recognition in the ant Aphaenogaster senilis

    OpenAIRE

    Signorotti, Lisa; Jaisson, Pierre; D Ettorre, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal olfactory learning has been demonstrated in a wide variety of animals, where it affects development and behaviour. Young ants learn the chemical signature of their colony. This cue-learning process allows the formation of a template used for nest-mate recognition in order to distinguish alien individuals from nest-mates, thus ensuring that cooperation is directed towards group members and aliens are kept outside the colony. To date, no study has investigated the possible effect of cu...

  11. On the asymmetry of mating in natural populations of the mushroom fungus Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, Bart P S; Nieuwhof, Sil; Aanen, Duur K

    2013-07-01

    Before a mycelium of a mushroom-forming basidiomycete develops mushrooms, the monokaryotic mycelium needs to become fertilized. Although the mechanistic details of mating in mushrooms have been studied thoroughly in laboratory research, very little is known on mating patterns in nature. In this study, we performed fine-scale analyses of three populations of Schizophyllum commune from their natural substrate (i.e. dead beech branches). From the three branches, 24, 12, and 24 fruiting bodies were isolated and for each mushroom, the origins of its nuclei and cytoplasm were reconstructed using DNA markers. Nuclear genotypes were determined using sequencing data and mating types, and mitochondrial haplotypes using SNP markers. From these combined data we reconstructed colonization and mating patterns of the mycelia. On each branch, we found multiple dikaryons (3, 3, and 8, respectively); in two instances one nuclear haplotype was shared between two dikaryons and in two other cases a nuclear haplotype was shared between three dikaryons. Each dikaryon always had a single mitochondrial haplotype. These findings indicate that mating usually is not symmetrical and that a monokaryon is most likely fertilized by a small monokaryon, a spore or a dikaryon. Sharing of nuclear haplotype between different dikaryons resulted either from multiple fertilizations of a single monokaryon, if the dikaryons had identical mitochondrial haplotypes, or, if the dikaryons had different mitochondrial haplotypes, most likely from secondary matings between a monokaryon and a dikaryon (Buller phenomenon). We conclude that mating in S. commune between same-sized monokaryons with reciprocal migration, as generally described in textbooks, is rare in nature. We discuss the implications of non-symmetric mating for basidiomycete evolution. PMID:23644093

  12. Evolution of sex and mating loci: An expanded view from Volvocine algae

    OpenAIRE

    Umen, James G.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in Volvocine algae coevolved with the acquisition of multicellularity. Unicellular genera such as Chlamydomonas and small colonial genera from this group have classical mating types with equal-sized gametes, while larger multicellular genera such as Volvox have differentiated males and females that produce sperm and eggs respectively. Newly available sequence from the Volvox and Chlamydomonas genomes and mating loci open up the potential to investigate how sex-determining ...

  13. Evolution of Sexes from an Ancestral Mating-Type Specification Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Sa; Hoff, Peter; Umen, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Male and female sexes have evolved repeatedly in eukaryotes but the origins of dimorphic sexes and their relationship to mating types in unicellular species are not understood. Volvocine algae include isogamous species such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, with two equal-sized mating types, and oogamous multicellular species such as Volvox carteri with sperm-producing males and egg-producing females. Theoretical work predicts genetic linkage of a gamete cell-size regulatory gene(s) to an ancestr...

  14. Consequences of thermal acclimation for the mating behaviour and swimming performance of female mosquito fish

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Robbie S.; Condon, Catriona H.L; Johnston, Ian A.

    2007-01-01

    The mating system of eastern mosquito fish (Gambusia holbrooki) is dominated by male sexual coercion, where all matings are forced and females never appear to cooperate and actively avoid all attempts. Previous research has shown that male G. holbrooki offer a model system for examining the benefits of reversible thermal acclimation for reproductive success, but examining the benefits to female avoidance behaviour has been difficult. In this study, we examined the ability of non-male-deprived...

  15. A model of sexual selection and female use of refuge in a coercive mating system

    OpenAIRE

    Bokides, Dessa; Lou, Yuan; Hamilton, Ian M.

    2012-01-01

    In many non-monogamous systems, males invest less in progeny than do females. This leaves males with higher potential rates of reproduction, and a likelihood of sexual conflict, including, in some systems, coercive matings. If coercive matings are costly, the best female strategy may be to avoid male interaction. We present a model that demonstrates female movement in response to male harassment as a mechanism to lower the costs associated with male coercion, and the effect that female moveme...

  16. Functional characterisation of NIC2, a member of the MATE family from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

    OpenAIRE

    Dolniak, Blazej

    2005-01-01

    The multidrug and toxic compounds extrusion (MATE) family includes hundreds of functionally uncharacterised proteins from bacteria and all eukaryotic kingdoms except the animal kingdom, that function as drug/toxin::Na+ or H+ antiporters. In Arabidopsis thaliana the MATE family comprises 56 members, one of which is NIC2 (Novel Ion Carrier 2). Using heterologous expression systems including Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the homologous expression system of Arabidopsis thalia...

  17. The frequency of consanguineous matings due to multiple use of donors in artificial insemination.

    OpenAIRE

    Curie-cohen, M.

    1980-01-01

    The amount of inadvertent inbreeding as a result of donor anonymity in artificial insemination has been estimated. A child from a first-cousin mating or closer is expected approximately once every 41/2 years in the United States as a result of artificial insemination by donor. Since a child with unknown paternity seems less likely to mate with paternal relatives than is a child with known paternity, artificial insemination by donor may actually reduce the average inbreeding of the population....

  18. Costly signal behaviour and social effects of literature on mate selection

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    In this study we will investigate female mate preferences in relation to risk taking behaviours. A review of the foundational evolutionary psychology theories involved shall be undertaken, this will look at the key study in each area and its progression with more contemporary examples. This study is based on the 2005 study by Farthing: Attitudes towards heroic and non heroic physical risk takers as mates and friends, where it was found that females prefer heroic risk takers to ...

  19. Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Signaling Regulates Mating Behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans MalesD?

    OpenAIRE

    Gower, Nicholas J. D.; Walker, Denise S.; Baylis, Howard A.

    2005-01-01

    Complex behavior requires the coordinated action of the nervous system and nonneuronal targets. Male mating in Caenorhabditis elegans consists of a series of defined behavioral steps that lead to the physiological outcomes required for successful impregnation. We demonstrate that signaling mediated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) is required at several points during mating. Disruption of IP3 receptor (itr-1) function results in dramatic loss of male fertility, due to defects in turning ...

  20. Environmental Influences on Mate Preferences as Assessed by a Scenario Manipulation Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Marzoli, Daniele; Moretto, Francesco; Monti, Aura; Tocci, Ornella; Roberts, S. Craig; Tommasi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Many evolutionary psychology studies have addressed the topic of mate preferences, focusing particularly on gender and cultural differences. However, the extent to which situational and environmental variables might affect mate preferences has been comparatively neglected. We tested 288 participants in order to investigate the perceived relative importance of six traits of an ideal partner (wealth, dominance, intelligence, height, kindness, attractiveness) under four different hypothetical sc...