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Sample records for mating status alters

  1. Mating alters gene expression patterns in Drosophila melanogaster male heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Lisa L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavior is a complex process resulting from the integration of genetic and environmental information. Drosophila melanogaster rely on multiple sensory modalities for reproductive success, and mating causes physiological changes in both sexes that affect reproductive output or behavior. Some of these effects are likely mediated by changes in gene expression. Courtship and mating alter female transcript profiles, but it is not known how mating affects male gene expression. Results We used Drosophila genome arrays to identify changes in gene expression profiles that occur in mated male heads. Forty-seven genes differed between mated and control heads 2 hrs post mating. Many mating-responsive genes are highly expressed in non-neural head tissues, including an adipose tissue called the fat body. One fat body-enriched gene, female-specific independent of transformer (fit, is a downstream target of the somatic sex-determination hierarchy, a genetic pathway that regulates Drosophila reproductive behaviors as well as expression of some fat-expressed genes; three other mating-responsive loci are also downstream components of this pathway. Another mating-responsive gene expressed in fat, Juvenile hormone esterase (Jhe, is necessary for robust male courtship behavior and mating success. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that mating causes changes in male head gene expression profiles and supports an increasing body of work implicating adipose signaling in behavior modulation. Since several mating-induced genes are sex-determination hierarchy target genes, additional mating-responsive loci may be downstream components of this pathway as well.

  2. Grazing alters insect visitation networks and plant mating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbergen, Adam J.; Woodcock, Ben A.; Gray, Alan; Grant, Fiona; Telford, Annika; Lambdon, Phil; Chapman, Dan S.; Pywell, Richard F.; Heard, Matt S.; Cavers, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    * Many flowering plant species have a facultative or obligate dependence on insect pollination for reproductive success. Anthropogenic disturbance may alter these species interactions, but the extent to which structural changes to plant-pollinator networks affect plant species mating systems is not well understood. * We used long-term livestock grazing of a birch wood ecosystem to test whether disturbance of this semi-natural habitat altered floral resources, the structure of plant–insect vis...

  3. Status and Mating Success Amongst Visual Artists

    OpenAIRE

    Clegg, Helen; Nettle, Daniel; Miell, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Geoffrey Miller has hypothesized that producing artwork functions as a mating display. Here we investigate the relationship between mating success and artistic success in a sample of 236 visual artists. Initially, we derived a measure of artistic success that covered a broad range of artistic behaviors and beliefs. As predicted by Miller’s evolutionary theory, more successful male artists had more sexual partners than less successful artists but this did not hold for female artists. Also, mal...

  4. Mating alters gene expression patterns in Drosophila melanogaster male heads

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis Lisa L; Carney Ginger E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Behavior is a complex process resulting from the integration of genetic and environmental information. Drosophila melanogaster rely on multiple sensory modalities for reproductive success, and mating causes physiological changes in both sexes that affect reproductive output or behavior. Some of these effects are likely mediated by changes in gene expression. Courtship and mating alter female transcript profiles, but it is not known how mating affects male gene expression. ...

  5. The effects of mating status and time since mating on female sex pheromone levels in the rice leaf bug, Trigonotylus caelestialium

    OpenAIRE

    Yamane, Takashi; Yasuda, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Although mating status affects future mating opportunities, the biochemical changes that occur in response to mating are not well understood. This study investigated the effects of mating status on the quantities of sex pheromone components found in whole-body extracts and volatile emissions of females of the rice leaf bug, Trigonotylus caelestialium. When sampled at one of four time points within a 4-day postmating period, females that had copulated with a male had greater whole-body quantit...

  6. Mating pheromone-induced alteration of cell surface proteins in the heterobasidiomycetous yeast Tremella mesenterica.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyakawa, T; Kadota, T; Okubo, Y.; Hatano, T; Tsuchiya, E.; Fukui, S.

    1984-01-01

    Mating pheromone-induced alteration of the cell surface proteins of haploid cells, presumed to play crucial roles in the specific cell-cell interactions during sexual conjugation of Tremella mesenterica , was investigated. Exposed surface proteins were revealed by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination in combination with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. From comparison of the molecular species of 125I-labeled surface proteins of the vegetative and the gamete (mating pher...

  7. Polarization signaling in swordtails alters female mate preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Gina M; Brady, Parrish C; Gruev, Viktor; Cummings, Molly E

    2014-09-16

    Polarization of light, and visual sensitivity to it, is pervasive across aquatic and terrestrial environments. Documentation of invertebrate use of polarized light is widespread from navigation and foraging to species recognition. However, studies demonstrating that polarization body patterning serves as a communication signal (e.g., with evidence of changes in receiver behavior) are rare among invertebrate taxa and conspicuously absent among vertebrates. Here, we investigate polarization-mediated communication by northern swordtails, Xiphophorus nigrensis, using a custom-built videopolarimeter to measure polarization signals and an experimental paradigm that manipulates polarization signals without modifying their brightness or color. We conducted mate choice trials in an experimental tank that illuminates a pair of males with light passed through a polarization filter and a diffusion filter. By alternating the order of these filters between males, we presented females with live males that differed in polarization reflectance by >200% but with intensity and color differences below detection thresholds (?5%). Combining videopolarimetry and polarization-manipulated mate choice trials, we found sexually dimorphic polarized reflectance and polarization-dependent female mate choice behavior with no polarization-dependent courtship behavior by males. Male swordtails exhibit greater within-body and body-to-background polarization contrast than females, and females preferentially associate with high-polarization-reflecting males. We also found limited support that males increase polarization contrast in social conditions over asocial conditions. Polarization cues in mate choice contexts may provide aquatic vertebrates with enhanced detection of specific display features (e.g., movements, angular information), as well as a signaling mechanism that may enhance detection by intended viewers while minimizing detection by others. PMID:25197061

  8. Polarization signaling in swordtails alters female mate preference

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, Gina M; Brady, Parrish C.; Gruev, Viktor; Cummings, Molly E.

    2014-01-01

    Polarization, the alignment of light waves in a plane, is a property that many nonhuman animals can detect. Polarized body patterning on some animals has prompted research into polarization as a signaling modality, but experimental evidence is lacking. We found evidence for sexual selection on polarization ornamentation in a swordtail fish: sexually dimorphic polarization patterning with higher polarization contrast in males and females exhibiting a mate preference for this ornamentation. We ...

  9. Mate retention tactics in Spain: personality, sex differences, and relationship status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Adelia; Buss, David M

    2011-06-01

    Mate retention is an important problem in romantic relationships because of mate poachers, infidelity, and the risk of outright defection. The current study (N=892) represents the first study of mate retention tactics conducted in Spain. We tested hypotheses about the effects of gender, relationship commitment status, and personality on mate retention tactics. Women and men differed in the use of resource display, appearance enhancement, intrasexual violence, and submission/self-abasement as mate retention tactics. Those in more committed relationships reported higher levels of resource display, appearance enhancement, love, and verbal signals of possession. Those in less committed relationships more often reported intentionally evoking jealousy in their partner as a mate retention tactic. Personality characteristics, particularly Neuroticism and Agreeableness, correlated in coherent ways with mate retention tactics, supporting two evolution-based hypotheses. Discussion focuses on the implications, future research directions, and interdisciplinary syntheses emerging between personality and social psychology and evolutionary psychology. PMID:21534964

  10. Morphology and ornamentation in male frigatebirds: variation with age-class and mating status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vinni; Dabelsteen, Torben; Osorio, Daniel; Osorno, José L.

    2007-01-01

    Male magnificent frigatebird (Fregata magnificens) ornamentation includes bright iridescent plumage and a red inflatable gular pouch. These signals are displayed during courtship, along with a drumming sound produced through specialized beak clackings resonating in the gular pouch. The extent of white in the plumage identifies three age classes of nonjuvenile male. Here we investigate how morphological and secondary sexual traits correlate with age class and mating status. Even though several ag...

  11. The relevance of age and nutritional status on the mating competitiveness of medfly males (Diptera: Teprhitidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alzira Kelly Passos, Roriz; Iara Sordi, Joachim-Bravo.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of previous investigations trying to ascertain which physiological factors are more important to the mating success of medfly males are controversial. In part, this controversy owes to the fact that each factor was evaluated by an independent study using different experimental designs and po [...] pulations. In the present study we compare the roles of age and nutritional status (immature and adult phases) on the mating competitiveness of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) males. Three parameters were used to evaluate the male mating success: calling behavior (pheromone emission), lek participation and copulation (ability to be chosen by a female). Females gave preference to the males that were given a high protein diet in the larval phase. By contrast, females did not give preference to males that had been well-nourished in the adult phase only. The other parameters evaluated followed the same pattern: young males and males that had been fed a high protein diet during their immature phase had a greater participation in leks and called more often than older males and males that had been fed a diet poor in protein during their larval phase. Therefore, we conclude that the mating success of C. capitata males is determined both by age and nourishment during the immature stage.

  12. Modality interactions alter the shape of acoustic mate preference functions in gray treefrogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Michael S; Höbel, Gerlinde

    2015-09-01

    Sexual selection takes place in complex environments where females evaluating male mating signals are confronted with stimuli from multiple sources and modalities. The pattern of expression of female preferences may be influenced by interactions between modalities, changing the shape of female preference functions, and thus ultimately altering the selective landscape acting on male signal evolution. We tested the hypothesis that the responses of female gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor, to acoustic male advertisement calls are affected by interactions with visual stimuli. We measured preference functions for several call traits under two experimental conditions: unimodal (only acoustic signals presented), and multimodal (acoustic signals presented along with a video-animated calling male). We found that females were more responsive to multimodal stimulus presentations and, compared to unimodal playbacks, had weaker preferences for temporal call characteristics. We compared the preference functions obtained in these two treatments to the distribution of male call characteristics to make inferences on the strength and direction of selection expected to act on male calls. Modality interactions have the potential to influence the course of signal evolution and thus are an important consideration in sexual selection studies. PMID:26282702

  13. Effects of starvation and mating status on the activity of the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Oku, K.; Vermeer, K.M.C.A.; Verbaarschot, P.; Jong, P. W. de

    2010-01-01

    Flea beetles are characterized by their tendency to jump. They can also fly. First, the effects of starvation on flight activity in the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were determined. After starving P. nemorum for five days a greater number of individuals of both sexes flew than when fed continuously for the same period. In addition, the effect of the mating status of females of P. nemorum on their movement was determined. Mated females were more active than v...

  14. Acute cellular alterations in the hippocampus after status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R L; Kapur, J

    1999-01-01

    The critical, fundamental mechanisms that determine the emergence of status epilepticus from a single seizure and the prolonged duration of status epilepticus are uncertain. However, several general concepts of the pathophysiology of status epilepticus have emerged: (a) the hippocampus is consistently activated during status epilepticus; (b) loss of GABA-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus is critical for emergence of status epilepticus; and, finally (c) glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission is important in sustaining status epilepticus. This review focuses on the alteration of GABAergic inhibition in the hippocampus that occurs during the prolonged seizures of status epilepticus. If reduction in GABAergic inhibition leads to development of status epilepticus, enhancement of GABAergic inhibition would be expected to interrupt status epilepticus. Benzodiazepines and barbiturates are both used in the treatment of status epilepticus and both drugs enhance GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition. However, patients often become refractory to benzodiazepines when seizures are prolonged, and barbiturates are often then used for these refractory cases of status epilepticus. Recent evidence suggests the presence of multiple GABA(A) receptor isoforms in the hippocampus with different sensitivity to benzodiazepines but similar sensitivity to barbiturates, thus explaining why the two drug classes might have different clinical effects. In addition, rapid functional plasticity of GABA(A) receptors has been demonstrated to occur during status epilepticus in rats. During status epilepticus, there was a substantial reduction of diazepam potency for termination of the seizures. The loss of sensitivity of the animals to diazepam during status epilepticus was accompanied by an alteration in the functional properties of hippocampal dentate granule cell GABA(A) receptors. Dentate granule cell GABA(A) receptor currents from rats undergoing status epilepticus had reduced sensitivity to diazepam and zinc but normal sensitivity to GABA and pentobarbital. Therefore, the prolonged seizures of status epilepticus rapidly altered the functional properties of hippocampal dentate granule cell GABA(A) receptors, possibly explaining why benzodiazepines and barbiturates may not be equally effective during treatment of the prolonged seizures of status epilepticus. A comprehensive understanding of the cellular and molecular events leading to the development, maintenance, and cytotoxicity of status epilepticus should permit development of more effective treatment strategies and reduction in the mortality and morbidity of status epilepticus. PMID:10421557

  15. Can buy me love. Mate attraction goals lead to perceptual readiness for status products

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, Kim; Pandelaere, Mario; Van den Bergh, Bram; Millet, Kobe; Lensa, Inge; Roe, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to mating cues activates the goal to signal one's mate value to members of the opposite sex. This mate attraction goal may render men perceptually ready for products that signal their mate value to women. As men's mate value is partly determined by their financial prospects, men may be more likely to notice products that would signal their financial resources to women. The current study demonstrates that exposure to a sexily dressed woman increases single men's likelihood of noticing...

  16. Variation in adult sex ratio alters the association between courtship, mating frequency and paternity in the lek-forming fruitfly Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leftwich, P T; Edward, D A; Alphey, L; Gage, M J G; Chapman, T

    2012-09-01

    The intensity with which males deliver courtship and the frequency with which they mate are key components of male reproductive success. However, we expect the strength of the relationship between these traits and a male's overall paternity to be strongly context dependent, for example to be altered significantly by the extent of post-mating competition. We tested this prediction in a lekking insect, Ceratitis capitata (medfly). We examined the effect of manipulating the sex ratio from male- to female-biased (high and low male competition, respectively) on courtship behaviour, mating frequency and paternity of focal males. Under high male competition, focal males delivered significantly more courtship but gained lower paternity than under lower competition. Paternity was positively associated with mating frequency and small residual testes size. However, the association between mating frequency and paternity was significantly stronger under low competition. We conclude that manipulation of sex ratio significantly altered the predictors of mating success and paternity. The relationship between pre- and post-mating success is therefore plastic and alters according to the prevailing level of competition. The results highlight the importance of post-copulatory processes in lekking species and illuminate selection pressures placed on insects such as medflies that are mass reared for pest control. PMID:22725666

  17. Behavioral responses of adult female tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta, to hostplant volatiles change with age and mating status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.L. Mechaber

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available We present evidence for two behaviors influenced by intact, vegetative plant odor -- upwind flight and abdomen curling -- in female Manduca sexta and demonstrate the influence of the age and mating status of the moths on these behaviors. We compared the behavioral responses of laboratory-reared M. sexta. of discrete ages and physiological states (2,3, and 4 day old for virgin; 2 and 3 day old for mated as individual moths flew upwind in a flight tunnel to a source of hostplant volatiles. We monitored odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling in the presence of volatiles released by potted hostplants. Mated 3 day old females exhibited the highest incidence of odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling. Similarly, as virgin moths aged, a greater percentage of the individuals displayed odor-modulated flight patterns and abdomen curling. In contrast, younger virgin moths exhibited high levels of abdomen curling only after contact with the plant.

  18. Male Drosophila melanogaster learn to prefer an arbitrary trait associated with female mating status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verzijden, Machteld Nicolette; Abbott, Jessica K.; Philipsborn, Anne von; Loeschcke, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Although males are generally less discriminating than females when it comes to choosing a mate, they still benefit from distinguishing between mates that are receptive to courtship and those that are not, in order to avoid wasting time and energy. It is known that males of Drosophila melanogaster are able to learn to associate olfactory and gustatory cues with female receptivity, but the role of more arbitrary, visual cues in mate choice learning has been overlooked to date in this species. We t...

  19. Female Moth Calling and Flight Behavior Are Altered Hours Following Pheromone Autodetection: Possible Implications for Practical Management with Mating Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Stelinski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female moths are known to detect their own sex pheromone—a phenomenon called “autodetection”. Autodetection has various effects on female moth behavior, including altering natural circadian rhythm of calling behavior, inducing flight, and in some cases causing aggregations of conspecifics. A proposed hypothesis for the possible evolutionary benefits of autodetection is its possible role as a spacing mechanism to reduce female-female competition. Here, we explore autodetection in two species of tortricids (Grapholita molesta (Busck and Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris. We find that females of both species not only “autodetect,” but that learning (change in behavior following experience occurs, which affects behavior for at least 24 hours after pheromone pre-exposure. Specifically, female calling in both species is advanced at least 24 hours, but not 5 days, following pheromone pre-exposure. Also, the propensity of female moths to initiate flight and the duration of flights, as quantified by a laboratory flight mill, were advanced in pre-exposed females as compared with controls. Pheromone pre-exposure did not affect the proportion of mated moths when they were confined with males in small enclosures over 24 hours in laboratory assays. We discuss the possible implications of these results with respect to management of these known pest species with the use of pheromone-based mating disruption.

  20. External visibility of spermatophores as an indicator of mating status of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mated females of the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, are distinguished from unmated females by the presence of one or more spermatophores. The presence of a spermatophore is normally determined by dissection. A simple and non-destructive method to distinguish mated L. hesperus ...

  1. Mating status and body size in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) affect host finding and DEET repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variations in the conditions accompanying mosquito development and mating can result in females of variable size that have not been inseminated. In this study, we compared the host finding activity of mated and unmated large and small Aedes albopictus and the repellency to these mosquitoes of 25% D...

  2. The smell of virgins: mating status of females affects male swimming behaviour in Oithona davisae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; KiØrboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Many copepod species rely on pheromone cues to find partners. Some parasitic and benthic copepod males are able to distinguish between females of different reproductive states. Here, we demonstrate that the swimming activity and velocity of males of a pelagic copepod, Oithona davisae, increases in the presence of virgin when compared with mated females and that the cue is waterborne. The ability to distinguish between virgin and mated females may reduce male mortality during mate search and the cost related to mating behaviour (precopula) in both sexes. We estimate that at realistic population densities the ability of males to distinguish between virgin and mated females saves them several hours per day of dangerous and energetically expensive fast female tracking

  3. Mothers matter! Maternal support, dominance status and mating success in male bonobos (Pan paniscus)

    OpenAIRE

    Surbeck, Martin; Mundry, Roger; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2010-01-01

    Variation in male mating success is often related to rank differences. Males who are unable to monopolize oestrous females alone may engage in coalitions, thus enhancing their mating success. While studies on chimpanzees and dolphins suggest that coalitions are independent of kinship, information from female philopatric species shows the importance of kin support, especially from mothers, on the reproductive success of females. Therefore, one might expect a similar effect on sons in male phil...

  4. Influence of age, mating status, sex, quantity of food, and long-term food deprivation on red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) flight initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of age, sex, presence or absence of food, mating status, quantity of food, and food deprivation on rate of and time of flight initiation of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), were determined. Flight initiation declined with increasing age in both presence and absence of food...

  5. Yeast supplementation alters the health status of receiving cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine if supplementation of yeast products during the receiving phase would improve the health status of beef calves prior to and following a low-dose LPS (0.25 micrograms/kg BW) challenge. Twenty-four crossbred calves (203 ± 1.45 kg BW) were blocked by BW and assigned to 1 ...

  6. Effects of stress on human mating preferences: stressed individuals prefer dissimilar mates

    OpenAIRE

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E.; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, André; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Although humans usually prefer mates that resemble themselves, mating preferences can vary with context. Stress has been shown to alter mating preferences in animals, but the effects of stress on human mating preferences are unknown. Here, we investigated whether stress alters men's preference for self-resembling mates. Participants first underwent a cold-pressor test (stress induction) or a control procedure. Then, participants viewed either neutral pictures or pictures of erotic female nude...

  7. Cardiac myosin heavy chain transition under altered thyroid status.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arnoštová, Petra; Jedelský, P.; Soukup, Tomáš; Žurmanová, Jitka

    Geneva : Swiss Society for Neuroscience, 2008. s. 125.3-125.3. ISBN 92-990014-3-X. [FENS. Forum of European Neuroscience /6./. 12.07.2008-16.07.2008, Geneva] Grant ostatní: Myores(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : spo2 * cardiac myosin heavy chain * transition * thyroid status Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  8. Altered Erythrocyte Deformability and Antioxidant Status in Patients with Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Hande YAPI?LAR

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Schizophrenia is a major mental disorder whose etiology still remains unkown. There is evidence that free radicals are involved in membrane pathology in the central nervous system and may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Red blood cells are also considered to be a peripheral marker in psychiatric illnesses. We aimed to provide further insight into the effects of changed antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation on the rheological behavior of red blood cells in s...

  9. Is the Oxidant/Antioxidant Status Altered in CADASIL Patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Campolo, Jonica; De Maria, Renata; Mariotti, Caterina; Tomasello, Chiara; Parolini, Marina; Frontali, Marina; Inzitari, Domenico; Valenti, Raffaella; Federico, Antonio; TARONI, FRANCO; Parodi, Oberdan

    2013-01-01

    The altered aggregation of proteins in non-native conformation is associated with endoplasmic reticulum derangements, mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a rare hereditary systemic vasculopathy, caused by NOTCH3 mutations within the receptor extracellular domain, that lead to abnormal accumulation of the mutated protein in the vascular wall. NOTCH3...

  10. Roles of olfactory cues, visual cues, and mating status in orientation of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to four different host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenninger, Erik J; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Hall, David G

    2009-02-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important worldwide pest of citrus that vectors bacteria (Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) responsible for huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). We examined the behavioral responses of mated and unmated D. citri of both sexes to odors from host plants in a Y-tube olfactometer, with and without visual cues. The host plants tested were 'Duncan' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfayden), sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.), navel orange (C. sinensis L.), and Murraya paniculata L. Jack. Responses varied by plant species, psyllid sex and mating status, and the presence of a visual cue. Evidence of attraction generally was stronger in females and in mated individuals of both sexes relative to virgins. The presence of a visual cue typically enhanced attractiveness of olfactory cues; in no case did unmated individuals show evidence of attraction to host plant odors in the absence of avisual cue. In the absence of visual cues, mated females and males showed evidence of attraction only to odors from sour orange and navel orange, respectively. Psyllids exhibited anemotactic responses when assayed with plant odors alone but showed strong evidence of attraction only when olfactory and visual cues were combined, suggesting that olfactory cues facilitate orientation to host plants but may be insufficient alone. Antennal responses to citrus volatiles were confirmed by electroantennogram. The results reported here provide evidence that D. citri uses olfactory and visual cues in orientation to host plants and suggest the possibility of using plant volatiles in monitoring and management of this pest. PMID:19791618

  11. The mating sociometer: a regulatory mechanism for mating aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Phillip S; Robins, Sarah C; Ellis, Bruce J

    2010-07-01

    Two studies (Ns = 80 and 108) tested hypotheses derived from Kirkpatrick and Ellis's (2001) extension and application of sociometer theory to mating aspirations. Experiences of social rejection-acceptance by attractive opposite-sex confederates were experimentally manipulated, and the impact of these manipulations on self-esteem, mating aspirations, and friendship aspirations was assessed. Results indicated that social rejection-acceptance by members of the opposite sex altered mating aspirations; that the causal link between social rejection-acceptance and mating aspirations was mediated by changes in state self-esteem; and that the impact of social rejection-acceptance by members of opposite sex was specific to mating aspirations and did not generalize to levels of aspiration in approaching potential same-sex friendships. This research supports a conceptualization of a domain-specific mating sociometer, which functions to calibrate mating aspirations in response to experiences of romantic rejection and acceptance. PMID:20565190

  12. Alteration of Oxidative Status in Rats Following Administration of Acrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa H. El-Sayed1, Shawkia S. Abd El- Halim1,

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acrylamide (ACR is a known industrial neurotoxic and carcinogenic chemical in rodents. The recent discovery of acrylamide in wide variety of commonly consumed foods has energized research efforts worldwide to define toxic mechanisms. Objective: The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of acrylamide administration on in vivo malondialdehyde (MDA, a product of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH as well as copper and zinc superoxide dismutase enzyme activity (Cu/Zn SOD of rats. Material and Methods: Fourteen adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups each containing "7" rats. Group 1 served as negative control fed on basal diet and group 2 (positive control received basal diet and acrylamide (0.34g/ kg diet for 11 days. Levels of MDA, GSH and activity of SOD were determined in liver, kidneys, brain, heart, testes, spleen and lungs of rats. Results: ACR treatment significantly increased MDA in all organs; the highest increase was detected in testis (87.9% and heart (71.5% while the lowest one was found in kidneys (28.2%. On the other hand, GSH levels and SOD activities were significantly reduced in ACR treated rats. However, the reduction of GSH level ranged from 10.2% to 36.5 %.The inhibition of SOD activities were higher in testis (57.3% and lungs (38.5%. Conclusion: The present study showed that ACR exerts deteriorated effects on oxidative status of rats

  13. Is the Oxidant/Antioxidant Status Altered in CADASIL Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolo, Jonica; De Maria, Renata; Mariotti, Caterina; Tomasello, Chiara; Parolini, Marina; Frontali, Marina; Inzitari, Domenico; Valenti, Raffaella; Federico, Antonio; Taroni, Franco; Parodi, Oberdan

    2013-01-01

    The altered aggregation of proteins in non-native conformation is associated with endoplasmic reticulum derangements, mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a rare hereditary systemic vasculopathy, caused by NOTCH3 mutations within the receptor extracellular domain, that lead to abnormal accumulation of the mutated protein in the vascular wall. NOTCH3 misfolding could cause free radicals increase also in CADASIL. Aim of the study was to verify whether CADASIL patients have increased oxidative stress compared to unrelated healthy controls. We enrolled 15 CADASIL patients and 16 gender- and age-matched healthy controls with comparable cardiovascular risk factor. Blood and plasma reduced and total aminothiols (homocysteine, cysteine, glutathione, cysteinylglycine) were measured by HPLC and plasma 3-nitrotyrosine by ELISA. Only plasma reduced cysteine (Pr-Cys) and blood reduced glutathione (Br-GSH) concentrations differed between groups: in CADASIL patients Br-GSH levels were higher (p = 0.019) and Pr-Cys lower (p = 0.010) than in controls. No correlation was found between Br-GSH and Pr-Cys either in CADASIL patients (rho 0.25, P=0.36) or in controls (rho -0.15, P=0.44). Conversely, 3-nitrotyrosine values were similar in CADASIL and healthy subjects (p = 0.82). The high levels of antioxidant molecules and low levels of oxidant mediators found in our CADASIL population might either be expression of an effective protective action against free radical formation at an early stage of clinical symptoms or they could suggest that oxidative stress is not directly involved in the pathogenesis of CADASIL. PMID:23799141

  14. Heliothis zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): effects of radiation and inherited sterility on mating competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal and irradiated laboratory-reared Heliothis zea (Boddie) moths were released in screened field cages and in fields of tobacco and cotton. The nocturnal activities and incidence of mating of laboratory-reared and wild moths were observed. Laboratory-reared moths irradiated with 10 krad and released in field cages were competitive with nonirradiated laboratory-reared moths. The competitiveness of irradiated moths was not altered by the time interval (5 and 30 h) between irradiation and release, the mating status of the male, or by the time interval (24 and 48 h) between mating and release. Normal and irradiated, laboratory-reared males released in the field in either the presence or absence of laboratory-reared females were not significantly different in their nocturnal behavior and mating competitiveness. The interaction of wild and laboratory-reared moths was largely limited to wild males mating with laboratory-reared females

  15. Female Moth Calling and Flight Behavior Are Altered Hours Following Pheromone Autodetection: Possible Implications for Practical Management with Mating Disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasz Stelinski; Robert Holdcraft; Cesar Rodriguez-Saona

    2014-01-01

    Female moths are known to detect their own sex pheromone—a phenomenon called “autodetection”. Autodetection has various effects on female moth behavior, including altering natural circadian rhythm of calling behavior, inducing flight, and in some cases causing aggregations of conspecifics. A proposed hypothesis for the possible evolutionary benefits of autodetection is its possible role as a spacing mechanism to reduce female-female competition. Here, we explore autodetection in two species o...

  16. The value of electroencephalography in differential diagnosis of altered mental status in emergency departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the value of electroencephalography in patients with altered mental status in emergency departments. Methods: Demographical characteristics, types and aetiologies of seizures, and clinical outcomes of the patients were recorded. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the complaints of admission: findings and symptoms of seizure; stroke and symptoms of stroke-related seizures; syncope; and metabolic abnormalities and other causes of altered mental status. The electroencephalography findings were classified into 3 groups: epileptiform discharges; paroxysmal electroencephalography abnormalities; and background slowing. Electroencephalography abnormalities in each subgroup were evaluated. SPSS 21 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total 190 patients in the study, 117(61.6%) had pathological electroencephalography findings. The main reason for electroencephalography in the emergency department was the presence of seizure findings and symptoms in 98(51.6%) patients. The ratio of electroencephalography abnormality was higher in patients who were admitted with complaints of metabolic abnormality-related consciousness disturbances (p<0.001). A total of 124(65.3%) patients had neuroimagings. Electroencephalography abnormalities were found to be significantly higher in patients with neuroimagings compared to those without neuroimagings (p<0.003). Conclusion: Despite advanced neuroimaging techniques, electroencephalography is still an important tool in the differential diagnosis of altered mental status such as epileptic seizures, metabolic abnormalities, pseudo-seizures and syncope. (author)

  17. Mate preferences do predict attraction and choices in the early stages of mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Norman P; Yong, Jose C; Tov, William; Sng, Oliver; Fletcher, Garth J O; Valentine, Katherine A; Jiang, Yun F; Balliet, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Although mate preference research has firmly established that men value physical attractiveness more than women do and women value social status more than men do, recent speed-dating studies have indicated mixed evidence (at best) for whether people's sex-differentiated mate preferences predict actual mate choices. According to an evolutionary, mate preference priority model (Li, Bailey, Kenrick, & Linsenmeier, 2002; Li & Kenrick, 2006; Li, Valentine, & Patel, 2011), the sexes are largely similar in what they ideally like, but for long-term mates, they should differ on what they most want to avoid in early selection contexts. Following this model, we conducted experiments using online messaging and modified speed-dating platforms. Results indicate that when a mating pool includes people at the low end of social status and physical attractiveness, mate choice criteria are sex-differentiated: Men, more than women, chose mates based on physical attractiveness, whereas women, more than men, chose mates based on social status. In addition, individuals who more greatly valued social status or physical attractiveness on paper valued these traits more in their actual choices. In particular, mate choices were sex-differentiated when considering long-term relationships but not short-term ones, where both sexes shunned partners with low physical attractiveness. The findings validate a large body of mate preferences research and an evolutionary perspective on mating, and they have implications for research using speed-dating and other interactive contexts. PMID:23915041

  18. The genetic basis for mating-induced sex differences in starvation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Taehwan; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2015-11-01

    Multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to influence starvation resistance, which is an important determinant of fitness in many organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster. Recent studies have revealed that mating can alter starvation resistance in female D. melanogaster, but little is known about the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying such mating-mediated changes in starvation resistance. In the present study, we first investigated whether the effect of mating on starvation resistance is sex-specific in D. melanogaster. As indicated by a significant sex×mating status interaction, mating increased starvation resistance in females but not in males. In female D. melanogaster, post-mating increase in starvation resistance was mainly attributed to increases in food intake and in the level of lipid storage relative to lean body weight. We then performed quantitative genetic analysis to estimate the proportion of the total phenotypic variance attributable to genetic differences (i.e., heritability) for starvation resistance in mated male and female D. melanogaster. The narrow-sense heritability (h(2)) of starvation resistance was 0.235 and 0.155 for males and females, respectively. Mated females were more resistant to starvation than males in all genotypes, but the degree of such sexual dimorphism varied substantially among genotypes, as indicated by a significant sex×genotype interaction for starvation resistance. Cross-sex genetic correlation was greater than 0 but less than l for starvation resistance, implying that the genetic architecture of this trait was partially shared between the two sexes. For both sexes, starvation resistance was positively correlated with longevity and lipid storage at genetic level. The present study suggests that sex differences in starvation resistance depend on mating status and have a genetic basis in D. melanogaster. PMID:26358400

  19. Strategies of Human Mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Buss

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern humans have inherited the mating strategies that led to the success of their ancestors. These strategies include long-term mating, short-term mating, extra-pair mating, mate poaching, and mate guarding. This article presents empirical evidence supporting evolution-based hypotheses about the complexities of these mating strategies. Since men and women historically confronted different adaptive problems in the mating domain, the sexes differ profoundly in evolved strategic solutions. These differences include possessing different mate preferences, different desires for short-term mating, and differences in the triggers that evoke sexual jealousy. The study of human mating is one of the “success stories” of evolutionary psychology.

  20. Manipulating thyroid status alters endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis in rat cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J T; McMullen, D C; Kean, W S; Yarnell, A M; Lucky, J J; Selak, M A; Buonora, J E; Grunberg, N E; Verma, A; Watson, W D

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid-related hormones regulate the efficiency and expression of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases in cardiac and skeletal muscle. However, little is known about the relationship between thyroid hormones and calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis in the brain. It is hypothesized that manipulating rat thyroid hormone levels would induce significant brain Ca2+ adaptations consistent with clinical findings. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of three treatment groups for 28 days: control, hypothyroid (6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU), an inhibitor of thyroxine (T4) synthesis), and hyperthyroid (T4). Throughout, rats were given weekly behavioral tests. Ca2+ accumulation decreased in the cerebellum in both hyper- and hypothyroid animals. This was specific to different ER pools of calcium with regional heterogeneity in the response to thyroid hormone manipulation. Behavioral tasks demonstrated sensitivity to thyroid manipulation, and corresponded to alterations in calcium homeostasis. Ca2+ accumulation heterogeneity in chronic hyper- and hypothyroid animals potentially explains clinical manifestations of altered thyroid status. PMID:22279935

  1. Silver nanoparticle-induced hemoglobin decrease involves alteration of histone 3 methylation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Hu, Qinglin; Xu, Ming; Chen, Yue; Hu, Guoqing; Zhao, Meirong; Liu, Sijin

    2015-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (nanosilver, AgNPs) have been shown to induce toxicity in vitro and in vivo; however, the molecular bases underlying the detrimental effects have not been thoroughly understood. Although there are numerous studies on its genotoxicity, only a few studies have investigated the epigenetic changes, even less on the changes of histone modifications by AgNPs. In the current study, we probed the AgNP-induced alterations to histone methylation that could be responsible for globin reduction in erythroid cells. AgNP treatment caused a significant reduction of global methylation level for histone 3 (H3) in erythroid MEL cells at sublethal concentrations, devoid of oxidative stress. The ChIP-PCR analyses demonstrated that methylation of H3 at lysine (Lys) 4 (H3K4) and Lys 79 (H3K79) on the ?-globin locus was greatly reduced. The reduction in methylation could be attributed to decreased histone methyltransferase DOT-1L and MLL levels as well as the direct binding between AgNPs to H3/H4 that provide steric hindrance to prevent methylation as predicted by the all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. This direct interaction was further proved by AgNP-mediated pull-down assay and immunoprecipitation assay. These changes, together with decreased RNA polymerase II activity and chromatin binding at this locus, resulted in decreased hemoglobin production. By contrast, Ag ion-treated cells showed no alterations in histone methylation level. Taken together, these results showed a novel finding in which AgNPs could alter the methylation status of histone. Our study therefore opens a new avenue to study the biological effects of AgNPs at sublethal concentrations from the perspective of epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:26295435

  2. Cobalamin C deficiency in an adolescent with altered mental status and anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmandar, Maria H; Bawcom, Amanda; Romano, Mary E; Hamid, Rizwan

    2014-12-01

    Although cobalamin (cbl) C deficiency is the most common inherited disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism, the late-onset form of the disease can be difficult to recognize because it has a broad phenotypic spectrum. In this report, we describe an adolescent female exposed to unknown illicit substances and sexual abuse who presented with psychosis, anorexia, seizures, and ataxia. The patient's diagnosis was delayed until a metabolic workup was initiated, revealing hyperhomocysteinemia, low normal plasma methionine, and methylmalonic aciduria. Ultimately, cblC deficiency was confirmed when molecular testing showed compound heterozygosity for mutations (c.271dupA and c.482G>A) in the MMACHC gene. This diagnosis led to appropriate treatment with hydroxocobalamin, betaine, and folate, which resulted in improvement of her clinical symptoms and laboratory values. This patient demonstrates a previously unrecognized presentation of late-onset cblC deficiency. Although neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in late-onset disease, seizures and cerebellar involvement are not. Furthermore, anorexia has not been previously described in these patients. This case emphasizes that inborn errors of metabolism should be part of the differential diagnosis for a teenager presenting with altered mental status, especially when the diagnosis is challenging or neurologic symptoms are unexplained. Correct diagnosis of this condition is important because treatment is available and can result in clinical improvement.(1.) PMID:25367534

  3. Uncoupling the links between male mating tactics and female attractiveness.

    OpenAIRE

    Ojanguren, Alfredo F; Magurran, Anne E

    2004-01-01

    Because not all females are equally attractive, and because mating reduces the chances of getting further copulations, males should prefer better-quality mates. In this paper, we use the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) to explore the effects of two non-correlated measures of female quality--size and reproductive status--on male mating decisions. All male guppies employ two alternative mating tactics. We found that large females, particularly those from a high predation site, were the ...

  4. Cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment alter the somatostatin status of delta cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? TGP52 cells display enhanced functionality in pseudoislet form. ? Somatostatin content was reduced, but secretion increased in high glucose conditions. ? Cellular interactions and environment alter the somatostatin status of TGP52 cells. -- Abstract: Introduction: Somatostatin, released from pancreatic delta cells, is a potent paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion. Islet cellular interactions and glucose homeostasis are essential to maintain normal patterns of insulin secretion. However, the importance of cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment in the regulation of somatostatin release remains unclear. Methods: This study employed the somatostatin-secreting TGP52 cell line maintained in DMEM:F12 (17.5 mM glucose) or DMEM (25 mM glucose) culture media. The effect of pseudoislet formation and culture medium on somatostatin content and release in response to a variety of stimuli was measured by somatostatin EIA. In addition, the effect of pseudoislet formation on cellular viability (MTT and LDH assays) and proliferation (BrdU ELISA) was determined. Results: TGP52 cells readily formed pseudoislets and showed enhanced functionality in three-dimensional form with increased E-cadherin expression irrespective of the culture environment used. However, culture in DMEM decreased cellular somatostatin content (P < 0.01) and increased somatostatin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli including arginine, calcium and PMA (P < 0.001) when compared with cells grown in DMEM:F12. Configuration of TGP52 cells as pseudoislets reduced the proliferative rate and increased cellular cytotoxicity irrespective of culture medium used. Conclusions: Somatostatin secretion is greatly facilitated by cell-to-cell interactions and E-cadherin expression. Cellular environment and extracellular glucose also significantly influence the function of delta cells.

  5. HIV Status, Burden of Comorbid Disease, and Biomarkers of Inflammation, Altered Coagulation, and Monocyte Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Armah, Kaku A.; McGinnis, Kathleen; Jason BAKER; GIBERT, Cynthia; Butt, Adeel A; Bryant, Kendall J.; Goetz, Matthew; Tracy, Russell; Oursler, Krisann K; Rimland, David; CROTHERS, Kristina; RODRIGUEZ-BARRADAS, Maria; Crystal, Steve; Gordon, Adam; Kraemer, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and prevalence of elevated biomarkers of inflammation, altered coagulation, and monocyte activation in a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected veterans who had a comparable burden of comorbid conditions.

  6. Paternal BPA exposure in early life alters Igf2 epigenetic status in sperm and induces pancreatic impairment in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhenxing; Xia, Wei; Chang, Huailong; Huo, Wenqian; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Shunqing

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to endocrine disruptors in utero appears to alter epigenetics in the male germ-line and subsequently promote adult-onset disease in subsequent generations. Fetal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a highly prevalent endocrine disruptor in environment, has been shown to alter epigenetic modification and result in glucose intolerance in adulthood. However, whether fetal exposure to BPA can induce epigenetic modification and phenotypic changes in their subsequent offspring are still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether exposure to BPA in early life induced glucose intolerance in the offspring through male germ line, and the underlying epigenetic molecular basis. F0 pregnant SD rats were received corn oil or 40?g/kg/day of BPA during gestation and lactation. F1 male rats were maintained to generate F2 offspring by mating with untreated female rats. Both the F1 rats after weaning and the F2 offspring were not received any other treatments. Our results showed that male F2 offspring in the BPA group exhibited glucose intolerance and ?-cell dysfunction. Decreased expression of Igf2 and associated hypermethylation of Igf2 were observed in islets of male F2 offspring. In addition, similar effects were observed in female F2 animals, but the effects were more pronounced in males. Moreover, abnormal expression and methylation of Igf2 was observed in sperm of adult F1 male rats, indicating that epigenetic modification in germ cells can be partly progressed to the next generation. Overall, our study suggests that BPA exposure during early life can result in generational transmission of glucose intolerance and ?-cell dysfunction in the offspring through male germ line, which is associated with hypermethylation of Igf2 in islets. The changes of epigenetics in germ cells may contribute to this generational transmission. PMID:26276081

  7. Signaling in multiple modalities in male rhesus macaques: sex skin coloration and barks in relation to androgen levels, social status, and mating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Higham, James P; Pfefferle, Dana; Heistermann, Michael; Maestripieri, Dario; Stevens, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has seen an increasing shift in animal communication towards more studies that incorporate aspects of signaling in multiple modalities. Although nonhuman primates are an excellent group for studying the extent to which different aspects of condition may be signaled in different modalities, and how such information may be integrated during mate choice, very few studies of primate species have incorporated such analyses. Here, we present data from free-ranging male rhesus macaqu...

  8. Male mating biology

    OpenAIRE

    Howell Paul I; Knols Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes...

  9. Dietary protein quality alters ornithine decarboxylase activity but not vitamin B-6 nutritional status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, D A; Harrison, S C; Clarke, S D; Yan, X

    1995-08-01

    Weanling male rats were fed diets that varied in protein quality (casein or wheat gluten) and vitamin B-6 (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg diet) to test the hypotheses that low protein quality would depress vitamin B-6 nutritional status and that activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) would be a sensitive functional indicator of vitamin B-6 nutritional status. The wheat gluten diet depressed body weight gain approximately 17% at higher vitamin B-6 levels, as expected. However, vitamin B-6 nutritional status was not worse in gluten-fed compared with casein-fed groups, as evidenced by static measures (B-6 vitamer concentrations in plasma and tissues) and a functional indicator (tryptophan load test). The activity of ODC (holo- and total) in liver, kidney and small intestine did not vary significantly at the three higher levels of vitamin B-6 intake. In groups fed casein, total ODC activity in these tissues was two- to fivefold higher in rats fed diets containing 0.0 mg vitamin B-6/kg compared with higher B-6 levels, without corresponding differences in ODC mRNA abundance in liver and kidney. Concentrations of B-6 vitamers (except pyridoxal phosphate in plasma) increased linearly with dietary vitamin B-6 in plasma, liver, kidney and intestine. These data suggest that low quality protein fed as wheat gluten suppresses growth but not vitamin B-6 nutritional status, and that ODC activity is not a sensitive functional indicator of marginal vitamin B-6 status. PMID:7643255

  10. The Influence of Nonrandom Mating on Population Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Schindler; Peter Neuhaus; Jean-Michel Gaillard; Tim Coulson

    2013-01-01

    When nonrandom mating alters offspring numbers or the distribution of offspring phenotypes, it has the potential to impact the population growth rate. Similarly, sex-specific demographic parameters that influence the availability of mating partners can leave a signature on the population growth rate. We develop a general framework to explore how mating patterns and sex differences influence the population growth rate. We do this by constructing a two-sex integral projection model to explore w...

  11. Altered mental status, an unusual manifestation of early disseminated Lyme disease: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chabria Shiven B; Lawrason Jock

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Early disseminated Lyme disease can have a myriad of central nervous system manifestations. These run the gamut from meningitis to radiculopathy and cranial neuropathy. Here we present a case that manifested with only acute mental status change in the setting of central nervous system involvement with Lyme disease. A paucity of other central nervous system manifestations is rare, especially with positive serum and cerebrospinal fluid markers. This article underscores the importance o...

  12. Altered Mental Status and Hyperammonemia after Overdose of Valproic Acid with Therapeutic Valproic Acid Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Evan S.; Mark Thoelke

    2014-01-01

    Valproic acid is used in the treatment of multiple disorders. Adverse effects from valproic acid include hepatotoxicity, hypotension, metabolic acidosis, and decreased mental status. Valproic acid also causes hyperammonemia. Many physicians assume that this is due to a supratherapeutic valproic acid concentration; when in fact, it can occur with therapeutic valproic acid concentrations. This is because the hyperammonemia may be related to carnitine deficiency and disrup...

  13. Expression of Calcium Binding Proteins in Skeletal and Heart Muscles of Rats with Altered Thyroid Status.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Marková, Vladimíra; Sulimenko, Vadym; Soukup, Tomáš

    Kyoto, Japan : Physiological society, 2009. s. 5-5. [International congress of Physiological Sciences /36./. 27.07.2009-01.08.2009, Kyoto] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545; GA ?R(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : calsequestrin * muscle * thyroid status Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  14. Expression of calsequestrin in skeletal and heart muscles of rats with altered thyroid status.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr; Škajeva, Maria; Marková, Vladimíra; Sulimenko, Vadym; Soukup, Tomáš

    Martin : Univerzita Komenského, 2008. s. 86-86. [Fyziologické dny /84./. 06.02.2008-08.02.2008, Martin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ?R(CZ) GA304/05/0327 Grant ostatní: Myores(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : spr2 * calsequestrin * thyroid status * rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  15. Expression of calsequestrin in skeletal and heart muscles of rats with altered thyroid status.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr; Škajeva, Maria; Marková, Vladimíra; Sulimenko, Vadym; Soukup, Tomáš

    Fyziologický ústav AV ?R, v. v. i.. Ro?. 57, ?. 2 (2008), 24P-24P ISSN 0862-8408. [Fyziologické dny /84./. 06.02.2008-08.02.2008, Martin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ?R(CZ) GA304/05/0327 Grant ostatní: Myores(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : cpr1 * calsequestrin * thyroid status * rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  16. Increased oxidative stress and altered antioxidants status in patients with chronic allergic rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Shiefa Sequeira; Rao, Ashalatha V; Anjali Rao

    2012-01-01

    Background: Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disorder of the upper airways. Although several oxidants and antioxidants are likely to be involved, alterations in only limited parameters have been studied. Objective: In this study an attempt has been made to study the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance by investigating changes in a wide range of oxidants and antioxidants in the blood. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 39 chronic allergic rhinitis patients (males 24, females 15), aged 20-...

  17. Ethanol Intake during Lactation Alters Milk Nutrient Composition and Growth and Mineral Status of Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÍNTIA R.P AZARA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactating Wistar rats were fed a liquid diet containing either ethanol [ethanol-fed group (EFG] or an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate [pair-fed group (PFG] from day 1 postpartum up to day 14 of lactation, to investigate micro/macronutrient milk composition and the mineral status of pups. EFG presented a reduction of daily milk production and milk composition was significantly higher in protein and lower in carbohydrate, while the lipid content was similar to that of PFG. When compared to PFG, the milk of EFG had a decreased proportion of C22:6 n-3 fatty acid and an increase in medium-chain fatty acids and of several minerals. Pups of EFG showed reduced growth and a lower concentration of Cu and Sr in plasma and lower concentrations of Ca, P and Cl, and higher concentrations of Cd in the brain. We conclude that maternal EtOH intake greatly impairs lactational performance and modifies the mineral status of pups.

  18. Different training status may alter the continuous blood glucose kinetics in self-paced endurance running

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUZUKI, YOSHIO; SHIMIZU, TOMOMI; OTA, MAKOTO; HIRATA, RYUZO; SATO, KENJI; TAMURA, YOSHIFUMI; IMANISHI, AKIO; WATANABE, MASAYUKI; SAKURABA, KEISHOKU

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the systemic energy metabolism is to provide a source of energy, mainly glucose, for the brain; therefore, blood glucose levels would be expected to correlate with exercise performance. The individual training status may also affect the blood glucose levels. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between blood glucose levels and running velocity during prolonged running in athletes with different training statuses. Two female college athletes, a triathlete and a tennis player, ran a course that was 247.4 m in circumference for 5 h while wearing a continuous glucose monitoring system. Blood was obtained at time-points of ?1, 1, 3 and 5 h. The athletes had free access to food and fluids throughout the run. The athletes ran at almost the same pace without a sudden decrease in pace. The blood glucose levels increased and remained high in the triathlete, whereas the tennis player remained hypoglycemic throughout the run. Carbohydrate ingestion did not affect the blood glucose levels. The magnitude of hormonal changes, e.g. insulin, adrenaline and cortisol, was greater in the tennis player. The blood glucose concentration did not correlate with the running velocity or the carbohydrate ingestion; however, a discrepancy in blood glucose transition was observed between the triathlete and the tennis player, indicating a possible association between the adaptation to endurance exercise and the blood glucose kinetics during prolonged running.

  19. Altered DNA repair, oxidative stress and antioxidant status in coronary artery disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Supriya Simon; V Chithra; Anoop Vijayan; Roy D Dinesh; T Vijayakumar

    2013-06-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disease caused by the interplay of environmental risk factors with multiple predisposing genes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of DNA repair efficiency and oxidative stress and antioxidant status in CAD patients. Malonaldehyde (MDA), which is an indicator of oxidative stress, and mean break per cell (b/c) values, which is an indicator of decreased DNA repair efficiency, were found to be significantly increased in patients compared to normal controls (<0.05) whereas ascorbic acid and GSH were found to be lower among patients than the control group. It has been found that elevated oxidative stress decreased antioxidant level and decreased DNA repair efficiency can contribute to the development of CAD. This study also showed that high MDA, low ascorbic acid and GSH were significantly associated with high b/c value.

  20. Mate choice for a male carotenoid-based ornament is linked to female dietary carotenoid intake and accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toomey Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coevolution of male traits and female mate preferences has led to the elaboration and diversification of sexually selected traits; however the mechanisms that mediate trait-preference coevolution are largely unknown. Carotenoid acquisition and accumulation are key determinants of the expression of male sexually selected carotenoid-based coloration and a primary mechanism maintaining the honest information content of these signals. Carotenoids also influence female health and reproduction in ways that may alter the costs and benefits of mate choice behaviours and thus provide a potential biochemical link between the expression of male traits and female preferences. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the dietary carotenoid levels of captive female house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus and assessed their mate choice behavior in response to color-manipulated male finches. Results Females preferred to associate with red males, but carotenoid supplementation did not influence the direction or strength of this preference. Females receiving a low-carotenoid diet were less responsive to males in general, and discrimination among the colorful males was positively linked to female plasma carotenoid levels at the beginning of the study when the diet of all birds was carotenoid-limited. Conclusions Although female preference for red males was not influenced by carotenoid intake, changes in mating responsiveness and discrimination linked to female carotenoid status may alter how this preference is translated into choice. The reddest males, with the most carotenoid rich plumage, tend to pair early in the breeding season. If carotenoid-related variations in female choice behaviour shift the timing of pairing, then they have the potential to promote assortative mating by carotenoid status and drive the evolution of carotenoid-based male plumage coloration.

  1. EF24 prevents rotenone-induced estrogenic status alteration in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debarshi; Kabiraj, Parijat; Pal, Rituraj

    2014-04-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an important endoplasmic reticulum-resident oxidoreductase chaperone can bind to estrogens as well as intact with its receptor proteins [i.e. estrogen receptors (ER) ? and ?]. It has been postulated that PDI also acts as an intracellular 17?-estradiol (E2)-binding protein that transports and accumulates E2 in live cells. Drop in E2 level promotes dissociation of E2 from PDI and released in cytosol; the released E2 can augment estrogen receptor-mediated transcriptional activity and mitogenic action in cultured cells by modulating the ER?/ER? ratio. In this study, we observed rotenone-induced damage to PDI leads to significant increase in ER?/ER? ratio by down-regulating ER? and up-regulating ER?. We demonstrated that nitrosative stress induced disruption of the cellular estrogenic status can be prevented through diphenyl difluoroketone (EF24, curcumin analog) intervention by protecting PDI from reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced damage. Together, our study suggests that both PDI and EF24 can play a vital role in maintaining cellular estrogenic homeostasis. PMID:24375813

  2. Efficacy of lower doses of vanadium in restoring altered glucose metabolism and antioxidant status in diabetic rat lenses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anju Preet; Bihari L Gupta; Gupta Pramod K Yadava; Najma Z Baquer

    2005-03-01

    Vanadium compounds are potent in controlling elevated blood glucose levels in experimentally induced diabetes. However the toxicity associated with vanadium limits its role as therapeutic agent for diabetic treatment. A vanadium compound sodium orthovanadate (SOV) was given to alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats in lower doses in combination with Trigonella foenum graecum, a well-known hypoglycemic agent used in traditional Indian medicines. The effect of this combination was studied on lens morphology and glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. Lens, an insulin-independent tissue, was found severely affected in diabetes showing visual signs of cataract. Alterations in the activities of glucose metabolizing enzymes (hexokinase, aldose reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase) besides the levels of related metabolites, [sorbitol, fructose, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH)] were observed in the lenses from diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated with insulin (2 IU/day), SOV (0.6 mg/ml), T. f. graecum seed powder (TSP, 5%) and TSP (5%) in combination with lowered dose of vanadium SOV (0.2 mg/ml), for a period of 3 weeks. The activity of the enzymes, hexokinase, aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase was significantly increased whereas the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase decreased significantly in lenses from 3 week diabetic rats. Significant increase in accumulation of metabolites, sorbitol, fructose, glucose was found in diabetic lenses. TBARS measure of peroxidation increased whereas the levels of antioxidant GSH decreased significantly in diabetic condition. Insulin restored the levels of altered enzyme activities and metabolites almost to control levels. Sodium orthovanadate (0.6 mg/ml) and Trigonella administered separately to diabetic animals could partially reverse the diabetic changes, metabolic and morphological, while vanadate in lowered dose in combination with Trigonella was found to be the most effective in restoring the altered lens metabolism and morphological appearance in diabetes. It may be concluded that vanadate at lowered doses administered in combination with Trigonella was the most effective in controlling the altered glucose metabolism and antioxidant status in diabetic lenses, these being significant factors involved in the development of diabetic complications, that reflects in the reduced lens opacity.

  3. Spinal Fluid Lactate Dehydrogenase Level Differentiates between Structural and Metabolic Etiologies of Altered Mental Status in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid KHOSROSHAHI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Khosroshahi N, Alizadeh P, Khosravi M, Salamati P, Kamrani K. Spinal Fluid Lactate Dehydrogenase Level Differentiates between Structural and Metabolic Etiologies of Altered Mental Status in Children. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1:31-36.AbstractObjectiveAltered mental status is a common cause of intensive care unit admission inchildren. Differentiating structural causes of altered mental status from metabolic etiologies is of utmost importance in diagnostic approach and management of the patients. Among many biomarkers proposed to help stratifying patients with altered mental status, spinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase appears to be the most promising biomarker to predict cellular necrosis.Materials & MethodsIn this cross sectional study we measured spinal fluid level of lactatedehydrogenase in children 2 months to 12 years of age admitted to a single center intensive care unit over one year. Spinal fluid level of lactate dehydrogenase in 40 pediatric cases of febrile seizure was also determined as the control group.ResultsThe study group included 35 boys (58.3% and 25 girls (41.7%. Their meanage was 2.7+/-3 years and their mean spinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase levelwas 613.8+/-190.4 units/liter. The control group included 24 boys (55.8% and19 girls (44.2%. Their mean age was 1.3+/-1.2 years and their mean spinalfluid lactate dehydrogenase level was 18.9+/-7.5 units/liter. The mean spinalfluid lactate dehydrogenase level in children with abnormal head CT scan was246.3+/-351.5 units/liter compared to 164.5+/-705.7 in those with normal CTscan of the head (p=0.001.ConclusionSpinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase level is useful in differentiating structural andmetabolic causes of altered mental status in children. ReferencesFesk SK. Coma and confusional states: emergency diagnosis and management. Neurol Clin 1998; 16: 237- 56.Cucchiara BL, Kanser SE, Wolk DA, et al. Early impairment in consciousness Predicts mortality after hemispheric ischemic stroke. Crit care med 2004; 32: 241-5.Teasdale G, Jennett B. Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness: a practical scale. Lancet 1974; 2: 81-4.Wityk RJ, Stern BJ. Ischemic stroke: today and tomorrow. Crit care med 1994; 22: 1278-93.Vázquez Jorge Alejandro, Adducci Maria del Carmen, Monzón Daniel Godoy, Iserson Kenneth V. Lactic dehyrogenase in cerebrospinal fluid may differentiate between structural and non-strucfiular central nervous system lesion in patient with diminished levels of consciousness. The Journal of Emergency Medicine2009; 37(1: 93–97.Kärkelä J, Pasanen M, Kaukinen S, Mörsky P, Harmoinen A. Evaluation of hypoxic brain injury with spinal fluid enzymes, lactate, and pyruvate. Crit Care Med. 1992 Mar; 20(3:378-86. 2007: pp. 835. ISBN 0-7817-7087-4.DV Kamat, BP Chakravorty. Comparative values of CSF-LDH isoenzymes in neurological disorders. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 1999; 53 (1: 1-6.Pollak AN, Gupton CL. Emergency Care and Transportation of the Sick and Injured. Boston: Jones and Bartlett 2002: pp. 140. ISBN 0-7637-1666-9.Nayak BS, Bhat R. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase and glutamine in meningitis. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005 Jan; 49(1:108-10.A Twijnstra, A P van Zanten, A A Hart, et al. al. Serial lumbar and ventricle cerebrospinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase activities in patients with leptomeningeal metastases from solid and haematological tumours. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1987 50: 313-320.Nussinovitch M, Finkelstein Y, Politi K, Harel D, Klinger G, Razon Y, Nussinovitch U, Nussinovitch N. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in children with bacterial and aseptic meningitis. Translational Research 2009. 154 (4: 214-218.Feldman William E. Cerebrospinal Fluid Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase Activity. Levels in Untreated and Partially Antibiotic-Treated Meningitis. Am J Dis Child. 1975; 129(1: 77-80.Lutsar I, Haldre S, Topman M, Talvik T. Enzymatic changes in the cerebrospinal fluid in patients with infections ofthe central nervous system. Acta Paediatr 1994; 83(11

  4. The MAT1 Locus of Histoplasma capsulatum Is Responsive in a Mating Type-Specific Manner?

    OpenAIRE

    Bubnick, Meggan; Smulian, A. George

    2007-01-01

    Recombination events associated with sexual replication in pathogens may generate new strains with altered virulence. Histoplasma capsulatum is a mating-competent, pathogenic fungus with two described phenotypic mating types, + and ?. The mating (MAT) locus of H. capsulatum was identified to facilitate molecular studies of mating in this organism. Through syntenic analysis of the H. capsulatum genomic sequence databases, a MAT1-1 idiomorph region was identified in H. capsulatum strains G217B ...

  5. Mating behaviour and mating competitiveness of radiation sterilized males of Dysdercus koenigii Fabricius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Dysdercus koenigii F., while, the females were ready for mating soon after emergence, the males attained sexual maturity only after 36-48 h. Irradiation of males with a sterilizing dose of 70 Gy of x rays prior to attaining sexual maturity brought about delay in mating. Irradiation after attaining sexual maturity did not however, alter mating behaviour. Evaluation of mating competitiveness of sterile males by confining a normal female with sterile and normal males in 1:1 or 2:1 ratio and then recording the type of matings that occurred revealed that 1) mating competitiveness of males rendered sterile by irradiating prior to attaining maturity was greatly reduced even when the sterile males were aged for 48 hrs 2) when males were irradiated after attaining maturity, they significantly out numbered the normal males in mating with females, apparently indicating their becoming more vigorous than normal males. Irradiation during early 5th instar induced wing deformities. Such males having wing deformities failed to undergo copulation with normal females, but wing deformity among females did not prevent them from undergoing copulation with normal males. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  6. Low-impact mating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James L. (Inventor); Carroll, Monty B. (Inventor); Le, Thang D. (Inventor); Morales, Ray H. (Inventor); Robertson, Brandan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An androgynous mating system for mating two exoatmospheric space modules comprising a first mating assembly capable of mating with a second mating assembly; a second mating assembly structurally identical to said first mating assembly, said first mating assembly comprising; a load ring; a plurality of load cell subassemblies; a plurality of actuators; a base ring; a tunnel; a closed loop control system; one or more electromagnets; and one or more striker plates, wherein said one or more electomagnets on said second mating assembly are capable of mating with said one or more striker plates on said first mating assembly, and wherein said one or more striker plates is comprised of a plate of predetermined shape and a 5-DOF mechanism capable of maintaining predetermined contact requirements during said mating of said one or more electromagnets and said one or more striker plates.

  7. Random mating with a finite number of matings.

    OpenAIRE

    Balloux, François; Lehmann, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    Random mating is the null model central to population genetics. One assumption behind random mating is that individuals mate an infinite number of times. This is obviously unrealistic. Here we show that when each female mates a finite number of times, the effective size of the population is substantially decreased.

  8. Mating and immunity in invertebrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawniczak, MK; Barnes, AI; Linklater, JR; Boone, JM; Wigby, S.; Chapman, T.

    2007-01-01

    Mating and immunity are intimately linked to fitness. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, recent investigations into mate choice for immunity, tradeoffs between reproduction and immunity, and the relationships between post-mating processes and immune function have revealed that mating and immunity are also intimately linked to each other. Here, we focus on invertebrates and critically examine the evidence that immunity is under sexual selection, both pre- and post-mating, and explore other...

  9. Female Fitness Optimum at Intermediate Mating Rates under Traumatic Mating

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Rolanda; Gerlach, Tobias; Beninde, Joscha; Werminghausen, Johanna; Reichel, Verena; Anthes, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic mating behaviors often bear signatures of sexual conflict and are then typically considered a male strategy to circumvent female choice mechanisms. In an extravagant mating ritual, the hermaphroditic sea slug Siphopteron quadrispinosum pierces the integument of their mating partners with a syringe-like penile stylet that injects prostate fluids. Traumatic injection is followed by the insertion of a spiny penis into the partner’s gonopore to transfer sperm. Despite traumatic mating, ...

  10. Different cognitive processes underlie human mate choices and mate preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Peter M.; Penke, Lars; Fasolo, Barbara; Lenton, Alison P.

    2007-01-01

    Based on undergraduates' self-reports of mate preferences for various traits and self-perceptions of their own levels on those traits, Buston and Emlen [Buston PM, Emlen ST (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:8805–8810] concluded that modern human mate choices do not reflect predictions of tradeoffs from evolutionary theory but instead follow a “likes-attract” pattern, where people choose mates who match their self-perceptions. However, reported preferences need not correspond to actual mate ch...

  11. The Best Timing of Mate Search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Beauche, Fanny; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different m...

  12. Mating behaviour of female Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): polyandry increases reproductive output

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, M S; Albajes Garcia, Ramon; Eizaguirre Altuna, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is an important pest of tomato. Mass trapping of males has seldom proved an effective control measure, probably due to the pest"s reproductive biology. There are few studies on female mating behaviour. For this reason, this study aimed to determine female mating frequency and its effects on reproductive output and female longevity; the effects of male mating status on female reproductive output and longevity and the fate of the spermatophore inside the bursa copulatrix...

  13. Mating Behavior of Daphnia: Impacts of Predation Risk, Food Quantity, and Reproductive Phase of Females

    OpenAIRE

    La, Geung-Hwan; Choi, Jong-Yun; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Jang, Min-Ho; Joo, Gea-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2014-01-01

    High predation risk and food depletion lead to sexual reproduction in cyclically parthenogenetic Daphnia. Mating, the core of sexual reproduction, also occurs under these conditions. Assessment of the environmental conditions and alteration of mating efforts may aid in determining the success of sexual reproduction. Here, we evaluated the impacts of predation risk, food quantity, and reproductive phase of females on the mating behavior of Daphnia obtusa males including contact frequency and d...

  14. Breaking linkage between mating compatibility factors: Tetrapolarity in Microbotryum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Michael E; Scott, Molly; Hwang, Mindy

    2015-10-01

    Linkage of genes determining separate self-incompatibility mechanisms is a general expectation of sexual eukaryotes that helps to resolve conflicts between reproductive assurance and recombination. However, in some organisms, multiple loci are required to be heterozygous in offspring while segregating independently in meiosis. This condition, termed "tetrapolarity" in basidiomycete fungi, originated in the ancestor to that phylum, and there have been multiple reports of subsequent transitions to "bipolarity" (i.e., linkage of separate mating factors). In the genus Microbotryum, we present the first report of the breaking of linkage between two haploid self-incompatibility factors and derivation of a tetrapolar breeding system. This breaking of linkage is associated with major alteration of genome structure, with the compatibility factors residing on separate mating-type chromosome pairs, reduced in size but retaining the structural dimorphism characteristic for regions of recombination suppression. The challenge to reproductive assurance from unlinked compatibility factors may be overcome by the automictic mating system in Microbotryum (i.e., mating among products of the same meiosis). As a curious outcome, this linkage transition and its effects upon outcrossing compatibility rates may reinforce automixis as a mating system. These observations contribute to understanding mating systems and linkage as fundamental principles of sexual life cycles, with potential impacts on conventional wisdom regarding mating-type evolution. PMID:26339889

  15. Habitat change influences mate search behaviour in three-spined sticklebacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Salminen, Tiina

    2012-01-01

    Mate choice is one of the main mechanisms of sexual selection, with profound implications for individual fitness. Changes in environmental conditions can cause individuals to alter their mate search behaviour, with consequences for mate choice. Human-induced eutrophication of water bodies is a global problem that alters habitat structure and visibility in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated whether changes in habitat complexity and male cue modality, visual or olfactory, influence mate search behaviour of female three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. We allowed gravid females to search for mates in experimental pools that contained two nesting males and one social female, under low and high structural complexity (created from green Plexiglas sheets), with access to either visual or olfactory cues of the individuals. We found increased habitat complexity reduced the number of visits to nesting males, while a switch from visual to olfactory cues reduced the time spent searching for males, the numberof visits to nesting males, the time spent evaluating males, and the relative time spent associating with males rather than females. Thus, females decreased mate searching and mate evaluation in the absence of visual stimulation. This reduced the rate of mate encounters and probably also the opportunity for choice. Our results show that changes in habitat structure and visibility can alter female mate searching, with potential consequences for the opportunity for sexual selection.

  16. Casanovas are liars: behavioral syndromes, sperm competition risk, and the evolution of deceptive male mating behavior in live-bearing fishes [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1ko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bierbach

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive biology can by characterized through competition over mates as well as mate choice. Multiple mating and male mate choice copying, especially in internally fertilizing species, set the stage for increased sperm competition, i.e., sperm of two or more males can compete for fertilization of the female’s ova. In the internally fertilizing fish Poecilia mexicana, males respond to the presence of rivals with reduced expression of mating preferences (audience effect, thereby lowering the risk of by-standing rivals copying their mate choice. Also, males interact initially more with a non-preferred female when observed by a rival, which has been interpreted in previous studies as a strategy to mislead rivals, again reducing sperm competition risk (SCR. Nevertheless, species might differ consistently in their expression of aggressive and reproductive behaviors, possibly due to varying levels of SCR. In the current study, we present a unique data set comprising ten poeciliid species (in two cases including multiple populations and ask whether species can be characterized through consistent differences in the expression of aggression, sexual activity and changes in mate choice under increased SCR. We found consistent species-specific differences in aggressive behavior, sexual activity as well as in the level of misleading behavior, while decreased preference expression under increased SCR was a general feature of all but one species examined. Furthermore, mean sexual activity correlated positively with the occurrence of potentially misleading behavior. An alternative explanation for audience effects would be that males attempt to avoid aggressive encounters, which would predict stronger audience effects in more aggressive species. We demonstrate a positive correlation between mean aggressiveness and sexual activity (suggesting a hormonal link as a mechanistic explanation, but did not detect a correlation between aggressiveness and audience effects. Suites of correlated behavioral tendencies are termed behavioral syndromes, and our present study provides correlational evidence for the evolutionary significance of SCR in shaping a behavioral syndrome at the species level across poeciliid taxa.

  17. Casanovas are liars: behavioral syndromes, sperm competition risk, and the evolution of deceptive male mating behavior in live-bearing fishes [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1zi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bierbach

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive biology can by characterized through competition over mates as well as mate choice. Multiple mating and male mate choice copying, especially in internally fertilizing species, set the stage for increased sperm competition, i.e., sperm of two or more males can compete for fertilization of the female’s ova. In the internally fertilizing fish Poecilia mexicana, males respond to the presence of rivals with reduced expression of mating preferences (audience effect, thereby lowering the risk of by-standing rivals copying their mate choice. Also, males interact initially more with a non-preferred female when observed by a rival, which has been interpreted in previous studies as a strategy to mislead rivals, again reducing sperm competition risk (SCR. Nevertheless, species might differ consistently in their expression of aggressive and reproductive behaviors, possibly due to varying levels of SCR. In the current study, we present a unique data set comprising ten poeciliid species (in two cases including multiple populations and ask whether species can be characterized through consistent differences in the expression of aggression, sexual activity and changes in mate choice under increased SCR. We found consistent species-specific differences in aggressive behavior, sexual activity as well as in the level of misleading behavior, while decreased preference expression under increased SCR was a general feature of all but one species examined. Furthermore, mean sexual activity correlated positively with the occurrence of potentially misleading behavior. An alternative explanation for audience effects would be that males attempt to avoid aggressive encounters, which would predict stronger audience effects in more aggressive species. We demonstrate a positive correlation between mean aggressiveness and sexual activity (suggesting a hormonal link as a mechanistic explanation, but did not detect a correlation between aggressiveness and audience effects. Suites of correlated behavioral tendencies are termed behavioral syndromes, and our present study provides correlational evidence for the evolutionary significance of SCR in shaping a behavioral syndrome at the species level across poeciliid taxa.

  18. Cognitive processes underlying human mate choice: The relationship between self-perception and mate preference in Western society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buston, Peter M.; Emlen, Stephen T.

    2003-01-01

    This study tested two hypotheses concerning the cognitive processes underlying human mate choice in Western society: (i) mate preference is conditional in that the selectivity of individuals' mate preference is based on their perception of themselves as long-term partners, and (ii) the decision rule governing such conditional mate preference is based on translating perception of oneself on a given attribute into a comparable selectivity of preference for the same attribute in a mate. Both hypotheses were supported. A two-part questionnaire was completed by 978 heterosexual residents of Ithaca, New York, aged 18–24; they first rated the importance they placed on 10 attributes in a long-term partner and then rated their perception of themselves on those same attributes. Both women and men who rated themselves highly were significantly more selective in their mate preference. When the 10 attributes were grouped into four evolutionarily relevant categories (indicative of wealth and status, family commitment, physical appearance, and sexual fidelity), the greatest amount of variation in the selectivity of mate preference in each category was explained by self-perception in the same category of attributes. We conclude that, in Western society, humans use neither an “opposites-attract” nor a “reproductive-potentials-attract” decision rule in their choice of long-term partners but rather a “likes-attract” rule based on a preference for partners who are similar to themselves across a number of characteristics. PMID:12843405

  19. Ondansetron can enhance cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity via inhibition of multiple toxin and extrusion proteins (MATEs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qing [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Guo, Dong [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Dong, Zhongqi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhang, Wei [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei [Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Polli, James E. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Shu, Yan, E-mail: yshu@rx.umaryland.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application of cisplatin. Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) work in concert in the elimination of cationic drugs such as cisplatin from the kidney. We hypothesized that co-administration of ondansetron would have an effect on cisplatin nephrotoxicity by altering the function of cisplatin transporters. The inhibitory potencies of ondansetron on metformin accumulation mediated by OCT2 and MATEs were determined in the stable HEK-293 cells expressing these transporters. The effects of ondansetron on drug disposition in vivo were examined by conducting the pharmacokinetics of metformin, a classical substrate for OCTs and MATEs, in wild-type and Mate1?/? mice. The nephrotoxicity was assessed in the wild-type and Mate1?/? mice received cisplatin with and without ondansetron. Both MATEs, including human MATE1, human MATE2-K, and mouse Mate1, and OCT2 (human and mouse) were subject to ondansetron inhibition, with much greater potencies by ondansetron on MATEs. Ondansetron significantly increased tissue accumulation and pharmacokinetic exposure of metformin in wild-type but not in Mate1?/? mice. Moreover, ondansetron treatment significantly enhanced renal accumulation of cisplatin and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity which were indicated by increased levels of biochemical and molecular biomarkers and more severe pathohistological changes in mice. Similar increases in nephrotoxicity were caused by genetic deficiency of MATE function in mice. Therefore, the potent inhibition of MATEs by ondansetron enhances the nephrotoxicity associated with cisplatin treatment in mice. Potential nephrotoxic effects of combining the chemotherapeutic cisplatin and the antiemetic 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT{sub 3}) receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron, should be investigated in patients. - Highlights: • Nephrotoxicity significantly limits clinical use of the chemotherapeutic cisplatin. • The antiemetic ondansetron is frequently co-administrated with cisplatin. • Ondansetron was here demonstrated as a potent inhibitor of MATE transporters. • Ondansetron enhanced cisplatin nephrotoxicity likely via Mate1 inhibition in mice. • Ondansetron may increase patient risk of nephrotoxicity in cisplatin chemotherapy.

  20. Ondansetron can enhance cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity via inhibition of multiple toxin and extrusion proteins (MATEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application of cisplatin. Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) work in concert in the elimination of cationic drugs such as cisplatin from the kidney. We hypothesized that co-administration of ondansetron would have an effect on cisplatin nephrotoxicity by altering the function of cisplatin transporters. The inhibitory potencies of ondansetron on metformin accumulation mediated by OCT2 and MATEs were determined in the stable HEK-293 cells expressing these transporters. The effects of ondansetron on drug disposition in vivo were examined by conducting the pharmacokinetics of metformin, a classical substrate for OCTs and MATEs, in wild-type and Mate1?/? mice. The nephrotoxicity was assessed in the wild-type and Mate1?/? mice received cisplatin with and without ondansetron. Both MATEs, including human MATE1, human MATE2-K, and mouse Mate1, and OCT2 (human and mouse) were subject to ondansetron inhibition, with much greater potencies by ondansetron on MATEs. Ondansetron significantly increased tissue accumulation and pharmacokinetic exposure of metformin in wild-type but not in Mate1?/? mice. Moreover, ondansetron treatment significantly enhanced renal accumulation of cisplatin and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity which were indicated by increased levels of biochemical and molecular biomarkers and more severe pathohistological changes in mice. Similar increases in nephrotoxicity were caused by genetic deficiency of MATE function in mice. Therefore, the potent inhibition of MATEs by ondansetron enhances the nephrotoxicity associated with cisplatin treatment in mice. Potential nephrotoxic effects of combining the chemotherapeutic cisplatin and the antiemetic 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron, should be investigated in patients. - Highlights: • Nephrotoxicity significantly limits clinical use of the chemotherapeutic cisplatin. • The antiemetic ondansetron is frequently co-administrated with cisplatin. • Ondansetron was here demonstrated as a potent inhibitor of MATE transporters. • Ondansetron enhanced cisplatin nephrotoxicity likely via Mate1 inhibition in mice. • Ondansetron may increase patient risk of nephrotoxicity in cisplatin chemotherapy

  1. The mating behaviour and reproduction performance in a multi-sire mating system for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2008-01-01

    An important aim of organic animal production is to allow natural animal behaviour. Regarding reproduction techniques, artificial insemination is permitted but natural mating is preferred. The outdoor multi-sire system, where the sows are placed in large paddocks with a group of boars, is one example of a service system, which complies well with the organic ideals of facilitating natural animal behavior. However, very little knowledge is available about such system. Seven groups of in total of 47 sows and 31 boars were observed to study the mating behavior in an outdoor multi-sire mating system and the subsequent reproduction results. The time of start of courtship, behavior and the cause of disruption if the courtship was terminated, were recorded each time a boar courted a sow. All aggressive interactions between the boars were also recorded to estimate the boar ranking order. The observations revealed numerous poor quality matings, a huge variation in the number of times sows are mated, and overworked boars. Only 35% of all copulations lasted 2 min or more and 63% of all copulations were disrupted, mainly by competitor boars. The higher social status of the boar, the more copulations did it disrupt (p < 0.05). The outcome was an unacceptable variation in reproduction results. Only 71% of all estrus sows conceived, corresponding to a pregnancy rate of 77% of all mated sows. A large inter-group variation in reproduction performance was observed, indicating scope for improvements. In some groups all sows showed estrus and all sows conceived. Recommendations for improvement of the system are proposed

  2. STS-70 Mating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Inside the cavernous Vehicle Assembly Building, workers carry out the meticulous process of lifting the orbiter Discovery from a horizontal to a vertical position. Once upright, Discovery will be transferred into a high bay for mating with the external tank/solid rocket booster assembly aready mounted on the mobile launch platform. Completing the assembly process takes about five working days. Discovery's next destination: Launch Pad 39B, and final preparations for liftoff on Mission STS-70 in early June.

  3. Protection against 1,2-di-methylhydrazine-induced systemic oxidative stress and altered brain neurotransmitter status by probiotic Escherichia coli CFR 16 secreting pyrroloquinoline quinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sumeet; Singh, Ashish; Chaudhari, Nirja; Nampoothiri, Laxmipriya P; Kumar, G Naresh

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutant 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) is attributed to systemic oxidative stress and is known to cause neurotropic effect by altering brain neurotransmitter status. Probiotics are opted as natural therapeutic against oxidative stress and also have the ability to modulate gut-brain axis. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is water-soluble, heat-stable antioxidant molecule. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant efficacy of PQQ-producing probiotic E. coli CFR 16 on DMH-induced systemic oxidative damage and altered neurotransmitter status in rat brain. Adult virgin Charles Forster rats (200-250 g) were given DMH dose (25 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) for 8 weeks. Blood lipid peroxidation levels exhibited a marked increase while antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase were found to be reduced in DMH-treated rats. Likewise, brain serotonin and norepinephrine levels displayed a significant decrease, whereas epinephrine levels demonstrated a marked increase in brain of these rats. PQQ-producing E. coli CFR 16 supplementation reduced systemic oxidative stress and also restored brain neurotransmitter status. However, E. coli CFR 16 did not show any effect on these parameters. In contrast, E. coli CFR 16:: vgb-gfp and E. coli CFR 16:: vgb-gfp vector exhibited some degree of protection again oxidative stress but they were not able to modulate neurotransmitter levels. In conclusion, continuous and sustained release of PQQ by probiotic E. coli in rat intestine ameliorates systemic oxidative stress and restored brain neurotransmitter levels. PMID:25586077

  4. The evolutionary psychology of human mating: a response to Buller's critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasios, John

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, I critique arguments made by philosopher David Buller against central evolutionary-psychological explanations of human mating. Specifically, I aim to rebut his criticisms of Evolutionary Psychology regarding (1) women's long-term mating preferences for high-status men; (2) the evolutionary rationale behind men's provisioning of women; (3) men's mating preferences for young women; (4) women's adaptation for extra-pair sex; (5) the sex-differentiated evolutionary theory of human jealousy; and (6) the notion of mate value. In sum, I aim to demonstrate that Buller's arguments contra Evolutionary Psychologists are left wanting. PMID:24927270

  5. Altered DNA methylation status of human brain derived neurotrophis factor gene could be useful as biomarker of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yixuan; MIYAKI, Koichi; Suzuki, Tomoko; Sasaki, Yasuharu; Tsutsumi,Akizumi; Kawakami, Norito; SHIMAZU, Akihito; Takahashi, Masaya; INOUE, Akiomi; Kan, Chiemi; KURIOKA, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the survival, development, and synaptic plasticity of neurons. BDNF is believed to be associated with the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Several studies have suggested the relevance of DNA methylation in its promoter region with depression. Here, we report different methylation statuses in groups with different depressive scores or undergoing different levels of job-stress. DNA samples were extracted from the saliva of 774 Jap...

  6. Future Oceanic Warming and Acidification Alter Immune Response and Disease Status in a Commercial Shellfish Species, Mytilus edulis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie, Clara L.; Lynch, Sharon A.; Culloty, Sarah C.; Malham, Shelagh K.

    2014-01-01

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may h...

  7. Severe Exercise and Exercise Training Exert Opposite Effects on Human Neutrophil Apoptosis via Altering the Redox Status

    OpenAIRE

    Syu, Guan-Da; Chen, Hsiun-ing; Jen, Chauying J.

    2011-01-01

    Neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis, a process crucial for immune regulation, is mainly controlled by alterations in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria integrity. Exercise has been proposed to be a physiological way to modulate immunity; while acute severe exercise (ASE) usually impedes immunity, chronic moderate exercise (CME) improves it. This study aimed to investigate whether and how ASE and CME oppositely regulate human neutrophil apoptosis. Thirteen sedentary young males underw...

  8. The Ca(2+) status of the endoplasmic reticulum is altered by induction of calreticulin expression in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, S.; Wyatt, S. E.; Love, J.; Thompson, W. F.; Robertson, D.; Boss, W. F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores in plant cells, we generated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum; NT1) suspension cells and Arabidopsis plants with altered levels of calreticulin (CRT), an ER-localized Ca(2+)-binding protein. NT1 cells and Arabidopsis plants were transformed with a maize (Zea mays) CRT gene in both sense and antisense orientations under the control of an Arabidopsis heat shock promoter. ER-enriched membrane fractions from NT1 cells were used to examine how altered expression of CRT affects Ca(2+) uptake and release. We found that a 2.5-fold increase in CRT led to a 2-fold increase in ATP-dependent (45)Ca(2+) accumulation in the ER-enriched fraction compared with heat-shocked wild-type controls. Furthermore, after treatment with the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin, ER microsomes from NT1 cells overproducing CRT showed a 2-fold increase in the amount of (45)Ca(2+) released, and a 2- to 3-fold increase in the amount of (45)Ca(2+) retained compared with wild type. These data indicate that altering the production of CRT affects the ER Ca(2+) pool. In addition, CRT transgenic Arabidopsis plants were used to determine if altered CRT levels had any physiological effects. We found that the level of CRT in heat shock-induced CRT transgenic plants correlated positively with the retention of chlorophyll when the plants were transferred from Ca(2+)-containing medium to Ca(2+)-depleted medium. Together these data are consistent with the hypothesis that increasing CRT in the ER increases the ER Ca(2+) stores and thereby enhances the survival of plants grown in low Ca(2+) medium.

  9. Amelioration of altered antioxidant status and membrane linked functions by vanadium and Trigonella in alloxan diabetic rat brains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Rizwan Siddiqui; Asia Taha; K Moorthy; Mohd Ejaz Hussain; S F Basir; Najma Zaheer Baquer

    2005-09-01

    Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP) and sodium orthovanadate (SOV) have been reported to have antidiabetic effects. However, SOV exerts hypoglycemic effects at relatively high doses with several toxic effects. We used low doses of vanadate in combination with TSP and evaluated their antidiabetic effects on antioxidant enzymes and membrane-linked functions in diabetic rat brains. In rats, diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body wt.) and they were treated with 2 IU insulin, 0.6 mg/ml SOV, 5% TSP and a combination of 0.2 mg/ml SOV with 5% TSP for 21 days. Blood glucose levels, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Na+/K+ ATPase, membrane lipid peroxidation and fluidity were determined in different fractions of whole brain after 21 days of treatment. Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose ( < 0.001), decreased activities of SOD, catalase and Na+/K+ ATPase ( < 0.01, < 0.001 and < 0.01), increased levels of GPx and MDA ( < 0.01 and < 0.001) and decreased membrane fluidity ( < 0.01). Treatment with different antidiabetic compounds restored the above-altered parameters. Combined dose of Trigonella and vanadate was found to be the most effective treatment in normalizing these alterations. Lower doses of vanadate could be used in combination with TSP to effectively counter diabetic alterations without any toxic effects.

  10. Thanatosis as an adaptive male mating strategy in the nuptial gift-giving spider Pisaura mirabilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line S.; Gonzalez, Sofía F.

    2008-01-01

    Males and females often experience different optima in mating rate, which may cause evolution of female resistance to matings and male counter adaptations to increase mating rate. Males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis display a spectacular mating behavior involving a nuptial gift and thanatosis (death feigning). Thanatosis in a sexual context is exceptional and was suggested to function as an antipredation strategy toward potentially cannibalistic females. If thanatosis serves as a protection strategy, males should death feign in response to female aggression or when they are more vulnerable to attack. We tested these predictions in a factorial design: males that were handicapped (1 leg removed) and hence vulnerable and control males were paired with females that were more or less aggressive intrinsically (measured toward prey). In mating trials, we recorded the tendency of males to death feign, copulation success, and copulation duration. In addition, we investigated the effect of female mating status (virgin or mated) on these male mating components. Intrinsically aggressive females showed increased mating aggression toward males. Neither female aggressiveness, mating status, nor male vulnerability increased the propensity of males to perform thanatosis. Instead, death-feigning males were more successful in obtaining copulations and gained longer copulations. Hence, our results suggest that thanatosis functions as an adaptive male mating strategy to overcome female resistance. All males were capable of performing thanatosis although some males use it more frequently than others, suggesting a cost of death feigning which maintains the variation in thanatosis during courtship.

  11. A character demonstrating the occurrence of mating in male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 ?m in size. In mated males, the posterior simplex is clear and contains no granules. The presence or absence of these characters was found to be highly reliable and should be of value in determining mating status in marked-recaptured males of this species in a sterile insect release program directed against Cactoblastis. (author)

  12. Bioecologia e manejo de Gyropsylla spegazziniana em erva-mate / Bioecology and management of Gyropsylla spegazziniana in yerba mate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ionete Lucia Milani, Barzotto; Luis Francisco Angeli, Alves.

    Full Text Available A erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) compõe um dos segmentos agroindustriais mais antigos e característicos da região Sul do Brasil, caracterizando-se como uma importante atividade socioeconômica. Para abastecer o mercado consumidor de derivadsupos da erva-mate, foi necessário reflorestar área [...] s com essa planta, o que simplificou o ecossistema e favoreceu algumas espécies de insetos fitófagos, os quais adquiriram status de praga. Nesse contexto, destaca-se a "ampola" da erva-mate Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) (Lizer e Treles) pela severidade de danos. Não existem inseticidas registrados para o controle dessa praga no Brasil, e diversos estudos apontam para o manejo populacional da praga. Assim, o objetivo desta revisão é reunir informações sobre a bioecologia e as alternativas de manejo de forma a facilitar o entendimento da complexidade do controle de pragas no agroecossistema da erva-mate. Abstract in english Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) composes one of the oldest and more characteristic agribusiness segments of southern Brazil, composing a very important socioeconomic activity. In order to provide the market with yerba mate derivatives, it was necessary to reforest areas with this species, [...] which simplified the ecosystem and generated impacts that favored some species of phytophagous insects, and then they acquired blight status. In this context, we indicate Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) (Lizer e Treles) by the severity of the damage. There is no registered insecticide to control this pest in Brazil, and several studies point out to handling the population of this blight. The objective of this review is to gather information on bioecology and alternatives to control this insect in order to explain the complexity of pest control in yerba mate agroecosystem.

  13. Resources, attractiveness, family commitment; reproductive decisions in human mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereczkei, T; Voros, S; Gal, A; Bernath, L

    1997-08-01

    This study of reproductive decisions in human mate selection used data from "lonely hearts" advertisements to examine a series of predictions based on the mate preferences of male and females relating to age; physical appearance; financial condition and socioeconomic status; family commitment and personal traits; short- and long-term mating; and marital status and preexisting children. The sample consisted of 1000 personal advertisements (500 male) placed in two daily, national papers between February and October 1994 in Hungary. The research procedure included a pilot study of 150 advertisers (75 male) to refine the categories examined. Analysis was performed using 1) a matrix with one axis referring to offers and the other to demands of males and females separately; 2) a matrix of offers only to derive correlated traits of claims by males and females; and 3) a matrix with columns describing sex, offers, demands, advertiser's age, and required age and a row for each of the 1000 samples. It was found that men preferred younger mates, while women preferred older ones. Men were more likely to seek physical attractiveness, while women were more likely to seek financial resources (ranked 7th) and high status (ranked 6th). Women strongly preferred male domestic virtue and family commitment, and twice as many women as men demanded long-term relationships. Women more frequently declared preexisting children, and men exhibited a reluctance to accept these children. Both males and females employed "trade-off" strategies, making greater demands if they felt they had attractive offers. PMID:12293453

  14. Female Stick Insects Mate Multiply to Find Compatible Mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuthnott, Devin; Crespi, Bernard J; Schwander, Tanja

    2015-10-01

    Why females of many species mate multiply in the absence of direct benefits remains an open question in evolutionary ecology. Interacting and mating with multiple males can be costly to females in terms of time, resources, predation risk, and disease transmission. A number of indirect genetic benefits have been proposed to explain such behaviors, but the relative importance of these mechanisms in natural systems remains unclear. We tested for several direct and indirect benefits of polyandry in the walking stick Timema cristinae. We found no evidence of direct benefits with respect to longevity or fecundity. However, male × female genotypic interactions affected egg-hatching success and offspring production independent of relatedness, suggesting that mating with certain males benefits females and that the best male may differ for each female. Furthermore, multiply mated females biased paternity toward one or few males, and the extent of this bias was positively correlated to egg-hatching success. Our data, therefore, provide evidence for indirect benefits through compatibility effects in this species. By mating multiply, females may improve their chances of mating with a compatible male if compatibility cannot be assessed before mating. Such compatibility effects can explain the evolution and maintenance of polyandry in Timema and many other species. PMID:26655575

  15. Future oceanic warming and acidification alter immune response and disease status in a commercial shellfish species, Mytilus edulis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Clara L; Lynch, Sharon A; Culloty, Sarah C; Malham, Shelagh K

    2014-01-01

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments. PMID:24927423

  16. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.

    2002-01-01

    A medium fidelity and low cost training device for pilots, called the Multi Aircraft Training Environment (MATE), is developed to replace other low fidelity stand-alone training devices and integrate them into a flexible environment, primarily aimed attraining pilots in checklist procedures. The cockpit switches and instruments in MATE are computer-generated graphics. The graphics are back projected onto semi-transparent touch screen panels in a hybrid cockpit mock-up. Thus, the MATE is relativelycheap, it is always available, it is reconfigurable (e.g. between types of aircraft/models to be simulated) and with possibilities for including various forms of intelligent computer assistance. This training concept and the technology are not specific toaviation, but can be used to simulate various types of control panels in different domains. The training effectiveness of pilots' procedure training in the MATE prototype was compared with the effects of traditional training that included the use of realaircraft. The experimental group (EXP) trained the pre-start checklist and the engine start checklist for the Saab 340 commuter aircraft in a MATE prototype. The control group (CTR) trained the same procedures using the aircraft (a/c) for training the prestart and a desktop computer tool (power plant trainer) for training engine starts. Performance on the pre-start checklist was compared in a formal checkout that took place in the a/c. Performance on the engine start procedure was compared in a fullflight simulator (FFS). The conclusion was, firstly, that training in the MATE prototype can result in an equally good performance as the existing training (a/c and computer tools), provided that the MATE trainees are given time to familiarise themselveswith the a/c. Secondly, training in MATE can result in better performance during dynamic tasks, such as abnormal engine starts. This is promising for the further development of the MATE concept.

  17. Mating duration and sperm precedence in the spider Linyphia triangularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldingh, Ditte Louise; Toft, SØren

    2010-01-01

    In spiders, copulations often take much longer than needed to fertilize the female’s complement of eggs, and the likelihood that a female mates again may depend on the duration of the first male’s copulation since the mating itself may induce lack of receptivity in the female. Also, the result of sperm competition often depends on the relative mating duration of a female’s mating partners. Since linyphiid spiders load their pedipalps with sperm several times during a normal mating sequence, paternity and female receptivity can be related not only to mating duration but also to the behavioural phases of the mating sequence. We performed sperm competition experiments (sterile-male technique) with the linyphiid spider Linyphia triangularis including four treatments, in which the copulation of the first male was interrupted at prescribed phases of the highly ritualized mating sequence, while the second male was allowed a complete mating. Second males spent a shorter time than first males on the behaviours prior to sperm transfer, but the amount of sperm (two droplets) and the time spent in sperm transfer were independent of the females’ mating status. The proportion of females accepting the second male depended on the mating duration of the first male, i.e. whether the first male had transferred one or two sperm droplets. After a complete first mating most females accepted no further males. A last male sperm precedence was apparent if only half of the first sperm droplet had been transferred by the first male, but this switched to a first male precedence if one full sperm droplet had been transferred. Thus, even in the face of sperm competition it is sufficient for the first male to transfer one sperm droplet. The second sperm droplet and the extended copulatory courtship associated with its transfer may serve to induce a lack of receptivity in the female, but the males seem unable to enhance their reproductive success through variable copulatory tactics.

  18. Assessing the mating 'health' of commercial honey bee queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpy, David R; Keller, Jennifer J; Caren, Joel R; Delaney, Deborah A

    2012-02-01

    Honey bee queens mate with multiple males, which increases the total genetic diversity within colonies and has been shown to confer numerous benefits for colony health and productivity. Recent surveys of beekeepers have suggested that 'poor queens' are a top management concern, thus investigating the reproductive quality and mating success of commercially produced honey bee queens is warranted. We purchased 80 commercially produced queens from large queen breeders in California and measured them for their physical size (fresh weigh and thorax width), insemination success (stored sperm counts and sperm viability), and mating number (determined by patriline genotyping of worker offspring). We found that queens had an average of 4.37 +/- 1.446 million stored sperm in their spermathecae with an average viability of 83.7 +/- 13.33%. We also found that the tested queens had mated with a high number of drones (average effective paternity frequency: 17.0 +/- 8.98). Queen "quality" significantly varied among commercial sources for physical characters but not for mating characters. These findings suggest that it may be more effective to improve overall queen reproductive potential by culling lower-quality queens rather than systematically altering current queen production practices. PMID:22420250

  19. Clinical implications of altered thyroid status in male testicular function Implicações clínicas das alterações tireoidianas na função gonadal masculina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Magagnin Wajner

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are involved in the development and maintenance of virtually all tissues. Although for many years the testis was thought to be a thyroid-hormone unresponsive organ, studies of the last decades have demonstrated that thyroid dysfunction is associated not only with abnormalities in morphology and function of testes, but also with decreased fertility and alterations of sexual activity in men. Nowadays, the participation of triiodothyronine (T3 in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation, testicular maturation, and steroidogenesis is widely accepted, as well as the presence of thyroid hormone transporters and receptors in testicular cells throughout the development process and in adulthood. But even with data suggesting that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects, there is still controversy regarding the impact of thyroid diseases on human spermatogenesis and fertility, which can be in part due to the lack of well-controlled clinical studies. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of recent clinical data about the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function.Os hormônios da tireoide estão envolvidos virtualmente no desenvolvimento e na manutenção de todos os tecidos. As gônadas masculinas foram, por décadas, consideradas insensíveis aos hormônios tireoidianos. No entanto, estudos mais recentes têm demonstrado que disfunções tireoidianas estão associadas não somente a anormalidades na morfologia e na função dos testículos, mas também à diminuição da fertilidade e alterações na atividade sexual masculina. Atualmente, o papel da triiodotironina (T3 no controle da proliferação das células de Sertoli e Leydig, maturação testicular e esteroidogênese é amplamente aceito, bem como a presença de transportadores e receptores para o hormônio tireoidiano nos testículos durante o período de desenvolvimento e a idade adulta. No entanto, apesar dos dados que indicam que o T3 atua diretamente nos testículos humanos, persistem controvérsias em relação ao impacto das doenças tireoidianas sobre a espermatogênese e a fertilidade, o que pode ser em parte devido à escassez de estudos clínicos nessa área. Essa revisão tem por objetivo apresentar um panorama de dados clínicos atualizados sobre o papel dos hormônios tireoidianos na função gonadal masculina.

  20. Sperm Status Regulates Sexual Attraction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Morsci, Natalia S.; Haas, Leonard A.; Barr, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    Mating behavior of animals is regulated by the sensory stimuli provided by the other sex. Sexually receptive females emit mating signals that can be inhibited by male ejaculate. The genetic mechanisms controlling the release of mating signals and encoding behavioral responses remain enigmatic. Here we present evidence of a Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite-derived cue that stimulates male mating-response behavior and is dynamically regulated by her reproductive status. Wild-type males pref...

  1. Overexpression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 induces the alteration of immune status in H1299 lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Li; Liu, Dan; Cheng, Yue; Jing, Yu-ting; Yu, He; Zhou, Ping; Song, Juan; Li, Wei-min

    2015-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) is an important factor regulating protein translation. It also impacts proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and the cell cycle of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between 4E-BP1 and human immune status, recognizing immunomodulatory molecules involved in the overexpression of 4E-BP1. Methods A lentivirus expression system was used to overexpress 4E-BP1 in the H1299 cell line. Western blot was performed to investigate the expression level of 4E-BP1 and P-4E-BP1, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify gene expression of immunomodulatory molecules. Results The expression level of 4E-BP1 increased significantly after lentivirus infection (P < 0.05). Overexpression of 4E-BP1 upregulated the expression of interleukin (IL)-1? (P < 0.05), IL-5 (P < 0.001), IL-23 (P < 0.001), macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (P < 0.001), Eota-3 (P < 0.05), and MCP-4 (P < 0.05). Most of the increases were observed at the seventh day. The variation trend of IL-10, cell division cycle protein 2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and phosphatase and tensin homolog was not clear. Conclusion Overexpression of 4E-BP1 altered immune status by upregulating the expression of a series of immunomodulatory molecules, indicating that 4E-BP1 could serve as a potential therapeutic target against cancer. PMID:26273397

  2. STS-88 Mating in VAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The orbiter Endeavour is suspended in a vertical position inside the Vehicle Assembly Building where it will be mated with its solid rocket boosters and external tank. Endeavour is scheduled to fly on mission STS-88, the first Space Shuttle flight for the assembly of the International Space Station, on December 3, 1998. The primary payload on the mission is the Unity connecting module, which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya Control Module already in orbit at that time.

  3. Protecting artificial team-mates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; McGee, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on conversational, competitive, and cooperative systems suggests that people respond differently to humans and AI agents in terms of perception and evaluation of observed team-mate behavior. However, there has not been research examining the relationship between participants' protective behavior toward human/AI team-mates and their beliefs about their behavior. A study was conducted in which 32 participants played two sessions of a cooperative game, once with a "presumed" human...

  4. Strain-speccific differences in mating, oviposition, and host-seeking behavior between Wolbachia-infected and uninfected Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacteria that cause various reproductive alterations in their arthropod hosts including cytoplasmic incompatibility. In this study, we compared mating, oviposition and host-seeking behaviors of Wolbachia-infected [Houston (HOU), Gainesville (GNV)] and Houston uninf...

  5. The Structure and Content of Long-Term and Short-Term Mate Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Jonason

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses two limitations in the mate preferences literature. First, research all-too-often relies on single-item assessments of mate preferences precluding more advanced statistical techniques like factor analysis. Second, when factor analysis could be done, it exclusively has done for long-term mate preferences, at the exclusion of short-term mate preferences. In this study (N = 401, we subjected 20 items designed to measure short- and long-term mate preferences to both principle components (n = 200 and confirmatory factor analysis (n = 201. In the long-term context, we replicated previous findings that there are three different categories of preferences: physical attractiveness, interpersonal warmth, and social status. In the short-term context, physical attractiveness occupied two parts of the structure, social status dropped out, and interpersonal warmth remained. Across short- and long-term contexts, there were slight changes in what defined the shared dimensions (i.e., physical attractiveness and interpersonal warmth, suggesting prior work that applies the same inventory to each context might be flawed. We also replicated sex differences and similarities in mate preferences and correlates with sociosexuality and mate value. We adopt an evolutionary paradigm to understand our results.

  6. Impact of market value on human mate choice decisions.

    OpenAIRE

    Paw?owski, B.; Dunbar, R I

    1999-01-01

    Mate choice strategies are a process of negotiation in which individuals make bids that are constrained by their status in the market place. Humans provide an unusual perspective on this because we can measure their explicitly expressed preferences before they are forced to make any choices. We use advertisements placed in newspaper personal columns to examine, first, the extent to which evolutionary considerations affect the level of competition (or market value) during the reproductively ac...

  7. The tomato leafminer reproduces without a mate: New case of parthenogenesis in Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Caparros Megido, Rudy; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François

    2012-01-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), originates from South America and is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the Mediterranean Basin countries of Europe and North Africa. The preventing pest mating control methods include: (1) the use of synthetic pheromones for male attraction and annihilation inside insecticide-contain- ing traps; (2) mating disruption by saturating the atmosphere with sex pheromones which alter the ability...

  8. F1 sterility of Diatraea saccharalis (Fab.), Lepidoptera: Crambidae. II. mating dynamics and effects on progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation of Diatraea saccharalis pupae at substerilizing gamma doses on the competitiveness of adult males emerging from the irradiated pupae and on their sterile progeny was evaluated on the basis of mating dynamics, mating duration and the length of the pre-mating period, as well as the sex ratio and the variation of pupal weights in the progeny. It is concluded that substerilizing gamma doses do not affect the indicators evaluated and that in the progeny the sex ratio is altered in favour of males and F1 pupal weights are reduced significantly. (author). 8 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Female choice for heterozygous mates changes along successive matings in a lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloi, David; Eizaguirre, Christophe; Fédérici, Pierre; Massot, Manuel

    2011-11-01

    Female mate choice and female multiple mating are major focuses of studies on sexual selection. In a multiple mating context, the benefits of mate choice can change along successive matings, and female choice would be expected to change accordingly. We investigated sequential female mate choice in the moderately polyandrous common lizard (Zootoca vivipara, synonym Lacerta vivipara). Along successive mating opportunities, we found that females were relatively unselective for the first mate, but accepted males of higher heterozygosity for subsequent mating, consistent with the trade-up choice hypothesis. We discuss the evidence of trade-up mate choice in squamates and generally trade-up for mate heterozygosity in order to motivate new studies to fill gaps on these questions. PMID:21889973

  10. Costs of mate-guarding in wild male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis): physiological stress and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard-Buttoz, Cédric; Heistermann, Michael; Rahmi, Erdiansyah; Agil, Muhammad; Fauzan, Panji Ahmad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2014-09-01

    Mate-guarding is an important determinant of male reproductive success in a number of species. However, it is known to potentially incur costs. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of mate-guarding on male physiological stress and aggression in long-tailed macaques, a species in which males mate-guard females to a lesser extent than predicted by the Priority of Access model (PoA). The study was carried out during two mating periods on three groups of wild long-tailed macaques in Indonesia by combining behavioral observations with non-invasive measurements of fecal glucocorticoid (fGC) levels. Mate-guarding was associated with a general rise in male stress hormone levels but, from a certain threshold of mate-guarding onwards, increased vigilance time was associated with a decrease in stress hormone output. Mate-guarding also increased male-male aggression rate and male vigilance time. Overall, alpha males were more physiologically stressed than other males independently of mating competition. Increased glucocorticoid levels during mate-guarding are most likely adaptive since it may help males to mobilize extra-energy required for mate-guarding and ultimately maintain a balanced energetic status. However, repeated exposure to high levels of stress over an extended period is potentially deleterious to the immune system and thus may carry costs. This potential physiological cost together with the cost of increased aggression mate-guarding male face may limit the male's ability to mate-guard females, explaining the deviance from the PoA model observed in long-tailed macaques. Comparing our results to previous findings we discuss how ecological factors, reproductive seasonality and rank achievement may modulate the extent to which costs of mate-guarding limit male monopolization abilities. PMID:25236888

  11. Investigation Romance and Mate Selection Myths of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Y?lmaz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the developmental responsibilities expected from the early adulthood period are selecting one’s mate and managing to live together with him/her. The way in which individuals select their mates and the ideas and beliefs that guide them are among the most curious of subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not myths regarding romance and mate selection among university students change according to relationship status, gender and age whether or not they have had a romantic relationship before and, if so, how many they have had. The study sample consisted of 370 students attending different departments of the Faculty of Education at Ondokuz May?s University. In the study, Romance and Mate Selection Attitude Scale (RMSAS was used. The results of the study indicated that in terms of gender, while the difference among the averages of the total scores was significant. In terms of kinds of relationship, total scores the difference was not significant. Regarding whether or not participants had experienced a romantic relationship before, there was not such a significant difference in the total scores. In terms of age, the difference among the averages in all the RMSAS subscales and the total scores is not significant.

  12. Reinforcement shapes clines in female mate discrimination in Drosophila subquinaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Emily R; Dyer, Kelly A

    2014-11-01

    Reinforcement of species boundaries may alter mate recognition in a way that also affects patterns of mate preference among conspecific populations. In the fly Drosophila subquinaria, females sympatric with the closely related species D. recens reject mating with heterospecific males as well as with conspecific males from allopatric populations. Here, we assess geographic variation in behavioral isolation within and among populations of D. subquinaria and use cline theory to understand patterns of selection on reinforced discrimination and its consequences for sexual isolation within species. We find that selection has fixed rejection of D. recens males in sympatry, while significant genetic variation in this behavior occurs within allopatric populations. In conspecific matings sexual isolation is also asymmetric and stronger in populations that are sympatric with D. recens. The clines in behavioral discrimination within and between species are similar in shape and are maintained by strong selection in the face of gene flow, and we show that some of their genetic basis may be either shared or linked. Thus, while reinforcement can drive extremely strong phenotypic divergence, the long-term consequences for incipient speciation depend on gene flow, genetic linkage of discrimination traits, and the cost of these behaviors in allopatry. PMID:25163510

  13. Neural Circuits: Male Mating Motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Characterizing microcircuit motifs in intact nervous systems is essential to relate neural computations to behavior. In this issue of Neuron, Clowney et al. (2015) identify recurring, parallel feedforward excitatory and inhibitory pathways in male Drosophila's courtship circuitry, which might explain decisive mate choice. PMID:26335638

  14. Female-borne cues affecting Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) male behavior during courtship and mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni; Lucchi, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate courtship and mating behavior in Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti)-a koinobiont endophagous solitary parasitoid of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and of other fruit flies-is essential to its mass rearing and management. Augmentative releases of P. concolor for olive fruit fly control started in the Mediterranean areas in the 1950s and still continue with limited success. We determined the influence of visual and chemical cues on courtship and mating behavior of this braconid and the possible effect of the mating status of males and females in the perception of these cues. Our results suggest that integration of visual and chemical stimuli are fundamental for mate location and courtship. Indeed, the optimal response of the male was achieved when physical and chemical cues were simultaneously presented and vision and olfaction worked synergistically. PMID:23955889

  15. Nutritional enrichment increases courtship intensity and improves mating success in male spiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, Johannes Peter; Toft, SØren

    2009-01-01

    The development of male sexual ornaments and the intensity of male courtship behavior are often used by females as criteria for mate choice and by other males to evaluate the strength of a rival. We tested the hypotheses that courtship intensity and mating success depend on the males' nutritional status (enriched or deficient) and that courtship intensity predicts mating success in males of the same nutritional status. We used wolf spiders, Pardosa prativaga, which have an elaborate display of courtship behaviors, including encircling, palp vibrations, abdomen vibrations, hopping, etc. Viability parameters indicated enhanced condition of enriched males. Mating success was higher for nutrient-enriched males in direct competition with deficient males. Enriched males had higher courtship intensity and were also larger (carapace width) but not heavier than deficient males. The statistical analysis indicated that diet effects on courtship intensity were indirect, through its effect on size. In competition tests between males of equal mass and the same diet treatment, the previously most active male (high levels of palp vibrating, abdomen vibrating, and hopping) had the highest mating success, though this result depended on male nutrient status. The widely used residual condition index (RCI) did not distinguish the treatments. It is suggested that the index is unsuitable in a situation of nutritional stress caused by nutrient imbalance. The results underscore the importance of nutrient balancing to all aspects of performance also in predatory animals.

  16. Individual differences in mate poaching: an examination of hormonal, dispositional, and behavioral mate-value traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderani, Shafik; Arnocky, Steven; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2013-05-01

    The personality and hormonal correlates of mate poaching (attempting to steal another person's partner away) and of the target of the seducer (the mate poached) were examined in a sample 154 undergraduate university students (91 females; 63 males). Thirteen variables were modeled into two regression equations to predict and profile mate poachers and the mate poached. Findings revealed that (1) male mate poachers were better looking and had higher cortisol levels, lower levels of testosterone, and reported being higher on self-esteem, cold affect, and criminal tendencies and (2) female mate poachers and targets of mate poachers reported being more physically attractive, as did male targets of mate poachers. Sex differences in the context of mate poaching attraction as well as the characteristics of those who are successful in their attempts to lure away another person's romantic partner were discussed. PMID:22695642

  17. Mating-induced changes in olfactory-mediated behavior of laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) mated to conspecific males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were mated with laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild male flies to assess the ability of males to alter olfactory-mediated behavioral responses of females to male-produced pheromone or host fruit odor. Virgin females of all 3 types showed a preferential attraction and arrestment on yellow spheres emitting male-produced pheromone in a laboratory flight tunnel. Laboratory-reared normal and wild females mated to laboratory reared normal, sterile, or wild males switched their behavior showing strong preferential attraction to, arrestment on, and egg-laying in (for laboratory-reared females) yellow spheres emitting host fruit odor (guava) over male-produced pheromone. Sterile females did not show a significant switch in behavior except when mated to sterile males. The olfactory-mediated behavioral switch was most evident in the laboratory-reared normal female × laboratory-reared normal male mating. These findings suggest that irradiation of males inducing gamete sterility does not affect the factor(s) from the male accessory gland associated with altering female olfactory behavior. The ability of sterile males to alter adequately olfactory-mediated behavior of wild females is discussed in the context of the sterile insect technique for control of Mediterranean fruit flies in the field

  18. Inversion of the Chromosomal Region between Two Mating Type Loci Switches the Mating Type in Hansenula polymorpha

    OpenAIRE

    Maekawa, Hiromi; Kaneko, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Yeast mating type is determined by the genotype at the mating type locus (MAT). In homothallic (self-fertile) Saccharomycotina such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluveromyces lactis, high-efficiency switching between a and ? mating types enables mating. Two silent mating type cassettes, in addition to an active MAT locus, are essential components of the mating type switching mechanism. In this study, we investigated the structure and functions of mating type genes in H. polymorpha (also des...

  19. Desmin Aggregate Formation by R120G ?B-Crystallin Is Caused by Altered Filament Interactions and Is Dependent upon Network Status in Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Der Perng, Ming; Wen, Shu Fang; van den IJssel, Paul; Prescott, Alan R; Quinlan, Roy A.

    2004-01-01

    The R120G mutation in ?B-crystallin causes desmin-related myopathy. There have been a number of mechanisms proposed to explain the disease process, from altered protein processing to loss of chaperone function. Here, we show that the mutation alters the in vitro binding characteristics of ?B-crystallin for desmin filaments. The apparent dissociation constant of R120G ?B-crystallin was decreased while the binding capacity was increased significantly and as a result, desmin filaments aggregated...

  20. How Sexually Dimorphic Are Human Mate Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M; Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies on sex-differentiated mate preferences have focused on univariate analyses. However, because mate selection is inherently multidimensional, a multivariate analysis more appropriately measures sex differences in mate preferences. We used the Mahalanobis distance (D) and logistic regression to investigate sex differences in mate preferences with data secured from participants residing in 37 cultures (n = 10,153). Sex differences are large in multivariate terms, yielding an overall D = 2.41, corresponding to overlap between the sexes of just 22.8%. Moreover, knowledge of mate preferences alone affords correct classification of sex with 92.2% accuracy. Finally, pattern-wise sex differences are negatively correlated with gender equality across cultures but are nonetheless cross-culturally robust. Discussion focuses on implications in evaluating the importance and magnitude of sex differences in mate preferences. PMID:26068718

  1. Ant parasite queens revert to mating singly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Seirian; Hughes, William Owen Hamar; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2004-01-01

    A parasitic ant has abandoned the multiple mating habit of the queens of its related host. Multiple mating (polyandry) is widespread among animal groups, particularly insects 1 . But the factors that maintain it and underlie its evolution are hard to verify because benefits and costs are not easily quantified and they tend to be similar in related species. Here we compare the mating strategies of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior and its recently derived social parasite Acromyrmex insin...

  2. MATE: The multi-agent test environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Cindy L.

    1992-01-01

    In this report we present the Multi-Agent Test Environment, MATE. MATE is a collection of experiment management tools for assisting in the design, testing, and evaluation of distributed problem-solvers. It provides the experimenter with an automated tool for executing and monitoring experiments choosing among rule bases, number of agents, communication strategies, and inference engines. Using MATE the experimenter can run a series of distributed problem-solving experiments without human intervention.

  3. Is Evolution of Mating Preferences Inevitable? Random Mating in the Multisex System of Tetrahymena thermophila

    OpenAIRE

    Sujal S. Phadke; Lauren Cooper; Rebecca A. Zufall

    2012-01-01

    Ciliate mating systems are highly diversified, providing unique opportunities to study sexual differentiation and its implications for mating dynamics. Many species of ciliates have multiple (>2) sexes. More sexes may mean more choice and an opportunity for evolution of preferential mating. We asked if the multiple sexes of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila mate preferentially among each other. We quantified pairing frequencies among four sexes of T. thermophila using experiments that allow...

  4. Flexible mate choice when mates are rare and time is short

    OpenAIRE

    Tinghitella, Robin M; Weigel, Emily G; Head, Megan; Boughman, Janette W

    2013-01-01

    Female mate choice is much more dynamic than we once thought. Mating decisions depend on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and these two may interact with one another. In this study, we investigate how responses to the social mating environment (extrinsic) change as individuals age (intrinsic). We first conducted a field survey to examine the extent of natural variation in mate availability in a population of threespine sticklebacks. We then manipulated the sex ratio in the laboratory to ...

  5. How multiple mating by females affects sexual selection

    OpenAIRE

    Shuster, Stephen M.; Briggs, William R.; Dennis, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple mating by females is widely thought to encourage post-mating sexual selection and enhance female fitness. We show that whether polyandrous mating has these effects depends on two conditions. Condition 1 is the pattern of sperm utilization by females; specifically, whether, among females, male mating number, m (i.e. the number of times a male mates with one or more females) covaries with male offspring number, o. Polyandrous mating enhances sexual selection only when males who are suc...

  6. Genetically Engineered Transvestites Reveal Novel Mating Genes in Budding Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Huberman, Lori Bromer; Murray, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    Haploid budding yeast has two mating types, defined by the alleles of the MAT locus, MATa and MAT?. Two haploid cells of opposite mating types mate by signaling to each other using reciprocal pheromones and receptors, polarizing and growing towards each other, and eventually fusing to form a single diploid cell. The pheromones and receptors are necessary and sufficient to define a mating type, but other mating type-specific proteins make mating more efficient. We examined the role of these pr...

  7. The best timing of mate search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauché, Fanny; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different moult stages. We found that the attractiveness of individuals was mediated by short-distance chemical cues and tested individuals were able to discriminate and prefer individuals of the opposite sex. Moreover, male preference to female increased during their moulting status as they matured. Males were particularly more attracted by females with appearing white calcium plates, which corresponds to the beginning of their higher receptivity period. These differences in attractiveness due to sex and physiological status are likely to shape the composition of aggregates and facilitate mate finding and optimize the reproductive success for both males and females. Thus aggregation pheromones could be linked to sex pheromones in terrestrial isopods. PMID:23469225

  8. Podisus nigrispinus requer cópulas longas para o sucesso reprodutivo / Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) requires long matings for successful reproduction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Agna R S, Rodrigues; Jorge B, Torres; Herbert A A, Siqueira; Valéria W, Teixeira.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A realização de múltiplas e longas cópulas parece ser importante para a reprodução de percevejos predadores como Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas), mas o comportamento governando essas características permanece desconhecido. Neste estudo foram investigados o comportamento de cópula e a reprodução de P. n [...] igrispinus em função do tamanho do macho, seu status prévio de acasalamento, risco de predação e interrupção de cópulas. A escolha da fêmea para o acasalamento foi estudada sob múltipla escolha, parcial ou sem chance de escolha por machos grandes ou pequenos. O comportamento para o início do acasalamento e tempo de cópula sob risco de predação quando na presença de Polistes versicolor Oliver foi comparado àquele de casais sem risco de predação. Machos e fêmeas de P. nigrispinus acasalaram independentemente do tamanho e status prévio de acasalamento dos machos, além de não apresentarem preferência por parceiros. A duração da cópula, escolha do parceiro e fertilidade das fêmeas não foram influenciadas pelo tamanho do macho, nem a presença do predador alterou o comportamento de acasalamento e duração de cópula. Fêmeas com cópulas interrompidas após 30, 60, 120 e 240 min apresentaram baixa viabilidade de ovos (0; 3,1; 7,7 e 34%, respectivamente), enquanto aquelas com tempo natural de cópula (338 a 671 min) obtiveram 74,2% de viabilidade. Portanto, o sucesso reprodutivo de P. nigrispinus não depende do tamanho do macho ou de seu status de acasalamento, mas requer longas cópulas para a transferência de espermatozóides. Abstract in english The occurrence of multiple and long matings seem to play an important role in the reproduction of the predatory stinkbugs such as Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas). However, the mechanisms underlying these behaviors remain unclear. In this study, the reproduction of P. nigrispinus was investigated as fun [...] ction of females' choice for their mating pair based on male body size and previous mating status, risk of predation and duration of mating. The female mating behavior was studied with female having multiple, partial or no partner choice based on male body size. Time to initiate a mating and its duration was observed after pairing males and females under risk of predation imposed by the presence of the predatory wasp Polistes versicolor Oliver. In addition, aiming to determine the reasons for long lasting matings, female had their mating interrupted at different intervals. Our data indicated that P. nigrispinus females do not select male partners as function of their body size and mating status. Duration of mating, mating partners' choice, and female fecundity and fertility were not influenced by the male size and risk of predation imposed by the predatory wasps. Mating interrupted after 30, 60, 120 and 240 min resulted in only 0, 3.1, 7.7 and 34% of egg hatching compared to 74.2% under uninterrupted mating (338 to 671 min long). Therefore, the reproductive success of P. nigrispinus females does not depend on male size and male mating status, but requires long-lasting mating as a condition for adequate spermatozoa transference to females instead.

  9. Modulation of Hepatic and Renal Metabolism and Toxicity of Trichloroethylene and Perchloroethylene by Alterations in Status of Cytochrome P450 and Glutathione

    OpenAIRE

    Lash, Lawrence H.; Putt, David A.; Huang, Paul; Hueni, Sarah E.; Parker, Jean C

    2007-01-01

    The relative importance of metabolism of trichloroethylene (Tri) and perchloroethylene (Perc) by the cytochrome P450 (P450) and glutathione (GSH) conjugation pathways in their acute renal and hepatic toxicity was studied in isolated cells and microsomes from rat kidney and liver after various treatments to modulate P450 activity/expression or GSH status. Inhibitors of P450 stimulated GSH conjugation of Tri and, to a lesser extent, Perc, in both kidney cells and hepatocytes. Perc was a more po...

  10. The mating behavior of Iguana iguana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Over a 19 month period I observed the social behaviors of individually recognized green iguanas, Iguana iguana, at three sites in the llanos of Venezuela. The behavior of iguanas outside the mating season differed from that seen during the mating season in three major ways: (1) during normal waking hours outside the breeding season, adult iguanas spent the majority of time immobile, apparently resting; (2) their interactions involved fewer high intensity displays; and (3) their day to day movements were often nomadic. During the mating season, one site was watched continuously during daylight hours (iguanas sleep throughout the night), allowing a complete count of all copulation attempts (N = 250) and territorial interactions. At all sites, dominant males controlled access to small mating territories. Within the territories there did not appear to be any resources needed by females or their offspring. Thus, females could choose mates directly on the basis of male phenotype. Females aggregated in the mating territories of the largest males and mated preferentially with them. Territorial males copulated only once per day, although on several occasions more than one resident female was receptive on the same day. A few small nonterritorial males exhibited pseudofemale behavior (i.e., they abstained from sexual competition), but most nonterritorial males stayed on the periphery of mating territories and attempted to force copulations on unguarded females (peripheral male behavior). Uncooperative females were mounted by as many as three males simultaneously. Females resisted 95% of the 200 observed mating attempts by peripheral males, but only 56% of the attempts by territorial males (N = 43). The selectivity of the females probably increased the genetic representation of the territorial males in the next generation. During the mating season females maintained a dominance hierarchy among themselves. Low ranked females tended to be excluded from preferred mating territories. In this system, both sexes may be subjected to sexual selection. I hypothesize that the ecological factors responsible for the unusual mating system are related to the lack of defendable resources, the iguana's folivory, and the high density of iguanas present in preferred mating areas.

  11. Courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Lourenço & Qi, 2005 (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae) from Xizang province, China

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GB, Jiao; MS, Zhu.

    Full Text Available In the current work, the courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Lourenço & Qi, 2005 (Euscorpiidae) from Xizang province (Tibet), China, were studied for the first time in the laboratory. Most of the mating behaviors in Scorpiops luridus are not remarkably different from those exhibited by oth [...] er scorpions. However, for the first time a male pulling a female with its chelicerae to rapidly accomplish the sperm uptake was observed. Additionally, the sexual stinging behavior displayed by the male occurred in the initial stage, not during the promenade stage as previously described in several scorpion species. Through observation and analysis, we speculate that venom injection during sexual stinging is selective, possibly relying on the status shown by the stung scorpion (passive or aggressive). In order to clearly describe the process of courtship and mating, both sequences are represented in a flow chart, while the main behavior components of these processes were identified, analyzed and discussed.

  12. Courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Lourenço & Qi, 2005 (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae from Xizang province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GB Jiao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current work, the courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Lourenço & Qi, 2005 (Euscorpiidae from Xizang province (Tibet, China, were studied for the first time in the laboratory. Most of the mating behaviors in Scorpiops luridus are not remarkably different from those exhibited by other scorpions. However, for the first time a male pulling a female with its chelicerae to rapidly accomplish the sperm uptake was observed. Additionally, the sexual stinging behavior displayed by the male occurred in the initial stage, not during the promenade stage as previously described in several scorpion species. Through observation and analysis, we speculate that venom injection during sexual stinging is selective, possibly relying on the status shown by the stung scorpion (passive or aggressive. In order to clearly describe the process of courtship and mating, both sequences are represented in a flow chart, while the main behavior components of these processes were identified, analyzed and discussed.

  13. Altered vitamin D status in liver tissue and blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Kirkegaard, Maja; Jakobsen, Jette; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Letcher, Robert J.; Dietz, Rune

    2014-01-01

    This study compared vitamin D3 (vitD3) and 25-OH vitamin D3 (25OHD3) status in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) given either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber high in organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) or clean porcine (Suis scrofa) fat for up to 636 days. A group of six exposed and six control sister bitches (maternal generation) and their three exposed and four control pups, respectively, were daily fed 112g whale blubber (193µg ?PCB/day) or porcine fat (0.17µg ?PCB/day)....

  14. Alteration in P-glycoprotein Functionality Affects Intrabrain Distribution of Quinidine More Than Brain Entry-A Study in Rats Subjected to Status Epilepticus by Kainate

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the use of quinidine microdialysis to study potential changes in brain P-glycoprotein functionality after induction of status epilepticus (SE) by kainate. Rats were infused with 10 or 20 mg/kg quinidine over 30 min or 4 h. Plasma, brain extracellular fluid (brain ECF), and end-of-experiment total brain concentrations of quinidine were determined during 7 h after the start of the infusion. Effect of pretreatment with tariquidar (15 mg/kg, administered 30 min bef...

  15. Mating compatibility among four pest members of the Bactrocera dorsalis fruit fly species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutze, M K; Jessup, A; Ul-Haq, I; Vreysen, M J B; Wornoayporn, V; Vera, M T; Clarke, A R

    2013-04-01

    Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock, and Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock are pest members within the B. dorsalis species complex of tropical fruit flies. The species status of these taxa is unclear and this confounds quarantine, pest management, and general research. Mating studies carried out under uniform experimental conditions are required as part of resolving their species limits. These four taxa were collected from the wild and established as laboratory cultures for which we subsequently determined levels of prezygotic compatibility, assessed by field cage mating trials for all pair-wise combinations. We demonstrate random mating among all pair-wise combinations involving B. dorsalis, B. papayae, and B. philippinensis. B. carambolae was relatively incompatible with each of these species as evidenced by nonrandom mating for all crosses. Reasons for incompatibility involving B. carambolae remain unclear; however, we observed differences in the location of couples in the field cage for some comparisons. Alongside other factors such as pheromone composition or other courtship signals, this may lead to reduced interspecific mating compatibility with B. carambolae. These data add to evidence that B. dorsalis, B. papayae, and B. philippinensis represent the same biological species, while B. carambolae remains sufficiently different to maintain its current taxonomic identity. This poses significant implications for this group's systematics, impacting on pest management, and international trade. PMID:23786057

  16. On the proper functions of human mate preference adaptations: comment on Eastwick, Luchies, Finkel, and Hunt (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, David P

    2014-05-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have hypothesized that humans possess sex-differentiated mate preference adaptations. In the context of long-term mating, men are hypothesized to more strongly prefer cues to youth and fecundity, whereas women are hypothesized to more strongly prefer cues to status-related attributes. Eastwick, Luchies, Finkel, and Hunt (2014) recently asserted that if men and women evolved sex-differentiated desires, they should exhibit similarly sex-differentiated relational outcomes such as marital satisfaction in response to whether a partner fulfills those desires. This seemingly reasonable extrapolation from sex differences in mate preferences to sex differences in relationship outcomes is, from an evolutionary perspective, problematic and warrants careful conceptual analysis. Evolutionary psychologists have not predicted that selecting a mate with sex-differentiated desirable qualities always translates to more satisfying, trusting, and passionate relational outcomes. Indeed, in some cases obtaining an ideal partner is expected to lead to negative outcomes, such as incurring the costs of heightened courtship effort, mate retention exertion, and the painful experience of jealousy. There are 4 additional concerns with the Eastwick et al. analysis: (a) heterogeneous operationalizations of predictor and criterion variables, (b) inadequate treatment of individual differences in the expression of evolved mate preferences, (c) an overlooking of physical appearance cues central to women's long-term mate preferences, and (d) the impact of nonrandom mateship formation on sex-linked variances in preferred attributes (e.g., low status men and unattractive women may be underrepresented in studies of established couples). As conducted, the Eastwick et al. analyses, while valuable, did not adequately test function-related hypotheses derived from the evolutionary psychology of mate preferences. PMID:24773503

  17. Mating experience and juvenile hormone enhance sexual signaling and mating in male Caribbean fruit flies

    OpenAIRE

    Teal, P.E.A.; Gomez-Simuta, Y.; Proveaux, A. T.

    2000-01-01

    Young mated male Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] have greater sexual prowess than their virgin counterparts. After mating for the first time, 6- to 7-day-old males released twice as much sex pheromone and acquired another mate in less than half the time required by virgin males of the same age. Mass spectroscopic analysis of extracts of hemolymph from mated and virgin 7-day-old males resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III bisepoxide and juvenile hormone III in a...

  18. Advanced Mating System Development for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James L.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of space flight sealing and the work required for the further development of a dynamic interface seal for the use on space mating systems to support a fully androgynous mating interface. This effort has resulted in the advocacy of developing a standard multipurpose interface for use with all modern modular space architecture. This fully androgynous design means a seal-on-seal (SOS) system.

  19. Observing free-swimming copepods mating

    OpenAIRE

    Strickler, J R

    1998-01-01

    Planktonic copepods are small transparent animals swimming in water. To observe how a male finds its mate, special optical systems had to be designed. The animals are treated as phase objects and matched spatial filters allow three-dimensional recordings of the swimming behaviour in a 1-litre vessel. Application of the techniques described shows how a male cyclopoid copepod swims for 20 s in synchronicity with the female before mating. Results stemming from observations with this optical syst...

  20. Schizotypy, creativity and mating success in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Nettle, Daniel; Clegg, Helen

    2005-01-01

    There is an evolutionary puzzle surrounding the persistence of schizophrenia, since it is substantially heritable and associated with sharply reduced fitness. However, some of the personality traits which are predictive of schizophrenia are also associated with artistic creativity. Geoffrey Miller has proposed that artistic creativity functions to attract mates. Here, we investigate the relationship between schizotypal personality traits, creative activity, and mating success in a large sampl...

  1. Altered vitamin D status in liver tissue and blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Kirkegaard, Maja

    2014-01-01

    This study compared vitamin D3 (vitD3) and 25-OH vitamin D3 (25OHD3) status in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) given either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber high in organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) or clean porcine (Suis scrofa) fat for up to 636 days. A group of six exposed and six control sister bitches (maternal generation) and their three exposed and four control pups, respectively, were daily fed 112g whale blubber (193µg ?PCB/day) or porcine fat (0.17µg ?PCB/day). Mean level of ?PCB in adipose tissue of exposed bitches and their pups was 3106 and 2670ng/g lw, respectively, which was significantly higher than the mean concentration of 53ng/g lw for all controls (p

  2. Prism adaptation does not alter configural processing of faces [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1wk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Bultitude

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’ following a brain lesion show difficulty responding or orienting to objects and events on the left side of space. Substantial evidence supports the use of a sensorimotor training technique called prism adaptation as a treatment for neglect. Reaching for visual targets viewed through prismatic lenses that induce a rightward shift in the visual image results in a leftward recalibration of reaching movements that is accompanied by a reduction of symptoms in patients with neglect. The understanding of prism adaptation has also been advanced through studies of healthy participants, in whom adaptation to leftward prismatic shifts results in temporary neglect-like performance. Interestingly, prism adaptation can also alter aspects of non-lateralised spatial attention. We previously demonstrated that prism adaptation alters the extent to which neglect patients and healthy participants process local features versus global configurations of visual stimuli. Since deficits in non-lateralised spatial attention are thought to contribute to the severity of neglect symptoms, it is possible that the effect of prism adaptation on these deficits contributes to its efficacy. This study examines the pervasiveness of the effects of prism adaptation on perception by examining the effect of prism adaptation on configural face processing using a composite face task. The composite face task is a persuasive demonstration of the automatic global-level processing of faces: the top and bottom halves of two familiar faces form a seemingly new, unknown face when viewed together. Participants identified the top or bottom halves of composite faces before and after prism adaptation. Sensorimotor adaptation was confirmed by significant pointing aftereffect, however there was no significant change in the extent to which the irrelevant face half interfered with processing. The results support the proposal that the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation are limited to dorsal stream processing.

  3. MATING DESIGNS: HELPFUL TOOL FOR QUANTITATIVE PLANT BREEDING ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Athanase Nduwumuremyi; Pangirayi Tongoona; Slyvestre Habimana

    2013-01-01

    Selection of parental materials and good mating designs in conventional plant breeding are the keys to the successful plant breeding programme. However, there are several factors affecting the choices of mating designs. Mating design refers to the procedure of producing the progenies, in plant breeding, plant breeders and geneticists, theoretically and practically, they use different form of mating designs and arrangements for targeted purpose. The choice of a mating design for estimating gen...

  4. In Vivo and In Vitro Anaerobic Mating in Candida albicans?

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru, Raluca; Navarathna, Dhammika H. M. L. P.; Semighini, Camile P.; Elowsky, Christian G.; Dumitru, Razvan V.; Dignard, Daniel; Whiteway, Malcolm; Atkin, Audrey L.; Nickerson, Kenneth W

    2007-01-01

    Candida albicans cells of opposite mating types are thought to conjugate during infection in mammalian hosts, but paradoxically, the mating-competent opaque state is not stable at mammalian body temperatures. We found that anaerobic conditions stabilize the opaque state at 37°C, block production of farnesol, and permit in vitro mating at 37°C at efficiencies of up to 84%. Aerobically, farnesol prevents mating because it kills the opaque cells necessary for mating, and as a corollary, farnesol...

  5. Age-Dependent Male Mating Investment in Drosophila pseudoobscura

    OpenAIRE

    Dhole, Sumit; Pfennig, Karin S

    2014-01-01

    Male mating investment can strongly influence fitness gained from a mating. Yet, male mating investment often changes with age. Life history theory predicts that mating investment should increase with age, and males should become less discriminatory about their mate as they age. Understanding age-dependent changes in male behavior and their effects on fitness is important for understanding how selection acts in age-structured populations. Although the independent effects of male or female age...

  6. Biased learning affects mate choice in a butterfly

    OpenAIRE

    Westerman, Erica L.; Hodgins-Davis, Andrea; Dinwiddie, April; Monteiro, Anto?nia

    2012-01-01

    Early acquisition of mate preferences or mate-preference learning is associated with signal diversity and speciation in a wide variety of animal species. However, the diversity of mechanisms of mate-preference learning across taxa remains poorly understood. Using the butterfly Bicyclus anynana we uncover a mechanism that can lead to directional sexual selection via mate-preference learning: a bias in learning enhanced ornamentation, which is independent of preexisting mating biases. Naïve fem...

  7. Effect of 60CO radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and qualitative profile of bioactive compounds. (author)

  8. Effect of 60Co radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10 kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10 kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and qualitative profile of bioactive compounds. (author)

  9. Altered Realities

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Tilling

    2007-01-01

    'Altered Realities' is an ongoing private photographic project exploring how perception can be altered without changing a fundamentally familiar structure. The pictures present the banal and the comfortably familiar in an unfamiliar way, objects and vistas that are part of the background and blend into the environment.

  10. A process of pair formation leading to assortative mating: Passive age-assortative mating by habitat heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Miguel, n. 1526; Penteriani, Vincenzo

    2003-01-01

    We present an individual-based model dealing with mating as a process of pair formation. Model simulations, based on data from a 19-year study of Spanish imperial eagles, Aquila adalberti, showed that the mating pattern of a population is not necessarily a direct consequence of the mating preferences of individuals; positive age-assortative mating, by which individuals of similar age are more likely to become paired, does not necessarily indicate homotypic mating preferences. For example, ind...

  11. Male choice of mates and mating resources in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Casalini, M.; Reichard, Martin; Phillips, A.; Smith, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 24, ?. 5 (2013), s. 1199-1204. ISSN 1045-2249 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : body size * fecundity * male mate choice * mating system * oviposition * sperm competition * territoriality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.157, year: 2013

  12. Precopulatory Mate Guarding, Mating System and Pairing Parental Care in Hyale rubra (Peracarida; Amphipoda; Gammaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Sunghan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Mating behaviour of the gammarid amphipod, Hyale rubra, was observed. H. rubra displayedprecopulatory mate guarding: males clasped females with their gnathopods during copulation, forming a pair.Males also participated in embryo care during the incubation period. The population was small, and the sex ratiowas almost equal. Energy allocation for mating effort and parental effort in the two sexes appear to be almostequal. The mating system was sequentially polygamous (or promiscuous and there was conspicuous sexualdimorphism in the size of the gnathopod, which was used for mate guarding. However, there appears to berelatively weak sexual competition for mating opportunities despite conspicuous sexual dimorphism. H. rubra didnot display territorial competition or external fertilization. Nevertheless, the male provided paternal care. SinceH. rubra inhabit tide pools and live on algae, the polygamous mating system of the species can be explainedby the polygyny threshold model. The evolution of mate guarding and parental care may have been favored bythe species’ low population density and harsh environments, an interpretation consistent with the optimalitymodel.

  13. Altered vitamin D status in liver tissue and blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian; Kirkegaard, Maja; Jakobsen, Jette; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Letcher, Robert J; Dietz, Rune

    2014-06-01

    This study compared vitamin D3 (vitD3) and 25-OH vitamin D3 (25OHD3) status in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) given either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber high in organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) or clean porcine (Suis scrofa) fat for up to 636 days. A group of six exposed and six control sister bitches (maternal generation) and their three exposed and four control pups, respectively, were daily fed 112g whale blubber (193µg ?PCB/day) or porcine fat (0.17µg ?PCB/day). Mean level of ?PCB in adipose tissue of exposed bitches and their pups was 3106 and 2670ng/g lw, respectively, which was significantly higher than the mean concentration of 53ng/g lw for all controls (p<0.001). The vitamin analyses showed that 25OHD3 in liver of maternal exposed bitches were significantly lower than in controls (p=0.004) while vitD3 was significantly highest in liver of exposed pups (p<0.003). Regarding blood plasma concentrations, exposed F generation pups had significantly higher concentrations of 25OHD3 than controls (p=0.009). Correlation analyses showed that blood 25OHD3 decreased significantly with increased adipose tissue concentrations of ?PCB in exposed dogs (R(2)=0.64, p=0.005) and a similar trend was found for liver 25OHD3 (R(2)=0.32, p=0.08). The results indicate that the homeostasis and metabolism of vitamin D compounds may respond differently to the dietary composition of fatty acids and OHC exposure. It is unknown if the lower level of 25OHD3 in the liver of exposed dogs would have any negative effects on immunity and reproduction and more focus should be conducted on this compound in Arctic wildlife. PMID:24725758

  14. Expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in Arabidopsis seedlings with altered auxin status is regulated at multiple levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Sponsel, Valerie M

    2008-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) affect many biological processes including germination, stem growth, transition to flowering, and fruit development. The location, timing, and level of bioactive GA are finely tuned to ensure that optimal growth and development occur. The balance between GA biosynthesis and deactivation is controlled by external factors such as light and by internal factors that include auxin. The role of auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs) and auxins on GA homeostasis in intact light-grown Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seedlings was investigated. Two ATIs, 1-N-naphthylthalamic acid (NPA) and 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA) caused elevated expression of the GA biosynthetic enzyme AtGA20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in shoot but not in root tissues, and only at certain developmental stages. It was investigated whether enhanced AtGA20ox1 gene expression was a consequence of altered flow through the GA biosynthetic pathway, or was due to impaired GA signalling that can lead to enhanced AtGA20ox1 expression and accumulation of a DELLA protein, Repressor of ga1-3 (RGA). Both ATIs promoted accumulation of GFP-fused RGA in shoots and roots, and this increase was counteracted by the application of GA(4). These results suggest that in ATI-treated seedlings the impediment to DELLA protein degradation may be a deficiency of bioactive GA at sites of GA response. It is proposed that the four different levels of AtGA20ox1 regulation observed here are imposed in a strict hierarchy: spatial (organ-, tissue-, cell-specific) > developmental > metabolic > auxin regulation. Thus results show that, in intact auxin- and auxin transport inhibitor-treated light-grown Arabidopsis seedlings, three other levels of regulation supersede the effects of auxin on AtGA20ox1. PMID:18440929

  15. Sexual behavior, cannibalism, and mating plugs as sticky traps in the orb weaver spider Leucauge argyra (Tetragnathidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Anita; Barrantes, Gilbert

    2011-07-01

    Unpublished field observations in Leucauge argyra, a tropical orb weaver spider, suggest the occurrence of conspicuous mating plugs that could reduce or prevent remating attempts. Otherwise, the sexual behavior of this species remains unknown. The aims of this study were to describe the courtship behavior and copulation in L. argyra and investigate mating plug formation in this species. Fourteen virgin females and 12 plugged females were exposed to up to three males and checked for mating plug formation. Of the 12 virgins that copulated, nine produced plugs (five immediately after copulation), and the five plugged females that copulated produced another mating plug immediately after copulation. We did not detect the transfer of any male substance during copulation but observed a whitish liquid emerging from female genital ducts. Plug formation was positively associated with male twanging during courtship. One virgin and four plugged females cannibalized males. In seven trials with virgins and in three trials with plugged females, the male's palp adhered to a substance that emerged from female genital ducts and spread on her genital plate. The male had to struggle energetically to free his glued palp; two of these males were cannibalized while trying to release their palps. Females seem to determine copulation duration by altering the timing of mating plug formation and through sexual cannibalism. This is the first case reported of a mating plug as a sticky trap for males.

  16. Mating system parameters of Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn. f. (Dipterocarpaceae) in three different forest types and a seed orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S L

    2000-10-01

    The mating system of Dryobalanops aromatica in three different forest types and a seed orchard was quantified by allozyme analysis of progeny arrays using a mixed-mating model. The primary forest (Bukit Sai) had the highest multilocus outcrossing rate (tm=0.923 +/- 0.035), followed by logged forest (Lesong; tm=0.766 +/- 0.056) and artificial forest (FRIM; tm=0.661 +/- 0.066) with seed orchard showing the lowest (Tampin; tm=0.551 +/- 0.095). Deviations from the mixed mating model were evident from differences in pollen and ovule allele frequencies, and heterogeneity of pollen pools in all three different forest types and the seed orchard. A high rate of outcrossing in primary forest (tm=0.92) may indicate that the species is self-incompatible, but a lower value in the seed orchard (tm=0.55) might suggest further that the self-incompatibility system is weak. The outcrossing rate was greater in the primary forest (tm=0.92) than in logged forest (tm=0.77). It is argued that this might be a consequence of the lower density of flowering trees and alteration of pollinator foraging behaviour in logged forest. Higher values of correlated mating (rp) and biparental mating (tm - ts) in primary forest (0.08 and 0.39, respectively) in comparison with logged forest (0.03 and 0.11, respectively) demonstrate that logging activities might reduce the seeds produced through consanguineous mating. Compared with primary forest, it is argued that lower rates of outcrossing in artificial forest (tm=0.67) and seed orchard (tm=0. 55) might be attributed to lack of flowering synchrony and insufficient number of pollinators. The high level of correlated mating (rp=0.43) and biparental mating (tm - ts=0.12) in the seed orchard may further suggest that the seed orchard was established using related seed sources. PMID:11122411

  17. The Medusa Algorithm for Polynomial Matings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Suzanne Hruska; Henriksen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The Medusa algorithm takes as input two postcritically finite quadratic polynomials and outputs the quadratic rational map which is the mating of the two polynomials (if it exists). Specifically, the output is a sequence of approximations for the parameters of the rational map, as well as an image of its Julia set. Whether these approximations converge is answered using Thurston's topological characterization of rational maps. This algorithm was designed by John Hamal Hubbard, and implemented in 1998 by Christian Henriksen and REU students David Farris and Kuon Ju Liu. In this paper we describe the algorithm and its implementation, discuss some output from the program (including many pictures) and related questions. Specifically, we include images and a discussion for some shared matings, Lattès examples, and tuning sequences of matings.

  18. MATE-asizing existing test equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, R.

    MATE embodies the planned business approach of the Air Force for procuring test equipment, taking into account also a test system architecture and a set of standards to define interfaces between test system components. The procurement philosophy employed requires all interested system component suppliers to create components consistent with MATE requirements. The selected components must meet the testing requirements of a particular test system with the lowest projected Life Cycle Costs (LCC). The present investigation is concerned with the Test Modules and Test Module Adapters (TMAs). The test modules perform traditional stimulus and sensor test functions. Attention is given to major MATE test module requirements, the Control Interface Intermediate Language (CIIL), considerations regarding external vs internal TMA functions, LCC, and synchronization methods.

  19. Experience-mediated plasticity in mate preferences: mating assurance in a variable environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler-Finn, Kasey D; Rodríguez, Rafael L

    2012-02-01

    An individual's prior experience of sexual signals can result in variation in mate preferences, with important consequences for the course of sexual selection. We test two hypotheses about the evolution of experience-mediated plasticity in mate preferences: mating assurance and mismating avoidance. We exposed female Enchenopa binotata treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) to treatments that varied their experience of signal frequency, the most divergent sexual signal trait in the E. binotata species complex. Treatments consisted of (1) signals matching the preferred frequency, (2-3) signals deviating either 100 Hz above or 100 Hz below the preferred frequency, and (4) no signals. Females experiencing preferred signals showed the greatest selectivity. However, experience had no effect on peak preference. These results support the hypothesis that selection has favored plasticity in mate preferences that ensures that mating takes place when preferred mates are rare or absent, while ensuring choice of preferred types when those are present. We consider how experience-mediated plasticity may influence selection on sexual advertisement signals, patterns of reproductive isolation, and the maintenance of genetic variation. We suggest that the plasticity we describe may increase the likelihood of successful colonization of a novel environment, where preferred mating types may be rare. PMID:22276541

  20. Bird mating optimizer: An optimization algorithm inspired by bird mating strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarzadeh, Alireza

    2014-04-01

    Thanks to their simplicity and flexibility, evolutionary algorithms (EAs) have attracted significant attention to tackle complex optimization problems. The underlying idea behind all EAs is the same and they differ only in technical details. In this paper, we propose a novel version of EAs, bird mating optimizer (BMO), for continuous optimization problems which is inspired by mating strategies of bird species during mating season. BMO imitates the behavior of bird species metaphorically to breed broods with superior genes for designing optimum searching techniques. On a large set of unimodal and multimodal benchmark functions, BMO represents a competitive performance to other EAs.

  1. The Pressurized Mating Adapter-2 is prepared for mating to Node 1 in SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA)-2 for the International Space Station (ISS) awaits being mated with Node 1, the space stations structural building block, in KSCs Space Station Processing Facility. This PMA, identifiable by its bright red ring, is a cone-shaped connector to Node 1, which will have two PMAs attached once this mate is completed. The node and PMAs, which together will make up the first element of the ISS, are scheduled to be launched aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88.

  2. Predator-induced changes of female mating preferences: innate and experiential effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indy Jeane

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many species males face a higher predation risk than females because males display elaborate traits that evolved under sexual selection, which may attract not only females but also predators. Females are, therefore, predicted to avoid such conspicuous males under predation risk. The present study was designed to investigate predator-induced changes of female mating preferences in Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana. Males of this species show a pronounced polymorphism in body size and coloration, and females prefer large, colorful males in the absence of predators. Results In dichotomous choice tests predator-naïve (lab-reared females altered their initial preference for larger males in the presence of the cichlid Cichlasoma salvini, a natural predator of P. mexicana, and preferred small males instead. This effect was considerably weaker when females were confronted visually with the non-piscivorous cichlid Vieja bifasciata or the introduced non-piscivorous Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. In contrast, predator experienced (wild-caught females did not respond to the same extent to the presence of a predator, most likely due to a learned ability to evaluate their predators' motivation to prey. Conclusions Our study highlights that (a predatory fish can have a profound influence on the expression of mating preferences of their prey (thus potentially affecting the strength of sexual selection, and females may alter their mate choice behavior strategically to reduce their own exposure to predators. (b Prey species can evolve visual predator recognition mechanisms and alter their mate choice only when a natural predator is present. (c Finally, experiential effects can play an important role, and prey species may learn to evaluate the motivational state of their predators.

  3. Polymyxin B nonapeptide inhibits mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Boguslawski, G

    1986-01-01

    Polymyxin B nonapeptide enhanced susceptibility of yeast cells to various hydrophobic antibiotics and to mating pheromones. At much lower concentrations, the nonapeptide severely inhibited mating. The inhibition was caused by interference with sexual agglutination.

  4. Courtship and mating in Heterometrus petersii (Thorell, 1876) (Scorpiones: Scorpionidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Guo-Bin; Zhu, Ming-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Courtship and mating in Heterometrus petersii (Thorell, 1876) (Scorpiones: Scorpionidae) was observed in the laboratory. In this paper the behavior components displayed in courtship and mating are identified, analyzed and discussed.

  5. Courtship and mating in Heterometrus petersii (Thorell, 1876 (Scorpiones: Scorpionidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao, Guo-Bin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Courtship and mating in Heterometrus petersii (Thorell, 1876 (Scorpiones: Scorpionidae was observed in the laboratory. In this paper the behavior components displayed in courtship and mating are identified, analyzed and discussed.

  6. No evidence for size-assortative mating in the wild despite mutual mate choice in sex-role-reversed pipefishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Kenyon B; Abou Chakra, Maria; Jones, Adam G

    2014-01-01

    Size-assortative mating is a nonrandom association of body size between members of mating pairs and is expected to be common in species with mutual preferences for body size. In this study, we investigated whether there is direct evidence for size-assortative mating in two species of pipefishes, Syngnathus floridae and S. typhle, that share the characteristics of male pregnancy, sex-role reversal, and a polygynandrous mating system. We take advantage of microsatellite-based "genetic-capture" techniques to match wild-caught females with female genotypes reconstructed from broods of pregnant males and use these data to explore patterns of size-assortative mating in these species. We also develop a simulation model to explore how positive, negative, and antagonistic preferences of each sex for body size affect size-assortative mating. Contrary to expectations, we were unable to find any evidence of size-assortative mating in either species at different geographic locations or at different sampling times. Furthermore, two traits that potentially confer a fitness advantage in terms of reproductive success, female mating order and number of eggs transferred per female, do not affect pairing patterns in the wild. Results from model simulations demonstrate that strong mating preferences are unlikely to explain the observed patterns of mating in the studied populations. Our study shows that individual mating preferences, as ascertained by laboratory-based mating trials, can be decoupled from realized patterns of mating in the wild, and therefore, field studies are also necessary to determine actual patterns of mate choice in nature. We conclude that this disconnect between preferences and assortative mating is likely due to ecological constraints and multiple mating that may limit mate choice in natural populations. PMID:24455162

  7. Evolution of the Bipolar Mating System of the Mushroom Coprinellus disseminatus From Its Tetrapolar Ancestors Involves Loss of Mating-Type-Specific Pheromone Receptor Function

    OpenAIRE

    James, Timothy Y.; Srivilai, Prayook; Kües, Ursula; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2006-01-01

    Mating incompatibility in mushroom fungi is controlled by the mating-type loci. In tetrapolar species, two unlinked mating-type loci exist (A and B), whereas in bipolar species there is only one locus. The A and B mating-type loci encode homeodomain transcription factors and pheromones and pheromone receptors, respectively. Most mushroom species have a tetrapolar mating system, but numerous transitions to bipolar mating systems have occurred. Here we determined the genes controlling mating ty...

  8. On the origin of species by means of assortative mating.

    OpenAIRE

    Kondrashov, A S; Shpak, M

    1998-01-01

    Assortative mating may split a population even in the absence of natural selection. Here, we study when this happens if mating depends on one or two quantitative traits. Not surprisingly, the modes of assortative mating that can cause sympatric speciation without selection are rather strict. However, some of them may occur in nature. Slow elimination of intermediate individuals caused by the gradual tightening of assortative mating, which evolves owing to relatively weak disruptive selection,...

  9. Heterologous expression of mating-type genes in filamentous fungi.

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaise, S.; Zickler, D.; Glass, N. L.

    1993-01-01

    Podospora anserina and Neurospora crassa, two filamentous heterothallic ascomycetes, have a single mating-type locus with two alternate forms called mat+ and mat- and A and a, respectively. Mating type controls entry into the sexual cycle, events subsequent to fertilization, and, in N. crassa, prevents the formation of mixed mating-type heterokaryons. The mating types of these two organisms display similarity in their DNA structure and in the encoded polypeptides involved in fertilization. He...

  10. Mating system drives negative associations between morphological features in Schistosomatidae.

    OpenAIRE

    Beltran Sophie; Desdevises Yves; Portela Julien; Boissier Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sexual morphological features are known to be associated with the mating systems of several animal groups. However, it has been suggested that morphological features other than sexual characteristics could also be constrained by the mating system as a consequence of negative associations. Schistosomatidae are parasitic organisms that vary in mating system and can thus be used to explore links between the mating system and negative associations with morphological features. ...

  11. Localization of the Mating Type Gene in Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Jianping XU; Kerrigan, Richard W.; Horgen, Paul A.; Anderson, James B

    1993-01-01

    The cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus is secondarily homothallic. Most basidia produce two basidiospores, each of which receives two of the four postmeiotic nuclei. Usually, the two packaged nuclei carry compatible mating types. Previous studies suggested that there may be only a single mating type locus in A. bisporus. In this study, we determined whether the mating type segregated as a single Mendelian determinant in a cross marked with 64 segregating molecular markers. To score mating ...

  12. Uncertain paternity, mating market failure, and the institution of marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Bethmann, Dirk; Kvasnicka, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a first microeconomic foundation for the institution of marriage. Based on a model of reproduction, mating, and parental investment in children, we argue that marriage serves the purpose of attenuating the risk of mating market failure that arises from incomplete information on individual paternity. Raising the costs of mating to individuals, marriage circumscribes female infidelity and mate poaching among men, which reduces average levels of paternal uncertainty in societ...

  13. Alternative male mating tactics and reproductive parasitism.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, C.; Reichard, Martin

    Cardiff : Fisheries Society of the British Isles, 2008. -. [FSBI Annual International Symposium 2008. 21.07.2008-25.07.2008, Cardiff] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KJB600930802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mating tactics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  14. AA, mating of BST magnet halves

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The AA had 2 types of bending magnets: BLG (window-frame,long and narrow) and BST (H-type, short and wide). The BST had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the mating of two BST halves.

  15. Multiple mating and sequential mate choice in guppies: females trade up.

    OpenAIRE

    Pitcher, Trevor E; Neff, Bryan D; Rodd, F. Helen; Rowe, Locke

    2003-01-01

    The trade-up hypothesis outlines a behavioural strategy that females could use to maximize the genetic benefits to their offspring. The hypothesis proposes that females should be more willing to accept a mate when the new male encountered is a superior genetic source to previous mates. We provide a direct test of the trade-up hypothesis using guppies (Poecilia reticulata), and evaluate both behavioural and paternity data. Virgin female guppies were presented sequentially with two males of var...

  16. Assortative mating and differential male mating success in an ash hybrid zone population

    OpenAIRE

    Frascaria-Lacoste Nathalie; Fernández-Manjarrés Juan F; Austerlitz Frédéric; Klein Etienne K; Gérard Pierre R

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The structure and evolution of hybrid zones depend mainly on the relative importance of dispersal and local adaptation, and on the strength of assortative mating. Here, we study the influence of dispersal, temporal isolation, variability in phenotypic traits and parasite attacks on the male mating success of two parental species and hybrids by real-time pollen flow analysis. We focus on a hybrid zone population between the two closely related ash species Fraxinus excelsior...

  17. Does mate guarding prevent rival mating in snow skinks? A test using AFLP

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, M; Ujvari, Beata; Wapstra, E; Madsen, Thomas; Shine, R; Bensch, Staffan

    2005-01-01

    We report on likely mixed paternity in a natural population of snow skinks (Niveoscincus mirolepidoms) from alpine Tasmania, Australia. This species is nonterritorial and males guard females after copulation, Suggesting that guarding behavior has evolved to prevent rival mating of still-receptive females. To what degree does this mate-guarding prevent rival copulations? We sampled gravid females at random in the wild and looked for within-clutch mixed paternity among their offspring using amp...

  18. No evidence for size-assortative mating in the wild despite mutual mate choice in sex-role-reversed pipefishes

    OpenAIRE

    Mobley, Kenyon B; Abou Chakra, Maria; Jones, Adam G.

    2013-01-01

    Size-assortative mating is a nonrandom association of body size between members of mating pairs and is expected to be common in species with mutual preferences for body size. In this study, we investigated whether there is direct evidence for size-assortative mating in two species of pipefishes, Syngnathus floridae and S. typhle, that share the characteristics of male pregnancy, sex-role reversal, and a polygynandrous mating system. We take advantage of microsatellite-based “genetic-capture” ...

  19. Dual reproductive cost of aging in male medflies: dramatic decrease in mating competitiveness and gradual reduction in mating performance

    OpenAIRE

    Papanastasiou, Stella A.; Diamantidis, Alexandros D.; Nakas, Christos T; CAREY, JAMES R; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

    2011-01-01

    Although age-based effects on the reproductive success of males have been reported in several animal taxa the cost of aging on male mating success in lekking species has not been fully explored. We used the Mediterranean fruit fly, a lekking species, to investigate possible cost of aging on male reproductive success. We performed no choice and choice mating tests to test the hypothesis that aging does not affect the mating performance (mating success in conditions lacking competition) or the ...

  20. Cognitive processes underlying human mate choice: The relationship between self-perception and mate preference in Western society

    OpenAIRE

    Buston, Peter M; Emlen, Stephen T.

    2003-01-01

    This study tested two hypotheses concerning the cognitive processes underlying human mate choice in Western society: (i) mate preference is conditional in that the selectivity of individuals' mate preference is based on their perception of themselves as long-term partners, and (ii) the decision rule governing such conditional mate preference is based on translating perception of oneself on a given attribute into a comparable selectivity of preference for the same attri...

  1. Status epilepticus und epileptische Anfälle beim Hund

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Romina

    2010-01-01

    Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es, die Ätiologie von epileptischen Anfällen sowie insbesondere des Status epilepticus zu analysieren und das relative Risiko, epileptische Anfälle oder einen Status epilepticus zu entwickeln, zu bestimmen. Verschiedene Einflussfaktoren wie Alter bei Anfallsbeginn, Rasse und Geschlecht sollten bewertet und der Krankheitsverlauf von Hunden mit Status epilepticus evaluiert werden. Außerdem sollte die Prävalenz epileptischer Anfälle und des Status epilepticus in ...

  2. Mating choice of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of male ageing on mating success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of male ageing on male pheromone release and mating success of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The effects of male ageing on mating were evaluated on fi ve and 21 d-old males by assessing their mating success (males chosen by a female for copulation) and the amount of males releasing the sex pheromone. The mating success was evaluated by using several ratios of young to older males by increasing the number of older males:young males from 1:1 to 5:1. The mating success of the 1:1 ratio was also evaluated in fi eld cages. The evaluation of the mating success (in the 1:1 ratio) showed a clear preference of the females for young males. Sex pheromone emission was much more common on young than older males. Even in cases were older males were more abundant (ratios 2:1 and 3:1), females still chose the young males. However, females could not distinguish young from older males in ratios of 4:1 or 5:1. Our data indicate that the ageing of C. capitata males has a considerable negative effect on their reproductive success, especially if they are found in a proportion any lower than 3:1. (author)

  3. You can't always get what you want: size assortative mating by mutual mate choice as a resolution of sexual conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thünken Timo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assortative mating patterns for mate quality traits like body size are often observed in nature. However, the underlying mechanisms that cause assortative mating patterns are less well known. Sexual selection is one important explanation for assortment, suggesting that i one (usually the female or both sexes could show preferences for mates of similar size or ii mutual mate choice could resolve sexual conflict over quality traits into assortment. We tested these hypotheses experimentally in the socially monogamous cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus, in which mate choice is mutual. Results In mate choice experiments, both sexes preferred large mates irrespective of own body size suggesting mating preferences are not size-assortative. Especially males were highly selective for large females, probably because female body size signals direct fitness benefits. However, when potential mates were able to interact and assess each other mutually they showed size-assortative mating patterns, i.e. the likelihood to mate was higher in pairs with low size differences between mates. Conclusion Due to variation in body size, general preferences for large mating partners result in a sexual conflict: small, lower quality individuals who prefer themselves large partners are unacceptable for larger individuals. Relative size mismatches between mates translate into a lower likelihood to mate, suggesting that the threshold to accept mates depends on own body size. These results suggest that the underlying mechanism of assortment in P. taeniatus is mutual mate choice resolving the sexual conflict over mates, rather than preference for mates of similar size.

  4. The mating sociometer and attractive others: a double-edged sword in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Phillip Sean; Fletcher, Garth J O; Ellis, Bruce J

    2014-01-01

    Eighty-one participants were recruited to test the sensitivity of the mating sociometer to mate-value feedback in the context of ongoing intimate relationships. Experiences of social rejection/acceptance by attractive opposite-sex confederates were manipulated. The effects of this manipulation on self-esteem, relationship satisfaction and commitment, perceptions of dating alternatives, and friendship-dedication were assessed. Social rejection/acceptance by members of the opposite sex altered relationship satisfaction and commitment; this causal link was amplified by changes in state self-esteem; and these effects were specific to intimate relationships and did not generalize to friendship-dedication. This research supports a domain-specific conceptualization of sociometer theory, extending the theory in important directions. PMID:24765818

  5. Sperm status regulates sexual attraction in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsci, Natalia S; Haas, Leonard A; Barr, Maureen M

    2011-12-01

    Mating behavior of animals is regulated by the sensory stimuli provided by the other sex. Sexually receptive females emit mating signals that can be inhibited by male ejaculate. The genetic mechanisms controlling the release of mating signals and encoding behavioral responses remain enigmatic. Here we present evidence of a Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite-derived cue that stimulates male mating-response behavior and is dynamically regulated by her reproductive status. Wild-type males preferentially mated with older hermaphrodites. Increased sex appeal of older hermaphrodites was potent enough to stimulate robust response from mating-deficient pkd-2 and lov-1 polycystin mutant males. This enhanced response of pkd-2 males toward older hermaphrodites was independent of short-chain ascaroside pheromones, but was contingent on the absence of active sperm in the hermaphrodites. The improved pkd-2 male response toward spermless hermaphrodites was blocked by prior insemination or by genetic ablation of the ceh-18-dependent sperm-sensing pathway of the hermaphrodite somatic gonad. Our work suggests an interaction between sperm and the soma that has a negative but reversible effect on a hermaphrodite-derived mating cue that regulates male mating response, a phenomenon to date attributed to gonochoristic species only. PMID:21968192

  6. Why do female Callosobruchus maculatus kick their mates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B; Simmons, Leigh W

    2014-01-01

    Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other's matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs) was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings. PMID:24752530

  7. Wolbachia Infection Dynamics in Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Their Effects on Host Mating Behavior and Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Qing-Lei; Shen, Jia-Fei; Cheng, Chao; Liu, Chan-Min; Feng, Zhao-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Wolbachia interact with their hosts in a broad variety of relationships that range from parasitism to mutualism. To improve the understanding of complex relationships between Wolbachia and host, we performed not only mating and crossing experiments to investigate effects of Wolbachia on mate choice, mating performance, and reproduction in the confused flour beetles Tribolium confusum (Jacquelin du Val), but also quantitative PCR to determine Wolbachia spatiotemporal infection density dynamics within beetles. Wolbachia induced strong cytoplasmic incompatibility, but had no effects on male mate choice and mating performance. Compared with Wolbachia-uninfected females, infected females had very high fecundity irrespective of male's infection status. Wolbachia infection densities in beetles were higher in eggs and adults and in the reproductive tissues and abdomens, whereas Wolbachia density in adults did not differ between sexes and among different ages. These results suggest that Wolbachia have evolved mutualistic interactions with T. confusum, which provides the first evidence of Wolbachia mutualisms in this beetle species. We discussed these findings and their evolutionary implications in light of Wolbachia-host interactions. PMID:26470269

  8. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailer Frank

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same processes which have historically created dog breeds are still ongoing, and create further subdivision within current dog breeds.

  9. Oestradiol level and opportunistic mating in women

    OpenAIRE

    Durante, Kristina M.; Li, Norman P.

    2009-01-01

    The ovarian steroid hormone oestradiol plays a crucial role in female fertility, sexual motivation and behaviour. We investigated the relationship between oestradiol and the likelihood that women would engage in opportunistic mating. Two salivary samples were taken from normally cycling women within the peri-ovulatory and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. At both testing sessions, participants also completed self-perceived desirability scales and provided subjective reports of sexual and s...

  10. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  11. Low-Impact Mating System for Docking Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James L.; Robertson, Brandan; Carroll, Monty B.; Le, Thang; Morales, Ray

    2008-01-01

    A document describes a low-impact mating system suitable for both docking (mating of two free-flying spacecraft) and berthing (in which a robot arm in one spacecraft positions an object for mating with either spacecraft). The low-impact mating system is fully androgynous: it mates with a copy of itself, i.e., all spacecraft and other objects to be mated are to be equipped with identical copies of the system. This aspect of the design helps to minimize the number of unique parts and to standardize and facilitate mating operations. The system includes a closed-loop feedback control subsystem that actively accommodates misalignments between mating spacecraft, thereby attenuating spacecraft dynamics and mitigating the need for precise advance positioning of the spacecraft. The operational characteristics of the mating system can be easily configured in software, during operation, to enable mating of spacecraft having various masses, center-of-gravity offsets, and closing velocities. The system design provides multi-fault tolerance for critical operations: for example, to ensure unmating at a critical time, a redundant unlatching mechanism and two independent pyrotechnic release subsystems are included.

  12. Parenting across Racial and Class Lines: Assortative Mating Patterns of New Parents Who Are Married, Cohabiting, Dating or No Longer Romantically Involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joshua R.; Harknett, Kristen

    2006-01-01

    We examine the assortative mating patterns of new parents who are married, cohabiting, romantically involved and no longer romantically involved. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study, we find that relationship status at the time of a birth depends mainly on father's race rather than on whether mother and father's…

  13. Studies on mating competition of irradiated melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mating competition is the key factor for fruit flies control by using sterile insect technique project. Mass rearing and irradiation can reduce the mating competition of fruit flies. This experiment has purpose to evaluate the mating competition of the irradiated melon fly. The results show that mating competition values of irradiated melon flies were 0.36 and 0.24 when they mated with normal and irradiated females. Both normal male and female can mate more frequency than irradiated flies. (Z=1.322, P<0.05; Z=1.851, P<0.05). The results show that quality of mass rearing and irradiated melon fly was lower than the normal flies. So that quality of irradiated fly must be improved and the number of released flies as less must be higher than natural flies 6 time

  14. An improved method for evaluating ideal standards in self-perception and mate preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsena, Lasma; Dimdins, Girts

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to improve the methodology for measuring ideals of self-perception and mate preferences. The Ideal Standards Model (ISM; Fletcher, Simpson, Thomas & Giles, 1999) was used as a basis for development of the scale. It was further modified by adding a number of items from previous studies. Data were collected from 223 participants, aged 19 to 27 years. The results suggested that a modified five-factor version of the ISM is an appropriate method for evaluation of ideal characteristics. The five factors are warmth/ trustworthiness, status/ resources, intelligence, social skills and physical attractiveness. PMID:25580983

  15. Genetic Analysis of Default Mating Behavior in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Dorer, R.; Boone, C (Christophe); Kimbrough, T.; Kim, J; Hartwell, L H

    1997-01-01

    Haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells find each other during conjugation by orienting their growth toward each other along pheromone gradients (chemotropism). However, when their receptors are saturated for pheromone binding, yeast cells must select a mate by executing a default pathway in which they choose a mating partner at random. We previously demonstrated that this default pathway requires the SPA2 gene. In this report we show that the default mating pathway also requires the AXL1, FUS...

  16. Familiarity adds to attractiveness in matters of siskin mate choice

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Senar; Mateos-Gonzalez, F.; Uribe, F.; Arroyo, L.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently considerable controversy in evolutionary ecology revolving around whether social familiarity brings attraction when a female chooses a mate. The topic of familiarity is significant because by avoiding or preferring familiar individuals as mates, the potential for local adaptation may be reduced or favoured. The topic becomes even more interesting if we simultaneously analyse preferences for familiarity and sexual ornaments, because when familiarity influences female mating ...

  17. Mate Choice Drives Evolutionary Stability in a Hybrid Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado-Santos, Miguel; Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that assortative mating acts as a driver of speciation by countering hybridization between two populations of the same species (pre-zygotic isolation) or through mate choice among the hybrids (hybrid speciation). In both speciation types, assortative mating promotes speciation over a transient hybridization stage. We studied mate choice in a hybrid vertebrate complex, the allopolyploid fish Squalius alburnoides. This complex is composed by several genomotypes connected by an intricate reproductive dynamics. We developed a model that predicts the hybrid complex can persist when females exhibit particular mate choice patterns. Our model is able to reproduce the diversity of population dynamic outcomes found in nature, namely the dominance of the triploids and the dominance of the tetraploids, depending on female mate choice patterns and frequency of the parental species. Experimental mate choice trials showed that females exhibit the preferences predicted by the model. Thus, despite the known role of assortative mating in driving speciation, our findings suggest that certain mate choice patterns can instead hinder speciation and support the persistence of hybrids over time without speciation or extinction. PMID:26181664

  18. Effect of potassium fertilization on yield and nutrition of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmar Santin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis is a tree species native to the subtropical regions of South America, and is found in Brazil predominantly in the southern region. Despite the historical importance in this region, so far, studies on crop nutrition to improve yields are scarce. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of potassium rates on K soil availability, and the yield and nutritional status of yerba mate. The experiment was conducted in São Mateus do Sul, State of Paraná, on a Humox soil, where K2O rates of 0, 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 kg ha-1 were tested on 7-year-old plantations. The experiment was harvested 24 months after installation by removing approximately 95 % of the canopy that had sprouted from the previous harvest. The soil was evaluated for K availability in the layers 0-10, 0-20, 10-20, and 20-40 cm. The plant parts leaf fresh matter (LM, twigs (TW, thick branches (BR and commercial yerba mate (COYM, i.e., LM+TW, were analyzed. In addition, the relationship between fresh matter/dry matter (FM/DM and K concentration in LM, AG and BR were evaluated. The fertilization increased K availability in all evaluated soil layers, indicating good mobility of the nutrient even at low rates. Yerba mate responded positively to increasing K2O rates with higher yields of all harvested components. The crop proved K-demanding, with a maximum COYM yield of 28.5 t ha-1, when 72 mg dm-3 K was available in the 0-20 cm layer. Yerba mate in the plant production stage requires soil K availability at medium to high level; in clayey soil with low K availability, a rate of 300 kg ha-1 K2O should be applied at 24 month intervals to obtain high yields. A leaf K concentration of 16.0 g ha-1 is suitable for yerba mate in the growth stage.

  19. Monte Carlo Studies of Plant Mating System Estimation Models: The One-Pollen Parent and Mixed Mating Models

    OpenAIRE

    Schoen, Daniel J; Clegg, Michael T.

    1986-01-01

    Estimation of mating system parameters in plant populations typically employs family-structured samples of progeny genotypes. These estimation models postulate a mixture of self-fertilization and random outcrossing. One assumption of such models concerns the distribution of pollen genotypes among eggs within single maternal families. Previous applications of the mixed mating model to mating system estimation have assumed that pollen genotypes are sampled randomly from the total population in ...

  20. Mating and re-mating of medflies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Guatemala: Individual fly marking in field cages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) depends critically upon the ability of sterilized, released males to locate and mate with wild females. The overall efficiency of the method also depends upon the relative frequencies of re-mating by wild females following first matings to laboratory or wild males. Using a newly devised technique that individually marks the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), a field cage study was undertaken in a Guatemala coffee orchard to record individual fly mating behaviors between each of several laboratory strain and coffee-reared wild flies. Five laboratory strains were tested- a genetic sexing strain examined in sex ratios between 50%-100% sterile males, two standard bisexual strains, and two Fl hybrid strains. The marking technique revealed a substantial amount of information on individual fly mating and re-mating. Wild male flies significantly out-competed each of the lab strains in the first matings with both wild and lab females. Approx. 22% and 3% of wild males and females, respectively, re-mated in the field cages during two consecutive morning observation periods, while 4-8% of lab males, and 2-8% of lab females re-mated, respectively. Male flies from each lab strain averaged significantly shorter copulation times than wild males. Female flies, either lab or wild, tended to re-mate more often if they first mated to a lab male, but the differences were not statistically significant. An index was devised to provide a measure of relative male mating quality. Wild males tended to have higher individual index values than lab strain males. Average values of the latter ranged from ca. half to roughly equal that of wild males. (author)

  1. Stylish lengths: Mate choice in flowers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B T Ramesha; M D Yetish; G Ravikanth; K N Ganeshaiah; Jaboury Ghazoul; R Uma Shaanker

    2011-06-01

    The styles of flowers may represent an arena for pollen competition in the race to fertilize ovules. Accordingly, selection should favour a longer ‘race’ to better discriminate among variable pollen by increasing style length. Sampling across a taxonomically diverse range of wild and outcrossed species, we found that the distribution of style lengths within plants were skewed towards longer styles, as predicted. In self-pollinated domesticated species, where discrimination among pollen is less important, we found no such pattern. We conclude that style length is under directional selection towards longer styles as a mechanism for mate choice among pollen of variable quality.

  2. Assortative mating and differential male mating success in an ash hybrid zone population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frascaria-Lacoste Nathalie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure and evolution of hybrid zones depend mainly on the relative importance of dispersal and local adaptation, and on the strength of assortative mating. Here, we study the influence of dispersal, temporal isolation, variability in phenotypic traits and parasite attacks on the male mating success of two parental species and hybrids by real-time pollen flow analysis. We focus on a hybrid zone population between the two closely related ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash and F. angustifolia Vahl (narrow-leaved ash, which is composed of individuals of the two species and several hybrid types. This population is structured by flowering time: the F. excelsior individuals flower later than the F. angustifolia individuals, and the hybrid types flower in-between. Hybrids are scattered throughout the population, suggesting favorable conditions for their local adaptation. We estimate jointly the best-fitting dispersal kernel, the differences in male fecundity due to variation in phenotypic traits and level of parasite attack, and the strength of assortative mating due to differences in flowering phenology. In addition, we assess the effect of accounting for genotyping error on these estimations. Results We detected a very high pollen immigration rate and a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, counter-balanced by slight phenological assortative mating and short-distance pollen dispersal. Early intermediate flowering hybrids, which had the highest male mating success, showed optimal sex allocation and increased selfing rates. We detected asymmetry of gene flow, with early flowering trees participating more as pollen donors than late flowering trees. Conclusion This study provides striking evidence that long-distance gene flow alone is not sufficient to counter-act the effects of assortative mating and selfing. Phenological assortative mating and short-distance dispersal can create temporal and spatial structuring that appears to maintain this hybrid population. The asymmetry of gene flow, with higher fertility and increased selfing, can potentially confer a selective advantage to early flowering hybrids in the zone. In the event of climate change, hybridization may provide a means for F. angustifolia to further extend its range at the expense of F. excelsior.

  3. Effect Of Gamma Irradiation On The Mating Activity And Mating Competitiveness Of The Black Cutworm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUFN.) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterility effects were examined on the P1 generation of the black cutworm; Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.), after gamma sterilization. The objective was to identify the dose of gamma radiation that would allow for maximum production of partially sterile P1 adults while inducing full sterility in the F1 generation. Full grown pupae of the black cutworm from laboratory culture were irradiated at 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 Gy. Results indicated that non-significant differences between untreated and treated groups in moth were observed in copula occurred and time of copulation while significant difference was recorded between the treated males and untreated once in spermatophore formation and percentage of females with sperm in their spermatheca at the last two doses. Low percentages of untreated female moths were mated when they were paired with previously mated males than when paired with virgin males. The sequence in which females were mated to an irradiated male did not affect the transfer of spermatophores. The percentage of eggs hatched was higher from the first mated females as compared to the second and third mated females. There were non-significant effects of 0 or 125 Gy exposures on female mating or time in copula. However, significant low percentages of mating of treated and untreated females were occurred with sequentially provided male moths on days 2, 3, to 5 following the first observed female mating. According to the mating competitiveness measured from direct

  4. Environmental influences on mate preferences as assessed by a scenario manipulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzoli, Daniele; Moretto, Francesco; Monti, Aura; Tocci, Ornella; Roberts, S Craig; Tommasi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Many evolutionary psychology studies have addressed the topic of mate preferences, focusing particularly on gender and cultural differences. However, the extent to which situational and environmental variables might affect mate preferences has been comparatively neglected. We tested 288 participants in order to investigate the perceived relative importance of six traits of an ideal partner (wealth, dominance, intelligence, height, kindness, attractiveness) under four different hypothetical scenarios (status quo/nowadays, violence/post-nuclear, poverty/resource exhaustion, prosperity/global well-being). An equal number of participants (36 women, 36 men) was allotted to each scenario; each was asked to allocate 120 points across the six traits according to their perceived value. Overall, intelligence was the trait to which participants assigned most importance, followed by kindness and attractiveness, and then by wealth, dominance and height. Men appraised attractiveness as more valuable than women. Scenario strongly influenced the relative importance attributed to traits, the main finding being that wealth and dominance were more valued in the poverty and post-nuclear scenarios, respectively, compared to the other scenarios. Scenario manipulation generally had similar effects in both sexes, but women appeared particularly prone to trade off other traits for dominance in the violence scenario, and men particularly prone to trade off other traits for wealth in the poverty scenario. Our results are in line with other correlational studies of situational variables and mate preferences, and represent strong evidence of a causal relationship of environmental factors on specific mate preferences, corroborating the notion of an evolved plasticity to current ecological conditions. A control experiment seems to suggest that our scenarios can be considered as realistic descriptions of the intended ecological conditions. PMID:24069291

  5. Target-site resistance mutations (kdr and RDL), but not metabolic resistance, negatively impact male mating competiveness in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, N; Kwiatkowska, R M; Irving, H; Diabaté, A; Dabire, R; Wondji, C S

    2015-09-01

    The implementation of successful insecticide resistance management strategies for malaria control is currently hampered by poor understanding of the fitness cost of resistance on mosquito populations, including their mating competiveness. To fill this knowledge gap, coupled and uncoupled Anopheles gambiae s.l. males (all M form (Anopheles coluzzii)) were collected from mating swarms in Burkina Faso. This multiple insecticide resistant population exhibited high 1014F kdr(R) allele frequencies (>60%) and RDL(R) (>80%) in contrast to the Ace-1(R) allele (competitive than homozygote susceptible (OR=3.26; P=0.006), suggesting a heterozygote advantage effect. Similarly, heterozygote RDL(R)/RDL(S) were also more likely to mate than homozygote-resistant males (OR=2.58; P=0.007). Furthermore, an additive mating disadvantage was detected in male homozygotes for both kdr/RDL-resistant alleles. In contrast, no fitness difference was observed for the Ace-1 mutation. Comparative microarray-based genome-wide transcription analysis revealed that metabolic resistance did not significantly alter the mating competitiveness of male An. coluzzii mosquitoes. Indeed, no significant difference of expression levels was observed for the main metabolic resistance genes, suggesting that metabolic resistance has a limited impact on male mating competiveness. In addition, specific gene classes/GO terms associated with mating process were detected including sensory perception and peroxidase activity. The detrimental impact of insecticide resistance on mating competiveness observed here suggests that resistance management strategies such as insecticide rotation could help reverse the resistance, if implemented early. PMID:25899013

  6. Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus courtship and mating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Piñeyrúa Jéssica T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758, is a South American grazing deer categorized as "near threatened". However, knowledge about pampas deer behavior including courtship and mating is scarce and incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize the courtship and mating behavior of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, an endangered species from South America. Methods We performed focal observations of 5 males allocated at the Estación de Cría de Fauna Autóctona Cerro Pan de Azúcar, Uruguay, 4 times a day from 5 to 20 minutes each time on a daily basis from February to May. During that period we recorded all courtship and mating behaviors, as well as quantified the frequency of the specific behaviors shown. As mating were rarely observed, we recorded that behavior when it was observed in the context of other studies performed in the same population during the following 2 years. Results During the observation period we recorded 928 courtships and 5 mating periods. In addition, we recorded 10 more matings performed during other studies, totaling 15. The duration of each mating calculated from the 15 recordings was 3.9?±?0.4 s, and the total period of female receptivity (from first to last mating acceptance was 8.2?±?1.1 min. Main observed courtship behaviors in males were “chase” and “ostentation”, while the most observed close to mating were “chinning”, “raised head” and “anogenital sniffing”. The most observed behaviors in females during the mating period were “vulva exhibition” and “move away”. Conclusion This is the first detailed report in pampas deer mating behavior. Estrus lasted only 8 min accepting only 3 short copulations per estrus. However, female behavior during courtship can be characterized as highly proceptive.

  7. Effect of potassium fertilization on yield and nutrition of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) / Produção e nutrição da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) influenciadas pela adubação potássica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Delmar, Santin; Eliziane Luiza, Benedetti; Nairam Félix de, Barros; Igor Carvalho de, Almeida; Greice Pereira, Leal; Lucas, Fontes; Júlio César Lima, Neves; Ivar, Wendling; Carlos Bruno, Reissmann.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis), espécie arbórea nativa das regiões subtropicais da América do Sul, ocorre no Brasil predominantemente na Região Sul. Apesar da histórica importância da cultura nessa região, até o momento, raros foram os trabalhos realizados sobre sua nutrição no intuito de melhora [...] r a produtividade. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a influência de doses de K e sua disponibilidade no solo, na produtividade e no estado nutricional da erva-mate. O experimento foi conduzido em São Mateus do Sul, PR, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro álico, onde se avaliaram as doses 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 e 320 kg ha-1 de K2O em cultivo com sete anos de idade. A colheita, 24 meses após a instalação do experimento, consistiu na remoção de aproximadamente 95 % da copa, que brotou da colheita anterior. Avaliou-se, no solo, a disponibilidade de K nas profundidades de 0-10, 0-20, 10-20 e 20-40 cm. Na planta, avaliaram-se a massa verde de folhas (FO), galhos finos (GF), galhos grossos (GG) e erva-mate comercial (ECOM), correspondente a FO+GF. Foi, também, avaliada a relação entre massa verde/massa seca (MV/MS) e o teor de K nas FO, GF e GG. A adubação elevou a disponibilidade de K em todas as camadas do solo avaliadas, indicando boa mobilidade do nutriente mesmo em pequenas doses. A erva-mate respondeu positivamente ao aumento das doses de K2O, com incremento da produtividade de todos os componentes colhidos. A cultura evidenciou-se exigente em K, tendo a máxima produção de ECOM de 28,5 t ha-1, quando a disponibilidade do nutriente no solo, na camada de 0-20 cm, era de 72 mg dm-3. A erva-mate em fase de produção requer disponibilidade de K no solo entre o nível médio a alto, e, em solo argiloso e com baixo teor de K disponível, a dose de 300 kg ha-1de K2O deve ser aplicada em intervalo de 24 meses para obtenção de alta produtividade. O teor de K foliar de 16,0 g kg-1 é adequado para a cultura da erva-mate em fase de produção. Abstract in english Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a tree species native to the subtropical regions of South America, and is found in Brazil predominantly in the southern region. Despite the historical importance in this region, so far, studies on crop nutrition to improve yields are scarce. Thus, this study evalu [...] ated the effect of potassium rates on K soil availability, and the yield and nutritional status of yerba mate. The experiment was conducted in São Mateus do Sul, State of Paraná, on a Humox soil, where K2O rates of 0, 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 kg ha-1 were tested on 7-year-old plantations. The experiment was harvested 24 months after installation by removing approximately 95 % of the canopy that had sprouted from the previous harvest. The soil was evaluated for K availability in the layers 0-10, 0-20, 10-20, and 20-40 cm. The plant parts leaf fresh matter (LM), twigs (TW), thick branches (BR) and commercial yerba mate (COYM), i.e., LM+TW, were analyzed. In addition, the relationship between fresh matter/dry matter (FM/DM) and K concentration in LM, AG and BR were evaluated. The fertilization increased K availability in all evaluated soil layers, indicating good mobility of the nutrient even at low rates. Yerba mate responded positively to increasing K2O rates with higher yields of all harvested components. The crop proved K-demanding, with a maximum COYM yield of 28.5 t ha-1, when 72 mg dm-3 K was available in the 0-20 cm layer. Yerba mate in the plant production stage requires soil K availability at medium to high level; in clayey soil with low K availability, a rate of 300 kg ha-1 K2O should be applied at 24 month intervals to obtain high yields. A leaf K concentration of 16.0 g ha-1 is suitable for yerba mate in the growth stage.

  8. Lifetime Number of Mates Interacts with Female Age to Determine Reproductive Success in Female Guppies

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using...

  9. Mating Populations of Fusarium Section Liseola from Rice, Sugarcane and Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Hsuan, Heng Mei; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2011-01-01

    Mating studies were conducted on 78 isolates of Fusarium species section Liseola from rice, sugarcane and maize. From the crosses with tester strains of Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, 64.1% (50 out of 78 isolates) were cross-fertile with tester strains of mating populations A to E. The results of the mating studies showed that of the 50 isolates, 19 belonged to mating population A (Gibberella moniliformis), 18 to mating population B (Gibberella sacchari), 4 to mating population E (Gibb...

  10. Conditioned place preference for mating is preserved in rats with pelvic nerve transection

    OpenAIRE

    Meerts, Sarah H.; Clark, Ann S.

    2009-01-01

    Female rats exhibit a conditioned place preference (CPP) for a context paired with mating. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that the activation of the pelvic nerve mediates the reinforcing effects of mating for female rats. Rats underwent bilateral pelvic nerve or sham transection and then received paced mating, nonpaced mating or the control treatment during a CPP procedure. Pelvic nerve transection did not affect the CPP for paced or nonpaced mating. In tests of paced mating beh...

  11. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee ( Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen’s visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  12. A novel case of canine disseminated aspergillosis following mating

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Jackson T.; Frazho, Jean K.; Randell, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    An intact bitch with a history of mating was presented with severe lameness and a vulvar discharge. A mixed lytic, proliferative tibial lesion and open pyometra were diagnosed. Bone biopsy and uterine culture revealed disseminated aspergillosis. This is the first report of Aspergillus pyometra with dissemination following mating in the dog.

  13. Mating and Parental Care in Lake Tanganyika's Cichlids

    OpenAIRE

    Sefc, Kristina M.

    2011-01-01

    Cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika display a variety of mating and parental care behaviors, including polygamous and monogamous mouthbrooding and substrate breeding, cooperative breeding, as well as various alternative reproductive tactics such as sneaking and piracy. Moreover, reproductive behaviors sometimes vary within species both in space and in time. Here, I survey reports on mating and parenting behaviors of Lake Tanganyi...

  14. Mating does not influence reproductive investment, in a viviparous lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleu, Josefa; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Meylan, Sandrine; Massot, Manuel; Fitze, Patrick S

    2011-10-01

    Mating is crucial for females that reproduce exclusively sexually and should influence their investment into reproduction. Although reproductive adjustments in response to mate quality have been tested in a wide range of species, the effect of exposure to males and mating per se has seldom been studied. Compensatory mechanisms against the absence of mating may evolve more frequently in viviparous females, which pay higher direct costs of reproduction, due to gestation, than oviparous females. To test the existence of such mechanisms in a viviparous species, we experimentally manipulated the mating opportunity of viviparous female lizard, Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara. We assessed the effect of mating on ovulation, postpartum body condition and parturition date, as well as on changes in locomotor performances and body temperatures during the breeding cycle. Female lizards ovulated spontaneously and mating had no influence on litter size, locomotor impairment or on selected body temperature. However, offspring production induced a more pronounced locomotor impairment and physical burden than the production of undeveloped eggs. Postpartum body condition and parturition dates were not different among females. This result suggests that gestation length is not determined by an embryonic signal. In the common lizard, viviparity is not associated with facultative ovulation and a control of litter size after ovulation, in response to the absence of mating. PMID:21732546

  15. To be or not to be? Mating success and survival trade-offs when switching between alternative reproductive tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Munguía-Steyer, R

    2015-11-01

    Hormones underlie the decision of assuming a territorial or a nonterritorial role, with territorial individuals usually having higher hormonal levels than nonterritorial individuals. As a territorial status is linked to higher mating opportunities, it is unclear why animals do not keep high hormonal levels and one explanation is that this would imply survival costs. We have tested this using males of the territorial damselfly Argia emma in the field. We increased juvenile hormone (JH) levels using methoprene in both territorial and nonterritorial males and predicted that: (i) males will keep (the case of territorial males) or become (the case of nonterritorial males) territorial after hormonal increase, and (ii) there will be an increase in mating success for nonterritorial males only and an impaired survival for both male tactics. Hormonally treated males remained or became territorial but had their survival impaired compared with control groups. Also, hormonally treated, ex-nonterritorial males increased their mating success compared with the other control, nonterritorial males. The reduced survival can be explained proximally by the energy devoted either to the enhanced aggression showed during territory defence or immune function (as detected previously in damselflies). Although nonterritorial males may increase their mating success by switching to a territorial tactic, they are possibly unable to do it naturally as JH is dietary dependent and usually nonterritorial animals are in poorer condition than territorial animals. PMID:26284698

  16. Dopaminergic neurons in the brain and dopaminergic innervation of the albumen gland in mated and virgin helisoma duryi (mollusca: pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange Angela

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dopamine was shown to stimulate the perivitelline fluid secretion by the albumen gland. Even though the albumen gland has been shown to contain catecholaminergic fibers and its innervation has been studied, the type of catecholamines, distribution of fibers and the precise source of this neural innervation has not yet been deduced. This study was designed to address these issues and examine the correlation between dopamine concentration and the sexual status of snails. Results Dopaminergic neurons were found in all ganglia except the pleural and right parietal, and their axons in all ganglia and major nerves of the brain. In the albumen gland dopaminergic axons formed a nerve tract in the central region, and a uniform net in other areas. Neuronal cell bodies were present in the vicinity of the axons. Dopamine was a major catecholamine in the brain and the albumen gland. No significant difference in dopamine quantity was found when the brain and the albumen gland of randomly mating, virgin and first time mated snails were compared. Conclusions Our results represent the first detailed studies regarding the catecholamine innervation and quantitation of neurotransmitters in the albumen gland. In this study we localized catecholaminergic neurons and axons in the albumen gland and the brain, identified these neurons and axons as dopaminergic, reported monoamines present in the albumen gland and the brain, and compared the dopamine content in the brain and the albumen gland of randomly mating, virgin and first time mated snails.

  17. Effect of {sup 60}Co radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis); Efeito do processamento por radiacao de {sup 60}Co na erva-mate (llex paraguariensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furgeri, Camilo

    2009-07-01

    The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10 kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10 kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and qualitative profile of bioactive compounds. (author)

  18. Mechanical seal having a double-tier mating ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2005-09-13

    An apparatus and method to enhance the overall performance of mechanical seals in one of the following ways: by reducing seal face wear, by reducing the contact surface temperature, or by increasing the life span of mechanical seals. The apparatus is a mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) comprising a rotating ring and a double-tier mating ring. In a preferred embodiment, the double-tier mating ring comprises a first and a second stationary ring that together form an agitation-inducing, guided flow channel to allow for the removal of heat generated at the seal face of the mating ring by channeling a coolant entering the mating ring to a position adjacent to and in close proximity with the interior surface area of the seal face of the mating ring.

  19. Male inbreeding status affects female fitness in a seed-feeding beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles W; Xu, J; Wallin, W G; Curtis, C L

    2012-01-01

    Inbreeding generally reduces male mating activity such that inbred males are less successful in male-male competition. Inbred males can also have smaller accessory glands, transfer less sperm and produce sperm that are less motile, less viable or have a greater frequency of abnormalities, all of which can reduce the fertilization success and fitness of inbred males relative to outbred males. However, few studies have examined how male inbreeding status affects the fitness of females with whom they mate. In this study, we examine the effect of male inbreeding status (inbreeding coefficient f = 0.25 vs. f = 0) on the fecundity, adult longevity and the fate of eggs produced by outbred females in the seed-feeding beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Females mated to inbred males were less likely to lay eggs. Of those that laid eggs, females mated to inbred males laid 6-12% fewer eggs. Females mated to inbred males lived on average 5.4% longer than did females mated to outbred males, but this effect disappeared when lifetime fecundity was used as a covariate in the analysis. There was no effect of male inbreeding status on the proportion of a female's eggs that developed or hatched, and no evidence that inbred males produced smaller nuptial gifts. However, ejaculates of inbred males contained 17-33% fewer sperm, on average, than did ejaculates of outbred males. Our study demonstrates that mating with inbred males has significant direct consequences for the fitness of female C. maculatus, likely mediated by effects of inbreeding status on the number of sperm in male ejaculates. Direct effects of male inbreeding status on female fitness should be more widely considered in theoretical models and empirical studies of mate choice. PMID:21995954

  20. Reduced mating success of female tortricid moths following intense pheromone auto-exposure varies with sophistication of mating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Emily H; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2012-02-01

    Mating disruption is a valuable tool for the management of pest lepidopteran species in many agricultural crops. Many studies have addressed the effect of female pheromone on the ability of males to find calling females but, so far, fewer have addressed the effect of pheromone on the mating behavior of females. We hypothesized that mating of female moth species may be adversely affected following sex pheromone auto-exposure, due to abnormal behavioral activity and/or antennal sensitivity. Our results indicate that, for Grapholita molesta and Pandemis pyrusana females, copulation, but not calling, was reduced following pre-exposure to sex pheromone. In contrast, for Cydia pomonella and Choristoneura rosaceana, sex pheromone pre-exposure did not affect either calling or copulation propensity. Adaptation of female moth antennae to their own sex pheromone, following sex pheromone auto-exposure, as measured by electroantennograms, occurred in a species for which identical exposure reduced mating success (G. molesta) and in a species for which such exposure did not affect mating success (C. rosaceana). These results suggest that pre-exposure of female moths of certain species to sex pheromone may further contribute to the success of pheromone-based mating disruption. Therefore, we conclude that, in some species, mating disruption may include a secondary mechanism that affects the mating behavior of female moths, in addition to that of males. PMID:22350561

  1. The mating behaviour and reproduction performance in a multi-sire mating system for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2008-01-01

    An important aim of organic animal production is to allow natural animal behaviour. Regarding reproduction techniques, artificial insemination is permitted but natural mating is preferred. The outdoor multi-sire system, where the sows are placed in large paddocks with a group of boars, is one example of a service system, which complies well with the organic ideals of facilitating natural animal behavior. However, very little knowledge is available about such system. Seven groups of in total of 4...

  2. Desenvolvimento de gelatina funcional de erva-mate Development of functional yerba-mate jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Alves Santos Berté

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver formulações para gelatina funcional com extrato de erva-mate verde e fibras solúveis como inulina (INU, frutooligossacarídeos (FOS e a polidextrose (PD, avaliando o efeito desses ingredientes na gelatina funcional por meio da análise física da textura (firmeza, consistência e coesividade, análise sensorial (sabor e preferência de compra e composição química. As formulações INU, PD e composição INU/PD/FOS apresentaram textura desejável para uma sobremesa de gelatina, não diferindo (P>0,05 do padrão com sacarose. Pela análise sensorial, a gelatina funcional com INU obteve o maior índice hedônico para sabor e preferência de compra acima de 70%, superior ao padrão. Considerando os resultados obtidos neste estudo, a aplicação tecnológica do extrato de erva-mate verde e das fibras solúveis apresenta evidente potencial para o desenvolvimento de alimentos saudáveis e funcionais.The objective of this study was to develop formulations for functional jelly with extract of green yerba-mate and soluble fibers as inulin (INU, fructooligosaccharides (FOS and polidextrose (PD, evaluating the effect of those ingredients in the functional jelly through texture physical analysis (firmness, consistence, cohesiveness, sensorial analysis (flavor and purchase preference and chemical composition. The formulations INU, PD and composition INU/PD/FOS presented desirable texture for jelly dessert and not differing (P>0.05 of the reference standard with sucrose. For the sensorial analysis the functional jelly with INU obtained the largest index hedonic for flavor and purchase preference above 70%, higher than the reference standard. Considering the results obtained in this study, the technological application of green yerba-mate extract and of soluble fibers, presents evident potential for the development of healthy and functional foods.

  3. Desenvolvimento de gelatina funcional de erva-mate Development of functional yerba-mate jelly

    OpenAIRE

    Kleber Alves Santos Berté; Dayane Rosalyn Izidoro; Fabiana Lemos Goularte Dutra; Rosemary Hoffmann-Ribani

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver formulações para gelatina funcional com extrato de erva-mate verde e fibras solúveis como inulina (INU), frutooligossacarídeos (FOS) e a polidextrose (PD), avaliando o efeito desses ingredientes na gelatina funcional por meio da análise física da textura (firmeza, consistência e coesividade), análise sensorial (sabor e preferência de compra) e composição química. As formulações INU, PD e composição INU/PD/FOS apresentaram textura desejável para uma sobr...

  4. Desenvolvimento de gelatina funcional de erva-mate / Development of functional yerba-mate jelly

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kleber Alves Santos, Berté; Dayane Rosalyn, Izidoro; Fabiana Lemos Goularte, Dutra; Rosemary, Hoffmann-Ribani.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver formulações para gelatina funcional com extrato de erva-mate verde e fibras solúveis como inulina (INU), frutooligossacarídeos (FOS) e a polidextrose (PD), avaliando o efeito desses ingredientes na gelatina funcional por meio da análise física da textura (firm [...] eza, consistência e coesividade), análise sensorial (sabor e preferência de compra) e composição química. As formulações INU, PD e composição INU/PD/FOS apresentaram textura desejável para uma sobremesa de gelatina, não diferindo (P>0,05) do padrão com sacarose. Pela análise sensorial, a gelatina funcional com INU obteve o maior índice hedônico para sabor e preferência de compra acima de 70%, superior ao padrão. Considerando os resultados obtidos neste estudo, a aplicação tecnológica do extrato de erva-mate verde e das fibras solúveis apresenta evidente potencial para o desenvolvimento de alimentos saudáveis e funcionais. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to develop formulations for functional jelly with extract of green yerba-mate and soluble fibers as inulin (INU), fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and polidextrose (PD), evaluating the effect of those ingredients in the functional jelly through texture physical analysis ( [...] firmness, consistence, cohesiveness), sensorial analysis (flavor and purchase preference) and chemical composition. The formulations INU, PD and composition INU/PD/FOS presented desirable texture for jelly dessert and not differing (P>0.05) of the reference standard with sucrose. For the sensorial analysis the functional jelly with INU obtained the largest index hedonic for flavor and purchase preference above 70%, higher than the reference standard. Considering the results obtained in this study, the technological application of green yerba-mate extract and of soluble fibers, presents evident potential for the development of healthy and functional foods.

  5. Análisis microbiológico en yerba mate compuesta / Microbiological analysis in composite yerba mate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G, Jerke; M.A, Horianski; S, Bargardi; M.L, Martínez.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 41 muestras de yerba mate compuesta (YMC) de Posadas, Misiones, Argentina: 21 muestras conteniendo menos de 15% de hierbas (YMC15%). El análisis microbiológico se realizó mediante recuentos de bacterias aeróbicas mesófilas totales (BAMT), coliformes totales (CT), coliformes termotolera [...] ntes (CTT), mohos y levaduras (RML) y detección de Escherichia coli. Los recuentos microbiológicos presentaron valores en promedio para YMC15%: BAMT=3,4x106 UFC/g, CT=6.8x102 NMP/g, CTT=3.4 x101 NMP/g y RML=1,0x105 UFC/g. En YMC>15% se detectó Escherichia coli. YMC presenta una importante contaminación microbiana, siendo mayor en YMC>15%. Los parámetros microbiológicos analizados son superiores a los reportados en yerba mate elaborada destacando la importancia de realizar controles microbiológicos en YMC. Abstract in english Forty one samples of composite yerba mate (CYM) from Posadas, Misiones, Argentina were studied: 21 samples containing less than 15% of herbs (CYM 15%). The analysis was performed by microbiological counts of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), total coliforms (TC), coliforms thermotolerant (CT [...] T), moulds and yeasts (MY) and Escherichia coli detection. Microbiological counts showed average values CYM15%: TMAB=3.4x106 CFU/g, TC=6.8x102 MPN/g, NMP CTT=3.4x101 CFU/g and MY=1.0x105 CFU/g. In YMC>15% Escherichia coli was detected. CYM presents significant microbial contamination, being higher in CYM>15%. Microbiological parameters analyzed are higher than those reported in elaborated yerba mate, showing the importance of microbiological controls to CYM.

  6. Mating Instabilities Lead to Sympatric Speciation

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, C R; Almeida, Catarina R.; Abreu, Fern\\~ao Vistulo de

    2002-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues of evolutionary biology concerns speciation, the emergence of new species from an initial one. The huge amount of species found in nature demands a simple and robust mechanism. Yet, no consensus has been reached concerning a reasonable disruptive selection mechanism that prevents mixing genes among the emerging species, especially when they live in sympatry. Usually it is assumed that females select males according to their displaying traits, but males perform no selection on female traits. However, recent experimental evidence accumulates towards the existence of male choice. Here we propose a robust mechanism for sympatric speciation, based on the assumption that sexual selection operates in two directions: selection of males by females and of females by males. Complex mating instabilities emerge, creating differential fitness depending on the individuals displaying traits and preferences. When a secondary sexual trait is introduced in a population, due to mutations, the a...

  7. Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A.

    2014-09-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included.

  8. Stochasticity in the yeast mating pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report stochastic simulations of the yeast mating signal transduction pathway. The effects of intrinsic and external noise, the influence of cell-to-cell difference in the pathway capacity, and noise propagation in the pathway have been examined. The stochastic temporal behaviour of the pathway is found to be robust to the influence of inherent fluctuations, and intrinsic noise propagates in the pathway in a uniform pattern when the yeasts are treated with pheromones of different stimulus strengths and of varied fluctuations. In agreement with recent experimental findings, extrinsic noise is found to play a more prominent role than intrinsic noise in the variability of proteins. The occurrence frequency for the reactions in the pathway are also examined and a more compact network is obtained by dropping most of the reactions of least occurrence

  9. Optimal mate choice patterns in pelagic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Eliassen, Sigrun

    2013-01-01

    The importance of sexual selection for the evolution, dynamics and adaptation of organisms is well known for many species. However, the topic is rarely studied in marine plankton, the basis of the marine food web. Copepods show behaviors that suggest the existence of sexually selected traits, and recent laboratory experiments identified some selected morphological traits. Here, we use a ‘life history-based’ model of sex roles to determine the optimal choosiness behavior of male and female copepods for important copepod traits. Copepod females are predicted to be choosy at population densities typically occurring during the main breeding season, whereas males are not. The main drivers of this pattern are population density and the difference in non-receptive periods between males and females. This suggests that male reproductive traits have evolved mainly due to mate competition. The model can easily be parameterized for other planktonic organisms, and be used to plan experiments about sexual selection

  10. Mating signals indicating sexual receptiveness induce unique spatio-temporal EEG theta patterns in an anuran species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guangzhan; Yang, Ping; Cui, Jianguo; Yao, Dezhong; Brauth, Steven E; Tang, Yezhong

    2012-01-01

    Female mate choice is of importance for individual fitness as well as a determining factor in genetic diversity and speciation. Nevertheless relatively little is known about how females process information acquired from males during mate selection. In the Emei music frog, Babina daunchina, males normally call from hidden burrows and females in the reproductive stage prefer male calls produced from inside burrows compared with ones from outside burrows. The present study evaluated changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) power output in four frequency bands induced by male courtship vocalizations on both sides of the telencephalon and mesencephalon in females. The results show that (1) both the values of left hemispheric theta relative power and global lateralization in the theta band are modulated by the sexual attractiveness of the acoustic stimulus in the reproductive stage, suggesting the theta oscillation is closely correlated with processing information associated with mate choice; (2) mean relative power in the beta band is significantly greater in the mesencephalon than the left telencephalon, regardless of reproductive status or the biological significance of signals, indicating it is associated with processing acoustic features and (3) relative power in the delta and alpha bands are not affected by reproductive status or acoustic stimuli. The results imply that EEG power in the theta and beta bands reflect different information processing mechanisms related to vocal recognition and auditory perception in anurans. PMID:23285010

  11. Long-term alteration of cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term alteration of cementitious materials in the geological condition has been discussed for the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. This paper describes the status of understanding long-term chemical alteration of cement, by reviewing some of our investigations on this issue in which we developed a thermodynamic incongruent C-S-H dissolution/precipitation model and a reactive transport calculation code. Alteration of C-S-H gel in a saline groundwater and the change of chemical barrier performance of cementitious materials due to the alteration are also discussed. Some key issues to be discussed further are given and suggested for the future studies on the long-term alteration of cementitious materials in the repository environment. (author)

  12. Effects of irradiation on mating ability of Anoplophora glabripennis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperm of long horned beetles (LHBs), A. glabripennis, developed into mature form and became active in testes 10-14 days after emergency. A eupyrene sperm and an apyrene sperm combined together forming a normal mature sperm, and the function of apyrene sperm was helping eupyrene sperm to swim. Irradiation had no influences on sperm transfer, but had some negative influences on sperm activity. Under the cage condition, mating frequencies of different mating types were approximately accorded with the value calculated by probability. Released irradiated LHBs effectively suppressed the reproduction of normal LHBs in releasing cage. Irradiation had no evident influences on mating competitive ability of released LHBs under field-cage condition

  13. Sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS), jealousy and mate retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gayle; Riley, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has investigated the manner in which absolute height impacts on jealousy and mate retention. Although relative height is also important, little information exists about the potential influence of sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS) within established relationships. The current study investigated the relationship between SDS and the satisfaction, jealousy and mate retention behaviors reported by men and women. Heterosexual men (n = 98) and women (n = 102) completed a questionnaire. Men in high SDS relationships reported the lowest levels of cognitive and behavioral jealousy, although the impact of SDS on relationship satisfaction was less clear. SDS was not associated with the overall use of mate retention strategies; SDS did however affect the use of three specific strategies (vigilance, monopolization of time, love and care). SDS did not affect women's relationship satisfaction, jealousy (cognitive, behavioral, or emotional) or the use of mate retention strategies (with the exception of resource display). PMID:22947818

  14. Protecting artificial team-mates : more seems like less

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; McGee, Kevin

    Previous research on conversational, competitive, and cooperative systems suggests that people respond differently to humans and AI agents in terms of perception and evaluation of observed team-mate behavior. However, there has not been research examining the relationship between participants' protective behavior toward human/AI team-mates and their beliefs about their behavior. A study was conducted in which 32 participants played two sessions of a cooperative game, once with a "presumed" human and once with an AI team-mate; players could "draw fire" from a common enemy by "yelling" at it. Overwhelmingly, players claimed they "drew fire" on behalf of the presumed human more than for the AI team-mate; logged data indicates the opposite. The main contribution of this paper is to provide evidence of the mismatch in player beliefs about their actions and actual behavior with humans or agents and provides possible explanations for the differences.

  15. Parent-Offspring Conflict over Short-Term Mating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyroulla Georgiou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals engage in short-term mating strategies that enable them to obtain fitness benefits from casual relationships. These benefits, however, count for less and cost more to their parents. On this basis three hypotheses are tested. First, parents and offspring are likely to disagree over short-term mating strategies, with the former considering these as less acceptable than the latter. Second, parents are more likely to disapprove of the short-term mating strategies of their daughters than of their sons. Finally, mothers and fathers are expected to agree on how much they disagree over the short-term mating strategies of their children. Evidence from a sample of 148 Greek-Cypriot families (140 mothers, 105 fathers, 119 daughters, 77 sons provides support for the first two hypotheses and partial support for the third hypothesis. The implications of these findings for understanding family dynamics are further discussed.

  16. Aporte de Minerales del mate cocido a la dieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Francini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo surgió como la continuación del trabajo "YERBA MATE... ¿SIMPLEMENTE UN HABITO O UN BUEN ALIMENTO?" en el cual se analizó el contenido total de: K, Mn, Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, Na, Cu y Ni en once yerbas comercializadas en Uruguay.En la región comprendida por Argentina, Uruguay, Brasil y Paraguay la yerba mate se consume mayoritariamente como mate (extracción en caliente, tereré (extracción en frío y mate cocido (infusión caliente. A los efectos de conocer el aporte de minerales de la yerba a la dieta diaria, se analizó el contenido de K, Mn, Mg, Fe y Zn (por ser los presentes en mayor cantidad en la yerba mate en una simulación de mate cocido, con lo que se determinó que porcentaje de estos es extraído en dicha infusión.Para realizar la simulación de mate cocido, se colocaron 50g de yerba mate en 1L de agua desionizada y se calentó en plancha con agitación hasta alcanzar una temperatura de 99°C. La solución sobrenadante fue filtrada en caliente en filtro de papel de 640W y luego en frío a través de filtro de membrana de 0,45 µm. Los minerales antes mencionados fueron determinados por espectroscopía de emisión óptica (PERKIN ELMER OPTIMA 2100. Obteniéndose como resultado Zn= 2,9mg/L, Fe= 0,36mg/L, Mn= 57mg/L, K= 848mg/L en el extracto preparado como se mencionó anteriormente. Representando una extracción del contenido total de la yerba mate cercano al 100% para potasio y cinc, del 70% para el manganeso y del 2% para el hierro.De los resultados obtenidos se concluye que de consumirse un litro de mate cocido diario preparado en forma similar a la de este trabajo, se cubrirían ampliamente los requerimientos diarios de manganeso, se cubriría el 50% de los requerimientos diarios de magnesio, el 20% de los de potasio y cinc y el 6% de los de hierro.La yerba mate es un alimento ampliamente difundido y en los estratos sociales más bajos llega a sustituir una o más comidas diarias, lo que convierte a la I. paraguariensis en una fuente importante de minerales. Siendo adecuado su consumo como complemento de la dieta para aquellas personas que precisan una ingesta elevada de dichos minerales.

  17. Positively Verifying Mating of Previously Unverifiable Flight Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandipati R. K. Chetty

    2011-01-01

    Current practice is to uniquely key the connectors, which, when mated, could not be verified by ground tests such as those used in explosive or non-explosive initiators and pyro valves. However, this practice does not assure 100-percent correct mating. This problem could be overcome by the following approach. Errors in mating of interchangeable connectors can result in degraded or failed space mission. Mating of all flight connectors considered not verifiable via ground tests can be verified electrically by the following approach. It requires two additional wires going through the connector of interest, a few resistors, and a voltage source. The test-point voltage V(sub tp) when the connector is not mated will be the same as the input voltage, which gets attenuated by the resistor R(sub 1) when the female (F) and male (M) connectors are mated correctly and properly. The voltage at the test point will be a function of R(sub 1) and R(sub 2). Monitoring of the test point could be done on ground support equipment (GSE) only, or it can be a telemetry point. For implementation on multiple connector pairs, a different value for R(sub 1) or R(sub 2) or both can be selected for each pair of connectors that would result in a unique test point voltage for each connector pair. Each test point voltage is unique, and correct test point voltage is read only when the correct pair is mated correctly together. Thus, this design approach can be used to verify positively the correct mating of the connector pairs. This design approach can be applied to any number of connectors on the flight vehicle.

  18. Learning decreases heterospecific courtship and mating in fruit flies

    OpenAIRE

    Dukas, Reuven

    2008-01-01

    Recent theory and data suggest that adaptive use of learning in the context of sexual behaviour could contribute to assortative mating. Experiments examining this issue indicated that male Drosophila persimilis that experienced courtship and rejection by heterospecific females exhibited significantly lower levels of heterospecific courtship and mating compared with those of inexperienced males. These results indicate that experience in the context of sexual behaviour in fruit flies could redu...

  19. Mating with the wrong species can be right

    OpenAIRE

    Reyer, H U

    2008-01-01

    The evolutionary importance of interspecific hybridisation has been a controversial issue for quite some time. Some view mating between different species as a maladaptive process; others stress the adaptive value of choosing heterospecific mates under ecological conditions that favour hybrids. A recent paper by Pfennig is the first study to make a priori predictions of how adaptive choice between con- and heterospecific partners should vary with ecological conditions, and then testing these p...

  20. MATING DESIGNS: HELPFUL TOOL FOR QUANTITATIVE PLANT BREEDING ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanase Nduwumuremyi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of parental materials and good mating designs in conventional plant breeding are the keys to the successful plant breeding programme. However, there are several factors affecting the choices of mating designs. Mating design refers to the procedure of producing the progenies, in plant breeding, plant breeders and geneticists, theoretically and practically, they use different form of mating designs and arrangements for targeted purpose. The choice of a mating design for estimating genetic variances should be dictated by the objectives of the study, time, space, cost and other biological limitations. In all mating designs, the individuals are taken randomly and crossed to produce progenies which are related to each other as half-sibs or full-sibs. A form of multivariate analysis or the analysis of variance can be adopted to estimate the components of variances. Therefore, this review aimed at highlighting the most used mating design in plant breeding and genetics studies. It provides easy and quick insight of the different form of mating designs and some statistical components for successful plant breeding. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  1. Fission yeast mating-type switching: programmed damage and repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egel, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Mating-type switching in fission yeast follows similar rules as in budding yeast, but the underlying mechanisms are entirely different. Whilst the initiating double-strand cut in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires recombinational repair for survival, the initial damage in Schizosaccharomyces pombe only affects a single strand, which can be sealed by gap repair in situ, whether or not it serves as an imprint for subsequent switching of mating type from an appropriate donor cassette. Recent papers ...

  2. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate's initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens' Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The present findings indicate sparseness performs a similar function in single aneural cells by tuning the size and density of encoded computational architectures useful for decision making in social contexts. PMID:22482001

  3. The biological meaning of preferences on the human mate market

    OpenAIRE

    Paw?owski, Bogus?aw

    2000-01-01

    Factors, which universally influence mate choice decisions, are: age, physical appearance, and resources. Different evidence of the biological relevance of these three factors on the human mate market is presented. The sex-specific preferences for partner's age reflect such values as Fisherian reproductive potential and fecundity for females and life expectancy related to the length of further time of paternal investment for males. Physical attractiveness is analyzed as a marker of female's a...

  4. Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) courtship and mating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Piñeyrúa Jéssica T; Ungerfeld Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758), is a South American grazing deer categorized as "near threatened". However, knowledge about pampas deer behavior including courtship and mating is scarce and incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize the courtship and mating behavior of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), an endangered species from South America. Methods We performed focal observations of 5 males allocated at the Estación de Cría de Fau...

  5. Promiscuous mating produces offspring with higher lifetime fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach, Nicole M.; McGlothlin, Joel W.; Parker, Patricia G.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2011-01-01

    In many species, each female pairs with a single male for the purpose of rearing offspring, but may also engage in extra-pair copulations. Despite the prevalence of such promiscuity, whether and how multiple mating benefits females remains an open question. Multiple mating is typically thought to be favoured primarily through indirect benefits (i.e. heritable effects on the fitness of offspring). This prediction has been repeatedly tested in a variety of species, but the evidence has been equ...

  6. Sexual Cooperation: Mating Increases Longevity in Ant Queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jürgen; Cremer, Sylvia

    2005-01-01

    Divergent reproductive interests of males and females often cause sexual conflict [1] and [2] . Males of many species manipulate females by transferring seminal fluids that boost female short-term fecundity while decreasing their life expectancy and future reproductivity [3] and [4] . The life history of ants, however, is expected to reduce sexual conflict; whereas most insect females show repeated phases of mating and reproduction, ant queens mate only during a short period early in life and un...

  7. What’s in a Kiss? The Effect of Romantic Kissing on Mate Desirability

    OpenAIRE

    Wlodarski, R; Dunbar, RIM

    2014-01-01

    Past research suggests that various courtship rituals, such as romantic kissing, may convey useful mate quality information. Two studies were carried out to examine how purported romantic kissing abilities, as a potential cue to some form of mate information, affect appraisals of potential mating partners. In Experiment 1, 724 participants were presented with vignette descriptions of potential mating partners and were asked to rate partner desirability for various mating-related situations. T...

  8. Genes Controlling Mating-Type Specificity in PARAMECIUM CAUDATUM: Three Loci Revealed by Intersyngenic Crosses

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukii, Yuuji; Hiwatashi, Koichi

    1983-01-01

    In mating interactions in Paramecium caudatum, initial mating agglutination is strictly mating-type specific, but subsequent conjugating pair formation is not mating-type specific. Using this nonspecificity of pair formation, intersyngenic (intersibling species) pairs were induced by mixing four mating types of two different syngens. To distinguish intersyngenic pairs from intrasyngenic ones, the behavioral marker CNR (Takahashi 1979) was mainly used. Clones of intersyngenic hybrids showed hi...

  9. Extreme Costs of Mating for Male Two-Spot Ladybird Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Jennifer C.; Tse, Crystal T.

    2013-01-01

    Male costs of mating are now thought to be widespread. The two-spot ladybird beetle (Adalia bipunctata) has been the focus of many studies of mating and sexual selection, yet the costs of mating for males are unknown. The mating system of A. bipunctata involves a spermatophore nuptial gift ingested by females after copulation. In this study, we investigate the cost to males of mating and of transferring spermatophores in terms of lifespan, ejaculate production and depletion of nutritional res...

  10. Determinants of Natural Mating Success in the Cannibalistic Orb-Web Spider Argiope bruennichi

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmer, Stefanie M.; Welke, Klaas W.; Schneider, Jutta M

    2012-01-01

    Monogynous mating systems (low male mating rates) occur in various taxa and have evolved several times independently in spiders. Monogyny is associated with remarkable male mating strategies and predicted to evolve under a male-biased sex ratio. While male reproductive strategies are well documented and male mating rates are easy to quantify, especially in sexually cannibalistic species, female reproductive strategies, the optimal female mating rate, and the factors that affect the evolution ...

  11. Secondary sexual ornamentation and non-additive genetic benefits of female mate choice

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Jane M.

    2007-01-01

    Ornamental secondary sexual traits are hypothesized to evolve in response to directional mating preferences for more ornamented mates. Such mating preferences may themselves evolve partly because ornamentation indicates an individual's additive genetic quality (good genes). While mate choice can also confer non-additive genetic benefits (compatible genes), the identity of the most ‘compatible’ mate is assumed to depend on the choosy individual's own genotype. It is therefore unclear how choic...

  12. Potentials-Attract or Likes-Attract in Human Mate Choice in China

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qiao-Qiao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Wang, Zhi-Guo; Tu, Ying; Ji, Ting; Tao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    To explain how individuals’ self-perceived long-term mate value influences their mate preference and mate choice, two hypotheses have been presented, which are “potentials-attract” and “likes-attract”, respectively. The potentials-attract means that people choose mates matched with their sex-specific traits indicating reproductive potentials; and the likes-attract means that people choose mates matched with their own conditions. However, the debate about these two hypotheses still remains uns...

  13. Genomic analysis of post-mating changes in the honey bee queen (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Freddie-Jeanne; Kocher Sarah D; Tarpy David R; Grozinger Christina M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms underlying the post-mating behavioral and physiological transitions undergone by females have not been explored in great detail. Honey bees represent an excellent model system in which to address these questions because they exhibit a range of "mating states," with two extremes (virgins and egg-laying, mated queens) that differ dramatically in their behavior, pheromone profiles, and physiology. We used an incompletely-mated mating-state to understa...

  14. EVOLUTION OF DIVERGENT FEMALE MATING PREFERENCE IN RESPONSE TO EXPERIMENTAL SEXUAL SELECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Debelle, Allan; Ritchie, Michael G.; Snook, Rhonda R

    2014-01-01

    Sexual selection is predicted to drive the coevolution of mating signals and preferences (mating traits) within populations, and could play a role in speciation if sexual isolation arises due to mating trait divergence between populations. However, few studies have demonstrated that differences in mating traits between populations result from sexual selection alone. Experimental evolution is a promising approach to directly examine the action of sexual selection on mating trait divergence amo...

  15. Nonlinearities in mating sounds of American crocodiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benko, Tina P; Perc, Matjaz

    2009-09-01

    We use nonlinear time series analysis methods to analyze the dynamics of the sound-producing apparatus of the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). We capture its dynamics by analyzing a recording of the singing activity during mating time. First, we reconstruct the phase space from the sound recording and thereby reveal that the attractor needs no less than five degrees of freedom to fully evolve in the embedding space, which suggests that a rather complex nonlinear dynamics underlies its existence. Prior to investigating the dynamics more precisely, we test whether the reconstructed attractor satisfies the notions of determinism and stationarity, as a lack of either of these properties would preclude a meaningful further analysis. After positively establishing determinism and stationarity, we proceed by showing that the maximal Lyapunov exponent of the recording is positive, which is a strong indicator for the chaotic behavior of the system, confirming that dynamical nonlinearities are an integral part of the examined sound-producing apparatus. At the end, we discuss that methods of nonlinear time series analysis could yield instructive insights and foster the understanding of vocal communication among certain reptile species. PMID:19505529

  16. Male Mating Signaling in Social Dilemma Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm

    2013-01-01

    According to sexual selection theory and costly signaling theory, men benefit from signaling costly mate qualities to attractive women. To date, several studies have investigated whether men use conspicuous altruism to attract women, but the findings are mixed. This study investigated whether men being observed by an attractive woman engage in competitive economic altruism in three social dilemma games—the Dictator Game, Trust Game (2nd mover), and Public Goods Game—in comparison to men being observed by a non-attractive woman. Results showed that altruistic contributions in the games were not significantly larger in the attractive observer group than in the non-attractive observer group. Exploratory analyses did reveal, however, that amongst participants with an attractive observer only, dispositional generosity had a strongly positive effect on altruism while dispositional dominance had a negative effect on altruism. Moderating effects of key individual differences suggest that the mixed findings within theempirical literature may be attributed to the existence of multiple male courtship signaling strategies. As such, the findings suggest a promising way for future studies to identify different signaling strategies, but until the findings can be replicated with specific hypothesis-driven studies they should be considered with caution.

  17. Mating Competitiveness of Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) Irradiated as Parental Pupae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory studied were carried out to evaluate the mating competitiveness of P1 and F1 generations of Agrotis ipsilon when irradiated as full grown pupae with 75 and 150 Gy of gamma irradiation. The mating competitiveness values showed that either males or females of P1 or F1 generation were full competitive after treatment with 75 or 150 Gy at all released ratios. Mating competitiveness of both irradiated males and females was also studied to avoid problems concerning mass sexing. The results revealed that confining both sexes together gave an excellent results for population suppression in both P1 and F1 in both tested doses and ratios. The addition of irradiated females to the release ratio make these females encountered in mating with untreated females, and possessed 78% of all matings occurred in parent generation in the two tested doses at 5:5:1 ratio and increased to reach 88% by F1 females 75 Gy while it was reduced to only 31% at 150 Gy, but still act in mating

  18. Structural basis for the blockade of MATE multidrug efflux pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, Martha; Symersky, Jindrich; Nie, Rongxin; Lu, Min

    2015-08-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters underpin multidrug resistance by using the H+ or Na+ electrochemical gradient to extrude different drugs across cell membranes. MATE transporters can be further parsed into the DinF, NorM and eukaryotic subfamilies based on their amino-acid sequence similarity. Here we report the 3.0 Å resolution X-ray structures of a protonation-mimetic mutant of an H+-coupled DinF transporter, as well as of an H+-coupled DinF and a Na+-coupled NorM transporters in complexes with verapamil, a small-molecule pharmaceutical that inhibits MATE-mediated multidrug extrusion. Combining structure-inspired mutational and functional studies, we confirm the biological relevance of our crystal structures, reveal the mechanistic differences among MATE transporters, and suggest how verapamil inhibits MATE-mediated multidrug efflux. Our findings offer insights into how MATE transporters extrude chemically and structurally dissimilar drugs and could inform the design of new strategies for tackling multidrug resistance.

  19. Cytonuclear interactions and the economics of mating in seed beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Damian K; Meerupati, Tejashwari; Arnqvist, Göran

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies have uncovered an abundance of nonneutral cytoplasmic genetic variation within species, which suggests that we should no longer consider the cytoplasm an idle intermediary of evolutionary change. Nonneutrality of cytoplasmic genomes is particularly intriguing, given that these genomes are maternally transmitted. This means that the fate of any given cytoplasmic genetic mutation is directly tied to its performance when expressed in females. For this reason, it has been hypothesized that cytoplasmic genes will coevolve via a sexually antagonistic arms race with the biparentally transmitted nuclear genes with which they interact. We assess this prediction, examining the intergenomic contributions to the costs and benefits of mating in Callosobruchus maculatus females subjected to a mating treatment with three classes (kept virgin, mated once, or forced to cohabit with a male). We find no evidence that the economics of mating are determined by interactions between cytoplasmic genes expressed in females and nuclear genes expressed in males and, therefore, no support for a sexually antagonistic intergenomic arms race. The cost of mating to females was, however, shaped by an interaction between the cytoplasmic and nuclear genes expressed within females. Thus, cytonuclear interactions are embroiled in the economics of mating. PMID:20524843

  20. Multimodal sexual signaling and mating behavior in olive baboons (Papio anubis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaill, Lucie; Higham, James P; Lee, Phyllis C; Blin, Amandine; Garcia, Cécile

    2013-07-01

    In primate species, mating decisions seem to be based on multiple signal elements with different roles in the signaling of female reproductive status. Whereas some primate signals are relatively well described (e.g., sexual swellings and copulation calls), studies that simultaneously assess visual, auditory, behavioral, and olfactory cues as signals of reproductive state are rarely undertaken. We used data on variation in sexual behaviors and sexual swellings in relation to the fertile period (estimated from the date of swelling detumescence) from a troop of semi-free ranging olive baboons (Papio anubis) to assess how different signals influence patterns of mate choice. Using an objective and quantitative measure of swelling size and color, along with detailed data on sexual behaviors from 13 cycles of nine adult females, we found that fine-scale variation in sexual swelling size, female behavior and copulation call rates could advertise the beginning of the fertile phase whereas swelling color did not. Rates of olfactory inspections by males also increased during the fertile phase, suggesting that olfactory signals were of interest to males and may contain information about ovulation. There was no relationship between female characteristics (age and rank) and the expression of sexual signals, except for proceptive behaviors which increased with female rank. Males displayed more sexual behaviors such as approaches and holding and tended to direct more ejaculatory mounts during the fertile phase. All together, we suggest that whereas all males could have information concerning the timing of ovulation through female proceptive behaviors and swelling size, consorting males may have access to additional signals (olfactory cues). Sexual communication in olive baboons is consistent with a multimodal framework for fertility signaling, potentially allowing males and females to establish different mating strategies. The possible selective pressures leading to multi-modal signaling are discussed. PMID:23592393

  1. A subgroup of MATE transporter genes regulates hypocotyl cell elongation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Xiayan; Liang, Shuang; Ge, Qing; Li, Yuanfeng; Shao, Jingxia; Qi, Yafei; An, Lijun; Yu, Fei

    2015-09-01

    The growth of higher plants is under complex regulation to ensure the elaboration of developmental programmes under a changing environment. To dissect these regulatory circuits, we carried out genetic screens for Arabidopsis abnormal shoot (abs) mutants with altered shoot development. Here, we report the isolation of two dominant mutants, abs3-1D and abs4-1D, through activation tagging. Both mutants showed a 'bushy' loss of apical dominance phenotype. ABS3 and ABS4 code for two closely related putative Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion (MATE) family of efflux transporters, respectively. ABS3 and ABS4, as well as two related MATE genes, ABS3-Like1 (ABS3L1) and ABS3L2, showed diverse tissue expression profiles but their gene products all localized to the late endosome/prevacuole (LE/PVC) compartment. The over-expression of these four genes individually led to the inhibition of hypocotyl cell elongation in the light. On the other hand, the quadruple knockout mutant (mateq) showed the opposite phenotype of an enhanced hypocotyl cell elongation in the light. Hypocotyl cell elongation and de-etiolation processes in the dark were also affected by the mutations of these genes. Exogenously applied sucrose attenuated the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation caused by abs3-1D and abs4-1D in the dark, and enhanced the hypocotyl elongation of mateq under prolonged dark treatment. We determined that ABS3 genetically interacts with the photoreceptor gene PHYTOCHROME B (PHYB). Our results demonstrate that ABS3 and related MATE family transporters are potential negative regulators of hypocotyl cell elongation and support a functional link between the endomembrane system, particularly the LE/PVC, and the regulation of plant cell elongation. PMID:26160579

  2. Turbidity alters pre-mating social interactions between native and invasive stream fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotzbecker, Gregory J.; Ward, Jessica L.; Walters, David M.; Blum, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental degradation can result in the loss of aquatic biodiversity if impairment promotes hybridisation between non-native and native species. Although aquatic biological invasions involving hybridisation have been attributed to elevated water turbidity, the extent to which impaired clarity influences reproductive isolation among non-native and native species is poorly understood.

  3. Effect of the Sterilizing dose of Gamma Irradiation on Mating Performance and Female re-mating of Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population suppression success of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) using sterile insect technique (SIT) depends mainly upon the ability of sterilized males to locate and mate with wild females. The efficiency of the SIT also depends upon the relative frequencies of re-mating by wild females following first mating with sterilized or wild males. A semi field cage test was conducted to study the effect of three different sterilizing doses of gamma irradiation on the male mating performance. No significant differences were found in the ability of mating, the mating duration and mating site between the un-irradiated males and irradiated ones with the doses (80, 90 and 100 Gy) The irradiated males with the dose 80 Gy revealed mating ability higher than the irradiated males with the other doses (90 and 100 Gy) although un-irradiated males had a general higher ability than irradiated ones.

  4. The effect of novel promoter variants in MATE1 and MATE2 on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metformin

    OpenAIRE

    Stocker, Sophie L.; Morrissey, Kari M.; Yee, Sook Wah; Castro, Richard A.; Xu, Lu; Dahlin, Amber; Ramirez, Andrea H.; Roden, Dan M; Wilke, Russ A.; McCarty, Cathy A.; Robert L. Davis; Brett, Claire M.; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Interindividual variation in response to metformin, first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes, is substantial. Given that transporters are determinants of metformin pharmacokinetics, we examined the effects of promoter variants in both multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1) (g.?66T?C, rs2252281) and MATE2 (g.?130G?A, rs12943590) on variation in metformin disposition and response. The pharmacokinetics and glucose-lowering effects of metformin were assessed in healthy volunteers (n = 57) ...

  5. Cancer and yerba mate consumption: a review of possible associations Cáncer y consumo de yerba mate: revisión de posibles asociaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Dora Loria; Enrique Barrios; Roberto Zanetti

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify any possible link between mate consumption and cancer, mainly of the esophagus, larynx, and oral cavity. METHODS: A review of literature, published through August 2008, pertaining to the carcinogenic risk of mate consumption was undertaken by searching the two databases, MEDLINE and TOXLINE, for relevant articles. The bibliographies of the articles were examined for additional relevant sources. In addition, a search on the name of each author having published on the top...

  6. Male rock sparrows adjust their breeding strategy according to female ornamentation: parental or mating investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilastro, Andrea; Griggio, Matteo

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relations between female quality and ornamentation and between male breeding investment and female ornamentation in the rock sparrow, Petronia petronia, a passerine in which both sexes have a yellow breast patch. Breast patch size in females was positively correlated with body mass and breeding status; double-brooding and primary females of polygynous males had a larger patch, and patch size could therefore be an indicator of female phenotypic quality. We conducted a field experiment to test whether males allocate their parental effort in relation to female quality, as predicted by the differential allocation hypothesis. We increased and reduced the ornament sizes of paired females and compared the behaviour of their males before and after manipulation. Frequency of brood feeding by the male was not affected by female ornament manipulation; there was a nonsignificant trend for females with enlarged ornaments, contrary to predictions, to increase their feeding rate. Reducing female ornaments resulted in a decrease in male nest attendance, a measure of passive brood defence, whereas enlarging the ornament had no effect. Males concurrently reduced their territorial (song output) and sexual activity (courtship and copulation). The reduction in sexual activity suggests that males may have changed their nest attendance in response to their mate's renesting probability. Whatever the interpretation, these results provide some of the first evidence that not only female, but also male, birds change breeding strategy according to their mate's phenotype in the wild.

  7. Neurogenetics of courtship and mating in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villella, Adriana; Hall, Jeffrey C

    2008-01-01

    The reproductive biology of Drosophila melanogaster is described and critically discussed, primarily with regard to genetic studies of sex-specific behavior and its neural underpinnings. The investigatory history of this system includes, in addition to a host of recent neurobiological analyses of reproductive phenotypes, studies of mating as well as the behaviors leading up to that event. Courtship and mating have been delved into mostly with regard to male-specific behavior and biology, although a small number of studies has also pointed to the neural substrates of female reproduction. Sensory influences on interactions between courting flies have long been studied, partly by application of mutants and partly by surgical experiments. More recently, molecular-genetic approaches to sensations passing between flies in reproductive contexts have aimed to "dissect" further the meaning of separate sensory modalities. Notable among these are olfactory and contact-chemosensory stimuli, which perhaps have received an inordinate amount of attention in terms of the possibility that they could comprise the key cues involved in triggering and sustaining courtship actions. But visual and auditory stimuli are heavily involved as well--appreciated mainly from older experiments, but analyzable further using elementary approaches (single-gene mutations mutants and surgeries), as well as by applying the molecularly defined factors alluded to above. Regarding regulation of reproductive behavior by components of Drosophila's central nervous system (CNS), once again significant invigoration of the relevant inquiries has been stimulated and propelled by identification and application of molecular-genetic materials. A distinct plurality of the tools applied involves transposons inserted in the fly's chromosomes, defining "enhancer-trap" strains that can be used to label various portions of the nervous system and, in parallel, disrupt their structure and function by "driving" companion transgenes predesigned for these experimental purposes. Thus, certain components of interneuronal routes, functioning along pathways whose starting points are sensory reception by the peripheral nervous system (PNS), have been manipulated to enhance appreciation of sexually important sensory modalities, as well as to promote understanding of where such inputs end up within the CNS: Where are reproductively related stimuli processed, such that different kinds of sensation would putatively be integrated to mediate sex-specific behavioral readouts? In line with generic sensory studies that have tended to concentrate on chemical stimuli, PNS-to-CNS pathways focused upon in reproductive experiments relying on genic enhancers have mostly involved smell and taste. Enhancer traps have also been applied to disrupt various regions within the CNS to ask about the various ganglia, and portions thereof, that contribute to male- or female-specific behavior. These manipulations have encompassed structural or functional disruptions of such regions as well as application of molecular-genetic tricks to feminize or masculinize a given component of the CNS. Results of such experiments have, indeed, identified certain discrete subsets of centrally located ganglia that, on the one hand, lead to courtship defects when disrupted or, on the other, must apparently maintain sex-specific identity if the requisite courtship actions are to be performed. As just implied, perturbations of certain neural tissues not based on manipulating "sex factors" might lead to reproductive behavioral abnormalities, even though changing the sexual identity of such structures would not necessarily have analogous consequences. It has been valuable to uncover these sexually significant subsets of the Drosophila nervous system, although it must be said that not all of the transgenically based dissection outcomes are in agreement. Thus, the good news is that not all of the CNS is devoted to courtship control, whereby any and all locales disrupted might have led to sex-speci

  8. Human mate selection under competitive pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Hope, David

    2006-01-01

    Stable, cross-cultural, gender-based preferences in relationship choices have been identified by evolutionary psychologists (Buss 1987, Symons and Ellis 1989). This study furthered such research by collecting data from 20 participants (10 male, 10 female) using a mixed design. Participants completed three questionnaires on sexual orientation and relationship status, their attitudes towards aspects of relationships, and a trait-rating scale (a replication of Buss 1989). Participants then answe...

  9. Gestural Communication and Mating Tactics in Wild Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Anna Ilona; Roberts, Sam George Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which primates can flexibly adjust the production of gestural communication according to the presence and visual attention of the audience provides key insights into the social cognition underpinning gestural communication, such as an understanding of third party relationships. Gestures given in a mating context provide an ideal area for examining this flexibility, as frequently the interests of a male signaller, a female recipient and a rival male bystander conflict. Dominant chimpanzee males seek to monopolize matings, but subordinate males may use gestural communication flexibly to achieve matings despite their low rank. Here we show that the production of mating gestures in wild male East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweunfurthii) was influenced by a conflict of interest with females, which in turn was influenced by the presence and visual attention of rival males. When the conflict of interest was low (the rival male was present and looking away), chimpanzees used visual/ tactile gestures over auditory gestures. However, when the conflict of interest was high (the rival male was absent, or was present and looking at the signaller) chimpanzees used auditory gestures over visual/ tactile gestures. Further, the production of mating gestures was more common when the number of oestrous and non-oestrus females in the party increased, when the female was visually perceptive and when there was no wind. Females played an active role in mating behaviour, approaching for copulations more often when the number of oestrus females in the party increased and when the rival male was absent, or was present and looking away. Examining how social and ecological factors affect mating tactics in primates may thus contribute to understanding the previously unexplained reproductive success of subordinate male chimpanzees. PMID:26536467

  10. Radical loss of an extreme extra-pair mating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segelbacher Gernot

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mating outside the pair-bond is surprisingly common in socially monogamous birds, but rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP vary widely between species. Although differences in life-history and contemporary ecological factors may explain some interspecific variation, evolutionary forces driving extra-pair (EP mating remain largely obscure. Also, since there is a large phylogenetic component to the frequency of EPP, evolutionary inertia may contribute substantially to observed EP mating patterns. However, the relative importance of plasticity and phylogenetic constraints on the incidence of EP mating remains largely unknown. Results We here demonstrate very low levels of EPP (4.4% of offspring in the purple-crowned fairy-wren Malurus coronatus, a member of the genus with the highest known levels of EPP in birds. In addition, we show absence of the suite of distinctive behavioral and morphological adaptations associated with EP mating that characterize other fairy-wrens. Phylogenetic parsimony implies that these characteristics were lost in one speciation event. Nonetheless, many life-history and breeding parameters that are hypothesized to drive interspecific variation in EPP are not different in the purple-crowned fairy-wren compared to its promiscuous congeners. Conclusion Such radical loss of an extreme EP mating system with all associated adaptations from a lineage of biologically very similar species indicates that evolutionary inertia does not necessarily constrain interspecific variation in EPP. Moreover, if apparently minor interspecific differences regularly cause large differences in EPP, this may be one reason why the evolution of EP mating is still poorly understood.

  11. Factors affecting female re-mating frequency in the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mating and re-mating of two laboratory strains (Petapa and Guate), one wild population (Antigua) of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and one of the hybrids between them were studied under laboratory conditions. No evidence of sexual isolation at first mating was found among them. Re-mating frequency was higher under crowded conditions for the two laboratory strains. The probability of Pe tap a females re-mating depended more on the origin of the male and was negatively associated with the duration of the first mating, but these variables had no effect on re-mating tendency of Guate females. Matings by Petapa males were significantly less prolonged than those of Guate or hybrid males. With respect to re-mating, Petapa non-virgin females preferred Petapa to Guate males. (author)

  12. Does mating interfere in the biological characteristics of a population of Trichogramma pretiosum?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    DIRCEU, PRATISSOLI; THIAGO G., KLOSS; FERNANDO D., ZINGER; JOSÉ R. DE, CARVALHO; ULYSSES R., VIANNA; JOÃO P.P., PAES.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma spp. são parasitoides utilizados na regulação de populações de insetos que podem causar danos econômicos. Para que esses tenham bom desempenho é essencial o conhecimento de algumas de suas características biológicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se o acasalamento interfere nas [...] características biológicas de uma população de Trichogramma pretiosum coletada em campo. Em todos os experimentos, grupos de fêmeas acasaladas e não acasaladas foram utilizados. Além disso, foi verificada a interferência do acasalamento nas características biológicas dos descendentes. Foi constatado que o acasalamento é capaz de alterar o parasitismo e a longevidade das fêmeas genitoras, além de alterar a longevidade entre os descendentes, porém, uma vez parasitados, os ovos se desenvolvem normalmente, apresentando viabilidade e número de descendentes similares aos das fêmeas não acasaladas. Verificamos ainda, que a população de T. pretiosum coletada em campo apresentou indivíduos com características reprodutivas telítocas e arrenótocas. Esse fato ressalta a importância de investigações cuidadosas sobre o modo de reprodução das populações coletadas em campo, evitando assim problemas de eficiência no manejo de populações de insetos. Abstract in english Trichogramma spp. are parasitoids used in the regulation of insect populations that can cause economic damage. In order to ensure good performance, understanding some of their biological characteristics is essential. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether mating interferes with the biol [...] ogical characteristics of a population of Trichogramma pretiosum collected in the field. In all experiments, groups of mated and unmated females were used. We also verified any interference from mating on the biological characteristics of the offspring. We found that mating can alter the parasitism and longevity of genitor females, in addition to changing longevity among the descendants, but once parasitized, the eggs develop normally, showing similar emergence percentage and number of offspring as those from unmated females. In addition, we verified that the population of T. pretiosum collected in the field presented individuals with reproductive thelytokous and arrhenotokous characteristics. This fact highlights the importance of careful investigation on the reproduction mode of populations collected in the field, thus avoiding problems in the effective management of insect populations.

  13. Accumulated Expression Level of Cytosolic Glutamine Synthetase 1 Gene (OsGS1;1 or OsGS1;2) Alter Plant Development and the Carbon-Nitrogen Metabolic Status in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Aili; Zhao, Zhuqing; Ding, Guangda; Shi, Lei; XU, FANGSEN; Cai, Hongmei

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining an appropriate balance of carbon to nitrogen metabolism is essential for rice growth and yield. Glutamine synthetase is a key enzyme for ammonium assimilation. In this study, we systematically analyzed the growth phenotype, carbon-nitrogen metabolic status and gene expression profiles in GS1;1-, GS1;2-overexpressing rice and wildtype plants. Our results revealed that the GS1;1-, GS1;2-overexpressing plants exhibited a poor plant growth phenotype and yield and decreased carbon/nitr...

  14. Levels of myosin heavy chain mRNA transcripts and content of protein isoforms in the slow soleus muscle of 7 month-old rats with altered thyroid status.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vadászová, Adriana; Hudecová, S.; Križanová, O.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 55, ?. 2 (2006), s. 221-225. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GD305/03/H148; GA ?R(CZ) GA304/05/0327 Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 2/6078; SAV(SK) APVT-51-027404; NATO(XE) 979876; MYORES(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : myosin heavy chain * thyroid hormones status * mRNA transcripts Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2006

  15. Female Sexual Polymorphism and Fecundity Consequences of Male Mating Harassment in the Wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosden, Thomas P.; Svensson, Erik I.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic and phenotypic variation in female response towards male mating attempts has been found in several laboratory studies, demonstrating sexually antagonistic co-evolution driven by mating costs on female fitness. Theoretical models suggest that the type and degree of genetic variation in female resistance could affect the evolutionary outcome of sexually antagonistic mating interactions, resulting in either rapid development of reproductive isolation and speciation or genetic clustering and female sexual polymorphisms. However, evidence for genetic variation of this kind in natural populations of non-model organisms is very limited. Likewise, we lack knowledge on female fecundity-consequences of matings and the degree of male mating harassment in natural settings. Here we present such data from natural populations of a colour polymorphic damselfly. Using a novel experimental technique of colour dusting males in the field, we show that heritable female colour morphs differ in their propensity to accept male mating attempts. These morphs also differ in their degree of resistance towards male mating attempts, the number of realized matings and in their fecundity-tolerance to matings and mating attempts. These results show that there may be genetic variation in both resistance and tolerance to male mating attempts (fitness consequences of matings) in natural populations, similar to the situation in plant-pathogen resistance systems. Male mating harassment could promote the maintenance of a sexual mating polymorphism in females, one of few empirical examples of sympatric genetic clusters maintained by sexual conflict. PMID:17593979

  16. Evaluation of phenolic compounds in mate (Ilex paraguariensis) processed by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation food processing has been demonstrating great effectiveness in the attack of pathogenic agents, while little compromising nutritional value and sensorial properties of foods. The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), widely consumed product in South America, generally in the form of infusions with hot or cold water, calls of chimarrao or terere, it is cited in literature as one of the best sources phenolic compounds. The antioxidants action of these constituent has been related to the protection of the organism against the free radicals, generated in alive, currently responsible for the sprouting of some degenerative illness as cancer, arteriosclerosis, rheumatic arthritis and cardiovascular clutters among others. The objective of that work was to evaluate the action of the processing for gamma radiation in phenolic compounds of terere beverage in the doses of 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. The observed results do not demonstrate significant alterations in phenolic compounds of terere beverage processed by gamma radiation.

  17. Evaluation of phenolic compounds in mate (Ilex paraguariensis) processed by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furgeri, C.; Nunes, T.C.F.; Fanaro, G.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes-Laboratory de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Souza, M.F.F.; Bastos, D.H.M. [Faculdade de Saude Publica, FSP/USP, Departamento de Nutricao-Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 715, CEP: 01246-904 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes-Laboratory de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2009-07-15

    The radiation food processing has been demonstrating great effectiveness in the attack of pathogenic agents, while little compromising nutritional value and sensorial properties of foods. The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), widely consumed product in South America, generally in the form of infusions with hot or cold water, calls of chimarrao or terere, it is cited in literature as one of the best sources phenolic compounds. The antioxidants action of these constituent has been related to the protection of the organism against the free radicals, generated in alive, currently responsible for the sprouting of some degenerative illness as cancer, arteriosclerosis, rheumatic arthritis and cardiovascular clutters among others. The objective of that work was to evaluate the action of the processing for gamma radiation in phenolic compounds of terere beverage in the doses of 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. The observed results do not demonstrate significant alterations in phenolic compounds of terere beverage processed by gamma radiation.

  18. Structure of social networks in a passerine bird: consequences for sexual selection and the evolution of mating strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kevin P; Badyaev, Alexander V

    2010-09-01

    The social environment is a critical determinant of fitness and, in many taxa, is shaped by an individual's behavioral discrimination among social contexts, suggesting that animals can actively influence the selection they experience. In competition to attract females, males may modify sexual selection by choosing social environments in which they are more attractive relative to rivals. Across the population, such behaviors should influence sexual selection patterns by altering the relationship between male mating success and sexual ornament elaboration. Here we use network analysis to examine patterns of male social behavior in relation to plumage ornamentation and mating success in a free-living population of house finches. During the nonbreeding season, less elaborate males changed associations with distinct social groups more frequently, compared to more elaborate males that showed greater fidelity to a single social group. By the onset of pair formation, socially labile males effectively increased their attractiveness relative to other males in the same flocks. Consequently, males that frequently moved between social groups had greater pairing success than less social individuals with equivalent sexual ornamentation. We discuss these results in relation to conditional mating tactics and the role of social behavior in evolutionary change by sexual selection. PMID:20608873

  19. Cancer and yerba mate consumption: a review of possible associations Cáncer y consumo de yerba mate: revisión de posibles asociaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Loria

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify any possible link between mate consumption and cancer, mainly of the esophagus, larynx, and oral cavity. METHODS: A review of literature, published through August 2008, pertaining to the carcinogenic risk of mate consumption was undertaken by searching the two databases, MEDLINE and TOXLINE, for relevant articles. The bibliographies of the articles were examined for additional relevant sources. In addition, a search on the name of each author having published on the topic was conducted. The epidemiological studies are presented by cancer site; experimental works are examined in dedicated sections; and the discussion combines epidemiological and experimental evidence. RESULTS: Almost all epidemiological studies shared similar methodology: hospital-based, case-control studies where participants were personally interviewed on the main risk factors, using similar questionnaires. Several studies found an association between the temperature of the mate infusion and oral, esophageal, and/or laryngeal cancer risks; while a few focused on carcinogenic contaminants introduced during the industrial processing of the leaves. The cancer most frequently mentioned in association with hot mate with bombilla (drunk through a metal straw was the esophagus. Size, exposure assessment, methods of analysis, and quality were different among the studies reviewed. The results varied greatly. The higher risk estimate (odds ratio = 34.6 was found for women who drank 1 L or more daily; for men it was only 4.8. Risk increased with duration, daily quantity, and temperature at drinking. The synergic action between mate, alcohol, and tobacco was a clear result in several studies, and in some, nutritional deficiencies and poor oral hygiene played a role. No increased risk was associated with cold mate beverages. CONCLUSIONS: The role of hot mate in increasing the risk of cancer of esophagus, larynx, and oral cavity seems to be supported by several epidemiological studies. The temperature could act by damaging the mucosa or accelerating metabolic reactions, including those with carcinogenic substances in tobacco and alcohol. However, there is no sound population-based casecontrol study on mate consumption as a risk factor for cancer. This, coupled with the range of results on mate risk, make assessing the etiological fraction difficult. More research needs to be done before a definitive statement can be made regarding cancer risk associated with any of the various forms of mate consumption. Future research should include population-based studies; collection of data on consumption of tobacco, alcohol, hot drinks, fresh fruit, and vegetables; and, a method to precisely measure volume and temperature of mate intake.OBJETIVO: Identificar posibles vínculos entre el consumo de mate y el cáncer, en particular de esófago, laringe y cavidad bucal. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una revisión de la bibliografía publicada hasta agosto de 2008 sobre el riesgo carcinogénico del consumo de mate en dos bases de datos, MEDLINE y TOXLINE. Se revisaron las referencias bibliográficas de los artículos para encontrar fuentes adicionales y se buscó por cada autor que hubiera publicado sobre el tema. Los estudios epidemiológicos se presentan según la localización del cáncer, los trabajos experimentales se examinan en secciones separadas y en la discusión se combinaron los datos epidemiológicos y experimentales. RESULTADOS: Casi todos los estudios epidemiológicos siguieron la misma metodología: estudios de casos y controles basados en hospitales donde se entrevistaba personalmente a los participantes acerca de los principales factores de riesgo mediante cuestionarios similares. En algunos estudios se encontró una asociación entre la temperatura de la infusión de mate y el riesgo de cáncer bucal, de esófago y de laringe, mientras que unos pocos se concentraron en los contaminantes carcinogénicos introducidos durante el procesamiento industrial de las hojas. El tipo de cáncer más frecuentemente mencionado en asociación co

  20. Accumulated Expression Level of Cytosolic Glutamine Synthetase 1 Gene (OsGS1;1 or OsGS1;2) Alter Plant Development and the Carbon-Nitrogen Metabolic Status in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Aili; Zhao, Zhuqing; Ding, Guangda; Shi, Lei; Xu, Fangsen; Cai, Hongmei

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining an appropriate balance of carbon to nitrogen metabolism is essential for rice growth and yield. Glutamine synthetase is a key enzyme for ammonium assimilation. In this study, we systematically analyzed the growth phenotype, carbon-nitrogen metabolic status and gene expression profiles in GS1;1-, GS1;2-overexpressing rice and wildtype plants. Our results revealed that the GS1;1-, GS1;2-overexpressing plants exhibited a poor plant growth phenotype and yield and decreased carbon/nitrogen ratio in the stem caused by the accumulation of nitrogen in the stem. In addition, the leaf SPAD value and photosynthetic parameters, soluble proteins and carbohydrates varied greatly in the GS1;1-, GS1;2-overexpressing plants. Furthermore, metabolite profile and gene expression analysis demonstrated significant changes in individual sugars, organic acids and free amino acids, and gene expression patterns in GS1;1-, GS1;2-overexpressing plants, which also indicated the distinct roles that these two GS1 genes played in rice nitrogen metabolism, particularly when sufficient nitrogen was applied in the environment. Thus, the unbalanced carbon-nitrogen metabolic status and poor ability of nitrogen transportation from stem to leaf in GS1;1-, GS1;2-overexpressing plants may explain the poor growth and yield. PMID:24743556

  1. The Study and Analysis of the Mating Behavior and Sound Production of Male Cicada Psalmocharias alhageos (Kol. (Homoptera:Cicadidae to Make Disruption in Mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zamanian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Psalmocharias alhageos is an important pest of vine in most parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, southern areas of Russia, Turkey and Iraq. This cicada is spread in most provinces in Iran such as Esfahan, Hamedan, Qazvin, Markazi, Lorestan, Qom, Kerman, Tehran and Kordestan. In addition to vine, this insect damages some other fruit trees, such as apple, sour cherry, quince, peach, pomegranate and pear trees and some non-fruit trees, namely white poplar, ash, elm, eglantine, silk and black poplar trees. The nymphs of cicada damage the trees by feeding on root, adult insects on young bud and by oviposition under branch barks. Nourishing root by nymph leads to the weakness of the tree and hinder its growth. The high density oviposition of adult insects inside young barks causes withering of branches. The resulted damage on vine products is 40% which is one of the most important factors in product reduction in vineyard. This research was conducted in Takestan in Qazvin. It was conducted for the first time to study the behaviors of the mates of this vine cicada in order to manage it. Two systems were used to record the sound of male cicada called analog voice-recorder and digital voice recorder. To analyze the recorded sound of the male cicada we used of spectrum analyzer, digital storage oscilloscope and protens 7 computer softwares. We could call the attention of natural enemies an disturb the male insect`s attracting sound by producing natural and artificial sound in the range of 1-6 kHz in two different ripeness status of the fruits and could prevent mating and oviposition of female cicadas.

  2. The study and analysis of the mating behavior and sound production of male cicada Psalmocharias alhageos (Kol.) (Homoptera:Cicadidae) to make disruption in mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, H; Mehdipour, M; Ghaemi, N

    2008-09-01

    Psalmocharias alhageos is an important pest of vine in most parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, southern areas of Russia, Turkey and Iraq. This cicada is spread in most provinces in Iran such as Esfahan, Hamedan, Qazvin, Markazi, Lorestan, Qom, Kerman, Tehran and Kordestan. In addition to vine, this insect damages some other fruit trees, such as apple, sour cherry, quince, peach, pomegranate and pear trees and some non-fruit trees, namely white poplar, ash, elm, eglantine, silk and black poplar trees. The nymphs of cicada damage the trees by feeding on root, adult insects on young bud and by oviposition under branch barks. Nourishing root by nymph leads to the weakness of the tree and hinder its growth. The high density oviposition of adult insects inside young barks causes withering of branches. The resulted damage on vine products is 40% which is one of the most important factors in product reduction in vineyard. This research was conducted in Takestan in Qazvin. It was conducted for the first time to study the behaviors of the mates of this vine cicada in order to manage it. Two systems were used to record the sound of male cicada called analog voice-recorder and digital voice recorder. To analyze the recorded sound of the male cicada we used of spectrum analyzer, digital storage oscilloscope and protens 7 computer softwares. We could call the attention of natural enemies an disturb the male insect's attracting sound by producing natural and artificial sound in the range of 1-6 kHz in two different ripeness status of the fruits and could prevent mating and oviposition of female cicadas. PMID:19266919

  3. The role of male contest competition over mates in speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna QVARNSTRÖM, Niclas VALLIN, Andreas RUDH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on the role of sexual selection in the speciation process largely focuses on the diversifying role of mate choice. In particular, much attention has been drawn to the fact that population divergence in mate choice and in the male traits subject to choice directly can lead to assortative mating. However, male contest competition over mates also constitutes an important mechanism of sexual selection. We review recent empirical studies and argue that sexual selection through male contest competition can affect speciation in ways other than mate choice. For example, biases in aggression towards similar competitors can lead to disruptive and negative frequency-dependent selection on the traits used in contest competition in a similar way as competition for other types of limited resources. Moreover, male contest abilities often trade-off against other abilities such as parasite resistance, protection against predators and general stress tolerance. Populations experiencing different ecological conditions should therefore quickly diverge non-randomly in a number of traits including male contest abilities. In resource based breeding systems, a feedback loop between competitive ability and habitat use may lead to further population divergence. We discuss how population divergence in traits used in male contest competition can lead to the build up of reproductive isolation through a number of different pathways. Our main conclusion is that the role of male contest competition in speciation remains largely scientifically unexplored [Current Zoology 58 (3: 490–506, 2012].

  4. Aggregation and mating success of Capnodis tenebrionis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, Carmelo Peter; Jones, Therésa Melanie

    2014-04-01

    An understanding of the relative importance of extrinsic and intrinsic factors in determining the potential distribution and mating success of individuals is critical for the successful monitoring and management of pest species. Using a combination of field observations and a caged field experiment, we explored the roles of environmental and individual variation on the formation of mating aggregations and mating success in the buprestid beetle Capnodis tenebrionis (Linnaeus, 1767), a pest species of stone fruit trees. Our field observations revealed that the formation of aggregations is influenced by a range of environmental factors including temperature, photoperiod, and population density. However, aggregations were not at random and were more likely to occur on the section of the plant with highest incidence of solar radiation and thus higher temperatures. Data from our experiment with caged beetles in the field further indicate that the reproductive behavior of this species varies with temperature. The probability of a successful mating occurring was also positively related to both male and female size. Females of C. tenebrionis mate several times over a 4-h period, but generally not with the same male. Information obtained from these studies is useful to define the most appropriate time for pest control, especially adopting strategies that interfere with reproduction. PMID:23955847

  5. Mineral content of young leaves of yerba mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Camotti Bastos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Yerba mate is largely used to produce drinks to human consume. In Spring the plants develop tender young leaves that could represent a new market niche in the yerba-mate industry; this period is called as ”pressafrinha” in this study. This study aimed to analyze the total and hydro soluble nutritional values of young leaves collected in the Spring season and its nutritional potential for human consumption. To represent the ”pressafrinha” young leaves, the collected vegetal material was limited to the third terminal bud. The total and hydro soluble chemical analysis of leaves in the provenances Cascavel (progeny 174, Ivaí (progeny 6, Barão de Cotegipe (progenies 68 and 69 included the following elements: P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. The content of elements in the beverage obtained from the infusion of young leaves of yerba mate in the recommended daily intake ranges from 0.5% to 11.5% and was in the following order: Cu > Mn > K > P > Mg > Fe > Zn > Ca > Na. Progenies and morphotypes of yerba mate showed little variation in the total nutrient content and did not differ in the content of soluble nutrients evaluated in young leaves. The extract obtained from young leaves of yerba mate presents potential to be used for human consumption.

  6. Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveer, Ahmed M; Kromann, Sophie H; Birgersson, Göran; Bengtsson, Marie; Lindblom, Tobias; Balkenius, Anna; Hansson, Bill S; Witzgall, Peter; Becher, Paul G; Ignell, Rickard

    2012-06-22

    Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females fly instead to green-leaf odour of the larval host plant cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. This behavioural switch is owing to a marked change in the olfactory representation of floral and green odours in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). Calcium imaging, using authentic and synthetic odours, shows that the ensemble of AL glomeruli dedicated to either lilac or cotton odour is selectively up- and downregulated in response to mating. A clear-cut behavioural modulation as a function of mating is a useful substrate for studies of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioural decisions. Modulation of odour-driven behaviour through concerted regulation of odour maps contributes to our understanding of state-dependent choice and host shifts in insect herbivores. PMID:22319127

  7. Relationship Dealbreakers: Traits People Avoid in Potential Mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonason, Peter K; Garcia, Justin R; Webster, Gregory D; Li, Norman P; Fisher, Helen E

    2015-12-01

    Mate preference research has focused on traits people desire in partners (i.e., dealmakers) rather than what traits they avoid (i.e., dealbreakers), but mate preferences calibrate to both maximize benefits and minimize costs. Across six studies (N > 6,500), we identified and examined relationship dealbreakers, and how they function across relationship contexts. Dealbreakers were associated with undesirable personality traits; unhealthy lifestyles in sexual, romantic, and friendship contexts; and divergent mating strategies in sexual and romantic contexts. Dealbreakers were stronger in long-term (vs. short-term) relationship contexts, and stronger in women (vs. men) in short-term contexts. People with higher mate value reported more dealbreakers; people with less-restricted mating strategies reported fewer dealbreakers. Consistent with prospect and error management theories, people weighed dealbreakers more negatively than they weighed dealmakers positively; this effect was stronger for women (vs. men) and people in committed relationships. These findings support adaptive attentional biases in human social cognition. PMID:26445853

  8. Cancer and yerba mate consumption: a review of possible associations / Cáncer y consumo de yerba mate: revisión de posibles asociaciones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dora, Loria; Enrique, Barrios; Roberto, Zanetti.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar posibles vínculos entre el consumo de mate y el cáncer, en particular de esófago, laringe y cavidad bucal. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una revisión de la bibliografía publicada hasta agosto de 2008 sobre el riesgo carcinogénico del consumo de mate en dos bases de datos, MEDLINE y TOXLI [...] NE. Se revisaron las referencias bibliográficas de los artículos para encontrar fuentes adicionales y se buscó por cada autor que hubiera publicado sobre el tema. Los estudios epidemiológicos se presentan según la localización del cáncer, los trabajos experimentales se examinan en secciones separadas y en la discusión se combinaron los datos epidemiológicos y experimentales. RESULTADOS: Casi todos los estudios epidemiológicos siguieron la misma metodología: estudios de casos y controles basados en hospitales donde se entrevistaba personalmente a los participantes acerca de los principales factores de riesgo mediante cuestionarios similares. En algunos estudios se encontró una asociación entre la temperatura de la infusión de mate y el riesgo de cáncer bucal, de esófago y de laringe, mientras que unos pocos se concentraron en los contaminantes carcinogénicos introducidos durante el procesamiento industrial de las hojas. El tipo de cáncer más frecuentemente mencionado en asociación con el mate caliente en bombilla (tomado a través de una cañita metálica) fue el de esófago. El tamaño de la muestra, la evaluación de la exposición, el método de análisis y la calidad variaron de un estudio a otro. Los resultados variaron considerablemente. Se estimó un mayor riesgo (razón de posibilidades = 34,6) en las mujeres que tomaban 1 L diario o más; en los hombres este riesgo fue solo de 4,8. El riesgo aumentó con el tiempo de consumo, la cantidad diaria y la temperatura de la infusión consumida. En algunos estudios se observó una clara sinergia entre el consumo de mate, alcohol y tabaco, mientras que en otros las deficiencias nutricionales y la inadecuada higiene bucal desempeñaron un papel importante. No se observó aumento en el riesgo asociado con el consumo de bebidas frías de mate. CONCLUSIONES: Varios estudios epidemiológicos parecen respaldar el papel de las bebidas calientes de mate en el aumento del riesgo de cáncer de esófago, laringe y cavidad bucal. La temperatura podría influir al dañar la mucosa o acelerar algunas reacciones metabólicas, entre ellas con algunas sustancias carcinogénicas del tabaco y el alcohol. No obstante, no se encontraron estudios robustos de casos y controles basados en la población sobre el consumo de mate como factor de riesgo de cáncer. Esto, unido a los resultados encontrados sobre el riesgo del consumo de mate, hace difícil estimar su fracción etiológica. Se requieren más investigaciones antes de establecer definitivamente el riesgo de cáncer asociado con alguna de las diversas formas de consumo de mate. Se deben realizar estudios basados en la población, obtener más datos sobre el consumo de tabaco, alcohol, bebidas calientes, frutas frescas y vegetales y se deben emplear métodos que permitan medir con precisión el volumen y la temperatura del mate consumido. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify any possible link between mate consumption and cancer, mainly of the esophagus, larynx, and oral cavity. METHODS: A review of literature, published through August 2008, pertaining to the carcinogenic risk of mate consumption was undertaken by searching the two databases, MEDLI [...] NE and TOXLINE, for relevant articles. The bibliographies of the articles were examined for additional relevant sources. In addition, a search on the name of each author having published on the topic was conducted. The epidemiological studies are presented by cancer site; experimental works are examined in dedicated sections; and the discussion combines epidemiological and experimental evidence. RESULTS: Almost all epidemiological studies shared similar methodology: hospital-based, case-control studies where participants were personally

  9. Irradiation detection of coffee mate by electron spin resonance (ESR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Un-irradiated coffee mate samples do not exhibit any ESR signal. However, the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiation exhibit an ESR singlet and a large unresolved ESR signal, respectively. The dose-response curves of the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiations were found to be described well by an exponential and linear functions, respectively. Variable temperature and fading studies at room temperature showed that the radiation-induced radicals in coffee mate sample are very sensitive to temperature. The discrimination between un-irradiated and irradiated coffee mate samples can be done just comparing their ESR spectra. However, determination of the radiation dose received by the sample cannot be possible because of the fast decay of signal intensity at room temperature.

  10. Irradiation detection of coffee mate by electron spin resonance (ESR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozsayin, Fulya [Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Polat, Mustafa, E-mail: polat@hacettepe.edu.t [Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-06-15

    Un-irradiated coffee mate samples do not exhibit any ESR signal. However, the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiation exhibit an ESR singlet and a large unresolved ESR signal, respectively. The dose-response curves of the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiations were found to be described well by an exponential and linear functions, respectively. Variable temperature and fading studies at room temperature showed that the radiation-induced radicals in coffee mate sample are very sensitive to temperature. The discrimination between un-irradiated and irradiated coffee mate samples can be done just comparing their ESR spectra. However, determination of the radiation dose received by the sample cannot be possible because of the fast decay of signal intensity at room temperature.

  11. Structures of the Mating-Type Loci of Cordyceps takaomontana

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Eiji; Yamagishi, Kenzo; Hara, Akira

    2003-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences of the mating-type loci MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 of Cordyceps takaomontana were determined, which is the first such report for the clavicipitaceous fungi. MAT1-1 contains two mating-type genes, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2, but MAT1-1-3 could not be found. On the other hand, MAT1-2 has MAT1-2-1. A pseudogene of MAT1-1-1 is located next to MAT1-2.

  12. Regulation of glycoprotein synthesis in yeast by mating pheromones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glycosylated proteins amount to less than 2% of the cell protein. Two intensively studied examples of yeast glycoproteins are the external cell wall - associated invertase and the vacuolar carboxypeptidase Y. Recently, it was shown that the mating pheromone, alpha factor, specifically and strongly inhibits the synthesis of N-glycosylated proteins in haploid a cells, whereas O-glycosylated proteins are not affected. In this paper, the pathways of glycoprotein biosynthesis are summarized briefly, and evidence is presented that mating pheomones have a regulatory function in glycoprotein synthesis

  13. Intraclonal mating occurs during tsetse transmission of Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Vanessa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mating in Trypanosoma brucei is a non-obligatory event, triggered by the co-occurrence of different strains in the salivary glands of the vector. Recombinants that result from intra- rather than interclonal mating have been detected, but only in crosses of two different trypanosome strains. This has led to the hypothesis that when trypanosomes recognize a different strain, they release a diffusible factor or pheromone that triggers mating in any cell in the vicinity whether it is of the same or a different strain. This idea assumes that the trypanosome can recognize self and non-self, although there is as yet no evidence for the existence of mating types in T. brucei. Results We investigated intraclonal mating in T. b. brucei by crossing red and green fluorescent lines of a single strain, so that recombinant progeny can be detected in the fly by yellow fluorescence. For strain 1738, seven flies had both red and green trypanosomes in the salivary glands and, in three, yellow trypanosomes were also observed, although they could not be recovered for subsequent analysis. Nonetheless, both red and non-fluorescent clones from these flies had recombinant genotypes as judged by microsatellite and karyotype analyses, and some also had raised DNA contents, suggesting recombination or genome duplication. Strain J10 produced similar results indicative of intraclonal mating. In contrast, trypanosome clones recovered from other flies showed that genotypes can be transmitted with fidelity. When a yellow hybrid clone expressing both red and green fluorescent protein genes was transmitted, the salivary glands contained a mixture of fluorescent-coloured trypanosomes, but only yellow and red clones were recovered. While loss of the GFP gene in the red clones could have resulted from gene conversion, some of these clones showed loss of heterozygosity and raised DNA contents as in the other single strain transmissions. Our observations suggest that many recombinants are non-viable after intraclonal mating. Conclusion We have demonstrated intraclonal mating during fly transmission of T. b. brucei, contrary to previous findings that recombination occurs only when another strain is present. It is thus no longer possible to assume that T. b. brucei remains genetically unaltered after fly transmission.

  14. Exposure to bisphenol A in young adult mice does not alter ovulation but does alter the fertilization ability of oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Ambriz, Teresita Rocio; Acuña-Hernández, Deyanira Guadalupe; Ramos-Robles, Brenda; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Santacruz-Márquez, Ramsés; Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Piña-Guzmán, Belem; Shibayama, Mineko; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel

    2015-12-15

    Follicle growth culminates in ovulation, which allows for the expulsion of fertilizable oocytes and the formation of corpora lutea. Bisphenol A (BPA) is present in many consumer products, and it has been suggested that BPA impairs ovulation; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Therefore, this study first evaluated whether BPA alters ovulation by affecting folliculogenesis, the number of corpora lutea or eggs shed to the oviduct, ovarian gonadotropin responsiveness, hormone levels, and estrous cyclicity. Because it has been suggested (but not directly confirmed) that BPA exerts toxic effects on the fertilization ability of oocytes, a second aim was to evaluate whether BPA impacts the oocyte fertilization rate using an in vitro fertilization assay and mating. The possible effects on early zygote development were also examined. Young adult female C57BL/6J mice (39days old) were orally dosed with corn oil (vehicle) or 50?g/kgbw/day BPA for a period encompassing the first three reproductive cycles (12-15days). BPA exposure did not alter any parameters related to ovulation. Moreover, BPA exposure reduced the percentage of fertilized oocytes after either in vitro fertilization or mating, but it did not alter the zygotic stages. The data indicate that exposure to the reference dose of BPA does not impact ovulation but that it does influence the oocyte quality in terms of its fertilization ability. PMID:26493930

  15. The evolution of optimal female mating rate changes the coevolutionary dynamics of female resistance and male persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Kazanc?o?lu, Erem; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

    2012-01-01

    Mating decisions usually involve conflict of interests between sexes. Accordingly, males benefit from increased number of matings, whereas costs of mating favour a lower mating rate for females. The resulting sexual conflict underlies the coevolution of male traits that affect male mating success (‘persistence’) and female traits that affect female mating patterns (‘resistance’). Theoretical studies on the coevolutionary dynamics of male persistence and female resistance assumed that costs of...

  16. Light wavelength dependency of mating activity in the drosophila melanogaster species subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action spectra of mating activity among the six species of the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup were compared to understand how light wavelength affects mating activity. The species fell into three groups with respect to the action spectrum of mating activity. We chose one representative species from each of the three types for detailed study: D. melanogaster, D. sechellia and D. yakuba. The mating activities were investigated under three different light intensities of three monochromatic lights stimulus. Each species showed a unique spectral and intensity response. To know the evolutionary meaning of the light wavelength dependency of mating activity, we superimposed the type of action spectrum of mating activity in these six species on a cladogram. Mating inhibition under UV was conserved in evolution among these species. Furthermore we clarified that D. melanogaster showed low mating activity under UV because males courted less under UV. (author)

  17. Cloacal bacterial diversity increases with multiple mates: evidence of sexual transmission in female common lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joël; Richard, Murielle; Massot, Manuel; Meylan, Sandrine

    2011-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases have often been suggested as a potential cost of multiple mating and as playing a major role in the evolution of mating systems. Yet there is little empirical data relating mating strategies to sexually transmitted microorganisms in wild populations. We investigated whether mating behaviour influences the diversity and composition of cloacal assemblages by comparing bacterial communities in the cloaca of monandrous and polyandrous female common lizards Zootoca vivipara sampled after the mating period. We found that polyandrous females harboured more diverse communities and differed more in community composition than did monandrous females. Furthermore, cloacal diversity and variability were found to decrease with age in polyandrous females. Our results suggest that the higher bacterial diversity found in polyandrous females is due to the sexual transmission of bacteria by multiple mates. The impact of mating behaviour on the cloacal microbiota may have fitness consequences for females and may comprise a selective pressure shaping the evolution of mating systems. PMID:21811590

  18. The gastric H, K-ATPase system also functions as the Na, K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase in altered states [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1eo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Ray

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an explanation for the apparent lack of Na, K-ATPase activity in parietal cells although ouabain has been known to inhibit gastric acid secretion since 1962. The gastric H, K-ATPase (proton-pump seems to be acting in altered states, thus behaving like a Na, K-ATPase (Na-pump and/or Ca-ATPase (Ca-pump depending on cellular needs.  This conclusion is based on the following findings. First, parietal cell fractions do not exhibit Na, K-ATPase activity at pH 7.0 but do at pH 8.5. Second, the apical plasma membrane (APM fraction exhibits a (Ca or Mg-ATPase activity with negligible H, K-ATPase activity. However, when assayed with Mg alone in presence of the 80 k Da cytosolic proton-pump activator (HAF, the APM fraction reveals remarkably high H, K-ATPase activity, suggesting the observed low affinity of Ca (or Mg-ATPase is an altered state of the latter. Third, calcium (between 1 and 4 µM shows both stimulation and inhibition of the HAF-stimulated H, K-ATPase depending on its concentration, revealing a close interaction between the  proton-pump activator and local Ca concentration in gastric H, K-ATPase function. Such interactions suggest that Ca is acting as a terminal member of the intracellular signaling system for the HAF-regulated proton-pump. It appears that during resting state, the HAF-associated H, K-ATPase remains inhibited by Ca (>1 µM and, prior to resumption of acid secretion the gastric H, K-ATPase acts temporarily as a Ca-pump for removing excess Ca from its immediate environment. This conclusion is consistent with the recent reports of immunochemical co-localization of the gastric H, K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase by superimposition in parietal cells, and a transitory efflux of Ca immediately preceding the onset of acid secretion. These new perspectives on proton-pump function would open new avenues for a fuller understanding of the intracellular regulation of the ubiquitous Na-pump.

  19. The parietal cell gastric H, K-ATPase also functions as the Na, K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase in altered states [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1tc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Ray

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an explanation for the apparent lack of Na, K-ATPase activity in parietal cells although ouabain has been known to inhibit gastric acid secretion since 1962. The gastric H, K-ATPase (proton-pump seems to be acting in altered states, thus behaving like a Na, K-ATPase (Na-pump and/or Ca-ATPase (Ca-pump depending on cellular needs.  This conclusion is based on the following findings. First, parietal cell fractions do not exhibit Na, K-ATPase activity at pH 7.0 but do at pH 8.5. Second, the apical plasma membrane (APM fraction exhibits a (Ca or Mg-ATPase activity with negligible H, K-ATPase activity. However, when assayed with Mg alone in presence of the 80 k Da cytosolic proton-pump activator (HAF, the APM fraction reveals remarkably high H, K-ATPase activity, suggesting the observed low affinity of Ca (or Mg-ATPase is an altered state of the latter. Third, calcium (between 1 and 4 µM shows both stimulation and inhibition of the HAF-stimulated H, K-ATPase depending on its concentration, revealing a close interaction between the  proton-pump activator and local Ca concentration in gastric H, K-ATPase function. Such interactions suggest that Ca is acting as a terminal member of the intracellular signaling system for the HAF-regulated proton-pump. It appears that during resting state, the HAF-associated H, K-ATPase remains inhibited by Ca (>1 µM and, prior to resumption of acid secretion the gastric H, K-ATPase acts temporarily as a Ca-pump for removing excess Ca from its immediate environment. This conclusion is consistent with the recent reports of immunochemical co-localization of the gastric H, K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase by superimposition in parietal cells, and a transitory efflux of Ca immediately preceding the onset of acid secretion. These new perspectives on proton-pump function would open new avenues for a fuller understanding of the intracellular regulation of the ubiquitous Na-pump.

  20. New insights into parental effects and toxicity: Mate availability and diet in the parental environment affect offspring responses to contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parental effects manifest as alterations in offspring phenotype resulting from the parental phenotype and/or parental environment. We evaluated the effects of parental diet quality and mating strategy on the toxicant tolerance of offspring in Biomphalaria glabrata snails. We raised snails either individually (self-fertilizing) or in groups of three (outcrossing) on a diet of uncooked lettuce, fish food, cooked lettuce, or cooked lettuce plus fish food. We then exposed their offspring to cadmium and malathion challenges. Cadmium tolerance varied with parental diet and was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails than self-fertilizing snails. Malathion tolerance was not affected by parental diet but was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails. These results indicate that offspring responses to stressors are heavily influenced by parental experience, but may depend on the specific stressor and the mechanism of action and/or detoxification. -- Highlights: •We reared parental snails either alone or in groups and fed them one of four diets. •We exposed their juvenile offspring to cadmium and malathion survival challenges. •Outcrossing increased toxicant tolerance of juveniles compared to self-fertilizing. •Parental diet affected juvenile offspring tolerance to cadmium but not malathion. •Toxicant characteristics likely influenced parental effects on toxicant tolerance. -- Both parental diet composition and mating strategy can significantly alter the toxicant tolerance of offspring, and toxicant characteristics likely influence the probability of parental effects

  1. In the eye of the beholder: visual mate choice lateralization in a polymorphic songbird

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Jennifer J.; Mountjoy, D. James; Pryke, Sarah R; Simon C. Griffith

    2012-01-01

    Birds choose mates on the basis of colour, song and body size, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying these mating decisions. Reports that zebra finches prefer to view mates with the right eye during courtship, and that immediate early gene expression associated with courtship behaviour is lateralized in their left hemisphere suggest that visual mate choice itself may be lateralized. To test this hypothesis, we used the Gouldian finch, a polymorphic species in which individuals e...

  2. Mating-type genes and sexual potential in the ascomycete genera Aspergillus and Penicillium

    OpenAIRE

    Eagle, C

    2009-01-01

    Mating-type and other ‘sex-related’ genes in the filamentous ascomcyete genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, were examined to investigate the potential sexual capacity of supposedly asexual species and also the possible evolutionary route and ancestry of mating strategy and mating-type genes. Two heterothallic and one homothallic sexual species were screened to determine the presence and genomic organisation of mating-type genes. An additional gene has previously been detected in Neosartor...

  3. White Cells Facilitate Opposite- and Same-Sex Mating of Opaque Cells in Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    TAO, LI; Cao, Chengjun; Liang, Weihong; Guan, Guobo; Zhang, Qiuyu; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Huang, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    Modes of sexual reproduction in eukaryotic organisms are extremely diverse. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a phenotypic switch from the white to the opaque phase in order to become mating-competent. In this study, we report that functionally- and morphologically-differentiated white and opaque cells show a coordinated behavior during mating. Although white cells are mating-incompetent, they can produce sexual pheromones when treated with pheromones of the opposite mating...

  4. No Detectable Fertility Benefit from a Single Additional Mating in Wild Stalk-Eyed Flies

    OpenAIRE

    Harley, E.; Fowler, K.; Cotton, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Multiple mating by female insects is widespread, and the explanation(s) for repeated mating by females has been the subject of much discussion. Females may profit from mating multiply through direct material benefits that increase their own reproductive output, or indirect genetic benefits that increase offspring fitness. One particular direct benefit that has attracted significant attention is that of fertility assurance, as females often need to mate multiply to achieve high fer...

  5. Identifying the transition between single and multiple mating of queens in fungus-growing ants.

    OpenAIRE

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; SCHULTZ, TED R.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants is known to include evolutionarily derived genera with obligate multiple mating (the Acromyrmex and Atta leafcutter ants) as well as phylogenetically basal genera with exclusively single mating (e.g....

  6. Identifying the transition between single and multiple mating of queens in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants is known to include evolutionarily derived genera with obligate multiple mating (the Acromyrmex and Atta leafcutter ants) as well as phylogenetically basal genera with exclusively single mating (e.g. Ap...

  7. Identifying the Transition between Single and Multiple Mating of Queens in Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants is known to include evolutionarily derived genera with obligate multiple mating (the Acromyrmex and Atta leafcutter ants) as well as phylogenetically basal genera with exclusively single mating (e.g. Ap...

  8. ?AD? Hybrids of Cryptococcus neoformans: Evidence of Same-Sex Mating in Nature and Hybrid Fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xiaorong; Litvintseva, Anastasia P.; Nielsen, Kirsten; Patel, Sweta; Floyd, Anna; Mitchell, Thomas G.; Heitman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous human fungal pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in predominantly immunocompromised hosts. The fungus is typically haploid, and sexual reproduction involves two individuals with opposite mating types/sexes, ? and a. However, the overwhelming predominance of mating type (MAT) ? over a in C. neoformans populations limits ?–a mating in nature. Recently it was discovered that C. neoformans can undergo same-sex mating under laboratory conditions, especi...

  9. Cloacal Bacterial Diversity Increases with Multiple Mates: Evidence of Sexual Transmission in Female Common Lizards

    OpenAIRE

    White, Joël; Richard, Murielle; Massot, Manuel; Meylan, Sandrine

    2011-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases have often been suggested as a potential cost of multiple mating and as playing a major role in the evolution of mating systems. Yet there is little empirical data relating mating strategies to sexually transmitted microorganisms in wild populations. We investigated whether mating behaviour influences the diversity and composition of cloacal assemblages by comparing bacterial communities in the cloaca of monandrous and polyandrous female common lizards Zootoca vi...

  10. Individual Differences in Sociosexual Orientation and Long Term Mate Value Preferences.

    OpenAIRE

    Raw, Charlotte J

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that an individual’s sociosexuality, a measure of sexual permissiveness, is influenced by self esteem, self perceived mate value and personality, however results from past research has been mixed. Furthermore, an individual’s long term mate value preference has been found to correlate with self perceived mate value, although there is a lack of research regarding how self-esteem and personality may relate to long term mate value preferences. The present study (n...

  11. The effects of mating and instrumental insemination on queen honey bee flight behavior and gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, S.D.; Tarpy, D.R.; Grozinger, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Mating is fundamental to most organisms, although the physiological and transcriptional changes associated with this process have been largely characterized only in Drosophila. In this study, we use honey bees as a model system since their queens undergo massive and permanent physiological and behavioral changes following mating. Previous studies have identified changes associated with the transition from a virgin queen to a fully-mated, egg-laying queen. Here, we further uncouple the mating ...

  12. Mating Behavior of the African Weaver Ant, Oecophylla longinoda (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nene, Wilson; Rwegasira, Gration; Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Mwatawala, Maulid; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel

    2015-01-01

    Mating in most species of ants occurs during nuptial flights. In the African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda Latreille, mating has previously been hypothesized to take place within the nest before the nuptial flight. However, several researchers disagree with this supposition particularly with reference to the closely related species Oecopylla smaragdina (Fabricius) whose mating occur during nuptial flights. Understanding the mating strategy of O. longinoda is of importance for its successful a...

  13. Sex at sea : alternative mating system in an extremely polygynous mammal

    OpenAIRE

    de Bruyn, P J Nico; Tosh, Cheryl A.; Bester, Marthan Nieuwoudt; Cameron, Elissa Z; McIntyre, Trevor; Wilkinson, I.S. (Ian Stewart)

    2011-01-01

    Polygyny is a widespread and evolutionarily significant mating system in vertebrates. The southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, has often been cited as an example of an animal with an extremely polygynous mating system, thus providing an important reference point for studies on mating systems. During the breeding season, these animals form terrestrial harems in which one dominant male controls tens to hundreds of females. Our current understanding of polygynous mating sy...

  14. A gene–culture coevolutionary model for brother–sister?mating

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Kenichi; Marcus W. Feldman

    1997-01-01

    We present a gene–culture coevolutionary model for brother–sister mating in the human. It is shown that cultural—as opposed to innate—determination of mate preference may evolve, provided the inbreeding depression is sufficiently high. At this coevolutionary equilibrium, sib mating is avoided because of cultural pressures.

  15. The Mating Game: A Classroom Activity for Undergraduates that Explores the Evolutionary Basis of Sex Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dani; Holbrook, C. Tate; Meadows, Melissa G.; Taylor, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    In species that reproduce sexually, an individual's fitness depends on its ability to secure a mate (or mates). Although both males and females are selected to maximize their reproductive output, the mating strategies of the two sexes can differ dramatically. We present a classroom simulation that allows undergraduates to actively experience how…

  16. Mating with large males decreases the immune defence of females in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. Imroze; N. G. Prasad

    2011-12-01

    Mating has been widely reported to be a costly event for females. Studies indicate that female cost of mating in terms of fecundity and survivorship can be affected by their mates, leading to antagonistic coevolution between the sexes. However, as of now, there is no evidence that the female cost of mating in terms of immune defence is affected by their mates. We assess the effect of different sized males on antibacterial immune defence and reproductive fitness of their mates. We used a large outbred population of Drososphila melanogaster as the host and Serratia marcescens as the pathogen. We generated three different male phenotypes: small, medium and large, by manipulating larval densities. Compared to females mating with small males, those mating with large males had higher bacterial loads and lower fecundity. There was no significant effect of male phenotype on the fraction of females mated or copulation duration (an indicator of ejaculate investment). Thus, our study is the first clear demonstration that male phenotype can affect the cost of mating to females in terms of their antibacterial immune defence. Mating with large males imposes an additional cost of mating to females in terms of reduced immune defence. The observed results are very likely due to qualitative/quantitative differences in the ejaculates of the three different types of males. If the phenotypic variation that we observed in males in our study is mirrored by genetic variation, then, it can potentially lead to antagonistic coevolution of the sexes over immune defence.

  17. Post-mating Enhancement of Fecundity in Females Lygus hesperus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although mated females of the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus, are known to produce more eggs than virgins, the nature of the inducing stimuli and the specific changes occuring in the female required additional elucidation. Compared to virgin females isolated from males, those exposed to...

  18. Space Shuttle Discovery Docked to the Pressurized Mating Adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery, docked to the Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA-2) on the International Space Station (ISS), is featured in this image photographed by a space walker during the second session of extravehicular activity (EVA) for the STS-120 mission on October 28, 2007.

  19. Segments of an SRB are prepared for mating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In the Vehicle Assembly Building, workers check the ring on the upper segment of a solid rocket booster (SRB) before mating it to the one below. The SRB is part of the stack for the STS-92 mission, scheduled for launch Oct. 5 from Launch Pad 39A.

  20. Small zooplankton sensing their environment: feeding, mating, and predator avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihongi, Ai

    2004-03-01

    Since zooplankton play a significant role at the base of the food web in aquatic environments, it is important to understand their feeding behaviors, mating behaviors, and predator avoidance. First, I will present the water flow regime of Daphnia. Using a high-speed video, I filmed how water with algae particles enters and leaves Daphnia, how the water flows within Daphnia and how the appendages of Daphnia work to produce the water flow. Second, I will discuss mate-searching behaviors of freshwater calanoid copepods and Daphnia. Male and female zooplankters have to encounter each other for successful mating in 3D environment. I have observed the behaviors of freshwater calanoid copepods from Lake Michigan. As a result, they showed different behaviors from other species studied. Likewise, I have observed differences in mate-searching behaviors of D. pulex and D. magna. Last, I will show the results of predator-prey interactions in D. pulex with kairomone, a chemical cue, from predatory fish using 3-D near infrared optical system. As experimental conditions, we used the following treatments: (a) no light/ no kairomone, (b) no light/ kairomone, (c) light/ no kairomone, and (d) light/ kairomone. While it appears that light and kairomone have an interactive effect on the swimming behaviors of Daphnia, light seems to be the most influential factor. The observed frequent spinning movements of D. pulex in a darkened tank with a predatory fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were successful predator avoidance maneuvers.

  1. Daughter's Tolerance of Mom Matters in Mate Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jeffrey R; Weaver, Casey T

    2015-07-30

    Mendelian genetics presumes inheritance of fitness through DNA. Kinder et al. find that maternal microchimerism induces stable immune tolerance to non-inherited maternal antigens in offspring. Female offspring that share these antigens with their mate experience reduced fetal wasting, establishing a role for vertical transmission of non-genetic information in reproductive fitness. PMID:26232215

  2. Gender, Gender Roles Affecting Mate Preferences in Turkish College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazioglu, A. Esra Ismen

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study is gender and gender roles affecting mate preferences. The sample of the study consists of 300 undergraduates and master students. To identify students' gender roles the Sex Role Evaluation Inventory (Bem, 1974) is used. The Question List (Bacanli 2001; Buss et. al., 1990) is applied to the sample group to determine the…

  3. Hepatic and hippocampus iron status is not altered in response to increased serum ceruloplasmin and serum "free" copper in Wistar rat model for non-Wilsonian brain copper toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Amit; Vasishta, Rakesh kumar; Prasad, Rajendra

    2013-09-01

    Copper and iron dyshomeostasis has been implicated directly or indirectly in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Previously, we have shown the first in vivo evidence of significant increase in the hippocampus copper and zinc content with spatial memory impairments, astrocytes swelling (Alzheimer type-II cells) coupled with increase in the number of astrocytes, copper deposition in the choroid plexus, and degenerated neurons in copper-intoxicated Wistar rats. In continuation with our previous study, the aim of this study was to further investigate the effects of intraperitoneally injected copper lactate (0.15 mg Cu/100 g body weight) daily for 90 days on serum "free" copper levels, iron levels in the liver, and hippocampus by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and histopathological study of the liver and brain tissues of Wistar rats using Perls' Prussian blue (PPB) stain. A massive significant increase in serum "free" copper (79.48% increase) along with strong correlation (r = 0.978) was found between serum copper and serum "free" copper in copper-intoxicated rats. No significant difference was detected in hepatic and hippocampus iron levels between control and copper-intoxicated rats. PPB stain demonstrated very few scattered grade 1 haemosiderin deposits within sinusoidal cells predominantly Kupffer cells; however, brain sections were negatively stained with PPB stain. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that chronic copper toxicity causes increase in serum "free" copper, which may serve as predisposing factor for the development of neurodegeneration and memory deficits, and grade 1 haemosiderin deposition in Kupffer cells without altering hepatic and hippocampus iron levels in male Wistar rats. PMID:23872735

  4. Voice correlates of mating success in men: examining "contests" versus "mate choice" modes of sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R; Gaulin, Steven J C; Puts, David A

    2011-06-01

    Men's copulatory success can often be predicted by measuring traits involved in male contests and female choice. Previous research has demonstrated relationships between one such vocal trait in men, mean fundamental frequency (F(0)), and the outcomes and indicators of sexual success with women. The present study investigated the role of another vocal parameter, F(0) variation (the within-subject SD in F(0) across the utterance, F(0)-SD), in predicting men's reported number of female sexual partners in the last year. Male participants (N = 111) competed with another man for a date with a woman. Recorded interactions with the competitor ("competitive recording") and the woman ("courtship recording") were analyzed for five non-linguistic vocal parameters: F(0)-SD, mean F(0), intensity, duration, and formant dispersion (D( f ), an acoustic correlate of vocal tract length), as well as dominant and attractive linguistic content. After controlling for age and attitudes toward uncommitted sex (SOI), lower F(0)-SD (i.e., a more monotone voice) and more dominant linguistic content were strong predictors of the number of past-year sexual partners, whereas mean F(0) and D( f ) did not significantly predict past-year partners. These contrasts have implications for the relative importance of male contests and female choice in shaping men's mating success and hence the origins and maintenance of sexually dimorphic traits in humans. PMID:20369377

  5. Impact of male mating history on the temporal sperm dynamics of Choristoneura rosaceana and C. fumiferana females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Mireille; Delisle, Johanne; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2005-05-01

    In the oblique-banded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana, and the spruce budworm, C. fumiferana, male reproductive performance decreases with consecutive matings. While the onset time of mating did not vary, the time spent mating was longer in mated than in virgin males. Furthermore, a decline observed in the spermatophore mass with successive matings was associated with a concomitant decline in its apyrene and eupyrene spermatozoa content. In the hours following mating, spermatozoa migrate from the spermatophore, located in the bursa copulatrix, to the spermatheca. Regardless of the male's previous mating history, the number of apyrene sperm dropped rapidly in the days following mating whereas the number of eupyrene spermatozoa declined gradually. As the temporal pattern of sperm movement was similar in all treatments, females mated with previously-mated males would suffer from sperm shortage sooner than those mated with virgins. Large C. rosaceana females stored more apyrene spermatozoa in their spermatheca than small ones, irrespective of the time after mating or male mating history, while only large females mated with once-mated males received more apyrene sperm and accessory gland secretions than small ones mated with virgin or twice-mated males. The results obtained in this study are discussed in relation with their potential impact on the reproductive success of both sexes. PMID:15894000

  6. Alteraciones del estado nutricional y la tensión arterial como señales tempranas de aterosclerosis en adolescentes / Alterations of nutritional status and blood pressure as early signals of atherosclerosis in adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María de los Ángeles, Cabal Giner; Giselle, Hernández Oviedo; Gertrudis, Torres Díaz; Maricela, Guerra Ma rín.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la aterosclerosis constituye la primera causa de muerte en Cuba y cada día priva de la vida a personas más jóvenes. Objetivos: identificar alteraciones del estado nutricional y la tensión arterial e intentar establecer relación entre ellas, en adolescentes aparentemente sanos. Métodos: [...] se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de sección transversal en 302 estudiantes de la Secundaria Básica "Josué País" perteneciente al área de atención del Policlínico Docente "Puentes Grandes", en edades entre los 12 y 14 años. Se realizó interrogatorio y examen físico individual de acuerdo al Modelo de Recolección del Dato Primario del Centro de Investigaciones y Referencia de Aterosclerosis de La Habana. Las variables estudiadas fueron edad, sexo, peso, talla, tensión arterial sistólica, tensión arterial diastólica e índice de masa corporal. Se tuvieron en consideración los principios éticos de toda investigación científica. Resultados: se halló el 15,5 % de sobrepesos y el 4,96 % de obesos. Se identificó el 7,9 % de prehipertensos y el 0,66 % de hipertensos y se encontró que dos alumnos clasificados como hipertensos grado I según tablas de valores percentilares, eran obesos. Conclusiones: los resultados alcanzados son fuente de motivación para continuar la búsqueda de La Señal Aterosclerótica Temprana para la prevención de enfermedades de origen aterosclerótico en la adultez. Abstract in english Introduction: atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in Cuba and every day more young people lost their lives. Objectives: to identify the nutritional status and blood pressure ant to try to establish if there is some relation between them in apparently healthy adolescents aged between 12 and [...] 14 from "Josué País" Secondary School from the Puentes Grandes Teaching Polyclinic health area. Methods: a cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study was conducted in 302 students aged between 12 and 14 from "Josué País" Secondary School of "Puentes Grandes" Teaching Polyclinic care area. A individual questioning and physical examination was carried out according to the Collection Model of Primary Information from the Research and Reference Center of Atherosclerosis of La Habana. Study variable included: age, sex height, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and body mass index. Ethical principles of a scientific research were taken into account. Results: the was a 15.5 % of excess weight and a 4.96 % of obeses, as well as a 7.9 % of pre-hypertensive and a 0.66 % of hypertensive with a increasing trend in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive percentages in so far as increased the values of body mass index in study group. Conclusions: results obtained are the reason to continue the search of the Early Atherosclerosis Signal to prevent atherosclerotic-origin diseases in adulthood.

  7. Isolation of the Mating-Type Genes of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Magnaporthe Grisea Using Genomic Subtraction

    OpenAIRE

    KANG, S; Chumley, F. G.; Valent, B

    1994-01-01

    Using genomic subtraction, we isolated the mating-type genes (Mat1-1 and Mat1-2) of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea. Transformation of M. grisea strains of one mating type with a linearized cosmid clone carrying the opposite mating-type gene resulted in many ``dual maters,'' strains that contain both mating-type genes and successfully mate with both Mat1-1 and Mat1-2 testers. Dual maters differed in the frequency of production of perithecia in pure culture. Ascospores isolated from ...

  8. Aphrodisiac Pheromone and its role in mating behaviour of Gamma irradiated SPODOPTERA LITTORALIS (BOISD.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aphrodisiac pheromone in male moth of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis, is secreted from a scent gland that lies in the fore wings and hair pencils. The damage of the gland by gamma irradiation or elimination of the fore wings reduced mating percentage and the other related mating aspects. Multiple mating seldom was occurred in the eliminated wing males and this mean that the wing gland was effective in mating behaviour. The knowledge on pheromone glands and their role in mating behaviour have been appeared to be essential in the integrated control programmes

  9. Mating duration and sperm precedence in the spider Linyphia triangularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldingh, Ditte Louise; Toft, Søren; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2010-01-01

    In spiders, copulations often take much longer than needed to fertilize the female’s complement of eggs, and the likelihood that a female mates again may depend on the duration of the first male’s copulation since the mating itself may induce lack of receptivity in the female. Also, the result of sperm competition often depends on the relative mating duration of a female’s mating partners. Since linyphiid spiders load their pedipalps with sperm several times during a normal mating sequence, pate...

  10. EFEITO DA ADIÇÃO DE RESÍDUOS DE PODA DA ERVA-MATE EM PAINÉIS AGLOMERADOS / EFFECT OF ADDING YERBA MATE PRUNING RESIDUES IN PARTICLEBOARD PANELS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amelia Guimarães, Carvalho; Bruno Geike de, Andrade; Carla Priscilla Távora, Cabral; Benedito Rocha, Vital.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade técnica da utilização de resíduos da poda de erva-mate na produção de painéis aglomerados. Foram produzidos painéis de aglomerados nas seguintes composições: 100% de pinus (T1), 100% de resíduos de erva-mate com casca (T2), 100% de resíduos de erva [...] -mate sem casca (T3), 50% de pinus com 50% de resíduos de erva-mate com casca (T4) e 50% de pinus com 50% de resíduos de erva-mate sem casca (T5). Os painéis foram produzidos com o adesivo ureia-formaldeído a um teor de 8%, com ciclo de prensagem de 8 min, a 170 ºC e 30 kgf.cm-2. Os painéis produzidos com os resíduos de erva-mate apresentaram menor umidade de equilíbrio higroscópico (UEH), assim como menor absorção de água após 24 h de imersão (AA 24 h). Não houve diferença estatística entre os tratamentos quanto às propriedades de compressão, arrancamento de parafusos, dureza Janka e ligação interna. Os painéis produzidos com resíduos de erva-mate, assim como as misturas deles com partículas de pinus, apresentaram valores de módulo de ruptura à flexão estática inferiores aos estipulados pela norma brasileira NBR 14810-2 (ABNT, 2002). Como não atenderam a um dos requisitos mínimos, painéis produzidos com resíduos de erva-mate não devem ser utilizados em substituição aos painéis de madeira aglomerada. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of using residues from pruning yerba mate for manufacturing particleboard panels. Particleboard panels were produced containing: 100% pine (T1), 100% residues of yerba mate with bark (T2), 100% residues of yerba mate without bark (T3), [...] 50% pine with 50% residues of yerba mate with bark (T4) and 50% pine with 50% residues of yerba mate without bark (T5). The panels were produced with an urea formaldehyde adhesive 8%, with a pressing cycle of 8 minutes at 170° C and 30 kgf.cm-2. The panels produced with residues of yerba mate showed less hygroscopic equilibrium moisture (HEM) and lower water absorption after 24 of immersion (AA 24 h). There was no statistical difference among the treatments as for the properties of compression, screws pullout, Janka hardness and internal bond. The panels produced with residues of yerba mate, as well as mixtures of these with pine particles, showed values of modulus of rupture in static bending lower than stipulated by the Brazilian standard NBR 14810-2 (ABNT, 2002). Since they did meet one of the basic requirements, panels produced with residues of yerba mate should not be used to substitute wood particleboard panels.

  11. Heat shock protein production and immunity and altered fetal development in diabetic pregnant rats

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Felipe Hiroshi; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Dallaqua, Bruna; Linhares, Iara Moreno; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; De Mattos Paranhos Calderon, Iracema; Witkin, Steven S

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated associations between the concentrations of heat shock proteins (hsp60 and hsp70) and their respective antibodies, alterations in maternal reproductive performance, and fetal malformations in pregnant rats with hyperglycemia. Mild diabetes (MD) or severe diabetes (SD) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats prior to mating; non-treated non-diabetic rats (ND) served as controls. On day 21 of pregnancy, maternal blood was analyzed for hsp60 and hsp70 and their antibodies; and fetuses wer...

  12. Influence of mating on ovarian follicle development in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Asin; L. Crocco de, Ayerbe.

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available This works examines the influence of mating on ovarian follicle development in Triatoma infestans. The observations were carried out on both virgin and mated females, wich were killed at various times after their emergence. There was no difference in the ovarian development of both experimental grou [...] ps during the first gonadotrofic cycle. By the 7th day mated females as well as virgn females showed vitellogenic oocytes. The coriogenesis and ovulation process began on the 13th day after imaginal moulting. However we could observe that egg-laying was dependent on mating. Mated females laid eggs whereas virgin females did not lay eggs. However ovarian production was significantly greater in the mated females. It is suggested that in T. infestans mating stimulates egg-laying but it does not influence the oogenesis and ovulation process.

  13. Influence of mating on ovarian follicle development in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asin

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available This works examines the influence of mating on ovarian follicle development in Triatoma infestans. The observations were carried out on both virgin and mated females, wich were killed at various times after their emergence. There was no difference in the ovarian development of both experimental groups during the first gonadotrofic cycle. By the 7th day mated females as well as virgn females showed vitellogenic oocytes. The coriogenesis and ovulation process began on the 13th day after imaginal moulting. However we could observe that egg-laying was dependent on mating. Mated females laid eggs whereas virgin females did not lay eggs. However ovarian production was significantly greater in the mated females. It is suggested that in T. infestans mating stimulates egg-laying but it does not influence the oogenesis and ovulation process.

  14. Enraizamento de Miniestacas de Erva-Mate sob Diferentes Ambientes Mate Minicuttings Rooting under Different Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvano Ebling Brondani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Pouco se conhece a respeito da propagação vegetativa da erva-mate, principalmente em relação à miniestaquia e aos aspectos relacionados ao ambiente de enraizamento. O estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito do ambiente inicial de enraizamento sobre a sobrevivência, vigor da parte aérea e enraizamento de miniestacas da espécie. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial (3x2, sendo três clones (A7, A21 e A35 e dois ambientes de enraizamento (casa-de-vegetação simples, sem controle de temperatura e umidade e casa-de-vegetação automatizada. A sobrevivência das miniestacas na saída das casas de enraizamento e na casa-de-sombra não foram influenciadas pelo ambiente testado, com variação de 51,8 % a 71,9 %. Os clones A7 e A21 não diferiram significativamente quanto ao enraizamento, com médias de 49,1 % e 46,4 %, respectivamente. Contudo, o clone A35 mostrou-se superior quando proveniente da casa-de-vegetação automatizada, com 62,5 % de enraizamento. A casa-de-vegetação automatizada favoreceu tanto o número de folhas quanto o número e comprimento das brotações emitidas. A miniestaquia de erva-mate pode ser considerada tecnicamente viável em ambos os ambientes de enraizamento testados, apresentando resultados semelhantes.

    There is little knowledge about the vegetative propagation of Ilex  paraguariensis, mainly in relation to the minicutting technique and  rooting environmental aspects. This study aimed to evaluate the initial  rooting environment in relation to the survival, shoot vigor and  minicuttings rooting of this species. The experiment was conducted in  a completely randomized design, under a factorial arrange (3x2, with  three clones (A7, A21 and A35 and two rooting environments (simple greenhouse - without control of temperature and humidity; and automatized greenhouse - with automatized control. The minicutting  survival in the exit of greenhouses and in the exit of shadow house  was not influenced by the tested environments, with 51.8 % to 71.9 %  of survival variation. The A7 and A21 clones did not present  significative difference in relation to rooting, with averages of 49.1 %  and 46.4 %, respectively. However, the A35 clone showed the best  development (62.5 % of rooting when it was cultivated under  automatized greenhouse condition. The automatized greenhouse  favored not only the characteristics leaf and shoot numbers, but also  the shoot length. The minicutting technique for I. paraguariensis may  be considered viable in both evaluated rooting environments, which  presented similar results.

  15. Interactive cueing with walk-Mate for Hemiparetic Stroke Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muto Takeshi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many techniques that compensate for locomotion problems in daily life using externally controlled stimulation have recently been reported. These techniques are beneficial for effortlessly supporting patients’ locomotive functions, but the users of such devices must necessarily remain dependent on them. It is possible that some individuals with gait impairment may be prevented recovering locomotive function. From a rehabilitation viewpoint, it may therefore be supposed that ideally, devices that can be used in daily life to improve the locomotive functions of the body itself should be proposed. Methods We evaluate the effectiveness of Walk-Mate, which has been used mainly as a gait compensation device, as a gait rehabilitation training device by analyzing improvement in locomotion before, during and after rehabilitation in hemiparetic patients and comparing it with a previous gait training method. Walk-Mate generates a model walking rhythm in response to a user’s locomotion in real time, and by indicating this rhythm using auditory stimuli, provides a technology that supports walking by reducing asymmetries and fluctuations in foot contact rhythm. If patients can use the system to learn a regulated walking rhythm, then it may also be expected to fulfil the functions of a gait rehabilitation training device for daily life. Results With regard to asymmetry, significantly improvements were seen for compensatory movement during training using Walk-Mate, but improvements were not retained as rehabilitative results. Regarding fluctuations in the foot contact period, significant improvement was observed for compensatory movement during training and these significant improvements were retained as rehabilitative results. In addition, it became clear that such improvement could not be adequately obtained by the previously proposed training technique utilizing constant rhythmic auditory stimulation. Conclusions Walk-Mate effectively compensated for locomotion problems of hemiparetic patients by improving gait rhythm both during and after training, suggesting that locomotive function can be effectively recovered in some patients. The interactive mechanism of Walk-Mate may be capable of simultaneously achieving the aims of gait compensation and gait rehabilitation training methods previously developed under individual frameworks. Walk-Mate is a promising technology for assisting the reintegration of disabled persons into society.

  16. ANITA status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I will review the status of ANtarctic Impulsive Transient Array (ANITA), an Antarctic long-duration balloon experiment designed to search for ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos through their radio Cherenkov signature in the ice. The first ANITA flight took place in the 2006-2007 Antarctic summer and ANITA II will fly this December 2008. I will report on first results from the first flight and the status of ANITA II.

  17. ANITA status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, A.; ANITA Collaboration

    2009-06-01

    I will review the status of ANtarctic Impulsive Transient Array (ANITA), an Antarctic long-duration balloon experiment designed to search for ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos through their radio Cherenkov signature in the ice. The first ANITA flight took place in the 2006-2007 Antarctic summer and ANITA II will fly this December 2008. I will report on first results from the first flight and the status of ANITA II.

  18. Weighing costs and benefits of mating in bushcrickets (Insecta: Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae), with an emphasis on nuptial gifts, protandry and mate density

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Sexual selection is a major force driving evolution and is intertwined with ecological factors. Differential allocation of limited resources has a central role in the cost of reproduction. In this paper, I review the costs and benefits of mating in tettigoniids, focussing on nuptial gifts, their trade-off with male calling songs, protandry and how mate density influences mate choice. Tettigoniids have been widely used as model systems for studies of mating costs and benefits; they can provide useful general insights. The production and exchange of large nuptial gifts by males for mating is an important reproductive strategy in tettigoniids. As predicted by sexual selection theory spermatophylax size is condition dependent and is constrained by the need to invest in calling to attract mates also. Under some circumstances, females benefit directly from the nuptial gifts by an increase in reproductive output. However, compounds in the nuptial gift can also benefit the male by prolonging the period before the female remates. There is also a trade-off between adult male maturation and mating success. Where males mature before females (protandry) the level of protandry varies in the direction predicted by sperm competition theory; namely, early male maturation is correlated with a high level of first inseminations being reproductively successful. Lastly, mate density in bushcrickets is an important environmental factor influencing the behavioural decisions of individuals. Where mates are abundant, individuals are more choosey of mates; when they are scarce, individuals are less choosey. This review reinforces the view that tettigoniids provide excellent models to test and understand the economics of matings in both sexes. PMID:22894685

  19. Risikofaktor Alter im Straßenverkehr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopeinig-Kreissl M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiologische Abbauprozesse im Alter führen sowohl zur Abnahme der kognitiven und motorischen Leistung als auch zu Defiziten der Sinneswahrnehmung. Häufig treten chronische Erkrankungen auf, die alleine oder in Kombination mit zusätzlichen Beschwerdebildern zu einer relevanten Beeinträchtigung der Fahrtüchtigkeit führen können. Eine medikamentöse Behandlung von Begleiterkrankungen muß die veränderte Stoffwechsellage im Alter berücksichtigen und ist daher nach strenger Indikation zu stellen. Vor allem in der Einstellungsphase und bei Kombination mehrerer Arzneimittel muß die Fahrtüchtigkeit kritisch geprüft werden. Wegen der veränderten Pharmakokinetik und Pharmakodynamik im Alter, stellt der Konsum von Alkohol einen weiteren Risikofaktor für Wechselwirkungen und paradoxe Wirkungen durch Begleitmedikation dar. Diese Übersichtsarbeit beschäftigt sich mit dem Risikofaktor Alter im Straßenverkehr und der ärztlichen Verantwortung bei der Einschätzung der Fahrtüchtigkeit älterer Verkehrsteilnehmer.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on sperm utilization in twice-mated female of potato tuber moth (Lep., Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of second mating on fecundity and fertility of potato tuber moth female mated with 450 Gy - irradiated and normal males or vice versa were studied. Percentage of eggs fertilized by sperm from the 2 nd mate (P2) was 0.99, indicating that sperm transferred during the last mating were predominantly utilized in egg fertilization. Females mated first with irradiated males, remated after 2 days, while those mated first with normal males, remated after 3.3 days. Fecundity of twice-mated females was higher than those mated only once. Females laid their eggs 1.9 days after mating, while unmated females did not lay eggs at all. Duration of mating varied from 102 to 117 minutes for normal and irradiated males, respectively. (author)

  1. Mechanical seal having a single-piece, perforated mating ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonsari, Michael M. (Baton Rouge, LA); Somanchi, Anoop K. (Fremont, CA)

    2007-08-07

    A mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) with reduced contact surface temperature, reduced contact surface wear, or increased life span. The mechanical seal comprises a rotating ring and a single-piece, perforated mating ring, which improves heat transfer by controllably channeling coolant flow through the single-piece mating ring such that the coolant is in substantially uniform thermal contact with a substantial portion of the interior surface area of the seal face, while maintaining the structural integrity of the mechanical seal and minimizing the potential for coolant flow interruptions to the seal face caused by debris or contaminants (e.g., small solids and trash) in the coolant.

  2. Hydrocarbon Patterns and Mating Behaviour in Populations of Drosophila yakuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Denis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila yakuba is widespread in Africa. Here we compare the cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC profiles and mating behavior of mainland (Kounden, Cameroon and island (Mayotte, Sao-Tome, Bioko populations. The strains each had different CHC profiles: Bioko and Kounden were the most similar, while Mayotte and Sao-Tome contained significant amounts of 7-heptacosene. The CHC profile of the Sao-Tome population differed the most, with half the 7-tricosene of the other populations and more 7-heptacosene and 7-nonacosene. We also studied the characteristics of the mating behavior of the four strains: copulation duration was similar but latency times were higher in Mayotte and Sao-Tome populations. We found partial reproductive isolation between populations, especially in male-choice experiments with Sao-Tome females.

  3. Changes in educational assortative mating in contemporary Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Cortina

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses patterns and trends in educational assortative mating of the Spanish women born between 1920 and 1969 using data from the 2001 Spanish Census. By means of loglinear models we examine the following issues: i intensity and changes in educational assortative mating patterns; ii crossing barriers across educational thresholds and iii degree of symmetry between male and female patterns. Results show that education matters in the composition of unions: people tend to marry assortatively according to their education. However this pattern clearly differs across cohorts and between educational groups, being higher for the extreme categories. The most notable trends are 1 the increasing intensity of homogamy among the more educated and 2 the incipient extinction of the traditional female hypergamic pattern.

  4. SEXUAL SELECTION. Irrationality in mate choice revealed by túngara frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Amanda M; Ryan, Michael J

    2015-08-28

    Mate choice models derive from traditional microeconomic decision theory and assume that individuals maximize their Darwinian fitness by making economically rational decisions. Rational choices exhibit regularity, whereby the relative strength of preferences between options remains stable when additional options are presented. We tested female frogs with three simulated males who differed in relative call attractiveness and call rate. In binary choice tests, females' preferences favored stimulus caller B over caller A; however, with the addition of an inferior "decoy" C, females reversed their preferences and chose A over B. These results show that the relative valuation of mates is not independent of inferior alternatives in the choice set and therefore cannot be explained with the rational choice models currently used in sexual selection theory. PMID:26315434

  5. Complex Mhc-based mate choice in a wild passerine

    OpenAIRE

    Bonneaud, Camille; Chastel, Olivier; Federici, Pierre; Westerdahl, Helena; Sorci, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    The extreme polymorphism of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) is famous for protecting hosts against constantly evolving pathogens. Mate choice is often evoked as a means of maintaining Mhc variability through avoidance of partners with similar Mhc alleles or preference for heterozygotes. Evidence for these two hypotheses mostly comes from studies on humans and laboratory mice. Here, we tested these hypotheses in a wild outbred population of house sparrows (Passer domestic...

  6. MATING BEHAVIOUR AND CANNIBALISM IN PRAYING MANTIS (MANTIS RELIGIOSA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel – Ionu? BOGDAN; Dan ST?NESCU

    2010-01-01

    This paper intends to study the reproductive behaviour of praying mantis (Mantis religiosa L.), describing the whole sequences of mating behaviour, approaching wholeness behavioural sequences related to reproduction of species, with special reference to cannibalistic behaviour, observed both in laboratory and natural environment of the insect. The investigations undertaken deduce the complexity of the problem and the need for further studies to elucidate and other aspects reguarding this ty...

  7. Stratification in the Early Stages of Mate Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Sociologists have long studied mate choice patterns to understand the shape of stratification systems. Romantic pairing involves intimacy and trust, and is therefore a prime indicator of the extent to which members of different social groupings (race/ethnicity, social class, education, religion) accept each other as social equals. The majority of this literature focuses on marriage, given the commitment marriage implies and the availability of nationally-representative data. In this dissertat...

  8. Fluoxetine does not prevent interspecific mating between two hamster species

    OpenAIRE

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Johnston, Robert E

    2010-01-01

    In a recent study we showed that female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) from a laboratory stock readily mated with male Turkish hamsters (M. brandti). We hypothesized that captivity and/or unconscious selection of the most receptive females by researchers or animal caretakers results in heightened female sexual receptivity and reduces the tendency to reject heterospecific males. To test this hypothesis, we decided to decrease female receptivity by injection of fluoxetine, which increas...

  9. Sperm length, sperm storage and mating system characteristics in bumblebees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2003-01-01

    Multiple insemination induces sperm competition and may select for longer, faster moving sperm in species where sperm is short-lived and egg fertilization takes place almost immediately after ejaculation. Here we report the first detailed analysis of sperm length in social insects with long-term storage of sperm, using three bumblebee species with different mating systems as models. We show that individual males produce only one size-class of sperm, but that sperm length is highly variable among...

  10. Why Do Female Callosobruchus maculatus Kick Their Mates?

    OpenAIRE

    Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B.; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from ex...

  11. Cooperative Intergroup Mating Can Overcome Ethnocentrism in Diverse Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Mouri, Caitlin J.; Shultz, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnocentrism is a behavioral strategy seen on every scale of social interaction. Game-theory models demonstrate that evolution selects ethnocentrism because it boosts cooperation, which increases reproductive fitness. However, some believe that interethnic unions have the potential to foster universal cooperation and overcome in-group biases in humans. Here, we use agent-based computer simulations to test this hypothesis. Cooperative intergroup mating does lend an advantage...

  12. Ecology and mating competition influence sexual dimorphism in Tanganyikan cichlids

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuboi, M; González-Voyer, Alejandro; Höglund, J.; Kolm, N.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual selection contributes strongly to the evolution of sexual dimorphism among animal taxa. However, recent comparative analyses have shown that evolution of sexual dimorphism can be influenced by extrinsic factors like mating system and environment, and also that different types of sexual dimorphism may present distinct evolutionary pathways. Investigating the co-variation among different types of sexual dimorphism and their association with environmental factors can therefore provide imp...

  13. Assortative Mating and Divorce: Evidence from Austrian Register Data

    OpenAIRE

    Frimmel, Wolfgang; Halla, Martin; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    This paper documents that changes in assortative mating patterns over the last four decades along the dimensions of age, ethnicity, religion and education are not responsible for the increasing marital instability in Austria. Quite the contrary, without the rise in the age at marriage, divorce rates would be considerably higher. Immigration and secularization, and the resulting supply of spouses with diverse ethnicity and religious denominations had no overall effect on divorce rates. Counter...

  14. Male Mating Tactics in Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta): The Influence of Dominance, Markets, and Relationship Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Massen, Jorg J. M.; Overduin-de Vries, Anne M.; de Vos-Rouweler, Annemiek J. M.; Spruijt, Berry M.; Doxiadis, Gaby G. M.; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Male mating success in a multimale–multifemale group can depend on several variables: body condition, dominance, coalitions, “friendship,” or an exchange of services for mating access. Exchange patterns may also be determined by market effects or social relationships. We studied the mating tactics of males in a captive, multimale–multifemale group of rhesus macaques and the resulting patterns of mating and paternity to determine the influence of dominance rank, mating markets, and relationshi...

  15. Biased Sex Ratios Influence Fundamental Aspects of Human Mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Justin H; Maner, Jon K

    2016-01-01

    The operational sex ratio-the ratio of men to women in a given population-affects a range of social processes. The current research demonstrates that biased sex ratios (greater numbers of one sex than the other) influence fundamental aspects of people's mating strategy. When the sex ratio was favorable (one's own sex was in the minority), both sexes adopted strong sex-typical sociosexual orientations (relatively restricted for women; relatively unrestricted for men). When the sex ratio was unfavorable (one's own sex was in the majority), both sexes shifted toward the orientation typically favored by the other sex: Women became more unrestricted and men became more restricted (Experiment 1). When the sex ratio was unfavorable (relative to favorable), participants also displayed greater aggression toward a romantically desirable (but not undesirable) same-sex partner (Experiment 2). Exploratory analyses suggested that the sex ratio effect was present for unprovoked aggression but not provoked aggression (given the exploratory nature of that analysis, the aggression effect should be considered with some caution). Findings suggest that people's mating strategies are adaptively calibrated to contingencies within the local mating ecology. PMID:26498976

  16. Targeting male mosquito mating behaviour for malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabate, Abdoulaye; Tripet, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Malaria vector control relies heavily on the use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS). These, together with the combined drug administration efforts to control malaria, have reduced the death toll to less than 700,000 deaths/year. This progress has engendered real excitement but the emergence and spread of insecticide resistance is challenging our ability to sustain and consolidate the substantial gains that have been made. Research is required to discover novel vector control tools that can supplement and improve the effectiveness of those currently available. Here, we argue that recent and continuing progress in our understanding of male mating biology is instrumental in the implementation of new approaches based on the release of either conventional sterile or genetically engineered males. Importantly, further knowledge of male biology could also lead to the development of new interventions, such as sound traps and male mass killing in swarms, and contribute to new population sampling tools. We review and discuss recent advances in the behavioural ecology of male mating with an emphasis on the potential applications that can be derived from such knowledge. We also highlight those aspects of male mating ecology that urgently require additional study in the future. PMID:26113015

  17. "Hidden" reproductive conflict between mates in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommer, Jon E; Rattiste, Kalev

    2008-09-01

    Environmental conditions experienced by a female prior to reproducing may be influenced by her mate. Part of such an indirect effect of a male on his partner's reproduction may be genetic (indirect genetic effect). However, a female's direct and a male's indirect genetic effects need not align. We analyzed 10,652 records of seasonal timing of laying, an important reproductive trait in many organisms, of 1864 male and 1916 female common gulls Larus canus collected during 37 years. We show that there is both a direct (female) and an indirect (male) genetic effect (explaining 14.5% and 4.8% of the REML estimated variance in laying date, respectively), but these are significantly negatively correlated (-0.53+/-0.22 SE), indicating that genes for early laying in females are associated with genes for a delaying male effect on his partner's laying date (and vice versa). There is strong selection for laying early in this population, and these sexually antagonistic genetic effects may contribute in maintaining the variation in laying date. Our findings provide an empirical demonstration of a hitherto largely unstudied level of conflict between mates, with important ramifications for our understanding of evolutionary dynamics and mate choice in nature. PMID:18616571

  18. Mate loss affects survival but not breeding in black brant geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Christopher A.; Sedinger, James S.; Ward, David H.; Boyd, W. Sean

    2012-01-01

    For birds maintaining long-term monogamous relationships, mate loss might be expected to reduce fitness, either through reduced survival or reduced future reproductive investment. We used harvest of male brant during regular sport hunting seasons as an experimental removal to examine effects of mate loss on fitness of female black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans; hereafter brant). We used the Barker model in program MARK to examine effects of mate loss on annual survival, reporting rate, and permanent emigration. Survival rates decreased from 0.847 ± 0.004 for females who did not lose their mates to 0.690 ± 0.072 for birds who lost mates. Seber ring reporting rate for females that lost their mates were 2 times higher than those that did not lose mates, 0.12 ± 0.086 and 0.06 ± 0.006, respectively, indicating that mate loss increased vulnerability to harvest and possibly other forms of predation. We found little support for effects of mate loss on fidelity to breeding site and consequently on breeding. Our results indicate substantial fitness costs to females associated with mate loss, but that females who survived and were able to form new pair bonds may have been higher quality than the average female in the population.

  19. Mating Success of Female Dungeness Crabs (Cancer magister) in Oregon Coastal Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Paul; Shanks, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The Dungeness crab is an important commercial and sports fishing species in Oregon. The fishery is regulated by sex, size, and season. This study examined whether female crabs are mating despite the removal of almost all legal-size male crabs each year. Of particular concern is whether large females are finding large enough mates. Females were collected from three Oregon fishing ports, dissected, and checked for evidence of mating. Captured male and female crabs were also measured to estimate population size distributions. The majority of female crabs examined (69%) mated in the collection year, and when combined with crabs that carried sperm from previous mating encounters (females store sperm), the percent of females that would have produced viable eggs was 83%. Crabs that definitely molted during the collection year showed higher mating success (95%). The largest females examined (carapace width, 160-169 mm) showed high mating success (84% Mated in the collection year, 95% could have produced viable eggs).These numbers compare favorably with a similar survey conducted in northern California, in which 69% of molting females had mated. We conclude from the data that molting females in these Oregon fishing ports are finding mates successfully, regardless of size.

  20. A comparison of two methods to assess audience-induced changes in male mate choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlen ZIEGE, Carmen HENNIGE-SCHULZ, Frauke MUECKSCH,David BIERBACH, Ralph TIEDEMANN, Bruno STREIT, Martin PLATH

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Multidirectional communicative interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior. Male Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana exhibit weaker mating preferences when an audience male is presented. This could be a male strategy to reduce sperm competition risk: interacting more equally with different females may be advantageous because rivals might copy mate choice decisions. In line with this hypothesis, a previous study found males to show a strong audience effect when being observed while exercising mate choice, but not when the rival was presented only before the choice tests. Audience effects on mate choice decisions have been quantified in poeciliid fishes using association preference designs, but it remains unknown if patterns found from measuring association times translate into actual mating behavior. Thus, we created five audience treatments simulating different forms of perceived sperm competition risk and determined focal males’ mating preferences by scoring pre-mating (nipping and mating behavior (gonopodial thrusting. Nipping did not reflect the pattern that was found when association preferences were measured, while a very similar pattern was uncovered in thrusting behavior. The strongest response was observed when the audience could eavesdrop on the focal male’s behavior. A reduction in the strength of focal males’ preferences was also seen after the rival male had an opportunity to mate with the focal male’s preferred mate. In comparison, the reduction of mating preferences in response to an audience was greater when measuring association times than actual mating behavior. While measuring direct sexual interactions between the focal male and both stimulus females not only the male’s motivational state is reflected but also females’ behavior such as avoidance of male sexual harassment [Current Zoology 58 (1: 84–94, 2012].

  1. Mating strategies in dominant meerkats: evidence for extra-pair paternity in relation to genetic relatedness between pair mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, S; Nielsen, J F; Sharp, S P; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2013-07-01

    Rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP) have frequently been associated with genetic relatedness between social mates in socially monogamous birds. However, evidence is limited in mammals. Here, we investigate whether dominant females use divorce or extra-pair paternity as a strategy to avoid the negative effects of inbreeding when paired with a related male in meerkats Suricata suricatta, a species where inbreeding depression is evident for several traits. We show that dominant breeding pairs seldom divorce, but that rates of EPP are associated with genetic similarity between mates. Although extra-pair males are no more distantly related to the female than social males, they are more heterozygous. Nevertheless, extra-pair pups are not more heterozygous than within-pair pups. Whether females benefit from EPP in terms of increased fitness of the offspring, such as enhanced survival or growth, requires further investigations. PMID:23675879

  2. Breeding success of a brood parasite is associated with social mating status of its host.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, A.; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Prokop, P.; Honza, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 66, ?. 8 (2012), s. 1187-1194. ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA600930903; GA ?R(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brood parasitism * cuckoo * great reed warbler * polygyny * reproductive success Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.752, year: 2012

  3. Effect of host social mating status on breeding success of a brood parasite.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    Hainan : Hainan Normal University, 2012. s. 16. [International Symposium on Avian Brood Parasitism - in Honour of Significant Brood Parasitism Scientists. 15.11.2012-19.11.2012, Hainan] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : cuckoo * great reed warbler Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  4. Nutrição e crescimento da erva-mate submetida à calagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmar Santin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050988439A erva-mate ocorre naturalmente em solos ácidos, mas é comumente cultivada em consórcio com culturas anuais que requerem correção da acidez. Contudo, pouco se conhece sobre seu comportamento frente à calagem. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar a influência do calcário no crescimento e estado nutricional de plantas jovens de erva-mate. Para isso, incubou-se o solo com 0,0, 0,7, 1,8, 2,5, 3,4, 4,3 e 5,2 g dm-3 de calcário. Após 21 dias de incubação, mudas de erva-mate foram transplantadas para vasos com 3 dm3 de solo. Após 210 dias determinou-se o crescimento em altura e diâmetro, posteriormente separou-se as plantas em folha, caule e raiz para determinação da área foliar, comprimento e volume de raízes, produção de matéria seca e teor de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn e Al, além da eficiência de utilização de Ca e Mg pela planta. O solo foi analisado quimicamente. O calcário elevou os teores de Ca, Mg e K do solo e estimulou um pequeno aumento no crescimento da parte aérea das plantas, o que não ocorreu para o sistema radicular. O máximo crescimento e produção de matéria seca da parte aérea da erva-mate ocorreu em pequenas doses de calcário, quando o teor de Ca e Mg no solo se situava, respectivamente, na faixa de 3,3 a 3,4 e 1,1 a 1,4 cmolc dm-3. Nas maiores doses de calcário os teores foliares de Cu, Zn, Mn e Fe e o crescimento das plantas foram fortemente reduzidos. A eficiência de utilização de Ca e Mg pela planta reduziu com o aumento da disponibilidade dos mesmos no solo. A erva-mate mostrou ser pouco responsiva à calagem e muito tolerante ao Al. Desta forma, a aplicação de calcário deve visar o suprimento de Ca e Mg para as plantas e não a correção da acidez do solo no intuito de neutralizar o Al trocável.

  5. The use of rapid quality control in determining mating propensity and mating competitiveness of irradiated Mediterranean fruit flies. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedeman) at various ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Success of using irradiation to sterile males of various insect species for control or eradication by the sterile-insect release technique requires a certain dose for sterilizing without effects on mating behavior. This study was conducted at the Tropical Fruit and Vegetable Research Laboratory, Hawaii, to observe some radiation effects of this laboratory's currently used sterilizing dose on mating propensity and competitiveness of flies. The results of this study would be useful information for future research and use of this technique in Thailand. Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedeman) were irradiated with 145 gray of gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source in a nitrogen atmosphere 2 days before eclosion. Mating behavior of 3-6 day old flies were observed for 3 replications. The test of mating propensity was conducted by using two plexiglas cages containing 25 pairs of irradiated and non-irradiated flies in each cage. The results showed that there was no significant effect on mating propensity of treated 3-5 day old flies (P=0.05), however, treated 6 day old flies, radiation effects were observed. The mating propensity increased with age of both non-irradiated and irradiated flies. Studies on the mating behavior of 20 pairs of non-irradiated and irradiated flies in a competitive situation showed that 3 and 5-6 day old non-irradiated flies of both sexes had higher mating competitiveness than irradiated flies (P=0.01). The irradiated flies were more competitive than the 4 days old non-irradiated flies. Results of possible mating combination between irradiated and non-irradiated flies showed no significant difference in mating index (P=0.05)

  6. Effect of adult diet on signaling activity, mate attraction, and mating success in male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were performed to examine the effect of adult diet on calling activity, female attraction, and mating success in male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). In all tests, comparisons were drawn between males fed sugar only ('protein-deprived' males) and males fed a protein-sugar mixture ('protein-fed' males). In tests of long-distance attraction, aggregations consisting of protein-deprived males exclusively or protein-fed males exclusively were established in a coffee field, and females were released from a central release point. Protein-fed and protein-deprived males displayed similar calling levels, but approximately twice as many female sightings were recorded at groups of protein-fed males than at groups of protein-deprived males. A second test of female attraction compared single groups of protein-deprived and protein-fed males within the canopy of a field-caged host plant. As before, calling activity did not vary with diet, and in this case numbers of female sightings were also similar between aggregations of protein-fed vs. protein-deprived males. In mating trials conducted on field-caged host plants, protein-fed males achieved significantly more matings than protein-deprived males. These results are compared with other recent studies on the nutritional ecology of male Mediterranean fruit flies. (author)

  7. Inhibition of female mating receptivity by male-derived extracts in two Callosobruchus species: consequences for interspecific mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Takashi; Miyatake, Takahisa

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the effects of injecting male-derived extracts on congeneric female receptivity in two species of Callosobruchus beetle, C. chinensis and C. maculatus. We also examined the influence of interspecific mating on female remating behaviour in these two species. Male-derived extracts reduced congeneric female receptivity in both species. As quick-acting components, extracts of C. chinensis male seminal vesicles reduced the receptivity of C. maculatus females, whereas extracts of C. maculatus male testes reduced the receptivity of C. chinensis females. As slow-acting components, extracts of male accessory glands of other species reduced the receptivity of both C. maculatus and chinensis females. After interspecific mating, the sperm of C. maculatus males were transferred to the reproductive organs of C. chinensis females, thereby reducing their receptivity. In contrast, no C. chinensis sperm were transferred to the reproductive organs of C. maculatus females; accordingly, the latter's receptivity was not reduced. Furthermore, the survival rate of C. chinensis females decreased markedly after interspecific mating. These results raise the possibility that under circumstances where populations of these two species share the same habitat, reproductive interference would occur only in the interactions between C. maculatus males and C. chinensis females. PMID:20493873

  8. “Attached” or “Unattached”: With Whom do Men and Women Prefer to Mate, and Why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair P.C. Davies

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A mate poacher is an individual who has sexual relations with someone whom the poacher knows is already in a nominally exclusive, long-term relationship. This article reviews research in which participants were asked to rate the likelihood that benefits and costs exclusively associated with poaching would motivate them to attract, respectively, an attached or an unattached individual, assuming that the potential mates are equally attractive. The results indicated that for men and women to be motivated to poach, the attached individual must be perceived as being more attractive than the unattached individual. Discussion suggests that mate poaching may sometimes be pursued as an alternative to coercive mating strategies, by individuals who are unable to secure unattached mates of acceptable attractiveness. We further hypothesize that individuals may pursue a hierarchy of conditional mating strategies from attracting unattached individuals, through poaching, to coercion. Additional findings of sex differences in perceptions of benefits and costs exclusive to poaching also are discussed.

  9. Multiple mating by females of two Bactrocera species (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinajariyawong, A; Drew, R A I; Meats, A; Balagawi, S; Vijaysegaran, S

    2010-06-01

    Multiple mating was investigated in two tephritid species when females were under minimal male pressure because they were each confined with a single male in cages 20 x 20 x 20 cm and observed daily until they died. Laboratory-reared females of Bactrocera cucumis (French) lived up to 274 days and refractory periods averaged 59-63 days. However, the distribution of matings among B. cucumis females was not significantly different to that expected by chance. Wild females of Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering) reared from field-collected fruits of Solanum mauritianum Scopoli lived for up to 134 days and mated up to three times with refractory periods between matings averaging 27-39 days. The distribution of the number of matings among females of B. cacuminata was non-random because of the high proportion of non-maters (50%); but, when only females mating more than once were considered, there was no significant departure from random expectation. PMID:19939317

  10. Is accoustic communication essential in the mating behavior of Empyreuma pugione (Erebidae: Arctiinae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohami Fernández

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and acoustic communication are involved in species recognition and in female mate-choice during the mating behavior of many nocturnal Lepidoptera. Here, we analyzed the effect of audition and sound production in Empyreuma pugione reproductive behavior. For this, we combine intact females and males with deaf-mute animals and measured the number of successful matings in three experimental conditions: (1 couples of intact females and males, (2 couples of deaf-mute males and intact females, (3 couples of intact males and deaf-mute females. We found successful matings for the three tested combinations without significant difference between experimental conditions. 29 % of the successful mating occurred between deaf-mute males and intact females and 24 % between deaf-mute females and intact males. Our results suggest that sound production in E. pugione is not essential during courtship behavior and probably the chemical communication combined with other sensory systems is enough for select and accept mates.

  11. Radiation-induced mating-type switching in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haploid yeast cells possess two different mating types which are controlled genetically by the MAT locus. Information of the opposite mating type is stored on the same chromosome but not expressed. Radiation may initiate a gene conversion event leading to 'mating-type switching'. This was studied by using X-rays and 254 nm ultraviolet light. X-ray-induced mating type switching shows an oxygen enhancement ratio of 2.9 which is higher than that for survival (1.8) and equals that for double-strand break induction. Mating-type switching by UV is not photoreactivable and depends on a functioning excision repair system. The results are compatible with the interpretation that mating type switching is initiated by a double-strand break in the MAT coding region. (author)

  12. Music and Alterity Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Martí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.

  13. Compliance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford`s compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute.

  14. Compliance status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford's compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute

  15. The strength of a female mate preference increases with predation risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae Won; Christy, John H.; Dennenmoser, Stefan; Choe, Jae C.

    2008-01-01

    When females search for mates and their perceived risk of predation increases, they less often express preferences for males that use conspicuous courtship signals, relaxing sexual selection on production of these signals. Here, we report an apparent exception to this general pattern. Courting male fiddler crabs Uca beebei sometimes build pillars of mud at the openings to their burrows in which crabs mate. Females visit several males before they choose a mate by staying and breeding in their ...

  16. Prm1 Prevents Contact-Dependent Lysis of Yeast Mating Pairs†

    OpenAIRE

    Hui JIN; Carlile, Candice; Nolan, Scott; Grote, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Membrane fusion requires localized destabilization of two phospholipid bilayers, but unrestrained membrane destabilization could result in lysis. prm1 mutant yeast cells have a defect at the plasma membrane fusion stage of mating that typically results in the accumulation of prezygotes that have fingers of membrane-bound cytoplasm projecting from one cell of each pair into its mating partner in the direction of the osmotic gradient between the cells. However, some prm1 mating pairs fuse succe...

  17. Structures of a Na+-coupled, substrate-bound MATE multidrug transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Min; Symersky, Jindrich; Radchenko, Martha; Koide, Akiko; Yi GUO; Nie, Rongxin; Koide, Shohei

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug transporters belonging to the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family expel dissimilar lipophilic and cationic drugs across cell membranes by dissipating a preexisting Na+ or H+ gradient. Despite its clinical relevance, the transport mechanism of MATE proteins remains poorly understood, largely owing to a lack of structural information on the substrate-bound transporter. Here we report crystal structures of a Na+-coupled MATE transporter NorM from Neisseria gonorrheae i...

  18. Structure, Function, and Phylogeny of the Mating Locus in the Rhizopus oryzae Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Gryganskyi, Andrii P.; Lee, Soo Chan; Litvintseva, Anastasia P.; Smith, Matthew E; Bonito, Gregory; Teresita M. Porter; Anishchenko, Iryna M.; HEITMAN, JOSEPH; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2010-01-01

    The Rhizopus oryzae species complex is a group of zygomycete fungi that are common, cosmopolitan saprotrophs. Some strains are used beneficially for production of Asian fermented foods but they can also act as opportunistic human pathogens. Although R. oryzae reportedly has a heterothallic (+/?) mating system, most strains have not been observed to undergo sexual reproduction and the genetic structure of its mating locus has not been characterized. Here we report on the mating behavior and ge...

  19. Molecular Standardization of Mating Type Terminology in the Gibberella fujikuroi Species Complex†

    OpenAIRE

    Kerényi, Z.; Zeller, K.; Hornok, L.; Leslie, J F

    1999-01-01

    Mating type in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex is controlled by a single locus with two alleles and is usually identified following sexual crosses with standard, female-fertile tester isolates. The mating type alleles have been arbitrarily designated “+” and “?” within each biological species, and the nomenclature is tied to the standard tester strains. We developed a pair of PCR primers that can be used to amplify a unique fragment of one of the mating type alleles (MAT-2) from at l...

  20. The dilemma of female mate selection in the brown bear, a species with sexually selected infanticide

    OpenAIRE

    Bellemain, Eva; Zedrosser, Andreas; Manel, Stéphanie; Waits, Lisette P.; Taberlet, Pierre; Swenson, Jon E.

    2005-01-01

    Because of differential investment in gametes between sexes, females tend to be the more selective sex. Based on this concept, we investigate mate selection in a large carnivore: the brown bear (Ursus arctos). We hypothesize that, in this species with sexually selected infanticide (SSI), females may be faced with a dilemma: either select a high-quality partner based on phenotypic criteria, as suggested by theories of mate choice, or rather mate with future potentially infanticidal males as a ...

  1. Male mating preference for female survivorship in the seaweed fly Gluma musgravei (Diptera: Coelopidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, D W; Crean, C S; Gilburn, A S

    2001-01-01

    The seaweed fly mating system is characterized by pre-mating struggles during which females exhibit a mate rejection response involving kicking, shaking and abdominal curling. Males must resist rejection until females become passive and allow copulation to take place. However, despite the vigorous nature of the struggle males frequently dismount passive females without attempting copulation. Here we show that rejected females suffered higher post-encounter mortality rates than those accepted ...

  2. Effects of Ploidy and Mating Type on Virulence of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Magee, B. B.; Sheppard, D C; Yang, Molly; Kauffman, Sarah; Becker, Jeff; Edwards, John E.; Magee, P T

    2005-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen of humans. The recent discovery of sexuality in this organism has led to the demonstration of a mating type locus which is usually heterozygous, although some isolates are homozygous. Tetraploids can be formed between homozygotes of the opposite mating type. However, the role of the mating process and tetraploid formation in virulence has not been investigated. We describe here experiments using a murine model of disseminated candidiasis whi...

  3. Extreme queen-mating frequency and colony fission in African army ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel J C; Schoning, Caspar; Pedersen, Jes S; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Gadau, Jurgen

    2004-01-01

    Army ants have long been suspected to represent an independent origin of multiple queen-mating in the social Hymenoptera. Using microsatellite markers, we show that queens of the African army ant Dorylus (Anomma) molestus have the highest absolute (17.3) and effective (17.5) queen-mating frequencies reported so far for ants. This confirms that obligate multiple queen-mating in social insects is associated with large colony size and advanced social organization, but also raises several novel ques...

  4. Structure of sterol aliphatic chains affects yeast cell shape and cell fusion during mating

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Pablo S.; Heiman, Maxwell G.; Walther, Tobias C.; Engel, Alex; Schwudke, Dominik; Gushwa, Nathan; Kurzchalia, Teymuras; Walter, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Under mating conditions, yeast cells adopt a characteristic pear-shaped morphology, called a “shmoo,” as they project a cell extension toward their mating partners. Mating partners make contact at their shmoo tips, dissolve the intervening cell wall, and fuse their plasma membranes. We identified mutations in ERG4, encoding the enzyme that catalyzes the last step of ergosterol biosynthesis, that impair both shmoo formation and cell fusion. Upon pheromone treatment, erg4? mutants polarized gro...

  5. Notes and observations on courtship and mating in Tityus (Atreus) magnimanus Pocock, 1897 (Scorpiones: Buthidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LK, Ross.

    Full Text Available Courtship and mating behaviors of the scorpion Tityus (Atreus) magnimanus are herein described, consisting of various components that pertain to four distinct behavioral stages. The courtship and mating rituals of Tityus (Atreus) magnimanus are similar to those of other scorpions. Behavioral compone [...] nts are presented in an ethogram to demonstrate their occurrence during mating sequences. The current report is presented as observational data that were acquired during life history studies of this species.

  6. Female Sexual Polymorphism and Fecundity Consequences of Male Mating Harassment in the Wild

    OpenAIRE

    Gosden, Thomas P.; Svensson, Erik I

    2007-01-01

    Genetic and phenotypic variation in female response towards male mating attempts has been found in several laboratory studies, demonstrating sexually antagonistic co-evolution driven by mating costs on female fitness. Theoretical models suggest that the type and degree of genetic variation in female resistance could affect the evolutionary outcome of sexually antagonistic mating interactions, resulting in either rapid development of reproductive isolation and speciation or genetic clustering ...

  7. Testing for mating isolation between ecotypes: laboratory experiments with lake, stream and hybrid stickleback

    OpenAIRE

    Raeymaekers, Joost A. M.; Boisjoly, M; Delaire, L; Berner, D; Raesaenen, K; Hendry, A P

    2010-01-01

    Mating isolation is a frequent contributor to ecological speciation - but how consistently does it evolve as a result of divergent selection? We tested for genetically based mating isolation between lake and stream threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) from the Misty watershed, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. We combined several design elements that are uncommon in the studies of stickleback mate choice: (i) we used second-generation laboratory-reared fish (to reduce environm...

  8. Localizing Brain Regions Associated with Female Mate Preference Behavior in a Swordtail

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Ryan Y.; Ramsey, Mary E; Cummings, Molly E.

    2012-01-01

    Female mate choice behavior is a critical component of sexual selection, yet identifying the neural basis of this behavior is largely unresolved. Previous studies have implicated sensory processing and hypothalamic brain regions during female mate choice and there is a conserved network of brain regions (Social Behavior Network, SBN) that underlies sexual behaviors. However, we are only beginning to understand the role this network has in pre-copulatory female mate choice. Using in situ hybri...

  9. Genetic effects on mating success and partner choice in a social mammal

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, Jenny; Charpentier, Marie JE; Mukherjee, Sayan; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2012-01-01

    Mating behavior has profound consequences for two phenomena – individual reproductive success and the maintenance of species boundaries – that contribute to evolutionary processes. Studies of mating behavior in relation to individual reproductive success are common in many species, but studies of mating behavior in relation to genetic variation and species boundaries are less commonly conducted in socially complex species. Here, we leveraged extensive observations of a wild yellow baboon (Pap...

  10. Transcriptome Profiling of Sexual Maturation and Mating in the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    OpenAIRE

    Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Dimopoulos, George; Xi, Zhiyong; Scolari, Francesca; Gabrieli, Paolo; Siciliano, Paolo; Clarke, Anthony R; Malacrida, Anna R.; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Sexual maturation and mating in insects are generally accompanied by major physiological and behavioural changes. Many of these changes are related to the need to locate a mate and subsequently, in the case of females, to switch from mate searching to oviposition behaviour. The prodigious reproductive capacity of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the factors that has led to its success as an invasive pest species. To identify the molecular changes related to maturatio...

  11. Notes and observations on courtship and mating in Tityus (Atreus magnimanus Pocock, 1897 (Scorpiones: Buthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LK Ross

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Courtship and mating behaviors of the scorpion Tityus (Atreus magnimanus are herein described, consisting of various components that pertain to four distinct behavioral stages. The courtship and mating rituals of Tityus (Atreus magnimanus are similar to those of other scorpions. Behavioral components are presented in an ethogram to demonstrate their occurrence during mating sequences. The current report is presented as observational data that were acquired during life history studies of this species.

  12. Beyond sex allocation: the role of mating systems in sexual selection in parasitoid wasps

    OpenAIRE

    Boulton, Rebecca A; Collins, Laura A; Shuker, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the diverse array of mating systems and life histories which characterise the parasitic Hymenoptera, sexual selection and sexual conflict in this taxon have been somewhat overlooked. For instance, parasitoid mating systems have typically been studied in terms of how mating structure affects sex allocation. In the past decade, however, some studies have sought to address sexual selection in the parasitoid wasps more explicitly and found that, despite the lack of obvious secondary sexua...

  13. Interaction between natural and sexual selection during the evolution of mate recognition.

    OpenAIRE

    Blows, Mark W.

    2002-01-01

    The interaction between natural and sexual selection is central to many theories of how mate choice and reproductive isolation evolve, but their joint effect on the evolution of mate recognition has not, to my knowledge, been investigated in an evolutionary experiment. Natural and sexual selection were manipulated in interspecific hybrid populations of Drosophila to determine their effects on the evolution of a mate recognition system comprised of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). The effect of ...

  14. Polyandry as a mediator of sexual selection before and after mating

    OpenAIRE

    Kvarnemo, Charlotta; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    The Darwin–Bateman paradigm recognizes competition among males for access to multiple mates as the main driver of sexual selection. Increasingly, however, females are also being found to benefit from multiple mating so that polyandry can generate competition among females for access to multiple males, and impose sexual selection on female traits that influence their mating success. Polyandry can reduce a male's ability to monopolize females, and thus weaken male focused sexual selection. Perh...

  15. Assortative mating among Lake Malawi cichlid fish populations is not simply predictable from male nuptial colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Martin I

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the evolution of reproductive isolation in African cichlid fishes has largely focussed on the role of male colours and female mate choice. Here, we tested predictions from the hypothesis that allopatric divergence in male colour is associated with corresponding divergence in preference. Methods We studied four populations of the Lake Malawi Pseudotropheus zebra complex. We predicted that more distantly-related populations that independently evolved similar colours would interbreed freely while more closely-related populations with different colours mate assortatively. We used microsatellite genotypes or mesh false-floors to assign paternity. Fisher's exact tests as well as Binomial and Wilcoxon tests were used to detect if mating departed from random expectations. Results Surprisingly, laboratory mate choice experiments revealed significant assortative mating not only between population pairs with differently coloured males, but between population pairs with similarly-coloured males too. This suggested that assortative mating could be based on non-visual cues, so we further examined the sensory basis of assortative mating between two populations with different male colour. Conducting trials under monochromatic (orange light, intended to mask the distinctive male dorsal fin hues (blue v orange of these populations, did not significantly affect the assortative mating by female P. emmiltos observed under control conditions. By contrast, assortative mating broke down when direct contact between female and male was prevented. Conclusion We suggest that non-visual cues, such as olfactory signals, may play an important role in mate choice and behavioural isolation in these and perhaps other African cichlid fish. Future speciation models aimed at explaining African cichlid radiations may therefore consider incorporating such mating cues in mate choice scenarios.

  16. Mating induces the expression of immune- and pH-regulatory genes in the utero-vaginal junction containing mucosal sperm-storage tubuli of hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atikuzzaman, Mohammad; Mehta Bhai, Ratnesh; Fogelholm, Jesper; Wright, Dominic; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto

    2015-12-01

    The female chicken, as with other species with internal fertilization, can tolerate the presence of spermatozoa within specialized sperm-storage tubuli (SST) located in the mucosa of the utero-vaginal junction (UVJ) for days or weeks, without eliciting an immune response. To determine if the oviduct alters its gene expression in response to sperm entry, segments from the oviduct (UVJ, uterus, isthmus, magnum and infundibulum) of mated and unmated (control) hens, derived from an advanced inter-cross line between Red Junglefowl and White Leghorn, were explored 24?h after mating using cDNA microarray analysis. Mating shifted the expression of fifteen genes in the UVJ (53.33% immune-modulatory and 20.00% pH-regulatory) and seven genes in the uterus, none of the genes in the latter segment overlapping the former (with the differentially expressed genes themselves being less related to immune-modulatory function). The other oviductal segments did not show any significant changes. These findings suggest sperm deposition causes a shift in expression in the UVJ (containing mucosal SST) and the uterus for genes involved in immune-modulatory and pH-regulatory functions, both relevant for sperm survival in the hen's oviduct. PMID:26370241

  17. Intra-sex Variation in Human Mating Strategies: Different People, Different Tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Felipe Nalon; Hattori, Wallisen Tadashi; de Araújo Lopes, Fívia

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that men and women exhibit different romantic preferences, which align with the patterns predicted by sexual strategies theory. It is also assumed that the mate's value is a central factor in determining an individual's sexual strategy. Thus, the current study was developed to investigate whether intra-sex variation exists in the ideal romantic preferences of both genders and whether these preferences are associated with self-perception. To investigate these questions, cluster analyses were performed on the descriptions of ideal mates for short- and long-term relationships given by 366 Brazilian undergraduates (145 men and 221 women). Subsequently, comparisons were made between the lists of self-perceived attributes related to reproduction generated by the resulting groups. The results suggest that males and females use different mating tactics for short-term mating and that males use different tactics for long-term mating. Among men, the mating tactics observed seem to be related to male mate value and their tactics changed when they described ideal short- and long-term partners. Women's results showed different preference patterns in short-term assessments but minor differences were observed between them in terms of female mate value. For long-term relationships, female patterns were less distinct, indicating a single preference pattern. These findings indicate that a number of different tactics may be clustered together in investigations that address ideal preferences, and that studies of mate preferences must consider individual self-perceptions. PMID:25896490

  18. What's in a kiss? The effect of romantic kissing on mating desirability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2014-01-01

    Past research suggests that various courtship rituals, such as romantic kissing, may convey useful mate quality information. Two studies were carried out to examine how purported romantic kissing abilities, as a potential cue to some form of mate information, affect appraisals of potential mating partners. In Experiment 1, 724 participants were presented with vignette descriptions of potential mating partners and were asked to rate partner desirability for various mating-related situations. The primary result of this experiment was that purported kissing ability increased mate desirability in "casual sex" mating situations for women to a greater extent than for men. Experiment 2 repeated the same procedure with another 178 participants, this time including visual information alongside vignette descriptions containing kissing-related information to examine the relative effects of these two modalities. It was found that the presence of a picture alongside a descriptive vignette negated the effect of kissing-related information only when rating potential partners on attractiveness or desirability for further courtship, though not when evaluating partners for casual sex or long-term relationship scenarios. Visual information containing "attractive" photos of potential partners was also found to have a greater effect on men's ratings of partner desirability than on women's ratings of partner desirability. The results are discussed in light of romantic kissing's potential function of conveying important mate quality and desirability information, and its relative role in the presence of additional visual mate cues. PMID:25299759

  19. Investigation on mating habit and sexual competition ability of Helicoverpa armigera sterilized by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mating habit and sexual competition ability of Helicoverpa armigera irradiated with 300 Gy of ?-rays were observed. The results showed that when reared in laboratory, most adults mated at 4-7 o'clock, a small proportion of adults mated at 2-3 o'clock or at 8-9 o'clock in the morning, meanwhile wild population mated two and a half hours earlier than laboratory populations did. No difference in mating habit and sexual competition ability was found between the irradiation-sterilized and normal adults except that the effective mating rate of the former was 61.6%, one third less than that of the latter ones. Most irradiation-sterilized adults mated one time in their whole lives, only a few could mate 2-3 times and even 5 times, indicating that the multi-mating characteristic of Helicoverpa armigera was not changed by irradiation. It can be concluded that irradiated sterile insect technique is feasible for integrated controlling the cotton bollworm

  20. Sperm precedence in female spotted bollworm, Earias vittella fabricius mating with normal and radiation sterilized males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were carried out on sperm precedence in female Earias vittella mating with normal and radiation sterilized males. Egg viability pattern of the females mating first with sterile and then with normal males or vice versa indicated that in egg fertilization sperms transferred during the recent mating took precedence over those transferred during the earlier mating. Results under simulated population conditions showed that release of sterile males must coincide with the first emergence of adult males of natural population or should be prior to it. (author)

  1. Parallel solution of large power system networks using the Multi-Area Thevenin Equivalents (MATE) algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomim, M.A.; Marti, J.R. [The University of British Columbia, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2332 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Wang, L. [Powertech Labs Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    An implementation of the Multi-Area Thevenin Equivalents (MATE) partitioning framework for the parallel solution of large power system matrices is described in this paper. The solution of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system, of approximately 15,000 buses, obtained using both traditional sparse techniques and MATE were compared. As the main result of this project, the MATE algorithm achieved speedups of up to 7 times with respect to a well-known sparse linear system solver. Theoretical background in addition to the implementation approach, results, as well as limitations of the MATE algorithm are discussed. (author)

  2. Potentials-attract or likes-attract in human mate choice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiao-Qiao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Wang, Zhi-Guo; Tu, Ying; Ji, Ting; Tao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    To explain how individuals' self-perceived long-term mate value influences their mate preference and mate choice, two hypotheses have been presented, which are "potentials-attract" and "likes-attract", respectively. The potentials-attract means that people choose mates matched with their sex-specific traits indicating reproductive potentials; and the likes-attract means that people choose mates matched with their own conditions. However, the debate about these two hypotheses still remains unsolved. In this paper, we tested these two hypotheses using a human's actual mate choice data from a Chinese online dating system (called the Baihe website), where 27,183 users of Baihe website are included, in which there are 590 paired couples (1180 individuals) who met each other via the website. Our main results show that not only the relationship between individuals' own attributes and their self-stated mate preference but also that between individuals' own attributes and their actual mate choice are more consistent with the likes-attract hypothesis, i.e., people tend to choose mates who are similar to themselves in a variety of attributes. PMID:23565153

  3. Drip and Mate Operations Acting in Test Tube Systems and Tissue-like P systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, Rudolf; 10.4204/EPTCS.11.8

    2009-01-01

    The operations drip and mate considered in (mem)brane computing resemble the operations cut and recombination well known from DNA computing. We here consider sets of vesicles with multisets of objects on their outside membrane interacting by drip and mate in two different setups: in test tube systems, the vesicles may pass from one tube to another one provided they fulfill specific constraints; in tissue-like P systems, the vesicles are immediately passed to specified cells after having undergone a drip or mate operation. In both variants, computational completeness can be obtained, yet with different constraints for the drip and mate operations.

  4. Mating schemes for optimum contribution selection with constrained rates of inbreeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuwissen Theo HE

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of non-random mating on genetic response was compared for populations with discrete generations. Mating followed a selection step where the average coancestry of selected animals was constrained, while genetic response was maximised. Minimum coancestry (MC, Minimum coancestry with a maximum of one offspring per mating pair (MC1 and Minimum variance of the relationships of offspring (MVRO mating schemes resulted in a delay in inbreeding of about two generations compared with Random, Random factorial and Compensatory mating. In these breeding schemes where selection constrains the rate of inbreeding, ?F, the improved family structure due to non-random mating increased genetic response. For schemes with ?F constrained to 1.0% and 100 selection candidates, genetic response was 22% higher for the MC1 and MVRO schemes compared with Random mating schemes. For schemes with a less stringent constraint on ?F or more selection candidates, the superiority of the MC1 and MVRO schemes was smaller (5–6%. In general, MC1 seemed to be the preferred mating method, since it almost always yielded the highest genetic response. MC1 mainly achieved these high genetic responses by avoiding extreme relationships among the offspring, i.e. fullsib offspring are avoided, and by making the contributions of ancestors to offspring more equal by mating least related animals.

  5. Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Carolina Batista Machado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

  6. Changes of Calsequesterin expression in rats with altered thyroid status.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Sulimenko, Vadym; Novák, Petr; Marková, Vladimíra; Zacha?ová, Gisela

    Les 2 Alpes : WCBR, 2011. ---. [31st European Winter Conference on Brain Research. 12.03.2011-19.03.2011, Les 2 Alpes] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ?R(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Calsequesterin * thyroid changes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  7. Insulin-receptors in diabetes and altered thyroidal status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats were made hypothyroid by treating with a single dose of 800 ?Ci of 131I and hyperthyroid condition was created by administering 90 ?g of thyroxine daily for 2 weeks. Diabetes was produced by administering single dose of alloxan monohydrate. Hypothyroid rats showed significant increase in 125I-insulin binding with its liver plasma membrane receptors with respect to normal rats. In the case of hypothyroid diabetic rats such binding was greater as compared to hypothyroid rats without diabetes. Hyperthyroid rats with respect to normal control rats showed a decrease in 125I-insulin binding to its liver plasma membrane receptors. When hyperthyroid rats were made diabetic, 125I-insulin binding to its receptors was further decreased. The study infers that hyper-thyrodism further decreases insulin binding to its receptors which has already been decreased in diabetes. Hypothyroidism, on the other hand, improves upon the decreased insulin binding to its receptors in diabetes. (author). 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  8. How Misinformation Alters Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel B.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    1998-01-01

    Notes that a multitude of studies have demonstrated that misleading postevent information affects people's memories. Contents that the fuzzy-trace theory is a positive step toward understanding the malleability of memory. Discusses fuzzy-trace theory in terms of three primary areas of study: altered response format, maximized misinformation…

  9. ENE-Mates - A public information program for women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan depends on import for more than 80 percent of its total energy supply. Nuclear energy is one of the most promising alternatives to oil. It plays a significant role for energy supply in terms of reliability, economic viability and reduction of CO2 emissions. In order to secure needed capacity, the Government concentrates its efforts on acquiring public acceptance of nuclear power as well as ensuring the safety of plants and improving plant capability and reliability. An opinion poll, done by the Japanese Government in Sep. of 1990, showed that 73.3 percent of man and 57.4 percent of women think that nuclear power is necessary to secure energy supply. Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) employs various methods for information services arid, in particular, electric power generation including nuclear with an assignment from the Japanese Government. Public information activities by the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) are as follows: a) Telephone QA service to respond to public inquiries; b) Publishing the 'Nuclear Newsletter' monthly and various brochures; c) Information service by personal computer network Atomnet concerning energy in general, and operation/trouble informations of nuclear plants; d) Distribution and service of personal computers to local governments offices/museums, etc., for users ranging from children to adults to gather nuclear related information; e) Organization of female monitors 'ENE-MATES' to have lecture meetings and site tours. ENE-MATES - A Public Information Program For Women. As a 1990 opinion poll shows, women's feelings about nuclear energy differ from that of men. Women are more sensitive and anxious than men on nuclear energy issues. To improve this situation several programs for women have been planned and implemented.'ENE-MATES' program is one of these cases. It's purpose is to encourage women, centering around house wives, to have unbiased understanding of energy-related issues

  10. NOAA-L satellite is lifted for mating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., workers oversee the lifting and rotating of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite to allow for mating of the Apogee Kick Motor (AKM). NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. Mating strategy of Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in northern Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Gissel; Peng, Renkang; Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Birkmose, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the mating strategy of Oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius, 1775) and to clarify the factors that related to the nuptial flight. The nuptial flight was investigated over three seasons in the Darwin area, Australia, in which a total of 19 swarmings were observed. All swarmings were observed on days where no rain fell before 15:00 h, and with wind speed ?18 km/h. On days of swarming air pressure was significantly higher (mean ± SD: 1009.3 ± 1.6 hPa) than on rain...

  11. Heterothallic Type of Mating System for Cordyceps cardinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Gi-Ho; Shrestha, Bhushan; Han, Sang-Kuk; Kim, Soo-Young; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2010-12-01

    Cordyceps cardinalis successfully produced its fruiting bodies from multi-ascospore isolates. However, subcultures of multi-ascospore isolates could not produce fruiting bodies after few generations. Fruiting body production also differed from sector to sector of the same isolate. Single ascospore isolates were then co-inoculated in combinations of two to observe the fruiting characteristics. Combinations of certain isolates produced perithecial stromata formation, whereas other combinations did not produce any fruiting bodies. These results show that C. cardinalis is a heterothallic fungus, requiring two isolates of opposite mating types for fruiting body production. It was also shown that single ascospore isolates are hermaphrodites. PMID:23956667

  12. Pseudo-Random Mating Populations. in Celebration of the 80th Anniversary of the Hardy-Weinberg Law

    OpenAIRE

    Li, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    That random mating leads to Hardy-Weinberg distribution of genotypes is well known. This report is to show that, if the deviations from random mating are of a certain pattern, the offspring generation will also be in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. This brings out the fact that random mating is a sufficient condition, not a necessary one, for the attainment of the Hardy-Weinberg proportions. Such nonrandom-mating populations are tentatively said to be pseudo-random mating. Pseudo-random-mating po...

  13. Examining the phenotypic plasticity in ejaculates of the Arctic charr by experimentally inducing successive changes in social status.

    OpenAIRE

    Strøm, Bjørnar

    2007-01-01

    According to theory, a male’s reproductive role should predict investment in ejaculate quality, i.e. subordinate males should invest in ejaculate quality to compensate for mating in unfavourable roles, and vice versa for dominant males. The Arctic charr is known to possess fluctuating characteristics of its sperm triggered by rapid changes in social status. The relationship between social status and phenotypic plasticity in Arctic charr ejaculates was examined through a caging experiment. Cha...

  14. Self-referent phenotype matching and its role in female mate choice in arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carie B. WEDDLE, John HUNT, Scott K. SAKALUK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of empirical evidence shows that females of many animal species gain benefits by mating polyandrously, and often prefer to mate with novel males over previous mates. Although a female preference for novel males has been demonstrated for multiple animal taxa, the mechanisms used by females to discriminate between novel and previous mates remain largely unknown. However, recent studies suggest that in decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus, females actually imbue males with their own chemical cues, known as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs during mating, and utilize chemosensory self-referencing to recognize recent mates. Here we review evidence that self-referent phenotype matching is a widespread mechanism of recognition in arthropods, and explore how CHCs are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions. There is substantial evidence that CHCs are used as recognition cues to discriminate between species, kin, sexes, mates, individuals, and self and non-self, and are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions in a wide range of arthropod taxa. There is also evidence that CHCs are often transferred between individuals during direct physical contact, including copulation. Chemosensory self-referencing via cuticular hydrocarbons could provide a simple, but reliable mechanism for identifying individuals from previous mating encounters. This mechanism does not require any specialized cognitive abilities because an individual’s phenotype is always available for reference. Given the ubiquitous use of CHCs among arthropods, chemosensory self-referencing may be a widespread mechanism used by female arthropods to facilitate female mate-choice decisions and to enhance opportunities for polyandry [Current Zoology 59 (2: 239-248, 2013].

  15. Changing thyroid status related to pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, P; Kilvert, A; Fox, C

    2001-01-01

    A case of post-thyroidectomy hypothyroidism is reported. The patient became euthyroid in three consecutive pregnancies, reverting to hypothyroid within three months of delivery on each occasion. The alteration in thyroid status is attributed to pregnancy related changes in antibody titres, though the laboratory data to confirm this are not available.???Keywords: hypothyroidism; autoimmune thyroid disease; pregnancy PMID:11524520

  16. Mating skew in Barbary macaque males: the role of female mating synchrony, female behavior, and male–male coalitions

    OpenAIRE

    Bissonnette, Annie; Bischofberger, Nicole; Schaik, Carel

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental question of sexual selection theory concerns the causes and consequences of reproductive skew among males. The priority of access (PoA) model (Altmann, Ann NY Acad Sci 102:338–435, 1962) has been the most influential framework in primates living in permanent, mixed-sex groups, but to date it has only been tested with the appropriate data on female synchrony in a handful of species. In this paper, we used mating data from one large semi-free ranging group of Barbary macaques: (1)...

  17. Mating compatibility between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, W; Ahmad, S; Dammalage, T; Tomas, U Sto; Wornoayporn, V; Ul Haq, I; Cáceres, C; Vreysen, M J B; Schutze, M K

    2014-04-01

    The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, is a highly polyphagous fruit pest that occurs predominantly in Africa yet has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. It is extremely morphologically and genetically similar to the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel); as such the specific relationship between these two species is unresolved. We assessed prezygotic compatibility between B. dorsalis and B. invadens using standardized field cage mating tests, which have proven effectiveness in tephritid cryptic species studies. These tests were followed by an assessment of postzygotic compatibility by examining egg viability, larval and pupal survival, and sex ratios of offspring produced from parental and subsequent F1 crosses to examine for hybrid breakdown as predicted under a two-species hypothesis. B. dorsalis was sourced from two countries (Pakistan and China), and each population was compared with B. invadens from its type locality of Kenya. B. invadens mated randomly with B. dorsalis from both localities, and there were generally high levels of hybrid viability and survival resulting from parental and F1 crosses. Furthermore, all but one hybrid cross resulted in equal sex ratios, with the single deviation in favor of males and contrary to expectations under Haldane's rule. These data support the hypothesis that B. dorsalis and B. invadens represent the same biological species, an outcome that poses significant implications for pest management and international trade for sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24772542

  18. Pollinators' mating rendezvous and the evolution of floral advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Michael A; Hadany, Lilach

    2013-01-01

    Successful cross-fertilization in plant species that rely on animal pollinators depends not just on the number of pollinator visits, but also on these visits' duration. Furthermore, in non-deceptive pollination, a visit's duration depends on the magnitude of the reward provided to the pollinator. Accordingly, plants that rely on biotic pollination have to partition their investment in cross-fertilization assurance between attracting pollinator visits - advertisement, and rewarding visitors to assure that the visit is of productive duration. Here we analyze these processes by a combination of optimality methods and game theoretical modeling. Our results indicate that the optimality in such allocation of resources depends on the types of reward offered to the pollinators. More precisely, we show that plants that offer both food reward and mating rendezvous to pollinators will evolve to allocate a higher proportion of their cross-fertilization assurance budget to advertisement than plants that offer only food reward. That is, our results indicate that pollinators' mating habits may play a role in floral evolution. PMID:23023108

  19. Epigenetic alterations in aging

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo, Susana

    2010-01-01

    Aging is a multifaceted process characterized by genetic and epigenetic changes in the genome. The genetic component of aging received initially all of the attention. Telomere attrition and accumulation of mutations due to a progressive deficiency in the repair of DNA damage with age remain leading causes of genomic instability. However, epigenetic mechanisms have now emerged as key contributors to the alterations of genome structure and function that accompany aging. The three pillars of epi...

  1. Attention alters appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Marisa; Ling, Sam; Read, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Does attention alter appearance? This critical issue, debated for over a century, remains unsettled. From psychophysical evidence that covert attention affects early vision—it enhances contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution—and from neurophysiological evidence that attention increases the neuronal contrast sensitivity (contrast gain), one could infer that attention changes stimulus appearance. Surprisingly, few studies have directly investigated this issue. Here we developed a psychophys...

  2. Findings on sperm alterations and DNA fragmentation, nutritional, hormonal and antioxidant status in an elite triathlete: case report / Descoberta das alterações no sêmen, nutricionais, hormonais, o antioxidante status e fragmentação de DNA em triatleta de elite: relato do caso / Hallazgo de alteraciones en semen, nutricionales, hormonales, del estado antioxidante y fragmentación de ADN en un triatleta de élite: caso clínico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D., Vaamonde; M.E. Da, Silva-Grigoletto; J.M., Fernandez; C., Algar-Santacruz; J.M., García-Manso.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O presente estudo de caso analisa a qualidade de sêmen, padrões nutricionais, estado hormonal e oxidativo de um triatleta internacional de alto nível com carga de treinamento de baixo volume e alta intensidade. Método: Atleta de 26 anos de idade, com uma pratica esportiva desde os 13 anos [...] e cinco anos de triátlon profissional. Os parâmetros qualitativos analisados no sêmen foram: volume, contagem espermática, motilidade, morfologia, e fragmentação de DNA com testes adicionais dada necessidade. Os testes hormonais salivares foram: Testosterona, Cortisol e a razão testosterona/cortisol. A capacidade antioxidante total foi medida no plasma seminal. Também foi analisado o consumo máximo de oxigênio e características do treinamento. Para determinar a ingesta alimentar habitual e sua possível repercussão sobre o estado oxidativo, foi utilizado um questionário de frequência de consumo quali-quantitativo de 136 alimentos, a partir do uso de um software especifico. Resultados: os valores e parâmetros hormonais e físicos seminais estavam dentro da normalidade. A morfologia e fragmentação do DNA espermático mostraram valores anormais (3,9% e 38,33%). Apresentando um elevado número de células redondas (2,3 milhoes/mL), com presença de macrófagos. Se observaram eventos apoptóticos e necróticos. A capacidade antioxidante total, ainda que não alterada, estava baixa. A ingesta dietética foi caracterizada por um excesso proteico e consumo adequado de antioxidantes (com ligeiro déficit excesso de alguns nutrientes específicos) segundo valores recomendados. Conclusões: o exercício de resistência de alta intensidade altera os parâmetros espermáticos, principalmente morfologia e fragmentação do DNA. Faz-se necessário obter maiores informações sobre o efeito de antioxidantes e outras estratégias dietéticas com relação ao dano oxidativo no sêmen de triatletas de alto rendimento, e traçar estratégias nutricionais adequadas para atenuar os efeitos do exercício sobre a qualidade do sêmen. Abstract in spanish Objetivo: El presente estudio de caso analiza la calidad de semen, patrones nutricionales y status hormonal y oxidativo de un triatleta internacional de alto nivel con carga de entrenamiento de bajo volumen y alta intensidad. Método: Atleta de 26 años de edad, con una práctica deportiva competitiva [...] desde los 13 años, y cinco años de triatlón profesional. Los parámetros cualitativos analizados en semen fueron: volumen, contaje espermático, motilidad, morfología, y fragmentación de ADN, con pruebas adicionales según necesidad. Las hormonas salivares cuantificadas fueron: T, C, y T/C. La capacidad antioxidante total fue medida en plasma seminal. También se analizó el consumo máximo de oxígeno y características de entrenamiento. Para determinar la ingesta alimentaria habitual y su posible repercusión sobre el estado oxidativo, se utilizó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo cuali-cuantitativa, de 136 alimentos, analizado mediante software informático. Resultados: Los valores hormonales y parámetros físicos seminales estaban dentro de la normalidad. La morfología y fragmentación de ADN espermático mostraron valores anormales (3.9% y 38.33%). Aparecía un elevado número de células redondas (2.3 millones/mL), con presencia de macrófagos. Se observaron eventos apoptóticos y necróticos. La capacidad antioxidante total, aunque no alterada, estaba baja. La ingesta dietética se caracterizó por un exceso proteico y consumo adecuado de antioxidantes (con ligero déficit y exceso de algunos nutrientes específicos), según valores recomendados. Conclusiones: El ejercicio de resistencia de alta intensidad altera los parámetros espermáticos, principalmente morfología y fragmentación de ADN. Es necesario obtener mayor información sobre el efecto de antioxidantes y otras estrategias dietéticas con relación al daño oxidativo en el semen de triatletas de alto rendimiento, al igual que hallar estrategias nutricionales adecuadas

  3. PARTITIONING THE EFFECTS OF SPATIAL ISOLATION, NEST HABITAT, AND INDIVIDUAL DIET IN CAUSING ASSORTATIVE MATING WITHIN A POPULATION OF THREESPINE STICKLEBACK

    OpenAIRE

    Snowberg, L. K.; Bolnick, D. I.

    2012-01-01

    Assortative mating is measured as a phenotypic or genotypic correlation between mates. Although biologists typically view assortative mating in terms of mate preference for similar partners, correlations between mates can also arise from phenotypic spatial structure arising from spatial isolation or habitat preferences. Here, we test whether diet-assortative mating within an ecologically variable population of threespine stickleback results from small-scale geographic isolation or microhabita...

  4. Inbreeding avoidance mechanism : how premating conditions may influence the mating system in a quasi-gregarious parasitoid of aphids, Aphidius matricariae

    OpenAIRE

    Bourdais, Delphine

    2012-01-01

    The theory of sexual selection was formulated by Darwin (1871) to explain the origin of sexually dimorphic traits that are detrimental to survival. He believed that sexual selection arises from either mate choice or intra-sexual competition for mates, reasoning that such traits could evolve if they conferred a fitness advantage on their bearer. It is well conceded that males and females do not mate randomly and that mate choice is an important aspect of mating systems. Mate choice can operate...

  5. In the eye of the beholder: visual mate choice lateralization in a polymorphic songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer J; Mountjoy, D James; Pryke, Sarah R; Griffith, Simon C

    2012-12-23

    Birds choose mates on the basis of colour, song and body size, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying these mating decisions. Reports that zebra finches prefer to view mates with the right eye during courtship, and that immediate early gene expression associated with courtship behaviour is lateralized in their left hemisphere suggest that visual mate choice itself may be lateralized. To test this hypothesis, we used the Gouldian finch, a polymorphic species in which individuals exhibit strong, adaptive visual preferences for mates of their own head colour. Black males were tested in a mate-choice apparatus under three eye conditions: left-monocular, right-monocular and binocular. We found that black male preference for black females is so strongly lateralized in the right-eye/left-hemisphere system that if the right eye is unavailable, males are unable to respond preferentially, not only to males and females of the same morph, but also to the strikingly dissimilar female morphs. Courtship singing is consistent with these lateralized mate preferences; more black males sing to black females when using their right eye than when using their left. Beauty, therefore, is in the right eye of the beholder for these songbirds, providing, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of visual mate choice lateralization. PMID:23034172

  6. Creative Activity, Personality, Mental Illness, and Short-Term Mating Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Melanie L.; Kaufman, Scott Barry; Kaufman, James C.

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that creativity evolved, at least in part, through sexual selection to attract mates. Recent research lends support to this view and has also demonstrated a link between certain dimensions of schizotypy, creativity, and short-term mating. The current study delves deeper into these relationships by focusing on engagement in…

  7. Male dominance, female mate choice and intersexual conflict in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Casalini, M.; Agbali, M.; Reichard, Martin; Kone?ná, Markéta; Bryjová, Anna; Smith, C.

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 63, ?. 2 (2009), s. 366-376. ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA AV ?R KJB600930501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : female mating preference * good genes * olfactory cues * mate choice * MHC * Rhodeus ocellatus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.429, year: 2009

  8. Cognitive ability is heritable and predicts the success of an alternative mating tactic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, Carl; Philips, A.; Reichard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 282, ?. 1809 (2015), s. 1809. ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA ?R GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alternative mating tactics * cognition * learning * mating system * sexual selection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.051, year: 2014

  9. Divergent selection and the evolution of signal traits and mating preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Mating preferences are common in natural populations, and their divergence among populations is considered an important source of reproductive isolation during speciation. Although mechanisms for the divergence of mating preferences have received substantial theoretical treatment, complementary experimental tests are lacking. We conducted a laboratory evolution experiment, using the fruit fly Drosophila serrata, to explore the role of divergent selection between environments in the evolution of female mating preferences. Replicate populations of D. serrata were derived from a common ancestor and propagated in one of three resource environments: two novel environments and the ancestral laboratory environment. Adaptation to both novel environments involved changes in cuticular hydrocarbons, traits that predict mating success in these populations. Furthermore, female mating preferences for these cuticular hydrocarbons also diverged among populations. A component of this divergence occurred among treatment environments, accounting for at least 17.4% of the among-population divergence in linear mating preferences and 17.2% of the among-population divergence in nonlinear mating preferences. The divergence of mating preferences in correlation with environment is consistent with the classic by-product model of speciation in which premating isolation evolves as a side effect of divergent selection adapting populations to their different environments.

  10. A night on the town: when the importance of mate acquisition overrides intrasexual competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buunk Abraham P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: It is argued that, while men may be intrasexually more competitive than women, to attract potential mates, men will, more than women, associate with same-sex friends who are attractive to the opposite sex. Therefore, more than women, men will choose more physically attractive and dominant companions in a mating context than in a neutral context.

  11. Pheromone traps for monitoring Plodia interpunctella (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in the presence of mating disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burks, C. S.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available High-dose pheromone lures have proved useful for monitoring some lepidopteran pests in the presence of mating disruption, but not others. We performed experiments in commercial and pilot scale facilities to examine the effect of pheromone dose on detection of Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, in the presence of mating disruption. When P. interpunctella males were released into 1000 m3 rooms containing traps baited with 0, 1, or 10 mg (Z,E-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate (Z9,E12-14:Ac, traps containing 10 mg captured more than those baited with 1 mg in both the presence and absence of mating disruption. Traps baited with 1 mg captured fewer males in the presence of mating disruption than in its absence, but the opposite was observed with traps baited with 10 mg. When males released into 73 m3 rooms were exposed sequentially to blank traps, traps baited with unmated females, and traps baited with 0.1 mg and then 1.0 mg Z9, E12-14:Ac in the presence or absence of mating disruption, 92% of trapped males were captured in female-baited traps in the absence of mating disruption, whereas in the presence of mating disruption 72% of males captured were caught in synthetic pheromone traps. These data suggest that pheromone lures can be used for monitoring P. interpunctella in the presence of mating disruption. Implications of these data for mass trapping are also discussed.

  12. Studies on mating behaviour of radio-sterilized males of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on mating behaviour of normal and radio-sterilized males of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv were carried out under laboratory conditions with 12:12 Light: Dark photoperiodic cycle. Results indicated that both sterilized as well as unsterilized males mated equally well in both the phases of photoperiodic cycle and majority of the males mated in middle (5 to 8 hrs.) part of the phases. There was no significant change in mating behaviour of sterilized males, except slight increase in mating frequency and period of copulation. The maximum number of males mate only once in a single day, however some males were observed to mate more than 4 times in control and 6 times in irradiated regimen. The average respective mating frequency of control and sterilized male were 16.4 and 19.2 in dark phase, 17.8 and 18.8 in light phase. The period of copulation varied from 15 to 45 minutes in control males and 15 to 60 minutes in sterilized males. (author)

  13. Evolutionary transition from single to multiple mating in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Poul; Gertsch, P J

    1999-01-01

    Queens of leafcutter ants exhibit the highest known levels of multiple mating (up to 10 mates per queen) among ants. Multiple mating may have been selected to increase genetic diversity among nestmate workers, which is hypothesized to be critical in social systems with large, long-lived colonies under severe pressure of pathogens. Advanced fungus-growing (leafcutter) ants have large numbers (104-106 workers) and long-lived colonies, whereas basal genera in the attine tribe have small (<200 workers) colonies with probably substantially shorter lifespans. Basal attines are therefore expected to have lower queen mating frequencies, similar to those found in most other ants. We tested this prediction by analysing queen mating frequency and colony kin structure in three basal attine species: Myrmicocrypta ednaella, Apterostigma collare and Cyphomyrmex longiscapus. Microsatellite marker analyses revealed that queens in all three species were single mated, and that worker-to-worker relatedness in these basal attine species is very close to 0.75, the value expected under exclusively single mating. Fungus growing per se has therefore not selected for multiple queen mating. Instead, the advanced and highly productive social structure of the higher attine ants, which is fully dependent on the rearing of an ancient clonal fungus, may have necessitated high genetic diversity among nestmate workers. This is not the case in the lower attines, which rear fungi that were more recently derived from free-living fungal populations.

  14. Effect of mating on sex attraction in Bactericera cockerelli with evidence of refractoriness

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the effect of mating on female attractiveness and male responsiveness in the potato psyllid, Bactericera (= Paratrioza) cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), a major pest of potato. Mating induced a behavioral refractoriness during which males are not attracted to females. This ...

  15. Dinâmica de produção e comercialização da erva-mate no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibele Vasconcelos de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A produção de erva-mate é uma das atividades não madeireiras que compõe o mercado agroflorestal brasileiro. No Rio Grande do Sul, este segmento é impulsionado pela tradição do consumo do chimarrão. Entretanto, nos últimos anos, observa-se que o estado gaúcho vem perdendo parcela significativa do mercado nacional, principalmente para o estado do Paraná. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo objetiva compreender a dinâmica produtiva e de comercialização deste produto, a partir da análise do comportamento dos preços pagos aos produtores rurais de erva-mate no Rio Grande do Sul, os preços diretos aos consumidores da erva-mate para chimarrão, além de dados estatísticos relacionados à produção de erva-mate. Evidencia-se que o modelo econométrico realizado para estimar o valor da erva-mate, embora indique a existência de associação linear positiva entre as variáveis dependente e independente, é considerado estatisticamente frágil. Ainda, cerca de 80% das variações no preço do quilograma da erva-mate no varejo de Porto Alegre são explicadas pelas variações no preço da arroba da erva-mate paga aos produtores rurais. Assim, reitera-se a necessidade de análises adicionais para identificar quais fatores exercem maior influência sobre o mercado da erva-mate, no contexto de expansão da demanda nacional e internacional

  16. Effect of non-random mating on genomic and BLUP selection schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirea Kahsay G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of long-term unequal contribution of mating pairs to the gene pool is that deleterious recessive genes can be expressed. Such consequences could be alleviated by appropriately designing and optimizing breeding schemes i.e. by improving selection and mating procedures. Methods We studied the effect of mating designs, random, minimum coancestry and minimum covariance of ancestral contributions on rate of inbreeding and genetic gain for schemes with different information sources, i.e. sib test or own performance records, different genetic evaluation methods, i.e. BLUP or genomic selection, and different family structures, i.e. factorial or pair-wise. Results Results showed that substantial differences in rates of inbreeding due to mating design were present under schemes with a pair-wise family structure, for which minimum coancestry turned out to be more effective to generate lower rates of inbreeding. Specifically, substantial reductions in rates of inbreeding were observed in schemes using sib test records and BLUP evaluation. However, with a factorial family structure, differences in rates of inbreeding due mating designs were minor. Moreover, non-random mating had only a small effect in breeding schemes that used genomic evaluation, regardless of the information source. Conclusions It was concluded that minimum coancestry remains an efficient mating design when BLUP is used for genetic evaluation or when the size of the population is small, whereas the effect of non-random mating is smaller in schemes using genomic evaluation.

  17. Composição mineral do produto comercial da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) Mineral composition of a commercial product from mate-herb (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.)

    OpenAIRE

    Reges Heinrichs; Eurípedes Malavolta

    2001-01-01

    Com o objetivo de quantificar e avaliar a concentração mineral na matéria seca e na infusão de erva-mate tipo chimarrão, selecionaram-se três amostras comerciais, com ampla aceitação pelo consumidor, as quais foram amostradas com quatro repetições. Na industrialização da erva-mate tipo chimarrão, são utilizadas folhas, pecíolos e ramos finos, tendo uma composição aproximada de 30% ramos e 70% folhas, que são beneficiados para posterior comercialização. O preparo das amostras e as análises for...

  18. Caracterização físico-química da erva mate: influência das etapas do processamento industrial Effects of industrial processing steps on the physico-chemical characteristics of mate tea leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Carolina Esmelindro; Geciane Toniazzo; Adroaldo Waczuk; Cláudio Dariva; Débora de Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    A erva-mate é uma matéria-prima de grande importância para a região Sul do Brasil, sendo que a produção anual é de aproximadamente 650.000 toneladas de folhas. Atualmente, problemas com o excesso de oferta têm incentivado pesquisadores e empresários a buscar alternativas para a utilização da erva-mate como matéria-prima para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos bem como promover melhorias no processamento industrial visando a obtenção de características organolépticas desejáveis. Neste sentido...

  19. Genomic analysis of post-mating changes in the honey bee queen (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Freddie-Jeanne

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms underlying the post-mating behavioral and physiological transitions undergone by females have not been explored in great detail. Honey bees represent an excellent model system in which to address these questions because they exhibit a range of "mating states," with two extremes (virgins and egg-laying, mated queens that differ dramatically in their behavior, pheromone profiles, and physiology. We used an incompletely-mated mating-state to understand the molecular processes that underlie the transition from a virgin to a mated, egg-laying queen. We used same-aged virgins, queens that mated once but did not initiate egg-laying, and queens that mated once and initiated egg-laying. Results Differences in the behavior and physiology among groups correlated with the underlying variance observed in the top 50 predictive genes in the brains and the ovaries. These changes were correlated with either a behaviorally-associated pattern or a physiologically-associated pattern. Overall, these results suggest that the brains and the ovaries of queens are uncoupled or follow different timescales; the initiation of mating triggers immediate changes in the ovaries, while changes in the brain may require additional stimuli or take a longer time to complete. Comparison of our results to previous studies of post-mating changes in Drosophila melanogaster identified common biological processes affected by mating, including stress response and alternative-splicing pathways. Comparison with microarray data sets related to worker behavior revealed no obvious correlation between genes regulated by mating and genes regulated by behavior/physiology in workers. Conclusion Studying the underlying molecular mechanisms of post-mating changes in honey bee queens will not only give us insight into how molecular mechanisms regulate physiological and behavioral changes, but they may also lead to important insights into the evolution of social behavior. Post-mating changes in gene regulation in the brains and ovaries of honey bee queens appear to be triggered by different stimuli and may occur on different timescales, potentially allowing changes in the brains and the ovaries to be uncoupled.

  20. PRIZMA Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than thirty years the code PRIZMA has been used at RFNC-VNIITF (Snezhinsk, Russia) for solving radiation transport problems with the Monte Carlo method. The code models the separate and coupled transport of neutrons, photons, electrons, positrons and ions in one-, two-, and three-dimensional geometry. For criticality calculations the code implements the method of generations with a constant number of fission sites in one generation. Now the code is extending its capabilities for nuclear reactor calculations. The paper describes the current status of the code and gives examples of its application to particle transport in nuclear reactors and other physical facilities. (authors)

  1. COMPORTAMENTO DA ERVA-MATE (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. EM CONSÓRCIO SILVICULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilson dos Santos Oliveira

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado no Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria e teve por objetivo determinar o comportamento da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. cultivada em sistemas de consórcio silvicultural. A metodologia adotada constituiu-se da implantação de três tratamentos, cortes aos sistemas de consórcio erva-mate x Pinus sp., erva-mate x bracatinga e erva-mate x capoeira. A análise dos resultados levou às setes conclusões: os melhores resultados de desenvolvimento de erva-mate são obdos nos consórcios com bracatinga e Pinus sp. e, o pior, na capoeira; as vazes extremas dos fatores do meio são amenizadas pelas outras espécies do consórcio; índices elevados de luminosidade não promovem maior produção de matéria seca, nem os índices muito baixos.

  2. Mate replacement entails a fitness cost for a socially monogamous seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Daniel, Claire; Stephenson, Brent M.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the selective advantages of divorce in socially monogamous bird species have unravelled extensive variation among different lineages with diverse ecologies. We quantified the reproductive correlates of mate retention, mate loss and divorce in a highly philopatric, colonially breeding biparental seabird, the Australasian gannet Morus serrator. Estimates of annual divorce rates varied between 40-43% for M. serrator and were high in comparison with both the closely related Morus bassanus and the range of divorce rates reported across monogamous avian breeding systems. Mate retention across seasons was related to consistently higher reproductive success compared with mate replacement, while divorce per se contributed significantly to lower reproductive output only in one of two breeding seasons. Prior reproductive success was not predictive of mate replacement overall or divorce in particular. These patterns are in accordance with the musical chairs hypothesis of adaptive divorce theory, which operates in systems characterised by asynchronous territorial establishment.

  3. Finding hidden females in a crowd: Mate recognition in fig wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anusha; Joshi, Kanchan Anand; Abraham, Ambily; Ayyub, Shreya; Lahiry, Mohini; Mukherjee, Ritwika; Javadekar, Saniya Milind; Narayan, Vignesh; Borges, Renee M.

    2014-05-01

    Multi-species mating aggregations are crowded environments within which mate recognition must occur. Mating aggregations of fig wasps can consist of thousands of individuals of many species that attain sexual maturity simultaneously and mate in the same microenvironment, i.e, in syntopy, within the close confines of an enclosed globular inflorescence called a syconium - a system that has many signalling constraints such as darkness and crowding. All wasps develop within individual galled flowers. Since mating mostly occurs when females are still confined within their galls, male wasps have the additional burden of detecting conspecific females that are "hidden" behind barriers consisting of gall walls. In Ficus racemosa, we investigated signals used by pollinating fig wasp males to differentiate conspecific females from females of other syntopic fig wasp species. Male Ceratosolen fusciceps could detect conspecific females using cues from galls containing females, empty galls, as well as cues from gall volatiles and gall surface hydrocarbons.

  4. Mating success and sexual selection in a pelagic copepod, Temora longicornis: Evidence from paternity analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichlau, Mie Hylstofte; Eg Nielsen, Einar

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about mating patterns is essential for understanding and explaining rates of reproduction and genetic potential of copepods populations. The aim of this study was to examine (1) the occurrence of multiple paternity in Temora longicornis, (2) the effect of multiple paternity (if present) on the females reproductive output, and (3) whether mating is random or some individuals have a higher than average chance of fertilizing or being fertilized (super individuals). We show that multiple paternity is common in this copepod species, that females benefit from multiple matings by increased offspring production, and that a relatively small fraction of the males and females in a population account for most of the offspring production. In both males and females, mating is nonrandom. Superior individuals with a higher than average matings success were identified both among females and among males.

  5. Are narcissists sexy? Zeroing in on the effect of narcissism on short-term mate appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufner, Michael; Rauthmann, John F; Czarna, Anna Z; Denissen, Jaap J A

    2013-07-01

    This research was aimed to provide a comprehensive test of the classic notion that narcissistic individuals are appealing as short-term romantic or sexual partners. In three studies, we tested the hypotheses that narcissism exerts a positive effect on an individual's mate appeal and that this effect is mediated by high physical attractiveness and high social boldness. We implemented a multimethod approach and used ratings of opposite sex persons (Study 1), ratings of friends (Study 2), and records of courtship outcomes in naturalistic interactions (Study 3) as indicators of mate appeal. In all cases, narcissism had a positive effect on mate appeal, which was mainly due to the agentic self-enhancement aspects of narcissism (rather than narcissists' lacking communion). As predicted, physical attractiveness and social boldness mediated the positive effect of narcissism on mate appeal. Findings further indicated that narcissism was more strongly linked to mate appeal than to friend appeal. PMID:23554177

  6. Body size and mating success in Drosophila willistoni are uncorrelated under laboratory conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L. Basso Da Silva; V. L. S. Valente

    2001-08-01

    Mating activity and wing length were investigated in the F1 progeny of Drosophila willistoni females collected in the field to examine any possible relationship between body size and mating success. The flies were observed in a mating chamber under laboratory conditions. No significant differences in wing length were observed between copulating and noncopulating flies, and there was no significant correlation between wing length and copulation latency for both males and females. These results therefore suggest that the commonly accepted view that large body size is positively correlated with mating success in Drosophila does not always hold true. The results support the view that the extent of environmentally induced variation in body size may be an important factor in determining whether an association between body size and mating success is observed in Drosophila species.

  7. Comparison of delayed female mating on reproductive biology of codling moth and obliquebanded leafroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vincent P; Wiman, Nik G; Brunner, Jay F

    2008-06-01

    Delay of mating was examined as a possible mechanism for population decreases associated with mating disruption for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., and obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). We examined the effect of delaying female mating 0, 2, 4, or 6 d while holding male age constant on life table parameters of both species. We found that increasing delays in mating were accompanied by two responses: (1) an increase in the percentage of sterile pairs and (2) a reduction in net reproductive rate and population growth unrelated to sterility. On a percentage basis, obliquebanded leafroller population growth was more strongly affected than codling moth. However, the net fertility rate of obliquebanded leafroller was nearly eight-fold higher than that of codling moth, so that obliquebanded leafroller females that experienced a 4-d delay in mating had nearly the same reproductive rate as codling moth females that experienced no delay. Leslie matrix simulations using life tables with field-based adult longevity estimates showed that codling moth females experiencing >2-d delay in mating resulted in decreases in population density or extinction within two generations. In contrast, obliquebanded leafroller females delayed <6 d showed rapid population growth that decreased as female age at mating increased; only the 6-d delay treatment resulted in decreased population levels. Our results indicate that obliquebanded leafroller females must on average experience a much longer delay in mating to significantly reduce population growth compared with codling moth females, suggesting that delay of mating likely plays a greater role in codling moth mating disruption than for obliquebanded leafroller. PMID:18559173

  8. MHC class II-assortative mate choice in European badgers (Meles meles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Yung Wa; Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina; Burke, Terry; Macdonald, David W; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2015-06-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a crucial role in the immune system, and in some species, it is a target by which individuals choose mates to optimize the fitness of their offspring, potentially mediated by olfactory cues. Under the genetic compatibility hypothesis, individuals are predicted to choose mates with compatible MHC alleles, to increase the fitness of their offspring. Studies of MHC-based mate choice in wild mammals are under-represented currently, and few investigate more than one class of MHC genes. We investigated mate choice based on the compatibility of MHC class I and II genes in a wild population of European badgers (Meles meles). We also investigated mate choice based on microsatellite-derived pairwise relatedness, to attempt to distinguish MHC-specific effects from genomewide effects. We found MHC-assortative mating, based on MHC class II, but not class I genes. Parent pairs had smaller MHC class II DRB amino acid distances and smaller functional distances than expected from random pairings. When we separated the analyses into within-group and neighbouring-group parent pairs, only neighbouring-group pairs showed MHC-assortative mating, due to similarity at MHC class II loci. Our randomizations showed no evidence of genomewide-based inbreeding, based on 35 microsatellite loci; MHC class II similarity was therefore the apparent target of mate choice. We propose that MHC-assortative mate choice may be a local adaptation to endemic pathogens, and this assortative mate choice may have contributed to the low MHC genetic diversity in this population. PMID:25913367

  9. Effect of age on the mating propensity of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of age on the mating propensity of both wild and laboratory-reared Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was investigated under laboratory and field cage conditions. The optimal age for wild flies ranged from 7 to 13 days, whereas in laboratory-reared flies it was between 3 and 5 days old. Virgin flies were selective and more prone to mate than flies that were held with both sexes combined and therefore, had a chance to mate before the test. The difference among ages in laboratory-reared flies was significant only in virgin flies. Virgin females showed a tendency to increase their mating propensity as they got older, whereas virgin males showed a bimodal pattern, with peaks at 4 and 11 days old. When flies of both strains and different ages were combined, laboratory-reared females accounted for 72% of the all the matings and most matings were by 4-day-old females. Wild males accounted for 67% of all the matings and the maximum number of matings were by 10-day-old males. For quality control purpose, flies should be virgin and at their optimal age, this will produce more robust data for statistical analysis. For control purpose, it is recommended to release sterile flies at 1-2 days old, because flies in the field will be at their maximum mating propensity. Our results support the concept that releasing males only will make the Sterile Insect Technique more effective, since sterile males will be virgin and therefore, more prone to mate. (author)

  10. Pronóstico de vida a tres meses y factores asociados de pacientes con alteración del estado mental en emergencia de medicina de un hospital nacional en Perú / Three-month life prognosis and associated factors in patients with altered mental status admimtted to the emergency room of a national hospital in Peru

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Delia, Alva-Rodriguez; María, de los Ángeles Lazo; Javier D, Loza-Herrera; Germán, Málaga.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar el pronóstico de vida a tres meses y factores asociados en pacientes con alteración del estado mental (AEM). Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal analítico que incluyó pacientes mayores de 18 años admitidos por emergencia de medicina de un hospital nacional, con AEM, dentr [...] o de las veinticuatro horas de iniciado el cuadro y que requirieron observación. La información demográfica, clínica y valoración funcional fueron tomadas de historias clínicas. El seguimiento a los tres meses se hizo por vía telefónica. Resultados. Se incluyó a 290 pacientes. Esta entidad representa el 4,1% del total de atenciones de emergencia. La mortalidad global fue 24,2%, mientras que en el subgrupo de adultos mayores fue de 28,1%; 19,3% en adultos y 15,2% en adultos jóvenes. La edad promedio fue 63,5 años y el grupo de adultos mayores constituyó casi 2/3 de la población. El 51% estuvo compuesto por varones. El promedio de estancia hospitalaria fue de 7 días. Las causas asociadas, más frecuentes, fueron: enfermedades infecciosas (44,1%), neurológicas (40,3%), respiratorias (28,3%), metabólicos (18,6%) y cardiovasculares (17,2%). La asociación de mortalidad con nivel Abstract in english Objectives. Determine the prognosis at three months and associated factors of patients with altered mental status (AMS). Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study that included patients over 18 years of age admitted to the emergency room in a national hospital, with AMS, within twenty-four hours [...] of onset and that required observation. The demographic, clinical and functional assessment information were taken from the medical record. A follow-up was made at three months by telephone. Results. The study included 290 patients, representing 4.1% of the total patients in the emergency room. Overall mortality was 24.2%, whereas in the subgroup of older adults was 28.1%; 19.3% in adults and 15.2% in young adults. The average age was 63.5 years and the elderly group constituted nearly two thirds of the population. 51% were males. The average hospital stay was 7 days. The most frequently associated causes were infectious diseases (44.1%), neurological (40.3%), respiratory (28.3%), metabolic (18.6%), and cardiovascular (17.2%) disorders. Mortality was associated with a) GCS levels

  11. Pronóstico de vida a tres meses y factores asociados de pacientes con alteración del estado mental en emergencia de medicina de un hospital nacional en Perú / Three-month life prognosis and associated factors in patients with altered mental status admimtted to the emergency room of a national hospital in Peru

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Delia, Alva-Rodriguez; María, de los Ángeles Lazo; Javier D, Loza-Herrera; Germán, Málaga.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar el pronóstico de vida a tres meses y factores asociados en pacientes con alteración del estado mental (AEM). Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal analítico que incluyó pacientes mayores de 18 años admitidos por emergencia de medicina de un hospital nacional, con AEM, dentr [...] o de las veinticuatro horas de iniciado el cuadro y que requirieron observación. La información demográfica, clínica y valoración funcional fueron tomadas de historias clínicas. El seguimiento a los tres meses se hizo por vía telefónica. Resultados. Se incluyó a 290 pacientes. Esta entidad representa el 4,1% del total de atenciones de emergencia. La mortalidad global fue 24,2%, mientras que en el subgrupo de adultos mayores fue de 28,1%; 19,3% en adultos y 15,2% en adultos jóvenes. La edad promedio fue 63,5 años y el grupo de adultos mayores constituyó casi 2/3 de la población. El 51% estuvo compuesto por varones. El promedio de estancia hospitalaria fue de 7 días. Las causas asociadas, más frecuentes, fueron: enfermedades infecciosas (44,1%), neurológicas (40,3%), respiratorias (28,3%), metabólicos (18,6%) y cardiovasculares (17,2%). La asociación de mortalidad con nivel Abstract in english Objectives. Determine the prognosis at three months and associated factors of patients with altered mental status (AMS). Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study that included patients over 18 years of age admitted to the emergency room in a national hospital, with AMS, within twenty-four hours [...] of onset and that required observation. The demographic, clinical and functional assessment information were taken from the medical record. A follow-up was made at three months by telephone. Results. The study included 290 patients, representing 4.1% of the total patients in the emergency room. Overall mortality was 24.2%, whereas in the subgroup of older adults was 28.1%; 19.3% in adults and 15.2% in young adults. The average age was 63.5 years and the elderly group constituted nearly two thirds of the population. 51% were males. The average hospital stay was 7 days. The most frequently associated causes were infectious diseases (44.1%), neurological (40.3%), respiratory (28.3%), metabolic (18.6%), and cardiovascular (17.2%) disorders. Mortality was associated with a) GCS levels

  12. Desenvolvimento e avaliação da eficácia de filmes biodegradáveis de amido de mandioca com nanocelulose como reforço e com extrato de erva-mate como aditivo antioxidante / Development and evaluation of the effectiveness of biodegradable films of cassava starch with nanocelulose as reinforcement and yerba mate extract as an additive antioxidant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruna Aparecida Souza, Machado; Itaciara Larroza, Nunes; Fabiano Vargas, Pereira; Janice Izabel, Druzian.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver uma embalagem biodegradável utilizando como matriz polimérica o amido de mandioca plastificada com glicerol e reforçada com a incorporação de nanocelulose da fibra de coco, bem como, avaliar o efeito da adição de um aditivo natural (erva-mate) nas formulações d [...] e nanobiocompósitos com ação antioxidante. Os nanocristais de celulose (L/D=39) foram obtidos por hidrólise ácida com H2SO4 a 65%. Os filmes foram preparados por casting contendo 4,5 e 6,0% de amido, 0,5 e 1,5% de glicerol, 0,3% de nanocelulose e 20% de extrato de erva-mate. O armazenamento do azeite de dendê embalado com os filmes contendo o aditivo foi monitorado por 40 dias sob condições de oxidação acelerada (63%UR/30°C). Constatou-se que, à medida que aumentam as perdas de Polifenóis Totais nos filmes, ocorre um menor aumento do Índice de Peróxidos do produto embalado, demonstrando, assim, que, ao invés do produto, os compostos da embalagem é quem estão sofrendo oxidação. A incorporação de extrato de erva-mate não alterou as propriedades mecânicas e de barreira desses filmes. Abstract in english The objective was to develop biodegradable packaging using a polymer matrix as the cassava starch plasticized with glycerol and reinforced with the incorporation of nanocelulose of coconut fiber, as well as to evaluate the effect of the addition of an additive nature (yerba mate) in nanobiocompósito [...] s formulations with antioxidant action. The nanocrystal cellulose (L/D=39) were obtained by acid hydrolysis with 65% H2SO4. The films were prepared by casting containing 4.5 and 6.0% starch, 0.5 and 1.5% glycerol, 0.3% nanocelulose and 20% extract of yerba mate. The palm oil storage packed with films containing the additive was monitored for 40 days under conditions of accelerated oxidation (63%UR/30°C). It was found that as the losses increase polyphenol films, there is a smaller increase of the peroxide value of the packaged product, thus demonstrating that instead of the product, the compounds of the package's who are suffering oxidation. The incorporation of yerba mate extract did not alter the mechanical and barrier properties of these films.

  13. Desenvolvimento e avaliação da eficácia de filmes biodegradáveis de amido de mandioca com nanocelulose como reforço e com extrato de erva-mate como aditivo antioxidante Development and evaluation of the effectiveness of biodegradable films of cassava starch with nanocelulose as reinforcement and yerba mate extract as an additive antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Aparecida Souza Machado

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver uma embalagem biodegradável utilizando como matriz polimérica o amido de mandioca plastificada com glicerol e reforçada com a incorporação de nanocelulose da fibra de coco, bem como, avaliar o efeito da adição de um aditivo natural (erva-mate nas formulações de nanobiocompósitos com ação antioxidante. Os nanocristais de celulose (L/D=39 foram obtidos por hidrólise ácida com H2SO4 a 65%. Os filmes foram preparados por casting contendo 4,5 e 6,0% de amido, 0,5 e 1,5% de glicerol, 0,3% de nanocelulose e 20% de extrato de erva-mate. O armazenamento do azeite de dendê embalado com os filmes contendo o aditivo foi monitorado por 40 dias sob condições de oxidação acelerada (63%UR/30°C. Constatou-se que, à medida que aumentam as perdas de Polifenóis Totais nos filmes, ocorre um menor aumento do Índice de Peróxidos do produto embalado, demonstrando, assim, que, ao invés do produto, os compostos da embalagem é quem estão sofrendo oxidação. A incorporação de extrato de erva-mate não alterou as propriedades mecânicas e de barreira desses filmes.The objective was to develop biodegradable packaging using a polymer matrix as the cassava starch plasticized with glycerol and reinforced with the incorporation of nanocelulose of coconut fiber, as well as to evaluate the effect of the addition of an additive nature (yerba mate in nanobiocompósitos formulations with antioxidant action. The nanocrystal cellulose (L/D=39 were obtained by acid hydrolysis with 65% H2SO4. The films were prepared by casting containing 4.5 and 6.0% starch, 0.5 and 1.5% glycerol, 0.3% nanocelulose and 20% extract of yerba mate. The palm oil storage packed with films containing the additive was monitored for 40 days under conditions of accelerated oxidation (63%UR/30°C. It was found that as the losses increase polyphenol films, there is a smaller increase of the peroxide value of the packaged product, thus demonstrating that instead of the product, the compounds of the package's who are suffering oxidation. The incorporation of yerba mate extract did not alter the mechanical and barrier properties of these films.

  14. The forward section of an SRB is moved for mating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the Vehicle Assembly Building, an overhead crane lifts the forward section of a solid rocket booster (SRB) to mate it with the components seen at lower left in the photo. The forward section of each booster, from nose cap to forward skirt contains avionics, a sequencer, forward separation motors, a nose cone separation system, drogue and main parachutes, a recovery beacon, a recovery light, a parachute camera on selected flights and a range safety system. Each SRB weighs approximately 1.3 million pounds at launch. The SRB is part of the stack for Space Shuttle Discovery and the STS-92 mission, scheduled for launch Oct. 5, from Launch Pad 39A, on the fifth flight to the International Space Station.

  15. The Pressurized Mating Adapter-3 arrives at OPF bay 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Pressurized Mating Adapter -3 (PMA-3) sits in a payload canister for transport to the Orbiter Processing Facility. Workers at the sides and below watch the process. The PMA-3, a component of the International Space Station, is part of the payload on Space Shuttle mission STS-92, scheduled to launch Oct. 5. The mission will be the fifth flight to the Space Station, and the 100th Shuttle flight overall. PMA-3 provides shuttle docking port for solar array installation on flight 4A (mission STS-97 scheduled for Nov. 30), and Lab installation on flight 5A (mission STS-98, scheduled for Jan. 18, 2001).

  16. The genetic structure and mating system of Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aluana Gonçalves, Abreu; Regina Helena Geribello, Priolli; Joaquim Adelino, Azevedo-Filho; Stella Maris, Nucci; Maria Imaculada, Zucchi; Ricardo Marques, Coelho; Carlos Augusto, Colombo.

    Full Text Available Acrocomia aculeata is a perennial, fruit-producing palm tree, native to tropical forests. Its fruits have spurred interest because of their significant potential for use in the cosmetic industry and as feedstock for biofuel. In the present study, the genetic structure and mating system in Acrocomia [...] aculeata were analyzed, using eight nuclear microsatellite loci and samples from São Paulo and Minas Gerais states, Brazil. By means of Bayesian analysis, these populations were clustered into two or three groups. A high multilocus outcrossing rate suggests that outcrosses were predominant, although a certain degree of biparental inbreeding also occurred. Thus, although monoecious and self-compatible, there is every indication that A. aculeata bears a mixed reproductive system, with a predominance of outcrossing. Given the genetic structure revealed hereby, future conservation strategies and germplasm collecting should be focussed on sampling and preserving individuals from different clusters.

  17. SynchroMate : A Phatic Technology for Mediating Intimacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, M.; Vetere, F.

    2005-01-01

    By and large interaction design has been concerned with information exchange – technologies for the collection, processing and transmission of informationalcontent. This design sketch discusses preliminary ideas about an alternative way to think about interactive technologies – phatic technologies – that are less concerned with capturing and communicating information and more about the establishment and maintenance of social connection. Drawing on insights and inspiration gleaned from a recent field-based study of the role of interactive technologies within intimate relationships we outline our preliminary ideas concerning technologies to support phatic interaction. Using the materials collected during our fieldwork as design inspirations, we developed design sketches for phatic technologies intended to support playful connection between intimates. One of these sketches – SynchroMate – is presented. Synchromate is a phatic technology designed to mediate intimacy by affording serendipitous synchronous exchanges.

  18. From Stalemate to Soul Mate: Emergent Democracy in Kurdistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Akyol

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the relationship between the KDP and the PUK has radically shifted from the one extreme, seemingly reconciling all the differences and being a soul mate for a strategic goal, to another extreme being an arch enemy. Existing literature on Kurdish political history focuses predominantly on the impact of international and regional affairs in the formation of Kurdish national political discourse. It underestimates the political impact of fragmented Kurdish demands in the construction of contemporary Kurdish national discourse. Characterising the Kurdish national movement and discourse as one strong unified political movement which is ready to grab any opportunity provided by the international developments is to reduce Kurdish politics to merely a matter of international relations.

  19. Role of contact pheromones in mate recognition in Xylotrechus colonus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzel, Matthew D; Blomquist, Gary J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2003-03-01

    Adult male and female rustic borers, Xylotrechus colonus F. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), aggregate on cut logs and fallen trees that are the hosts of their larvae. Our studies show that male X. colonus actively search for females, and only respond to them after contacting them with their antennae. Stripping cuticular hydrocarbons from females with solvent rendered them unattractive to males, suggesting that males did not recognize females by mechanoreception alone. Reapplying solvent extract to washed females restored their attractiveness to males, confirming the role of cuticular hydrocarbons in mate recognition. Female cuticular hydrocarbon extracts contain n-pentacosane, 9-methylpentacosane, and 3-methylpentacosane, components that were either absent or present in very small amounts on males. We demonstrate that the contact pheromone is a blend of these three cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:12757317

  20. Courtship and mating in free-living spotted hyenas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szykman, M.; Van Horn, R. C.; Engh, A.L.; Boydston, E.E.; Holekamp, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    Female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are larger and more aggressive than males, and their genitalia are heavily 'masculinized'. These odd traits in females pose unusual challenges for males during courtship and copulation. Here our goals were to describe and quantify the behavior patterns involved in courtship and copulation in Crocuta, and determine whether rates of affiliative behavior directed toward females by males vary with female age, social rank, or time to conception. We also inquired whether consort formation with a particular female was necessary for a male to sire that female's cubs. Behavioral observations and paternity data based on 12 microsatellite loci were collected over 11 years from free-ranging hyenas in Kenya. Several of the courtship displays exhibited by male hyenas differed from those found in other carnivores, and appeared to reflect intense motivational conflict between tendencies to approach and flee from females. Most male advances were either ignored by females or elicited aggression from females toward males. Rates of male affiliative behavior toward females peaked around the time of conception. Although males behaved similarly toward young and old females in the highest social rank category, males directed more affiliative behavior toward older than younger females that were mid- and low-ranking. Multiple short mounts usually preceded a long mount, but intromission and ejaculation appeared to occur only during long mounts. Female receptivity was indicated by inhibited aggression toward the male and assumption of a distinctive receptive stance. The only behavior indicative of female proceptivity was following of the male by the female in mating contexts. Some males who sired cubs formed consortships with females whereas others did not, suggesting that individual male hyenas may adopt alternative reproductive tactics to attract and acquire mates. Our results also suggest that low fertility may be an important cost of female virilization in this species. ?? 2007 Brill Academic Publishers.

  1. The effect of methyl eugenol exposure on subsequent mating performance of sterile males of the oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of methyl eugenol (ME) on the total times of mating, consecutive mating, mating competitiveness, multiple mating, and the incidence of wild female remating were studied in sterile males from a genetic sexing strain of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Male pupae were irradiated at dose of 100 Gy by 137Cs at 2 d before emergence and the dose rate was 1.00 Gy/min. Sexually mature 10 day old sterile males were fed ME, while Non-ME-fed sterile males and normal wild males were used as control, and wild females as mating partners. The results showed that some ME-fed sterile males could mate continuously up to nine times, but the total times of consecutive mating and the mean value of continuous mating times were not significant (P> 0.05) compared with the control. The total mating times of ME-fed sterile males was 344.33±12.55 and the mean value was 6.88±0.25, but both have no significant difference compared with the control. The mating success rate of ME-fed and non- ME-fed sterile males mated with wild females were (44.67±2.40)% and (22.00±2.31)% separately. There were significant differences between them (t = -6.8, P = 0.002). The outcomes were that feeding on ME did not increase the frequency of multiple mating by sterile males, but significantly increased the mating competitiveness of sterile males against wild males. At the same time, sterile males fed ME did not significantly affect the remating of wild females 5 days after the initial mating, but increased the remating frequency of females 10 and 15 days after the initial mating. (authors)

  2. Hotshots, hotspots, and female preference in the organization of lek mating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, B.M.; Foster, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    We critically review the female-preference and hotspot models, the two most widely accepted recent explanations of lek organization. On the basis of what we believe are the inadequacies of these models-too great a reliance on the presumed acuity of female discrimination, the assumption that females have full freedom of choice within the lek, and insufficient recognition of the importance of male-male interactions-we develop an alternative set of hypotheses, which we call the hotshot model, to explain the development and maintenance of lek behavior. Our model attributes strong male mating skew to the interaction between (1) simplified and conservative mating rules of females and (2) social dominance among males. We demonstrate the importance of male-male dominance relationships in lek and non-lek court mating systems. We then argue that a strong mating skew among males forces novice males entering a population to adopt a long-term mating strategy that involves delayed breeding (floating) and subordinate lek behavior. The structure of leks is created by a complex of malemale interactions, with conflict between hotshots (who attempt to control lek mating) and subordinates, who may benefit from disrupting lek activities. Explanations for the number of males in an arena and inter-arena distances are based on modifications of the hotspot and female-preference models. We suggest specific field tests to help distinguish which hypothesis best models the behavioral interactions that produce lek mating.

  3. Effects of Yerba Mate (IIex paraguariensis) on Histomorphometry, Biomechanics, and Densitometry on Bones in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Lucas R; Brance, María L; Lombarte, Mercedes; Maher, María Cielo; Di Loreto, Verónica Elina; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2015-11-01

    Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a xanthine-containing beverage, which is also rich in caffeine. Because caffeine has a negative impact on bone mineral density (BMD) mainly associated with low calcium (Ca) diets, there would be expected a negative effect of yerba mate on bone. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were used and randomly assigned into four groups (n = 6/group): Control + Ca 0.2 g %; Control + Ca 0.9 g %; Yerba + Ca 0.2 g %; Yerba + Ca 0.9 g %. At the end of the experiment, tibias and femurs were obtained for BMD, morphometric, histomorphometric, and biomechanical analyses. While there was no difference in bone parameters between rats with and without yerba mate consumption, a negative effect of low Ca diet was observed in BMD, morphometric, histomorphometric, and biomechanical results. Interaction between Ca content in the diet and yerba mate was only found in trabecular bone volume, which would indicate that the negative effect of low Ca intake on bone volume is reversed in part by yerba mate infusion. However, yerba mate was not able to reverse the negative effect of low Ca content on biomechanical properties and trabecular connectivity. In summary, at least in our study, yerba mate would not have a negative effect on bone and would be safe for the bone health of consumers. PMID:26223790

  4. Mating Behavior of the African Weaver Ant, Oecophylla longinoda (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nene, Wilson; Rwegasira, Gration

    2015-01-01

    Mating in most species of ants occur during nuptial flights. In the African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda Latreille, mating has previously been hypothesized to take place within the nest before the nuptial flight but no research data has ever been presented to support this. Understanding the mating strategy of O. longinoda is important for its successful application in biological control programs. Here we report on the findings from studies conducted in Tanzania to determine whether mating occur prior to dispersal flight. Winged O. longinoda queens collected at four steps; before taking flight, immediately after leaving the nest, up to 12h after leaving the nest and after settling naturally following the dispersal flights were examined. Mating in captivity with varied number of males and queens was also assessed. Results showed that no eggs hatched from any of the 527 winged queens that were collected prior to their dispersal flights and no mating attempts in captivity lead to viable offspring. Only eggs produced by queens collected after settling naturally (N=65) hatched into larvae. High percentages (88.73) of eggs that hatched were laid by queens that shed wings and laid their eggs within 3 days after nuptial flights. Findings from the current study suggest that mating of O. longinoda queens take place during a nuptial flight and does not take place within the nest, as previously suggested. Time from nuptial flights to shedding of wings and egg laying translates to hatchability of the eggs.

  5. A note on mate allocation for dominance handling in genomic selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toro Miguel A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Estimation of non-additive genetic effects in animal breeding is important because it increases the accuracy of breeding value prediction and the value of mate allocation procedures. With the advent of genomic selection these ideas should be revisited. The objective of this study was to quantify the efficiency of including dominance effects and practising mating allocation under a whole-genome evaluation scenario. Four strategies of selection, carried out during five generations, were compared by simulation techniques. In the first scenario (MS, individuals were selected based on their own phenotypic information. In the second (GSA, they were selected based on the prediction generated by the Bayes A method of whole-genome evaluation under an additive model. In the third (GSD, the model was expanded to include dominance effects. These three scenarios used random mating to construct future generations, whereas in the fourth one (GSD + MA, matings were optimized by simulated annealing. The advantage of GSD over GSA ranges from 9 to 14% of the expected response and, in addition, using mate allocation (GSD + MA provides an additional response ranging from 6% to 22%. However, mate selection can improve the expected genetic response over random mating only in the first generation of selection. Furthermore, the efficiency of genomic selection is eroded after a few generations of selection, thus, a continued collection of phenotypic data and re-evaluation will be required.

  6. When Love Is in the Air: Understanding Why Dogs Tend to Mate when It Rains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Bhadra, Anindita

    2015-01-01

    Seasonality of reproduction is observed in many species of organisms, across taxa, and is influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. While such seasonality is easy to understand in temperate species exposed to extreme climates, it is more difficult to explain in the tropics. In many tropical species offspring are born during the season of high precipitation, which also coincides with high resource availability. Interestingly, in India, free-ranging dogs seem to mate, and not whelp, when it rains—an observation that cannot be explained by the resource abundance hypothesis. We carried out an extensive study to identify the mating seasons of free-ranging dogs, and observed a strong correlation between both the incidence and frequency of mating related behaviours of dogs, and precipitation levels. There are two clear mating seasons, of which the primary mating season coincides with the monsoon (rainy season) and the secondary mating season coincides with the nor’westerlies in this part of India. We speculate that this strong correlation is an effect of chemistry, rather than biology. While male dogs can mate round the year, females come into estrous seasonally. In the urban environment, dogs are exposed to a lot of olfactory noise, which can dilute the signal present in sex pheromones of the females in heat. A shower leads to increased humidity and reduced temperature of the air, leading to intensification of pheromone signals that trigger a sexual response in the dogs. PMID:26629906

  7. The cost of peripheral males in a brook trout mating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchfield; Ridgway

    1999-03-01

    A focus on the reproductive contributions of males displaying alternative life histories has neglected the role of size-dependent peripheral males in salmonine mating systems. We documented mating behaviour of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, including observations of spawning, over two breeding seasons to determine the mating costs of peripheral males to dominant males (kleptogamy) and females (egg cannibalism). For males and females, the mating costs of peripheral males were substantial because more than half (56%) of all observed brook trout spawnings involved peripheral males. Males that paired with large females experienced a greater incidence of kleptogamy due to increased numbers of peripheral males present. Large males face a conflict when mating in that they prefer to spawn with large females; however, these same females attract numerous males against which the dominant male cannot defend. From paternity studies, we estimated that males that had peripheral males participate in spawning may fertilize, on average, equal numbers of eggs compared to males spawning solely with a smaller female. Females that paired with relatively smaller males had significantly more eggs eaten by peripheral males than females that paired with relatively larger males. Latency to spawn by females increased when paired with a relatively small male, and resulted in females obtaining a larger spawning partner. The observed patterns of size-assortative mating, kleptogamy and cannibalism are discussed in relation to mate choice for this population of brook trout. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10196043

  8. When Love Is in the Air: Understanding Why Dogs Tend to Mate when It Rains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Bhadra, Anindita

    2015-01-01

    Seasonality of reproduction is observed in many species of organisms, across taxa, and is influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. While such seasonality is easy to understand in temperate species exposed to extreme climates, it is more difficult to explain in the tropics. In many tropical species offspring are born during the season of high precipitation, which also coincides with high resource availability. Interestingly, in India, free-ranging dogs seem to mate, and not whelp, when it rains-an observation that cannot be explained by the resource abundance hypothesis. We carried out an extensive study to identify the mating seasons of free-ranging dogs, and observed a strong correlation between both the incidence and frequency of mating related behaviours of dogs, and precipitation levels. There are two clear mating seasons, of which the primary mating season coincides with the monsoon (rainy season) and the secondary mating season coincides with the nor'westerlies in this part of India. We speculate that this strong correlation is an effect of chemistry, rather than biology. While male dogs can mate round the year, females come into estrous seasonally. In the urban environment, dogs are exposed to a lot of olfactory noise, which can dilute the signal present in sex pheromones of the females in heat. A shower leads to increased humidity and reduced temperature of the air, leading to intensification of pheromone signals that trigger a sexual response in the dogs. PMID:26629906

  9. Drosophila melanogaster virgins are more likely to mate with strangers than familiar flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ödeen, Anders; Moray, Clea M.

    2008-03-01

    Recent evidence shows that females of many species can discriminate against males and/or male phenotypes they have mated with previously. However, these studies have not tested whether actual mating is necessary to induce the avoidance behaviour. A preference for strangers may have evolved because it avoids multiple matings with similar genotypes. Alternatively, there may be selection against mating with familiar individuals directly. By choosing its first mate among unfamiliar individuals (which are less likely close relatives than are those encountered early in life), a virgin might disentangle some of the potential benefits of avoiding genetic incompatibility and inbreeding in the offspring from the costs of remating. In this study, we test whether Drosophila melanogaster flies bias their mate choice towards strangers according to previous, non-copulatory, experience. Based on 173 trials over 12 weeks, virgin females presented with two virgin males were 59% more likely to mate with a novel male than the one which she had been housed with for 8 h the day before. Hence we present the first report showing that a dipteran can distinguish between previously encountered and not previously encountered conspecifics.

  10. batemanater: a computer program to estimate and bootstrap mating system variables based on Bateman's principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adam G

    2015-11-01

    Bateman's principles continue to play a major role in the characterization of genetic mating systems in natural populations. The modern manifestations of Bateman's ideas include the opportunity for sexual selection (i.e. Is - the variance in relative mating success), the opportunity for selection (i.e. I - the variance in relative reproductive success) and the Bateman gradient (i.e. ?ss - the slope of the least-squares regression of reproductive success on mating success). These variables serve as the foundation for one convenient approach for the quantification of mating systems. However, their estimation presents at least two challenges, which I address here with a new Windows-based computer software package called batemanater. The first challenge is that confidence intervals for these variables are not easy to calculate. batemanater solves this problem using a bootstrapping approach. The second, more serious, problem is that direct estimates of mating system variables from open populations will typically be biased if some potential progeny or adults are missing from the analysed sample. batemanater addresses this problem using a maximum-likelihood approach to estimate mating system variables from incompletely sampled breeding populations. The current version of batemanater addresses the problem for systems in which progeny can be collected in groups of half- or full-siblings, as would occur when eggs are laid in discrete masses or offspring occur in pregnant females. batemanater has a user-friendly graphical interface and thus represents a new, convenient tool for the characterization and comparison of genetic mating systems. PMID:25715247

  11. A deviation from the bipolar-tetrapolar mating paradigm in an early diverged basidiomycete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marco A; Sampaio, José Paulo; Gonçalves, Paula

    2010-08-01

    In fungi, sexual identity is determined by specialized genomic regions called MAT loci which are the equivalent to sex chromosomes in some animals and plants. Usually, only two sexes or mating types exist, which are determined by two alternate sets of genes (or alleles) at the MAT locus (bipolar system). However, in the phylum Basidiomycota, a unique tetrapolar system emerged in which four different mating types are generated per meiosis. This occurs because two functionally distinct molecular recognition systems, each encoded by one MAT region, constrain the selection of sexual partners. Heterozygosity at both MAT regions is a pre-requisite for mating in both bipolar and tetrapolar basidiomycetes. Tetrapolar mating behaviour results from the absence of genetic linkage between the two regions bringing forth up to thousands of mating types. The subphylum Pucciniomycotina, an early diverged lineage of basidiomycetes encompassing important plant pathogens such as the rusts and saprobes like Rhodosporidium and Sporidiobolus, has been so far poorly explored concerning the content and organization of MAT loci. Here we show that the red yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor has a mating system unlike any previously described because occasional disruptions of the genetic cohesion of the bipolar MAT locus originate new mating types. We confirmed that mating is normally bipolar and that heterozygosity at both MAT regions is required for mating. However, a laboratory cross showed that meiotic recombination may occur within the bipolar MAT locus, explaining tetrapolar features like increased allele number and evolution rates of some MAT genes. This pseudo-bipolar system deviates from the classical bipolar-tetrapolar paradigm and, to our knowledge, has never been observed before. We propose a model for MAT evolution in the Basidiomycota in which the pseudo-bipolar system may represent a hitherto unforeseen gradual form of transition from an ancestral tetrapolar system to bipolarity. PMID:20700437

  12. Biogenesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone a-factor, from yeast mating to human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Susan; Barrowman, Jemima

    2012-09-01

    The mating pheromone a-factor secreted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a farnesylated and carboxylmethylated peptide and is unusually hydrophobic compared to other extracellular signaling molecules. Mature a-factor is derived from a precursor with a C-terminal CAAX motif that directs a series of posttranslational reactions, including prenylation, endoproteolysis, and carboxylmethylation. Historically, a-factor has served as a valuable model for the discovery and functional analysis of CAAX-processing enzymes. In this review, we discuss the three modules comprising the a-factor biogenesis pathway: (i) the C-terminal CAAX-processing steps carried out by Ram1/Ram2, Ste24 or Rce1, and Ste14; (ii) two sequential N-terminal cleavage steps, mediated by Ste24 and Axl1; and (iii) export by a nonclassical mechanism, mediated by the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter Ste6. The small size and hydrophobicity of a-factor present both challenges and advantages for biochemical analysis, as discussed here. The enzymes involved in a-factor biogenesis are conserved from yeasts to mammals. Notably, studies of the zinc metalloprotease Ste24 in S. cerevisiae led to the discovery of its mammalian homolog ZMPSTE24, which cleaves the prenylated C-terminal tail of the nuclear scaffold protein lamin A. Mutations that alter ZMPSTE24 processing of lamin A in humans cause the premature-aging disease progeria and related progeroid disorders. Intriguingly, recent evidence suggests that the entire a-factor pathway, including all three biogenesis modules, may be used to produce a prenylated, secreted signaling molecule involved in germ cell migration in Drosophila. Thus, additional prenylated signaling molecules resembling a-factor, with as-yet-unknown roles in metazoan biology, may await discovery. PMID:22933563

  13. Assessment of Fertility and Mating Capabilities in Adult Male Rats after Single Intra-Testicular Injection of Formalin Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Beteiha Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty adult male Sprage-Dawley rats, assigned into groups (5 in each and given one dose (50 ?L of different concentrations of formalin solution (2.5, 5 and 10% intratestically. Weight, food and water consumptions were monitered. Animals were maintained in a controlled atmosphere 21?C?1?C under 12 hrs light: 12 hrs darkness schedule. Paraformeldehyde, prilled 95% obtained from Aldrich Chemical Company (Milwaukee, WI 53233, USA was dissolved in water and different concentrations were prepared. One and two months post injection animals were kept for ten days for mating with virgin untreated females to evaluate mating capability of treated rats. Animals were sacrificed and the following organs were collected for evaluation: testes, epididimidis, seminal vesicles, preputial glands, liver and kidneys. Testes and epididymidis were cut in halves, one half was placed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and processed following standard histological procedures. Formalin injection intratestically did not result in any apparent changes on condition or behavior of the treated rats. However, reduction in size and weights of the testes, epididymidis and seminal vesicles were obvious. Also, bilateral injection resulted in impairment of mating capabilities for all concentration used. These changes were less pronounced in unilateral groups. Sperm counts decreased in testes and epididymidis in all treated groups. Histological changes appeared to be more severe close to the locus of injection with the seminiferous tubules filled with connective tissue and sperm debris. The degree of changes beyond the central lesion showed poor structural status having one or two cell layers with no sperm inside the lumen or very few depending on the concentration of the formalin used. Intact and normal histological architecture were observed at the periphery of the testes and much larger number in the 2.5% group. Intertubular connective tissue thickened and cells were replaced with collagenous tissue especially in testes injected with 10% formalin solution. Epididymidis were devoid of sperms in their lumen. Besides, vacuoles were observed within the epithelium of the epididymis. No histological changes were observed within the liver and the kidneys of all groups. This study showed that a single dose intratesticular injection of formalin solution has as adverse effect on the reproductive system of the male rats. This experiment could be modified and used as a new method of chemical castration especially if it is used in young animals (before puberty.

  14. Mating-Type Differentiation by Transposition of Controlling Elements in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    OpenAIRE

    Oshima, Takehiro; Takano, Isamu

    1981-01-01

    The nonfunctional mutation of the homothallic gene HML?, designated hml?, produced two mutant alleles, hml?-1 and hml?-2. Both mutant clones were mixed cultures consisting of a mating-type cells and nonmating haploid cells. The frequencies of the two cell types were different, and a few diploid cells able to sporulate were found in the hml?-2 mutant. Conversions of an a mating-type cell to nonmater, and vice versa, were observed in both mutants. The conversion of an a mating phenotype to nonm...

  15. Mating flights and sperm transfer in the dwarf honeybee Apis andreniformis (Smith, 1858)

    OpenAIRE

    Koeniger, Gudrun; Koeniger, Nikolaus; Tingek, Salim; Kelitu, Athanasius

    2000-01-01

    Mating flights of 3 virgin queens of Apis andreniformis were observed at their natural nesting site. They initiated mating flights between 12.33 and 12.50 h. The flight duration was between 19 and 23 minutes. The sting chamber of the returning queens contained the orange-colored secretion from the cornual gland of the drone's endophallus. Immediately after the mating flights, the queens were dissected. No sperm was detected in the oviducts, but spermatozoa were found in the spermathecae. In 2...

  16. An Artificial Light Source Influences Mating and Oviposition of Black Soldier Flies, Hermetia illucens

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jibin; HUANG, LING; He, Jin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Li, Jianhong; Lei,Chaoliang; Sun, Ming; Liu, Ziduo; Yu, Ziniu

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for mass-rearing black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), in the laboratory are dependent on sunlight. Quartz-iodine lamps and rare earth lamps were examined as artificial light sources for stimulating H. illucens to mate and lay eggs. Sunlight was used as the control. Adults in the quartz-iodine lamp treatment had a mating rate of 61% of those in the sunlight control. No mating occurred when the rare earth lamp was used as a substitute. Egg hatch ...

  17. Age and aggregation trigger mating behaviour in the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Nitidulidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Sandra G.; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Duncan, Michael; Pettis, Jeffery S.; Steidle, Johannes L. M.; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the poorly documented reproductive behaviour of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Nitidulidae), a honey bee ( Apis mellifera) parasite. We described the mating behaviour in detail and tested the hypothesis that beetle aggregation plays a vital role in mating in this species. Gender preference was examined in the context of age-dependency and possible chemical communication. Beetles started mating at a high frequency 18 days after emergence from the soil but only if they were aggregated ( p honey bee host colony, and are probably triggered by chemotactic cues.

  18. Mating Types and Optimum Culture Conditions for Sexual State Formation of Fusarium fujikuroi Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hyo-Won; Kim, Jung-Mi; Hong, Sung Kee; Kim, Wan Gyu; Chun, Se-Chul; Yu, Seung-Hun

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-five isolates of Fusarium fujikuroi acquired from rice seeds and rice plants evidencing symptoms of Bakanae disease were evaluated to determine their mating types and characterize the formation of their sexual state. The mating types of the isolates were evaluated via multiplex PCR with the diagnostic primers of the mating-type (MAT) region: GFmat1a, GFmat1b, GFmat2c, and GFmat2d. Among the 25 isolates, 11 were identified as MAT-1 (male), and 14 as MAT-2 (female). Four MAT-1 isolates a...

  19. The roles of life-history selection and sexual selection in the adaptive evolution of mating behavior in a beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Cayetano, Luis; Brooks, Robert C; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2010-05-01

    Although there is continuing debate about whether sexual selection promotes or impedes adaptation to novel environments, the role of mating behavior in such adaptation remains largely unexplored. We investigated the evolution of mating behavior (latency to mating, mating probability and duration) in replicate populations of seed beetles Callosobruchus maculatus subjected to selection on life-history ("Young" vs. "Old" reproduction) under contrasting regimes of sexual selection ("Monogamy" vs. "Polygamy"). Life-history selection is predicted to favor delayed mating in "Old" females, but sexual conflict under polygamy can potentially retard adaptive life-history evolution. We found that life-history selection yielded the predicted changes in mating behavior, but sexual selection regime had no net effect. In within-line crosses, populations selected for late reproduction showed equally reduced early-life mating probability regardless of mating system. In between-line crosses, however, the effect of life-history selection on early-life mating probability was stronger in polygamous lines than in monogamous ones. Thus, although mating system influenced male-female coevolution, removal of sexual selection did not affect the adaptive evolution of mating behavior. Importantly, our study shows that the interaction between sexual selection and life-history selection can result in either increased or decreased reproductive divergence depending on the ecological context. PMID:19930453

  20. Male Enchenopa treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) vary mate-searching behavior but not signaling behavior in response to spider silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler-Finn, Kasey D.; Al-Wathiqui, Nooria; Cruz, Daniel; Al-Wathiqui, Mishal; Rodríguez, Rafael L.

    2014-03-01

    Finding and attracting mates can impose costs on males in terms of increased encounters with, and attraction of, predators. To decrease the likelihood of predation, males may modify mate-acquisition efforts in two main ways: they may reduce mate-searching efforts or they may reduce mate-attraction efforts. The specific behavior that males change in the presence of predator cues should depend upon the nature of risk imposed by the type of predator present in the environment. For example, sit-and-wait predators impose greater costs to males moving in search of mates. Here, we test whether cues of the presence of a sit-and-wait predator lead to a reduction in mate-searching but not mate-acquisition behavior. We used a member of the Enchenopa binotata complex of treehoppers—a clade of vibrationally communicating insects in which males fly in search of mates and produce mate-attraction signals when they land on plant stems. We tested for changes in mate-searching and signaling behaviors when silk from a web-building spider was present or absent. We found that males delayed flight when spider silk was present but only if they were actively searching for mates. These results suggest that males have been selected to reduce predation risk by adjusting how they move about their environment according to the cues of sit-and-wait predators.

  1. Incipient sexual isolation in the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila: mating preference in male-, female– and multiple-choice mating experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M T Tanuja; N B Ramachandra; H A Ranganath

    2001-09-01

    Interracial divergence is an important facet of speciation. The nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila with sixteen morphologically identical, karyotypically different but cross-fertile races is an excellent system to study a few dimensions of raciation. Drosophila nasuta nasuta, Drosophila nasuta albomicans, Cytorace 1, Cytorace 2, Cytorace 3 and Cytorace 4 of this subgroup have been subjected to male-, female- and multiple-choice mating experiments. Out of 8456 crosses conducted, 7185 had successful matings. The overall impression is that mating is far from random amongst these six closely related races of the nasuta-albomicans complex. The males of D. n. albomicans, Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 4 in male-choice, the females of Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 2 in female-choice, and the males and females of D. n. nasuta, D. n. albomicans, Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 4 against the males and females of Cytorace 2 in multiple-choice experiments, had significantly more homogamic matings than expected. Thus in this study of evolutionary experimentation on raciation under laboratory conditions, we have documented the initiation of preference for con-specific matings among closely related and independently evolving members of the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila.

  2. Effect of delayed mating on the reproduction of unsterilized and gamma-sterilized and female adults of Trogoderma Granarium Everts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between increasing physiological age, delayed mating, of normal and sterilized of Trogoderma Granarium Everts and some biological characters was studied. Males and females up to 5 days old, both normal and sterilized proved to be as efficient as 1-d-old in number of eggs per female, oviposition rate, percent egg hatch and oviposition period. A considerable decrease in such parameters was observed when older males or females were used. Mating delay of 10 days for normal and sterilized males resulted in 47.5 and 39.1 %, respectively fever egg production than mating occurred at the age of 5 days. both normal and sterilized females mated at younger ages (1 to 5 days), laid eggs an significantly more days than when mating was delayed 7 and 10 days. when normal or sterilized males and females (at younger ages 1 to 5 fays) mated, significantly survived longer than when mating was delayed for 7 and 10 days

  3. Women's preference for dominant male odour: effects of menstrual cycle and relationship status

    OpenAIRE

    Havlicek, Jan; Roberts, S. Craig; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2005-01-01

    Body odour may provide significant cues about a potential sexual partner's genetic quality, reproductive status and health. In animals, a key trait in a female's choice of sexual partner is male dominance but, to date, this has not been examined in humans. Here, we show that women in the fertile phase of their cycle prefer body odour of males who score high on a questionnaire-based dominance scale (international personality items pool). In accordance with the theory of mixed mating strategies...

  4. Facultative sperm storage in response to nutritional status in a female insect.

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, S.; REINHARDT, K.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated sperm storage by females of a predatory bug, Nabis rugosus, before and after hibernation and with regard to nutritional status. In the field, females had more sperm available before than after hibernation. Food-deprived females maintained fewer sperm than fed females before but not after hibernation. However, after hibernation food-deprived females suppressed egg production rather than decreasing sperm-storage efficiency. Because mated females did not exhibit increased overwin...

  5. Plant viruses alter insect behavior to enhance their spread

    OpenAIRE

    Ingwell, Laura L.; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A.

    2012-01-01

    Pathogens and parasites can induce changes in host or vector behavior that enhance their transmission. In plant systems, such effects are largely restricted to vectors, because they are mobile and may exhibit preferences dependent upon plant host infection status. Here we report the first evidence that acquisition of a plant virus directly alters host selection behavior by its insect vector. We show that the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, after acquiring Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) during in ...

  6. Questionable luxury taxes: Results from a mating game

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    This contribution provides a game theoretical derivation of market demand as a function of the level and distribution of income in the considered economy: if (i) the price is low, everyone buys the good; if (ii ) the price is high, only the rich buy the good (a status good in a narrow sense). If (iii) the price is located in very high or in middle range, demand collapses. With this, we explain the critical price from which a status good acts as a distinctive signal. In addition, this approach...

  7. Studies of the Life Cycle and Mating Competitiveness of the White-striped Oriental Fruit Fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The strength and mating competitiveness of mass-reared flies are the key success factors of the control of fruit fly by the radiation-induced sterile insect technique. The objectives of this reported set of experiments were to compare the life cycle and the mating competitiveness of the white-striped oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), with those of the normal fly. It was found that the egg and larval periods of the white-striped flies were longer than those of the normal flies. The pupation percentage and the sex ratio of the white-striped flies were also lower than the normal flies but their pupal weight and flight ability percentage were higher. Under non-competitive conditions, mating propensity of either strain was not different from the other. But under competitive conditions, the white-striped flies had significantly higher mating competitiveness than the normal flies due to a shorter pre-reproductive period

  8. The effect of social environment on mating tactic of male Endler's guppy (Poecilia wingei).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?ežucha, Radomil; Reichard, Martin

    Liege : Université de Liege, 2012. s. 182. [European Congress of Ichthyology /14./. 03.07.2012-08.07.2012, Liege] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Alternative mating tactic * Social environment * Poecilia wingei Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  9. Studies on mating competitiveness of sterile oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An essential prerequisite for insect control by the sterile insect technique releasing method is mass rearing and sterilizing that do not have adverse effects on longevity and mating behavior of the released males. But many laboratory studies have shown that males irradiated at the completely sterility dose often could not compete with untreated males in mating. This paper studies the effects of gamma radiation at the sterile dose on mating, sexual and sperm competitiveness of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) under the laboratory condition. It is found that irradiation at the completely sterility dose (90 Gy) had reduced the mating and sperm competition ability of the males. Though the sexual competition was not

  10. Boosting beauty in an economic decline: mating, spending, and the lipstick effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sarah E; Rodeheffer, Christopher D; Griskevicius, Vladas; Durante, Kristina; White, Andrew Edward

    2012-08-01

    Although consumer spending typically declines in economic recessions, some observers have noted that recessions appear to increase women's spending on beauty products--the so-called lipstick effect. Using both historical spending data and rigorous experiments, the authors examine how and why economic recessions influence women's consumer behavior. Findings revealed that recessionary cues--whether naturally occurring or experimentally primed--decreased desire for most products (e.g., electronics, household items). However, these cues consistently increased women's desire for products that increase attractiveness to mates--the first experimental demonstration of the lipstick effect. Additional studies show that this effect is driven by women's desire to attract mates with resources and depends on the perceived mate attraction function served by these products. In addition to showing how and why economic recessions influence women's desire for beauty products, this research provides novel insights into women's mating psychology, consumer behavior, and the relationship between the two. PMID:22642483

  11. Depression of brain dopamine and its metabolite after mating in European honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harano, Ken-Ichi; Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

    2005-07-01

    To explore neuro-endocrinal changes in the brain of European honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens before and after mating, we measured the amount of several biogenic amines, including dopamine and its metabolite in the brain of 6- and 12-day-old virgins and 12-day-old mated queens. Twelve-day-old mated queens showed significantly lower amounts of dopamine and its metabolite (N-acetyldopamine) than both 6- and 12-day-old virgin queens, whereas significant differences in the amounts of these amines were not detected between 6- and 12-day-old virgin queens. These results are explained by down-regulation of both synthesis and secretion of brain dopamine after mating. It is speculated that higher amounts of brain dopamine in virgin queens might be involved in activation of ovarian follicles arrested in previtellogenic stages, as well as regulation of their characteristic behaviors.

  12. S-MATE: Secure Coding-based Multipath Adaptive Traffic Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Aly, Salah A; Walid, Anwar I; Poor, H Vincent

    2010-01-01

    There have been several approaches to provisioning traffic between core network nodes in Internet Service Provider (ISP) networks. Such approaches aim to minimize network delay, increase network capacity, and enhance network security services. MATE (Multipath Adaptive Traffic Engineering) protocol has been proposed for multipath adaptive traffic engineering between an ingress node (source) and an egress node (destination). Its novel idea is to avoid network congestion and attacks that might exist in edge and node disjoint paths between two core network nodes. This paper builds an adaptive, robust, and reliable traffic engineering scheme for better performance of communication network operations. This will also provision quality of service (QoS) and protection of traffic engineering to maximize network efficiency. Specifically, we present a new approach, S-MATE (secure MATE) is developed to protect the network traffic between two core nodes (routers or switches) in a cloud network. S-MATE secures against a sin...

  13. Identifying context-specific gene profiles of social, reproductive and mate preference behavior in a fish species with female mate choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryERamsey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensory and social inputs interact with underlying gene suites to coordinate social behavior. Here we use a naturally complex system in sexual selection studies, the swordtail, to explore how genes associated with mate preference, receptivity, and social affiliation interact in the female brain under specific social conditions. We focused on 11 genes associated with mate preference in this species (neuroserpin, neuroligin-3, NMDA-receptor, tPA, stathmin-2,?-1 adrenergic receptor or with female sociosexual behaviors in other taxa (vasotocin, isotocin, brain aromatase, ?-1 adrenergic receptor, tyrosine hydroxylase. We exposed females to four social conditions, including pairings of differing mate choice complexity (large males, large/small males, small males, and a social control (two females. Female mate preference differed significantly by context. Multiple discriminant analysis (MDA of behaviors revealed a primary axis (explaining 50.2% between-group variance highlighting differences between groups eliciting high preference behaviors (LL, LS versus other contexts, and a secondary axis capturing general measures distinguishing a non-favored group (SS from other groups. Gene expression MDA revealed a major axis (68.4% between-group variance that distinguished amongst differential male pairings and was driven by suites of ‘preference and receptivity genes’; whereas a second axis, distinguishing high affiliation groups (large males, females from low (small males, was characterized by traditional affiliative-associated genes (isotocin, vasotocin. We found context-specific correlations between behavior and gene MDA, suggesting gene suites covary with behaviors in a socially relevant context. Distinct associations between ‘affiliative’ and ‘preference’ axes suggest mate preference may be mediated by distinct clusters from those of social affiliation. Our results highlight the need to incorporate natural complexity of mating systems into behavioral genomics.

  14. The importance of pre-mating barriers and the local demographic context for contemporary mating patterns in hybrid zones of Eucalyptus aggregata and Eucalyptus rubida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, David L; Ayre, David J; Whelan, Robert J; Young, Andrew G

    2011-06-01

    The frequency of hybridization in plants is context dependent and can be influenced by the local mating environment. We used progeny arrays and admixture and pollen dispersal analyses to assess the relative importance of pre-mating reproductive barriers and the local demographic environment as explanations of variation in hybrid frequency in three mapped hybrid zones of Eucalyptus aggregata and E. rubida. A total of 731 open-pollinated progeny from 36 E. aggregata maternal parents were genotyped using six microsatellite markers. Admixture analysis identified substantial variation in hybrid frequency among progeny arrays (0-76.9%). In one hybrid zone, hybrid frequency was related to pre-mating barriers (degree of flowering synchrony) and demographic components of the local mating environment (decreasing population size, closer proximity to E. rubida and hybrid trees). At this site, average pollen dispersal distance was less and almost half (46%) of the hybrid progeny were sired by local E. rubida and hybrid trees. In contrast, at the other two sites, pre-mating and demographic factors were not related to hybrid frequency. Compared to the first hybrid zone where most of the E. rubida (76%) and all hybrids flowered, in the remaining sites fewer E. rubida (22-41%) and hybrid trees (0-50%) flowered and their reproductive success was lower (sired 0-23% of hybrids). As a result, most hybrids were sired by external E. rubida/hybrids located at least 2-3?km away. These results indicate that although pre-mating barriers and local demography can influence patterns of hybridization, their importance can depend upon the scale of pollen dispersal. PMID:21375638

  15. Phenotypic Switching and Mating Type Switching of Candida glabrata at Sites of Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Brockert, Paula J.; Lachke, Salil A.; Srikantha, Thyagarajan; Pujol, Claude; Galask, Rudolph; Soll, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Candida glabrata switches spontaneously at high frequency among the following four graded phenotypes discriminated on agar containing 1 mM CuSO4: white, light brown, dark brown (DB), and very dark brown. C. glabrata also contains three mating type loci with a configuration similar to that of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating type cassette system, suggesting it may also undergo cassette switching at the expression locus MTL1. To analyze both reversible, high-f...

  16. Displaying in the dark: light-dependent alternative mating tactics in the Alpine newt

    OpenAIRE

    Denoël, Mathieu; Doellen, Joffrey

    2010-01-01

    Environment plays a major role for determining the kind of courtship behaviours or alternative mating tactics employed, but the effect of physical variables on fitness has received little attention. The Alpine newt courts during both day and night times and exhibits a complex suite of behaviours involving olfactory, visual and tactile cues. Displaying in both dark and light conditions may increase the number of mating opportunities and alleviate predation risk, but the frequency and efficacy ...

  17. A nonspecific fatty acid within the bumblebee mating plug prevents females from remating

    OpenAIRE

    Baer, Boris; Morgan, E. David; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2001-01-01

    The best mating strategy for males differs from that of females, because females gain from mating with several males (polyandry), but males gain from monopolizing the females. As a consequence, males have evolved a variety of methods, such as the transfer of inhibitory substances from their accessory glands, to ensure exclusive paternity of the female's offspring, generally with detrimental effects on female fitness. Inhibitory substances have been identified as peptid...

  18. Mating systems and protein–protein interactions determine evolutionary rates of primate sperm proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Schumacher, Julia; Rosenkranz, David; Herlyn, Holger

    2014-01-01

    To assess the relative impact of functional constraint and post-mating sexual selection on sequence evolution of reproductive proteins, we examined 169 primate sperm proteins. In order to recognize potential genome-wide trends, we additionally analysed a sample of altogether 318 non-reproductive (brain and postsynaptic) proteins. Based on cDNAs of eight primate species (Anthropoidea), we observed that pre-mating sperm proteins engaged in sperm composition and assembly show significantly lower...

  19. Genetic structure of the mating-type locus of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, Patrick J; Armbrust, E Virginia; Goodenough, Ursula W

    2002-01-01

    Portions of the cloned mating-type (MT) loci (mt(+) and mt(-)) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, defined as the approximately 1-Mb domains of linkage group VI that are under recombinational suppression, were subjected to Northern analysis to elucidate their coding capacity. The four central rearranged segments of the loci were found to contain both housekeeping genes (expressed during several life-cycle stages) and mating-related genes, while the sequences unique to mt(+) or mt(-) carried genes e...

  20. A Deviation from the Bipolar-Tetrapolar Mating Paradigm in an Early Diverged Basidiomycete

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Marco A.; Sampaio, José Paulo; Gonçalves, Paula

    2010-01-01

    In fungi, sexual identity is determined by specialized genomic regions called MAT loci which are the equivalent to sex chromosomes in some animals and plants. Usually, only two sexes or mating types exist, which are determined by two alternate sets of genes (or alleles) at the MAT locus (bipolar system). However, in the phylum Basidiomycota, a unique tetrapolar system emerged in which four different mating types are generated per meiosis. This occurs because two functionally distinct molecula...