WorldWideScience
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Chemosensory cues allow male Tenebrio molitor beetles to assess the reproductive status of potential mates  

OpenAIRE

Males of many insect species, including beetles, choose their mates according to their reproductive status. However, the ways in which male beetles evaluate female reproductive status have received little attention. We tested the existence of male mate choice in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by observing mating and courtship behaviour of males given simultaneous access to pairs of females differing in their reproductive status: (1) mature versus immature; (2) virgin versus previously...

Carazo, P.; Sanchez, E.; Font, E.; Desfilis, E.

2004-01-01

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Abortion-prone mating influences placental antioxidant status and adversely affects placental and foetal development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative stress is associated with decreased female fertility and adversely affects prenatal development. Mammalian cells have developed a network of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defence systems to prevent oxidative stress. Little attention has been paid to the antioxidative pathways in placentas of normal and disturbed pregnancies, leaving a gap in our knowledge about the role of antioxidants in the control of foeto-placental development. The challenges in studying early human pregnancy can partly be overcome by designing animal models of abnormal pregnancy. We aimed to determine whether the antioxidant status of placentas from the CBA/J × DBA/2 abortion-prone pregnant mice differed from that of normal pregnant mice. The foetal/placental weight ratio was lower in abortion-prone matings compared with that in non-abortion-prone matings. The increased placental malondialdehyde (MDA) content, the end products of lipid peroxidation, with concomitants alterations in placental antioxidants, namely copper-zinc containing superoxide dismutase (SOD1), manganese containing (SOD2), glutathione peroxidases (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities may be involved in placental and foetal growth restriction. We show that placental oxidative stress is linked with poor prenatal development and pregnancy losses in CBA/J × DBA/2 mice matings. This animal model may be useful in the evaluation of nutritional antioxidant therapies for oxidative stress and associated prenatal developmental disorders. PMID:25263566

Al-Gubory, K H; Krawiec, A; Grange, S; Faure, P; Garrel, C

2014-12-01

3

Polarization signaling in swordtails alters female mate preference  

Science.gov (United States)

Polarization of light, and visual sensitivity to it, is pervasive across aquatic and terrestrial environments. Documentation of invertebrate use of polarized light is widespread from navigation and foraging to species recognition. However, studies demonstrating that polarization body patterning serves as a communication signal (e.g., with evidence of changes in receiver behavior) are rare among invertebrate taxa and conspicuously absent among vertebrates. Here, we investigate polarization-mediated communication by northern swordtails, Xiphophorus nigrensis, using a custom-built videopolarimeter to measure polarization signals and an experimental paradigm that manipulates polarization signals without modifying their brightness or color. We conducted mate choice trials in an experimental tank that illuminates a pair of males with light passed through a polarization filter and a diffusion filter. By alternating the order of these filters between males, we presented females with live males that differed in polarization reflectance by >200% but with intensity and color differences below detection thresholds (?5%). Combining videopolarimetry and polarization-manipulated mate choice trials, we found sexually dimorphic polarized reflectance and polarization-dependent female mate choice behavior with no polarization-dependent courtship behavior by males. Male swordtails exhibit greater within-body and body-to-background polarization contrast than females, and females preferentially associate with high-polarization–reflecting males. We also found limited support that males increase polarization contrast in social conditions over asocial conditions. Polarization cues in mate choice contexts may provide aquatic vertebrates with enhanced detection of specific display features (e.g., movements, angular information), as well as a signaling mechanism that may enhance detection by intended viewers while minimizing detection by others. PMID:25197061

Calabrese, Gina M.; Brady, Parrish C.; Gruev, Viktor; Cummings, Molly E.

2014-01-01

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Autonomic Reactivity With Altered Thyroid Status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was carried out to test the effect of altered thyroid status on the autonomic reactivity in 60subjects (age group 20-50 years. The para meters recorded and the tests used were pulse rate, bloodpressure, orthostasis, cold pressor test, mental arithmetic and QTc interval for assessment of sympatheticactivity and valsalva ratio, heart rate response, expiratory-inspiratory ratio (E.I. ratio, heart rate variability,standing-lying ratio (S.L. ratio and 30: 15 ratio for assessment of parasympathetic activity. Our findingsshow that the changes in thyroid hormone levels - in both hypothyroids and hyperthyroids are associatedwith altered sympathetic reactivity, with no significant difference in the parasympathetic activity - ineither hypothyroids or hyperthyroids- as compared to euthyroid controls.

Anjali Nadir Bhat, Leela Kalsotra, Sabita Yograj

2007-04-01

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Autonomic Reactivity With Altered Thyroid Status  

OpenAIRE

The study was carried out to test the effect of altered thyroid status on the autonomic reactivity in 60subjects (age group 20-50 years). The para meters recorded and the tests used were pulse rate, bloodpressure, orthostasis, cold pressor test, mental arithmetic and QTc interval for assessment of sympatheticactivity and valsalva ratio, heart rate response, expiratory-inspiratory ratio (E.I. ratio), heart rate variability,standing-lying ratio (S.L. ratio) and 30: 15 ratio for assessment of pa...

Anjali Nadir Bhat, Leela Kalsotra

2007-01-01

6

Altered mental status: what is the diagnosis?  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a patient presenting with a 2-day history of altered mental status and lethargy. She had recently started taking prednisone for suspected 'autoimmune arthritis'. Clinical deterioration in hospital characterised by increasing confusion, alternating hyperarousal and somnolence, auditory hallucinations and eventual unresponsiveness led to an intensive care unit transfer. Initial laboratory and radiological testing did not reveal a cause for her symptoms. The only abnormality detected was antithyroid peroxidase antibody levels elevated to >900?IU/mL with patient demonstrating marked clinical improvement within 24?h of receiving high-dose steroids and plasmapheresis. Hashimoto's encephalitis is an underdiagnosed reversible neuropsychiatric disorder with unknown pathogenesis. Recent studies indicate that autoimmune encephalopathy and specifically Hashimoto's encephalitis is under-reported. Our case demonstrates the importance of maintaining a wide differential for altered mental status, especially after negative initial diagnostic work-up of more common aetiologies. Although steroids are an effective treatment for Hashimoto's encephalitis, the addition of early plasmapheresis may be indicated in patients with severe presentation and those who develop disease while taking steroids. PMID:25678615

Gupta, Arjun; Shelton, William; Singh, Rajeev; Pandey, Ambarish

2015-01-01

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Influence of mating status and body size on human host avidity and the repellency of deet in Aedes albopictus  

Science.gov (United States)

Mean percent host seeking and the response to deet (25% in ethanol) by Aedes albopictus were significantly influenced by female mating status and body size. Average host seeking rates (determined in an olfactometer) were higher for mated (38%) than unmated females (26%) and the mean rate of landing...

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Effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil response to aggregation pheromone  

OpenAIRE

The banana (Musa spp.) weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine whether the response of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to its aggregation pheromone was influenced by age, female mating status and weevil density. Laboratory bioassays were conducted using a double ...

Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C. S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, A.; Ragama, P. E.

2011-01-01

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Mating à la Spence: Deriving the Market Demand Function for Status Goods  

OpenAIRE

Conspicuous consumption of luxuries plays a central role in the work of Thorstein B. Veblen. More recently, interpersonal effects have emerged as an important factor in consumption theory. However, the inadequate modelling of individuals’ interaction often leads to questionable results with regard to the market demand function for status goods. Following Spence, who recommended the application of his Job Market Signaling to conspicuous consumption, in Mating à la Spence potential partners ...

Thomas, Tobias

2007-01-01

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The relevance of age and nutritional status on the mating competitiveness of medfly males (Diptera: Teprhitidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Results of previous investigations trying to ascertain which physiological factors are more important to the mating success of medfly males are controversial. In part, this controversy owes to the fact that each factor was evaluated by an independent study using different experimental designs and po [...] pulations. In the present study we compare the roles of age and nutritional status (immature and adult phases) on the mating competitiveness of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) males. Three parameters were used to evaluate the male mating success: calling behavior (pheromone emission), lek participation and copulation (ability to be chosen by a female). Females gave preference to the males that were given a high protein diet in the larval phase. By contrast, females did not give preference to males that had been well-nourished in the adult phase only. The other parameters evaluated followed the same pattern: young males and males that had been fed a high protein diet during their immature phase had a greater participation in leks and called more often than older males and males that had been fed a diet poor in protein during their larval phase. Therefore, we conclude that the mating success of C. capitata males is determined both by age and nourishment during the immature stage.

Alzira Kelly Passos, Roriz; Iara Sordi, Joachim-Bravo.

2013-10-01

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Effects of starvation and mating status on the activity of the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)  

OpenAIRE

Flea beetles are characterized by their tendency to jump. They can also fly. First, the effects of starvation on flight activity in the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were determined. After starving P. nemorum for five days a greater number of individuals of both sexes flew than when fed continuously for the same period. In addition, the effect of the mating status of females of P. nemorum on their movement was determined. Mated females were more active than v...

Oku, K.; Vermeer, K. M. C. A.; Verbaarschot, P.; Jong, P. W.

2010-01-01

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Behavioral responses of adult female tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta, to hostplant volatiles change with age and mating status  

OpenAIRE

We present evidence for two behaviors influenced by intact, vegetative plant odor -- upwind flight and abdomen curling -- in female Manduca sexta and demonstrate the influence of the age and mating status of the moths on these behaviors. We compared the behavioral responses of laboratory-reared M. sexta. of discrete ages and physiological states (2,3, and 4 day old for virgin; 2 and 3 day old for mated) as individual moths flew upwind in a flight tunnel to a source of hostplant volatiles. We ...

Mechaber, W. L.; Capaldo, C. T.; Hildebrand, J. G.

2002-01-01

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The smell of virgins: mating status of females affects male swimming behaviour in Oithona davisae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many copepod species rely on pheromone cues to find partners. Some parasitic and benthic copepod males are able to distinguish between females of different reproductive states. Here, we demonstrate that the swimming activity and velocity of males of a pelagic copepod, Oithona davisae, increases in the presence of virgin when compared with mated females and that the cue is waterborne. The ability to distinguish between virgin and mated females may reduce male mortality during mate search and the cost related to mating behaviour (precopula) in both sexes. We estimate that at realistic population densities the ability of males to distinguish between virgin and mated females saves them several hours per day of dangerous and energetically expensive fast female tracking

Heuschele, Jan; KiØrboe, Thomas

2012-01-01

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Female Moth Calling and Flight Behavior Are Altered Hours Following Pheromone Autodetection: Possible Implications for Practical Management with Mating Disruption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Female moths are known to detect their own sex pheromone—a phenomenon called “autodetection”. Autodetection has various effects on female moth behavior, including altering natural circadian rhythm of calling behavior, inducing flight, and in some cases causing aggregations of conspecifics. A proposed hypothesis for the possible evolutionary benefits of autodetection is its possible role as a spacing mechanism to reduce female-female competition. Here, we explore autodetection in two species of tortricids (Grapholita molesta (Busck and Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris. We find that females of both species not only “autodetect,” but that learning (change in behavior following experience occurs, which affects behavior for at least 24 hours after pheromone pre-exposure. Specifically, female calling in both species is advanced at least 24 hours, but not 5 days, following pheromone pre-exposure. Also, the propensity of female moths to initiate flight and the duration of flights, as quantified by a laboratory flight mill, were advanced in pre-exposed females as compared with controls. Pheromone pre-exposure did not affect the proportion of mated moths when they were confined with males in small enclosures over 24 hours in laboratory assays. We discuss the possible implications of these results with respect to management of these known pest species with the use of pheromone-based mating disruption.

Lukasz Stelinski

2014-06-01

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A matter of taste: direct detection of female mating status in the bedbug.  

OpenAIRE

Males of the bedbug, Cimex lectularius, traumatically inseminate females by inserting a needle-like intromittent organ (penis) through the female's abdominal wall after she has fed. We demonstrate that: (i) mating duration determines ejaculate size; (ii) a female's first copulation in a bout of copulations always lasts longer than subsequent copulations; (iii) the intromittent organ bears sensillae; (iv) males use their intromittent organ to 'taste' whether their current mate has recently cop...

Siva-jothy, Michael T.; Stutt, Alistair D.

2003-01-01

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Female aggression and the maintenance of monogamy: female behaviour predicts male mating status in European starlings  

OpenAIRE

Any reduction in the fitness of a breeding female induced by the settlement of additional females with her mate creates a conflict between the sexes over mating system. In birds, females are often aggressive towards other females but few studies have been able to quantify the importance of female-female aggression for the maintenance of monogamy. This study of the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris, quantifies male and female behaviour towards a potential prospecting female, presented in a c...

Sandell, M. I.

1998-01-01

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Altered volatile profile associated with precopulatory mate guarding attracts spider mite males.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proximate factors affecting animal behavior include stimuli generated by conspecifics. In spider mites of the genus Tetranychus (Acari: Tetranychidae), males guard pre-reproductive quiescent females, because only the first mating results in fertilization. In a dual-choice experiment, more adult males of T. urticae were attracted to females guarded by a male than to solitary females. Because spider mites are known to perceive volatiles, we hypothesized that guarded and solitary females differ in the volatile blends emitted. To test this hypothesis, headspace volatiles of guarded females, solitary females, and solitary males were collected, respectively. GC/MS analysis detected octanal, methyl salicylate, ethyl 4-ethoxybenzoate, and methyl cis-dihydrojasmonate in all of the groups. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) of the blends clearly discriminated guarded females from solitary females, supporting our hypothesis. Individual compounds did not show significant difference in emission rates for guarded females vs. solitary females, suggesting that differences lay in the total blend composition. OPLS-DA did not discriminate between the blends emitted by guarded females and solitary males. In conclusion, the differences in the volatile blends are likely to mediate male discrimination between guarded and solitary females. PMID:25612522

Oku, Keiko; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Poelman, Erik H; De Jong, Peter W; Dicke, Marcel

2015-02-01

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Infection of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) by Hesperomyces virescens (Ascomycetes: Laboulbeniales): role of mating status and aggregation behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens was studied on Harmonia axyridis in North Carolina, in the southeastern United States. A primary goal was to investigate transmission of the disease by examining the correlation between the pattern of fungal infection and seasonal change in host behavior. Beetles were collected as they arrived at their winter quarters at two sites; in one site they were also subsampled at mid- and late winter. Insects were sexed and weighed, fungal thalli were counted, and their location on the host body mapped; spermathecae of females were examined for sperm. Infection levels varied between sites, differed significantly between the sexes in one site but not the other, and increased by approximately 40% during winter. The distribution of thalli on the body changed seasonally, in concert with behavioral changes in the host. At fall flight, thalli were found most often on the posterior elytra of mated females, virgin females, and males. This is suggestive that the disease had been spread among both sexes via successful and failed copulation attempts; however, the relatively low incidence of infection on the male venter does not fit the sexual transmission scenario. During winter, thallus location shifts in concert with beetle aggregation behavior, with infections more often located on the head and legs. Fresh weight of beetles decreased by approx. 20% during winter, but was not affected by disease status. Prior to spring flight, uninfected females were preferred as mating partners, but the probable relationship between female age and infection status complicates interpretation of the data. PMID:17188291

Nalepa, Christine A; Weir, Alexander

2007-03-01

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Is Nitrogen Deposition Altering the Nitrogen Status of Northeastern Forests?  

Science.gov (United States)

The nitrogen saturation hypothesis suggests that foliar and soil N concentration, nitrification rate, and nitrate leaching loss should all increase in response to increased N deposition. We tested this hypothesis with a major new synthesis of foliar (362 plots), soil (251 plots), and surface water (354 lakes and streams) chemistry from the northeastern U.S. Nitrogen deposition decreases across the Northeast from ~ 10-12 kg ha-1 yr-1 in the Mid-Atlantic region to ~ 4 kg ha-1 yr-1 in northern Maine. Foliar chemistry (%N and lignin:N ratio) of red spruce and sugar maple correlated more strongly with elevation than with N deposition, although these factors covary. Forest floor C:N ratio decreased with N deposition for both conifers and hardwoods although correlations were not strong (R2 hardwood stands. Across the Northeast, surface water seasonal nitrate concentrations and N export during the mid- to late-1990s increased with N deposition (R2 = 0.30-0.56), with two important patterns emerging: 1) nitrate rarely exceeded 1 ? mol/L in watersheds receiving species composition, forest history, climate, and hydrology may affect foliar, soil, and stream chemistry at different spatial and temporal scales. Foliar and soil chemistry may be more strongly influenced by local heterogeneity, whereas surface water samples integrate over much larger areas. Using surface waters as the most comprehensive indicator of N saturation, it appears that N deposition is altering the N status of forests in the northeastern U.S.

Aber, J. D.; Goodale, C. L.; Ollinger, S. V.; Smith, M.; Magill, A. H.; Martin, M. E.; Hallett, R. A.; Stoddard, J. L.; Participants, N.

2002-05-01

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Altered vitamin B12 status in recreational endurance athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to compare the vitamin B(12)and folate status of recreational endurance athletes and inactive controls by modern biomarkers. In 72 athletes (38 +/- 7 y) and 46 inactive controls (38 +/- 9 y) serum levels of vitamin B(2), methylmalonic acid (MMA), holotranscobalamin II (holoTC), folate, and homocysteine (Hcy) were measured. Vitamin B(12)and folate levels of both groups were comparable, but athletes had higher median (25.-75. percentile) MMA [242 (196 to 324) versus 175 (141 to 266) nmol/L] and holoTC concentrations [67 (52 to 93) versus 55 (45 to 70) pmol/L] than controls. Hcy was slightly lower in athletes [9.2 (7.2 to 12.6) versus 10.8 (8.9 to 12.9) nmol/L]. In controls, we found the following correlations: vitamin B(12)and MMA (r = -0.38), vitamin B(12)and holoTC (r = 0.51), MMA and holoTC (r = -0.36). In athletes, MMA did not correlate with vitamin B(12)and holoTC. Our data suggests an altered vitamin B(12)metabolism in recreational athletes that needs further investigation. PMID:16286674

Herrmann, Markus; Obeid, Rima; Scharhag, Juergen; Kindermann, Wilfried; Herrmann, Wolfgang

2005-08-01

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Age and mating status do not affect transcript levels of odorant receptor genes in male antennae of Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa.  

Science.gov (United States)

In biological systems, it is expected that gene expression levels generally will correlate with temporally varying physiological and biological needs, and that gene expression levels could regulate biological capabilities. In moth species, male response to female sex pheromones often is affected by moth age and mating status. Odorant receptors (ORs) expressed in neurons within male antennae are critical for detecting the female pheromones. Therefore, we hypothesized that the expression level of these receptor proteins would be affected by age and mating status of male moths. We examined expression levels of two OR genes that are preferentially expressed in the male antennae of Heliothis virescens (HvOR13 and HvOR15) and Heliothis subflexa (HsOR13 and HsOR15). Antennae were dissected from virgin males at 2 h, 1 d, 2 d, 4 d, and 8 d. We also dissected antennae from 4-d-old mated males. We found that age had no effect on expression levels of either OR in either species, except for a small difference in HsOR15 expression between 2 h and 8-d-old virgin males. Furthermore, we found no effect of mating status on expression level of these ORs in either species. We discuss these findings in relationship to studies of age and mating status effects on male electrophysiological and behavioral response to female pheromones, and contrast our results to studies on the effects of age and mating status on gene expression of pheromone receptor proteins and pheromone binding proteins in other moths. PMID:20890796

Soques, Stephanie; Vásquez, Gissella M; Grozinger, Christina M; Gould, Fred

2010-11-01

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Solid phase microextraction of volatile emissions of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of fly sex, age, and mating status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considerable efforts have been devoted to understanding the courtship behavior and pheromone communication of medflies; however, the sex pheromone composition is still a controversial subject. The discovery of new components affecting medfly behavior would be of interest for medfly control methods based on semiochemicals. This work describes volatile compounds emitted by Ceratitis capitata collected using solid phase microextraction. The volatile study was conducted according to an experimental design with three factors (sex, age, and mating status) assumed to be relevant for better understanding the chemical communication. Emission data were treated by means of principal component analysis, a statistical methodology not previously applied to the study of volatiles emitted by fruit flies. The characterization of emission patterns could be useful for the selection of compounds to be further investigated in biological assays to improve knowledge of the key semiochemicals involved in medfly behavior. PMID:21142191

Alfaro, Cristina; Vacas, Sandra; Zarzo, Manuel; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; Primo, Jaime

2011-01-12

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Bred to breed?! Implications of continuous mating on the emotional status of mouse offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Working with mice represents a smart method to study pathophysiological mechanisms in vivo. However, using animals as model organisms also bears immense caveats. While many aspects in animal research are meanwhile standardized (e.g. nutrition, housing, health) the breeding environment remains unaddressed. Moreover, since the "production" of mice is mostly performed pragmatically, continuous mating (CM) represents a common method to boost the amount of offspring. This condition implies simultaneous pregnancy and lactation in presence of the male, which is associated with increased costs for the breeding dam. Facing the widely-accepted impact of perinatal conditions, our aim was to elucidate how CM affects emotional behaviour of mouse offspring. We therefore compared pregnant mice in CM with mice raising their pups without potentially disturbing influences. According to our hypothesis CM-deriving offspring should demonstrate increased anxiety and depression-like behaviour shaped by pre- and postnatal stress of the mother. Maternal care, i.e. nest building and pup retrieval, was analysed around delivery. To assess the emotional state of the offspring, males and females of either condition were exposed to a behavioural test battery for exploration, anxiety and fear, social and despair behaviour. In addition we analysed corticosterone as stressphysiological correlate. Our study demonstrates that CM affects the emotional phenotype regarding nearly all parameters addressed. These findings emphasize (i) the impact of the perinatal environment on stress-associated behaviour such as depression, and (ii) the need to imply perinatal conditions in the experimental design to decrease the risk of artefacts and increase the overall validity of animal studies. PMID:25446740

Lerch, Sandra; Brandwein, Christiane; Dormann, Christof; Gass, Peter; Chourbaji, Sabine

2015-02-15

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Roles of olfactory cues, visual cues, and mating status in orientation of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to four different host plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important worldwide pest of citrus that vectors bacteria (Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) responsible for huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). We examined the behavioral responses of mated and unmated D. citri of both sexes to odors from host plants in a Y-tube olfactometer, with and without visual cues. The host plants tested were 'Duncan' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfayden), sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.), navel orange (C. sinensis L.), and Murraya paniculata L. Jack. Responses varied by plant species, psyllid sex and mating status, and the presence of a visual cue. Evidence of attraction generally was stronger in females and in mated individuals of both sexes relative to virgins. The presence of a visual cue typically enhanced attractiveness of olfactory cues; in no case did unmated individuals show evidence of attraction to host plant odors in the absence of avisual cue. In the absence of visual cues, mated females and males showed evidence of attraction only to odors from sour orange and navel orange, respectively. Psyllids exhibited anemotactic responses when assayed with plant odors alone but showed strong evidence of attraction only when olfactory and visual cues were combined, suggesting that olfactory cues facilitate orientation to host plants but may be insufficient alone. Antennal responses to citrus volatiles were confirmed by electroantennogram. The results reported here provide evidence that D. citri uses olfactory and visual cues in orientation to host plants and suggest the possibility of using plant volatiles in monitoring and management of this pest. PMID:19791618

Wenninger, Erik J; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Hall, David G

2009-02-01

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Alteration of Oxidative Status in Rats Following Administration of Acrylamide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Acrylamide (ACR is a known industrial neurotoxic and carcinogenic chemical in rodents. The recent discovery of acrylamide in wide variety of commonly consumed foods has energized research efforts worldwide to define toxic mechanisms. Objective: The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of acrylamide administration on in vivo malondialdehyde (MDA, a product of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH as well as copper and zinc superoxide dismutase enzyme activity (Cu/Zn SOD of rats. Material and Methods: Fourteen adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups each containing "7" rats. Group 1 served as negative control fed on basal diet and group 2 (positive control received basal diet and acrylamide (0.34g/ kg diet for 11 days. Levels of MDA, GSH and activity of SOD were determined in liver, kidneys, brain, heart, testes, spleen and lungs of rats. Results: ACR treatment significantly increased MDA in all organs; the highest increase was detected in testis (87.9% and heart (71.5% while the lowest one was found in kidneys (28.2%. On the other hand, GSH levels and SOD activities were significantly reduced in ACR treated rats. However, the reduction of GSH level ranged from 10.2% to 36.5 %.The inhibition of SOD activities were higher in testis (57.3% and lungs (38.5%. Conclusion: The present study showed that ACR exerts deteriorated effects on oxidative status of rats

Hanaa H. El-Sayed1, Shawkia S. Abd El- Halim1,

2007-09-01

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Alterations of nutritional status: impact of chemotherapy and radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nutritional status of a cancer patient may be affected by the tumor, the chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy directed against the tumor, and by complications associated with that therapy. Chemotherpay-radiotherapy is not confined exclusively to malignant cell populations; thus, normal tissues may also be affected by the therapy and may contribute to specific nutritional problems. Impaired nutrition due to anorexia, mucositis, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may be dependent upon the specific chemotherapeutic agent, dose, or schedule utilized. Similar side effects from radiation therapy depend upon the dose, fractionation, and volume irradiated. When combined modality treatment is given the nutritional consequences may be magnified. Prospective, randomized clinical trials are underway to investigate the efficacy of nutritional support during chemotherapy-radiotherapy on tolerance to treatment, complications from treatment, and response rates to treatment. Preliminary results demonstrate that the administration of total parenteral nutrition is successful in maintaining weight during radiation therapy and chemotherapy, but that weight loss occurs after discontinuation of nutritional support. Thus, longterm evaluation is mandatory to learn the impact of nutritional support on survival, diease-free survival, and complication rates, as well as on the possible prevention of morbidity associated with aggressive chemotherapy-radiation therapytion therapy

27

The influence of mating status and age on the induction of chromosome aberrations and dominant lethals in irradiated female mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Young and old hybrid female mice were given 0.5 Gy or 2 Gy acute X-irradiation, followed by (i) in utero examination for dominant lethal mutations, or (ii) examination of metaphase I oocytes for chromosome aberrations 2-3 weeks after the irradiation. Some of the old females had been mated when young to males of a specific locus stock. Others were left unmated until after the irradiation when they, and the young females, were mated to the same specific locus stock and allowed to have 1 (if given 2 Gy) or 2 (if given 0.5 Gy) litters before the dominant lethal test. In both the 0.5-Gy and 2-Gy series, mean sizes of first litters in the old late-mated group were markedly lower than in the old early-mated or young groups, the differences being significant at the 2-Gy level. The intrauterine examinations showed that this difference was largely the result of a reduced ovulation rate in the old late-mated females. (Auth.)

28

The value of electroencephalography in differential diagnosis of altered mental status in emergency departments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the value of electroencephalography in patients with altered mental status in emergency departments. Methods: Demographical characteristics, types and aetiologies of seizures, and clinical outcomes of the patients were recorded. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the complaints of admission: findings and symptoms of seizure; stroke and symptoms of stroke-related seizures; syncope; and metabolic abnormalities and other causes of altered mental status. The electroencephalography findings were classified into 3 groups: epileptiform discharges; paroxysmal electroencephalography abnormalities; and background slowing. Electroencephalography abnormalities in each subgroup were evaluated. SPSS 21 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total 190 patients in the study, 117(61.6%) had pathological electroencephalography findings. The main reason for electroencephalography in the emergency department was the presence of seizure findings and symptoms in 98(51.6%) patients. The ratio of electroencephalography abnormality was higher in patients who were admitted with complaints of metabolic abnormality-related consciousness disturbances (p<0.001). A total of 124(65.3%) patients had neuroimagings. Electroencephalography abnormalities were found to be significantly higher in patients with neuroimagings compared to those without neuroimagings (p<0.003). Conclusion: Despite advanced neuroimaging techniques, electroencephalography is still an important tool in the differential diagnosis of altered mental status such as epileptic seizures, metabolic abnormalities, pseudo-seizures and syncope. (author)

29

Siblings, friends, course-mates, club-mates: how adolescent health behavior homophily varies by race, class, gender, and health status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many unhealthy behaviors develop during adolescence, and these behaviors can have fundamental consequences for health and mortality in adulthood. Social network structure and the degree of homophily in a network affect how health behaviors and innovations are spread. However, the degree of health behavior homophily across different social ties and within subpopulations is unknown. This paper addresses this gap in the literature by using a novel regression model to document the degree of homophily across various relationship types and subpopulations for behaviors of interest that are related to health outcomes. These patterns in health behavior homophily have implications for which behaviors and ties should be the subjects of future research and for predicting how homophily may shape health programs focused on specific subpopulations (gender, race, class, health status) or a specific social context (families, peer groups, classrooms, or school activities). PMID:24673889

Daw, Jonathan; Margolis, Rachel; Verdery, Ashton M

2015-01-01

30

The evolution of mate choice and mating biases.  

OpenAIRE

We review the current status of three well-established models (direct benefits, indirect benefits and sensory drive) and one newcomer (antagonistic chase-away) of the evolution of mate choice and the biases that are expressed during choice. We highlight the differences and commonalities in the underlying genetics and evolutionary dynamics of these models. We then argue that progress in understanding the evolution of mate choice is currently hampered by spurious distinctions among models and a...

Kokko, Hanna; Brooks, Robert; Jennions, Michael D.; Morley, Josephine

2003-01-01

31

Dietary zinc restriction in rats alters antioxidant status and increases plasma F2 isoprostanes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 12% of Americans do not consume the estimated average requirement for zinc and could be at risk for zinc deficiency. Since zinc has proposed antioxidant function, inadequate zinc consumption may lead to an enhanced susceptibility to oxidative stress through several mechanisms, including altered antioxidant defenses. In this study, we hypothesized that dietary zinc restriction would result in lower antioxidant status and increased oxidative damage. We fed weanling Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12 per group) a zinc-adequate (50 mg/kg of zinc) diet, a zinc-deficient (ferritin-reducing ability of plasma assay and a 50% reduction in plasma uric acid (P.05) by zinc deficiency, but cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4F2 protein levels were elevated (Puric acid. PMID:17142032

Bruno, Richard S; Song, Yang; Leonard, Scott W; Mustacich, Debbie J; Taylor, Alan W; Traber, Maret G; Ho, Emily

2007-08-01

32

T3 fails to restore mitochondrial thiol redox status altered by experimental hypothyroidism in rat testis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative stress impaired sperm function might lead to infertility. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of altered thyroid hormone levels on regulation of mitochondrial glutathione redox status and its dependent antioxidant defense system in adult rat testis and their correlation with testicular function. Adult male Wistar rats were rendered hypothyroid by administration of 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil in drinking water for six weeks. At the end of the treatment period, a subset of the hypothyroid rats was treated with T(3) (20 ?g/100g body weight/day for 3 days). Mitochondria were isolated from euthyroid, hypothyroid and hypothyroid+T(3)-treated rat testes, and sub-fractionated into sub-mitochondrial particles and matrix fractions. Mitochondrial respiration, oxidative stress indices and antioxidant defenses were assayed. The results were correlated with daily testicular sperm production and epididymal sperm viability. Increased pro-oxidant level and reduced antioxidant capacity rendered the hypothyroid mitochondria susceptible to oxidative injury. The extent of damage was more evident in the membrane fraction. This was reflected in higher degree of oxidative damages inflicted upon membrane lipids and proteins. While membrane proteins were more susceptible to carbonylation, thiol residue damage was evident in matrix fraction. Reduced levels of glutathione and ascorbate further weakened the antioxidant defenses and impaired testicular function. Hypothyroid condition disturbed intra-mitochondrial thiol redox status leading to testicular dysfunction. Hypothyroidism-induced oxidative stress condition could not be reversed with T(3) treatment. PMID:20678500

Chattopadhyay, Sutapa; Choudhury, Supragyanshree; Roy, Anita; Chainy, Gagan B N; Samanta, Luna

2010-10-01

33

Strategies of Human Mating  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern humans have inherited the mating strategies that led to the success of their ancestors. These strategies include long-term mating, short-term mating, extra-pair mating, mate poaching, and mate guarding. This article presents empirical evidence supporting evolution-based hypotheses about the complexities of these mating strategies. Since men and women historically confronted different adaptive problems in the mating domain, the sexes differ profoundly in evolved strategic solutions. These differences include possessing different mate preferences, different desires for short-term mating, and differences in the triggers that evoke sexual jealousy. The study of human mating is one of the “success stories” of evolutionary psychology.

David M. Buss

2006-12-01

34

Munching Mates  

Science.gov (United States)

The male redback spider makes the ultimate sacrifice for his children, he lets his mate eat him. University of Toronto behavioral ecologist Maydianne Andrade studies this unusual strategy. She has found that more than 80 percent of wild males die of starvation or predation during their search for a female, without ever finding even one.

Science Update (AAAS; )

2006-01-16

35

Kinship alters the effects of forced cohabitation on body weight, mate choice and fitness in the rat-like hamster Tscheskia triton  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been documented that social isolation imparts deleterious effects on gregarious rodents species, but caging in group imparts such effects on solitary rodents. This study was attempted at examining how kinship to affect body weight, behavioral interaction, mate choice and fitness when we caged male and female rat-like hamsters Tscheskia triton in pair, a solitary species. We found that females paired with nonsibling males became heavier than the females paired with sibling males, but both agonistic and amicable behavior between paired males and females did not differ between sibling and nonsibling groups. This indicated that kinship might reduce females’ obesity in response to forced cohabitation, and dissociation might exist between physiological and behavioral responses. Furthermore, binary choice tests revealed that social familiarity between either siblings or nonsiblings decreased their investigating time spent in opposite sex conspecific of cage mates and/or their scents as compared with those of non-mates, suggesting effects of social association on mate and kin selection of the hamsters. On the other side, both females and males caged in pair with siblings show a preference between unfamiliar siblings or their scents and the counterparts of nonsiblings after two month separation, indicating that the kin recognition of the hamsters might also rely on phenotype matching. In addition, cohabitation (or permanent presence of fathers elicited a lower survival of pups in nonsibling pairs than sibling pairs, but did not affect litter size, suggesting that kinship affects fitness when housing male and female ratlike hamsters together. Therefore, inbreeding might be adapted for rare and endangered animals [Current Zoology 55(1: 41–47, 2009].

Lin CONG

2009-02-01

36

Cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment alter the somatostatin status of delta cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? TGP52 cells display enhanced functionality in pseudoislet form. ? Somatostatin content was reduced, but secretion increased in high glucose conditions. ? Cellular interactions and environment alter the somatostatin status of TGP52 cells. -- Abstract: Introduction: Somatostatin, released from pancreatic delta cells, is a potent paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion. Islet cellular interactions and glucose homeostasis are essential to maintain normal patterns of insulin secretion. However, the importance of cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment in the regulation of somatostatin release remains unclear. Methods: This study employed the somatostatin-secreting TGP52 cell line maintained in DMEM:F12 (17.5 mM glucose) or DMEM (25 mM glucose) culture media. The effect of pseudoislet formation and culture medium on somatostatin content and release in response to a variety of stimuli was measured by somatostatin EIA. In addition, the effect of pseudoislet formation on cellular viability (MTT and LDH assays) and proliferation (BrdU ELISA) was determined. Results: TGP52 cells readily formed pseudoislets and showed enhanced functionality in three-dimensional form with increased E-cadherin expression irrespective of the culture environment used. However, culture in DMEM decreased cellular somatostatin content (P < 0.01) and increased somatostatin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli including arginine, calcium and PMA (P < 0.001) when compared with cells grown in DMEM:F12. Configuration of TGP52 cells as pseudoislets reduced the proliferative rate and increased cellular cytotoxicity irrespective of culture medium used. Conclusions: Somatostatin secretion is greatly facilitated by cell-to-cell interactions and E-cadherin expression. Cellular environment and extracellular glucose also significantly influence the function of delta cells.

37

A patient with altered mental status and possible seizure reveals an atypical aortic dissection upon workup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aortic dissection occurs when a tear occurs in the inner muscle wall lining of the aorta, allowing blood to split the muscle layers of the aortic wall apart. It is classically characterized by pain that starts in the upper chest, which then radiates to the upper back and is tearing or ripping in quality. Our objective is to present a case followed by a brief literature review of aortic dissection and uncommon but important features that may be demonstrated. In this report, we present the case of a 57-year-old woman who was transported to the emergency department with an acute episode of altered mental status, presenting as a possible stroke with possible seizures. The patient's only complaint was mild low back pain. Physical examination revealed disorientation to time with no other neurologic deficits or abnormal findings. Results from initial noncontrast head computed tomography, chest radiograph, and laboratory studies were all normal, except for an elevated D-dimer and serum creatinine. Chest computed tomography with contrast demonstrated a type A aortic dissection. The patient was taken emergently to the operating room where the aortic valve and a portion of the ascending aorta were replaced. The patient did well and was discharged from the hospital 5 days later without any permanent sequalae. Aortic dissection is both rare and life threatening and may present with atypical signs. It is important to note that patients may show no signs of typical features or may even display other symptoms based on other branches from the aorta that have been occluded. PMID:24360026

Lawal, Olufolahan J; Dhindsa, Harinder S; Loyd, Joshua W

2014-05-01

38

Cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment alter the somatostatin status of delta cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} TGP52 cells display enhanced functionality in pseudoislet form. {yields} Somatostatin content was reduced, but secretion increased in high glucose conditions. {yields} Cellular interactions and environment alter the somatostatin status of TGP52 cells. -- Abstract: Introduction: Somatostatin, released from pancreatic delta cells, is a potent paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion. Islet cellular interactions and glucose homeostasis are essential to maintain normal patterns of insulin secretion. However, the importance of cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment in the regulation of somatostatin release remains unclear. Methods: This study employed the somatostatin-secreting TGP52 cell line maintained in DMEM:F12 (17.5 mM glucose) or DMEM (25 mM glucose) culture media. The effect of pseudoislet formation and culture medium on somatostatin content and release in response to a variety of stimuli was measured by somatostatin EIA. In addition, the effect of pseudoislet formation on cellular viability (MTT and LDH assays) and proliferation (BrdU ELISA) was determined. Results: TGP52 cells readily formed pseudoislets and showed enhanced functionality in three-dimensional form with increased E-cadherin expression irrespective of the culture environment used. However, culture in DMEM decreased cellular somatostatin content (P < 0.01) and increased somatostatin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli including arginine, calcium and PMA (P < 0.001) when compared with cells grown in DMEM:F12. Configuration of TGP52 cells as pseudoislets reduced the proliferative rate and increased cellular cytotoxicity irrespective of culture medium used. Conclusions: Somatostatin secretion is greatly facilitated by cell-to-cell interactions and E-cadherin expression. Cellular environment and extracellular glucose also significantly influence the function of delta cells.

Kelly, Catriona, E-mail: catriona.kelly@qub.ac.uk [SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine (United Kingdom); Flatt, Peter R.; McClenaghan, Neville H. [SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine (United Kingdom)

2010-08-20

39

DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitor Zebularine Induces Human Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Death through Alteration of DNA Methylation Status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a cancer arising from the neoplastic transformation of cholangiocytes. During tumorigenesis, tumor suppressor and cancer-related genes are commonly silenced by aberrant DNA methylation in their promoter regions. Zebularine (1-(?-D-ribofuranosyl)-1,2-dihydropyrimidin-2-one) acts as an inhibitor of DNA methylation and exhibits chemical stability and minimal cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we explore the effect and possible mechanism of action of zebularine on CCA cells. We demonstrate that zebularine exerts an antitumor effect on CCA cells. Zebularine treatment decreased the concentrations of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) proteins, and DNMT1 knockdown led to apoptotic cell death in the CCA cell lines TFK-1 and HuCCT1. DNA methylation analysis demonstrated that zebularine induced DNA demethylation, and the GO Biological Process terms "hemophilic cell adhesion", "regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent" and "Wnt signaling pathway" were found to be significantly enriched in association with demethylated genes. Furthermore, we observed that zebularine treatment decreased ?-catenin protein levels in TFK-1 and HuCCT1 cells. These results suggest that zebularine alters DNA methylation status, and that some aspect of DNA demethylation by zebularine induces suppression of the Wnt signaling pathway, which leads to apoptotic cell death in CCA. We previously reported a novel mechanism of zebularine-induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma via a DNA methylation-independent pathway. Together, our present and previous studies indicate that zebularine could function as both a DNMT inhibitor and a non-DNMT inhibitor reagent, and that, while the optimal usage of zebularine may depend on cancer type, zebularine may be useful for chemotherapy against cancer. PMID:25799509

Nakamura, Kazuaki; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Htet Aung, Kyaw; Aizawa, Kazuko; Hori, Naoko; Yamauchi, Junji; Hata, Kenichiro; Tanoue, Akito

2015-01-01

40

76 FR 60447 - Florigene Pty., Ltd.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Altered Color Roses  

Science.gov (United States)

...Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which...altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that...unlikely to pose a plant pest risk and, therefore, should...

2011-09-29

41

A review of chemically-induced alterations in thyroid and vitamin A status from field studies of wildlife and fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews 22 published field studies that have found an association between exposure to environmental contaminants and alterations in thyroid gland structure, circulating thyroid hormones and vitamin A (retinoid) status in free-ranging populations of wildlife and fish. Vitamin A and thyroid hormones play critical roles during development, growth and function 'throughout life. Studies of captive wildlife and laboratory studies support a relationship between alterations in thyroid hormones and vitamin A status and exposure to dioxins, furans, and planar polychlorinated biphenyls, which bind to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Some studies have found adverse health effects in wildlife associated with exposure to polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and altered thyroid and retinoid status including: decreased reproductive success, immune system changes, dermatologic abnormalities and developmental deformities. A direct causal relationship between these effects and thyroid and retinoid changes has not been demonstrated. Field researchers studying the responses to these synthetic chemicals in wildlife and fish should include measurement of thyroid hormones and retinoids and histological examination of the thyroid gland in their study design as biomarkers of exposure to these chemicals in the environment. PMID:11085423

Rolland, R M

2000-10-01

42

The evolution of mate choice and mating biases.  

Science.gov (United States)

We review the current status of three well-established models (direct benefits, indirect benefits and sensory drive) and one newcomer (antagonistic chase-away) of the evolution of mate choice and the biases that are expressed during choice. We highlight the differences and commonalities in the underlying genetics and evolutionary dynamics of these models. We then argue that progress in understanding the evolution of mate choice is currently hampered by spurious distinctions among models and a misguided tendency to test the processes underlying each model as mutually exclusive alternatives. Finally, we suggest potentially fruitful directions for future theoretical and empirical research. PMID:12769467

Kokko, Hanna; Brooks, Robert; Jennions, Michael D; Morley, Josephine

2003-01-01

43

Serum phospholipid monounsaturated fatty acid composition and ?-9-desaturase activity are associated with early alteration of fasting glycemic status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because alterations in blood fatty acid (FA) composition by dietary lipids are associated with insulin resistance and related metabolic disorders, we hypothesized that serum phospholipid FA composition would reflect the early alteration of fasting glycemic status, even in people without metabolic syndrome (MetS). To examine this hypothesis, serum phospholipid FA, desaturase activities, fasting glycemic status, and cardiometabolic parameters were measured in study participants (n = 1022; 30-69 years; male, n = 527; female, n = 495; nondiabetics without disease) who were stratified into normal fasting glucose (NFG) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) groups. Total monounsaturated FA (MUFA), oleic acid (OA; 18:1n-9), dihomo-?-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3n-6), ?-9-desaturase activity (D9D; 18:1n-9/18:0), and DGLA/linoleic acid (20:3n-6/18:2n-6) in serum phospholipids were significantly higher in IFG subjects than NFG controls. Study subjects were subdivided into 4 groups, based on fasting glucose levels and MetS status. Palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) was highest in IFG-MetS and lowest in NFG-non-MetS subjects. Oleic acid and D9D were higher in IFG-MetS than in the other 3 groups. Dihomo-?-linolenic acid and DGLA/linoleic acid were higher in MetS than in non-MetS, regardless of fasting glucose levels. The high-sensitivity C-reactive proteins (hs-CRPs) and 8-epi-prostaglandin-F2? were higher in IFG than in NFG, regardless of MetS status. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins were higher in IFG-MetS than in the other 3 groups. Total MUFAs, OA, and D9D were positively correlated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, fasting glucose, triglyceride, hs-CRP, and 8-epi-prostaglandin-F2?. Palmitoleic acid was positively correlated with triglyceride and hs-CRP. Lastly, total MUFA, OA, palmitoleic acid, and D9D were associated with early alteration of fasting glycemic status, therefore suggesting that these may be useful markers for predicting the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:25236425

Cho, Jae Sun; Baek, Seung Han; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Jong Ho; Kim, Oh Yoen

2014-09-01

44

Alteration of Enzyme Aspartate Transaminase in Goat Milk related to Udder health status  

OpenAIRE

The present experiment was conducted to study variations in milk SCC and pH, along with activity of whey enzyme Aspartate transaminase (AST) in relation to different udder health status of goats. The average values of milk SCC, pH, and AST differed significantly (P<0.01) among various udder health status of goat. The mean difference for SCC of milk showed significant (P<0.01) differences for all the comparisons varying from 6.88 to 41.88 x 105 cells/ml. The average milk pH values ranged...

Bonde, S. W. And Ambade; M.V. Van; Khodke; R.B.

2009-01-01

45

Hyperspectral Imaging Techniques for Rapid Identification of Arabidopsis Mutants with Altered Leaf Pigment Status  

OpenAIRE

The spectral reflectance signature of living organisms provides information that closely reflects their physiological status. Because of its high potential for the estimation of geomorphic biological parameters, particularly of gross photosynthesis of plants, two-dimensional spectroscopy, via the use of hyperspectral instruments, has been widely used in remote sensing applications. In genetics research, in contrast, the reflectance phenotype has rarely been the subject of quantitative analysi...

Matsuda, Osamu; Tanaka, Ayako; Fujita, Takao; Iba, Koh

2012-01-01

46

Zinc supplementation does not alter sensitive biomarkers of copper status in healthy boys.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tolerable upper intake levels (UL) for zinc for children were based on limited data and there is concern that the UL may be set too low. The first effect of excessive zinc intake is a reduction in copper status. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effect of zinc supplementation on copper status in children. Healthy, 6- to 8-y-old boys from Ontario, Canada were assigned to take a placebo (n = 10) or 5 mg (n = 10), 10 mg (n = 9), or 15 mg (n = 8) of zinc supplement daily for 4 mo in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Biochemical measures were evaluated at baseline and after 2 and 4 mo of supplementation. Food records were completed near the baseline and 4-mo visits. Age and anthropometric measurements did not differ (P > 0.05) between treatment groups at baseline. Mean zinc intakes from food alone (10.9-14.8 mg zinc/d) approached or exceeded the UL of 12 mg/d. Compared with the placebo group, the zinc groups had a greater change in the urine zinc:creatinine ratio at 4 mo (P = 0.02). Traditional (plasma copper and ceruloplasmin activity) and more sensitive biomarkers of copper status, including erythrocyte SOD1 activity and the erythrocyte CCS:SOD1 protein ratio, were unchanged in zinc-supplemented boys, demonstrating that copper status was not depressed. Serum lipid measures and hemoglobin concentrations were also unaffected and gastrointestinal symptoms were not reported. These data provide evidence in support of the need for reexamining the current UL for zinc for children. PMID:23303874

Bertinato, Jesse; Simpson, Janis Randall; Sherrard, Lindsey; Taylor, Jessica; Plouffe, Louise J; Van Dyke, Deborah; Geleynse, Melissa; Dam, Yian Yian; Murphy, Paddy; Knee, Christopher; Vresk, Laura; Holland, Nicole; Quach, Hanson; Mack, David R; Cooper, Marcia; L'abbé, Mary R; Hayward, Stephen

2013-03-01

47

Increased coupling and altered glutamate transport currents in astrocytes following kainic-acid-induced status epilepticus  

OpenAIRE

Profound astrogliosis coincident with neuronal cell loss is universally described in human and animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In the kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (SE) model of TLE, astrocytes in the hippocampus become reactive soon after SE and before the onset of spontaneous seizures. To determine if astrocytes in the hippocampus exhibit changes in function soon after SE, we recorded from SR101-labeled astrocytes using the whole-cell patch technique in hippocampal b...

Takahashi, D. K.; Vargas, J. R.; Wilcox, K. S.

2010-01-01

48

Casanovas are liars: behavioral syndromes, sperm competition risk, and the evolution of deceptive male mating behavior in live-bearing fishes [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1ko  

OpenAIRE

Male reproductive biology can by characterized through competition over mates as well as mate choice. Multiple mating and male mate choice copying, especially in internally fertilizing species, set the stage for increased sperm competition, i.e., sperm of two or more males can compete for fertilization of the female’s ova. In the internally fertilizing fish Poecilia mexicana, males respond to the presence of rivals with reduced expression of mating preferences (audience effect), thereby low...

David Bierbach; Makowicz, Amber M.; Ingo Schlupp; Holger Geupel; Bruno Streit; Martin Plath

2013-01-01

49

Casanovas are liars: behavioral syndromes, sperm competition risk, and the evolution of deceptive male mating behavior in live-bearing fishes [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1zi  

OpenAIRE

Male reproductive biology can by characterized through competition over mates as well as mate choice. Multiple mating and male mate choice copying, especially in internally fertilizing species, set the stage for increased sperm competition, i.e., sperm of two or more males can compete for fertilization of the female’s ova. In the internally fertilizing fish Poecilia mexicana, males respond to the presence of rivals with reduced expression of mating preferences (audience effect), thereby low...

David Bierbach; Makowicz, Amber M.; Ingo Schlupp; Holger Geupel; Bruno Streit; Martin Plath

2013-01-01

50

Electron beam radiation induced oxidative stress on alteration of enzymatic antioxidant status of Swiss albino mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation causes damage to living tissues through a series of molecular events, such as photoelectric, Compton and Auger effects, depending on the radiation energy. Because human tissues contain 80% water, the major radiation damage is due to the aqueous free radicals, generated by the action of radiation on water. It was found to be 10 Gy was the lethal dose for mice. Different dosages (4 Gy, 6 Gy and 8 Gy) of electron beam radiation were used to study the level of lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidant status of irradiated mice. The results showed higher the radiation dosage, increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant level. (author)

51

Alterations in cellular immune status in patients with solid tumors undergoing radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cellular immunity in terms of peripheral total lymphocyte count, T-cell and B-cell subsets, was evaluated in 53 patients having malignant tumors of various organs. Their immune status was depressed as compared to 26 control subjects. The mean T-cell count, initially 29.% of total lymphocytes, reached 22.0% at the completion of radiotherapy. B-lymphocytes were not as markedly decreased during treatment. No difference in response was found according to the site of cancer and irradiation. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

52

Linking the toxic metals to benthic community alteration: a case study of ecological status in the Bohai Bay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological effects and quality status of sediments in the Bohai Bay (North China) were studied by incorporating the traditional chemical analysis and benthic community structure. In the present study, paired sediments from 20 stations were sampled for chemical analysis and benthic assemblages. The overall results demonstrated that sediment impairment mainly appeared in the southern part of the Bay. The results obtained from the principal component analysis regarding benthic data and potential explanatory factors indicated that As, Hg and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) were responsible for the distribution of macrofaunal assemblages. Canonical correspondence analysis further showed As was significantly correlated to the benthic alteration, which provided evidence of ecological relevance to chemical substances of concern. Overall, this study revealed the metal contamination in the Bohai Bay was not as severe as previously regarded. Yet, further investigation is still needed considering the complexity of sediment matrices. PMID:24768175

Wu, Bin; Song, Jinming; Li, Xuegang

2014-06-15

53

Zinc Supplementation Alters Plasma Aluminum and Selenium Status of Patients Undergoing Dialysis: A Pilot Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available End stage renal disease patients undergoing long-term dialysis are at risk for abnormal concentrations of certain essential and non-essential trace metals and high oxidative stress. We evaluated the effects of zinc (Zn supplementation on plasma aluminum (Al and selenium (Se concentrations and oxidative stress in chronic dialysis patients. Zn-deficient patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis were divided into two groups according to plasma Al concentrations (HA group, Al > 50 ?g/L; and MA group, Al > 30 to ? 50 ?g/L. All patients received daily oral Zn supplements for two months. Age- and gender-matched healthy individuals did not receive Zn supplement. Clinical variables were assessed before, at one month, and after the supplementation period. Compared with healthy subjects, patients had significantly lower baseline plasma Se concentrations and higher oxidative stress status. After two-month Zn treatment, these patients had higher plasma Zn and Se concentrations, reduced plasma Al concentrations and oxidative stress. Furthermore, increased plasma Zn concentrations were related to the concentrations of Al, Se, oxidative product malondialdehyde (MDA, and antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase activities. In conclusion, Zn supplementation ameliorates abnormally high plasma Al concentrations and oxidative stress and improves Se status in long-term dialysis patients.

Chia-Liang Wang

2013-04-01

54

Zinc supplementation alters plasma aluminum and selenium status of patients undergoing dialysis: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

End stage renal disease patients undergoing long-term dialysis are at risk for abnormal concentrations of certain essential and non-essential trace metals and high oxidative stress. We evaluated the effects of zinc (Zn) supplementation on plasma aluminum (Al) and selenium (Se) concentrations and oxidative stress in chronic dialysis patients. Zn-deficient patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis were divided into two groups according to plasma Al concentrations (HA group, Al > 50 g/L; and MA group, Al > 30 to ? 50 g/L). All patients received daily oral Zn supplements for two months. Age- and gender-matched healthy individuals did not receive Zn supplement. Clinical variables were assessed before, at one month, and after the supplementation period. Compared with healthy subjects, patients had significantly lower baseline plasma Se concentrations and higher oxidative stress status. After two-month Zn treatment, these patients had higher plasma Zn and Se concentrations, reduced plasma Al concentrations and oxidative stress. Furthermore, increased plasma Zn concentrations were related to the concentrations of Al, Se, oxidative product malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase activities. In conclusion, Zn supplementation ameliorates abnormally high plasma Al concentrations and oxidative stress and improves Se status in long-term dialysis patients. PMID:23609777

Guo, Chih-Hung; Chen, Pei-Chung; Hsu, Guoo-Shyng W; Wang, Chia-Liang

2013-04-01

55

Ethanol Intake during Lactation Alters Milk Nutrient Composition and Growth and Mineral Status of Rat Pups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lactating Wistar rats were fed a liquid diet containing either ethanol [ethanol-fed group (EFG] or an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate [pair-fed group (PFG] from day 1 postpartum up to day 14 of lactation, to investigate micro/macronutrient milk composition and the mineral status of pups. EFG presented a reduction of daily milk production and milk composition was significantly higher in protein and lower in carbohydrate, while the lipid content was similar to that of PFG. When compared to PFG, the milk of EFG had a decreased proportion of C22:6 n-3 fatty acid and an increase in medium-chain fatty acids and of several minerals. Pups of EFG showed reduced growth and a lower concentration of Cu and Sr in plasma and lower concentrations of Ca, P and Cl, and higher concentrations of Cd in the brain. We conclude that maternal EtOH intake greatly impairs lactational performance and modifies the mineral status of pups.

CÍNTIA R.P AZARA

2008-01-01

56

Ethanol Intake during Lactation Alters Milk Nutrient Composition and Growth and Mineral Status of Rat Pups  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Lactating Wistar rats were fed a liquid diet containing either ethanol [ethanol-fed group (EFG)] or an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate [pair-fed group (PFG)] from day 1 postpartum up to day 14 of lactation, to investigate micro/macronutrient milk composition and the mineral status of pups. EFG pre [...] sented a reduction of daily milk production and milk composition was significantly higher in protein and lower in carbohydrate, while the lipid content was similar to that of PFG. When compared to PFG, the milk of EFG had a decreased proportion of C22:6 n-3 fatty acid and an increase in medium-chain fatty acids and of several minerals. Pups of EFG showed reduced growth and a lower concentration of Cu and Sr in plasma and lower concentrations of Ca, P and Cl, and higher concentrations of Cd in the brain. We conclude that maternal EtOH intake greatly impairs lactational performance and modifies the mineral status of pups.

CÍNTIA R.P, AZARA; INGRID C, MAIA; CAROLINA N, RANGEL; MÁRIO A.C, SILVA-NETO; RENATA F.B, SERPA; EDGAR F.O, DE JESUS; MARIA G, TAVARES  DO CARMO; ELIANE, FIALHO.

57

Altered energy status of primary cerebellar granule neuronal cultures from rats exposed to lead in the pre- and neonatal period.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the effect of pre- and neonatal exposure of rats to lead (0.1% lead acetate in drinking water, resulting in rat offspring whole blood lead concentration (Pb-B) 4?g/dL) on the energy status of neuronal mitochondria by measuring changes in ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, TAN concentration, adenylate energy charge value (AEC) and mitochondrial membrane potential in primary cerebellar granule neurons (CGC) in dissociated cultures. Fluorescence studies were performed to imaging and evaluate mitochondria mass, mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in intact CGC was measured spectrophotometrically. Our data shows that pre- and neonatal exposure of rats to Pb, even below the threshold of whole blood Pb value considered safe for people, affects the energy status of cultured primary cerebellar granule neurons through a decrease in ATP and TAN concentrations and AEC value, inhibition of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, and increase in intracellular and mitochondrial ROS concentration. These observations suggest that even these low levels of Pb are likely to induce important alterations in neuronal function that could play a role in neurodegeneration. PMID:21108985

Baranowska-Bosiacka, I; Gutowska, I; Marchetti, C; Rutkowska, M; Marchlewicz, M; Kolasa, A; Prokopowicz, A; Wiernicki, I; Piotrowska, K; Ba?kiewicz, M; Safranow, K; Wiszniewska, B; Chlubek, D

2011-02-01

58

Male mating biology  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes...

Howell Paul I; Gj, Knols Bart

2009-01-01

59

The influence of nonrandom mating on population growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

When nonrandom mating alters offspring numbers or the distribution of offspring phenotypes, it has the potential to impact the population growth rate. Similarly, sex-specific demographic parameters that influence the availability of mating partners can leave a signature on the population growth rate. We develop a general framework to explore how mating patterns and sex differences influence the population growth rate. We do this by constructing a two-sex integral projection model to explore ways in which altering the mating behavior from random to nonrandom mating (assortative, disassortative, or selection for size) and altering demographic parameters in one or both sexes (growth, survival, and parental contribution to offspring phenotype) affect the population growth rate. We demonstrate our framework using data from a population of Columbian ground squirrels. Our results suggest that the population growth rate is substantially affected when nonrandom mating is linked to sex differences in demographic parameters or parental contributions to offspring phenotype, but interestingly, the effect of the mating pattern alone is rather small. Our results also suggest that the population growth rate of Columbian ground squirrels would increase with the degree of disassortative mating and with the degree of the mating advantage of large individuals. PMID:23778224

Schindler, Susanne; Neuhaus, Peter; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Coulson, Tim

2013-07-01

60

Increased coupling and altered glutamate transport currents in astrocytes following kainic-acid-induced status epilepticus.  

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Profound astrogliosis coincident with neuronal cell loss is universally described in human and animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In the kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (SE) model of TLE, astrocytes in the hippocampus become reactive soon after SE and before the onset of spontaneous seizures. To determine if astrocytes in the hippocampus exhibit changes in function soon after SE, we recorded from SR101-labeled astrocytes using the whole-cell patch technique in hippocampal brain slices prepared from control and kainic-acid-treated rats. Glutamate transporter-dependent currents were found to have significantly faster decay time kinetics and in addition, dye coupling between astrocytes was substantially increased. Consistent with an increase in dye coupling in reactive astrocytes, immunoblot experiments demonstrated a significant increase in both glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and connexin 43, a major gap junction protein expressed by astrocytes. In contrast to what has been observed in resected tissue from patients with refractory epilepsy, changes in potassium currents were not observed shortly after KA-induced SE. While many changes in neuronal function have been identified during the initial period of low seizure probability in this model of TLE, the present study contributes to the growing body of literature suggesting a role for astrocytes in the process of epileptogenesis. PMID:20691786

Takahashi, D K; Vargas, J R; Wilcox, K S

2010-12-01

61

Short-term feed deprivation alters immune status of surface mucosa in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).  

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Short-term feed deprivation (or fasting) is a common occurrence in aquacultured fish species whether due to season, production strategies, or disease. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fasting impacts susceptibility to several bacterial pathogens including Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease. As columnaris gains entry through the gills and skin of fish, we examined here changes in transcriptional regulation induced in these surface mucosal tissues due to short-term (7 day) fasting. RNA-seq expression analysis revealed a total of 1,545 genes perturbed by fasting. Fasting significantly altered expression of critical innate immune factors in a manner consistent with lower immune fitness as well as dysregulating key genes involved in energy metabolism and cell cycling/proliferation. Downregulation of innate immune actors such as iNOS2b, Lysozyme C, and peptidoglycan recognition protein 6 is predicted to impact the delicate recognition/tolerance balance for commensal and pathogenic bacteria on the skin and gill. The highlighted expression profiles reveal potential mechanistic similarities between gut and surface mucosa and underscore the complex interrelationships between nutrition, mucosal integrity, and immunity in teleost fish. PMID:24023952

Liu, Lisa; Li, Chao; Su, Baofeng; Beck, Benjamin H; Peatman, Eric

2013-01-01

62

Short-Term Feed Deprivation Alters Immune Status of Surface Mucosa in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)  

Science.gov (United States)

Short-term feed deprivation (or fasting) is a common occurrence in aquacultured fish species whether due to season, production strategies, or disease. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fasting impacts susceptibility to several bacterial pathogens including Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease. As columnaris gains entry through the gills and skin of fish, we examined here changes in transcriptional regulation induced in these surface mucosal tissues due to short-term (7 day) fasting. RNA-seq expression analysis revealed a total of 1,545 genes perturbed by fasting. Fasting significantly altered expression of critical innate immune factors in a manner consistent with lower immune fitness as well as dysregulating key genes involved in energy metabolism and cell cycling/proliferation. Downregulation of innate immune actors such as iNOS2b, Lysozyme C, and peptidoglycan recognition protein 6 is predicted to impact the delicate recognition/tolerance balance for commensal and pathogenic bacteria on the skin and gill. The highlighted expression profiles reveal potential mechanistic similarities between gut and surface mucosa and underscore the complex interrelationships between nutrition, mucosal integrity, and immunity in teleost fish. PMID:24023952

Su, Baofeng; Beck, Benjamin H.; Peatman, Eric

2013-01-01

63

Status epilepticus results in region-specific alterations in seizure susceptibility along the hippocampal longitudinal axis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common epilepsy syndrome in adults. In particular, the hippocampus is highly susceptible to abnormal synchronization. Recent advances in the surgical treatment of patients with refractory TLE have shown that multiple hippocampal transections can effectively control seizures. It has been suggested that in TLE the synchrony in the longitudinal connections is required for seizure generation; however the physiological background for the increase in hippocampal synchronization along the longitudinal axis is not fully understood. The hippocampus varies in seizure susceptibility along its longitudinal axis with the ventral hippocampus (VH) region being more seizure-prone and susceptible to neuronal damage than the dorsal hippocampus (DH). In the present study we studied seizure susceptibility along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). In control conditions the VH generates epileptiform activity (EA) more frequently than the DH when exposed to a low Mg(2+)/1Ca(2+)/5K(+) solution. Following SE the probability of inducing epileptiform activity (EA) is similar in the VH and DH slices. This SE-induced change is due to an increase in the proportion of DH slices responding to the low Mg(2+)/1Ca(2+)/5K(+) solution with EA. Moreover, both the VH and DH show similar responses to a low Mg(2+)/1Ca(2+)/5K(+) solution. These findings indicate that the hippocampus undergoes significant functional changes following SE, which may provide the necessary increase of synchrony along the longitudinal axis to generate seizures in TLE. PMID:25616469

Isaeva, Elena; Romanov, Arthur; Holmes, Gregory L; Isaev, Dmytro

2015-02-01

64

Diet, age, and prior injury status differentially alter behavioral outcomes following concussion in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion affects a large portion of the population and although many of these individuals recover completely, a small subset of people experience lingering symptomology and poor outcomes. Little is known about the factors that affect individual susceptibility or resilience to poor outcomes after mTBI and there are currently no biomarkers to delineate mTBI diagnosis or prognosis. Based upon the growing literature associated with caloric intake and altered neurological aging and the ambiguous link between repetitive mTBI and progressive neurodegeneration, the current study was designed to examine the effect of a high fat diet (HFD), developmental age, and repetitive mTBI on behavioral outcomes following a mTBI. In addition, telomere length was examined before and after experimental mTBI. Sprague Dawley rats were maintained on a HFD or standard rat chow throughout life (including the prenatal period) and then experienced an mTBI/concussion at P30, P30 and P60, or only at P60. Behavioral outcomes were examined using a test battery that was administered between P61-P80 and included; beam-walking, open field, elevated plus maze, novel context mismatch, Morris water task, and forced swim task. Animals with a P30 mTBI often demonstrated lingering symptomology that was still present during testing at P80. Injuries at P30 and P60 rarely produced cumulative effects, and in some tests (i.e., beam walking), the first injury may have protected the brain from the second injury. Exposure to the high fat diet exacerbated many of the behavioral deficits associated with concussion. Finally, telomere length was shortened following mTBI and was influenced by the animal's dietary intake. Diet, age at the time of injury, and the number of prior concussion incidents differentially contribute to behavioral deficits and may help explain individual variations in susceptibility and resilience to poor outcomes following an mTBI. PMID:25270295

Mychasiuk, Richelle; Hehar, Harleen; van Waes, Linda; Esser, Michael J

2015-01-01

65

Short and long-term exposure to diclofenac alter oxidative stress status in common carp Cyprinus carpio.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diclofenac (DCF) has been detected in significant amounts in municipal treated wastewater effluent. Diverse studies report that trace concentrations of DCF may induce toxic effects on different aquatic organisms as well as developmental, reproductive and renal damage. This study aimed to determine whether short and long-term exposure to DCF alter the oxidative stress (OS) status in blood, muscle, gills, brain and liver of common carp Cyprinus carpio. The median lethal concentration of DCF at 96 h (96-h LC50) and subsequently the lowest observed adverse effect level were determined. Carp were exposed (short and long-term) to the latter value for different exposure times (4 and 24 days) and the following biomarkers were evaluated in gill, brain, liver and blood: hydroperoxides content (HPC), lipid peroxidation (LPX), protein carbonyl content (PCC) and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Also, the DCF was determined by LC-MS/MS. Significant increases in HPC, LPX and PCC were observed respect to control (P < 0.05) particularly in blood, muscle, gill, brain and liver. SOD, CAT and GPx activity also increased in these organs, with respect to controls (P < 0.05). DCF concentrations decreased and increased in water system and carp, respectively. Cyprinus carpio exposed to DCF was affected in OS status during the initial days of the study (at 4 days), exhibiting an increased response at 24 days in blood and liver. In contrast, a decrease was observed in muscle, gills and brain at 24 days with respect to 4 days. In conclusion, DCF induces OS on blood, muscle, gills, brain and liver in the carp C. carpio in short and long-term exposure. The biomarkers employed in this study are useful in the assessment of the environmental impact of this agent on aquatic species. PMID:25512029

Saucedo-Vence, Karinne; Dublán-García, Octavio; López-Martínez, Leticia Xochitl; Morachis-Valdes, Gabriela; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Islas-Flores, Hariz; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

2015-04-01

66

Mate choice for a male carotenoid-based ornament is linked to female dietary carotenoid intake and accumulation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The coevolution of male traits and female mate preferences has led to the elaboration and diversification of sexually selected traits; however the mechanisms that mediate trait-preference coevolution are largely unknown. Carotenoid acquisition and accumulation are key determinants of the expression of male sexually selected carotenoid-based coloration and a primary mechanism maintaining the honest information content of these signals. Carotenoids also influence female health and reproduction in ways that may alter the costs and benefits of mate choice behaviours and thus provide a potential biochemical link between the expression of male traits and female preferences. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the dietary carotenoid levels of captive female house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus and assessed their mate choice behavior in response to color-manipulated male finches. Results Females preferred to associate with red males, but carotenoid supplementation did not influence the direction or strength of this preference. Females receiving a low-carotenoid diet were less responsive to males in general, and discrimination among the colorful males was positively linked to female plasma carotenoid levels at the beginning of the study when the diet of all birds was carotenoid-limited. Conclusions Although female preference for red males was not influenced by carotenoid intake, changes in mating responsiveness and discrimination linked to female carotenoid status may alter how this preference is translated into choice. The reddest males, with the most carotenoid rich plumage, tend to pair early in the breeding season. If carotenoid-related variations in female choice behaviour shift the timing of pairing, then they have the potential to promote assortative mating by carotenoid status and drive the evolution of carotenoid-based male plumage coloration.

Toomey Matthew B

2012-01-01

67

ERYTHROCYTE BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS AND ALTERATIONS OF THE HORMONAL STATUS AMONG THE REPRODUCTIVE AGE WOMEN WITH BREAST TUMORS  

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Full Text Available The significance of ABO blood system groups antigens in development of some malignant tumors is already established. The alteration of  hormonal homeostasis must also be taken into account. Hence the aim  of   the investigation was to study ABO  and Rh blood system antigens and hormonal status among  reproductive age  women with benign and malignant breast   tumors. Methods: The determination of  hormones was made by the enzymatic analysis method (ELAIZA, provided by proper ELAIZA kits. For the study of ABO and Rh-Hr system antigens, internationally recognized immunoserology methods were used.Results: High index of  the breast gland tumors  were  revealed  in  patients with A(II phenotypic group,  according to the  ABO  system.  The frequency distribution of O(I phenotypic group was low  among women with breast tumors. Among  D, C, E, c and e antigens of  the Rh system, the frequency of D and E antigens were increased in benign and malignant breast tumors patients. The study of hormonal balance revealed thyroid gland hypofunction and increased level of estradiol on the background of  increased testosterone and decreased progesterone levels. Such hormonal imbalance and  excess  production of estradiol creates conditions for malignant tumor formation in reproductive age women.Conclusion: The highest frequency of breast cancer in reproductive age was revealed in A(II group patients. The wide spectrum of hormonal disorders were revealed in breast tumor patients of the reproductive age, which was especially clear in cases of malignant tumor.

Irina Nakashidze

2014-04-01

68

Wheat gluten-based diet retarded ethanol metabolism by altering alcohol dehydrogenase and not carnitine status in adult rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a lysine-deficient diet on carnitine status in adult rats and subsequently on ethanol metabolism. Adult male rats were fed either the AIN-76 diet (NS), the AIN-76 diet with wheat gluten (WG) replacing casein, the WG diet plus 0.8% L-lysine (LS), or the LS diet plus 0.5% L-carnitine (CS) for 30 days. On the 31st day the rats were given an oral dose of ethanol and blood-ethanol concentrations (BEC) were monitored for the next 8 hours. One week later the rats were given a second dose of ethanol and urine was collected until killed, 3 hours post-ethanol administration (PEA). Besides growth retardation and hypoproteinemia, BEC were significantly elevated in the WG group compared to the other group at hours 3-8 PEA. There were no significant differences in BEC between the LS and CS groups; however, their BEC were significantly higher than that of the NS group. The BEC were inversely related to liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities which were significantly lower in WG, LS and CS groups than in the NS group. Plasma, liver and urine carnitine values were significantly higher in the CS group than in the NS, WG and LS groups, wherein the values were similar. It is concluded that the WG diet reduced ADH activity and attenuated ethanol metabolism without significantly altering blood, liver and urinary carnitines in the adult rat. PMID:8463515

Sachan, D S; Mynatt, R L

1993-04-01

69

Mycophenolate mofetil alters the antioxidant status in duodenum of rats: Implication for silymarin usage in mycophenolate mofetil induced gastrointestinal disorders  

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Full Text Available Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF as an immunosuppressive agent is used to prevent graftrejection. One of the adverse effects of long time administration of MMF is the gastrointestinaldisorder. This study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective effect of silymarin (SMN onMMF-induced gastrointestinal (GI disorders. Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats wereassigned into three groups including the control and test groups. The control animals receivedsaline(5 mL kg-1andthe test animals were treated with MMF (40 mg kg-1, orally and saline,MMF and silymarin (SMN, 50 mg kg-1, orally for 14 consecutive days, respectively. To evaluatethe GI disorders due to the MMF-induced oxidative stress and subsequently the protective effectof SMN, malondialdehyde (MDA,total thiol molecules(TTM levels and total anti-oxidantcapacity (TAC were determined. Additionally, histopathological examinations in the duodenalregion of small intestine were performed. The MMF-increased level of MDA was reduced bySMN administration, while the MMF-reduced level of TTM increased significantly (p< 0.05 bySMN administration. Histopathological examinations showed the goblet cell reduction andcongestion in the MMF-received animals; while SMN was able to improve the MMF-inducedgoblet cell reduction and congestion. Our data suggest that the MMF-induced GI disorders arecharacterized by changes in antioxidant status, which presented by the elevation of MDA leveland reduction of TTM concentration. Moreover, the improved biochemical alterations andhistopathologic damages by SMN indicating its gastroprotective and antioxidant effects

Sanaz Sheikhzadeh

2013-06-01

70

Low-quality females prefer low-quality males when choosing a mate  

OpenAIRE

Mate choice studies routinely assume female preferences for indicators of high quality in males but rarely consider developmental causes of within-population variation in mating preferences. By contrast, recent mate choice models assume that costs and benefits of searching or competing for high-quality males depend on females' phenotypic quality. A prediction following from these models is that manipulation of female quality should alter her choosiness or even the direction of her mating pref...

Holveck, Marie-jeanne; Riebel, Katharina

2009-01-01

71

Patients with Altered Mental Status Due to Suicide Attempts: Follow-up Clinics and the Role of Emergency Departments  

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Full Text Available ObjectivesPatients who have attempted suicide require a multidisciplinary approach. Currently, a large proportion of treatment and follow-up is performed in emergency departments (EDs and intensive care units (ICUs. In our study, we aimed to investigate which clinics perform treatment, follow-up, and psychiatric evaluation of these patients, and differences in follow-up between patients with and without altered mental status (AMS in our hospital.MethodsPatients older than 16 years admitted to our ED between December 10, 2008 and February 15, 2011 for suicide attempts were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with Glasgow Coma scores ?14 were determined to have AMS.ResultsA total of 304 patients were included in the study, 84 of which had AMS. Of the patients, 67.1% (n=204 were female and the mean age was 25.8±9.1 years. Of the patients with AMS, 92.9% (n=78 were admitted to the hospital, and 48.8% (n=41 were admitted to the observation room of the ED. The percentage of patients without AMS who were admitted was 69.5% (n=153, and 43.2% (n=95 were admitted to the ED. Of the patients, 13.1% (n=11 with AMS and 16.8% (n=37 without AMS had previously attempted suicide. The rate of suicide attempts with more than one drug was similar and quite high in both groups.ConclusionsIn cases of suicide attempts associated with trauma, EDs, ICUs, and surgical clinics play key roles in the treatment of these patients. Therefore, improved awareness of optimal treatment for AMS patients at these clinics will enhance the quality of care.

Ayhan AKÖZ

2013-01-01

72

Patients with Altered Mental Status Due to Suicide: The Clinics of Follow-up and the Role of Emergency Departments.  

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Full Text Available Objectives The patients with suicide attempt require a multidisciplinary approach. Today, a large proportion of treatment and follow-up is made in the emergency departments (EDs and intensive care units (ICUs. In our study, we aimed to investigate which clinics make treatment and follow-up and psychiatric evaluation of these patients and differences in follow-up between patients with and without altered mental status (AMS in our hospital. Methods The patients admitted to our ED between December 10, 2008 and February 15, 2011 with suicidal attempt and higher than 16 years old were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with Glasgow coma score ? 14 were considered having AMS. Results Along with 84 patients with AMS, a total of 304 patients were studied. Of the patients, 67.1% (n=204 were female and mean age was 25.8±9.1. Of the patients with AMS, 92.9% (n=78 were admitted and 48.8% (n=41 were admitted to the observation room of ED. The percentage of the patients without AMS who were admitted was 69.5% (n=153 and 43.2% (n=95 were admitted to the ED. The patients with and without AMS had a prior suicide attempt with 13.1% (n=11 and 16.8% (n=37, respectively. The rate of suicide attempt with more than one drug was almost similar and quite high in both groups. Conclusion EDs, ICUs, and surgical clinics when suicide attempt is associated with a trauma play a key role in the treatment of these patients. Therefore, we think that improvement of these clinics on this topic will enhance the quality of care.

Murat Sar?temur

2013-03-01

73

Paced mating behavior persists in rats with vaginocervical Lidocaine  

OpenAIRE

The present study tested whether the topical application of a local anesthetic (Lidocaine) to the vaginocervical region altered the pattern of paced mating behavior displayed by gonadectomized, hormone-primed female rats. Both rats receiving Lidocaine and rats receiving vehicle exhibited the expected lengthening of contact-return latency as the intensity of the mating stimuli increased (mount < intromission < ejaculation). Although rats given Lidocaine versus vehicle received a greater number...

Meerts, Sarah H.; Boisvert, Eilish M.; Spjut, Kersti A.; Clark, Ann S.

2010-01-01

74

Field crickets change mating preferences using remembered social information  

OpenAIRE

Plasticity in female mate choice can fundamentally alter selection on male ornaments, but surprisingly few studies have examined the role of social learning in shaping female mating decisions in invertebrates. We used the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus to show that females retain information about the attractiveness of available males based on previous social experience, compare that information with incoming signals and then dramatically reverse their preferences to produce final, pred...

Bailey, Nathan W.; Zuk, Marlene

2009-01-01

75

Proteomics Reveals Novel Drosophila Seminal Fluid Proteins Transferred at Mating  

OpenAIRE

Across diverse taxa, seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) transferred at mating affect the reproductive success of both sexes. Such reproductive proteins often evolve under positive selection between species; because of this rapid divergence, Sfps are hypothesized to play a role in speciation by contributing to reproductive isolation between populations. In Drosophila, individual Sfps have been characterized and are known to alter male sperm competitive ability and female post-mating behavior, but a...

Findlay, Geoffrey D.; Yi, Xianhua; Maccoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

2008-01-01

76

Selenium toxicity but not deficient or super-nutritional selenium status vastly alters the transcriptome in rodents  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Protein and mRNA levels for several selenoproteins, such as glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx1), are down-regulated dramatically by selenium (Se) deficiency. These levels in rats increase sigmoidally with increasing dietary Se and reach defined plateaus at the Se requirement, making them sensitive biomarkers for Se deficiency. These levels, however, do not further increase with super-nutritional or toxic Se status, making them ineffective for detection of high Se status. Bioma...

Sunde Roger A; Raines Anna M

2011-01-01

77

Stress exposure prior to fear acquisition interacts with estradiol status to alter recall of fear extinction in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Classical fear acquisition and extinction are important models for the etiology and treatment of anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women are at a higher risk for PTSD than men. Levels of circulating 17-? estradiol (E2) in women have been linked to deficits in fear extinction and extinction recall. In PTSD, fear learning coincides with acute traumatic stress. However, little is known about the possible interaction between stress exposure and hormone status on fear acquisition and extinction learning. In a 2-day, 2×3 between-subjects design with healthy participants, we examined the effects of stress (psychosocial stressor vs. control, placed 45 min prior to conditioning) and natural E2-status on differential fear conditioning, covering fear acquisition, immediate extinction (Day 1), and 24h-delayed extinction recall (Day 2). To operationalize E2-status, we compared women in the early follicular phase (EF) of their menstrual cycle (low E2, low progesterone plasma levels), women in the midcycle phase (MC, high E2, low progesterone), and men. Conditioning was indicated by differential skin conductance responses. We found an interaction between stress exposure and natural E2-status in women only: In MC-women, extinction recall on Day 2 (24h after initial extinction training) was better when fear acquisition had been preceded by stress. In EF-women, the inverse was true. We show that extinction recall of conditioned fear acquired after stress depends on estrogen status in women. Therefore, extinction-based exposure therapy in free-cycling female anxiety patients should take cycle status into account. PMID:25080403

Antov, Martin I; Stockhorst, Ursula

2014-11-01

78

Casanovas are liars: behavioral syndromes, sperm competition risk, and the evolution of deceptive male mating behavior in live-bearing fishes [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1ko  

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Full Text Available Male reproductive biology can by characterized through competition over mates as well as mate choice. Multiple mating and male mate choice copying, especially in internally fertilizing species, set the stage for increased sperm competition, i.e., sperm of two or more males can compete for fertilization of the female’s ova. In the internally fertilizing fish Poecilia mexicana, males respond to the presence of rivals with reduced expression of mating preferences (audience effect, thereby lowering the risk of by-standing rivals copying their mate choice. Also, males interact initially more with a non-preferred female when observed by a rival, which has been interpreted in previous studies as a strategy to mislead rivals, again reducing sperm competition risk (SCR. Nevertheless, species might differ consistently in their expression of aggressive and reproductive behaviors, possibly due to varying levels of SCR. In the current study, we present a unique data set comprising ten poeciliid species (in two cases including multiple populations and ask whether species can be characterized through consistent differences in the expression of aggression, sexual activity and changes in mate choice under increased SCR. We found consistent species-specific differences in aggressive behavior, sexual activity as well as in the level of misleading behavior, while decreased preference expression under increased SCR was a general feature of all but one species examined. Furthermore, mean sexual activity correlated positively with the occurrence of potentially misleading behavior. An alternative explanation for audience effects would be that males attempt to avoid aggressive encounters, which would predict stronger audience effects in more aggressive species. We demonstrate a positive correlation between mean aggressiveness and sexual activity (suggesting a hormonal link as a mechanistic explanation, but did not detect a correlation between aggressiveness and audience effects. Suites of correlated behavioral tendencies are termed behavioral syndromes, and our present study provides correlational evidence for the evolutionary significance of SCR in shaping a behavioral syndrome at the species level across poeciliid taxa.

David Bierbach

2013-08-01

79

Casanovas are liars: behavioral syndromes, sperm competition risk, and the evolution of deceptive male mating behavior in live-bearing fishes [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1zi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Male reproductive biology can by characterized through competition over mates as well as mate choice. Multiple mating and male mate choice copying, especially in internally fertilizing species, set the stage for increased sperm competition, i.e., sperm of two or more males can compete for fertilization of the female’s ova. In the internally fertilizing fish Poecilia mexicana, males respond to the presence of rivals with reduced expression of mating preferences (audience effect, thereby lowering the risk of by-standing rivals copying their mate choice. Also, males interact initially more with a non-preferred female when observed by a rival, which has been interpreted in previous studies as a strategy to mislead rivals, again reducing sperm competition risk (SCR. Nevertheless, species might differ consistently in their expression of aggressive and reproductive behaviors, possibly due to varying levels of SCR. In the current study, we present a unique data set comprising ten poeciliid species (in two cases including multiple populations and ask whether species can be characterized through consistent differences in the expression of aggression, sexual activity and changes in mate choice under increased SCR. We found consistent species-specific differences in aggressive behavior, sexual activity as well as in the level of misleading behavior, while decreased preference expression under increased SCR was a general feature of all but one species examined. Furthermore, mean sexual activity correlated positively with the occurrence of potentially misleading behavior. An alternative explanation for audience effects would be that males attempt to avoid aggressive encounters, which would predict stronger audience effects in more aggressive species. We demonstrate a positive correlation between mean aggressiveness and sexual activity (suggesting a hormonal link as a mechanistic explanation, but did not detect a correlation between aggressiveness and audience effects. Suites of correlated behavioral tendencies are termed behavioral syndromes, and our present study provides correlational evidence for the evolutionary significance of SCR in shaping a behavioral syndrome at the species level across poeciliid taxa.

David Bierbach

2013-10-01

80

Protection Against 1,2-Di-methylhydrazine-Induced Systemic Oxidative Stress and Altered Brain Neurotransmitter Status by Probiotic Escherichia coli CFR 16 Secreting Pyrroloquinoline Quinone.  

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Exposure to environmental pollutant 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) is attributed to systemic oxidative stress and is known to cause neurotropic effect by altering brain neurotransmitter status. Probiotics are opted as natural therapeutic against oxidative stress and also have the ability to modulate gut-brain axis. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is water-soluble, heat-stable antioxidant molecule. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant efficacy of PQQ-producing probiotic E. coli CFR 16 on DMH-induced systemic oxidative damage and altered neurotransmitter status in rat brain. Adult virgin Charles Forster rats (200-250 g) were given DMH dose (25 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) for 8 weeks. Blood lipid peroxidation levels exhibited a marked increase while antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase were found to be reduced in DMH-treated rats. Likewise, brain serotonin and norepinephrine levels displayed a significant decrease, whereas epinephrine levels demonstrated a marked increase in brain of these rats. PQQ-producing E. coli CFR 16 supplementation reduced systemic oxidative stress and also restored brain neurotransmitter status. However, E. coli CFR 16 did not show any effect on these parameters. In contrast, E. coli CFR 16:: vgb-gfp and E. coli CFR 16:: vgb-gfp vector exhibited some degree of protection again oxidative stress but they were not able to modulate neurotransmitter levels. In conclusion, continuous and sustained release of PQQ by probiotic E. coli in rat intestine ameliorates systemic oxidative stress and restored brain neurotransmitter levels. PMID:25586077

Pandey, Sumeet; Singh, Ashish; Chaudhari, Nirja; Nampoothiri, Laxmipriya P; Kumar, G Naresh

2015-05-01

81

Phenolic composition of basil plants is differentially altered by plant nutrient status and inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi  

Science.gov (United States)

Quality of basil plants (Ocimum basilicum) used in certain fresh and dry products is a function of its production of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds. Nutrient availability, particularly phosphorus (P), can alter plant production of secondary metabolites, and root infection by arb...

82

MATE's ROV Competitions  

Science.gov (United States)

This webpage from the Marine Advanced Technology Education Center (MATE) provides information about the center's ROV competition. The competitions "connect students and educators with employers and working professionals from marine industries, highlight marine-related career opportunities, and promote the development of technical, problem solving, critical thinking, and teamwork skills." This webpage includes news about the competitions from recent years.

83

Yeast pheromone response pathway: characterization of a suppressor that restores mating to receptorless mutants.  

OpenAIRE

Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid cells, alpha and a, mate after being appropriately stimulated by the pheromone secreted by the opposite cell type (a-factor and alpha-factor, respectively). The binding of a pheromone to its receptor is a signal that initiates a series of intracellular changes that lead to the specific physiological alterations required for mating. To identify components of the signal transduction pathway, we sought pseudorevertants that restored mating competence to receptor ...

Clark, K. L.; Sprague, G. F.

1989-01-01

84

Alterations in vitamin D status and anti-microbial peptide levels in patients in the intensive care unit with sepsis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D insufficiency is common in hospitalized patients. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D may enhance the innate immune response by induction of cathelicidin (LL-37, an endogenous antimicrobial peptide produced by macrophages and neutrophils. Thus, the relationship between vitamin D status and LL-37 production may be of importance for host immunity, but little data is available on this subject, especially in the setting of human sepsis syndrome and other critical illness. Methods Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, vitamin D binding protein (DBP and LL-37 in critically ill adult subjects admitted to intensive care units (ICUs with sepsis and without sepsis were compared to healthy controls. Results Critically ill subjects had significantly lower plasma 25(OHD concentrations compared to healthy controls. Mean plasma LL-37 levels were significantly lower in critically ill subjects compared to healthy controls. Vitamin D binding protein levels in plasma were significantly lower in critically ill subjects with sepsis compared to critically ill subjects without sepsis. There was a significant positive association between circulating 25(OHD and LL-37 levels. Conclusion This study demonstrates an association between critical illness and lower 25(OHD and DBP levels in critically ill patients as compared to healthy controls. It also establishes a positive association between vitamin D status and plasma LL-37, which suggests that systemic LL-37 levels may be regulated by vitamin D status. Optimal vitamin D status may be important for innate immunity especially in the setting of sepsis. Further invention studies to examine this association are warranted.

Ziegler Thomas R

2009-04-01

85

Chemotherapy and remission status do not alter pre-existing innate immune dysfunction in dogs with lymphoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dogs with lymphoma have altered innate immunity and little is known about the effects of chemotherapy on innate immune function in dogs. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PG) - induced leukocyte cytokine production capacity, and phagocytosis and respiratory burst were evaluated in dogs prior to and following 6 weeks of chemotherapy. Dogs had decreased TNF production following LPS stimulation and increased IL-10 production following PG stimulation, which did not improve following remission of lymphoma. Dogs also had reduced E. coli-induced respiratory burst function after chemotherapy induced complete or partial remission. Dogs with lymphoma have an imbalance in pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokine production which did not improve with remission, and, following treatment, a decrease in respiratory burst function. Altered immune responses following exposure to bacterial pathogen associated molecular pattern motifs and bacteria may have many implications in the management of canine lymphoma. PMID:25108839

Axiak-Bechtel, S; Fowler, B; Yu, D H; Amorim, J; Tsuruta, K; DeClue, A

2014-10-01

86

The Ca(2+) status of the endoplasmic reticulum is altered by induction of calreticulin expression in transgenic plants  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores in plant cells, we generated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum; NT1) suspension cells and Arabidopsis plants with altered levels of calreticulin (CRT), an ER-localized Ca(2+)-binding protein. NT1 cells and Arabidopsis plants were transformed with a maize (Zea mays) CRT gene in both sense and antisense orientations under the control of an Arabidopsis heat shock promoter. ER-enriched membrane fractions from NT1 cells were used to examine how altered expression of CRT affects Ca(2+) uptake and release. We found that a 2.5-fold increase in CRT led to a 2-fold increase in ATP-dependent (45)Ca(2+) accumulation in the ER-enriched fraction compared with heat-shocked wild-type controls. Furthermore, after treatment with the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin, ER microsomes from NT1 cells overproducing CRT showed a 2-fold increase in the amount of (45)Ca(2+) released, and a 2- to 3-fold increase in the amount of (45)Ca(2+) retained compared with wild type. These data indicate that altering the production of CRT affects the ER Ca(2+) pool. In addition, CRT transgenic Arabidopsis plants were used to determine if altered CRT levels had any physiological effects. We found that the level of CRT in heat shock-induced CRT transgenic plants correlated positively with the retention of chlorophyll when the plants were transferred from Ca(2+)-containing medium to Ca(2+)-depleted medium. Together these data are consistent with the hypothesis that increasing CRT in the ER increases the ER Ca(2+) stores and thereby enhances the survival of plants grown in low Ca(2+) medium.

Persson, S.; Wyatt, S. E.; Love, J.; Thompson, W. F.; Robertson, D.; Boss, W. F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

2001-01-01

87

Habitat change influences mate search behaviour in three-spined sticklebacks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mate choice is one of the main mechanisms of sexual selection, with profound implications for individual fitness. Changes in environmental conditions can cause individuals to alter their mate search behaviour, with consequences for mate choice. Human-induced eutrophication of water bodies is a global problem that alters habitat structure and visibility in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated whether changes in habitat complexity and male cue modality, visual or olfactory, influence mate search behaviour of female three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. We allowed gravid females to search for mates in experimental pools that contained two nesting males and one social female, under low and high structural complexity (created from green Plexiglas sheets), with access to either visual or olfactory cues of the individuals. We found increased habitat complexity reduced the number of visits to nesting males, while a switch from visual to olfactory cues reduced the time spent searching for males, the numberof visits to nesting males, the time spent evaluating males, and the relative time spent associating with males rather than females. Thus, females decreased mate searching and mate evaluation in the absence of visual stimulation. This reduced the rate of mate encounters and probably also the opportunity for choice. Our results show that changes in habitat structure and visibility can alter female mate searching, with potential consequences for the opportunity for sexual selection.

Heuschele, Jan; Salminen, Tiina

2012-01-01

88

On classical and quantum error-correction in ciliate mate selection  

OpenAIRE

Ciliated protozoa sensing pheromones secreted from nonself mating types engage in preconjugal “courtship” dances and contacts. Using simulated “social” trials, I recently showed the heterotrich ciliate, Spirostomum ambiguum, can learn to advertise degrees of mating fitness to “suitors” and “rivals” when serially contracting or (ciliary) reversing at variable rates. Conspicuous consumers signal higher quality reproductive status by playing “harder-to-get” via metabolically ...

Clark, Kevin B.

2010-01-01

89

Ondansetron can enhance cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity via inhibition of multiple toxin and extrusion proteins (MATEs)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application of cisplatin. Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) work in concert in the elimination of cationic drugs such as cisplatin from the kidney. We hypothesized that co-administration of ondansetron would have an effect on cisplatin nephrotoxicity by altering the function of cisplatin transporters. The inhibitory potencies of ondansetron on metformin accumulation mediated by OCT2 and MATEs were determined in the stable HEK-293 cells expressing these transporters. The effects of ondansetron on drug disposition in vivo were examined by conducting the pharmacokinetics of metformin, a classical substrate for OCTs and MATEs, in wild-type and Mate1?/? mice. The nephrotoxicity was assessed in the wild-type and Mate1?/? mice received cisplatin with and without ondansetron. Both MATEs, including human MATE1, human MATE2-K, and mouse Mate1, and OCT2 (human and mouse) were subject to ondansetron inhibition, with much greater potencies by ondansetron on MATEs. Ondansetron significantly increased tissue accumulation and pharmacokinetic exposure of metformin in wild-type but not in Mate1?/? mice. Moreover, ondansetron treatment significantly enhanced renal accumulation of cisplatin and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity which were indicated by increased levels of biochemical and molecular biomarkers and more severe pathohistological changes in mice. Similar increases in nephrotoxicity were caused by genetic deficiency of MATE function in mice. Therefore, the potent inhibition of MATEs by ondansetron enhances the nephrotoxicity associated with cisplatin treatment in mice. Potential nephrotoxic effects of combining the chemotherapeutic cisplatin and the antiemetic 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT{sub 3}) receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron, should be investigated in patients. - Highlights: • Nephrotoxicity significantly limits clinical use of the chemotherapeutic cisplatin. • The antiemetic ondansetron is frequently co-administrated with cisplatin. • Ondansetron was here demonstrated as a potent inhibitor of MATE transporters. • Ondansetron enhanced cisplatin nephrotoxicity likely via Mate1 inhibition in mice. • Ondansetron may increase patient risk of nephrotoxicity in cisplatin chemotherapy.

Li, Qing [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Guo, Dong [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Dong, Zhongqi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhang, Wei [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei [Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Polli, James E. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Shu, Yan, E-mail: yshu@rx.umaryland.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States)

2013-11-15

90

Tissue remodeling: a mating-induced differentiation program for the Drosophila oviduct  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In both vertebrates and invertebrates, the oviduct is an epithelial tube surrounded by visceral muscles that serves as a conduit for gamete transport between the ovary and uterus. While Drosophila is a model system for tubular organ development, few studies have addressed the development of the fly's oviduct. Recent studies in Drosophila have identified mating-responsive genes and proteins whose levels in the oviduct are altered by mating. Since many of these molecules (e.g. Muscle LIM protein 84B, Coracle, Neuroglian have known roles in the differentiation of muscle and epithelia of other organs, mating may trigger similar differentiation events in the oviduct. This led us to hypothesize that mating mediates the last stages of oviduct differentiation in which organ-specific specializations arise. Results Using electron- and confocal-microscopy we identified tissue-wide post-mating changes in the oviduct including differentiation of cellular junctions, remodeling of extracellular matrix, increased myofibril formation, and increased innervation. Analysis of once- and twice-mated females reveals that some mating-responsive proteins respond only to the first mating, while others respond to both matings. Conclusion We uncovered ultrastructural changes in the mated oviduct that are consistent with the roles that mating-responsive proteins play in muscle and epithelial differentiation elsewhere. This suggests that mating triggers the late differentiation of the oviduct. Furthermore, we suggest that mating-responsive proteins that respond only to the first mating are involved in the final maturation of the oviduct while proteins that remain responsive to later matings are also involved in maintenance and ongoing function of the oviduct. Taken together, our results establish the oviduct as an attractive system to address mechanisms that regulate the late stages of differentiation and maintenance of a tubular organ.

Hoy Ronald R

2008-12-01

91

The mating behaviour and reproduction performance in a multi-sire mating system for pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An important aim of organic animal production is to allow natural animal behaviour. Regarding reproduction techniques, artificial insemination is permitted but natural mating is preferred. The outdoor multi-sire system, where the sows are placed in large paddocks with a group of boars, is one example of a service system, which complies well with the organic ideals of facilitating natural animal behavior. However, very little knowledge is available about such system. Seven groups of in total of 47 sows and 31 boars were observed to study the mating behavior in an outdoor multi-sire mating system and the subsequent reproduction results. The time of start of courtship, behavior and the cause of disruption if the courtship was terminated, were recorded each time a boar courted a sow. All aggressive interactions between the boars were also recorded to estimate the boar ranking order. The observations revealed numerous poor quality matings, a huge variation in the number of times sows are mated, and overworked boars. Only 35% of all copulations lasted 2 min or more and 63% of all copulations were disrupted, mainly by competitor boars. The higher social status of the boar, the more copulations did it disrupt (p < 0.05). The outcome was an unacceptable variation in reproduction results. Only 71% of all estrus sows conceived, corresponding to a pregnancy rate of 77% of all mated sows. A large inter-group variation in reproduction performance was observed, indicating scope for improvements. In some groups all sows showed estrus and all sows conceived. Recommendations for improvement of the system are proposed

Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

2008-01-01

92

Do Couples Assortatively Mate?  

OpenAIRE

This study investigated the role of intelligence, conservatism, personal values, and Openness in assortative mating. A sample of 32 couples was given questionnaires, which measured self-rated intelligence and partner-rated Openness, conservatism and values. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) were used to ascertain similarity within couples on the above variables. We found significant evidence of assortment for Openness, the facets of Artistic Interests, Intellect and Liberalism, conservatism a...

Mistry, Navin

2010-01-01

93

Mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling identifies alterations in salivary redox status and fatty acid metabolism in response to inflammation and oxidative stress in periodontal disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontal diseases represent the most common chronic inflammatory diseases in humans and a major cause of tooth loss. Combining mass spectrometry-based ionomics and targeted lipidomics on fatty acid metabolites, we identified significant alterations in redox status and fatty acid metabolism in saliva in response to chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in periodontal disease in a cohort of nonsmoker subjects with chronic periodontitis. For the first time, ionomic profiling of around 30 ions in saliva revealed significantly decreased levels of redox-active metal ions including Mn, Cu, and Zn in the periodontal group, which is consistent with decreased levels of superoxide dismutases in saliva and serum. A targeted lipidomic approach was employed to monitor the major metabolites of arachidonic acid and linoleic acid in saliva. We observed increased levels of cyclooxygenase products including PGE2, PGD2, and PGF2? and TXB2, but decreased level of PGI2 in the periodontal group. A unique pattern of the lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid and linoleic acid was observed with increased level of 5-HETE but decreased levels of 13-HODE and 9-HODE. Levels of salivary F2-isoprostanes, free radical lipid peroxidation products, and a gold standard for oxidative stress in vivo were also significantly elevated. Taking these data together, our study using multiple powerful omics techniques demonstrates that local redox alteration contributes significantly to periodontitis through the modulation of fatty acid metabolism in response to inflammation and oxidative stress. This study highlights the importance of redox status in periodontitis and provides a rationale for preventing periodontal disease by dietary interventions aiming to restore redox balance. PMID:24607715

Huang, Yijing; Zhu, Mingjiang; Li, Zi; Sa, Rina; Chu, Qianqian; Zhang, Qingli; Zhang, Haifeng; Tang, Wen; Zhang, Meifang; Yin, Huiyong

2014-05-01

94

Influence of Altered Hormonal Status on Platelet 5-HT and MAO-B Activity in Cigarette Smokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was designed to understand the cigarette smoking-induced alterations in hormones and the resulting changes in platelet serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and monoamine oxidase (MAO-B) activity in chronic smokers. Human male volunteers aged 35 ± 8 years, were divided into two groups, namely controls and smokers (12 ± 2 cigarettes per day for 7-10 years). Results showed that cigarette smoking significantly (p cortisol and testosterone levels with significant (p cortisol was negatively correlated with tryptophan (r = -0.386), platelet MAO-B (r = -0.264), and 5-HT (r = -0.671), and positively correlated with testosterone (r = 0.428). However, testosterone was negatively correlated with platelet MAO-B (r = -0.315), and 5-HT (r = -.419) in smokers. Further, smokers plasma T3 levels were negatively correlated with platelet MAO-B (r = -0.398), and 5-HT (r = -0.541), whereas T4 levels were positively correlated with platelet MAO-B (r = 0.369), and 5-HT (r = 0.454). In conclusion, our study showed that altered testosterone and cortisol levels may aggravate behavior, mood disturbances and symptoms of depression by decreasing platelet 5-HT and MAO-B activity in smokers. PMID:25883430

Padmavathi, Pannuru; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Swarnalatha, Kodidela; Hymavathi, Reddyvari; Varadacharyulu, N Ch

2015-04-01

95

The evolutionary psychology of human mating: a response to Buller's critique.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, I critique arguments made by philosopher David Buller against central evolutionary-psychological explanations of human mating. Specifically, I aim to rebut his criticisms of Evolutionary Psychology regarding (1) women's long-term mating preferences for high-status men; (2) the evolutionary rationale behind men's provisioning of women; (3) men's mating preferences for young women; (4) women's adaptation for extra-pair sex; (5) the sex-differentiated evolutionary theory of human jealousy; and (6) the notion of mate value. In sum, I aim to demonstrate that Buller's arguments contra Evolutionary Psychologists are left wanting. PMID:24927270

Klasios, John

2014-09-01

96

The nutritional status of astronauts is altered after long-term space flight aboard the International Space Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Defining optimal nutrient requirements is critical for ensuring crew health during long-duration space exploration missions. Data pertaining to such nutrient requirements are extremely limited. The primary goal of this study was to better understand nutritional changes that occur during long-duration space flight. We examined body composition, bone metabolism, hematology, general blood chemistry, and blood levels of selected vitamins and minerals in 11 astronauts before and after long-duration (128-195 d) space flight aboard the International Space Station. Dietary intake and limited biochemical measures were assessed during flight. Crew members consumed a mean of 80% of their recommended energy intake, and on landing day their body weight was less (P = 0.051) than before flight. Hematocrit, serum iron, ferritin saturation, and transferrin were decreased and serum ferritin was increased after flight (P status, and oxidative damage are among critical nutritional concerns for long-duration space travelers.

Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Block, Gladys; Rice, Barbara L.; Davis-Street, Janis E.

2005-01-01

97

Warm and homely or cold and beautiful? Sex differences in trading off traits in mate selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prior research and theory suggest that people use three main sets of criteria in mate selection: warmth/trustworthiness, attractiveness/vitality, and status/resources. In two studies, men and women made mating choices between pairs of hypothetical potential partners and were forced to make trade-offs among these three criteria (e.g., warm and homely vs. cold and attractive). As predicted, women (relative to men) placed greater importance on warmth/trustworthiness and status/resources in a potential mate but less importance on attractiveness/vitality. In addition, as expected (a) ratings of ideal standards partly mediated the link between sex and mate choices, (b) ideal standards declined in importance from long-term to short-term relationships, with the exception of attractiveness/vitality, and unexpectedly, (c) sex differences were higher for long-term (compared to short-term) mate choice. Explanations and implications are discussed. PMID:15155031

Fletcher, Garth J O; Tither, Jacqueline M; O'Loughlin, Claire; Friesen, Myron; Overall, Nickola

2004-06-01

98

Thanatosis as an adaptive male mating strategy in the nuptial gift-giving spider Pisaura mirabilis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Males and females often experience different optima in mating rate, which may cause evolution of female resistance to matings and male counter adaptations to increase mating rate. Males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis display a spectacular mating behavior involving a nuptial gift and thanatosis (death feigning). Thanatosis in a sexual context is exceptional and was suggested to function as an antipredation strategy toward potentially cannibalistic females. If thanatosis serves as a protection strategy, males should death feign in response to female aggression or when they are more vulnerable to attack. We tested these predictions in a factorial design: males that were handicapped (1 leg removed) and hence vulnerable and control males were paired with females that were more or less aggressive intrinsically (measured toward prey). In mating trials, we recorded the tendency of males to death feign, copulation success, and copulation duration. In addition, we investigated the effect of female mating status (virgin or mated) on these male mating components. Intrinsically aggressive females showed increased mating aggression toward males. Neither female aggressiveness, mating status, nor male vulnerability increased the propensity of males to perform thanatosis. Instead, death-feigning males were more successful in obtaining copulations and gained longer copulations. Hence, our results suggest that thanatosis functions as an adaptive male mating strategy to overcome female resistance. All males were capable of performing thanatosis although some males use it more frequently than others, suggesting a cost of death feigning which maintains the variation in thanatosis during courtship.

Hansen, Line S.; Gonzalez, Sofía F.

2008-01-01

99

Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most insect species exhibit characteristic behavioral changes after mating. Typical post-mating behaviors in female insects include noticeable increases in food intake, elevated oviposition rates, lowered receptivity to courting males, and enhanced immune response. Although it has been reported that mated females of several insect species including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster increase the amount of food intake and change their dietary preferences, the limited number of comparative studies prevent the formulation of generalities regarding post-mating behaviors in other insects in particular amongst orthopteran species. Here, we investigated whether females of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, alter their feeding behavior after mating. Although significant differences in the amount of food intake after mating were not observed, all experimental data indicated a clear trend among crickets towards the ingestion of larger quantities of food. Geometric framework analyses revealed that the mated female crickets preferred food with higher protein content compared to virgin female crickets. This implies that this species required different nutritional demands after mating. These findings further expand our understanding of the behavioral and biological changes that are triggered in female insects post-mating, and highlight the potential for this species in investigating the molecular-based nutritional dependent activities that are linked to post-mating behaviors.

ShinjiNagata

2014-03-01

100

Variation in mating systems of salamanders: mate guarding or territoriality?  

Science.gov (United States)

Two of the most common mating tactics in vertebrates are mate guarding and territoriality, yet much of the research on these strategies has focused on mating systems in birds, despite novel insights gained from studying less traditional systems. North American stream salamanders that comprise the Eurycea bislineata complex represent an excellent nontraditional system for comparing mating strategies because these species exhibit a continuum of male morphologies, diverse habitat associations, and various potential mating strategies. We studied two species within this complex that exhibit the extremes of this continuum, Eurycea aquatica (robust morph) and Eurycea cirrigera (slender morph). The larger head in males of E. aquatica is due to larger musculature around the jaw and may be associated with aggressive behavior. Therefore, we hypothesized that the robust morphology exhibited by males of E. aquatica provides benefits during either territorial defense or mate defense and that males of E. cirrigera would not exhibit aggression in either scenario. We found that neither species exhibited aggressive behavior to defend a territory. However, in the presence of a female, males of E. aquatica were significantly more aggressive toward intruding males than were males of E. cirrigera. Therefore, mate-guarding behavior occurs in E. aquatica, and the enlarged head of males likely aids in deterring rivals. This is the first demonstration of mate-guarding behavior in a plethodontid, the most speciose family of salamanders. PMID:24802291

Deitloff, Jennifer; Alcorn, Michael A; Graham, Sean P

2014-07-01

101

Discovery of Potent, Selective Multidrug And Toxin Extrusion Transporter 1 (MATE1, SLC47A1) Inhibitors Through Prescription Drug Profiling and Computational Modeling  

OpenAIRE

The human multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) transporter 1 contributes to the tissue distribution and excretion of many drugs. Inhibition of MATE1 may result in potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and alterations in drug exposure and accumulation in various tissues. The primary goals of this project were to identify MATE1 inhibitors with clinical importance or in vitro utility and to elucidate the physicochemical properties that differ between MATE1 and OCT2 inhibitors. Using a fluoresc...

Wittwer, Matthias B.; Zur, Arik A.; Khuri, Natalia; Kido, Yasuto; Kosaka, Alan; Zhang, Xuexiang; Morrissey, Kari M.; Sali, Andrej; Huang, Yong; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

2013-01-01

102

Bioecologia e manejo de Gyropsylla spegazziniana em erva-mate / Bioecology and management of Gyropsylla spegazziniana in yerba mate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) compõe um dos segmentos agroindustriais mais antigos e característicos da região Sul do Brasil, caracterizando-se como uma importante atividade socioeconômica. Para abastecer o mercado consumidor de derivadsupos da erva-mate, foi necessário reflorestar área [...] s com essa planta, o que simplificou o ecossistema e favoreceu algumas espécies de insetos fitófagos, os quais adquiriram status de praga. Nesse contexto, destaca-se a "ampola" da erva-mate Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) (Lizer e Treles) pela severidade de danos. Não existem inseticidas registrados para o controle dessa praga no Brasil, e diversos estudos apontam para o manejo populacional da praga. Assim, o objetivo desta revisão é reunir informações sobre a bioecologia e as alternativas de manejo de forma a facilitar o entendimento da complexidade do controle de pragas no agroecossistema da erva-mate. Abstract in english Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) composes one of the oldest and more characteristic agribusiness segments of southern Brazil, composing a very important socioeconomic activity. In order to provide the market with yerba mate derivatives, it was necessary to reforest areas with this species, [...] which simplified the ecosystem and generated impacts that favored some species of phytophagous insects, and then they acquired blight status. In this context, we indicate Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) (Lizer e Treles) by the severity of the damage. There is no registered insecticide to control this pest in Brazil, and several studies point out to handling the population of this blight. The objective of this review is to gather information on bioecology and alternatives to control this insect in order to explain the complexity of pest control in yerba mate agroecosystem.

Ionete Lucia Milani, Barzotto; Luis Francisco Angeli, Alves.

103

Clinical implications of altered thyroid status in male testicular function / Implicações clínicas das alterações tireoidianas na função gonadal masculina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Os hormônios da tireoide estão envolvidos virtualmente no desenvolvimento e na manutenção de todos os tecidos. As gônadas masculinas foram, por décadas, consideradas insensíveis aos hormônios tireoidianos. No entanto, estudos mais recentes têm demonstrado que disfunções tireoidianas estão associadas [...] não somente a anormalidades na morfologia e na função dos testículos, mas também à diminuição da fertilidade e alterações na atividade sexual masculina. Atualmente, o papel da triiodotironina (T3) no controle da proliferação das células de Sertoli e Leydig, maturação testicular e esteroidogênese é amplamente aceito, bem como a presença de transportadores e receptores para o hormônio tireoidiano nos testículos durante o período de desenvolvimento e a idade adulta. No entanto, apesar dos dados que indicam que o T3 atua diretamente nos testículos humanos, persistem controvérsias em relação ao impacto das doenças tireoidianas sobre a espermatogênese e a fertilidade, o que pode ser em parte devido à escassez de estudos clínicos nessa área. Essa revisão tem por objetivo apresentar um panorama de dados clínicos atualizados sobre o papel dos hormônios tireoidianos na função gonadal masculina. Abstract in english Thyroid hormones are involved in the development and maintenance of virtually all tissues. Although for many years the testis was thought to be a thyroid-hormone unresponsive organ, studies of the last decades have demonstrated that thyroid dysfunction is associated not only with abnormalities in mo [...] rphology and function of testes, but also with decreased fertility and alterations of sexual activity in men. Nowadays, the participation of triiodothyronine (T3) in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation, testicular maturation, and steroidogenesis is widely accepted, as well as the presence of thyroid hormone transporters and receptors in testicular cells throughout the development process and in adulthood. But even with data suggesting that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects, there is still controversy regarding the impact of thyroid diseases on human spermatogenesis and fertility, which can be in part due to the lack of well-controlled clinical studies. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of recent clinical data about the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function.

Simone Magagnin, Wajner; Márcia Santos, Wagner; Ana Luiza, Maia.

2009-11-01

104

Clinical implications of altered thyroid status in male testicular function Implicações clínicas das alterações tireoidianas na função gonadal masculina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are involved in the development and maintenance of virtually all tissues. Although for many years the testis was thought to be a thyroid-hormone unresponsive organ, studies of the last decades have demonstrated that thyroid dysfunction is associated not only with abnormalities in morphology and function of testes, but also with decreased fertility and alterations of sexual activity in men. Nowadays, the participation of triiodothyronine (T3 in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation, testicular maturation, and steroidogenesis is widely accepted, as well as the presence of thyroid hormone transporters and receptors in testicular cells throughout the development process and in adulthood. But even with data suggesting that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects, there is still controversy regarding the impact of thyroid diseases on human spermatogenesis and fertility, which can be in part due to the lack of well-controlled clinical studies. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of recent clinical data about the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function.Os hormônios da tireoide estão envolvidos virtualmente no desenvolvimento e na manutenção de todos os tecidos. As gônadas masculinas foram, por décadas, consideradas insensíveis aos hormônios tireoidianos. No entanto, estudos mais recentes têm demonstrado que disfunções tireoidianas estão associadas não somente a anormalidades na morfologia e na função dos testículos, mas também à diminuição da fertilidade e alterações na atividade sexual masculina. Atualmente, o papel da triiodotironina (T3 no controle da proliferação das células de Sertoli e Leydig, maturação testicular e esteroidogênese é amplamente aceito, bem como a presença de transportadores e receptores para o hormônio tireoidiano nos testículos durante o período de desenvolvimento e a idade adulta. No entanto, apesar dos dados que indicam que o T3 atua diretamente nos testículos humanos, persistem controvérsias em relação ao impacto das doenças tireoidianas sobre a espermatogênese e a fertilidade, o que pode ser em parte devido à escassez de estudos clínicos nessa área. Essa revisão tem por objetivo apresentar um panorama de dados clínicos atualizados sobre o papel dos hormônios tireoidianos na função gonadal masculina.

Simone Magagnin Wajner

2009-11-01

105

Supplementation with an algae source of docosahexaenoic acid increases (n-3) fatty acid status and alters selected risk factors for heart disease in vegetarian subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this double-blind study was to investigate the influence of dietary supplementation with an algae source of docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6(n-3)], devoid of any eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA; 20:5(n-3)], on serum/platelet DHA status, the estimated retroconversion of DHA to EPA, and risk factors for heart disease in vegetarian subjects. Healthy vegetarians (12 male, 12 female) consumed nine capsules daily of either DHA (1.62 g/d) or corn oil for 6 wk. Consumption of DHA capsules increased DHA levels in serum phospholipid by 246% (from 2.4 to 8.3 g/100 g fatty acids) and in platelet phospholipid by 225% (from 1.2 to 3.9 g/100 g fatty acids). EPA levels increased in serum phospholipid by 117% (from 0.57 to 1.3 g/100 g fatty acids) and in platelet phospholipid by 176% (0.21 to 0.58 g/100 g fatty acids) via metabolic retroconversion; the estimated extent of DHA retroconversion to EPA was 11.3 and 12.0%, based on the serum and platelet analyses, respectively. Arachidonic acid [AA; 20:4(n-6)] levels in serum and platelet phospholipids decreased moderately during the trial period (DHA group) as did both docosapentaenoic acids [22:5(n-6) and 22:5(n-3)]. Although no significant changes were found in the total and LDL-cholesterol levels with DHA supplementation, the total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio showed a moderate decrease over time as did the LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio and serum triglyceride concentrations. DHA supplementation did not alter the various thrombogenic factors measured. In conclusion, DHA supplementation markedly enhanced the DHA status (of serum and platelets), provided for the formation of substantial EPA, and lowered the total and LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratios. PMID:9001371

Conquer, J A; Holub, B J

1996-12-01

106

Ondansetron can enhance cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity via inhibition of multiple toxin and extrusion proteins (MATEs).  

Science.gov (United States)

The nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application of cisplatin. Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) work in concert in the elimination of cationic drugs such as cisplatin from the kidney. We hypothesized that co-administration of ondansetron would have an effect on cisplatin nephrotoxicity by altering the function of cisplatin transporters. The inhibitory potencies of ondansetron on metformin accumulation mediated by OCT2 and MATEs were determined in the stable HEK-293 cells expressing these transporters. The effects of ondansetron on drug disposition in vivo were examined by conducting the pharmacokinetics of metformin, a classical substrate for OCTs and MATEs, in wild-type and Mate1-/- mice. The nephrotoxicity was assessed in the wild-type and Mate1-/- mice received cisplatin with and without ondansetron. Both MATEs, including human MATE1, human MATE2-K, and mouse Mate1, and OCT2 (human and mouse) were subject to ondansetron inhibition, with much greater potencies by ondansetron on MATEs. Ondansetron significantly increased tissue accumulation and pharmacokinetic exposure of metformin in wild-type but not in Mate1-/- mice. Moreover, ondansetron treatment significantly enhanced renal accumulation of cisplatin and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity which were indicated by increased levels of biochemical and molecular biomarkers and more severe pathohistological changes in mice. Similar increases in nephrotoxicity were caused by genetic deficiency of MATE function in mice. Therefore, the potent inhibition of MATEs by ondansetron enhances the nephrotoxicity associated with cisplatin treatment in mice. Potential nephrotoxic effects of combining the chemotherapeutic cisplatin and the antiemetic 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron, should be investigated in patients. PMID:24001450

Li, Qing; Guo, Dong; Dong, Zhongqi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Polli, James E; Shu, Yan

2013-11-15

107

Temporary alterations to postpartum milking frequency affect whole-lactation milk production and the energy status of pasture-grazed dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the immediate and long-term effects of temporary alterations to postpartum milking frequency (MF) on milk production, body condition score (BCS), and indicators of energy status in pasture-grazed cows supplemented with concentrates. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 150) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups at calving: milked twice daily (2 ×) throughout lactation (control), or milked either once daily (1 ×) or 3 times daily (3 ×) for 3 or 6 wk immediately postpartum, and then 2 × for the remainder of lactation. During wk 1 to 3 postpartum, cows milked 1 × produced 15% less milk and 17% less energy-corrected milk (ECM) than cows milked 2 ×. This immediate production loss increased to 20% less milk and 22% less ECM during wk 4 to 6 postpartum for cows that remained on 1 × milking; these animals also produced less than 1 × cows switched to 2 × milking after 3 wk. During wk 8 to 32, when all cows were milked 2 ×, those previously milked 1 × had sustained reductions in milk (-6%) and ECM (-8%) yields, which were not affected by the duration of reduced postpartum MF. In contrast, cows milked 3 × postpartum had 7% greater milk yields during wk 1 to 6 compared with 2 × controls, irrespective of the duration of increased MF. Milk yields also remained numerically greater (+5%) during wk 8 to 32 in cows previously milked 3 ×. Nevertheless, yields of ECM were not increased by 3 × milking, because of lower milk fat and protein contents that persisted for the rest of lactation. In addition, indicators of cow energy status reflected an increasing state of negative energy balance with increasing MF. Cows milked 1 × postpartum had greater plasma glucose and lower plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations during the reduced MF, and plasma glucose remained lower for 2 wk after cows had switched to 2 × milking. Moreover, BCS was improved relative to 2 × controls from wk 5 to 6. In contrast, cows milked 3 × had lower plasma glucose concentrations, greater plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations, and greater BCS loss during wk 1 to 3; however, greater body fat mobilization was not sustained, indicating that additional energy supplements may be required to achieve better milk production responses. In conclusion, temporary 1 × milking had lactation-long negative effects on milk and milk component yields but improved cow energy status and BCS, whereas temporary 3 × milking immediately increased milk yield but did not improve milk fat and protein yields in pasture-grazed cows. PMID:25200777

Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K; Rius, A G; Morgan, S R; Roach, C G; Grala, T M; Roche, J R

2014-11-01

108

Mating experience and food deprivation modulate odor preference and dispersal in Drosophila melanogaster males.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rotting fruits offer all of the known resources required for the livelihood of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae). During fruit fermentation, carbohydrates and proteins are decomposed to produce volatile alcohols and amines, respectively. It is hypothesized that D. melanogaster adults can detect these chemical cues at a distance to identify and locate the decaying fruits. In the present paper, we compared the olfactory responses and movement of male flies varying in mating status and nutritional state to methanol, ethanol, and ammonia sources using a glass Y-tube olfactometer. In general, ethanol vapor at low to moderate concentrations repelled more hungry mated males than satiated ones. In contrast, methanol showed little difference in the attractiveness to males at different nutritional states and mating status. Moreover, ammonia attracted more hungry mated males. The attractiveness increased almost linearly with ammonia concentration from lowest to highest. When ammonia and artificial diet were put together in the odor arm, the responses of male flies to mixed odor mimicked the response to ammonia. Furthermore, odorant concentration, mating status, and nutritional state affected the flies' dispersal. Mated and starved males dispersed at a higher rate than virgin and satiated ones. Thus, our results showed that starved, mated males increased dispersal and preferred ammonia that originated from protein. PMID:25368075

Wang, Shu-Ping; Guo, Wei-Yan; Muhammad, Shahid Arain; Chen, Rui-Rui; Mu, Li-Li; Li, Guo-Qing

2014-01-01

109

MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A medium fidelity and low cost training device for pilots, called the Multi Aircraft Training Environment (MATE), is developed to replace other low fidelity stand-alone training devices and integrate them into a flexible environment, primarily aimed attraining pilots in checklist procedures. The cockpit switches and instruments in MATE are computer-generated graphics. The graphics are back projected onto semi-transparent touch screen panels in a hybrid cockpit mock-up. Thus, the MATE is relativelycheap, it is always available, it is reconfigurable (e.g. between types of aircraft/models to be simulated) and with possibilities for including various forms of intelligent computer assistance. This training concept and the technology are not specific toaviation, but can be used to simulate various types of control panels in different domains. The training effectiveness of pilots' procedure training in the MATE prototype was compared with the effects of traditional training that included the use of realaircraft. The experimental group (EXP) trained the pre-start checklist and the engine start checklist for the Saab 340 commuter aircraft in a MATE prototype. The control group (CTR) trained the same procedures using the aircraft (a/c) for training the prestart and a desktop computer tool (power plant trainer) for training engine starts. Performance on the pre-start checklist was compared in a formal checkout that took place in the a/c. Performance on the engine start procedure was compared in a fullflight simulator (FFS). The conclusion was, firstly, that training in the MATE prototype can result in an equally good performance as the existing training (a/c and computer tools), provided that the MATE trainees are given time to familiarise themselveswith the a/c. Secondly, training in MATE can result in better performance during dynamic tasks, such as abnormal engine starts. This is promising for the further development of the MATE concept.

Hauland, G.; Bove, T.

2002-01-01

110

MULTIPLE-MATING OF MALE AND FEMALE CODLING MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) IN APPLE ORCHARDS TREATED WITH SEX PHEROMONE  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were conducted with codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), to evaluate the mating status of male and female moths in apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen), orchards treated with and without sex pheromone dispensers. Laboratory studies first examined the effect of multiple mating of male and femal...

111

Assessing the mating 'health' of commercial honey bee queens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Honey bee queens mate with multiple males, which increases the total genetic diversity within colonies and has been shown to confer numerous benefits for colony health and productivity. Recent surveys of beekeepers have suggested that 'poor queens' are a top management concern, thus investigating the reproductive quality and mating success of commercially produced honey bee queens is warranted. We purchased 80 commercially produced queens from large queen breeders in California and measured them for their physical size (fresh weigh and thorax width), insemination success (stored sperm counts and sperm viability), and mating number (determined by patriline genotyping of worker offspring). We found that queens had an average of 4.37 +/- 1.446 million stored sperm in their spermathecae with an average viability of 83.7 +/- 13.33%. We also found that the tested queens had mated with a high number of drones (average effective paternity frequency: 17.0 +/- 8.98). Queen "quality" significantly varied among commercial sources for physical characters but not for mating characters. These findings suggest that it may be more effective to improve overall queen reproductive potential by culling lower-quality queens rather than systematically altering current queen production practices. PMID:22420250

Tarpy, David R; Keller, Jennifer J; Caren, Joel R; Delaney, Deborah A

2012-02-01

112

mRNA expression patterns for GH, PRL, SL, IGF-I and IGF-II during altered feeding status in rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feeding time is a major synchronizer of many physiological rhythms in many organisms. Alteration in the nutritional status, specifically fasting, also affects the secretion rhythms of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). In this study, we investigated whether the expression patterns for the mRNAs of GH, prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL) in the pituitary gland, and insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) in the liver of juvenile rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) follow a rhythm according to feeding time and whether these hormone rhythms changes with starvation. Hormone mRNA levels were determined by real time PCR. The daily expression pattern for the mRNAs of GH, PRL and SL was not altered whether food was given in the morning (10:00 h) or in the afternoon (15:00 h). The daily GH mRNA expression pattern, however, was affected when food was not available for 3 days. In contrast, the daily expression pattern for IGF-I mRNA reaches its peak at roughly 5-6h after feeding. This pattern, however, was not observed with IGF-II mRNA. During 15-day starvation, GH mRNA levels in starved fish were significantly higher than the control fish starting on the 9th day of starvation until day 15. The levels returned to normal after re-feeding. In contrast to GH, PRL mRNA levels in starved fish were significantly lower than the control group starting on the 6th day of starvation until 3 days after re-feeding. SL mRNA levels were not significantly different between the control and starved group at anytime during the experiment. Both IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA levels in starved group were significantly higher than the control fish on the 3rd and 6th day of starvation. mRNA levels of both IGF-I and II in the starved fish decreased starting on the 9th day of starvation. While IGF-I mRNA levels in the starved group continued to decrease as starvation progressed, IGF-II mRNA levels were not significantly different from the control during the rest of the starvation period. The results indicate that aside from GH and IGF-I, PRL and IGF-II are likewise involved in starvation in rabbitfish. PMID:16978626

Ayson, Felix G; de Jesus-Ayson, Evelyn Grace T; Takemura, Akihiro

2007-01-15

113

Skin Facilitates Candida albicans Mating  

OpenAIRE

Mating between natural a/a and ?/? strains of Candida albicans requires that cells first switch from the white to opaque phase phenotype. However, because cells expressing the opaque phase phenotype are induced to switch back to the white phase phenotype at physiological temperature (37°C) and because opaque phase cells are highly efficient at colonizing skin, we tested whether skin, which is several degrees lower than physiological temperature, is conducive to mating. Using a model in whi...

Lachke, Salil A.; Lockhart, Shawn R.; Daniels, Karla J.; Soll, David R.

2003-01-01

114

Strain-speccific differences in mating, oviposition, and host-seeking behavior between Wolbachia-infected and uninfected Aedes albopictus  

Science.gov (United States)

Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacteria that cause various reproductive alterations in their arthropod hosts including cytoplasmic incompatibility. In this study, we compared mating, oviposition and host-seeking behaviors of Wolbachia-infected [Houston (HOU), Gainesville (GNV)] and Houston uninf...

115

Impact of market value on human mate choice decisions.  

OpenAIRE

Mate choice strategies are a process of negotiation in which individuals make bids that are constrained by their status in the market place. Humans provide an unusual perspective on this because we can measure their explicitly expressed preferences before they are forced to make any choices. We use advertisements placed in newspaper personal columns to examine, first, the extent to which evolutionary considerations affect the level of competition (or market value) during the reproductively ac...

Paw?owski, B.; Dunbar, R. I.

1999-01-01

116

?????????????????????? The Influence of Mate-Rejection on Self-Perceived Mate Value: Testing the Mating Sociometer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????????????????/?????????????????????????????1 ?????????????/???????????????????????????2 ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Kirkpatrick?Ellis(2001?????????????——???????????????????????????????????????????????The present study which using recall paradigm aimed to investigate the effect of  mate-rejection on positive affect and negative affect, self-esteem, self-perceived mate value, mate standard. The result showed: 1  Mate-rejection makes an impact on positive affect and negative affect, while self-esteem plays fully the mediating role among them; 2 Self-esteem fully mediated the impact of mate-rejection on self-perceived mate value, and self-perceived mate value fully mediated the impact of self-esteem on mate standard, thus a process model was built. This research supports and expands a conceptualization of the domain-specific sociometer, which is derived from Kirkpatrick and Ellis (2001: self-esteem as a mechanism functions to calibrate self-perceived mate value in response to experiences of mate-rejection, and makes an indirect effect on mate standard.

??

2012-11-01

117

The Structure and Content of Long-Term and Short-Term Mate Preferences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study addresses two limitations in the mate preferences literature. First, research all-too-often relies on single-item assessments of mate preferences precluding more advanced statistical techniques like factor analysis. Second, when factor analysis could be done, it exclusively has done for long-term mate preferences, at the exclusion of short-term mate preferences. In this study (N = 401, we subjected 20 items designed to measure short- and long-term mate preferences to both principle components (n = 200 and confirmatory factor analysis (n = 201. In the long-term context, we replicated previous findings that there are three different categories of preferences: physical attractiveness, interpersonal warmth, and social status. In the short-term context, physical attractiveness occupied two parts of the structure, social status dropped out, and interpersonal warmth remained. Across short- and long-term contexts, there were slight changes in what defined the shared dimensions (i.e., physical attractiveness and interpersonal warmth, suggesting prior work that applies the same inventory to each context might be flawed. We also replicated sex differences and similarities in mate preferences and correlates with sociosexuality and mate value. We adopt an evolutionary paradigm to understand our results.

Peter K. Jonason

2013-12-01

118

Ondansetron Can Enhance Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity via Inhibition of Multiple Toxin and Extrusion Proteins (MATEs)  

OpenAIRE

The nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application of cisplatin. Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) work in concert in the elimination of cationic drugs such as cisplatin from the kidney. We hypothesized that co-administration of ondansetron would have an effect on cisplatin nephrotoxicity by altering the function of cisplatin transporters. The inhibitory potencies of ondansetron on metformin accumulation mediated by OCT2 and MATEs wer...

Li, Qing; Guo, Dong; Dong, Zhongqi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lei K.; Huang, Shiew-mei; Polli, James E.; Shu, Yan

2013-01-01

119

Caste determination through mating in primitively eusocial societies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eusocial animal societies are typified by the presence of a helper (worker) caste which predominantly cares for young offspring in a social group while investing little in their own direct reproduction. A key question is what determines whether an individual becomes a worker or leaves to initiate her own reproduction. In some insects, caste is determined nutritionally during development. In others, and in vertebrate societies, adults are totipotent and the cues that determine caste are less well known. The mate limitation hypothesis (MLH) states that a female's mating status acts as a cue for caste determination: females that mate become reproductives, while those that fail to mate become workers. The MLH is consistent with empirical observations in sweat bees showing that over the course of the nesting season, there are increases in both the proportion of females that become reproductives and the frequency of males in the mating pool. We modelled a foundress's offspring sex-ratio strategy to investigate whether an increasingly male-biased operational sex-ratio over time is evolutionarily stable under the MLH. Our results indicate that such a pattern could occur if early workers were more valuable than late workers. This pattern was then more likely if male mortality was high, if worker mortality was low, if the value of a worker was high and if the period over which workers can help was short. Our results suggest that the MLH can be evolutionarily stable, but only under restrictive conditions. Manipulative experiments are now required to investigate whether mating determines caste in nature. PMID:23770404

Lucas, Eric R; Field, Jeremy

2013-10-21

120

Costs of mate-guarding in wild male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis): physiological stress and aggression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mate-guarding is an important determinant of male reproductive success in a number of species. However, it is known to potentially incur costs. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of mate-guarding on male physiological stress and aggression in long-tailed macaques, a species in which males mate-guard females to a lesser extent than predicted by the Priority of Access model (PoA). The study was carried out during two mating periods on three groups of wild long-tailed macaques in Indonesia by combining behavioral observations with non-invasive measurements of fecal glucocorticoid (fGC) levels. Mate-guarding was associated with a general rise in male stress hormone levels but, from a certain threshold of mate-guarding onwards, increased vigilance time was associated with a decrease in stress hormone output. Mate-guarding also increased male-male aggression rate and male vigilance time. Overall, alpha males were more physiologically stressed than other males independently of mating competition. Increased glucocorticoid levels during mate-guarding are most likely adaptive since it may help males to mobilize extra-energy required for mate-guarding and ultimately maintain a balanced energetic status. However, repeated exposure to high levels of stress over an extended period is potentially deleterious to the immune system and thus may carry costs. This potential physiological cost together with the cost of increased aggression mate-guarding male face may limit the male's ability to mate-guard females, explaining the deviance from the PoA model observed in long-tailed macaques. Comparing our results to previous findings we discuss how ecological factors, reproductive seasonality and rank achievement may modulate the extent to which costs of mate-guarding limit male monopolization abilities. PMID:25236888

Girard-Buttoz, Cédric; Heistermann, Michael; Rahmi, Erdiansyah; Agil, Muhammad; Fauzan, Panji Ahmad; Engelhardt, Antje

2014-09-01

121

Cell Biology of Mating in Candida albicans  

OpenAIRE

It was recently demonstrated that strains homozygous for either of the mating type-like loci MTLa and MTL? of Candida albicans undergo white-opaque switching and that expression of the opaque-phase phenotype greatly enhances mating between strains. Exploiting the latter property to obtain high-frequency mating, we have characterized the cell biology of the mating process of C. albicans. Employing continuous videomicroscopy, computer-assisted three-dimensional reconstruction of living cells, ...

Lockhart, Shawn R.; Daniels, Karla J.; Zhao, Rui; Wessels, Deborah; Soll, David R.

2003-01-01

122

Paced mating behavior is affected by clitoral-vaginocervical lidocaine application in combination with sexual experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study tested the effects of lidocaine anesthetic ointment applied to the vaginocervical (Experiment 1) or clitoral-vaginocervical (Experiment 2) areas on the display of paced mating behavior over the course of five weekly tests in ovariectomized, hormone-primed, Long-Evans rats. Experiment 3 tested whether rats that acquired sexual experience without ointment application would exhibit altered paced mating behavior on a fifth test under clitoral-vaginocervical lidocaine or vehicle application. Although rats in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 exhibited shorter contact-return latencies after intromission and reduced likelihood of leaving the male compartment following mounts and intromissions after gaining sexual experience, only rats that received clitoral-vaginocervical lidocaine exhibited altered paced mating behavior relative to vehicle. Specifically, clitoral-vaginocervical lidocaine resulted in shorter contact-return latency to ejaculation and greater percentage of time with the male. Paced mating behavior of sexually experienced rats in Experiment 3 was not disrupted when tested after clitoral-vaginocervical lidocaine treatment. Together, these studies suggest that the sensory input during repeated mating encounters affects the pattern of paced mating behavior that develops with sexual experience. PMID:25545765

Meerts, Sarah H; Strnad, Helen K; Schairer, Rosemary S

2015-03-01

123

A deficit in zinc availability can cause alterations in tubulin thiol redox status in cultured neurons and in the developing fetal rat brain  

OpenAIRE

Zinc (Zn) deficiency during early development can result in multiple brain abnormalities and altered neuronal functions. In rats, a gestational deficit of Zn can affect the fetal brain cytoskeleton, and signaling cascades involved in cellular processes that are central to brain development. In the current paper, we tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress is involved in Zn deficiency-induced altered tubulin dynamics and the associated dysregulation of transcription factor NF-?B. For this ...

Mackenzie, Gerardo G.; Salvador, Gabriela A.; Romero, Carolina; Keen, Carl L.; Oteiza, Patricia I.

2011-01-01

124

Feminization of pheromone-sensing neurons affects mating decisions in Drosophila males.  

Science.gov (United States)

The response of individual animals to mating signals depends on the sexual identity of the individual and the genetics of the mating targets, which represent the mating social context (social environment). However, how social signals are sensed and integrated during mating decisions remains a mystery. One of the models for understanding mating behaviors in molecular and cellular terms is the male courtship ritual in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). We have recently shown that a subset of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) that are enriched in the male appendages and express the ion channel ppk23 play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of male courtship via the perception of cuticular contact pheromones, and are likely to represent the main chemosensory pathway that influences mating decisions by males. Here we show that genetic feminization of ppk23-expressing GRNs in male flies resulted in a significant increase in male-male sexual attraction without an apparent impact on sexual attraction to females. Furthermore, we show that this increase in male-male sexual attraction is sensory specific, which can be modulated by variable social contexts. Finally, we show that feminization of ppk23-expressing sensory neurons lead to major transcriptional shifts, which may explain the altered interpretation of the social environment by feminized males. Together, these data indicate that the sexual cellular identity of pheromone sensing GRNs plays a major role in how individual flies interpret their social environment in the context of mating decisions. PMID:24463366

Lu, Beika; Zelle, Kathleen M; Seltzer, Raya; Hefetz, Abraham; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

2014-01-01

125

Mating induces shrinking and death in Caenorhabditis mothers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactions between the germ line and the soma help optimize reproductive success. We discovered a phenomenon linking reproductive status to longevity: In both hermaphroditic and gonochoristic Caenorhabditis, mating leads to female shrinking and death, compressing postreproductive life span. Male sperm induces germline- and DAF-9/DAF-12-dependent shrinking, osmotic stress susceptibility, and subsequent life-span decrease, whereas seminal fluid induces DAF-16-dependent life-span decrease and fat loss. Our study provides insight into the communication between males and the female germ line and soma to regulate reproduction and longevity, revealing a high-reproduction, low-life-span state induced by mating. Postmating somatic collapse may be an example of the sexually antagonistic influence that males in many species exert on female behavior to maximize their own reproductive success. PMID:24356112

Shi, Cheng; Murphy, Coleen T

2014-01-31

126

Nutritional enrichment increases courtship intensity and improves mating success in male spiders  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The development of male sexual ornaments and the intensity of male courtship behavior are often used by females as criteria for mate choice and by other males to evaluate the strength of a rival. We tested the hypotheses that courtship intensity and mating success depend on the males' nutritional status (enriched or deficient) and that courtship intensity predicts mating success in males of the same nutritional status. We used wolf spiders, Pardosa prativaga, which have an elaborate display of courtship behaviors, including encircling, palp vibrations, abdomen vibrations, hopping, etc. Viability parameters indicated enhanced condition of enriched males. Mating success was higher for nutrient-enriched males in direct competition with deficient males. Enriched males had higher courtship intensity and were also larger (carapace width) but not heavier than deficient males. The statistical analysis indicated that diet effects on courtship intensity were indirect, through its effect on size. In competition tests between males of equal mass and the same diet treatment, the previously most active male (high levels of palp vibrating, abdomen vibrating, and hopping) had the highest mating success, though this result depended on male nutrient status. The widely used residual condition index (RCI) did not distinguish the treatments. It is suggested that the index is unsuitable in a situation of nutritional stress caused by nutrient imbalance. The results underscore the importance of nutrient balancing to all aspects of performance also in predatory animals.

Lomborg, Johannes Peter; Toft, SØren

2009-01-01

127

Ecology and evolution of plant mating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants exhibit complex mating patterns because of their immobility, hermaphroditism and reliance on vectors for pollen transfer. Research on plant mating attempts to determine who mates with whom in plant populations and how and why mating patterns become evolutionarily modified. Most theoretical models of mating-system evolution have focused on the fitness consequences of selling and outcrossing, stimulating considerable empirical work on the ecology and genetics of inbreeding depression. Less attention has been given to how the mechanics of pollen dispersal influence the transmission of self and outcross gametes. Recent work on the relation between pollen dispersal and mating suggests that many features of floral design traditionally interpreted as anti-selling mechanisms may function to reduce the mating costs associated with large floral displays. PMID:21237765

Barrett, S C; Harder, L D

1996-02-01

128

Polyandrous females discriminate against previous mates  

Science.gov (United States)

In most animal species, particularly those in which females engage in polyandry, mate choice is a sequential process in which a female must choose to mate or not to mate with each male encountered. Although a number of theoretical and empirical investigations have examined the effects of sequential mate choice on the operation of sexual selection, how females respond to solicitation by previous mates has received little attention. Here, we report the results of a study carried out on the polyandrous pseudoscorpion, Cordylochernes scorpioides, that assessed the sexual receptivity of once-mated females presented after a lapse of 1.5 hr or 48 hr with either their first mate or a different male. Females exhibited a high level of receptivity to new males, irrespective of intermating interval. By contrast, time between matings exerted a strong effect on female receptivity to previous mates. After a lapse of 48 hr, females did not differ significantly in their receptivity toward previous mates and different males, whereas at 1.5 hr after first mating, females were almost invariably unreceptive to males from whom they had previously accepted sperm. This result could not be attributed to male size or mating experience or to male sexual receptivity. Indeed, males were as willing to transfer sperm to a previous mate as they were to a new female. This difference between males and females in their propensity to remate with the same individual may reflect a conflict between the sexes, with males seeking to minimize postcopulatory sexual selection and females actively keeping open the opportunity for sperm competition and female choice of sperm by discriminating against previous mates. PMID:9811869

Zeh, Jeanne A.; Newcomer, Scott D.; Zeh, David W.

1998-01-01

129

Mating duration and sperm precedence in the spider Linyphia triangularis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In many animal species, mating behaviour is highly ritualised, which may allow us to relate some of its consequences, e.g. male paternity and female receptivity, to the progression of phases in the mating sequence; at the same time, ritualisation raises the question of to what extent the partners, especially the males, are able to influence the outcome of mating for their own benefit. We studied the linyphiid spider Linyphia triangularis in which mating follows a strict sequence during which the male inducts two droplets of sperm and transfers them to the female. We performed sperm competition experiments (sterile-male technique) including four treatments, in which the copulation of the first male was interrupted at prescribed phases of the mating sequence, while the second male was allowed a complete mating. Second males spent a shorter time than first males on the behaviours prior to sperm transfer, but the amount of sperm (2 droplets) and the time spent in sperm transfer were independent of the females’ mating status. The proportion of females accepting the second male depended on the mating duration of the first male, i.e. whether the first male had transferred one or two sperm droplets. After a complete first mating, most females accepted no further males. A last-male sperm precedence was apparent if only half of the first sperm droplet had been transferred by the first male, but this switched to a first male precedence if one full sperm droplet had been transferred. Thus, even in the face of sperm competition, it is sufficient for the first male to transfer one sperm droplet. The second sperm droplet and the extended copulatory courtship associated with its transfer may serve to induce a lack of receptivity in the female, but the males seem unable to enhance their reproductive success through variable copulatory tactics.

Weldingh, Ditte L.; Toft, SØren

2011-01-01

130

2012 International MATE ROV Competition  

Science.gov (United States)

This video, created by the Marine Advanced Technology Education Center, shares highlights of the 2012 International MATE ROV competition, which was held in Orlando, Florida. 55 teams participated in the competition, which aims to get students interested in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM). Teams constructed their own ROVs and also integrated their own control systems in the competition. Running time for the video is 8:57.

131

Mating-induced changes in olfactory-mediated behavior of laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) mated to conspecific males  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were mated with laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild male flies to assess the ability of males to alter olfactory-mediated behavioral responses of females to male-produced pheromone or host fruit odor. Virgin females of all 3 types showed a preferential attraction and arrestment on yellow spheres emitting male-produced pheromone in a laboratory flight tunnel. Laboratory-reared normal and wild females mated to laboratory reared normal, sterile, or wild males switched their behavior showing strong preferential attraction to, arrestment on, and egg-laying in (for laboratory-reared females) yellow spheres emitting host fruit odor (guava) over male-produced pheromone. Sterile females did not show a significant switch in behavior except when mated to sterile males. The olfactory-mediated behavioral switch was most evident in the laboratory-reared normal female × laboratory-reared normal male mating. These findings suggest that irradiation of males inducing gamete sterility does not affect the factor(s) from the male accessory gland associated with altering female olfactory behavior. The ability of sterile males to alter adequately olfactory-mediated behavior of wild females is discussed in the context of the sterile insect technique for control of Mediterranean fruit flies in the field

132

Pairomics, the omics way to mate choice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The core aspects of the biology and evolution of sexual reproduction are reviewed with a focus on the diploid, sexually reproducing, outbreeding, polymorphic, unspecialized, altricial and cultural human species. Human mate choice and pair bonding are viewed as central to individuals' lives and to the evolution of the species, and genetic assistance in reproduction is viewed as a universal human right. Pairomics is defined as an emerging branch of the omics science devoted to the study of mate choice at the genomic level and its consequences for present and future generations. In pairomics, comprehensive genetic information of individual genomes is stored in a database. Computational tools are employed to analyze the mating schemes and rules that govern mating among the members of the database. Mating models and algorithms simulate the outcomes of mating any given genome with each of a number of genomes represented in the database. The analyses and simulations may help to understand mating schemes and their outcomes, and also contribute a new cue to the multicued schemes of mate choice. The scientific, medical, evolutionary, ethical, legal and social implications of pairomics are far reaching. The use of genetic information as a search tool in mate choice may influence our health, lifestyle, behavior and culture. As knowledge on genomics, population genetics and gene-environment interactions, as well as the size of genomic databases expand, so does the ability of pairomics to investigate and predict the consequences of mate choice for the present and future generations. PMID:23945982

Dani, Sergio Ulhoa; März, Winfried; Neves, Paulo Mauricio Serrano; Walter, Gerhard Franz

2013-10-01

133

Parasites influence social rank and morphology, but not mate choice, in female red junglefowl, Gallus gallus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasites can profoundly affect host morphology and behaviour, but previous work has focused on the effects of parasites on males. In the present study, we assessed the effects of infection with the nematode Ascaridia galli on the morphology and behaviour, including mate choice, of female red junglefowl. Hens infected with A. galli had lower mass and smaller combs than unparasitized birds when sexually mature. Parasite status had a significant effect on social rank in all-female flocks, with high-ranking birds being less likely to be parasitized. Larger females had higher social rank, but comb size was unrelated to social status. Neither parasite status nor social rank had any effect on mate choice. These results differ from those found for male red junglefowl, and suggest that males and females may allocate resources differently to comb versus growth. The low cost of choice in the red junglefowl mating system may also contribute to the lack of an effect of parasites and social status on mate choice Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour PMID:9787041

Zuk; Kim; Robinson; Johnsen

1998-08-01

134

The role of perfusion CT in identifying stroke mimics in the emergency room: a case of status epilepticus presenting with perfusion CT alterations  

OpenAIRE

Emergency medicine physicians are often faced with the challenging task of differentiating true acute ischemic strokes from stroke mimics. We present a case that was initially diagnosed as acute stroke. However, perfusion CT and EEG eventually led to the final diagnosis of status epilepticus. This case further asserts the role of CT perfusion in the evaluation of patients with stroke mimics in the emergency room setting.

Guerrero, Waldo R.; Dababneh, Haitham; Eisenschenk, Stephan

2012-01-01

135

The role of perfusion CT in identifying stroke mimics in the emergency room: a case of status epilepticus presenting with perfusion CT alterations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emergency medicine physicians are often faced with the challenging task of differentiating true acute ischemic strokes from stroke mimics. We present a case that was initially diagnosed as acute stroke. However, perfusion CT and EEG eventually led to the final diagnosis of status epilepticus. This case further asserts the role of CT perfusion in the evaluation of patients with stroke mimics in the emergency room setting. PMID:22264341

Guerrero, Waldo R; Dababneh, Haitham; Eisenschenk, Stephan

2012-01-01

136

Communication and choice in yeast mating  

OpenAIRE

Cell-cell communication is essential for all organisms and a hallmark of multicellularity. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mating occurs when two haploid cells of opposite mating types (a and ?), communicate through secreted pheromones and the corresponding transmembrane receptors, to find each other and fuse. I focused on the mating system of S. cerevisiae and used a quantitative approach to ask how yeast cells communicate with each other. I show that ? cells advertise thei...

Gonc?alves Sa?, Maria Joana Patri?cio

2010-01-01

137

Computational mate choice: theory and empirical evidence  

OpenAIRE

The present review is based on the thesis that mate choice results from information-processing mechanisms governed by computational rules and that, to understand how females choose their mates, we should identify which are the sources of information and how they are used to make decisions. We describe mate choice as a three-step computational process and for each step we present theories and review empirical evidence. The first step is a perceptual process. It describes the acquisition of evi...

Cermelli, Paolo; Castellano, Sergio

2012-01-01

138

Mating enhances the probability of winning aggressive encounters in male lobster cockroaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we report that contact with isolated female antenna significantly increases both the pheromone 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B) release and the hemolymph JH III level in all examined aggressive posture-adopting (AP) and NP (non-AP-adopting) socially naïve males, with significantly faster concomitant pre-mating wing-raising behavior in AP as compared to NP males. 3H-2B release and JH III level were significantly increased after mating in both AP and NP males. A positive correlation was observed between mating experience and dominant status. Furthermore, mated-AP males initiated fights more rapidly and fought for a significantly longer duration than mated-NP males; retention with the paired female for 24h did not affect this increase. JH III level and 3H-2B release were significantly increased in dominant males as compared to subordinates. These results suggest that prior mating experience in invertebrates may enhance aggression in subsequent male-male encounters, with accompanying physiological (hormone and pheromone) responses. PMID:23939458

Kou, Rong; Hsu, Chu-Chun

2013-08-01

139

Mating-induced differential coding of plant odour and sex pheromone in a male moth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Innate behaviours in animals can be influenced by several factors, such as the environment, experience, or physiological status. This behavioural plasticity originates from changes in the underlying neuronal substrate. A well-described form of plasticity is induced by mating. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, males experience a post-ejaculatory refractory period, during which they avoid new females. In the male moth Agrotis ipsilon, mating induces a transient inhibition of responses to the female-produced sex pheromone. To understand the neural bases of this inhibition and its possible odour specificity, we carried out a detailed analysis of the response characteristics of the different neuron types from the periphery to the central level. We examined the response patterns of pheromone-sensitive and plant volatile-sensitive neurons in virgin and mated male moths. By using intracellular recordings, we showed that mating changes the response characteristics of pheromone-sensitive antennal lobe (AL) neurons, and thus decreases their sensitivity to sex pheromone. Individual olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) recordings and calcium imaging experiments indicated that pheromone sensory input remains constant. On the other hand, calcium responses to non-pheromonal odours (plant volatiles) increased after mating, as reflected by increased firing frequencies of plant-sensitive AL neurons, although ORN responses to heptanal remained unchanged. We suggest that differential processing of pheromone and plant odours allows mated males to transiently block their central pheromone detection system, and increase non-pheromonal odour detection in order to efficiently locate food sources. PMID:21488987

Barrozo, Romina B; Jarriault, David; Deisig, Nina; Gemeno, Cesar; Monsempes, Christelle; Lucas, Philippe; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

2011-05-01

140

Perspective: matching, mate choice, and speciation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Matching was developed in the 1960s to match such entities as residents and hospitals, colleges and students, or employers and employees. This approach is based on "preference lists," whereby each participant ranks potential partners according to his/her preferences and tries to match with the highest-ranking partner available. Here, we discuss the implications of matching for the study of mate choice and speciation. Matching differs from classic approaches in several respects, most notably because under this theoretical framework, the formation of mating pairs is context-dependant (i.e., it depends on the configuration of pairings in the entire population), because the stability of mating pairs is considered explicitly, and because mate choice is mutual. The use of matching to study mate choice and speciation is not merely a theoretical curiosity; its application can generate counter-intuitive predictions and lead to conclusions that differ fundamentally from classic theories about sexual selection and speciation. For example, it predicts that when mate choice is mutual and the stability of mating pairs is critical for successful reproduction, sympatric speciation is a robust evolutionary outcome. Yet the application of matching to the study of mate choice and speciation has been largely dominated by theoretical studies. We present the hamlets, a group of brightly colored Caribbean coral reef fishes in the genus Hypoplectrus (Serranidae), as a particularly apt system to test empirically specific predictions generated by the application of matching to mate choice and speciation. PMID:21624930

Puebla, O; Bermingham, E; Guichard, F

2011-09-01

141

Reproductive foragers: male spiders choose mates by selecting among competitive environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mate choice frequently operates differently for males and females as a consequence of male competition for mates. Competitive interactions can alter the fitness payoffs of choice and the realization of preferences under natural conditions, yet the majority of male choice studies still use binary trials that ignore social factors. Here we test the importance of contest dynamics in male choice using a framework in which females are considered analogous to foraging patches that are subject to competition. We track the mate choices and interactions of 640 spiders (Nephila plumipes) before and after manipulation of competition within enclosures, modeling the expected fitness payoffs of each male's actual choices and comparing these with all alternative choices. Many males choose new mates once social conditions change and achieve higher fitness than predicted under random movement. Males do not simply move to larger females but choose favorable competitive environments that balance competition and female fecundity, thereby increasing their fitness payoffs. Further, we show for the first time that prior-residence effects, which are known to influence male contests, also have a strong influence in male reproductive contests and can shape male mate choice. These results highlight the importance of situating male choice studies in the relevant social context, as intrasexual interactions can have profound effects on the realization and payoffs of male mate-choice strategies. PMID:24739196

Jordan, Lyndon Alexander; Kokko, Hanna; Kasumovic, Michael

2014-05-01

142

Effect of irradiation on mating ability in the male sweetpotato weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used for suppressing or eradicating target pest insect populations. The effectiveness of SIT depends on the ability of released sterile males to mate with and inseminate wild females. Irradiation is the effective manner to sterilize mass-reared insects. The negative impacts of this procedure are not limited to damage on reproductive cells. Gamma-radiation damages the epithelial tissue of midgut, which affects the alimentation in insects. Irradiated males alter their mating behavior over time because of the depression of metabolic activity by sterilization. In this study, we evaluated the male mating performance and sexually compatibility of irradiated male Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with a 200-Gy dose, as currently used in the SIT program in Okinawa Prefecture, throughout 16 d after irradiation in the laboratory. The mating ability of irradiated males did not differ from that of control males for about a week. However, the mating ability of irradiated male drastically decreased thereafter. We consider that irradiated male C. formicarius elegantulus with a 200-Gy dose had no major effect on male mating behavior approximately for a week after irradiation. PMID:18767728

Kumano, N; Haraguchi, D; Kohama, T

2008-08-01

143

MATE Summer Institutes and Workshops  

Science.gov (United States)

The Marine Advanced Technology Education Center (MATE) hosts workshops and institutes each summer. The events are intended as professional development activities for college, high school and university faculty. The goals of the summer institutes are to: 1. Create an awareness of ocean activities related to marine research, exploration, and industry; 2. Highlight career opportunities associated with these activities; 3. Promote the teaching of higher-level technical, problem-solving, critical thinking, communication, and teamwork skills; and 4. Provide opportunities for educators to interact with employers- and vice versa.

144

NUTRITION OF MATE-TREE WITH AMMONIUM SULFATE FERTILIZER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mate tea leaves are the product of commercialization of the mate-tea tree (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., which leads to a great export of N, requiring its reposition. In previous nutritional studies of the mate-tea tree, it was observed that its production and metabolism was positively influenced by the ammonium form nitrogen fertilizer. This investigation tested different levels of nitrogen fertilization, in its ammonium form, in a commercial plantation, for verifying its effects on the nutritional status and on the productivity. The experiment was assembled in the region of Ivaí - Paraná, using, as fertilizer, the ammonium sulfate in the dosages of 00, 40, 60, 80 kg N ha-1. The statistical design was randomized blocks, with a split-plot arrangement, consisting of four treatments, two evaluation seasons with five replications and twenty plants per plot, being laid out in a 2,0 m x 3,5 m spacing. The evaluation of the plant’s nutritional status was performed through foliar analysis total N, K, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Al, in winter and summer, with fertilizations performed for two years. It was concluded that nitrogen supplied in the form of ammonium sulfate has a positive influence on the biomass up to the rate of 52,5 kg N ha-1. The harvesting season influences the plant’s chemical composition. The fertilization significantly influences the foliar contents of N, K and Mg and Zn during winter and Fe, Cu e Al during summer.

Marcia Marzagão Ribeiro

2008-09-01

145

Genetically Engineered Transvestites Reveal Novel Mating Genes in Budding Yeast  

OpenAIRE

Haploid budding yeast has two mating types, defined by the alleles of the MAT locus, MATa and MAT?. Two haploid cells of opposite mating types mate by signaling to each other using reciprocal pheromones and receptors, polarizing and growing towards each other, and eventually fusing to form a single diploid cell. The pheromones and receptors are necessary and sufficient to define a mating type, but other mating type-specific proteins make mating more efficient. We examined the role of these p...

Huberman, Lori Bromer; Murray, Andrew W.

2013-01-01

146

Podisus nigrispinus requer cópulas longas para o sucesso reprodutivo / Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) requires long matings for successful reproduction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A realização de múltiplas e longas cópulas parece ser importante para a reprodução de percevejos predadores como Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas), mas o comportamento governando essas características permanece desconhecido. Neste estudo foram investigados o comportamento de cópula e a reprodução de P. n [...] igrispinus em função do tamanho do macho, seu status prévio de acasalamento, risco de predação e interrupção de cópulas. A escolha da fêmea para o acasalamento foi estudada sob múltipla escolha, parcial ou sem chance de escolha por machos grandes ou pequenos. O comportamento para o início do acasalamento e tempo de cópula sob risco de predação quando na presença de Polistes versicolor Oliver foi comparado àquele de casais sem risco de predação. Machos e fêmeas de P. nigrispinus acasalaram independentemente do tamanho e status prévio de acasalamento dos machos, além de não apresentarem preferência por parceiros. A duração da cópula, escolha do parceiro e fertilidade das fêmeas não foram influenciadas pelo tamanho do macho, nem a presença do predador alterou o comportamento de acasalamento e duração de cópula. Fêmeas com cópulas interrompidas após 30, 60, 120 e 240 min apresentaram baixa viabilidade de ovos (0; 3,1; 7,7 e 34%, respectivamente), enquanto aquelas com tempo natural de cópula (338 a 671 min) obtiveram 74,2% de viabilidade. Portanto, o sucesso reprodutivo de P. nigrispinus não depende do tamanho do macho ou de seu status de acasalamento, mas requer longas cópulas para a transferência de espermatozóides. Abstract in english The occurrence of multiple and long matings seem to play an important role in the reproduction of the predatory stinkbugs such as Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas). However, the mechanisms underlying these behaviors remain unclear. In this study, the reproduction of P. nigrispinus was investigated as fun [...] ction of females' choice for their mating pair based on male body size and previous mating status, risk of predation and duration of mating. The female mating behavior was studied with female having multiple, partial or no partner choice based on male body size. Time to initiate a mating and its duration was observed after pairing males and females under risk of predation imposed by the presence of the predatory wasp Polistes versicolor Oliver. In addition, aiming to determine the reasons for long lasting matings, female had their mating interrupted at different intervals. Our data indicated that P. nigrispinus females do not select male partners as function of their body size and mating status. Duration of mating, mating partners' choice, and female fecundity and fertility were not influenced by the male size and risk of predation imposed by the predatory wasps. Mating interrupted after 30, 60, 120 and 240 min resulted in only 0, 3.1, 7.7 and 34% of egg hatching compared to 74.2% under uninterrupted mating (338 to 671 min long). Therefore, the reproductive success of P. nigrispinus females does not depend on male size and male mating status, but requires long-lasting mating as a condition for adequate spermatozoa transference to females instead.

Agna R S, Rodrigues; Jorge B, Torres; Herbert A A, Siqueira; Valéria W, Teixeira.

2009-12-01

147

Altered vitamin D status in liver tissue and blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study compared vitamin D3 (vitD3) and 25-OH vitamin D3 (25OHD3) status in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) given either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber high in organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) or clean porcine (Suis scrofa) fat for up to 636 days. A group of six exposed and six control sister bitches (maternal generation) and their three exposed and four control pups, respectively, were daily fed 112g whale blubber (193µg ?PCB/day) or porcine fat (0.17µg ?PCB/day). Mean level of ?PCB in adipose tissue of exposed bitches and their pups was 3106 and 2670ng/g lw, respectively, which was significantly higher than the mean concentration of 53ng/g lw for all controls (p

Sonne, Christian; Kirkegaard, Maja

2014-01-01

148

Prism adaptation does not alter configural processing of faces [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1wk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patients with hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’ following a brain lesion show difficulty responding or orienting to objects and events on the left side of space. Substantial evidence supports the use of a sensorimotor training technique called prism adaptation as a treatment for neglect. Reaching for visual targets viewed through prismatic lenses that induce a rightward shift in the visual image results in a leftward recalibration of reaching movements that is accompanied by a reduction of symptoms in patients with neglect. The understanding of prism adaptation has also been advanced through studies of healthy participants, in whom adaptation to leftward prismatic shifts results in temporary neglect-like performance. Interestingly, prism adaptation can also alter aspects of non-lateralised spatial attention. We previously demonstrated that prism adaptation alters the extent to which neglect patients and healthy participants process local features versus global configurations of visual stimuli. Since deficits in non-lateralised spatial attention are thought to contribute to the severity of neglect symptoms, it is possible that the effect of prism adaptation on these deficits contributes to its efficacy. This study examines the pervasiveness of the effects of prism adaptation on perception by examining the effect of prism adaptation on configural face processing using a composite face task. The composite face task is a persuasive demonstration of the automatic global-level processing of faces: the top and bottom halves of two familiar faces form a seemingly new, unknown face when viewed together. Participants identified the top or bottom halves of composite faces before and after prism adaptation. Sensorimotor adaptation was confirmed by significant pointing aftereffect, however there was no significant change in the extent to which the irrelevant face half interfered with processing. The results support the proposal that the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation are limited to dorsal stream processing.

Janet H. Bultitude

2013-10-01

149

Courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Lourenço & Qi, 2005 (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae from Xizang province, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the current work, the courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Lourenço & Qi, 2005 (Euscorpiidae from Xizang province (Tibet, China, were studied for the first time in the laboratory. Most of the mating behaviors in Scorpiops luridus are not remarkably different from those exhibited by other scorpions. However, for the first time a male pulling a female with its chelicerae to rapidly accomplish the sperm uptake was observed. Additionally, the sexual stinging behavior displayed by the male occurred in the initial stage, not during the promenade stage as previously described in several scorpion species. Through observation and analysis, we speculate that venom injection during sexual stinging is selective, possibly relying on the status shown by the stung scorpion (passive or aggressive. In order to clearly describe the process of courtship and mating, both sequences are represented in a flow chart, while the main behavior components of these processes were identified, analyzed and discussed.

GB Jiao

2010-01-01

150

Chemical mating cues in C. elegans.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the natural environment it is vital that organisms are capable of locating mates to reproduce and, consequently, increase the diversity of their gene pool. Many species make use of audio and visual communication for mate location. However, the more ancient form of chemical communication is used by all forms of life, from bacteria to mammals. In the past decade, much information has been discovered regarding pheromones in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this review, chemical signals that govern mating behavior in C. elegans will be discussed, from the existence and identification of mating cues, to the neurons involved in the behavioral response. Specifically, mate attraction is dictated by specific glycosides and side chains of the dideoxysugar ascarylose, a class of molecules known as ascarosides. Intriguingly, modifications of the ascarosides can dictate different behaviors such as male attraction, hermaphrodite attraction, and dauer formation. In general, interactions between core sensory neurons such as ASK and sex-specific neurons like CEM are critical for detecting these small molecules. These data reveal the existence of a complex, synergistic, chemical mating cue system between males and hermaphrodites in C. elegans, thereby highlighting the importance of mate attraction in a primarily hermaphroditic population. PMID:24977334

Chute, Christopher D; Srinivasan, Jagan

2014-09-01

151

Mating and fecundity of Dermatophagoides farinae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of the life cycle of cultured Dermatophagoides farinae found that after an initial mating D. farinae females lived for 63.3+/-64.6 (SD) d after their egg production period ended (Arlian and Dippold 1996). The long period after cessation of egg production for D. farinae suggested D. farinae females could mate multiple times and produce eggs continuously for a longer period. The purpose of this study was to determine if female D. farinae could mate at least two times, and subsequently increase the production of viable eggs over a longer period of time compared to a single mating. Female D. farinae were randomly selected from thriving cultures and isolated in cages. When the females had ceased to lay eggs a male was added to the cage. Fifty-seven percent of the isolated females mated again and produced a second batch of viable eggs. In natural or culture populations, females have continuous availability of males. Therefore, in another experiment, females that emerged from the tritonymphal stages were continuously exposed to fresh males and fecundity and lengths of the reproductive and post reproductive periods were determined. These females had a 11 d longer reproductive period and produced 30.7% more eggs compared to females that only mated one time after they emerged from the tritonymphal stage. However, the post reproductive period was still long (58.6+/-11.4 [SE] d) the significance of which is not clear. In conclusion, this study revealed that D. farinae females are capable of more than one successful mating that results in increased egg production compared to that of a single mating. It is likely that females mate multiple times in natural and culture populations. It was observed that females actively attract males during the reproductive period but not afterward even though she continues to live a long time. PMID:12475078

Alexander, Andrea; Fall, Ndate; Arlian, Larry

2002-01-01

152

The role of pheromone receptors for communication and mating in Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei).  

Science.gov (United States)

Discovery of sexual development in the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) as well as detection of a novel class of peptide pheromone precursors in this fungus indicates promising insights into its physiology and lifestyle. Here we investigated the role of the two pheromone receptors HPR1 and HPR2 in the H. jecorina pheromone-system. We found that these pheromone receptors show an unexpectedly high genetic variability among H. jecorina strains. HPR1 and HPR2 confer female fertility in their cognate mating types (MAT1-1 or MAT1-2, respectively) and mediate induction of fruiting body development. One compatible pheromone precursor-pheromone receptor pair (hpr1-hpp1 or hpr2-ppg1) in mating partners was sufficient for sexual development. Additionally, pheromone receptors were essential for ascospore development, hence indicating their involvement in post-fertilisation events. Neither pheromone precursor genes nor pheromone receptor genes of H. jecorina were transcribed in a strictly mating type dependent manner, but showed enhanced expression levels in the cognate mating type. In the presence of a mating partner under conditions favoring sexual development, transcript levels of pheromone precursors were significantly increased, while those of pheromone receptor genes do not show this trend. In the female sterile T. reesei strain QM6a, transcriptional responses of pheromone precursor and pheromone receptor genes to a mating partner were clearly altered compared to the female fertile wild-type strain CBS999.97. Consequently, a delayed and inappropriate response to the mating partner may be one aspect causing female sterility in QM6a. PMID:22884620

Seibel, Christian; Tisch, Doris; Kubicek, Christian P; Schmoll, Monika

2012-10-01

153

Both mating types of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola are present in Morocco.  

Science.gov (United States)

Septoria tritici blotch caused by the heterothallic ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola is one of the most currently damaging diseases on wheat crops worldwide. So far, no information was reported about the status of sexual reproduction of this pathogen under Moroccan conditions. We investigated here for the first time the occurrence of the two mating types (MAT1-1 and MAT1-2) of M. graminicola in Morocco by sampling 141 single-conidial isolates from 4 important wheat producing regions (Gharb, Saïs, Chaouia and Tadla). The mating type of each isolate was determined by amplification with multiplex PCR of a partial sequence from the corresponding idiomorph. Overall, 43% out of the assessed isolates were MAT1-1 and 57 % were MAT1-2. Both mating types were identified within the 3 sampled regions Gharb, Saïs and Chaouia, but not in Tadla, where only MAT1-2 isolates were found. The presence of the two mating types highlighted here offers a suitable genetic condition for M. graminicola to occur sexual reproduction in Morocco. The potential of sexual recombination will be examined by the study of mating type frequencies using a large sample size as well as by searching and quantification of pseudothecia in the field. PMID:21534472

Elbekali, A Y; Ramdani, A; Tisserant, B; Deweer, C; Siah, A; Reignault, Ph; Halama, P

2010-01-01

154

On the proper functions of human mate preference adaptations: comment on Eastwick, Luchies, Finkel, and Hunt (2014).  

Science.gov (United States)

Evolutionary psychologists have hypothesized that humans possess sex-differentiated mate preference adaptations. In the context of long-term mating, men are hypothesized to more strongly prefer cues to youth and fecundity, whereas women are hypothesized to more strongly prefer cues to status-related attributes. Eastwick, Luchies, Finkel, and Hunt (2014) recently asserted that if men and women evolved sex-differentiated desires, they should exhibit similarly sex-differentiated relational outcomes such as marital satisfaction in response to whether a partner fulfills those desires. This seemingly reasonable extrapolation from sex differences in mate preferences to sex differences in relationship outcomes is, from an evolutionary perspective, problematic and warrants careful conceptual analysis. Evolutionary psychologists have not predicted that selecting a mate with sex-differentiated desirable qualities always translates to more satisfying, trusting, and passionate relational outcomes. Indeed, in some cases obtaining an ideal partner is expected to lead to negative outcomes, such as incurring the costs of heightened courtship effort, mate retention exertion, and the painful experience of jealousy. There are 4 additional concerns with the Eastwick et al. analysis: (a) heterogeneous operationalizations of predictor and criterion variables, (b) inadequate treatment of individual differences in the expression of evolved mate preferences, (c) an overlooking of physical appearance cues central to women's long-term mate preferences, and (d) the impact of nonrandom mateship formation on sex-linked variances in preferred attributes (e.g., low status men and unattractive women may be underrepresented in studies of established couples). As conducted, the Eastwick et al. analyses, while valuable, did not adequately test function-related hypotheses derived from the evolutionary psychology of mate preferences. PMID:24773503

Schmitt, David P

2014-05-01

155

Evaluation of potential gender-related differences in behavioral and cognitive alterations following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in C57BL/6 mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Together with pharmacoresistant seizures, the quality of life of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients is negatively impacted by behavioral comorbidities including but not limited to depression, anxiety and cognitive deficits. The pilocarpine model of TLE has been widely used to study characteristics of human TLE, including behavioral comorbidities. Since the outcomes of pilocarpine-induced TLE might vary depending on several experimental factors, we sought to investigate potential gender-related differences regarding selected behavioral alterations in C57BL6 mice. We found that epileptic mice, independent of gender, displayed increased anxiety-like behavior in the open-field test. In the object recognition test, epileptic mice, regardless of gender, showed a decreased recognition index at 24 (but not at 4) hours after training. On the other hand, no significant differences were found regarding mice learning and memory performance in the Barnes maze paradigm. Motor coordination and balance as assessed by the beam walk and rotarod tests were not impaired in epileptic mice of both genders. However, female mice, independent of epilepsy, performed the beam walk and rotarod tasks better than their male counterparts. We also found that only male epileptic mice displayed disturbed behavior in the forced swim test, but the mice of both genders displayed anhedonia-like behavior in the taste preference test. Lastly, we found that the extent of hilar cell loss is similar in both genders. In summary, both genders can be successfully employed to study behavioral comorbidities of TLE; however, taking the potential gender differences into account may help choose the more appropriated gender for a given task, which may be of value for the minimization of the number of animals used during the experiments. PMID:25749198

Oliveira, Clarissa Vasconcelos de; Grigoletto, Jéssica; Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider

2015-05-01

156

Altered Realities  

OpenAIRE

'Altered Realities' is an ongoing private photographic project exploring how perception can be altered without changing a fundamentally familiar structure. The pictures present the banal and the comfortably familiar in an unfamiliar way, objects and vistas that are part of the background and blend into the environment.

Linda Tilling

2007-01-01

157

Mate choice and mate competition by a tropical hummingbird at a floral resource  

OpenAIRE

The influence of male territorial and foraging behaviours on female choice has received little attention in studies of resource-defence mating systems even though such male behaviours are thought to affect variation in their territory quality and mating success. Here we show that female purple-throated carib hummingbirds Eulampis jugularis preferred to mate with males that had high standing crops of nectar on their flower territories. A male's ability to maintain high nectar standing crops on...

Temeles, Ethan J.; Kress, W. John

2010-01-01

158

Identification and Characterization of a Candida albicans Mating Pheromone  

OpenAIRE

Candida albicans, the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans, has recently been shown to undergo mating. Here we describe a mating pheromone produced by C. albicans ? cells and show that the gene which encodes it (MF?) is required for ? cells, but not a cells, to mate. We also identify the receptor for this mating pheromone as the product of the STE2 gene and show that this gene is required for the mating of a cells, but not ? cells. Cells of the a mating type respond to the ? mating p...

Bennett, Richard J.; Uhl, M. Andrew; Miller, Mathew G.; Johnson, Alexander D.

2003-01-01

159

Genes regulated by mating, sperm, or seminal proteins in mated female Drosophila melanogaster.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Drosophila melanogaster, sperm and accessory gland proteins ("Acps," a major component of seminal fluid) transferred by males during mating trigger many physiological and behavioral changes in females (reviewed in ). Determining the genetic changes triggered in females by male-derived molecules and cells is a crucial first step in understanding female responses to mating and the female's role in postcopulatory processes such as sperm competition, cryptic female choice, and sexually antagonistic coevolution. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to compare gene expression in D. melanogaster females that were either virgin, mated to normal males, mated to males lacking sperm, or mated to males lacking both sperm and Acps. Expression of up to 1783 genes changed as a result of mating, most less than 2-fold. Of these, 549 genes were regulated by the receipt of sperm and 160 as a result of Acps that females received from their mates. The remaining genes whose expression levels changed were modulated by nonsperm/non-Acp aspects of mating. The mating-dependent genes that we have identified contribute to many biological processes including metabolism, immune defense, and protein modification. PMID:15324670

McGraw, Lisa A; Gibson, Greg; Clark, Andrew G; Wolfner, Mariana F

2004-08-24

160

The effects of habitat fragmentation on the social kin structure and mating system of the agile antechinus, Antechinus agilis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Habitat fragmentation is one of the major contributors to the loss of biodiversity worldwide. However, relatively little is known about its more immediate impacts on within-patch population processes such as social structure and mating systems, whose alteration may play an important role in extinction risk. We investigated the impacts of habitat fragmentation due to the establishment of an exotic softwood plantation on the social kin structure and breeding system of the Australian marsupial carnivore, Antechinus agilis. Restricted dispersal by males in fragmented habitat resulted in elevated relatedness among potential mates in populations in fragments, potentially increasing the risk of inbreeding. Antechinus agilis nests communally in tree hollows; these nests are important points for social contact between males and females in the mating season. In response to elevated relatedness among potential mates in fragmented habitat, A. agilis significantly avoided sharing nests with opposite-sex relatives in large fragment sites (but not in small ones, possibly due to limited nest locations and small population sizes). Because opposite-sex individuals shared nests randomly with respect to relatedness in unfragmented habitat, we interpreted the phenomenon in fragmented habitat as a precursor to inbreeding avoidance via mate choice. Despite evidence that female A. agilis at high inbreeding risk selected relatively unrelated mates, there was no overall increased avoidance of related mates by females in fragmented habitats compared to unfragmented habitats. Simulations indicated that only dispersal, and not nonrandom mating, contributed to inbreeding avoidance in either habitat context. However, habitat fragmentation did influence the mating system in that the degree of multiple paternity was reduced due to the reduction in population sizes and population connectivity. This, in turn, reduced the number of males available to females in the breeding season. This suggests that in addition to the obvious impacts of reduced recruitment, patch recolonization and increased genetic drift, the isolation of populations in habitat patches may cause changes in breeding behaviour that contribute to the negative impacts of habitat fragmentation. PMID:15836650

Banks, S C; Ward, S J; Lindenmayer, D B; Finlayson, G R; Lawson, S J; Taylor, A C

2005-05-01

161

Observing free-swimming copepods mating  

OpenAIRE

Planktonic copepods are small transparent animals swimming in water. To observe how a male finds its mate, special optical systems had to be designed. The animals are treated as phase objects and matched spatial filters allow three-dimensional recordings of the swimming behaviour in a 1-litre vessel. Application of the techniques described shows how a male cyclopoid copepod swims for 20 s in synchronicity with the female before mating. Results stemming from observations with this optical syst...

Strickler, J. R.

1998-01-01

162

Schizotypy, creativity and mating success in humans  

OpenAIRE

There is an evolutionary puzzle surrounding the persistence of schizophrenia, since it is substantially heritable and associated with sharply reduced fitness. However, some of the personality traits which are predictive of schizophrenia are also associated with artistic creativity. Geoffrey Miller has proposed that artistic creativity functions to attract mates. Here, we investigate the relationship between schizotypal personality traits, creative activity, and mating success in a large sampl...

Nettle, Daniel; Clegg, Helen

2005-01-01

163

Effect of 60CO radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and qualitative profile of bioactive compounds. (author)

164

Effect of 60Co radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10 kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10 kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and qualitative profile of bioactive compounds. (author)

165

MATING DESIGNS: HELPFUL TOOL FOR QUANTITATIVE PLANT BREEDING ANALYSIS  

OpenAIRE

Selection of parental materials and good mating designs in conventional plant breeding are the keys to the successful plant breeding programme. However, there are several factors affecting the choices of mating designs. Mating design refers to the procedure of producing the progenies, in plant breeding, plant breeders and geneticists, theoretically and practically, they use different form of mating designs and arrangements for targeted purpose. The choice of a mating design for estimating gen...

Athanase Nduwumuremyi; Pangirayi Tongoona; Slyvestre Habimana

2013-01-01

166

Scented males and choosy females: does male odor influence female mate choice in the Mediterranean fruit fly?  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), displays a lek mating system characterized by a high level of female discrimination among potential mates. The basis of female choice is not understood, but recent studies indicate that male exposure to the aroma of certain plant structures or essential oils may increase mating success. In particular, exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) enhances male mating frequency, and several sterile-male release programs against C. capitata have incorporated 'aromatherapy' (large-scale exposure of pre-release insects to GRO) to increase the effectiveness of control efforts. We investigated the mechanism underlying female preference for GRO-exposed males. Two sets of experiments were conducted. In the first, we monitored female attraction to (1) freshly killed flies, or (2) paper discs that contained hexane extracts from varying treatments. In these tests, females were sighted more often (1) near GRO-exposed than non-exposed males (even when the males were visually concealed) and (2) near extracts from GRO-exposed than non-exposed males. These findings suggest a 'perfume effect', whereby female mate choice is mediated by olfactory differences. In the second set, we compared (1) mate choice between intact females and females from which both antennae had been surgically removed, and (2) mating success between intact males and males from which both antennae had been surgically removed before GRO exposure. Intact females preferred GRO-exposed males, whereas females lacking both antennae rarely mated and showed no preference between GRO-exposed and non-exposed males. In the opposite treatment (intact females but surgically altered males), GRO-exposed males lacking both antennae mated as frequently as GRO-exposed intact males. These data suggest that female choice was dependent on olfactory perception of male odor but that male mating success did not depend on olfactory perception of GRO aroma, suggesting, in turn, that GRO conferred a mating advantage through an external phenomenon (possibly alteration of cuticular scent) rather than through internal processing (pheromone synthesis). PMID:18030532

Shelly, Todd E; Edu, James; Pahio, Elaine; Nishimoto, Jon

2007-12-01

167

Sampling and assessment accuracy in mate choice: a random-walk model of information processing in mating decision.  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Mate choice depends on mating preferences and on the manner in which mate-quality information is acquired and used to make decisions. We present a model that describes how these two components of mating decision interact with each other during a comparative evaluation of prospective mates. The model, with its well-explored precedents in psychology and neurophysiology, assumes that decisions are made by the integration over time of noisy information until a stopping-rule cr...

Castellano, Sergio; Cermelli, Paolo

2011-01-01

168

Treatment with melatonin after status epilepticus attenuates seizure activity and neuronal damage but does not prevent the disturbance in diurnal rhythms and behavioral alterations in spontaneously hypertensive rats in kainate model of temporal lobe epilepsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is involved in the control of circadian and seasonal rhythmicity, possesses potent antioxidant activity, and exerts a neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effect. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) are widely accepted as an experimental model of essential hypertension with hyperactivity, deficient sustained attention, and alterations in circadian autonomic profiles. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether melatonin treatment during epileptogenesis can prevent the deleterious consequences of status epilepticus (SE) in SHRs in the kainate (KA) model of temporal lobe of epilepsy (TLE). Spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) were EEG- and video-recorded during and after the treatment protocol. Melatonin (10mg/kg diluted in drinking water, 8weeks) increased the seizure-latent period, decreased the frequency of SRSs, and attenuated the circadian rhythm of seizure activity in SHRs. However, melatonin was unable to affect the disturbed diurnal rhythms and behavioral changes associated with epilepsy, including the decreased anxiety level, depression, and impaired spatial memory. Melatonin reduced neuronal damage specifically in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and piriform cortex and decreased hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) levels both in control and epileptic SHRs. Although long-term melatonin treatment after SE shows a potential to attenuate seizure activity and neuronal loss, it is unable to restore epilepsy-associated behavioral abnormalities in SHRs. PMID:24440891

Petkova, Zlatina; Tchekalarova, Jana; Pechlivanova, Daniela; Moyanova, Slavianka; Kortenska, Lidia; Mitreva, Rumiana; Popov, Deyan; Markova, Petya; Lozanov, Valentin; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Lazarov, Nikolai; Stoynev, Alexander

2014-02-01

169

Sustained Post-Mating Response in Drosophila melanogaster Requires Multiple Seminal Fluid Proteins  

OpenAIRE

Successful reproduction is critical to pass genes to the next generation. Seminal proteins contribute to important reproductive processes that lead to fertilization in species ranging from insects to mammals. In Drosophila, the male's accessory gland is a source of seminal fluid proteins that affect the reproductive output of males and females by altering female post-mating behavior and physiology. Protein classes found in the seminal fluid of Drosophila are similar to those of other organism...

Ram, K. Ravi; Wolfner, Mariana F.

2007-01-01

170

Male choice of mates and mating resources in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus).  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 24, ?. 5 (2013), s. 1199-1204. ISSN 1045-2249 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : body size * fecundity * male mate choice * mating system * oviposition * sperm competition * territoriality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.157, year: 2013

Casalini, M.; Reichard, Martin; Phillips, A.; Smith, Carl

2013-01-01

171

Condition-dependent mate choice: A stochastic dynamic programming approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

We study how changing female condition during the mating season and condition-dependent search costs impact female mate choice, and what strategies a female could employ in choosing mates to maximize her own fitness. We address this problem via a stochastic dynamic programming model of mate choice. In the model, a female encounters males sequentially and must choose whether to mate or continue searching. As the female searches, her own condition changes stochastically, and she incurs condition-dependent search costs. The female attempts to maximize the quality of the offspring, which is a function of the female's condition at mating and the quality of the male with whom she mates. The mating strategy that maximizes the female's net expected reward is a quality threshold. We compare the optimal policy with other well-known mate choice strategies, and we use simulations to examine how well the optimal policy fares under imperfect information. PMID:24996205

Frame, Alicia M; Mills, Alex F

2014-09-01

172

Associations of Collectivism with Relationship Commitment, Passion, and Mate Preferences: Opposing Roles of Parental Influence and Family Allocentrism  

Science.gov (United States)

In collectivist cultures, families tend to be characterized by respect for parental authority and strong, interdependent ties. Do these aspects of collectivism exert countervailing pressures on mate choices and relationship quality? In the present research, we found that collectivism was associated with greater acceptance of parental influence over mate choice, thereby driving relationship commitment down (Studies 1 and 2), but collectivism was also associated with stronger family ties (referred to as family allocentrism), which drove commitment up (Study 2). Along similar lines, Study 1 found that collectivists’ greater acceptance of parental influence on mate choice contributed to their reduced relationship passion, whereas Study 2 found that their greater family allocentrism may have enhanced their passion. Study 2 also revealed that collectivists may have reported a smaller discrepancy between their own preferences for mates high in warmth and trustworthiness and their perception of their parents’ preferences for these qualities because of their stronger family allocentrism. However, their higher tolerance of parental influence may have also contributed to a smaller discrepancy in their mate preferences versus their perceptions of their parents’ preferences for qualities signifying status and resources. Implications for the roles of collectivism, parental influence, and family allocentrism in relationship quality and mate selection will be discussed. PMID:25719563

Bejanyan, Kathrine; Marshall, Tara C.; Ferenczi, Nelli

2015-01-01

173

Mate sampling and choosiness in the sand goby.  

Science.gov (United States)

To date, mate choice studies have mostly focused on establishing which mates are chosen or how the choices are performed. Here, we combined these two approaches by empirically testing how latency to mate is affected by various search costs, variation in mate quality and female quality in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus). Our results show that females adjust their mating behaviour according to the costs and benefits of the choice situation. Specifically, they mated sooner when access to males was delayed and when the presence of other females presented a mate sampling cost. We also found a positive link between size variation among potential mating partners and spawning delay in some (but not all) experimental conditions. By contrast, we did not find the number of available males or the females' own body size ('quality') to affect mating latency. Finally, female mating behaviour varied significantly between years. These findings are notable for demonstrating that (i) mate sampling time is particularly sensitive to costs and, to a lesser degree, to variation among mate candidates, (ii) females' mating behaviour is sensitive to qualitative rather than to quantitative variation in their environment, and (iii) a snapshot view may describe mate sampling behaviour unreliably. PMID:23804620

Lindström, Kai; Lehtonen, Topi K

2013-08-22

174

Genetically engineered transvestites reveal novel mating genes in budding yeast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Haploid budding yeast has two mating types, defined by the alleles of the MAT locus, MATa and MAT?. Two haploid cells of opposite mating types mate by signaling to each other using reciprocal pheromones and receptors, polarizing and growing toward each other, and eventually fusing to form a single diploid cell. The pheromones and receptors are necessary and sufficient to define a mating type, but other mating-type-specific proteins make mating more efficient. We examined the role of these proteins by genetically engineering "transvestite" cells that swap the pheromone, pheromone receptor, and pheromone processing factors of one mating type for another. These cells mate with each other, but their mating is inefficient. By characterizing their mating defects and examining their transcriptomes, we found Afb1 (a-factor barrier), a novel MAT?-specific protein that interferes with a-factor, the pheromone secreted by MATa cells. Strong pheromone secretion is essential for efficient mating, and the weak mating of transvestites can be improved by boosting their pheromone production. Synthetic biology can characterize the factors that control efficiency in biological processes. In yeast, selection for increased mating efficiency is likely to have continually boosted pheromone levels and the ability to discriminate between partners who make more and less pheromone. This discrimination comes at a cost: weak mating in situations where all potential partners make less pheromone. PMID:24121774

Huberman, Lori B; Murray, Andrew W

2013-12-01

175

Transcriptome and functional analysis of mating in the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we undertook a functional characterization and transcriptome analysis that enabled a comprehensive study of the mating type loci of the mushroom Schizophyllum commune. Induced expression of both the bar2 receptor and the bap2(2) pheromone gene within 6 to 12 h after mates' contact was demonstrated by quantitative real-time PCR. Similar temporal expression patterns were confirmed for the allelic bbr1 receptor and bbp1 pheromone-encoding genes by Northern hybridization. Interestingly, the fusion of clamp connections to the subterminal cell was delayed in mating interactions in which one of the compatible partners expressed the bar2 receptor with a truncated C terminus. This developmental delay allowed the visualization of a green fluorescent protein (Gfp)-labeled truncated receptor at the cell periphery, consistent with a localization in the plasma membrane of unfused pseudoclamps. This finding does not support hypotheses envisioning a receptor localization to the nuclear membrane facilitating recognition between the two different nuclei present in each dikaryotic cell. Rather, Gfp fluorescence observed in such pseudoclamps indicated a role of receptor-pheromone interaction in clamp fusion. Transcriptome changes associated with mating interactions were analyzed in order to identify a role for pheromone-receptor interactions. We detected a total of 89 genes that were transcriptionally regulated in a mating type locus A-dependent manner, employing a cutoff of 5-fold changes in transcript abundance. Upregulation in cell cycle-related genes and downregulation of genes involved in metabolism were seen with this set of experiments. In contrast, mating type locus B-dependent transcriptome changes were observed in 208 genes, with a specific impact on genes related to cell wall and membrane metabolism, stress response, and the redox status of the cell. PMID:22210832

Erdmann, Susann; Freihorst, Daniela; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Jung, Elke-Martina; Senftleben, Dominik; Kothe, Erika

2012-05-01

176

Calidad microbiológica de yerba mate canchada / Microbiological quality of canchada yerba mate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Yerba mate canchada es una de las formas de comercialización de la yerba mate. Se obtiene en las primeras etapas del proceso de elaboración, mediante la trituración gruesa de las hojas secas luego del sapecado y secado de las mismas, constituyendo la materia prima de los molinos. Los objetivos de nu [...] estro trabajo fueron evaluar la calidad microbiológica de yerba mate canchada, y observar si el período de estacionamiento influye en la proliferación de microorganismos en el procesamiento de la yerba mate. Se realizó el análisis microbiológico de 20 muestras de yerba mate canchada mediante recuentos de bacterias aeróbicas mesófilas totales (BAMT), coliformes totales (CT), coliformes termotolerantes (CTT), hongos y levaduras (RHL) y detección de Escherichia coli. Los recuentos microbiológicos presentaron valores en promedio para BAMT de 2,2 x 10³ UFC/g; para CT de 5,5 x 10² NMP/g; para CTT Abstract in english Milled (canchada) yerba mate is one of the commercial forms of yerba mate. It is obtained in the early stages of the manufacturing process, through the coarse grinding of dry leaves after sapecado and drying, which constitute the raw material for mills. The objectives of our work were to assess the [...] microbiological quality of canchada yerba mate, and to observe if the ageing period influences the proliferation of microorganisms in yerba mate processing. Microbiological analysis of 20 samples of canchada yerba mate was carried out by total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (BAMT), total coliform (RCT), fecal coliforms (RCTT), fungi and yeasts (RHL) counting, and Escherichia coli detection. Microbiological counting showed average values of 2.2 xl0³ UFC/g for BAMT, of 5.5 x 10² NMP/g for CT;

Marta A, Horianski; María L, Castrillo; Ayelen B, Tayagui; Gladis, Jerke.

2012-06-01

177

Sexual behavior, cannibalism, and mating plugs as sticky traps in the orb weaver spider Leucauge argyra (Tetragnathidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Unpublished field observations in Leucauge argyra, a tropical orb weaver spider, suggest the occurrence of conspicuous mating plugs that could reduce or prevent remating attempts. Otherwise, the sexual behavior of this species remains unknown. The aims of this study were to describe the courtship behavior and copulation in L. argyra and investigate mating plug formation in this species. Fourteen virgin females and 12 plugged females were exposed to up to three males and checked for mating plug formation. Of the 12 virgins that copulated, nine produced plugs (five immediately after copulation), and the five plugged females that copulated produced another mating plug immediately after copulation. We did not detect the transfer of any male substance during copulation but observed a whitish liquid emerging from female genital ducts. Plug formation was positively associated with male twanging during courtship. One virgin and four plugged females cannibalized males. In seven trials with virgins and in three trials with plugged females, the male's palp adhered to a substance that emerged from female genital ducts and spread on her genital plate. The male had to struggle energetically to free his glued palp; two of these males were cannibalized while trying to release their palps. Females seem to determine copulation duration by altering the timing of mating plug formation and through sexual cannibalism. This is the first case reported of a mating plug as a sticky trap for males.

Aisenberg, Anita; Barrantes, Gilbert

2011-07-01

178

Mating regulates neuromodulator ensembles at nerve termini innervating the Drosophila reproductive tract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Upon mating, regions of the female reproductive tract mature and alter their function [1-3], for example to facilitate storage of sperm or control the release of eggs [4-6]. The female's nervous system and neuromodulators play important roles in her responses to mating [7-13]. However, it is difficult to reconcile the reproductive tract's many changing but coordinated events with the small set of neuromodulators present [14-18]. We hypothesized that each part of the reproductive tract contains a characteristic combination of neuromodulators that confer unique identities on each region and that postmating changes in these combinations coordinate subsequent actions. We examined the presence, locations, and levels of neuromodulators and related molecules ("signaling molecules") in the reproductive tract of Drosophila melanogaster females before and after mating: the biogenic amine octopamine, which regulates ovulation rate in Drosophila and locusts [7, 14-20]; serotonin, which regulates muscle contraction in locust oviducts [21]; and the FMRF amide dromyosuppressin, which regulates contraction of Drosophila heart muscle [22] and may regulate muscle contractions in the reproductive tract, if it is expressed there. We find that separate aspects of mating (sperm, seminal proteins, and physical effects) independently modulate the release of signaling molecules. Each reproductive tract subregion displays a characteristic combination of signaling molecule release, resulting in a unique functional identity. These patterns, and thus functions, change reproducibly after mating. Thus, one event (mating) promotes new combinations of signaling molecules that endow different parts of the reproductive tract with unique temporal and spatial identities that facilitate many aspects of fertilization. PMID:24631240

Heifetz, Yael; Lindner, Moshe; Garini, Yuval; Wolfner, Mariana F

2014-03-31

179

Chemical profiles of two pheromone glands are differentially regulated by distinct mating factors in honey bee queens (Apis mellifera L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Pheromones mediate social interactions among individuals in a wide variety of species, from yeast to mammals. In social insects such as honey bees, pheromone communication systems can be extraordinarily complex and serve to coordinate behaviors among many individuals. One of the primary mediators of social behavior and organization in honey bee colonies is queen pheromone, which is produced by multiple glands. The types and quantities of chemicals produced differ significantly between virgin and mated queens, and recent studies have suggested that, in newly mated queens, insemination volume or quantity can affect pheromone production. Here, we examine the long-term impact of different factors involved during queen insemination on the chemical composition of the mandibular and Dufour's glands, two of the major sources of queen pheromone. Our results demonstrate that carbon dioxide (an anesthetic used in instrumental insemination), physical manipulation of genital tract (presumably mimicking the act of copulation), insemination substance (saline vs. semen), and insemination volume (1 vs. 8 µl) all have long-term effects on mandibular gland chemical profiles. In contrast, Dufour's gland chemical profiles were changed only upon insemination and were not influenced by exposure to carbon dioxide, manipulation, insemination substance or volume. These results suggest that the chemical contents of these two glands are regulated by different neuro-physiological mechanisms. Furthermore, workers responded differently to the different mandibular gland extracts in a choice assay. Although these studies must be validated in naturally mated queens of varying mating quality, our results suggest that while the chemical composition of Dufour's gland is associated with mating status, that of the mandibular glands is associated with both mating status and insemination success. Thus, the queen appears to be signaling both status and reproductive quality to the workers, which may impact worker behavior and physiology as well as social organization and productivity of the colony. PMID:24236028

Niño, Elina L; Malka, Osnat; Hefetz, Abraham; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

2013-01-01

180

Realization of the chess mate solver application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents details of the chess mate solver application, which is a part of the author’s Geniss general chess application. The problem chess is an important domain connected with solving of the chess problems. The Geniss Mate Solver (G.M.S. application solves Mate-in-N-move problems. Main techniques used for the implementation of the application are full-width searching with Alpha-Beta pruning technique and zero evaluation function. The application is written in Delphi for Windows programming environment and the searching engine is completely coded in assembly language (about 10000 lines. This hybrid software structure enables efficient program development by using high-level programming environment and the realization of a very fast searching engine at the same time. The machine code is manually coded and could achieve above 7 million generated positions per second on the 1Ghz Celeron PC.

Vu?kovi? Vladan V.

2004-01-01

181

The Medusa Algorithm for Polynomial Matings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Medusa algorithm takes as input two postcritically finite quadratic polynomials and outputs the quadratic rational map which is the mating of the two polynomials (if it exists). Specifically, the output is a sequence of approximations for the parameters of the rational map, as well as an image of its Julia set. Whether these approximations converge is answered using Thurston's topological characterization of rational maps. This algorithm was designed by John Hamal Hubbard, and implemented in 1998 by Christian Henriksen and REU students David Farris and Kuon Ju Liu. In this paper we describe the algorithm and its implementation, discuss some output from the program (including many pictures) and related questions. Specifically, we include images and a discussion for some shared matings, Lattès examples, and tuning sequences of matings.

Boyd, Suzanne Hruska; Henriksen, Christian

2012-01-01

182

The Medusa Algorithm for Polynomial Matings  

CERN Document Server

The Medusa algorithm takes as input two postcritically finite quadratic polynomials and outputs the quadratic rational map which is the mating of the two polynomials (if it exists). Specifically, the output is a sequence of approximations for the parameters of the rational map, as well as an image of its Julia set. Whether these approximations converge is answered using Thurston's topological characterization of rational maps. This algorithm was designed by John Hamal Hubbard, and implemented in 1998 by Christian Henriksen and REU students David Farris, and Kuon Ju Liu. In this paper we describe the algorithm and its implementation, discuss some output from the program (including many pictures) and related questions. Specifically, we include images and a discussion for some shared matings, Lattes examples, and tuning sequences of matings.

Boyd, Suzanne Hruska

2011-01-01

183

Fluctuating mate preferences in a marine fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to theory, directional female choice for male sexual ornaments is expected to erode underlying genetic variation. Considerable attention, in this regard, has been given to understanding the ubiquity of heritable genetic variation in both female choice and male sexual traits. One intriguing possibility emerging from this work is that persistent genetic variation could be maintained, over time, by variation in female mate preferences. Here, we report the results of a four-year study showing significant year-to-year fluctuations in mate preferences in a small marine fish, the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus. Although the average size of mature fish varied across years, we were unable to find direct evidence linking this variation to differences in female preferences among years. Our results, nevertheless, underscore the importance of temporal fluctuations in female mate preferences, as these can have important consequences for understanding variation in sexual traits and the intensity of sexual selection. PMID:19675000

Lehtonen, Topi K; Wong, Bob B M; Lindström, Kai

2010-02-23

184

Basidiomycete mating type genes and pheromone signaling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genome sequences of the basidiomycete Agaricomycetes species Coprinopsis cinerea, Laccaria bicolor, Schizophyllum commune, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Postia placenta, as well as of Cryptococcus neoformans and Ustilago maydis, are now publicly available. Out of these fungi, C. cinerea, S. commune, and U. maydis, together with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been investigated for years genetically and molecularly for signaling in sexual reproduction. The comparison of the structure and organization of mating type genes in fungal genomes reveals an amazing conservation of genes regulating the sexual reproduction throughout the fungal kingdom. In agaricomycetes, two mating type loci, A, coding for homeodomain type transcription factors, and B, encoding a pheromone/receptor system, regulate the four typical mating interactions of tetrapolar species. Evidence for both A and B mating type genes can also be identified in basidiomycetes with bipolar systems, where only two mating interactions are seen. In some of these fungi, the B locus has lost its self/nonself discrimination ability and thus its specificity while retaining the other regulatory functions in development. In silico analyses now also permit the identification of putative components of the pheromone-dependent signaling pathways. Induction of these signaling cascades leads to development of dikaryotic mycelia, fruiting body formation, and meiotic spore production. In pheromone-dependent signaling, the role of heterotrimeric G proteins, components of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, and cyclic AMP-dependent pathways can now be defined. Additionally, the pheromone-dependent signaling through monomeric, small GTPases potentially involved in creating the polarized cytoskeleton for reciprocal nuclear exchange and migration during mating is predicted. PMID:20190072

Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Kothe, Erika

2010-06-01

185

Predator-induced changes of female mating preferences: innate and experiential effects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In many species males face a higher predation risk than females because males display elaborate traits that evolved under sexual selection, which may attract not only females but also predators. Females are, therefore, predicted to avoid such conspicuous males under predation risk. The present study was designed to investigate predator-induced changes of female mating preferences in Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana. Males of this species show a pronounced polymorphism in body size and coloration, and females prefer large, colorful males in the absence of predators. Results In dichotomous choice tests predator-naïve (lab-reared females altered their initial preference for larger males in the presence of the cichlid Cichlasoma salvini, a natural predator of P. mexicana, and preferred small males instead. This effect was considerably weaker when females were confronted visually with the non-piscivorous cichlid Vieja bifasciata or the introduced non-piscivorous Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. In contrast, predator experienced (wild-caught females did not respond to the same extent to the presence of a predator, most likely due to a learned ability to evaluate their predators' motivation to prey. Conclusions Our study highlights that (a predatory fish can have a profound influence on the expression of mating preferences of their prey (thus potentially affecting the strength of sexual selection, and females may alter their mate choice behavior strategically to reduce their own exposure to predators. (b Prey species can evolve visual predator recognition mechanisms and alter their mate choice only when a natural predator is present. (c Finally, experiential effects can play an important role, and prey species may learn to evaluate the motivational state of their predators.

Indy Jeane

2011-07-01

186

No evidence for size-assortative mating in the wild despite mutual mate choice in sex-role-reversed pipefishes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Size-assortative mating is a nonrandom association of body size between members of mating pairs and is expected to be common in species with mutual preferences for body size. In this study, we investigated whether there is direct evidence for size-assortative mating in two species of pipefishes, Syngnathus floridae and S. typhle, that share the characteristics of male pregnancy, sex-role reversal, and a polygynandrous mating system. We take advantage of microsatellite-based "genetic-capture" techniques to match wild-caught females with female genotypes reconstructed from broods of pregnant males and use these data to explore patterns of size-assortative mating in these species. We also develop a simulation model to explore how positive, negative, and antagonistic preferences of each sex for body size affect size-assortative mating. Contrary to expectations, we were unable to find any evidence of size-assortative mating in either species at different geographic locations or at different sampling times. Furthermore, two traits that potentially confer a fitness advantage in terms of reproductive success, female mating order and number of eggs transferred per female, do not affect pairing patterns in the wild. Results from model simulations demonstrate that strong mating preferences are unlikely to explain the observed patterns of mating in the studied populations. Our study shows that individual mating preferences, as ascertained by laboratory-based mating trials, can be decoupled from realized patterns of mating in the wild, and therefore, field studies are also necessary to determine actual patterns of mate choice in nature. We conclude that this disconnect between preferences and assortative mating is likely due to ecological constraints and multiple mating that may limit mate choice in natural populations. PMID:24455162

Mobley, Kenyon B; Abou Chakra, Maria; Jones, Adam G

2014-01-01

187

Inversion of the chromosomal region between two mating type loci switches the mating type in Hansenula polymorpha.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yeast mating type is determined by the genotype at the mating type locus (MAT). In homothallic (self-fertile) Saccharomycotina such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluveromyces lactis, high-efficiency switching between a and ? mating types enables mating. Two silent mating type cassettes, in addition to an active MAT locus, are essential components of the mating type switching mechanism. In this study, we investigated the structure and functions of mating type genes in H. polymorpha (also designated as Ogataea polymorpha). The H. polymorpha genome was found to harbor two MAT loci, MAT1 and MAT2, that are ?18 kb apart on the same chromosome. MAT1-encoded ?1 specifies ? cell identity, whereas none of the mating type genes were required for a identity and mating. MAT1-encoded ?2 and MAT2-encoded a1 were, however, essential for meiosis. When present in the location next to SLA2 and SUI1 genes, MAT1 or MAT2 was transcriptionally active, while the other was repressed. An inversion of the MAT intervening region was induced by nutrient limitation, resulting in the swapping of the chromosomal locations of two MAT loci, and hence switching of mating type identity. Inversion-deficient mutants exhibited severe defects only in mating with each other, suggesting that this inversion is the mechanism of mating type switching and homothallism. This chromosomal inversion-based mechanism represents a novel form of mating type switching that requires only two MAT loci. PMID:25412462

Maekawa, Hiromi; Kaneko, Yoshinobu

2014-11-01

188

Evolution of the Bipolar Mating System of the Mushroom Coprinellus disseminatus From Its Tetrapolar Ancestors Involves Loss of Mating-Type-Specific Pheromone Receptor Function  

OpenAIRE

Mating incompatibility in mushroom fungi is controlled by the mating-type loci. In tetrapolar species, two unlinked mating-type loci exist (A and B), whereas in bipolar species there is only one locus. The A and B mating-type loci encode homeodomain transcription factors and pheromones and pheromone receptors, respectively. Most mushroom species have a tetrapolar mating system, but numerous transitions to bipolar mating systems have occurred. Here we determined the genes controlling mating ty...

James, Timothy Y.; Srivilai, Prayook; Ku?es, Ursula; Vilgalys, Rytas

2006-01-01

189

Uncertain Paternity, Mating Market Failure, and the Institution of Marriage  

OpenAIRE

This paper provides a first microeconomic foundation for the institution of marriage. Based on a model of reproduction, mating, and parental investment in children, we argue that marriage serves the purpose of attenuating the risk of mating market failure that arises from incomplete information on individual paternity. Raising the costs of mating to individuals, marriage circumscribes female infidelity and mate poaching among men, which reduces average levels of paternal uncertainty in societ...

Bethmann, Dirk; Kvasnicka, Michael

2007-01-01

190

Simple heuristics as equilibrium strategies in mutual sequential mate search  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we study whether simple heuristics can arise as equilibrium strategies in mutual sequential mate search. To this aim, we extend the mate search model of Todd and Miller (1999), involving an adolescence (learning) phase followed by an actual mating phase, to a strategic game where the players, as the individuals in the mating population, choose before starting the adolescence phase, the best rule - among the four available search (aspiration adjustment) rules - to maximize t...

Saglam, Ismail

2013-01-01

191

Sensory regulation of C. elegans male mate-searching behaviour  

OpenAIRE

How do animals integrate internal drives and external environmental cues to coordinate behaviours? We address this question studying mate-searching behaviour in C. elegans. C. elgans males explore their environment in search of mates (hermaphrodites) and will leave food if mating partners are absent. However, when mates and food coincide, male exploratory behaviour is suppressed and males are retained on the food source. We show that the drive to explore is stimulated by male specific neurons...

Barrios, Arantza; Nurrish, Stephen; Emmons, Scott W.

2008-01-01

192

Segments of an SRB are mated  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Vehicle Assembly Building, workers check the rings on the segments of a solid rocket booster (SRB) after mating them. The SRB is part of the stack for the STS-92 mission, scheduled for launch Oct. 5 from Launch Pad 39A.

2000-01-01

193

AA, mating of BST magnet halves  

CERN Multimedia

The AA had 2 types of bending magnets: BLG (window-frame,long and narrow) and BST (H-type, short and wide). The BST had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the mating of two BST halves.

1980-01-01

194

No evidence for size-assortative mating in the wild despite mutual mate choice in sex-role-reversed pipefishes  

OpenAIRE

Size-assortative mating is a nonrandom association of body size between members of mating pairs and is expected to be common in species with mutual preferences for body size. In this study, we investigated whether there is direct evidence for size-assortative mating in two species of pipefishes, Syngnathus floridae and S. typhle, that share the characteristics of male pregnancy, sex-role reversal, and a polygynandrous mating system. We take advantage of microsatellite-based “genetic-capture...

Mobley, Kenyon B.; Abou Chakra, Maria; Jones, Adam G.

2013-01-01

195

Female teneral mating in a monandrous species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schultesia nitor is a gregarious species living in Cacicus and Psarocolius ssp. pouch-like nests. Due to gregariousness, opportunities for multiple copulations in both sexes are not supposed to be restricted. Females produce only one brood during their life and die within a few days following the birth of their nymphs, but this unique brood could be the result of either single or multiple mating events (i.e., monandry vs. polyandry). In this study, we first determined the age of sexual receptivity of both males and females. Larval development in this species is shorter in males than in females and thus, this species is protandric. Males were not able to copulate the day after emergence. Contrary to males, teneral females (i.e., females achieving their imaginal molt but not yet fully sclerotised and colored) were attractive and were able to mate with males. In the second experiment, we tested the existence of multiple matings in both sexes. Our results showed that females were monandrous whereas males were polygynous. Since we had observed that females were monoandrous, we expected them to be choosy and we determined their ability to discriminate between virgin and nonvirgin males. When given the choice, females preferred virgin males and overall, they were more successful at mating than experienced ones. Our results suggest that monandry may be primarily driven by the female's short life-span fecundity. The occurrence of teneral mating in this species calls into question the existence of a male strategy for monopolizing females, and as well as the implication of female choice. Although further work is required, this species provides an interesting model for understanding sexual conflicts. PMID:22957151

Monceau, Karine; van Baaren, Joan

2012-07-01

196

[Mating choice of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of male ageing on mating success].  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of male ageing on male pheromone release and mating success of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The effects of male ageing on mating were evaluated on five and 21 d-old males by assessing their mating success (males chosen by a female for copulation) and the amount of males releasing the sex pheromone. The mating success was evaluated by using several ratios of young to older males by increasing the number of older males:young males from 1:1 to 5:1. The mating success of the 1:1 ratio was also evaluated in field cages. The evaluation of the mating success (in the 1:1 ratio) showed a clear preference of the females for young males. Sex pheromone emission was much more common on young than older males. Even in cases were older males were more abundant (ratios 2:1 and 3:1), females still chose the young males. However, females could not distinguish young from older males in ratios of 4:1 or 5:1. Our data indicate that the ageing of C. capitata males has a considerable negative effect on their reproductive success, especially if they are found in a proportion any lower than 3:1. PMID:19943002

Silva Neto, Alberto M da; Dias, Vanessa S; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S

2009-01-01

197

Mating choice of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of male ageing on mating success  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of male ageing on male pheromone release and mating success of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The effects of male ageing on mating were evaluated on fi ve and 21 d-old males by assessing their mating success (males chosen by a female for copulation) and the amount of males releasing the sex pheromone. The mating success was evaluated by using several ratios of young to older males by increasing the number of older males:young males from 1:1 to 5:1. The mating success of the 1:1 ratio was also evaluated in fi eld cages. The evaluation of the mating success (in the 1:1 ratio) showed a clear preference of the females for young males. Sex pheromone emission was much more common on young than older males. Even in cases were older males were more abundant (ratios 2:1 and 3:1), females still chose the young males. However, females could not distinguish young from older males in ratios of 4:1 or 5:1. Our data indicate that the ageing of C. capitata males has a considerable negative effect on their reproductive success, especially if they are found in a proportion any lower than 3:1. (author)

198

Frequency-dependent and correlational selection pressures have conflicting consequences for assortative mating in a color-polymorphic lizard, Uta stansburiana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetically determined polymorphisms incorporating multiple traits can persist in nature under chronic, fluctuating, and sometimes conflicting selection pressures. Balancing selection among morphs preserves equilibrium frequencies, while correlational selection maintains favorable trait combinations within each morph. Under negative frequency-dependent selection, females should mate (often disassortatively) with rare male morphotypes to produce conditionally fit offspring. Conversely, under correlational selection, females should mate assortatively to preserve coadapted gene complexes and avoid ontogenetic conflict. Using controlled breeding designs, we evaluated consequences of assortative mating patterns in color-polymorphic side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana), to identify conflict between these sources of selection. Females who mated disassortatively, and to conditionally high-quality males in the context of frequency-dependent selection, experienced highest fertility rates. In contrast, assortatively mated females experienced higher fetal viability rates. The trade-off between fertility and egg viability resulted in no overall fitness benefit to either assortative or disassortative mating patterns. These results suggest that ongoing conflict between correlational and frequency dependent selection in polymorphic populations may generate a trade-off between rare-morph advantage and phenotypic integration and between assortative and disassortative mating decisions. More generally, interactions among multiple sources of diversity-promoting selection can alter adaptations and dynamics predicted to arise under any of these regimes alone. PMID:25058279

Lancaster, Lesley T; McAdam, Andrew G; Hipsley, Christy A; Sinervo, Barry R

2014-08-01

199

Why do female Callosobruchus maculatus kick their mates?  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other's matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs) was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings. PMID:24752530

van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B; Simmons, Leigh W

2014-01-01

200

Smectite alteration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

201

Male mating tactics in spider monkeys: sneaking to compete.  

Science.gov (United States)

I investigated the mating system and male mating tactics for a population of wild spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth chamek), to identify the behaviors males used to achieve and maintain access to sexually receptive females, and to examine if some males used more tactics than other males and/or had differential access to females. Results show that the mating system mostly involved scramble competition polygyny and that males used a range of mating tactics and behaviors, previously unreported for spider monkeys. The most unusual feature of spider monkey mating behavior was the secretive nature of copulations-nearly all copulations were clandestine, but a few were in the presence of other group members. Fifteen sexually mature males were observed to copulate 43 times. These data provide the first opportunity to evaluate how female availability influences male-male competition. First, the operational sex ratio was highly skewed toward males because usually only one female was receptive in each community per month. Second, females only mated with a few males in their community in any one mating period, but some females mated over the course of multiple consecutive mating periods, eventually mating with most or all of the males in their community. Across all communities, 9 (21%) of the 43 copulations involved a single male-female partner, 20 (47%) involved four males mating with the same female, and males mated with from one to four different females. Fourteen of the 16 total adult males and 1 subadult male (10 total) copulated. One or two males in each community were successful in monopolizing access to receptive females, and these males did not usually have the highest rates of copulation. In this system, clandestine copulations are one behavioral solution to the complex problem of gaining mating exclusivity and, probably, exercising mate choice. PMID:20653005

Gibson, K Nicole

2010-09-01

202

Estrogens Can Disrupt Amphibian Mating Behavior  

OpenAIRE

The main component of classical contraceptives, 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), has high estrogenic activity even at environmentally relevant concentrations. Although estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds are assumed to contribute to the worldwide decline of amphibian populations by adverse effects on sexual differentiation, evidence for EE2 affecting amphibian mating behaviour is lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that EE2 exposure at five different concentrations (0.296 ng/L, 2.96 ng/L...

Hoffmann, Frauke; Kloas, Werner

2012-01-01

203

Sexual imprinting in human mate choice.  

OpenAIRE

Animal and human studies have shown that individuals choose mates partly on the basis of similarity, a tendency referred to as homogamy. Several authors have suggested that a specific innate recognition mechanism, phenotypic matching, allows the organism to detect similar others by their resemblance to itself. However, several objections have been raised to this theory on both empirical and theoretical grounds. Here, we report that homogamy in humans is attained partly by sexual imprinting on...

Bereczkei, Tamas; Gyuris, Petra; Weisfeld, Glenn E.

2004-01-01

204

Insect mating signal and mate preference phenotypes covary among host plant genotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual selection acting on small initial differences in mating signals and mate preferences can enhance signal-preference codivergence and reproductive isolation during speciation. However, the origin of initial differences in sexual traits remains unclear. We asked whether biotic environments, a source of variation in sexual traits, may provide a general solution to this problem. Specifically, we asked whether genetic variation in biotic environments provided by host plants can result in signal-preference phenotypic covariance in a host-specific, plant-feeding insect. We used a member of the Enchenopa binotata species complex of treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) to assess patterns of variation in male mating signals and female mate preferences induced by genetic variation in host plants. We employed a novel implementation of a quantitative genetics method, rearing field-collected treehoppers on a sample of naturally occurring replicated host plant clone lines. We found remarkably high signal-preference covariance among host plant genotypes. Thus, genetic variation in biotic environments influences the sexual phenotypes of organisms living on those environments in a way that promotes assortative mating among environments. This consequence arises from conditions likely to be common in nature (phenotypic plasticity and variation in biotic environments). It therefore offers a general answer to how divergent sexual selection may begin. PMID:25611556

Rebar, Darren; Rodríguez, Rafael L

2015-03-01

205

Effect Of Gamma Irradiation On The Mating Activity And Mating Competitiveness Of The Black Cutworm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUFN.) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sterility effects were examined on the P1 generation of the black cutworm; Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.), after gamma sterilization. The objective was to identify the dose of gamma radiation that would allow for maximum production of partially sterile P1 adults while inducing full sterility in the F1 generation. Full grown pupae of the black cutworm from laboratory culture were irradiated at 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 Gy. Results indicated that non-significant differences between untreated and treated groups in moth were observed in copula occurred and time of copulation while significant difference was recorded between the treated males and untreated once in spermatophore formation and percentage of females with sperm in their spermatheca at the last two doses. Low percentages of untreated female moths were mated when they were paired with previously mated males than when paired with virgin males. The sequence in which females were mated to an irradiated male did not affect the transfer of spermatophores. The percentage of eggs hatched was higher from the first mated females as compared to the second and third mated females. There were non-significant effects of 0 or 125 Gy exposures on female mating or time in copula. However, significant low percentages of mating of treated and untreated females were occurred with sequentially provided male moths on days 2, 3, to 5 following the first observed female mating. According to the mating competitiveness measured from dthe mating competitiveness measured from direct

206

Exceptionally high levels of multiple mating in an army ant  

Science.gov (United States)

Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, although there are notable exceptions. Competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of high levels of multiple mating, but this issue is far from resolved. Here we use microsatellites to investigate mating frequency in the army ant Eciton burchellii and show that queens mate with an exceptionally large number of males, eclipsing all but one other social insect species for which data are available. In addition we present evidence that suggests that mating is serial, continuing throughout the lifetime of the queen. This is the first demonstration of serial mating among social hymenoptera. We propose that high paternity within colonies is most likely to have evolved to increase genetic diversity and to counter high pathogen and parasite loads.

Denny, A. Jay; Franks, Nigel R.; Powell, Scott; Edwards, Keith J.

207

Courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Lourenço & Qi, 2005 (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae) from Xizang province, China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the current work, the courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Lourenço & Qi, 2005 (Euscorpiidae) from Xizang province (Tibet), China, were studied for the first time in the laboratory. Most of the mating behaviors in Scorpiops luridus are not remarkably different from those exhibited by oth [...] er scorpions. However, for the first time a male pulling a female with its chelicerae to rapidly accomplish the sperm uptake was observed. Additionally, the sexual stinging behavior displayed by the male occurred in the initial stage, not during the promenade stage as previously described in several scorpion species. Through observation and analysis, we speculate that venom injection during sexual stinging is selective, possibly relying on the status shown by the stung scorpion (passive or aggressive). In order to clearly describe the process of courtship and mating, both sequences are represented in a flow chart, while the main behavior components of these processes were identified, analyzed and discussed.

GB, Jiao; MS, Zhu.

208

Sex allocation predicts mating rate in a simultaneous hermaphrodite  

OpenAIRE

Sexual selection theory for separate-sexed animals predicts that the sexes differ in the benefit they can obtain from multiple mating. Conventional sex roles assume that the relationship between the number of mates and the fitness of an individual is steeper in males compared with females. Under these conditions, males are expected to be more eager to mate, whereas females are expected to be choosier. Here we hypothesize that the sex allocation, i.e. the reproductive investment devoted to the...

Janicke, Tim; Scha?rer, Lukas

2009-01-01

209

Codling moth: field-cage mating competitiveness of radiosterilized males  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adult males of Laspeyresia pomonella (L.), reared on thinning apples, treated with 30 krad of gamma irradiation, and released in a field cage, mated 42 percent less often than unirradiated controls. Those which were reared on artificial diet and irradiated mated 27 percent less often. During the 3-4 days in the field cage, irradiated and unirradiated males did not differ in mortality or time of mating

210

Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics  

OpenAIRE

Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating compet...

Clark, Kevin B.

2012-01-01

211

Balancing sexual selection through opposing mate choice and male competition  

OpenAIRE

Male–male competition and female mate choice act contemporaneously in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea and the social pheromone of males influences the outcome of both forms of sexual selection. We therefore examined the joint and separate effects of male–male competition and female mate choice to determine if the selective optima for the pheromone were the same or different. Dominant males in a newly established hierarchy mated more frequently, but not exclusively. Manipulations of the mu...

Moore, A. J.; Moore, P. J.

1999-01-01

212

Homothallic and heterothallic mating in the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans  

OpenAIRE

Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans, causing both debilitating mucosal infections and potentially life-threatening systemic infections1,2. Until recently, C. albicans was thought to be strictly asexual, existing only as an obligate diploid. A cryptic mating cycle has since been uncovered in which diploid a and ? cells undergo efficient cell and nuclear fusion, resulting in tetraploid a/? mating products (refs. 3–6). Whereas mating between a and ? cells has been ...

Alby, Kevin; Schaefer, Dana; Bennett, Richard J.

2009-01-01

213

Dynamic Studies of Scaffold-dependent Mating Pathway in Yeast  

OpenAIRE

The mating pathway in \\emph{Saccharomyces cerevisiae} is one of the best understood signal transduction pathways in eukaryotes. It transmits the mating signal from plasma membrane into the nucleus through the G-protein coupled receptor and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. According to the current understandings of the mating pathway, we construct a system of ordinary differential equations to describe the process. Our model is consistent with a wide range...

Shao, Danying; Zheng, Wen; Qiu, Wenjun; Ouyang, Qi; Tang, Chao

2006-01-01

214

Sexual Experience Enhances Drosophila melanogaster Male Mating Behavior and Success  

OpenAIRE

Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent...

Saleem, Sehresh; Ruggles, Patrick H.; Abbott, Wiley K.; Carney, Ginger E.

2014-01-01

215

Sexual Display and Mate Choice in an Energetically Costly Environment  

OpenAIRE

Sexual displays and mate choice often take place under the same set of environmental conditions and, as a consequence, may be exposed to the same set of environmental constraints. Surprisingly, however, very few studies consider the effects of environmental costs on sexual displays and mate choice simultaneously. We conducted an experiment, manipulating water flow in large flume tanks, to examine how an energetically costly environment might affect the sexual display and mate choice behavior ...

Head, Megan L.; Wong, Bob B. M.; Brooks, Robert

2010-01-01

216

Mating success and potential male-worker conflict in a male-dimorphic ant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Males of many species adjust their reproductive tactics with regard to their condition and status. For example, large males may develop weapons and fight for access to females, whereas small or undernourished males do not express costly weapons or ornaments and sneak copulations. Different condition-dependent reproductive tactics may be associated with unequal average fitness, but the tactic chosen by a given male under given circumstances is thought to result in the highest possible fitness return. The ant species Cardiocondyla obscurior exhibits an environment-controlled polymorphism of docile, winged males and aggressive "ergatoid" males. Ergatoid males, which can replenish their sperm supply throughout their lives, engage in lethal fighting, and attempt to monopolize all female sexuals available in their nests, were previously assumed to gain higher lifetime reproductive success than the peaceful, winged males, which disperse to mate away from the nest and whose spermatogenesis is limited to the first days of adult life. However, precise data on male mating success have as yet not been available. Here, we compare the average mating success of the two male morphs, taking the high mortality rate of immature ergatoid males into account. Because individuals in insect societies may have opposing interests about their own development, we also investigate whether the interests of male larvae coincide with those of the workers and the rest of the society. Results When the survival probability of males is taken into account, winged males are more likely to mate multiply and in consequence have a higher estimated average mating success than ergatoid males. Therefore, male larvae are expected to prefer developing into winged instead of ergatoid adults. Conclusion Though male larvae can expect a higher average mating success when developing into winged males, most colonies produce only ergatoid males under standard conditions. This might point at a novel type of potential kin conflict within the social insect colony. Because workers in insect societies usually control male larval development, ergatoid male production under normal conditions probably reflects the optimal allocation strategy of workers to maximise their inclusive fitness.

Darrouzet Eric

2007-07-01

217

Male inbreeding status affects female fitness in a seed-feeding beetle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inbreeding generally reduces male mating activity such that inbred males are less successful in male-male competition. Inbred males can also have smaller accessory glands, transfer less sperm and produce sperm that are less motile, less viable or have a greater frequency of abnormalities, all of which can reduce the fertilization success and fitness of inbred males relative to outbred males. However, few studies have examined how male inbreeding status affects the fitness of females with whom they mate. In this study, we examine the effect of male inbreeding status (inbreeding coefficient f = 0.25 vs. f = 0) on the fecundity, adult longevity and the fate of eggs produced by outbred females in the seed-feeding beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Females mated to inbred males were less likely to lay eggs. Of those that laid eggs, females mated to inbred males laid 6-12% fewer eggs. Females mated to inbred males lived on average 5.4% longer than did females mated to outbred males, but this effect disappeared when lifetime fecundity was used as a covariate in the analysis. There was no effect of male inbreeding status on the proportion of a female's eggs that developed or hatched, and no evidence that inbred males produced smaller nuptial gifts. However, ejaculates of inbred males contained 17-33% fewer sperm, on average, than did ejaculates of outbred males. Our study demonstrates that mating with inbred males has significant direct consequences for the fitness of female C. maculatus, likely mediated by effects of inbreeding status on the number of sperm in male ejaculates. Direct effects of male inbreeding status on female fitness should be more widely considered in theoretical models and empirical studies of mate choice. PMID:21995954

Fox, Charles W; Xu, J; Wallin, W G; Curtis, C L

2012-01-01

218

Inline Electrical Connector Mate/Demate Pliers  

Science.gov (United States)

Military and aerospace industries use Mil-Spec type electrical connections on bulkhead panels that require inline access for mate and demate operations. These connectors are usually in tight proximity to other connectors, or recessed within panels. The pliers described here have been designed to work in such tight spaces, and consist of a mirrored set of parallel handles, two cross links, two return springs, and replaceable polyurethane-coated end effectors. The polyurethane eliminates metal-to-metal contact and provides a high-friction surface between the jaw and the connector. Operationally, the user would slide the pliers over the connector shell until the molded polyurethane lip makes contact with the connector shell edge. Then, by squeezing the handles, the end effector jaws grip the connector shell, allowing the connector to be easily disconnected by rotating the pliers. Mating the connector occurs by reversing the prescribed procedure, except the connector shell is placed into the jaws by hand. The molded lip within the jaw allows the user to apply additional force for difficult-to-mate connectors. Handle design has been carefully examined to maximize comfort, limit weight, incorporate tether locations, and improve ergonomics. They have been designed with an off-axis offset for wiring harness clearance, while placing the connector axis of rotation close to the user s axis of wrist rotation. This was done to eliminate fatigue during multiple connector panel servicing. To limit handle opening width, with user ergonomics in mind, the pliers were designed using a parallel jaw mechanism. A cross-link mechanism was used to complete this task, while ensuring smooth operation.

Yutko, Brian; Dininny, Michael; Moscoso, Gerand; Dokos, Adam

2010-01-01

219

MATE Module 15: Payloads and Actuators  

Science.gov (United States)

This module from the Marine Advanced Technology Education Center introduces the concept of actuators as they are utilized on a remotely operated vehicle, or ROV. Electric, pneumatic and hydraulic actuators and the control of each are discussed. Students will learn to develop a connection diagram between the MATE ROV Control System and a motor actuator, describe methods used to suppress electrical switching transients while controlling actuators and develop a pneumatic and/or hydraulic control diagram for gripper control and build a simple gripper demonstrating that control. This page includes two PowerPoint files with the documents for in-class instruction.

220

Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2)  

Science.gov (United States)

NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2) (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 14 is being distributed for use in development and testing of automated fingerprint classification and matching systems on a set of images which approximate a natural horizontal distribution of the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) fingerprint classes. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

221

Mating and re-mating of medflies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Guatemala: Individual fly marking in field cages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sterile insect technique (SIT) depends critically upon the ability of sterilized, released males to locate and mate with wild females. The overall efficiency of the method also depends upon the relative frequencies of re-mating by wild females following first matings to laboratory or wild males. Using a newly devised technique that individually marks the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), a field cage study was undertaken in a Guatemala coffee orchard to record individual fly mating behaviors between each of several laboratory strain and coffee-reared wild flies. Five laboratory strains were tested- a genetic sexing strain examined in sex ratios between 50%-100% sterile males, two standard bisexual strains, and two Fl hybrid strains. The marking technique revealed a substantial amount of information on individual fly mating and re-mating. Wild male flies significantly out-competed each of the lab strains in the first matings with both wild and lab females. Approx. 22% and 3% of wild males and females, respectively, re-mated in the field cages during two consecutive morning observation periods, while 4-8% of lab males, and 2-8% of lab females re-mated, respectively. Male flies from each lab strain averaged significantly shorter copulation times than wild males. Female flies, either lab or wild, tended to re-mate more often if they first mated to a lab male, but the differences were not statistically significant. An index was devised to providegnificant. An index was devised to provide a measure of relative male mating quality. Wild males tended to have higher individual index values than lab strain males. Average values of the latter ranged from ca. half to roughly equal that of wild males. (author)

222

Assortative mating and differential male mating success in an ash hybrid zone population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure and evolution of hybrid zones depend mainly on the relative importance of dispersal and local adaptation, and on the strength of assortative mating. Here, we study the influence of dispersal, temporal isolation, variability in phenotypic traits and parasite attacks on the male mating success of two parental species and hybrids by real-time pollen flow analysis. We focus on a hybrid zone population between the two closely related ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash and F. angustifolia Vahl (narrow-leaved ash, which is composed of individuals of the two species and several hybrid types. This population is structured by flowering time: the F. excelsior individuals flower later than the F. angustifolia individuals, and the hybrid types flower in-between. Hybrids are scattered throughout the population, suggesting favorable conditions for their local adaptation. We estimate jointly the best-fitting dispersal kernel, the differences in male fecundity due to variation in phenotypic traits and level of parasite attack, and the strength of assortative mating due to differences in flowering phenology. In addition, we assess the effect of accounting for genotyping error on these estimations. Results We detected a very high pollen immigration rate and a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, counter-balanced by slight phenological assortative mating and short-distance pollen dispersal. Early intermediate flowering hybrids, which had the highest male mating success, showed optimal sex allocation and increased selfing rates. We detected asymmetry of gene flow, with early flowering trees participating more as pollen donors than late flowering trees. Conclusion This study provides striking evidence that long-distance gene flow alone is not sufficient to counter-act the effects of assortative mating and selfing. Phenological assortative mating and short-distance dispersal can create temporal and spatial structuring that appears to maintain this hybrid population. The asymmetry of gene flow, with higher fertility and increased selfing, can potentially confer a selective advantage to early flowering hybrids in the zone. In the event of climate change, hybridization may provide a means for F. angustifolia to further extend its range at the expense of F. excelsior.

Frascaria-Lacoste Nathalie

2006-11-01

223

Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus courtship and mating behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758, is a South American grazing deer categorized as "near threatened". However, knowledge about pampas deer behavior including courtship and mating is scarce and incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize the courtship and mating behavior of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, an endangered species from South America. Methods We performed focal observations of 5 males allocated at the Estación de Cría de Fauna Autóctona Cerro Pan de Azúcar, Uruguay, 4 times a day from 5 to 20 minutes each time on a daily basis from February to May. During that period we recorded all courtship and mating behaviors, as well as quantified the frequency of the specific behaviors shown. As mating were rarely observed, we recorded that behavior when it was observed in the context of other studies performed in the same population during the following 2 years. Results During the observation period we recorded 928 courtships and 5 mating periods. In addition, we recorded 10 more matings performed during other studies, totaling 15. The duration of each mating calculated from the 15 recordings was 3.9?±?0.4 s, and the total period of female receptivity (from first to last mating acceptance was 8.2?±?1.1 min. Main observed courtship behaviors in males were “chase” and “ostentation”, while the most observed close to mating were “chinning”, “raised head” and “anogenital sniffing”. The most observed behaviors in females during the mating period were “vulva exhibition” and “move away”. Conclusion This is the first detailed report in pampas deer mating behavior. Estrus lasted only 8 min accepting only 3 short copulations per estrus. However, female behavior during courtship can be characterized as highly proceptive.

Morales-Piñeyrúa Jéssica T

2012-10-01

224

Effect of potassium fertilization on yield and nutrition of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) / Produção e nutrição da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) influenciadas pela adubação potássica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis), espécie arbórea nativa das regiões subtropicais da América do Sul, ocorre no Brasil predominantemente na Região Sul. Apesar da histórica importância da cultura nessa região, até o momento, raros foram os trabalhos realizados sobre sua nutrição no intuito de melhora [...] r a produtividade. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a influência de doses de K e sua disponibilidade no solo, na produtividade e no estado nutricional da erva-mate. O experimento foi conduzido em São Mateus do Sul, PR, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro álico, onde se avaliaram as doses 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 e 320 kg ha-1 de K2O em cultivo com sete anos de idade. A colheita, 24 meses após a instalação do experimento, consistiu na remoção de aproximadamente 95 % da copa, que brotou da colheita anterior. Avaliou-se, no solo, a disponibilidade de K nas profundidades de 0-10, 0-20, 10-20 e 20-40 cm. Na planta, avaliaram-se a massa verde de folhas (FO), galhos finos (GF), galhos grossos (GG) e erva-mate comercial (ECOM), correspondente a FO+GF. Foi, também, avaliada a relação entre massa verde/massa seca (MV/MS) e o teor de K nas FO, GF e GG. A adubação elevou a disponibilidade de K em todas as camadas do solo avaliadas, indicando boa mobilidade do nutriente mesmo em pequenas doses. A erva-mate respondeu positivamente ao aumento das doses de K2O, com incremento da produtividade de todos os componentes colhidos. A cultura evidenciou-se exigente em K, tendo a máxima produção de ECOM de 28,5 t ha-1, quando a disponibilidade do nutriente no solo, na camada de 0-20 cm, era de 72 mg dm-3. A erva-mate em fase de produção requer disponibilidade de K no solo entre o nível médio a alto, e, em solo argiloso e com baixo teor de K disponível, a dose de 300 kg ha-1de K2O deve ser aplicada em intervalo de 24 meses para obtenção de alta produtividade. O teor de K foliar de 16,0 g kg-1 é adequado para a cultura da erva-mate em fase de produção. Abstract in english Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a tree species native to the subtropical regions of South America, and is found in Brazil predominantly in the southern region. Despite the historical importance in this region, so far, studies on crop nutrition to improve yields are scarce. Thus, this study evalu [...] ated the effect of potassium rates on K soil availability, and the yield and nutritional status of yerba mate. The experiment was conducted in São Mateus do Sul, State of Paraná, on a Humox soil, where K2O rates of 0, 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 kg ha-1 were tested on 7-year-old plantations. The experiment was harvested 24 months after installation by removing approximately 95 % of the canopy that had sprouted from the previous harvest. The soil was evaluated for K availability in the layers 0-10, 0-20, 10-20, and 20-40 cm. The plant parts leaf fresh matter (LM), twigs (TW), thick branches (BR) and commercial yerba mate (COYM), i.e., LM+TW, were analyzed. In addition, the relationship between fresh matter/dry matter (FM/DM) and K concentration in LM, AG and BR were evaluated. The fertilization increased K availability in all evaluated soil layers, indicating good mobility of the nutrient even at low rates. Yerba mate responded positively to increasing K2O rates with higher yields of all harvested components. The crop proved K-demanding, with a maximum COYM yield of 28.5 t ha-1, when 72 mg dm-3 K was available in the 0-20 cm layer. Yerba mate in the plant production stage requires soil K availability at medium to high level; in clayey soil with low K availability, a rate of 300 kg ha-1 K2O should be applied at 24 month intervals to obtain high yields. A leaf K concentration of 16.0 g ha-1 is suitable for yerba mate in the growth stage.

Delmar, Santin; Eliziane Luiza, Benedetti; Nairam Félix de, Barros; Igor Carvalho de, Almeida; Greice Pereira, Leal; Lucas, Fontes; Júlio César Lima, Neves; Ivar, Wendling; Carlos Bruno, Reissmann.

1469-14-01

225

Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera)  

Science.gov (United States)

Males of the honeybee ( Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen’s visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F. A.

2010-03-01

226

Biased learning affects mate choice in a butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early acquisition of mate preferences or mate-preference learning is associated with signal diversity and speciation in a wide variety of animal species. However, the diversity of mechanisms of mate-preference learning across taxa remains poorly understood. Using the butterfly Bicyclus anynana we uncover a mechanism that can lead to directional sexual selection via mate-preference learning: a bias in learning enhanced ornamentation, which is independent of preexisting mating biases. Naïve females mated preferentially with wild-type males over males with enhanced wing ornamentation, but females briefly exposed to enhanced males mated significantly more often with enhanced males. In contrast, females exposed to males with reduced wing ornamentation did not learn to prefer drab males. Thus, we observe both a learned change of a preexisting mating bias, and a bias in ability to learn enhanced male ornaments over reduced ornaments. Our findings demonstrate that females are able to change their preferences in response to a single social event, and suggest a role for biased learning in the evolution of visual sexual ornamentation. PMID:22689980

Westerman, Erica L; Hodgins-Davis, Andrea; Dinwiddie, April; Monteiro, Antónia

2012-07-01

227

Costs of mating and egg production in female Callosobruchus chinensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Costs of reproduction include the costs of mating and egg production. Specific techniques such as irradiation or genetic mutation have been used to divide the expense into costs of mating and egg production in previous studies. We tried to divide the costs in the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), which needs some kinds of bean as an oviposition substrate. Mated females that were not allowed to lay eggs had a shorter life span than virgin females, but they had a longer life span than mated females that were allowed to lay eggs. The results showed two independent significant costs, mating and egg production, on the life span in C. chinensis. Costs of mating, however, include the costs of sexual harassment by males and copulation itself, and we need further studies to divide the costs. The present method for dividing the cost of reproduction into costs of mating and egg production can be applied to a broad taxonomic range of insect species, and thus it will be a useful model system for inter-specific comparisons of costs of mating and egg production. PMID:16256684

Yanagi, Shin-Ichi; Miyatake, Takahisa

2003-09-01

228

Mating disruption for navel orangeworm in Central California: Year 3  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of mating disruption on the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was examined during a three-year study conducted in 336 ha of commercial almonds in Fresno County (west central San Joaquin Valley). In the first year, pre-treatment (mating disruption) l...

229

Parent-offspring conflict over mating: testing the tradeoffs hypothesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The difference in genetic relatedness between parents and offspring results into traits such as beauty being more beneficial in a spouse than in an in-law. As a consequence, mate and in-law preferences do not overlap, and each party tends to prefer more the traits that give it more benefits. This paper tests the hypothesis that this divergence in preferences interacts with the tradeoffs nature of mating to give rise to parent-offspring conflict over mating. In particular, using a design where mate choice is constrained by a budget, three hypotheses are tested: First, asymmetries between in-law and mate preferences result in asymmetrical compromises in the choice of an in-law and a spouse. Second, the hypothesis is tested that when choice is constrained, disagreement spreads to traits where there is no divergence between in-law and mate preferences. Finally, it is hypothesized that there is a negative relationship between mate value and parent-offspring conflict over mating. Evidence from two independent studies in two different countries provides support for all three hypotheses. PMID:22947988

Apostolou, Menelaos

2011-01-01

230

Effect of {sup 60}Co radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis); Efeito do processamento por radiacao de {sup 60}Co na erva-mate (llex paraguariensis)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10 kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10 kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and qualitative profile of bioactive compounds. (author)

Furgeri, Camilo

2009-07-01

231

Effect of {sup 60}CO radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis); Efeito do processamento por radiacao de {sup 60}CO na erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and qualitative profile of bioactive compounds. (author)

Furgeri, Camilo

2009-07-01

232

You can't always get what you want: size assortative mating by mutual mate choice as a resolution of sexual conflict  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Assortative mating patterns for mate quality traits like body size are often observed in nature. However, the underlying mechanisms that cause assortative mating patterns are less well known. Sexual selection is one important explanation for assortment, suggesting that i) one (usually the female) or both sexes could show preferences for mates of similar size or ii) mutual mate choice could resolve sexual conflict over quality traits into assortment. We tested these hypothe...

Thünken Timo; Schroth Stefanie H; Kullmann Harald; Baldauf Sebastian A; Cm, Bakker Theo

2009-01-01

233

ModelMate - A graphical user interface for model analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

ModelMate is a graphical user interface designed to facilitate use of model-analysis programs with models. This initial version of ModelMate supports one model-analysis program, UCODE_2005, and one model software program, MODFLOW-2005. ModelMate can be used to prepare input files for UCODE_2005, run UCODE_2005, and display analysis results. A link to the GW_Chart graphing program facilitates visual interpretation of results. ModelMate includes capabilities for organizing directories used with the parallel-processing capabilities of UCODE_2005 and for maintaining files in those directories to be identical to a set of files in a master directory. ModelMate can be used on its own or in conjunction with ModelMuse, a graphical user interface for MODFLOW-2005 and PHAST.

Banta, Edward R.

2011-01-01

234

Reduced mating success of female tortricid moths following intense pheromone auto-exposure varies with sophistication of mating system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mating disruption is a valuable tool for the management of pest lepidopteran species in many agricultural crops. Many studies have addressed the effect of female pheromone on the ability of males to find calling females but, so far, fewer have addressed the effect of pheromone on the mating behavior of females. We hypothesized that mating of female moth species may be adversely affected following sex pheromone auto-exposure, due to abnormal behavioral activity and/or antennal sensitivity. Our results indicate that, for Grapholita molesta and Pandemis pyrusana females, copulation, but not calling, was reduced following pre-exposure to sex pheromone. In contrast, for Cydia pomonella and Choristoneura rosaceana, sex pheromone pre-exposure did not affect either calling or copulation propensity. Adaptation of female moth antennae to their own sex pheromone, following sex pheromone auto-exposure, as measured by electroantennograms, occurred in a species for which identical exposure reduced mating success (G. molesta) and in a species for which such exposure did not affect mating success (C. rosaceana). These results suggest that pre-exposure of female moths of certain species to sex pheromone may further contribute to the success of pheromone-based mating disruption. Therefore, we conclude that, in some species, mating disruption may include a secondary mechanism that affects the mating behavior of female moths, in addition to that of males. PMID:22350561

Kuhns, Emily H; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten; Stelinski, Lukasz L

2012-02-01

235

Efeito da Densidade de Presas e do Acasalamento na Taxa de Predação de Fêmeas de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) em Condições de Laboratório e Campo / Effect of Prey Density and Mating Status on Predation Rate of Females of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Laboratory and Field Conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a taxa de predação de fêmeas virgens ou acasaladas de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) em diferentes densidades de lagartas de Alabama argillacea (Huebner) em condições de laboratório e de campo. Em laboratório, empregaram-se potes plásticos de 500 ml contendo fêmeas do predador, uma folha de [...] algodão e lagartas de A. argillacea (50 ± 10 mg) nas densidades de uma, duas, quatro, oito e 16 lagartas. No campo, algodoeiros na fase de florescimento foram engaiolados, sendo empregadas as mesmas densidades de lagartas que no laboratório. Em ambas as condições, as fêmeas de P. nigrispinus apresentaram ganho de peso e aumento de sua taxa de predação com o aumento da densidade de lagartas de A. argillacea, mas com valores maiores para fêmeas em laboratório. Nas duas condições, o ganho de peso e a taxa de predação foram semelhantes para fêmeas virgens ou acasaladas. No campo, P. nigrispinus explorou 94,7% e 21,2% da área foliar disponível na menor e maior densidade de presas, respectivamente. O tempo de manipulação e a taxa de ataque estimadas foram de 3,37 ± 0,82h e de 0,076 ± 0,013h-1 em laboratório, e de 3,33 ± 0,93h e de 0,017 ± 0,003h-1 em campo. A resposta funcional em laboratório e no campo foi caracterizada como do Tipo II. Os números observados e estimados de lagartas predadas pelo modelo foram significativamente correlacionados com as condições de laboratório (r = 0,78) e de campo (r = 0,70). Abstract in english The predation rate of unmated and mated females of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) was evaluated on different densities of Alabama argillacea (Huebner) caterpillars (50 ± 10 mg), in laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, the predator females were maintained in 500 ml plastic jars with five [...] different densities of prey (one, two, four, eight, and 16). In the field, caterpillars at the same densities were caged on flowering cotton plants. Under both conditions, females gained weight and increased the predation rate when the availability of prey increased, although higher values were obtained for females kept in the laboratory. Weight gain and predation rate did not differ between unmated and mated females under both conditions. In the field, P. nigrispinus searched 94.7% of the available foliar area under low prey density, and 21.2% under high prey density. The estimated handling time and attack rate were, respectively, 3.37 ± 0,82h and 0.076 ± 0.013h-1 in the laboratory, and 3.33 ± 0.93h and 0.017 ± 0.003h-1 in the field. The functional response corresponded to a type II for both conditions. The number of killed caterpillars observed and estimated by the model were highly correlated for both laboratory (r = 0.78) and field (r = 0.70) conditions.

JOSÉ E.M., OLIVEIRA; JORGE B., TORRES; ALBERTO F., CARRANO-MOREIRA; JOSÉ C., ZANUNCIO.

2001-12-01

236

Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms  

Science.gov (United States)

The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included.

Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A.

2014-09-01

237

Stochasticity in the yeast mating pathway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report stochastic simulations of the yeast mating signal transduction pathway. The effects of intrinsic and external noise, the influence of cell-to-cell difference in the pathway capacity, and noise propagation in the pathway have been examined. The stochastic temporal behaviour of the pathway is found to be robust to the influence of inherent fluctuations, and intrinsic noise propagates in the pathway in a uniform pattern when the yeasts are treated with pheromones of different stimulus strengths and of varied fluctuations. In agreement with recent experimental findings, extrinsic noise is found to play a more prominent role than intrinsic noise in the variability of proteins. The occurrence frequency for the reactions in the pathway are also examined and a more compact network is obtained by dropping most of the reactions of least occurrence

238

Mating First, Mating More: Biological Market Fluctuation in a Wild Prosimian  

OpenAIRE

In biology, economics, and politics, distributive power is the key for understanding asymmetrical relationships and it can be obtained by force (dominance) or trading (leverage). Whenever males cannot use force, they largely depend on females for breeding opportunities and the balance of power tilts in favour of females. Thus, males are expected not only to compete within their sex-class but also to exchange services with the opposite sex. Does this mating market, described for humans and ape...

Norscia, Ivan; Antonacci, Daniela; Palagi, Elisabetta

2009-01-01

239

Desenvolvimento de gelatina funcional de erva-mate / Development of functional yerba-mate jelly  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver formulações para gelatina funcional com extrato de erva-mate verde e fibras solúveis como inulina (INU), frutooligossacarídeos (FOS) e a polidextrose (PD), avaliando o efeito desses ingredientes na gelatina funcional por meio da análise física da textura (firm [...] eza, consistência e coesividade), análise sensorial (sabor e preferência de compra) e composição química. As formulações INU, PD e composição INU/PD/FOS apresentaram textura desejável para uma sobremesa de gelatina, não diferindo (P>0,05) do padrão com sacarose. Pela análise sensorial, a gelatina funcional com INU obteve o maior índice hedônico para sabor e preferência de compra acima de 70%, superior ao padrão. Considerando os resultados obtidos neste estudo, a aplicação tecnológica do extrato de erva-mate verde e das fibras solúveis apresenta evidente potencial para o desenvolvimento de alimentos saudáveis e funcionais. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to develop formulations for functional jelly with extract of green yerba-mate and soluble fibers as inulin (INU), fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and polidextrose (PD), evaluating the effect of those ingredients in the functional jelly through texture physical analysis ( [...] firmness, consistence, cohesiveness), sensorial analysis (flavor and purchase preference) and chemical composition. The formulations INU, PD and composition INU/PD/FOS presented desirable texture for jelly dessert and not differing (P>0.05) of the reference standard with sucrose. For the sensorial analysis the functional jelly with INU obtained the largest index hedonic for flavor and purchase preference above 70%, higher than the reference standard. Considering the results obtained in this study, the technological application of green yerba-mate extract and of soluble fibers, presents evident potential for the development of healthy and functional foods.

Kleber Alves Santos, Berté; Dayane Rosalyn, Izidoro; Fabiana Lemos Goularte, Dutra; Rosemary, Hoffmann-Ribani.

2011-02-01

240

Effects of natural mating and CO2 narcosis on biogenic amine receptor gene expression in the ovaries and brain of queen honey bees, Apis mellifera.  

Science.gov (United States)

A queen honey bee mates at ?6 days of age, storing the sperm in her spermatheca for life. Mating is associated with profound changes in the behaviour and physiology of the queen but the mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. What is known is that the presence of semen in the oviducts and spermatheca is insufficient to initiate laying, and that copulation or CO(2) narcosis is necessary for ovary activation. In this study we use real-time quantitative PCR to investigate the expression of biogenic amine receptor genes in the brain and ovarian tissue of queens in relation to their reproductive status. We show that dopamine, octopamine and serotonin receptor genes are expressed in the ovaries of queens, and that natural mating, CO(2) narcosis, and the presence of semen in the spermatheca differentially affect their expression. We suggest that these changes may be central to the hormonal cascades that are necessary to initiate oogenesis. PMID:22984778

Vergoz, Vanina; Lim, Julianne; Duncan, Michael; Cabanes, Guénaël; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

2012-12-01

241

Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs (Volumes 1-5)  

Science.gov (United States)

NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs (Volumes 1-5) (PC database for purchase)   The NIST database of mated fingerprint card pairs (Special Database 9) consists of multiple volumes. Currently five volumes have been released. Each volume will be a 3-disk set with each CD-ROM containing 90 mated card pairs of segmented 8-bit gray scale fingerprint images (900 fingerprint image pairs per CD-ROM). A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

242

Transfer of /sup 65/Zn at mating in Heliothis virescens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Male Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were shown to transfer 36% of a whole body /sup 65/Zn burden to the females at the time of mating. Approximately 5% of the male's and 11% of the female's total /sup 65/Zn burdens were found in eggs oviposited during a 10-day period following mating. Transfer of zinc at mating by Heliothis males may represent the conservation of an essential trace element that must be retained throughout the life cycle.

Engebretson, J.A.; Mason, W.H.

1980-02-01

243

Cloning of the Lentinula edodes B mating-type locus and identification of the genetic structure controlling B mating.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the life cycle of heterothallic tetrapolar Agaricomycetes such as Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, the mating type system, composed of unlinked A and B loci, plays a vital role in controlling sexual development and resulting formation of the fruit body. L. edodes is produced worldwide for consumption and medicinal purposes, and understanding its sexual development is therefore of great importance. A considerable amount of mating type factors has been indicated over the past decades but few genes have actually been identified, and no complete genetic structures of L. edodes B mating-type loci are available. In this study, we cloned the matB regions from two mating compatible L. edodes strains, 939P26 and 939P42. Four pheromone receptors were identified on each new matB region, together with three and four pheromone precursor genes in the respective strains. Gene polymorphism, phylogenetic analysis and distribution of pheromone receptors and pheromone precursors clearly indicate a bipartite matB locus, each sublocus containing a pheromone receptor and one or two pheromone precursors. Detailed sequence comparisons of genetic structures between the matB regions of strains 939P42, 939P26 and a previously reported strain SUP2 further supported this model and allowed identification of the B mating type subloci borders. Mating studies confirmed the control of B mating by the identified pheromone receptors and pheromones in L. edodes. PMID:24029079

Wu, Lin; van Peer, Arend; Song, Wenhua; Wang, Hong; Chen, Mingjie; Tan, Qi; Song, Chunyan; Zhang, Meiyan; Bao, Dapeng

2013-12-01

244

Size-assortative mating and sexual size dimorphism are predictable from simple mechanics of mate-grasping behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand the typically complex interactions between diverse counter-balancing factors of Darwinian selection for size assortative mating and sexual size dimorphism. It appears that rarely a simple mechanism could provide a major explanation of these phenomena. Mechanics of behaviors can predict animal morphology, such like adaptations to locomotion in animals from various of taxa, but its potential to predict size-assortative mating and its evolutionary consequences has been less explored. Mate-grasping by males, using specialized adaptive morphologies of their forelegs, midlegs or even antennae wrapped around female body at specific locations, is a general mating strategy of many animals, but the contribution of the mechanics of this wide-spread behavior to the evolution of mating behavior and sexual size dimorphism has been largely ignored. Results Here, we explore the consequences of a simple, and previously ignored, fact that in a grasping posture the position of the male's grasping appendages relative to the female's body is often a function of body size difference between the sexes. Using an approach taken from robot mechanics we model coercive grasping of females by water strider Gerris gracilicornis males during mating initiation struggles. We determine that the male optimal size (relative to the female size, which gives the males the highest grasping force, properly predicts the experimentally measured highest mating success. Through field sampling and simulation modeling of a natural population we determine that the simple mechanical model, which ignores most of the other hypothetical counter-balancing selection pressures on body size, is sufficient to account for size-assortative mating pattern as well as species-specific sexual dimorphism in body size of G. gracilicornis. Conclusion The results indicate how a simple and previously overlooked physical mechanism common in many taxa is sufficient to account for, or importantly contribute to, size-assortative mating and its consequences for the evolution of sexual size dimorphism.

Jablonski Piotr G

2010-11-01

245

Segments of an SRB are prepared for mating  

Science.gov (United States)

-In the Vehicle Assembly Building, workers prepare to mate two segments of a solid rocket booster (SRB). The SRB is part of the stack for the STS-92 mission, scheduled for launch Oct. 5 from Launch Pad 39A.

2000-01-01

246

Female mate choice and male behaviour in domestic fowl.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to use paired choice tests to examine mate selection by female domestic chickens, Gallus gallus domesticus. We examined five behavioural and six morphological traits of 34 pairs of males to determine which male features influenced female mate choice. The frequency of a behavioural display known as wingflapping was the only variable that differed significantly between males that were chosen and males that were not. Within trials, females selected males with the highest wingflapping rate. Across trials, the wingflapping rate of chosen males ranged widely (3-82 wingflaps/h) suggesting that females used a relative choice mechanism when selecting a mate. These results differ from earlier work on the closely related red junglefowl, G. g. murghi, in which females use morphological traits and a threshold choice mechanism when selecting mates. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9819324

Leonard; Zanette

1998-11-01

247

Protecting artificial team-mates : more seems like less  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Previous research on conversational, competitive, and cooperative systems suggests that people respond differently to humans and AI agents in terms of perception and evaluation of observed team-mate behavior. However, there has not been research examining the relationship between participants' protective behavior toward human/AI team-mates and their beliefs about their behavior. A study was conducted in which 32 participants played two sessions of a cooperative game, once with a "presumed" human and once with an AI team-mate; players could "draw fire" from a common enemy by "yelling" at it. Overwhelmingly, players claimed they "drew fire" on behalf of the presumed human more than for the AI team-mate; logged data indicates the opposite. The main contribution of this paper is to provide evidence of the mismatch in player beliefs about their actions and actual behavior with humans or agents and provides possible explanations for the differences.

Merritt, Timothy; McGee, Kevin

248

Sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS), jealousy and mate retention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has investigated the manner in which absolute height impacts on jealousy and mate retention. Although relative height is also important, little information exists about the potential influence of sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS) within established relationships. The current study investigated the relationship between SDS and the satisfaction, jealousy and mate retention behaviors reported by men and women. Heterosexual men (n = 98) and women (n = 102) completed a questionnaire. Men in high SDS relationships reported the lowest levels of cognitive and behavioral jealousy, although the impact of SDS on relationship satisfaction was less clear. SDS was not associated with the overall use of mate retention strategies; SDS did however affect the use of three specific strategies (vigilance, monopolization of time, love and care). SDS did not affect women's relationship satisfaction, jealousy (cognitive, behavioral, or emotional) or the use of mate retention strategies (with the exception of resource display). PMID:22947818

Brewer, Gayle; Riley, Charlene

2010-01-01

249

Parent-Offspring Conflict over Short-Term Mating Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Individuals engage in short-term mating strategies that enable them to obtain fitness benefits from casual relationships. These benefits, however, count for less and cost more to their parents. On this basis three hypotheses are tested. First, parents and offspring are likely to disagree over short-term mating strategies, with the former considering these as less acceptable than the latter. Second, parents are more likely to disapprove of the short-term mating strategies of their daughters than of their sons. Finally, mothers and fathers are expected to agree on how much they disagree over the short-term mating strategies of their children. Evidence from a sample of 148 Greek-Cypriot families (140 mothers, 105 fathers, 119 daughters, 77 sons provides support for the first two hypotheses and partial support for the third hypothesis. The implications of these findings for understanding family dynamics are further discussed.

Spyroulla Georgiou

2011-12-01

250

Constructing rational maps with cluster points using the mating operation  

CERN Document Server

In this article, we show that all admissible rational maps with fixed or period two cluster cycles can be constructed by the mating of polynomials. We also investigate the polynomials which make up the matings that construct these rational maps. In the one cluster case, one of the polynomials must be an $n$-rabbit and in the two cluster case, one of the maps must be either $f$, a "double rabbit", or $g$, a secondary map which lies in the wake of the double rabbit $f$. There is also a very simple combinatorial way of classifiying the maps which must partner the aforementioned polynomials to create rational maps with cluster cycles. Finally, we also investigate the multiplicities of the shared matings arising from the matings in the paper.

Sharland, Thomas

2011-01-01

251

Signal transduction during mating and meiosis in S. pombe  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

When starved, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe responds by producing mating factors or pheromones that signal to cells of the opposite sex to initiate mating. Like its distant relative Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells of the two mating types of S. pombe each produce a distinct pheromone that binds to receptors on the opposite cell type to induce the morphological changes required for mating. While the pathways are basically very similar in the two yeasts, pheromone signalling in S. pombe differs in several important ways from that of the more familiar budding yeast. In this article, Olaf Nielsen describes the pheromones and their effects in S. pombe, and compares the signalling pathways of the two yeasts.

Nielsen, O; Nielsen, Olaf

1993-01-01

252

More than just a pretty face and a hot body: multiple cues in mate-choice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mate preferences have been well studied in social and evolutionary psychology. In two studies (N = 490), using two different measurement techniques, we examined mate preferences for the body and the face in the context of other traits. Results replicated prior research on mate preferences across the sex of the participant and mating duration but clarified the nature of preferences for physical attractiveness. Generally, physical attractiveness was a necessity in short-term mating and for men and traits like kindness were a necessity in long-term mating and for women. Men wanted a short-term mate who had a good body, likely because that body advertises fertility whereas both sexes wanted a mate with a nice face for a long-term mate, which is likely because the face is a cue based on structural properties related to health. Sex and mating-duration differences on preferences for attractive faces and bodies were robust to differences in measurement technique. PMID:22468419

Jonason, Peter K; Raulston, Tara; Rotolo, Ashley

2012-01-01

253

Do assortative preferences contribute to assortative mating for adiposity?  

OpenAIRE

Assortative mating for adiposity, whereby levels of adiposity in romantic partners tend to be positively correlated, has implications for population health due to the combined effects of partners' levels of adiposity on fertility and/or offspring health. Although assortative preferences for cues of adiposity, whereby leaner people are inherently more attracted to leaner individuals, have been proposed as a factor in assortative mating for adiposity, there have been no direct tests of this iss...

Fisher, Claire I.; Fincher, Corey L.; Hahn, Amanda C.; Little, Anthony C.; Debruine, Lisa M.; Jones, Benedict C.

2014-01-01

254

The energetic cost of mating in a promiscuous cephalopod  

OpenAIRE

Costs that individuals incur through mating can play an important role in understanding the evolution of life histories and senescence, particularly in promiscuous species. Copulation costs, ranging from energy expenditure to reduced longevity, are widely studied in insects but have received substantially less attention in other taxa. One cost of mating, the energetic cost, is poorly studied across all taxa despite its potential importance for the many species where copulation is physically d...

Franklin, Amanda Michelle; Squires, Zoe Elizabeth; Stuart-fox, Devi

2012-01-01

255

MATING DESIGNS: HELPFUL TOOL FOR QUANTITATIVE PLANT BREEDING ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Selection of parental materials and good mating designs in conventional plant breeding are the keys to the successful plant breeding programme. However, there are several factors affecting the choices of mating designs. Mating design refers to the procedure of producing the progenies, in plant breeding, plant breeders and geneticists, theoretically and practically, they use different form of mating designs and arrangements for targeted purpose. The choice of a mating design for estimating genetic variances should be dictated by the objectives of the study, time, space, cost and other biological limitations. In all mating designs, the individuals are taken randomly and crossed to produce progenies which are related to each other as half-sibs or full-sibs. A form of multivariate analysis or the analysis of variance can be adopted to estimate the components of variances. Therefore, this review aimed at highlighting the most used mating design in plant breeding and genetics studies. It provides easy and quick insight of the different form of mating designs and some statistical components for successful plant breeding. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

Athanase Nduwumuremyi

2013-12-01

256

Robust Spatial Sensing of Mating Pheromone Gradients by Yeast Cells  

OpenAIRE

Projecting or moving up a chemical gradient is a universal behavior of living organisms. We tested the ability of S. cerevisiae a-cells to sense and respond to spatial gradients of the mating pheromone ?-factor produced in a microfluidics chamber; the focus was on bar1? strains, which do not degrade the pheromone input. The yeast cells exhibited good accuracy with the mating projection typically pointing in the correct direction up the gradient (?80% under certain conditions), excellent s...

Moore, Travis I.; Chou, Ching-shan; Nie, Qing; Jeon, Noo Li; Yi, Tau-mu

2008-01-01

257

MHC-mediated mate choice increases parasite resistance in salmon  

OpenAIRE

Natural (parasite-driven) and sexual selection are thought to maintain high polymorphism in the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), but support for a link between mate choice, MHC variation and increased parasite resistance is circumstantial. We compared MHC diversity and Anisakis loads among anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) returning to four rivers to spawn, which had originated from natural spawning (parents allowed to mate freely) or artificial crosses (parents ...

Consuegra, Sofia; Garcia Leaniz, Carlos

2008-01-01

258

An Automated Safe-to-Mate (ASTM) Tester  

Science.gov (United States)

Safe-to-mate testing is a common hardware safety practice where impedance measurements are made on unpowered hardware to verify isolation, continuity, or impedance between pins of an interface connector. A computer-based instrumentation solution has been developed to resolve issues. The ASTM is connected to the circuit under test, and can then quickly, safely, and reliably safe-to-mate the entire connector, or even multiple connectors, at the same time.

Nguyen, Phuc; Scott, Michelle; Leung, Alan; Lin, Michael; Johnson, Thomas

2013-01-01

259

Evidence for mitochondrial gene control of mating types in Phytophthora.  

Science.gov (United States)

When protoplasts carrying metalaxyl-resistant (Mr) nuclei from the A1 isolate of Phytophthora parasitica were fused with protoplasts carrying chloroneb-resistant (Cnr) nuclei from the A2 isolate of the same species, fusion products carrying Mr nuclei were either the A2 or A1A2 type, while those carrying Cnr nuclei were the A1, A2, or A1A2 type. Fusion products carrying Mr and Cnr nuclei also behaved as the A1, A2, or A1A2 type. The result refutes the hypothesis that mating types in Phytophthora are controlled by nuclear genes. When nuclei from the A1 isolate of P. parasitica were fused with protoplasts from the A2 isolate of the same species and vice versa, all of the nuclear hybrids expressed the mating type characteristics of the protoplast parent. The same was true when the nuclei from the A1 isolate of P. parasitica were fused with the protoplasts from the A0 isolate of Phytophthora capsici and vice versa. These results confirm the observation that mating type genes are not located in the nuclei and suggest the presence of mating type genes in the cytoplasms of the recipient protoplasts. When mitochondria from the A1 isolate of P. parasitica were fused with protoplasts from the A2 isolate of the same species, the mating type of three out of five regenerated protoplasts was changed to the A1 type. The result demonstrated the decisive effect of mitochondrial donor sexuality on mating type characteristics of mitochondrial hybrids and suggested the presence of mating type genes in mitochondria. All of the mitochondrial hybrids resulting from the transfer of mitochondria from the A0 isolate of P. capsici into protoplasts from the A1 isolate of P. parasitica were all of the A0 type. The result supports the hypothesis of the presence of mating type genes in mitochondria in Phytophthora. PMID:16333332

Gu, Yu-Huan; Ko, Wen-Hsiung

2005-11-01

260

Elevated predation risk changes mating behaviour and courtship in a fiddler crab  

OpenAIRE

The fiddler crab, Uca beebei, lives in individually defended burrows, in mixed-sex colonies on intertidal mud flats. Avian predation is common, especially of crabs unable to escape into burrows. Mating pairs form in two ways. Females either mate on the surface at their burrow entrance ('surface mating') or leave their own burrow and sequentially enter and leave ('sample') courting males' burrows, before staying in one to mate underground ('burrow mating'). We tested whether perceived predatio...

Koga, T.; Backwell, P. R. Y.; Jennions, M. D.; Christy, J. H.

1998-01-01

261

Feminization of pheromone-sensing neurons affects mating decisions in Drosophila males  

OpenAIRE

The response of individual animals to mating signals depends on the sexual identity of the individual and the genetics of the mating targets, which represent the mating social context (social environment). However, how social signals are sensed and integrated during mating decisions remains a mystery. One of the models for understanding mating behaviors in molecular and cellular terms is the male courtship ritual in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). We have recently shown that a subset...

Lu, Beika; Zelle, Kathleen M.; Seltzer, Raya; Hefetz, Abraham; Ben-shahar, Yehuda

2014-01-01

262

Sex Peptide Is Required for the Efficient Release of Stored Sperm in Mated Drosophila Females  

OpenAIRE

The Drosophila seminal fluid protein (SFP) sex peptide (SP) elicits numerous post-mating responses, including increased egg laying and decreased sexual receptivity, in the mated female. Unlike other SFPs, which are detectable in mated females for only a few hours post mating, SP is maintained—and its effects are sustained—for several days. The persistence of SP in the mated female's reproductive tract is thought to be a consequence of its binding to, and gradual release from, sperm in sto...

Avila, Frank W.; Ravi Ram, K.; Bloch Qazi, Margaret C.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

2010-01-01

263

Effect of the Sterilizing dose of Gamma Irradiation on Mating Performance and Female re-mating of Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The population suppression success of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) using sterile insect technique (SIT) depends mainly upon the ability of sterilized males to locate and mate with wild females. The efficiency of the SIT also depends upon the relative frequencies of re-mating by wild females following first mating with sterilized or wild males. A semi field cage test was conducted to study the effect of three different sterilizing doses of gamma irradiation on the male mating performance. No significant differences were found in the ability of mating, the mating duration and mating site between the un-irradiated males and irradiated ones with the doses (80, 90 and 100 Gy) The irradiated males with the dose 80 Gy revealed mating ability higher than the irradiated males with the other doses (90 and 100 Gy) although un-irradiated males had a general higher ability than irradiated ones.

264

Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE can be divided into two subgroups, convulsive status epilepticus (CSE and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE. NCSE is clinically characterized by recurrence or persistence of absence or complex partial seizures which unconsciousness persists. Seizures are lasted more than 30 minutes, and accompanied by mental and behavioral changes. Although the main feature is the change of level of consciousness, affective, memory, cognitive, speech, motor systems, behavioral and psychiatric disorders can be also seen. Electroencephalography (EEG is the single diagnostic method in this situation. NCSE constitutes approximately 25% of all SE, however it is thought that sometimes it is misdiagnosed and the incidence of NCSE may be higher. The causes are disorders of central nervous system (stroke, infection, trauma, tumor, and metabolic factors (hypoxia, renal diseases, drugs, failure to use antiepileptic drug. The treatment contains the standard therapy of SE. Short-acting benzodiazepines are preferred in initial treatment. For more resistant cases, loading of phenytoin is applied. If there is no response to treatment, midazolam and propofol additionally to barbiturates can be used. We aimed to present a case admitted to our ED with altered mental status and diagnosed as NCSE that is under-diagnosed.

Ayhan Aköz

2014-08-01

265

Nonkonvulsif Status Epileptikus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE can be divided into two subgroups, convulsive status epilepticus (CSE and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE. NCSE is clinically characterized by recurrence or persistence of absence or complex partial seizures which unconsciousness persists. Seizures are lasted more than 30 minutes, and accompanied by mental and behavioral changes. Although the main feature is the change of level of consciousness, affective, memory, cognitive, speech, motor systems, behavioral and psychiatric disorders can be also seen. Electroencephalography (EEG is the single diagnostic method in this situation. NCSE constitutes approximately 25% of all SE, however it is thought that sometimes it is misdiagnosed and the incidence of NCSE may be higher. The causes are disorders of central nervous system (stroke, infection, trauma, tumor, and metabolic factors (hypoxia, renal diseases, drugs, failure to use antiepileptic drug. The treatment contains the standard therapy of SE. Short-acting benzodiazepines are preferred in initial treatment. For more resistant cases, loading of phenytoin is applied. If there is no response to treatment, midazolam and propofol additionally to barbiturates can be used. We aimed to present a case admitted to our ED with altered mental status and diagnosed as NCSE that is under-diagnosed.

Ayhan AKÖZ

2013-01-01

266

Male rock sparrows adjust their breeding strategy according to female ornamentation: parental or mating investment?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigated the relations between female quality and ornamentation and between male breeding investment and female ornamentation in the rock sparrow, Petronia petronia, a passerine in which both sexes have a yellow breast patch. Breast patch size in females was positively correlated with body mass and breeding status; double-brooding and primary females of polygynous males had a larger patch, and patch size could therefore be an indicator of female phenotypic quality. We conducted a field experiment to test whether males allocate their parental effort in relation to female quality, as predicted by the differential allocation hypothesis. We increased and reduced the ornament sizes of paired females and compared the behaviour of their males before and after manipulation. Frequency of brood feeding by the male was not affected by female ornament manipulation; there was a nonsignificant trend for females with enlarged ornaments, contrary to predictions, to increase their feeding rate. Reducing female ornaments resulted in a decrease in male nest attendance, a measure of passive brood defence, whereas enlarging the ornament had no effect. Males concurrently reduced their territorial (song output) and sexual activity (courtship and copulation). The reduction in sexual activity suggests that males may have changed their nest attendance in response to their mate's renesting probability. Whatever the interpretation, these results provide some of the first evidence that not only female, but also male, birds change breeding strategy according to their mate's phenotype in the wild.

Pilastro, Andrea; Griggio, Matteo

2003-01-01

267

Interspecific actions of alpha mating pheromones on the a mating-type cells of three Saccharomyces yeasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The alpha mating pheromones synthesized in three Saccharomyces yeasts (S. cerevisiae, S. kluyveri, and S. exiguus) displayed interspecific actions on the a cells of all three species despite the fact that the amino acid sequences of all three alpha pheromones are different. Mating between species, however, did not occur. The interspecific alpha pheromone--a cell reaction was not necessarily more effective than the interspecific one. PMID:3282694

Hisatomi, T; Yanagishima, N; Sakurai, A; Kobayashi, H

1988-01-01

268

Post-mating change in excretion by mated Drosophila melanogaster females is a long-term response that depends on sex peptide and sperm  

OpenAIRE

Drosophila seminal fluid proteins elicit physiological and behavioral changes in the female after mating. For example, the seminal protein sex peptide (SP) causes females to lay more eggs, reduce receptivity to re-mating, consume more food and produce more concentrated excreta upon mating. It has been reported that SP indirectly increases food consumption as a result of its stimulation of egg production, but its role in producing more concentrated excreta in the mated female was reported to b...

Apger-mcglaughon, Jennifer; Wolfner, Mariana F.

2013-01-01

269

Human mate selection under competitive pressure  

OpenAIRE

Stable, cross-cultural, gender-based preferences in relationship choices have been identified by evolutionary psychologists (Buss 1987, Symons and Ellis 1989). This study furthered such research by collecting data from 20 participants (10 male, 10 female) using a mixed design. Participants completed three questionnaires on sexual orientation and relationship status, their attitudes towards aspects of relationships, and a trait-rating scale (a replication of Buss 1989). Participants then answe...

Hope, David

2006-01-01

270

Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE) Center  

Science.gov (United States)

National consortium of educational institutions and organizations seeking to improve marine technology education. The website has an overview of marine technology with current status and future development, information on careers and educational and professional development opportunities. Some curriculum material is provided with more coming soon. Learn how to make your very own ROV. Additional information on ROV contests, workshops, and cost-associated teacher resources are available.

271

Radical loss of an extreme extra-pair mating system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mating outside the pair-bond is surprisingly common in socially monogamous birds, but rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP vary widely between species. Although differences in life-history and contemporary ecological factors may explain some interspecific variation, evolutionary forces driving extra-pair (EP mating remain largely obscure. Also, since there is a large phylogenetic component to the frequency of EPP, evolutionary inertia may contribute substantially to observed EP mating patterns. However, the relative importance of plasticity and phylogenetic constraints on the incidence of EP mating remains largely unknown. Results We here demonstrate very low levels of EPP (4.4% of offspring in the purple-crowned fairy-wren Malurus coronatus, a member of the genus with the highest known levels of EPP in birds. In addition, we show absence of the suite of distinctive behavioral and morphological adaptations associated with EP mating that characterize other fairy-wrens. Phylogenetic parsimony implies that these characteristics were lost in one speciation event. Nonetheless, many life-history and breeding parameters that are hypothesized to drive interspecific variation in EPP are not different in the purple-crowned fairy-wren compared to its promiscuous congeners. Conclusion Such radical loss of an extreme EP mating system with all associated adaptations from a lineage of biologically very similar species indicates that evolutionary inertia does not necessarily constrain interspecific variation in EPP. Moreover, if apparently minor interspecific differences regularly cause large differences in EPP, this may be one reason why the evolution of EP mating is still poorly understood.

Segelbacher Gernot

2009-05-01

272

Hominoid seminal protein evolution and ancestral mating behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hominoid mating systems show extensive variation among species. The degree of sexual dimorphism in body size and canine size varies among primates in accordance with their mating system, as does the testes size and the consistency of ejaculated semen, in response to differing levels of sperm competition. To investigate patterns of evolution at hominoid seminal proteins and to make inferences regarding the mating systems of extinct taxa, we sequenced the entire coding region of the prostate-specific transglutaminase (TGM4) gene in human, chimpanzee, bonobo, western lowland gorilla, eastern lowland gorilla, orangutan, and siamang, including multiple humans, chimps, and gorillas. Partial DNA sequence of the coding regions was also obtained for one eastern lowland gorilla at the semenogelin genes (SEMG1 and SEMG2), which code for the predominant proteins in semen. Patterns of nucleotide variation and inferred protein sequence change were evaluated within and between species. Combining the present data with previous studies demonstrates a high rate of amino acid substitutions, and low intraspecific variation, at seminal proteins in Pan, presumably driven by strong sperm competition. Both gorilla species apparently possess nonfunctional TGM4, SEMG1, and SEMG2 genes, suggesting that gorillas have had low sperm competition, and therefore their current polygynous mating system, for a long time before their divergence. Similarly, orangutans show longstanding stasis at TGM4, which may be interpreted as evidence for an unchanging mating system for most of their evolution after their divergence from African apes. In contrast to the great apes, the data from humans could be interpreted as evidence of fluctuations between different mating systems or alternatively as a relaxed functional constraint in these proteins. It is our hope that this study is a first step toward developing a model to predict ancestral mating systems from extant molecular data to complement interpretations from the fossil record. PMID:18561295

Carnahan, Sarah J; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I

2008-10-01

273

Behavioural determinants of gene flow in malaria vector populations: Anopheles gambiae males select large females as mates  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium-refractory mosquitoes are being rapidly developed for malaria control but will only succeed if they can successfully compete for mates when released into the wild. Pre-copulatory behavioural traits maintain genetic population structure in wild mosquito populations and mating barriers have foiled previous attempts to control malaria vectors through sterile male release. Methods Varying numbers of virgin male and female Anopheles gambiae Giles, from two strains of different innate sizes, were allowed to mate under standardized conditions in laboratory cages, following which, the insemination status, oviposition success and egg batch size of each female was assessed. The influence of male and female numbers, strain combination and female size were determined using logistic regression, correlation analysis and a simple mechanistic model of male competition for females. Results Male An. gambiae select females on the basis of size because of much greater fecundity among large females. Even under conditions where large numbers of males must compete for a smaller number of females, the largest females are more likely to become inseminated, to successfully oviposit and to produce large egg batches. Conclusions Sexual selection, on the basis of size, could either promote or limit the spread of malaria-refractory genes into wild populations and needs to be considered in the continued development and eventual release of transgenic vectors. Fundamental studies of behavioural ecology in malaria vectors such as An. gambiae can have important implications for malaria control and should be prioritised for more extensive investigation in the future.

Yan G

2002-08-01

274

Evaluation of phenolic compounds in mate (Ilex paraguariensis) processed by gamma radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radiation food processing has been demonstrating great effectiveness in the attack of pathogenic agents, while little compromising nutritional value and sensorial properties of foods. The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), widely consumed product in South America, generally in the form of infusions with hot or cold water, calls of chimarrao or terere, it is cited in literature as one of the best sources phenolic compounds. The antioxidants action of these constituent has been related to the protection of the organism against the free radicals, generated in alive, currently responsible for the sprouting of some degenerative illness as cancer, arteriosclerosis, rheumatic arthritis and cardiovascular clutters among others. The objective of that work was to evaluate the action of the processing for gamma radiation in phenolic compounds of terere beverage in the doses of 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. The observed results do not demonstrate significant alterations in phenolic compounds of terere beverage processed by gamma radiation.

Furgeri, C.; Nunes, T.C.F.; Fanaro, G.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes-Laboratory de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Souza, M.F.F.; Bastos, D.H.M. [Faculdade de Saude Publica, FSP/USP, Departamento de Nutricao-Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 715, CEP: 01246-904 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes-Laboratory de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

2009-07-15

275

Evaluation of phenolic compounds in mate (Ilex paraguariensis) processed by gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation food processing has been demonstrating great effectiveness in the attack of pathogenic agents, while little compromising nutritional value and sensorial properties of foods. The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), widely consumed product in South America, generally in the form of infusions with hot or cold water, calls of chimarrao or terere, it is cited in literature as one of the best sources phenolic compounds. The antioxidants action of these constituent has been related to the protection of the organism against the free radicals, generated in alive, currently responsible for the sprouting of some degenerative illness as cancer, arteriosclerosis, rheumatic arthritis and cardiovascular clutters among others. The objective of that work was to evaluate the action of the processing for gamma radiation in phenolic compounds of terere beverage in the doses of 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. The observed results do not demonstrate significant alterations in phenolic compounds of terere beverage processed by gamma radiation.

276

Does mating interfere in the biological characteristics of a population of Trichogramma pretiosum?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Trichogramma spp. são parasitoides utilizados na regulação de populações de insetos que podem causar danos econômicos. Para que esses tenham bom desempenho é essencial o conhecimento de algumas de suas características biológicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se o acasalamento interfere nas [...] características biológicas de uma população de Trichogramma pretiosum coletada em campo. Em todos os experimentos, grupos de fêmeas acasaladas e não acasaladas foram utilizados. Além disso, foi verificada a interferência do acasalamento nas características biológicas dos descendentes. Foi constatado que o acasalamento é capaz de alterar o parasitismo e a longevidade das fêmeas genitoras, além de alterar a longevidade entre os descendentes, porém, uma vez parasitados, os ovos se desenvolvem normalmente, apresentando viabilidade e número de descendentes similares aos das fêmeas não acasaladas. Verificamos ainda, que a população de T. pretiosum coletada em campo apresentou indivíduos com características reprodutivas telítocas e arrenótocas. Esse fato ressalta a importância de investigações cuidadosas sobre o modo de reprodução das populações coletadas em campo, evitando assim problemas de eficiência no manejo de populações de insetos. Abstract in english Trichogramma spp. are parasitoids used in the regulation of insect populations that can cause economic damage. In order to ensure good performance, understanding some of their biological characteristics is essential. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether mating interferes with the biol [...] ogical characteristics of a population of Trichogramma pretiosum collected in the field. In all experiments, groups of mated and unmated females were used. We also verified any interference from mating on the biological characteristics of the offspring. We found that mating can alter the parasitism and longevity of genitor females, in addition to changing longevity among the descendants, but once parasitized, the eggs develop normally, showing similar emergence percentage and number of offspring as those from unmated females. In addition, we verified that the population of T. pretiosum collected in the field presented individuals with reproductive thelytokous and arrhenotokous characteristics. This fact highlights the importance of careful investigation on the reproduction mode of populations collected in the field, thus avoiding problems in the effective management of insect populations.

DIRCEU, PRATISSOLI; THIAGO G., KLOSS; FERNANDO D., ZINGER; JOSÉ R. DE, CARVALHO; ULYSSES R., VIANNA; JOÃO P.P., PAES.

2014-03-01

277

Factors affecting female re-mating frequency in the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mating and re-mating of two laboratory strains (Petapa and Guate), one wild population (Antigua) of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and one of the hybrids between them were studied under laboratory conditions. No evidence of sexual isolation at first mating was found among them. Re-mating frequency was higher under crowded conditions for the two laboratory strains. The probability of Pe tap a females re-mating depended more on the origin of the male and was negatively associated with the duration of the first mating, but these variables had no effect on re-mating tendency of Guate females. Matings by Petapa males were significantly less prolonged than those of Guate or hybrid males. With respect to re-mating, Petapa non-virgin females preferred Petapa to Guate males. (author)

278

Identification and Expression Analysis of MATE Genes Involved in Flavonoid Transport in Blueberry Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins are the most recently identified family of multidrug transporters. In plants, this family is remarkably large compared to the human and bacteria counterpart, highlighting the importance of MATE proteins in this kingdom. Here 33 Unigenes annotated as MATE transporters were found in the blueberry fruit transcriptome, of which eight full-length cDNA sequences were identified and cloned. These proteins are composed of 477–517 residues, with molecular masses ~54 kDa, and theoretical isoelectric points from 5.35 to 8.41. Bioinformatics analysis predicted 10–12 putative transmembrane segments for VcMATEs, and localization to the plasma membrane without an N-terminal signal peptide. All blueberry MATE proteins shared 32.1–84.4% identity, among which VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8, and VcMATE9 were more similar to the MATE-type flavonoid transporters. Phylogenetic analysis showed VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8 and VcMATE9 clustered with MATE-type flavonoid transporters, indicating that they might be involved in flavonoid transport. VcMATE1 and VcMATE4 may be involved in the transport of secondary metabolites, the detoxification of xenobiotics, or the export of toxic cations. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that the expression profile of the eight VcMATE genes varied spatially and temporally. Analysis of expression and anthocyanin accumulation indicated that there were some correlation between the expression profile and the accumulation of anthocyanins. These results showed VcMATEs might be involved in diverse physiological functions, and anthocyanins across the membranes might be mutually maintained by MATE-type flavonoid transporters and other mechanisms. This study will enrich the MATE-based transport mechanisms of secondary metabolite, and provide a new biotechonology strategy to develop better nutritional blueberry cultivars. PMID:25781331

Chen, Li; Liu, Yushan; Liu, Hongdi; Kang, Limin; Geng, Jinman; Gai, Yuzhuo; Ding, Yunlong; Sun, Haiyue; Li, Yadong

2015-01-01

279

Paternal imprinting of mating preferences between natural populations of house mice (Mus musculus domesticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolutionary divergence of cues for mate recognition can contribute to early stages of population separation. We compare here two allopatric populations of house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) that have become separated about 3000 years ago. We have used paternity assignments in semi-natural environments to study the degree of mutual mate recognition according to population origin under conditions of free choice and overlapping generations. Our results provide insights into the divergence of mating cues, but also for the mating system of house mice. We find frequent multiple mating, occurrence of inbreeding and formation of extended family groups. In addition, many animals show strong mate fidelity, that is, frequent choice of the same mating partners in successive breeding cycles, indicating a role for familiarity in mating preference. With respect to population divergence, we find evidence for assortative mating, but only under conditions where the animals had time to familiarize themselves with mating partners from their own population. Most interestingly, the first-generation offspring born in the enclosure showed a specific mating pattern. Although matings between animals of hybrid population origin with animals of pure population origin should have occurred with equal frequency with respect to matching the paternal or maternal origin, paternal matching with mates from their own populations occurred much more often. Our findings suggest that paternally imprinted cues play a role in mate recognition between mice and that the cues evolve fast, such that animals of populations that are separated since not more than 3000 years can differentially recognize them. PMID:23506395

Montero, Inka; Teschke, Meike; Tautz, Diethard

2013-05-01

280

The Study and Analysis of the Mating Behavior and Sound Production of Male Cicada Psalmocharias alhageos (Kol. (Homoptera:Cicadidae to Make Disruption in Mating  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Psalmocharias alhageos is an important pest of vine in most parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, southern areas of Russia, Turkey and Iraq. This cicada is spread in most provinces in Iran such as Esfahan, Hamedan, Qazvin, Markazi, Lorestan, Qom, Kerman, Tehran and Kordestan. In addition to vine, this insect damages some other fruit trees, such as apple, sour cherry, quince, peach, pomegranate and pear trees and some non-fruit trees, namely white poplar, ash, elm, eglantine, silk and black poplar trees. The nymphs of cicada damage the trees by feeding on root, adult insects on young bud and by oviposition under branch barks. Nourishing root by nymph leads to the weakness of the tree and hinder its growth. The high density oviposition of adult insects inside young barks causes withering of branches. The resulted damage on vine products is 40% which is one of the most important factors in product reduction in vineyard. This research was conducted in Takestan in Qazvin. It was conducted for the first time to study the behaviors of the mates of this vine cicada in order to manage it. Two systems were used to record the sound of male cicada called analog voice-recorder and digital voice recorder. To analyze the recorded sound of the male cicada we used of spectrum analyzer, digital storage oscilloscope and protens 7 computer softwares. We could call the attention of natural enemies an disturb the male insect`s attracting sound by producing natural and artificial sound in the range of 1-6 kHz in two different ripeness status of the fruits and could prevent mating and oviposition of female cicadas.

H. Zamanian

2008-01-01

281

Do assortative preferences contribute to assortative mating for adiposity?  

Science.gov (United States)

Assortative mating for adiposity, whereby levels of adiposity in romantic partners tend to be positively correlated, has implications for population health due to the combined effects of partners' levels of adiposity on fertility and/or offspring health. Although assortative preferences for cues of adiposity, whereby leaner people are inherently more attracted to leaner individuals, have been proposed as a factor in assortative mating for adiposity, there have been no direct tests of this issue. Because of this, and because of recent work suggesting that facial cues of adiposity convey information about others' health that may be particularly important for mate preferences, we tested the contribution of assortative preferences for facial cues of adiposity to assortative mating for adiposity (assessed from body mass index, BMI) in a sample of romantic couples. Romantic partners' BMIs were positively correlated and this correlation was not due to the effects of age or relationship duration. However, although men and women with leaner partners showed stronger preferences for cues of low levels of adiposity, controlling for these preferences did not weaken the correlation between partners' BMIs. Indeed, own BMI and preferences were uncorrelated. These results suggest that assortative preferences for facial cues of adiposity contribute little (if at all) to assortative mating for adiposity. PMID:24168811

Fisher, Claire I; Fincher, Corey L; Hahn, Amanda C; Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

2014-11-01

282

The heritability of multiple male mating in a promiscuous mammal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tendency of females to mate with multiple males is often explained by direct and indirect benefits that could outweigh the many potential costs of multiple mating. However, behaviour can only evolve in response to costs and benefits if there is sufficient genetic variation on which selection can act. We followed 108 mating chases of 85 North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) during 4 years, to measure each female's degree of multiple male mating (MMM), and used an animal model analysis of our multi-generational pedigree to provide what we believe is the first estimate of the heritability of MMM in the wild. Female red squirrels were highly polyandrous, mating with an average of 7.0 ± 0.2 males on their day of oestrus. Although we found evidence for moderate levels of additive genetic variation (CV(A) = 5.1), environmental variation was very high (CV(E) = 32.3), which resulted in a very low heritability estimate (h(2) < 0.01). So, while there is genetic variation in this trait, the large environmental variation suggests that any costs or benefits associated with differences among females in MMM are primarily owing to environmental and not genetic differences, which could constrain the evolutionary response to natural selection on this trait. PMID:21159688

McFarlane, S Eryn; Lane, Jeffrey E; Taylor, Ryan W; Gorrell, Jamieson C; Coltman, David W; Humphries, Murray M; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G

2011-06-23

283

The role of male contest competition over mates in speciation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research on the role of sexual selection in the speciation process largely focuses on the diversifying role of mate choice. In particular, much attention has been drawn to the fact that population divergence in mate choice and in the male traits subject to choice directly can lead to assortative mating. However, male contest competition over mates also constitutes an important mechanism of sexual selection. We review recent empirical studies and argue that sexual selection through male contest competition can affect speciation in ways other than mate choice. For example, biases in aggression towards similar competitors can lead to disruptive and negative frequency-dependent selection on the traits used in contest competition in a similar way as competition for other types of limited resources. Moreover, male contest abilities often trade-off against other abilities such as parasite resistance, protection against predators and general stress tolerance. Populations experiencing different ecological conditions should therefore quickly diverge non-randomly in a number of traits including male contest abilities. In resource based breeding systems, a feedback loop between competitive ability and habitat use may lead to further population divergence. We discuss how population divergence in traits used in male contest competition can lead to the build up of reproductive isolation through a number of different pathways. Our main conclusion is that the role of male contest competition in speciation remains largely scientifically unexplored [Current Zoology 58 (3: 490–506, 2012].

Anna QVARNSTRÖM, Niclas VALLIN, Andreas RUDH

2012-06-01

284

Mating activity of gamma irradiated codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella (L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mating of 30-krad treated codling moths, Laspeyresia pomonella, under field cage conditions occurred mainly at temperatures ranging from 14 to 200C. Irradiation applied to diet-reared moths produced neither an apparent shift in the time (hours) of copulation nor a decrease of the mating activity. However, a significant reduction in the mating ability was induced by Calco Oil Red added to the larval diet, and also by handling and transporting the moths about 140 km to the irradiation facilities. The morning time was found to be the best time to release irradiated moths in the field. Males reared on thinning apples were two times more active sexually than ones reared on an artificial medium. (author)

285

Irradiation detection of coffee mate by electron spin resonance (ESR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Un-irradiated coffee mate samples do not exhibit any ESR signal. However, the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiation exhibit an ESR singlet and a large unresolved ESR signal, respectively. The dose-response curves of the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiations were found to be described well by an exponential and linear functions, respectively. Variable temperature and fading studies at room temperature showed that the radiation-induced radicals in coffee mate sample are very sensitive to temperature. The discrimination between un-irradiated and irradiated coffee mate samples can be done just comparing their ESR spectra. However, determination of the radiation dose received by the sample cannot be possible because of the fast decay of signal intensity at room temperature.

286

Irradiation detection of coffee mate by electron spin resonance (ESR)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Un-irradiated coffee mate samples do not exhibit any ESR signal. However, the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiation exhibit an ESR singlet and a large unresolved ESR signal, respectively. The dose-response curves of the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiations were found to be described well by an exponential and linear functions, respectively. Variable temperature and fading studies at room temperature showed that the radiation-induced radicals in coffee mate sample are very sensitive to temperature. The discrimination between un-irradiated and irradiated coffee mate samples can be done just comparing their ESR spectra. However, determination of the radiation dose received by the sample cannot be possible because of the fast decay of signal intensity at room temperature.

Ozsayin, Fulya [Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Polat, Mustafa, E-mail: polat@hacettepe.edu.t [Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

2011-06-15

287

Lonely hearts or sex in the city? Density-dependent effects in mating systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two very basic ideas in sexual selection are heavily influenced by numbers of potential mates: the evolution of anisogamy, leading to sex role differentiation, and the frequency dependence of reproductive success that tends to equalize primary sex ratios. However, being explicit about the numbers of potential mates is not typical to most evolutionary theory of sexual selection. Here, we argue that this may prevent us from finding the appropriate ecological equilibria that determine the evolutionary endpoints of selection. We review both theoretical and empirical advances on how population density may influence aspects of mating systems such as intrasexual competition, female choice or resistance, and parental care. Density can have strong effects on selective pressures, whether or not there is phenotypic plasticity in individual strategies with respect to density. Mating skew may either increase or decrease with density, which may be aided or counteracted by changes in female behaviour. Switchpoints between alternative mating strategies can be density dependent, and mate encounter rates may influence mate choice (including mutual mate choice), multiple mating, female resistance to male mating attempts, mate searching, mate guarding, parental care, and the probability of divorce. Considering density-dependent selection may be essential for understanding how populations can persist at all despite sexual conflict, but simple models seem to fail to predict the diversity of observed responses in nature. This highlights the importance of considering the interaction between mating systems and population dynamics, and we strongly encourage further work in this area. PMID:16612890

Kokko, Hanna; Rankin, Daniel J

2006-02-28

288

Blackmailing: the keystone in the human mating system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The human mating system is characterized by bi-parental care and faithful monogamy is highly valued in most cultures. Marriage has evolved as a social institution and punishment for extra pair mating (EPM or adultery is common. However, similar to other species with bi-parental care, both males and females frequently indulge in EPM in secrecy since it confers certain gender specific genetic benefits. Stability of faithful monogamy is therefore a conundrum. We model human mating system using game theory framework to study the effects of factors that can stabilize or destabilize faithful committed monogamy. Results Although mate guarding can partly protect the genetic interests, we show that it does not ensure monogamy. Social policing enabled by gossiping is another line of defense against adultery unique to humans. However, social policing has a small but positive cost to an individual and therefore is prone to free riding. We suggest that since exposure of adultery can invite severe punishment, the policing individuals can blackmail opportunistically whenever the circumstances permit. If the maximum probabilistic benefit of blackmailing is greater than the cost of policing, policing becomes a non-altruistic act and stabilizes in the society. We show that this dynamics leads to the coexistence of different strategies in oscillations, with obligate monogamy maintained at a high level. Deletion of blackmailing benefit from the model leads to the complete disappearance of obligate monogamy. Conclusions Obligate monogamy can be maintained in the population in spite of the advantages of EPM. Blackmailing, which makes policing a non-altruistic act, is crucial for the maintenance of faithful monogamy. Although biparental care, EPM, mate guarding and punishment are shared by many species, gossiping and blackmailing make the human mating system unique.

Watve Milind G

2011-11-01

289

Structures of the Mating-Type Loci of Cordyceps takaomontana  

OpenAIRE

Nucleotide sequences of the mating-type loci MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 of Cordyceps takaomontana were determined, which is the first such report for the clavicipitaceous fungi. MAT1-1 contains two mating-type genes, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2, but MAT1-1-3 could not be found. On the other hand, MAT1-2 has MAT1-2-1. A pseudogene of MAT1-1-1 is located next to MAT1-2.

Yokoyama, Eiji; Yamagishi, Kenzo; Hara, Akira

2003-01-01

290

Intraclonal mating occurs during tsetse transmission of Trypanosoma brucei  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mating in Trypanosoma brucei is a non-obligatory event, triggered by the co-occurrence of different strains in the salivary glands of the vector. Recombinants that result from intra- rather than interclonal mating have been detected, but only in crosses of two different trypanosome strains. This has led to the hypothesis that when trypanosomes recognize a different strain, they release a diffusible factor or pheromone that triggers mating in any cell in the vicinity whether it is of the same or a different strain. This idea assumes that the trypanosome can recognize self and non-self, although there is as yet no evidence for the existence of mating types in T. brucei. Results We investigated intraclonal mating in T. b. brucei by crossing red and green fluorescent lines of a single strain, so that recombinant progeny can be detected in the fly by yellow fluorescence. For strain 1738, seven flies had both red and green trypanosomes in the salivary glands and, in three, yellow trypanosomes were also observed, although they could not be recovered for subsequent analysis. Nonetheless, both red and non-fluorescent clones from these flies had recombinant genotypes as judged by microsatellite and karyotype analyses, and some also had raised DNA contents, suggesting recombination or genome duplication. Strain J10 produced similar results indicative of intraclonal mating. In contrast, trypanosome clones recovered from other flies showed that genotypes can be transmitted with fidelity. When a yellow hybrid clone expressing both red and green fluorescent protein genes was transmitted, the salivary glands contained a mixture of fluorescent-coloured trypanosomes, but only yellow and red clones were recovered. While loss of the GFP gene in the red clones could have resulted from gene conversion, some of these clones showed loss of heterozygosity and raised DNA contents as in the other single strain transmissions. Our observations suggest that many recombinants are non-viable after intraclonal mating. Conclusion We have demonstrated intraclonal mating during fly transmission of T. b. brucei, contrary to previous findings that recombination occurs only when another strain is present. It is thus no longer possible to assume that T. b. brucei remains genetically unaltered after fly transmission.

Ferris Vanessa

2009-09-01

291

Mating programs including genomic relationships and dominance effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Computerized mating programs using genomic information are needed by breed associations, artificial-insemination organizations, and on-farm software providers, but such software is already challenged by the size of the relationship matrix. As of October 2012, over 230,000 Holsteins obtained genomic predictions in North America. Efficient methods of storing, computing, and transferring genomic relationships from a central database to customers via a web query were developed for approximately 165,000 genotyped cows and the subset of 1,518 bulls whose semen was available for purchase at that time. This study, utilizing 3 breeds, investigated differences in sire selection, methods of assigning mates, the use of genomic or pedigree relationships, and the effect of including dominance effects in a mating program. For both Jerseys and Holsteins, selection and mating programs were tested using the top 50 marketed bulls for genomic and traditional lifetime net merit as well as 50 randomly selected bulls. The 500 youngest genotyped cows in the largest herd in each breed were assigned mates of the same breed with limits of 10 cows per bull and 1 bull per cow (only 79 cows and 8 bulls for Brown Swiss). A dominance variance of 4.1 and 3.7% was estimated for Holsteins and Jerseys using 45,187 markers and management group deviation for milk yield. Sire selection was identified as the most important component of improving expected progeny value, followed by managing inbreeding and then inclusion of dominance. The respective percentage gains for milk yield in this study were 64, 27, and 9, for Holsteins and 73, 20, and 7 for Jerseys. The linear programming method of assigning a mate outperformed sequential selection by reducing genomic or pedigree inbreeding by 0.86 to 1.06 and 0.93 to 1.41, respectively. Use of genomic over pedigree relationship information provided a larger decrease in expected progeny inbreeding and thus greater expected progeny value. Based on lifetime net merit, the economic value of using genomic relationships was >$3 million per year for Holsteins when applied to all genotyped females, assuming that each will provide 1 replacement. Previous mating programs required transferring only a pedigree file to customers, but better service is possible by incorporating genomic relationships, more precise mate allocation, and dominance effects. Economic benefits will continue to grow as more females are genotyped. PMID:24119810

Sun, C; VanRaden, P M; O'Connell, J R; Weigel, K A; Gianola, D

2013-12-01

292

Using Dissortative Mating Genetic Algorithms to Track the Extrema of Dynamic Deceptive Functions  

CERN Document Server

Traditional Genetic Algorithms (GAs) mating schemes select individuals for crossover independently of their genotypic or phenotypic similarities. In Nature, this behaviour is known as random mating. However, non-random schemes - in which individuals mate according to their kinship or likeness - are more common in natural systems. Previous studies indicate that, when applied to GAs, negative assortative mating (a specific type of non-random mating, also known as dissortative mating) may improve their performance (on both speed and reliability) in a wide range of problems. Dissortative mating maintains the genetic diversity at a higher level during the run, and that fact is frequently observed as an explanation for dissortative GAs ability to escape local optima traps. Dynamic problems, due to their specificities, demand special care when tuning a GA, because diversity plays an even more crucial role than it does when tackling static ones. This paper investigates the behaviour of dissortative mating GAs, namely...

Fernandes, C M; Rosa, A C

2009-01-01

293

46 CFR 11.462 - Endorsements for master or mate of uninspected fishing industry vessels.  

Science.gov (United States)

...master or mate of uninspected fishing industry vessels. 11.462 Section...master or mate of uninspected fishing industry vessels. (a) This section...documented to engage in the fishing industry, with the exception of:...

2010-10-01

294

Polar bears (Ursus maritimus mating during late June on the pack ice of northern Svalbard, Norway  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polar bears are seasonal breeders and typically mate from late March to early May. Implantation is, however, delayed until autumn, which can allow plasticity in the date of mating. As for other seasonal breeders, a rapid return to estrus after the loss of dependent offspring can be expected, even into the summer. A few earlier observations and dissections of dead animals suggest that polar bears are able to mate in summer. We report on a mating incident on 29 June 2014, the first documented mating this late in the season among wild polar bears. The female had lost her dependent cub during the period prior to the mating event. We speculate that she lost this cub late in the mating season, entered estrus and successfully mated in late June.

Thomas G. Smith

2015-03-01

295

Genetic determinants of mate recognition in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mate choice is of central importance to most animals, influencing population structure, speciation, and ultimately the survival of a species. Mating behavior of male brachionid rotifers is triggered by the product of a chemosensory gene, a glycoprotein on the body surface of females called the mate recognition pheromone. The mate recognition pheromone has been biochemically characterized, but little was known about the gene(s. We describe the isolation and characterization of the mate recognition pheromone gene through protein purification, N-terminal amino acid sequence determination, identification of the mate recognition pheromone gene from a cDNA library, sequencing, and RNAi knockdown to confirm the functional role of the mate recognition pheromone gene in rotifer mating. Results A 29 kD protein capable of eliciting rotifer male circling was isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Two transcript types containing the N-terminal sequence were identified in a cDNA library; further characterization by screening a genomic library and by polymerase chain reaction revealed two genes belonging to each type. Each gene begins with a signal peptide region followed by nearly perfect repeats of an 87 to 92 codon motif with no codons between repeats and the final motif prematurely terminated by the stop codon. The two Type A genes contain four and seven repeats and the two Type B genes contain three and five repeats, respectively. Only the Type B gene with three repeats encodes a peptide with a molecular weight of 29 kD. Each repeat of the Type B gene products contains three asparagines as potential sites for N-glycosylation; there are no asparagines in the Type A genes. RNAi with Type A double-stranded RNA did not result in less circling than in the phosphate-buffered saline control, but transfection with Type B double-stranded RNA significantly reduced male circling by 17%. The very low divergence between repeat units, even at synonymous positions, suggests that the repeats are kept nearly identical through a process of concerted evolution. Information-rich molecules like surface glycoproteins are well adapted for chemical communication and aquatic animals may have evolved signaling systems based on these compounds, whereas insects use cuticular hydrocarbons. Conclusion Owing to its critical role in mating, the mate recognition pheromone gene will be a useful molecular marker for exploring the mechanisms and rates of selection and the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation using rotifers as a model system. The phylogenetic variation in the mate recognition pheromone gene can now be studied in conjunction with the large amount of ecological and population genetic data being gathered for the Brachionus plicatilis species complex to understand better the evolutionary drivers of cryptic speciation.

Kubanek Julia

2009-09-01

296

The effects of mating and instrumental insemination on queen honey bee flight behavior and gene expression  

OpenAIRE

Mating is fundamental to most organisms, although the physiological and transcriptional changes associated with this process have been largely characterized only in Drosophila. In this study, we use honey bees as a model system since their queens undergo massive and permanent physiological and behavioral changes following mating. Previous studies have identified changes associated with the transition from a virgin queen to a fully-mated, egg-laying queen. Here, we further uncouple the mating ...

Kocher, S. D.; Tarpy, D. R.; Grozinger, C. M.

2009-01-01

297

The effect of pre- and post-mating dietary restriction on embryonic survival in gilts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this study were to determine if pre- and post-mating feeding levels interact to affect embryonic survival, and to determine whether feeding to the maintenance requirement would impair embryo survival. Gilts were allocated to a pre-mating treatment of 1 or 0.8× energy maintenance from day 1 to 14 of their oestrous cycle prior to mating. From day 15 to mating all gilts were group housed and fed ad lib. Gilts were artificially inseminated at their third oestrus. The day after mating, gilts were group housed and allocated to post-mating treatments of 1.5 or 1× maintenance. Gilts were slaughtered day 25.5±0.2 post-insemination and reproductive tracts collected. Gilts fed the restricted pre-mating diet lost significantly more weight than gilts fed the increased pre-mating diet (6.7±0.8 versus 3.7±0.7kg). From mating to slaughter, gilts fed the restricted post-mating diet lost 0.5±1.02kg liveweight, while gilts fed the increased post-mating diet gained 5.7±0.90kg liveweight (Pgilts fed the high post-mating diet compared with gilts fed the low post-mating diet (88.4±2.5 versus 77.8±4.0%), resulting in more (P<0.05) conceptuses present (14.0±0.6 versus 11.7±0.7). There was no interaction between pre-mating and post-mating feed intake on any reproductive measure. These data demonstrated that reducing post-mating feed intakes to maintenance levels impaired embryo survival. PMID:24974187

Condous, P C; Kirkwood, R N; van Wettere, W H E J

2014-08-01

298

MHC-based patterns of social and extra-pair mate choice in the Seychelles warbler  

OpenAIRE

The existence and nature of indirect genetic benefits to mate choice remain contentious. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, which play a vital role in determining pathogen resistance in vertebrates, may be the link between mate choice and the genetic inheritance of vigour in offspring. Studies have shown that MHC-dependent mate choice can occur in mammal and fish species, but little work has focused on the role of the MHC in birds. We tested for MHC-dependent mating patterns in the...

Richardson, David; Komdeur, J.; Burke, T.; Von Schantz, Torbjo?rn

2005-01-01

299

A large pheromone and receptor gene complex determines multiple B mating type specificities in Coprinus cinereus.  

OpenAIRE

Pheromone signaling plays an essential role in the mating and sexual development of mushroom fungi. Multiallelic genes encoding the peptide pheromones and their cognate 7-transmembrane helix (7-TM) receptors are sequestered in the B mating type locus. Here we describe the isolation of the B6 mating type locus of Coprinus cinereus. DNA sequencing and transformation analysis identified nine genes encoding three 7-TM receptors and six peptide pheromone precursors embedded within 17 kb of mating ...

O Shea, S. F.; Chaure, P. T.; Halsall, J. R.; Olesnicky, N. S.; Leibbrandt, A.; Connerton, I. F.; Casselton, L. A.

1998-01-01

300

Alternative phenotypes of male mating behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite  

OpenAIRE

Severe intraspecific competition for mates selects for aggressive individuals but may also lead to the evolution of alternative phenotypes that do not act aggressively, yet manage to acquire matings. The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, shows male mate-guarding behaviour and male–male combat for available females. This may provide opportunity for weaker males to avoid fighting by adopting alternative mating behaviour such as sneaker or satellite tactics as observed in other ani...

Sato, Y.; Sabelis, M. W.; Egas, M.; Faraji, F.

2013-01-01

301

Interspecies pheromone signaling promotes biofilm formation and same-sex mating in Candida albicans  

OpenAIRE

The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a parasexual mating cycle in which cells must switch from the conventional “white” form to the alternative “opaque” form to become mating competent. Pheromones secreted by opaque cells induce the formation of polarized mating projections and result in cell–cell conjugation. In contrast, white cells are unable to undergo mating, but can still respond to pheromone by expression of adhesion genes that promote biofilm formation. In t...

Alby, Kevin; Bennett, Richard J.

2011-01-01

302

Strong Reproductive Skew Among Males in the Multiply Mated Swordtail Xiphophorus multilineatus (Teleostei)  

OpenAIRE

Male swordtails in the genus Xiphophorus display a conspicuous ventral elongation of the caudal fin, the sword, which arose through sexual selection due to female preference. Females mate regularly and are able to store sperm for at least 6 months. If multiple mating is frequent, this would raise the intriguing question about the role of female choice and male-male competition in shaping the mating systemof these fishes. Size-dependent alternate mating strategies occur in Xiphophorus; one suc...

Luo, Jing; Sanetra, Matthias; Schartl, Manfred; Meyer, Axel

2005-01-01

303

Mating in a viscous universe: the race is to the agile, not to the swift.  

OpenAIRE

Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection has at its focal point the mating success of organisms. Among male animals, large body size is widely seen as the principal determinant of mating success. However, where mating takes place in a three-dimensional arena such as water, the arboreal habitat or air, small size with its concomitant aerobatic advantages might be advantageous. Despite considerable interest, the relationship between aerobatic ability and mating success has not yet been demo...

Crompton, Benedict; Thomason, Jeremy C.; Mclachlan, Athol

2003-01-01

304

Individual Differences in Sociosexual Orientation and Long Term Mate Value Preferences.  

OpenAIRE

Previous research has suggested that an individual’s sociosexuality, a measure of sexual permissiveness, is influenced by self esteem, self perceived mate value and personality, however results from past research has been mixed. Furthermore, an individual’s long term mate value preference has been found to correlate with self perceived mate value, although there is a lack of research regarding how self-esteem and personality may relate to long term mate value preferences. The present stud...

Raw, Charlotte J.

2008-01-01

305

Compliance status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford`s compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute.

Black, D.G.

1995-06-01

306

Compliance status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford's compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute

307

Aesthetic evolution by mate choice: Darwin's really dangerous idea  

Science.gov (United States)

Darwin proposed an explicitly aesthetic theory of sexual selection in which he described mate preferences as a ‘taste for the beautiful’, an ‘aesthetic capacity’, etc. These statements were not merely colourful Victorian mannerisms, but explicit expressions of Darwin's hypothesis that mate preferences can evolve for arbitrarily attractive traits that do not provide any additional benefits to mate choice. In his critique of Darwin, A. R. Wallace proposed an entirely modern mechanism of mate preference evolution through the correlation of display traits with male vigour or viability, but he called this mechanism natural selection. Wallace's honest advertisement proposal was stridently anti-Darwinian and anti-aesthetic. Most modern sexual selection research relies on essentially the same Neo-Wallacean theory renamed as sexual selection. I define the process of aesthetic evolution as the evolution of a communication signal through sensory/cognitive evaluation, which is most elaborated through coevolution of the signal and its evaluation. Sensory evaluation includes the possibility that display traits do not encode information that is being assessed, but are merely preferred. A genuinely Darwinian, aesthetic theory of sexual selection requires the incorporation of the Lande–Kirkpatrick null model into sexual selection research, but also encompasses the possibility of sensory bias, good genes and direct benefits mechanisms. PMID:22777014

Prum, Richard O.

2012-01-01

308

Personal Characteristics Important in Mate Preference among College Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compared college students' values in mate selection held today with those of earlier generations. Responses to a questionnaire (N=316) reflected changes in sex roles, influence of the mass media, increased idealization of romantic love, and current social and economic conditions. (Author/RC)

Hoyt, Les Leanne; Hudson, John W.

1981-01-01

309

Sexual Display and Mate Choice in an Energetically Costly Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual displays and mate choice often take place under the same set of environmental conditions and, as a consequence, may be exposed to the same set of environmental constraints. Surprisingly, however, very few studies consider the effects of environmental costs on sexual displays and mate choice simultaneously. We conducted an experiment, manipulating water flow in large flume tanks, to examine how an energetically costly environment might affect the sexual display and mate choice behavior of male and female guppies, Poecilia reticulata. We found that male guppies performed fewer sexual displays and became less choosy, with respect to female size, in the presence of a water current compared to those tested in still water. In contrast to males, female responsive to male displays did not differ between the water current treatments and females exhibited no mate preferences with respect to male size or coloration in either treatment. The results of our study underscore the importance of considering the simultaneous effects of environmental costs on the sexual behaviors of both sexes. PMID:21151610

Head, Megan L.; Wong, Bob B. M.; Brooks, Robert

2010-01-01

310

Gender, Gender Roles Affecting Mate Preferences in Turkish College Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The subject of this study is gender and gender roles affecting mate preferences. The sample of the study consists of 300 undergraduates and master students. To identify students' gender roles the Sex Role Evaluation Inventory (Bem, 1974) is used. The Question List (Bacanli 2001; Buss et. al., 1990) is applied to the sample group to determine the…

Gazioglu, A. Esra Ismen

2008-01-01

311

Conditioned mate-guarding behavior in the female rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female and male rats are often described as having a promiscuous mating strategy, yet simple Pavlovian conditioning paradigms, in which a neutral odor or strain-related cues are paired with preferred sexual reward states during an animal's first sexual experiences, shift this strategy toward copulatory and mate preferences for partners bearing the familiar odor or strain cue. We examined whether female rats given exclusive rewarding copulation with one particular male would display mate-guarding behavior, a strong index of monogamous mating. Ovariectomized, hormone-primed female Long-Evans rats were given their first 10 paced sexual experiences at 4-day intervals with a particular unscented male of the same strain. A final test was conducted in an open field 4-days later in which the primed, partnered female was given access to the male partner and a fully-primed competitor female. In this situation, the partnered females mounted the competitor female repeatedly if she came near the vicinity of the male. This behavior prevented the male from copulating with the competitor, and was not displayed if partnered females could not pace the rate of copulatory behavior efficiently during the training trials, nor was it displayed by the competitor females. Fos expression was examined in both the partnered and competitor females after the final open field test. Partnered females had significantly higher expression within the supraoptic nucleus and nucleus accumbens shell compared to partnered females that did not develop this behavior or competitor females. These data show that females engaged in paced copulation with the same male display mate-guarding when exposed to that male and a competitor female. Increased activation of the SON and NAc may underlie this behavior. PMID:24768651

Holley, Amanda; Shalev, Shy; Bellevue, Shannon; Pfaus, James G

2014-05-28

312

Adaptive immune responses are linked to the mating system of arvicoline rodents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Males generally exhibit reduced immune responses and greater susceptibility to disease than females. The suppressive effect of testosterone on immune function is hypothesized to be one reason why males have lower immune responses than females. Presumably, this effect of testosterone should be more pronounced among polygynous than monogamous species because circulating testosterone is higher among polygynous than monogamous males. The present study examined the extent to which sex differences in specific humoral immunity are related to the endocrine status and mating system of two arvicoline rodents. Humoral immunity was evaluated among polygynous meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) and monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) by challenging them with the novel antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and assessing specific immune responses 5, 10, and 15 d following immunization. Overall, meadow voles mounted higher anti-KLH IgM and IgG responses than prairie voles did. Sex differences were also apparent for anti-KLH IgM responses; male meadow voles mounted higher antibody responses than conspecific females, whereas female prairie voles mounted greater responses to KLH than did conspecific males. Male meadow voles had significantly higher testosterone concentrations and reproductive organ mass than male prairie voles did but had elevated immune responses, suggesting that testosterone may not be the primary factor involved in the observed sex and species differences in immune responses. Species and sex differences in corticosterone concentrations were also evident and may contribute to the observed differences in immune function. The influence of extrinsic factors on immune function is also discussed. Taken together, these data provide evidence that the mating system may influence endocrine-immune interactions. PMID:18811424

Klein, S L; Nelson, R J

1998-01-01

313

BTECH: A Platform to Integrate Genomic, Transcriptomic and Epigenomic Alterations in Brain Tumors  

OpenAIRE

The identification of molecular signatures predictive of clinical behavior and outcome in brain tumors has been the focus of many studies in the recent years. Despite the wealth of data that are available in the public domain on alterations in the genome, epigenome and transcriptome of brain tumors, the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to tumor initiation and progression remain largely unknown. Unfortunately, most of these data are scattered in multiple databases and supplementary mate...

Wang, Min; Xie, Hehuang; Stellpflug, Wendy; Rajaram, Veena; Fatima Bonaldo, Maria; Goldman, Stewart; Tomita, Tadanori; Soares, Marcelo Bento

2011-01-01

314

Environmentally Realistic Exposure to the Herbicide Atrazine Alters Some Sexually Selected Traits in Male Guppies  

OpenAIRE

Male mating signals, including ornaments and courtship displays, and other sexually selected traits, like male-male aggression, are largely controlled by sex hormones. Environmental pollutants, notably endocrine disrupting compounds, can interfere with the proper functioning of hormones, thereby impacting the expression of hormonally regulated traits. Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, can alter sex hormone levels in exposed animals. I tested the effects of environmentally rele...

Shenoy, Kausalya

2012-01-01

315

EFEITO DA ADIÇÃO DE RESÍDUOS DE PODA DA ERVA-MATE EM PAINÉIS AGLOMERADOS / EFFECT OF ADDING YERBA MATE PRUNING RESIDUES IN PARTICLEBOARD PANELS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade técnica da utilização de resíduos da poda de erva-mate na produção de painéis aglomerados. Foram produzidos painéis de aglomerados nas seguintes composições: 100% de pinus (T1), 100% de resíduos de erva-mate com casca (T2), 100% de resíduos de erva [...] -mate sem casca (T3), 50% de pinus com 50% de resíduos de erva-mate com casca (T4) e 50% de pinus com 50% de resíduos de erva-mate sem casca (T5). Os painéis foram produzidos com o adesivo ureia-formaldeído a um teor de 8%, com ciclo de prensagem de 8 min, a 170 ºC e 30 kgf.cm-2. Os painéis produzidos com os resíduos de erva-mate apresentaram menor umidade de equilíbrio higroscópico (UEH), assim como menor absorção de água após 24 h de imersão (AA 24 h). Não houve diferença estatística entre os tratamentos quanto às propriedades de compressão, arrancamento de parafusos, dureza Janka e ligação interna. Os painéis produzidos com resíduos de erva-mate, assim como as misturas deles com partículas de pinus, apresentaram valores de módulo de ruptura à flexão estática inferiores aos estipulados pela norma brasileira NBR 14810-2 (ABNT, 2002). Como não atenderam a um dos requisitos mínimos, painéis produzidos com resíduos de erva-mate não devem ser utilizados em substituição aos painéis de madeira aglomerada. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of using residues from pruning yerba mate for manufacturing particleboard panels. Particleboard panels were produced containing: 100% pine (T1), 100% residues of yerba mate with bark (T2), 100% residues of yerba mate without bark (T3), [...] 50% pine with 50% residues of yerba mate with bark (T4) and 50% pine with 50% residues of yerba mate without bark (T5). The panels were produced with an urea formaldehyde adhesive 8%, with a pressing cycle of 8 minutes at 170° C and 30 kgf.cm-2. The panels produced with residues of yerba mate showed less hygroscopic equilibrium moisture (HEM) and lower water absorption after 24 of immersion (AA 24 h). There was no statistical difference among the treatments as for the properties of compression, screws pullout, Janka hardness and internal bond. The panels produced with residues of yerba mate, as well as mixtures of these with pine particles, showed values of modulus of rupture in static bending lower than stipulated by the Brazilian standard NBR 14810-2 (ABNT, 2002). Since they did meet one of the basic requirements, panels produced with residues of yerba mate should not be used to substitute wood particleboard panels.

Amelia Guimarães, Carvalho; Bruno Geike de, Andrade; Carla Priscilla Távora, Cabral; Benedito Rocha, Vital.

2015-02-01

316

Sperm precedence in female apple maggots alternately mated to normal and irradiated males  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dose of irradiation (Cesium 137) of 3 krad was sufficient to sterilize both sexes of the apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh). When the irradiated male (IM) mated with normal female (NF), egg production was not reduced compared with a normal mating, but the eggs were not viable. Also, two matings of 1 NF with either 2 IM or with 1 NM and 1 IM, produced fewer eggs than a single mating with 1 normal male. Sperm precedence exhibited for the 2nd of the 2 matings was not complete

317

Risikofaktor Alter im Straßenverkehr  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Physiologische Abbauprozesse im Alter führen sowohl zur Abnahme der kognitiven und motorischen Leistung als auch zu Defiziten der Sinneswahrnehmung. Häufig treten chronische Erkrankungen auf, die alleine oder in Kombination mit zusätzlichen Beschwerdebildern zu einer relevanten Beeinträchtigung der Fahrtüchtigkeit führen können. Eine medikamentöse Behandlung von Begleiterkrankungen muß die veränderte Stoffwechsellage im Alter berücksichtigen und ist daher nach strenger Indikation zu stellen. Vor allem in der Einstellungsphase und bei Kombination mehrerer Arzneimittel muß die Fahrtüchtigkeit kritisch geprüft werden. Wegen der veränderten Pharmakokinetik und Pharmakodynamik im Alter, stellt der Konsum von Alkohol einen weiteren Risikofaktor für Wechselwirkungen und paradoxe Wirkungen durch Begleitmedikation dar. Diese Übersichtsarbeit beschäftigt sich mit dem Risikofaktor Alter im Straßenverkehr und der ärztlichen Verantwortung bei der Einschätzung der Fahrtüchtigkeit älterer Verkehrsteilnehmer.

Kopeinig-Kreissl M

2004-01-01

318

Analysis of the mating and reproductive traits of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The reproductive traits of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) were investigated and analyzed by different analytical methods. Simple statistical analysis showed relatively higher mating rates maintained from 21:00 to 2:00, thereafter dropping to a minimum at about 18:00. Mating rates were affected by female and male age. Mating was most likely to take place between females and males that were 1 d old. Correlation and factor analysis indicated that mating delayed females have a relatively lower and unsuccessful mating rate and relatively shorter copulation duration, with lower egg hatchability and fecundity; in addition, the mating delayed male would reduce female's fertility. Delay of mating prolonged life of both males and females. A higher and successful mating rate would cause a higher egg hatchability and fecundity. Canonical correlation analysis showed that mating age and successful copulation of female play a decisive role for her fecundity and longevity, and mating age and mating rates of male play a decisive role for his longevity. PMID:25434041

Song, Wen; Liu, Li; Li, Pengyan; Sun, Hui; Qin, Yuchuan

2014-01-01

319

Coordinate control of initiative mating device for autonomous underwater vehicle based on TDES  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel initiative mating device, which has four 2-degree manipulators around the mating skirt, is proposed to mate between a skirt of AUV (autonomons underwater vehicle) and a disabled submarine. The primary function of the device is to keep exact mating between skirt and disabled submarine in a badly sub sea environment. According to the characteristic of rescue, an automaton model is brought foward to describe the mating proceed between AUV and manipulators. The coordinated control is implemented by the TDES (time discrete event system). After taking into account the time problem, it is a useful method to control mating by simulation testing. The result shows that it reduces about 70 seconds after using intelligent co-ordinate control based on TDES through the whole mating procedure.

Yan, Zhe-Ping; Hou, Shu-Ping

2005-06-01

320

Fitness consequences of female multiple mating: A direct test of indirect benefits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The observation that females mate multiply when males provide nothing but sperm - which sexual selection theory suggests is unlikely to be limiting - continues to puzzle evolutionary biologists. Here we test the hypothesis that multiple mating is prevalent under such circumstances because it enhances female fitness. We do this by allowing female Trinidadian guppies to mate with either a single male or with multiple males, and then tracking the consequences of these matings across two generations. Results Overall, multiply mated females produced 67% more F2 grand-offspring than singly mated females. These offspring, however, did not grow or mature faster, nor were they larger at birth, than F2 grand-offspring of singly mated females. Our results, however, show that multiple mating yields benefits to females in the form of an increase in the production of F1. The higher fecundity among multiply mated mothers was driven by greater production of sons but not daughters. However, contrary to expectation, individually, the offspring of multiply mated females do not grow at different rates than offspring of singly mated females, nor do any indirect fitness benefits or costs accrue to second-generation offspring. Conclusions The study provides strong evidence that multiple mating is advantageous to females, even when males contribute only sperm. This benefit is achieved through an increase in fecundity in the first generation, rather than through other fitness correlates such as size at birth, growth rate, time to sexual maturation and survival. Considered alongside previous work that female guppies can choose to mate with multiple partners, our results provide compelling evidence that direct fitness benefits underpin these mating decisions.

Barbosa Miguel

2012-09-01

321

Post-mating change in excretion by mated Drosophila melanogaster females is a long-term response that depends on sex peptide and sperm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drosophila seminal fluid proteins elicit physiological and behavioral changes in the female after mating. For example, the seminal protein sex peptide (SP) causes females to lay more eggs, reduce receptivity to re-mating, consume more food and produce more concentrated excreta upon mating. It has been reported that SP indirectly increases food consumption as a result of its stimulation of egg production, but its role in producing more concentrated excreta in the mated female was reported to be independent of egg production. Additionally, it has been shown that SP's effect on food consumption persists for several days after mating, while it is unknown whether this is true for its effect on excretion. SP can have both transient and long-term effects on mated females; the latter occur because of the peptide's binding to, and slow release from, sperm in the female. Here we used timed measures of excretion by female flies that had mated to males mutant in SP or in its regulators, to test the duration of SP's effect on excretion. We found that SP's effect on excretion persists for at least ~1 week after mating, and that this persistence requires that SP bind to and be released from sperm. Although these binding/release requirements of SP are similar to those for increased egg production (and consequent increased food intake) following mating, we find that the long-term change in excretion phenotype is only partially dependent on the presence of eggs in the female. Our data indicate that a change in intestinal transit is part of the long-term post-mating response elicited by the gradual release of sperm-bound SP in the female after mating, even though it is not fully dependent on other long-term responses elicited by SP. PMID:23891750

Apger-McGlaughon, Jennifer; Wolfner, Mariana F

2013-10-01

322

Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) beverages  

OpenAIRE

Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma whi...

Carla Carolina Batista Machado; Deborah Helena Markowicz Bastos; Natália Soares Janzantti; Roselaine Facanali; Marques, Marcia Ortiz M.; Maria Regina Bueno Franco

2007-01-01

323

The forward section of an SRB is moved for mating  

Science.gov (United States)

Workers in the Vehicle Assembly Building check the connections on the forward section of a solid rocket booster (SRB) being mated to the rest of the stack below it. The forward section of each booster, from nose cap to forward skirt contains avionics, a sequencer, forward separation motors, a nose cone separation system, drogue and main parachutes, a recovery beacon, a recovery light, a parachute camera on selected flights and a range safety system. Each SRB weighs approximately 1.3 million pounds at launch. The SRB is part of the stack for Space Shuttle Discovery and the STS-92 mission, scheduled for launch Oct. 5, from Launch Pad 39A, on the fifth flight to the International Space Station. Payloads on the mission include the Z-1 truss and Pressurized Mating Adapter-3, components of the Space Station.

2000-01-01

324

Honey Bee Mating Optimization Vector Quantization Scheme in Image Compression  

Science.gov (United States)

The vector quantization is a powerful technique in the applications of digital image compression. The traditionally widely used method such as the Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) algorithm always generated local optimal codebook. Recently, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is adapted to obtain the near-global optimal codebook of vector quantization. In this paper, we applied a new swarm algorithm, honey bee mating optimization, to construct the codebook of vector quantization. The proposed method is called the honey bee mating optimization based LBG (HBMO-LBG) algorithm. The results were compared with the other two methods that are LBG and PSO-LBG algorithms. Experimental results showed that the proposed HBMO-LBG algorithm is more reliable and the reconstructed images get higher quality than those generated form the other three methods.

Horng, Ming-Huwi

325

Mechanical seal having a single-piece, perforated mating ring  

Science.gov (United States)

A mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) with reduced contact surface temperature, reduced contact surface wear, or increased life span. The mechanical seal comprises a rotating ring and a single-piece, perforated mating ring, which improves heat transfer by controllably channeling coolant flow through the single-piece mating ring such that the coolant is in substantially uniform thermal contact with a substantial portion of the interior surface area of the seal face, while maintaining the structural integrity of the mechanical seal and minimizing the potential for coolant flow interruptions to the seal face caused by debris or contaminants (e.g., small solids and trash) in the coolant.

Khonsari, Michael M. (Baton Rouge, LA); Somanchi, Anoop K. (Fremont, CA)

2007-08-07

326

Mating system variation and morph fluctuations in a polymorphic lizard.  

Science.gov (United States)

In polymorphic male painted dragon lizards (Ctenophorus pictus), red males win staged contests for females over yellow males, and yellow males have greater success in staged sperm competition trials than red males. This predicts different reproductive strategies in the wild with red males being more coercive or better mate guarders than yellow males. Yellow males would be expected to sire more offspring per copulation and have a greater proportion of offspring from clutches with mixed paternity. However, here we show using microsatellites that the frequency of mixed paternity in the wild is low (perch density on male territories. Furthermore, a logistic regression on male successful vs. unsuccessful mate acquisition showed that red males were under negative selection when they dominated the population, which suggests ongoing frequency dependent selection on male colouration. PMID:18092994

Olsson, Mats; Healey, Mo; Wapstra, Erik; Schwartz, Tonia; Lebas, Natasha; Uller, Tobias

2007-12-01

327

Effect of gamma irradiation on sperm utilization in twice-mated female of potato tuber moth (Lep., Noctuidae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of second mating on fecundity and fertility of potato tuber moth female mated with 450 Gy - irradiated and normal males or vice versa were studied. Percentage of eggs fertilized by sperm from the 2 nd mate (P2) was 0.99, indicating that sperm transferred during the last mating were predominantly utilized in egg fertilization. Females mated first with irradiated males, remated after 2 days, while those mated first with normal males, remated after 3.3 days. Fecundity of twice-mated females was higher than those mated only once. Females laid their eggs 1.9 days after mating, while unmated females did not lay eggs at all. Duration of mating varied from 102 to 117 minutes for normal and irradiated males, respectively. (author)

328

PRIZMA Status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For more than thirty years the code PRIZMA has been used at RFNC-VNIITF (Snezhinsk, Russia) for solving radiation transport problems with the Monte Carlo method. The code models the separate and coupled transport of neutrons, photons, electrons, positrons and ions in one-, two-, and three-dimensional geometry. For criticality calculations the code implements the method of generations with a constant number of fission sites in one generation. Now the code is extending its capabilities for nuclear reactor calculations. The paper describes the current status of the code and gives examples of its application to particle transport in nuclear reactors and other physical facilities. (authors)

329

Treatment of Persistent Mating Induced Endometritis in Arabian Maiden Mares  

OpenAIRE

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the treatment of Persistent Mating Induced Endometritis (PMIE) in Arabian maiden mares using uterine lavage containing antibiotics alone or with uterotonic agents. Maiden mares (n = 42) with PMIE were subjected to detailed clinical examinations including palpation per rectum, vaginoscopy and cytological examination. The mares were qualified as PMIE due to accumulation of uterine fluid 1-2 days post breeding. Uterine lavage containing crystall...

Taha, M. B.

2007-01-01

330

Stratification in the Early Stages of Mate Choice  

OpenAIRE

Sociologists have long studied mate choice patterns to understand the shape of stratification systems. Romantic pairing involves intimacy and trust, and is therefore a prime indicator of the extent to which members of different social groupings (race/ethnicity, social class, education, religion) accept each other as social equals. The majority of this literature focuses on marriage, given the commitment marriage implies and the availability of nationally-representative data. In this dissertat...

Lewis, Kevin

2012-01-01

331

Mating system and pollen gene flow in Mediterranean maritime pine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mating systems define the mode of gene transmission across generations, helping to determine the amount and distribution of genetic variation within and among populations of plant species. A hierarchical analysis of Mediterranean maritime pine mating system (61 mother trees from 24 plots, clustered in three populations) was used to identify factors affecting mating patterns and to fit pollen dispersal kernels. Levels of ovule and seed abortion, multi- and single-locus outcrossing rates and correlated paternity were estimated from progeny arrays and correlated with ecological stand variables and biometric tree measures. Pollen dispersal kernels were fitted using TwoGener and KinDist indirect methods and simulations were carried out to identify relevant factors affecting correlated paternity. Maritime pine showed high outcrossing rates (t(m) and t(s) approximately 0.96) and relatively low levels of correlated paternity [an r(p) of 0.018 (Ritland's estimate) or 0.048 (Hardy's estimate)], although higher than in other anemophilous tree species. Mating system parameters had high variation at the single-tree level (99-100%) but no stand or population effect was detected. At the single-tree level, outcrossing rates were correlated with tree (diameter and height) and crown size. In addition, correlated paternity showed a significant negative correlation with tree height, height to crown base and height to the largest crown width, probably reflecting the importance of the trees' 'ecological neighborhoods'. Indirectly estimated pollen dispersal kernels were very leptokurtic (exponential-power distributions with betasimulation models that include dispersal functions, and which will contribute to current conservation and management programs for maritime pine. Nevertheless, the numerical simulations showed that restricted dispersal, male fertility and phenological overlap could only partially explain the observed levels of correlated paternity; so other factors may also be relevant for the management of this valuable forest tree species. PMID:18212806

de-Lucas, A I; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J; Hidalgo, E; González-Martínez, S C

2008-04-01

332

Sexual conflict over mating and fertilization: an overview  

OpenAIRE

Sexual conflict is a conflict between the evolutionary interests of individuals of the two sexes. The sexes can have different trait optima but this need not imply conflict if their optima can be attained simultaneously. Conflict requires an interaction between males and females (e.g. mating or parental care), such that the optimal outcomes for each sex cannot be achieved simultaneously. It is important to distinguish between battleground models, which define the parameter space for conflict ...

Parker, G. A.

2006-01-01

333

Plant farnesyltransferase can restore yeast Ras signaling and mating.  

OpenAIRE

Farnesyltransferase (FTase) is a heterodimeric enzyme that modifies a group of proteins, including Ras, in mammals and yeasts. Plant FTase alpha and beta subunits were cloned from tomato and expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to assess their functional conservation in farnesylating Ras and a-factor proteins, which are important for cell growth and mating. The tomato FTase beta subunit (LeFTB) alone was unable to complement the growth defect of ram1 delta mutant yeast strains in w...

Yalovsky, S.; Trueblood, C. E.; Callan, K. L.; Narita, J. O.; Jenkins, S. M.; Rine, J.; Gruissem, W.

1997-01-01

334

MATING BEHAVIOUR AND CANNIBALISM IN PRAYING MANTIS (MANTIS RELIGIOSA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper intends to study the reproductive behaviour of praying mantis (Mantis religiosa L., describing the whole sequences of mating behaviour, approaching wholeness behavioural sequences related to reproduction of species, with special reference to cannibalistic behaviour, observed both in laboratory and natural environment of the insect. The investigations undertaken deduce the complexity of the problem and the need for further studies to elucidate and other aspects reguarding this type of behaviour.

Daniel – Ionu? BOGDAN

2010-01-01

335

Herkogamy and Its Effects on Mating Patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana  

OpenAIRE

The evolution of mating systems, which exhibit an extraordinary diversity in flowering plants, is of central interest in plant biology. Herkogamy, the spatial separation of sexual organs within flowers, is a widespread floral mechanism that is thought to be an adaptive trait reducing self-pollination in hermaphroditic plants. In contrast with previous studies of herkogamy that focused on plants with relatively large floral displays, we here characterized herkogamy in Arabidopsis thaliana, a m...

Luo, Yonghai; Widmer, Alex

2013-01-01

336

Assortative Mating and Divorce: Evidence from Austrian Register Data  

OpenAIRE

This paper documents that changes in assortative mating patterns over the last four decades along the dimensions of age, ethnicity, religion and education are not responsible for the increasing marital instability in Austria. Quite the contrary, without the rise in the age at marriage, divorce rates would be considerably higher. Immigration and secularization, and the resulting supply of spouses with diverse ethnicity and religious denominations had no overall effect on divorce rates. Counter...

Frimmel, Wolfgang; Halla, Martin; Winter-ebmer, Rudolf

2010-01-01

337

Why men matter: mating patterns drive evolution of human lifespan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evolutionary theory predicts that senescence, a decline in survival rates with age, is the consequence of stronger selection on alleles that affect fertility or mortality earlier rather than later in life. Hamilton quantified this argument by showing that a rare mutation reducing survival is opposed by a selective force that declines with age over reproductive life. He used a female-only demographic model, predicting that female menopause at age ca. 50 yrs should be followed by a sharp increase in mortality, a "wall of death." Human lives obviously do not display such a wall. Explanations of the evolution of lifespan beyond the age of female menopause have proven difficult to describe as explicit genetic models. Here we argue that the inclusion of males and mating patterns extends Hamilton's theory and predicts the pattern of human senescence. We analyze a general two-sex model to show that selection favors survival for as long as men reproduce. Male fertility can only result from matings with fertile females, and we present a range of data showing that males much older than 50 yrs have substantial realized fertility through matings with younger females, a pattern that was likely typical among early humans. Thus old-age male fertility provides a selective force against autosomal deleterious mutations at ages far past female menopause with no sharp upper age limit, eliminating the wall of death. Our findings illustrate the evolutionary importance of males and mating preferences, and show that one-sex demographic models are insufficient to describe the forces that shape human senescence. PMID:17726515

Tuljapurkar, Shripad D; Puleston, Cedric O; Gurven, Michael D

2007-01-01

338

Mating and Tetrad Separation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for Genetic Analysis  

OpenAIRE

The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas) has become a popular organism for research in diverse areas of cell biology and genetics because of its simple life cycle, ease of growth and manipulation for genetic analysis, genomic resources, and transformability of the nucleus and both organelles. Mating strains is a common practice when genetic approaches are used in Chlamydomonass, to create vegetative diploids for analysis of dominance, or following tetrad dissection...

Jiang, Xingshan; Stern, David

2009-01-01

339

Asymmetrical integration of sensory information during mating decisions in grasshoppers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Decision-making processes, like all traits of an organism, are shaped by evolution; they thus carry a signature of the selection pressures associated with choice behaviors. The way sexual communication signals are integrated during courtship likely reflects the costs and benefits associated with mate choice. Here, we study the evaluation of male song by females during acoustic courtship in grasshoppers. Using playback experiments and computational modeling we find that information of different valence (attractive vs. nonattractive) is weighted asymmetrically: while information associated with nonattractive features has large weight, attractive features add little to the decision to mate. Accordingly, nonattractive features effectively veto female responses. Because attractive features have so little weight, the model suggests that female responses are frequently driven by integration noise. Asymmetrical weighting of negative and positive information may reflect the fitness costs associated with mating with a nonattractive over an attractive singer, which are also highly asymmetrical. In addition, nonattractive cues tend to be more salient and therefore more reliable. Hence, information provided by them should be weighted more heavily. Our findings suggest that characterizing the integration of sensory information during a natural behavior has the potential to provide valuable insights into the selective pressures shaping decision-making during evolution. PMID:25368152

Clemens, Jan; Krämer, Stefanie; Ronacher, Bernhard

2014-11-18

340

Extra-pair mating and evolution of cooperative neighbourhoods.  

Science.gov (United States)

A striking but unexplained pattern in biology is the promiscuous mating behaviour in socially monogamous species. Although females commonly solicit extra-pair copulations, the adaptive reason has remained elusive. We use evolutionary modelling of breeding ecology to show that females benefit because extra-pair paternity incentivizes males to shift focus from a single brood towards the entire neighbourhood, as they are likely to have offspring there. Male-male cooperation towards public goods and dear enemy effects of reduced territorial aggression evolve from selfish interests, and lead to safer and more productive neighbourhoods. The mechanism provides adaptive explanations for the common empirical observations that females engage in extra-pair copulations, that neighbours dominate as extra-pair sires, and that extra-pair mating correlates with predation mortality and breeding density. The models predict cooperative behaviours at breeding sites where males cooperate more towards public goods than females. Where maternity certainty makes females care for offspring at home, paternity uncertainty and a potential for offspring in several broods make males invest in communal benefits and public goods. The models further predict that benefits of extra-pair mating affect whole nests or neighbourhoods, and that cuckolding males are often cuckolded themselves. Derived from ecological mechanisms, these new perspectives point towards the evolution of sociality in birds, with relevance also for mammals and primates including humans. PMID:24987839

Eliassen, Sigrunn; Jørgensen, Christian

2014-01-01

341

STE11 disruption reveals the central role of a MAPK pathway in dimorphism and mating in Yarrowia lipolytica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yarrowia lipolytica is a dimorphic fungus whose morphology is controlled by several factors such as pH and different compounds. To determine if the STE11-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway plays a role in dimorphism of Y. lipolytica, we isolated the gene encoding a Mapkkk. The isolated gene (STE11) has an ORF of 2832 bp without introns, encoding a protein of 944 amino acids, with a theoretical Mr of 100.9 kDa, that exhibits high homology to fungal Mapkkks. Disruption of the STE11 gene was achieved by the pop-in/pop-out procedure. Growth rate and response to osmotic stress or agents affecting wall integrity were unaffected in the deleted mutants, but they lost the capacity to mate and to grow in the mycelial form. Both alterations were reverted by transformation with the wild-type STE11 gene. The Y. lipolytica STE11 gene driven by two different promoters was unable to complement Saccharomyces cerevisiae ste11Delta mutants, although the gene was transcribed. Also, a wild-type MAPKKK gene from Ustilago maydis failed to complement Y. lipolyticaDeltaste11 mutants. Both negative results were attributed to a failure of the transgenic gene products to interact with the corresponding regulatory and scaffold proteins. This hypothesis was supported by the observation that a truncated version of the U. maydis MAPKKK gene reversed mating and dimorphic defects in the mutants. All these results demonstrate that the MAPK pathway is essential for both morphogenesis and mating in Y. lipolytica. PMID:16879430

Cervantes-Chávez, José A; Ruiz-Herrera, José

2006-08-01

342

First Recorded Mating Flight of the Hypogeic Ant, Acropyga epedana, with its Obligate Mutualist Mealybug, Rhizoecus colombiensis  

OpenAIRE

On 26-July, 2005 a mating aggregation of Acropyga epedana Snelling (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) was observed in the Chiricahua Mountains in south-eastern Arizona. This is the first record of a mating flight of A. epedana, the only nearctic member of this pantropical genus. Mating behavior was observed, newly mated queens were collected, and a complete colony was excavated. New information is reported on the natural history and mating behavior of the species. The identity of a mealybug mutualist,...

Smith, Chris R.; Oettler, Jan; Kay, Adam; Deans, Carrie

2007-01-01

343

Male Mating Tactics in Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta): The Influence of Dominance, Markets, and Relationship Quality  

OpenAIRE

Male mating success in a multimale–multifemale group can depend on several variables: body condition, dominance, coalitions, “friendship,” or an exchange of services for mating access. Exchange patterns may also be determined by market effects or social relationships. We studied the mating tactics of males in a captive, multimale–multifemale group of rhesus macaques and the resulting patterns of mating and paternity to determine the influence of dominance rank, mating markets, and rel...

Massen, Jorg J. M.; Overduin-de Vries, Anne M.; Vos-rouweler, Annemiek J. M.; Spruijt, Berry M.; Doxiadis, Gaby G. M.; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

2011-01-01

344

Mating Success of Female Dungeness Crabs (Cancer magister) in Oregon Coastal Waters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Dungeness crab is an important commercial and sports fishing species in Oregon. The fishery is regulated by sex, size, and season. This study examined whether female crabs are mating despite the removal of almost all legal-size male crabs each year. Of particular concern is whether large females are finding large enough mates. Females were collected from three Oregon fishing ports, dissected, and checked for evidence of mating. Captured male and female crabs were also measured to estimate population size distributions. The majority of female crabs examined (69%) mated in the collection year, and when combined with crabs that carried sperm from previous mating encounters (females store sperm), the percent of females that would have produced viable eggs was 83%. Crabs that definitely molted during the collection year showed higher mating success (95%). The largest females examined (carapace width, 160-169 mm) showed high mating success (84% Mated in the collection year, 95% could have produced viable eggs).These numbers compare favorably with a similar survey conducted in northern California, in which 69% of molting females had mated. We conclude from the data that molting females in these Oregon fishing ports are finding mates successfully, regardless of size.

Dunn, Paul; Shanks, Alan

2012-01-01

345

A comparison of two methods to assess audience-induced changes in male mate choice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multidirectional communicative interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior. Male Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana exhibit weaker mating preferences when an audience male is presented. This could be a male strategy to reduce sperm competition risk: interacting more equally with different females may be advantageous because rivals might copy mate choice decisions. In line with this hypothesis, a previous study found males to show a strong audience effect when being observed while exercising mate choice, but not when the rival was presented only before the choice tests. Audience effects on mate choice decisions have been quantified in poeciliid fishes using association preference designs, but it remains unknown if patterns found from measuring association times translate into actual mating behavior. Thus, we created five audience treatments simulating different forms of perceived sperm competition risk and determined focal males’ mating preferences by scoring pre-mating (nipping and mating behavior (gonopodial thrusting. Nipping did not reflect the pattern that was found when association preferences were measured, while a very similar pattern was uncovered in thrusting behavior. The strongest response was observed when the audience could eavesdrop on the focal male’s behavior. A reduction in the strength of focal males’ preferences was also seen after the rival male had an opportunity to mate with the focal male’s preferred mate. In comparison, the reduction of mating preferences in response to an audience was greater when measuring association times than actual mating behavior. While measuring direct sexual interactions between the focal male and both stimulus females not only the male’s motivational state is reflected but also females’ behavior such as avoidance of male sexual harassment [Current Zoology 58 (1: 84–94, 2012].

Madlen ZIEGE, Carmen HENNIGE-SCHULZ, Frauke MUECKSCH,David BIERBACH, Ralph TIEDEMANN, Bruno STREIT, Martin PLATH

2012-02-01

346

Regulation of mating behavior by nutrition and the corpus allatum in both male and female Phormia regina (Meigen).  

Science.gov (United States)

Both dietary protein and the corpus allatum (CA) were required for normal mating behavior in both male and female black blow fly, Phormia regina (Meigen). Nutrition (protein diet) activated the CA in both sexes. More than 10 mg of dietary liver was required for each male to result in 80% insemination of females, while 20 mg of liver was required for each female to allow 78% of females to become inseminated. Between 10 to 15 mg of protein meal (i.e., liver) was required to activate sexual receptivity in 71% of the females, while between 15 to 20 mg of liver was needed to support full oöcyte development in 70% of the females (Yin, C.-M., Zou, B.-X., Li, M.-F., Stoffolano, J.G., Jr. 1994. Discovery of a midgut peptide hormone which activates the endocrine cascade leading to oogenesis in Phormia regina Meigen. Journal of Insect Physiology, 40, 283-292). Allatectomy suppressed mating behavior more than 2-fold in both sexes. Topical application of 10 &mgr;g of S-methoprene (a juvenile hormone analogue) at 12 h after the onset of liver feeding restored sexual activity of both allatectomized males and females. Incidence of successful insemination increased as the oöcyte development progressed. Ovariectomy suppressed sexual receptivity more than 3-fold in liver-fed females. Thus, in addition to nutrition and the CA, ovaries and their developmentaal status can also affect the sexual receptivity in female P. regina. PMID:12770294

Yin, C -M.; Qin, W -H.; Stoffolano, J G.

1999-09-01

347

The use of rapid quality control in determining mating propensity and mating competitiveness of irradiated Mediterranean fruit flies. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedeman) at various ages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Success of using irradiation to sterile males of various insect species for control or eradication by the sterile-insect release technique requires a certain dose for sterilizing without effects on mating behavior. This study was conducted at the Tropical Fruit and Vegetable Research Laboratory, Hawaii, to observe some radiation effects of this laboratory's currently used sterilizing dose on mating propensity and competitiveness of flies. The results of this study would be useful information for future research and use of this technique in Thailand. Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedeman) were irradiated with 145 gray of gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source in a nitrogen atmosphere 2 days before eclosion. Mating behavior of 3-6 day old flies were observed for 3 replications. The test of mating propensity was conducted by using two plexiglas cages containing 25 pairs of irradiated and non-irradiated flies in each cage. The results showed that there was no significant effect on mating propensity of treated 3-5 day old flies (P=0.05), however, treated 6 day old flies, radiation effects were observed. The mating propensity increased with age of both non-irradiated and irradiated flies. Studies on the mating behavior of 20 pairs of non-irradiated and irradiated flies in a competitive situation showed that 3 and 5-6 day old non-irradiated flies of both sexes had higher mating competitiveness than irradiated flies (P=0.01). The irradiated flies were more competitive than the 4 days old non-irradiated flies. Results of possible mating combination between irradiated and non-irradiated flies showed no significant difference in mating index (P=0.05)

348

Inhibition of female mating receptivity by male-derived extracts in two Callosobruchus species: consequences for interspecific mating.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the effects of injecting male-derived extracts on congeneric female receptivity in two species of Callosobruchus beetle, C. chinensis and C. maculatus. We also examined the influence of interspecific mating on female remating behaviour in these two species. Male-derived extracts reduced congeneric female receptivity in both species. As quick-acting components, extracts of C. chinensis male seminal vesicles reduced the receptivity of C. maculatus females, whereas extracts of C. maculatus male testes reduced the receptivity of C. chinensis females. As slow-acting components, extracts of male accessory glands of other species reduced the receptivity of both C. maculatus and chinensis females. After interspecific mating, the sperm of C. maculatus males were transferred to the reproductive organs of C. chinensis females, thereby reducing their receptivity. In contrast, no C. chinensis sperm were transferred to the reproductive organs of C. maculatus females; accordingly, the latter's receptivity was not reduced. Furthermore, the survival rate of C. chinensis females decreased markedly after interspecific mating. These results raise the possibility that under circumstances where populations of these two species share the same habitat, reproductive interference would occur only in the interactions between C. maculatus males and C. chinensis females. PMID:20493873

Yamane, Takashi; Miyatake, Takahisa

2010-11-01

349

Findings on sperm alterations and DNA fragmentation, nutritional, hormonal and antioxidant status in an elite triathlete: case report / Descoberta das alterações no sêmen, nutricionais, hormonais, o antioxidante status e fragmentação de DNA em triatleta de elite: relato do caso / Hallazgo de alteraciones en semen, nutricionales, hormonales, del estado antioxidante y fragmentación de ADN en un triatleta de élite: caso clínico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivo: O presente estudo de caso analisa a qualidade de sêmen, padrões nutricionais, estado hormonal e oxidativo de um triatleta internacional de alto nível com carga de treinamento de baixo volume e alta intensidade. Método: Atleta de 26 anos de idade, com uma pratica esportiva desde os 13 anos [...] e cinco anos de triátlon profissional. Os parâmetros qualitativos analisados no sêmen foram: volume, contagem espermática, motilidade, morfologia, e fragmentação de DNA com testes adicionais dada necessidade. Os testes hormonais salivares foram: Testosterona, Cortisol e a razão testosterona/cortisol. A capacidade antioxidante total foi medida no plasma seminal. Também foi analisado o consumo máximo de oxigênio e características do treinamento. Para determinar a ingesta alimentar habitual e sua possível repercussão sobre o estado oxidativo, foi utilizado um questionário de frequência de consumo quali-quantitativo de 136 alimentos, a partir do uso de um software especifico. Resultados: os valores e parâmetros hormonais e físicos seminais estavam dentro da normalidade. A morfologia e fragmentação do DNA espermático mostraram valores anormais (3,9% e 38,33%). Apresentando um elevado número de células redondas (2,3 milhoes/mL), com presença de macrófagos. Se observaram eventos apoptóticos e necróticos. A capacidade antioxidante total, ainda que não alterada, estava baixa. A ingesta dietética foi caracterizada por um excesso proteico e consumo adequado de antioxidantes (com ligeiro déficit excesso de alguns nutrientes específicos) segundo valores recomendados. Conclusões: o exercício de resistência de alta intensidade altera os parâmetros espermáticos, principalmente morfologia e fragmentação do DNA. Faz-se necessário obter maiores informações sobre o efeito de antioxidantes e outras estratégias dietéticas com relação ao dano oxidativo no sêmen de triatletas de alto rendimento, e traçar estratégias nutricionais adequadas para atenuar os efeitos do exercício sobre a qualidade do sêmen. Abstract in spanish Objetivo: El presente estudio de caso analiza la calidad de semen, patrones nutricionales y status hormonal y oxidativo de un triatleta internacional de alto nivel con carga de entrenamiento de bajo volumen y alta intensidad. Método: Atleta de 26 años de edad, con una práctica deportiva competitiva [...] desde los 13 años, y cinco años de triatlón profesional. Los parámetros cualitativos analizados en semen fueron: volumen, contaje espermático, motilidad, morfología, y fragmentación de ADN, con pruebas adicionales según necesidad. Las hormonas salivares cuantificadas fueron: T, C, y T/C. La capacidad antioxidante total fue medida en plasma seminal. También se analizó el consumo máximo de oxígeno y características de entrenamiento. Para determinar la ingesta alimentaria habitual y su posible repercusión sobre el estado oxidativo, se utilizó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo cuali-cuantitativa, de 136 alimentos, analizado mediante software informático. Resultados: Los valores hormonales y parámetros físicos seminales estaban dentro de la normalidad. La morfología y fragmentación de ADN espermático mostraron valores anormales (3.9% y 38.33%). Aparecía un elevado número de células redondas (2.3 millones/mL), con presencia de macrófagos. Se observaron eventos apoptóticos y necróticos. La capacidad antioxidante total, aunque no alterada, estaba baja. La ingesta dietética se caracterizó por un exceso proteico y consumo adecuado de antioxidantes (con ligero déficit y exceso de algunos nutrientes específicos), según valores recomendados. Conclusiones: El ejercicio de resistencia de alta intensidad altera los parámetros espermáticos, principalmente morfología y fragmentación de ADN. Es necesario obtener mayor información sobre el efecto de antioxidantes y otras estrategias dietéticas con relación al daño oxidativo en el semen de triatletas de alto rendimiento, al igual que hallar estrategias nutricionales adecuadas

D., Vaamonde; M.E. Da, Silva-Grigoletto; J.M., Fernandez; C., Algar-Santacruz; J.M., García-Manso.

2014-12-01

350

The effects of mating and instrumental insemination on queen honey bee flight behavior and gene expression  

Science.gov (United States)

Mating is fundamental to most organisms, although the physiological and transcriptional changes associated with this process have been largely characterized only in Drosophila. In this study, we use honey bees as a model system since their queens undergo massive and permanent physiological and behavioral changes following mating. Previous studies have identified changes associated with the transition from a virgin queen to a fully-mated, egg-laying queen. Here, we further uncouple the mating process to examine the effects of natural mating vs. instrumental insemination and saline vs. semen insemination. We observed effects on flight behavior, vitellogenin expression, and significant overlap in transcriptional profiles between our study and analogous studies in Drosophila, suggesting that some post-mating mechanisms are conserved across insect orders. PMID:20002808

Kocher, S.D.; Tarpy, D.R.; Grozinger, C.M.

2010-01-01

351

The effects of mating and instrumental insemination on queen honey bee flight behaviour and gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mating is fundamental to most organisms, although the physiological and transcriptional changes associated with this process have been largely characterized only in Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, we use honey bees as a model system because their queens undergo massive and permanent physiological and behavioural changes following mating. Previous studies have identified changes associated with the transition from a virgin queen to a fully mated, egg-laying queen. Here, we further uncouple the mating process to examine the effects of natural mating vs. instrumental insemination and saline vs. semen insemination. We observed effects on flight behaviour, vitellogenin expression and significant overlap in transcriptional profiles between our study and analogous studies in D. melanogaster, suggesting that some post-mating mechanisms are conserved across insect orders. PMID:20002808

Kocher, S D; Tarpy, D R; Grozinger, C M

2010-04-01

352

Is accoustic communication essential in the mating behavior of Empyreuma pugione (Erebidae: Arctiinae?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical and acoustic communication are involved in species recognition and in female mate-choice during the mating behavior of many nocturnal Lepidoptera. Here, we analyzed the effect of audition and sound production in Empyreuma pugione reproductive behavior. For this, we combine intact females and males with deaf-mute animals and measured the number of successful matings in three experimental conditions: (1 couples of intact females and males, (2 couples of deaf-mute males and intact females, (3 couples of intact males and deaf-mute females. We found successful matings for the three tested combinations without significant difference between experimental conditions. 29 % of the successful mating occurred between deaf-mute males and intact females and 24 % between deaf-mute females and intact males. Our results suggest that sound production in E. pugione is not essential during courtship behavior and probably the chemical communication combined with other sensory systems is enough for select and accept mates.

Yohami Fernández

2013-04-01

353

“Attached” or “Unattached”: With Whom do Men and Women Prefer to Mate, and Why?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mate poacher is an individual who has sexual relations with someone whom the poacher knows is already in a nominally exclusive, long-term relationship. This article reviews research in which participants were asked to rate the likelihood that benefits and costs exclusively associated with poaching would motivate them to attract, respectively, an attached or an unattached individual, assuming that the potential mates are equally attractive. The results indicated that for men and women to be motivated to poach, the attached individual must be perceived as being more attractive than the unattached individual. Discussion suggests that mate poaching may sometimes be pursued as an alternative to coercive mating strategies, by individuals who are unable to secure unattached mates of acceptable attractiveness. We further hypothesize that individuals may pursue a hierarchy of conditional mating strategies from attracting unattached individuals, through poaching, to coercion. Additional findings of sex differences in perceptions of benefits and costs exclusive to poaching also are discussed.

Alastair P.C. Davies

2006-12-01

354

International migration and educational assortative mating in Mexico and the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the relationship between migration and marriage by describing how the distributions of marital statuses and assortative mating patterns vary by individual and community experiences of migration. In Mexico, migrants and those living in areas with high levels of out-migration are more likely to be in heterogamous unions. This is because migration increases the relative attractiveness of single return migrants while disproportionately reducing the number of marriageable men in local marriage markets. In the United States, the odds of homogamy are lower for migrants compared with nonmigrants; however, they do not vary depending on the volume of migration in communities. Migrants are more likely than nonmigrants to "marry up" educationally because the relatively small size of this group compels them to expand their pool of potential spouses to include nonmigrants, who tend to be better educated than they are. Among migrants, the odds of marrying outside of one's education group increase the most among the least educated. In Mexican communities with high rates of out-migration, the odds of marrying outside of one's education group are highest among those with the highest level of education. These findings suggest that migration disrupts preferences and opportunities for homogamy by changing social arrangements and normative climates. PMID:22419447

Choi, Kate H; Mare, Robert D

2012-05-01

355

Mate choice and the evolutionary stability of a fixed threshold in a sequential search strategy  

OpenAIRE

The sequential search strategy is a prominent model of searcher behavior, derived as a rule by which females might sample and choose a mate from a distribution of prospective partners. The strategy involves a threshold criterion against which prospective mates are evaluated. The optimal threshold depends on the attributes of prospective mates, which are likely to vary across generations or within the lifetime of searchers due to stochastic environmental events. The extent of this variability ...

Raymond Cheng; Seubert, Steven M.; Wiegmann, Daniel D.

2014-01-01

356

The early sperm gets the good egg: mating order effects in free spawners.  

OpenAIRE

Mating order can have important consequences for the fertilization success of males whose ejaculates compete to fertilize a clutch of eggs. Despite an excellent body of literature on mating-order effects in many animals, they have rarely been considered in marine free-spawning invertebrates, where both sexes release gametes into the water column. In this study, we show that in such organisms, mating order can have profound repercussions for male reproductive success. Using in vitro fertilizat...

Marshall, Dustin J.; Steinberg, Peter D.; Evans, Jonathan P.

2004-01-01

357

Notes and observations on courtship and mating in Tityus (Atreus) magnimanus Pocock, 1897 (Scorpiones: Buthidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Courtship and mating behaviors of the scorpion Tityus (Atreus) magnimanus are herein described, consisting of various components that pertain to four distinct behavioral stages. The courtship and mating rituals of Tityus (Atreus) magnimanus are similar to those of other scorpions. Behavioral compone [...] nts are presented in an ethogram to demonstrate their occurrence during mating sequences. The current report is presented as observational data that were acquired during life history studies of this species.

LK, Ross.

358

Notes and observations on courtship and mating in Tityus (Atreus magnimanus Pocock, 1897 (Scorpiones: Buthidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Courtship and mating behaviors of the scorpion Tityus (Atreus magnimanus are herein described, consisting of various components that pertain to four distinct behavioral stages. The courtship and mating rituals of Tityus (Atreus magnimanus are similar to those of other scorpions. Behavioral components are presented in an ethogram to demonstrate their occurrence during mating sequences. The current report is presented as observational data that were acquired during life history studies of this species.

LK Ross

2009-01-01

359

Nest-mate recognition based on heritable odors in the termite Microcerotermes arboreus.  

OpenAIRE

Workers of the Neotropical termite Microcerotermes arboreus distinguish nest mates from other conspecifics by odor. A controlled breeding experiment demonstrated a genetic component to variation in colony odors. Workers were less aggressive toward unfamiliar relatives than toward nonrelatives and distinguished degree of relatedness among unfamiliar workers. Unfamiliar relatives were attacked more often than nest mates, despite similar levels of genetic relatedness; thus, nest-mate recognition...

Adams, E. S.

1991-01-01

360

Asexual Cephalosporin C Producer Acremonium chrysogenum Carries a Functional Mating Type Locus?  

OpenAIRE

Acremonium chrysogenum, the fungal producer of the pharmaceutically relevant ?-lactam antibiotic cephalosporin C, is classified as asexual because no direct observation of mating or meiosis has yet been reported. To assess the potential of A. chrysogenum for sexual reproduction, we screened an expressed sequence tag library from A. chrysogenum for the expression of mating type (MAT) genes, which are the key regulators of sexual reproduction. We identified two putative mating type genes that ...

Po?ggeler, Stefanie; Hoff, Birgit; Ku?ck, Ulrich

2008-01-01

361

Phenotypic differentiation and pre-mating isolation between allopatric populations of Girardinichthys multiradiatus  

OpenAIRE

Sexual selection may lead to reproductive isolation between populations through divergence in female mate choice, and population differentiation driven by female mate choice is expected to produce pre- but not post-mating isolation. We tested these hypotheses by looking at whether allopatric populations of the Amarillo (Girardinichthys multiradiatus), a sexually dimorphic viviparous fish with effective female choice, (i) have undergone phenotypical differentiation that may be attributed to di...

Gonza?lez Zuarth, Cesar; Maci?as Garcia, Constantino

2005-01-01

362

Seminal fluid causes temporarily reduced egg hatch in previously mated females.  

OpenAIRE

In Drosophila, male accessory gland fluid (seminal fluid) has multiple effects on the female's reproductive efficiency. Here, we show the effect of seminal fluid on rate of egg hatch immediately following mating. Singly mated females were remated to two classes of sterile males, one with seminal fluid and one without seminal fluid. Transfer of seminal fluid results in a strong reduction in egg hatch shortly after the mating. Also, it is shown that remating with normal males causes an immediat...

Prout, T.; Clark, A. G.

2000-01-01

363

Localizing Brain Regions Associated with Female Mate Preference Behavior in a Swordtail  

OpenAIRE

Female mate choice behavior is a critical component of sexual selection, yet identifying the neural basis of this behavior is largely unresolved. Previous studies have implicated sensory processing and hypothalamic brain regions during female mate choice and there is a conserved network of brain regions (Social Behavior Network, SBN) that underlies sexual behaviors. However, we are only beginning to understand the role this network has in pre-copulatory female mate choice. Using in situ hybri...

Wong, Ryan Y.; Ramsey, Mary E.; Cummings, Molly E.

2012-01-01

364

Interaction between natural and sexual selection during the evolution of mate recognition.  

OpenAIRE

The interaction between natural and sexual selection is central to many theories of how mate choice and reproductive isolation evolve, but their joint effect on the evolution of mate recognition has not, to my knowledge, been investigated in an evolutionary experiment. Natural and sexual selection were manipulated in interspecific hybrid populations of Drosophila to determine their effects on the evolution of a mate recognition system comprised of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). The effect of ...

Blows, Mark W.

2002-01-01

365

Female mate preferences for male body size and shape promote sexual isolation in threespine sticklebacks  

OpenAIRE

Female mate preferences for ecologically relevant traits may enhance natural selection, leading to rapid divergence. They may also forge a link between mate choice within species and sexual isolation between species. Here, we examine female mate preference for two ecologically important traits: body size and body shape. We measured female preferences within and between species of benthic, limnetic, and anadromous threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus species complex). We found that ...

Head, Megan L.; Kozak, Genevieve M.; Boughman, Janette W.

2013-01-01

366

Reconciling sexual selection to species recognition: a process-based model of mating decision  

OpenAIRE

Mating signals often encode information important for both species recognition and mate quality assessment and endure selection pressures that combine both stabilizing and directional components. Here, we present a family of models of mate preference for multiplemessage signals. Our models are process based rather than purely normative, they assume the existence of one (or more) ‘‘utility function’’ that order signals along a scale of perceived appropriateness, and interpret preferenc...

Cermelli, Paolo; Castellano, Sergio

2006-01-01

367

The Indirect Benefits of Mating with Attractive Males Outweigh the Direct Costs  

OpenAIRE

The fitness consequences of mate choice are a source of ongoing debate in evolutionary biology. Recent theory predicts that indirect benefits of female choice due to offspring inheriting superior genes are likely to be negated when there are direct costs associated with choice, including any costs of mating with attractive males. To estimate the fitness consequences of mating with males of varying attractiveness, we housed female house crickets, Acheta domesticus, with either attractive or un...

Head Megan L; Hunt John; Jennions Michael D; Brooks Robert

2005-01-01

368

The absence of species and sex recognition during mate search by male common toads, Bufo bufo  

OpenAIRE

During mate search male Bufo bufo do not discriminate between green frogs and conspecifics, between sexes or between gravid females that differ in body size. We studied mate recognition and the mating behaviour of male European common toads, B. bufo using field-based choice experiments. When given a simultaneous choice between R. perezi and B. bufo both matched in size, male toads did not dis- criminate between species and amplected a frog or a toad with equal frequency. When a male...

Marco, Adolfo; Lizana, Miguel

2002-01-01

369

Copulation corrupts immunity: A mechanism for a cost of mating in insects  

OpenAIRE

There are well documented costs of mating in insects but little evidence for underlying mechanisms. Here, we provide experimental evidence for a hormone-based mechanism that reduces immunity as a result of mating. We examined the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor and show that (i) mating reduces a major humoral immune effector-system (phenoloxidase) in both sexes, and (ii) that this down-regulation is mediated by juvenile hormone. Because both juvenile hormone and phenoloxidase have highly con...

Rolff, Jens; Siva-jothy, Michael T.

2002-01-01

370

White Cells Facilitate Opposite- and Same-Sex Mating of Opaque Cells in Candida albicans  

Science.gov (United States)

Modes of sexual reproduction in eukaryotic organisms are extremely diverse. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a phenotypic switch from the white to the opaque phase in order to become mating-competent. In this study, we report that functionally- and morphologically-differentiated white and opaque cells show a coordinated behavior during mating. Although white cells are mating-incompetent, they can produce sexual pheromones when treated with pheromones of the opposite mating type or by physically interacting with opaque cells of the opposite mating type. In a co-culture system, pheromones released by white cells induce opaque cells to form mating projections, and facilitate both opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells. Deletion of genes encoding the pheromone precursor proteins and inactivation of the pheromone response signaling pathway (Ste2-MAPK-Cph1) impair the promoting role of white cells (MTLa) in the sexual mating of opaque cells. White and opaque cells communicate via a paracrine pheromone signaling system, creating an environment conducive to sexual mating. This coordination between the two different cell types may be a trade-off strategy between sexual and asexual lifestyles in C. albicans. PMID:25329547

Liang, Weihong; Guan, Guobo; Zhang, Qiuyu; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Huang, Guanghua

2014-01-01

371

Prenatal exposure to low doses of atrazine affects mating behaviors in male guppies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Performing appropriate mating behaviors is crucial to male reproductive success, especially in species where mating is predominantly via female mate choice. Mating behaviors are hormonally regulated and may be sexually selected traits: courtship displays are selected via mate choice, while forced copulations and aggressive behaviors are selected for via intrasexual competition. Endocrine disrupting compounds interfere with proper hormonal functioning in exposed animals. Exposures during developmentally crucial life stages can have irreversible effects lasting through adulthood. I tested the effects of prenatal exposure to environmentally relevant doses of a commonly used herbicide, atrazine (1 and 13.5?g/L) on mating behaviors in male guppies. Guppies were used as a model organism to test the effects of atrazine exposure on wildlife reproductive health. Adult female guppies were mated and exposed to the treatments throughout the gestation period, and offspring born to them were raised without further treatment. At adulthood, the males were tested for the effects of prenatal exposure on their mating behaviors such as courtship displays, gonopodium swings, forced copulatory attempts, and competitive and aggressive behaviors towards rivals who were not exposed to atrazine. I also tested female preference for treated males compared to control males. Atrazine-exposed males were less likely to perform the mating behaviors, and performed them less frequently, than control males. Atrazine exposure also made males less aggressive towards rivals. Females preferred untreated males over atrazine-treated males. In all cases, a non-monotonic pattern was seen, highlighting the significance of low-dose exposures. PMID:25014197

Shenoy, Kausalya

2014-07-01

372

Interconversion of Yeast Mating Types I. Direct Observations of the Action of the Homothallism (HO) Gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

The HO gene promotes interconversion between a and alpha mating types. As a consequence, homothallic diploid cells are formed by mating between siblings descended from a single alpha HO or a HO spore. In order to determine the frequency and pattern of the mating-type switch, we have used a simple technique by which the mating phenotype can be assayed without losing the cell to the mating process itself. Specifically, we have performed pedigree analysis on descendants of single homothallic spores, testing these cells for sensitivity to alpha-factor.The switch from alpha to a and vice versa is detectable after a minimum of two cell divisions. 50% of the clones tested showed switching by the four-cell stage. Of the four cells descended from a single cell, only the oldest cell and its immediate daughter are observed to change mating type. This pattern suggests that one event in the switching process has occurred in the first cell division cycle. Restriction of the switched mating-type to two particular cells may reflect the action of the homothallism system followed by nonrandom segregation of DNA strands in mitosis.The mating behavior of cells which have sustained a change in mating type due to the HO gene is indistinguishable from that of heterothallic strains. PMID:17248712

Hicks, J B; Herskowitz, I

1976-06-01

373

Elevated predation risk changes mating behaviour and courtship in a fiddler crab  

Science.gov (United States)

The fiddler crab, Uca beebei, lives in individually defended burrows, in mixed-sex colonies on intertidal mud flats. Avian predation is common, especially of crabs unable to escape into burrows. Mating pairs form in two ways. Females either mate on the surface at their burrow entrance ('surface mating') or leave their own burrow and sequentially enter and leave ('sample') courting males' burrows, before staying in one to mate underground ('burrow mating'). We tested whether perceived predation risk affects the relative frequency of these mating modes. We first observed mating under natural levels of predation during one biweekly, semi-lunar cycle. We then experimentally increased the perceived predation risk by attracting grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus) to each half of the study site in two successive biweekly cycles. In each experimental cycle, crabs were significantly less likely to mate on the side with more birds. Moreover, on the side with elevated predation risk, the number of females leaving burrows to sample was greatly reduced relative to the number of females that surface-mated. Males waved less and built fewer mud pillars, which attract females, when birds were present. We discuss several plausible proximate explanations for these results and the effect of changes in predation regime on sexual selection.

Koga, T.; Backwell, P. R. Y.; Jennions, M. D.; Christy, J. H.

1998-01-01

374

Dynamic, mating-induced gene expression changes in female head and brain tissues of Drosophila melanogaster  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Drosophila melanogaster females show changes in behavior and physiology after mating that are thought to maximize the number of progeny resulting from the most recent copulation. Sperm and seminal fluid proteins induce post-mating changes in females, however, very little is known about the resulting gene expression changes in female head and central nervous system tissues that contribute to the post-mating response. Results We determined the temporal gene expression changes in female head tissues 0-2, 24, 48 and 72 hours after mating. Females from each time point had a unique post-mating gene expression response, with 72 hours post-mating having the largest number of genes with significant changes in expression. At most time points, genes expressed in the head fat body that encode products involved in metabolism showed a marked change in expression. Additional analysis of gene expression changes in dissected brain tissues 24 hours post-mating revealed changes in transcript abundance of many genes, notably, the reduced transcript abundance of genes that encode ion channels. Conclusions Substantial changes occur in the regulation of many genes in female head tissues after mating, which might underlie aspects of the female post-mating response. These results provide new insights into the physiological and metabolic changes that accompany changes in female behaviors.

Stirling Emma J

2010-10-01

375

The Asexual Yeast Candida glabrata Maintains Distinct a and ? Haploid Mating Types?  

OpenAIRE

The genome of the type strain of Candida glabrata (CBS138, ATCC 2001) contains homologs of most of the genes involved in mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, starting with the mating pheromone and receptor genes. Only haploid cells are ever isolated, but C. glabrata strains of both mating types are commonly found, the type strain being MAT? and most other strains, such as BG2, being MATa. No sexual cycle has been documented for this species. In order to understand which steps of the mating pa...

Muller, He?loi?se; Hennequin, Christophe; Gallaud, Julien; Dujon, Bernard; Fairhead, Ce?cile

2008-01-01

376

[Mating behavior in mutant strains of Drosophila melanogaster at different population densities].  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of mutations and genetic background on the mating activity of male and receptivity of female Drosophila melanogaster have been studied at different population densities. Population density, as well as its combinations with other factors, significantly affects mating behavior of D. melanogaster. There are two distinct trends in the effect of this factor on mating behavior: the maximum larval overpopulation may cause either a significant suppression of the behaviors studied or an increase in their expressivity. The mating behaviors of wa and cn mutants against a certain genetic background changed similarly in response to varying population density. PMID:16756068

Volkova, N E; Sheremet, O Iu; Vorobieva, L I

2006-04-01

377

Dual fitness benefits of post-mating sugar meals for female hawkmoths (Hyles lineata).  

Science.gov (United States)

The white-lined sphinx moth (Hyles lineata: Sphingidae) is the most widespread and abundant hawkmoth pollinator in North America and plays a major role in the reproductive biology of many plant species. H. lineata visits a wide range of plants, which differ in the quality and quantity (e.g. caloric content, volume) of the nectar reward that they offer in exchange for pollination services. Some of these plants represent a suitable oviposition substrate as well as a profitable nectar source, allowing mated H. lineata females to mix foraging and oviposition bouts. We investigated the effects of post-mating nectar intake on the reproductive success of female H. lineata. While all experimental females had access to a 20% sucrose solution during the pre-mating phase (avg. 2.7 days) we manipulated the post-mating diet, assigning mated females to three experimental groups (sucrose fed, water fed, or unfed). Mated females with access to sucrose lived twice as long and produced more fertile eggs at double the rate of control moths that were starved or water-fed after mating. Thus, the sugar component of floral nectar positively affects the physiology of mated H. lineata at multiple levels, which translates into strong selection for mated females to continue nectar foraging during or between oviposition bouts. PMID:23376765

von Arx, Martin; Sullivan, Kayleigh A; Raguso, Robert A

2013-04-01

378

Segmental chromosomal alterations have prognostic impact in neuroblastoma: a report from the INRG project  

OpenAIRE

Background: In the INRG dataset, the hypothesis that any segmental chromosomal alteration might be of prognostic impact in neuroblastoma without MYCN amplification (MNA) was tested. Methods: The presence of any segmental chromosomal alteration (chromosome 1p deletion, 11q deletion and/or chromosome 17q gain) defined a segmental genomic profile. Only tumours with a confirmed unaltered status for all three chromosome arms were considered as having no segmental chromosomal alterations. Results: ...

Schleiermacher, G.; Mosseri, V.; London, W. B.; Maris, J. M.; Brodeur, G. M.; Attiyeh, E.; Haber, M.; Khan, J.; Nakagawara, A.; Speleman, F.; Noguera, R.; Tonini, G. P.; Fischer, M.; Ambros, I.; Monclair, T.

2012-01-01

379

Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis beverages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

Carla Carolina Batista Machado

2007-06-01

380

ENE-Mates - A public information program for women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan depends on import for more than 80 percent of its total energy supply. Nuclear energy is one of the most promising alternatives to oil. It plays a significant role for energy supply in terms of reliability, economic viability and reduction of CO2 emissions. In order to secure needed capacity, the Government concentrates its efforts on acquiring public acceptance of nuclear power as well as ensuring the safety of plants and improving plant capability and reliability. An opinion poll, done by the Japanese Government in Sep. of 1990, showed that 73.3 percent of man and 57.4 percent of women think that nuclear power is necessary to secure energy supply. Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) employs various methods for information services arid, in particular, electric power generation including nuclear with an assignment from the Japanese Government. Public information activities by the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) are as follows: a) Telephone QA service to respond to public inquiries; b) Publishing the 'Nuclear Newsletter' monthly and various brochures; c) Information service by personal computer network Atomnet concerning energy in general, and operation/trouble informations of nuclear plants; d) Distribution and service of personal computers to local governments offices/museums, etc., for users ranging from children to adults to gather nuclear related information; e) Organization of female monitors 'ENE-MATES' to have lecture meetings and site tours. ENE-MATES - A Public Information Program For Women. As a 1990 opinion poll shows, women's feelings about nuclear energy differ from that of men. Women are more sensitive and anxious than men on nuclear energy issues. To improve this situation several programs for women have been planned and implemented.'ENE-MATES' program is one of these cases. It's purpose is to encourage women, centering around house wives, to have unbiased understanding of energy-related issues

381

Functionality of the Paracoccidioides mating ?-pheromone-receptor system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent evidence suggests that Paracoccidioides species have the potential to undergo sexual reproduction, although no sexual cycle has been identified either in nature or under laboratory conditions. In the present work we detected low expression levels of the heterothallic MAT loci genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2, the ?-pheromone (PB?) gene, and the ?- and a-pheromone receptor (PREB and PREA) genes in yeast and mycelia forms of several Paracoccidioides isolates. None of the genes were expressed in a mating type dependent manner. Stimulation of P. brasiliensis MAT1-2 strains with the synthetic ?-pheromone peptide failed to elicit transcriptional activation of MAT1-2, PREB or STE12, suggesting that the strains tested are insensitive to ?-pheromone. In order to further evaluate the biological functionality of the pair ?-pheromone and its receptor, we took advantage of the heterologous expression of these Paracoccidioides genes in the corresponding S. cerevisiae null mutants. We show that S. cerevisiae strains heterologously expressing PREB respond to Pb? pheromone either isolated from Paracoccidioides culture supernatants or in its synthetic form, both by shmoo formation and by growth and cell cycle arrests. This allowed us to conclude that Paracoccidioides species secrete an active ?-pheromone into the culture medium that is able to activate its cognate receptor. Moreover, expression of PREB or PB? in the corresponding null mutants of S. cerevisiae restored mating in these non-fertile strains. Taken together, our data demonstrate pheromone signaling activation by the Paracoccidioides ?-pheromone through its receptor in this yeast model, which provides novel evidence for the existence of a functional mating signaling system in Paracoccidioides. PMID:23056569

Gomes-Rezende, Jéssica A; Gomes-Alves, Ana G; Menino, João F; Coelho, Marco A; Ludovico, Paula; Gonçalves, Paula; Sturme, Mark H J; Rodrigues, Fernando

2012-01-01

382

Delta XTE Lift and Mate at Complex 17A  

Science.gov (United States)

This NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) video release presents footage of the lift and mate of NASA's X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) to a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The video includes shots of the workcrews as well as wide angle views of the spacecraft in its launching position. The XTE was launched into a circular orbit with an altitude of 600 km and an inclination of 23 degrees on Dec. 30, 1995.

1995-01-01

383

MATE Module 11: Computer Control: Intro to Programming  

Science.gov (United States)

This module from the Marine Advanced Technology Education Center introduces students to "LabVIEW programming concepts using the Arduino processor and the MATE ROV Control System." Students will learn to develop a basic processing loop, read the state of an input pin and control and output based upon that state, incorporate a delay timer in the processing loop and add a sub-VI to the main processing loop. PowerPoint and PDF versions of the lecture material are available for download here along with links to other tutorials and tools.

384

Pronóstico de vida a tres meses y factores asociados de pacientes con alteración del estado mental en emergencia de medicina de un hospital nacional en Perú / Three-month life prognosis and associated factors in patients with altered mental status admimtted to the emergency room of a national hospital in Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar el pronóstico de vida a tres meses y factores asociados en pacientes con alteración del estado mental (AEM). Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal analítico que incluyó pacientes mayores de 18 años admitidos por emergencia de medicina de un hospital nacional, con AEM, dentr [...] o de las veinticuatro horas de iniciado el cuadro y que requirieron observación. La información demográfica, clínica y valoración funcional fueron tomadas de historias clínicas. El seguimiento a los tres meses se hizo por vía telefónica. Resultados. Se incluyó a 290 pacientes. Esta entidad representa el 4,1% del total de atenciones de emergencia. La mortalidad global fue 24,2%, mientras que en el subgrupo de adultos mayores fue de 28,1%; 19,3% en adultos y 15,2% en adultos jóvenes. La edad promedio fue 63,5 años y el grupo de adultos mayores constituyó casi 2/3 de la población. El 51% estuvo compuesto por varones. El promedio de estancia hospitalaria fue de 7 días. Las causas asociadas, más frecuentes, fueron: enfermedades infecciosas (44,1%), neurológicas (40,3%), respiratorias (28,3%), metabólicos (18,6%) y cardiovasculares (17,2%). La asociación de mortalidad con nivel Abstract in english Objectives. Determine the prognosis at three months and associated factors of patients with altered mental status (AMS). Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study that included patients over 18 years of age admitted to the emergency room in a national hospital, with AMS, within twenty-four hours [...] of onset and that required observation. The demographic, clinical and functional assessment information were taken from the medical record. A follow-up was made at three months by telephone. Results. The study included 290 patients, representing 4.1% of the total patients in the emergency room. Overall mortality was 24.2%, whereas in the subgroup of older adults was 28.1%; 19.3% in adults and 15.2% in young adults. The average age was 63.5 years and the elderly group constituted nearly two thirds of the population. 51% were males. The average hospital stay was 7 days. The most frequently associated causes were infectious diseases (44.1%), neurological (40.3%), respiratory (28.3%), metabolic (18.6%), and cardiovascular (17.2%) disorders. Mortality was associated with a) GCS levels

Delia, Alva-Rodriguez; María, de los Ángeles Lazo; Javier D, Loza-Herrera; Germán, Málaga.

2014-09-01

385

Journal Status  

CERN Document Server

The status of an actor in a social context is commonly defined in terms of two factors: the total number of endorsements the actor receives from other actors and the prestige of the endorsing actors. These two factors indicate the distinction between popularity and expert appreciation of the actor, respectively. We refer to the former as popularity and to the latter as prestige. These notions of popularity and prestige also apply to the domain of scholarly assessment. The ISI Impact Factor (ISI IF) is defined as the mean number of citations a journal receives over a 2 year period. By merely counting the amount of citations and disregarding the prestige of the citing journals, the ISI IF is a metric of popularity, not of prestige. We demonstrate how a weighted version of the popular PageRank algorithm can be used to obtain a metric that reflects prestige. We contrast the rankings of journals according to their ISI IF and their weighted PageRank, and we provide an analysis that reveals both significant overlaps...

Bollen, Johan; Van de Sompel, Herbert; Bollen, Johan; Rodriguez, Marko A.; Sompel, Herbert Van de

2006-01-01

386

Altered Metabolism in Cancer  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Cancer cells have different metabolic requirements from their normal counterparts. Understanding the consequences of this differential metabolism requires a detailed understanding of glucose metabolism and its relation to energy production in cancer cells. A recent study in BMC Systems Biology by Vasquez et al. developed a mathematical model to assess some features of this altered metabolism. Here, we take a broader look at the regulation of energy metabolism in cancer cells, conside...

Locasale Jason W; Cantley Lewis C

2010-01-01

387

Do women feel worse to look their best? Testing the relationship between self-esteem and fertility status across the menstrual cycle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two studies measured self-esteem across the menstrual cycle to test the prediction that self-esteem will vary interindividually as a positive function of mate value and intraindividually as a negative function of fertility status. Study 1 (n = 52) found that self-esteem was positively related to mate value between women but that women experienced a self-esteem decrease nearest to ovulation, when women tend to be more attractive to men. Study 2 (n = 59) replicated these results and demonstrated that the self-esteem decrease at high fertility was positively related to women's reported long-term mating motivation. Additionally, the magnitude of the self-esteem decrease at high fertility was found to be related to increased willingness to spend money on items to enhance attractiveness at high fertility. A self-esteem decrease at high fertility may motivate mate value enhancement efforts when such efforts are most critical. PMID:19762716

Hill, Sarah E; Durante, Kristina M

2009-12-01

388

Mating behavior of adolescent male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda.  

Science.gov (United States)

Male mating tactics vary extensively in many primates. Some variation occurs because adolescent males often are sexually active but cannot invest heavily in mating effort because of their limited ability to compete directly with adults and because they are still investing in growth; consequently, most of their mating attempts may be surreptitious and/or with females whose fecundity is low. Chimpanzees (Pan trogolodytes) have a complex mating system: most copulations occur between estrous females with full sexual swelling and multiple males in group settings where the potential for sperm competition is high, but males sometimes mate-guard females, and sometimes male-female pairs mate exclusively with each other while avoiding other males during "consortships." Among other factors, dominance ranks, coalition formation, and variation in male-female association influence male mating and reproductive success. Mating effort increases from adolescence into prime adulthood. At Gombe and Mahale, adolescent males copulated more with nulliparous than with parous females, and mostly when females were unlikely to be ovulating, partly because of low adult male interest in nulliparous females and partly because of aggression from or avoidance of adult males. Adolescents thus had low probabilities of siring infants. However, adolescents are known to have gained some paternity at Gombe and in other populations, and their mating behavior deserves more study. I present data on mating by adolescent males in an unusually large chimpanzee community at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Adolescents at Ngogo also copulated more with nulliparous than parous females and mostly copulated outside of periovulatory periods. Also, they directed less aggression at estrous females than did adult males. However, they gained lower shares of copulations than reported for Gombe and Mahale, regardless of female parity, and received more aggression from adult males. These differences might partly reflect the influence of variation in the number of males per community on male mating tactics. PMID:25344150

Watts, David P

2014-10-25

389

Free female mate choice in house mice affects reproductive success and offspring viability and performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested a critical assumption of sexual dialectics theory (Gowaty 1997, Feminism and Evolutionary Biology, Chapman & Hall) using house mice, Mus musculus. We asked if female house mice accrue viability benefits for their offspring when they mate with males they prefer versus with males they do not prefer. Our experiment was designed to eliminate or control other mechanisms of reproductive competition besides female mate choice. After allowing females to discriminate behaviourally between two males, which were at random with respect to phenotypic variation discriminating females were paired with preferred (P) or nonpreferred (NP) males. We then tested whether females mating with males they preferred had offspring of higher viability than females mating with nonpreferred males. In pairwise comparisons, we tested for differences in offspring performance in dominance contests and in nest-building skill. At weaning, we exposed half of the pups to cold stress. We tested progeny performance and viability in the laboratory or in outdoor field enclosures. In comparison to P females, NP females produced significantly fewer litters. Sons from P matings were socially dominant to sons from NP matings. Adult offspring from P matings built better nests than those from NP matings. In field enclosures significantly fewer NP than P offspring survived to 60 days after introduction. Male and female progeny from P matings established larger home ranges and constructed better nests than progeny from NP matings. This is the first demonstration of progeny viability differences for females allowed to express mate preferences between males presented to them at random. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10675259

Drickamer; Gowaty; Holmes

2000-02-01

390

Self-referent phenotype matching and its role in female mate choice in arthropods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A growing body of empirical evidence shows that females of many animal species gain benefits by mating polyandrously, and often prefer to mate with novel males over previous mates. Although a female preference for novel males has been demonstrated for multiple animal taxa, the mechanisms used by females to discriminate between novel and previous mates remain largely unknown. However, recent studies suggest that in decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus, females actually imbue males with their own chemical cues, known as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs during mating, and utilize chemosensory self-referencing to recognize recent mates. Here we review evidence that self-referent phenotype matching is a widespread mechanism of recognition in arthropods, and explore how CHCs are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions. There is substantial evidence that CHCs are used as recognition cues to discriminate between species, kin, sexes, mates, individuals, and self and non-self, and are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions in a wide range of arthropod taxa. There is also evidence that CHCs are often transferred between individuals during direct physical contact, including copulation. Chemosensory self-referencing via cuticular hydrocarbons could provide a simple, but reliable mechanism for identifying individuals from previous mating encounters. This mechanism does not require any specialized cognitive abilities because an individual’s phenotype is always available for reference. Given the ubiquitous use of CHCs among arthropods, chemosensory self-referencing may be a widespread mechanism used by female arthropods to facilitate female mate-choice decisions and to enhance opportunities for polyandry [Current Zoology 59 (2: 239-248, 2013].

Carie B. WEDDLE, John HUNT, Scott K. SAKALUK

2013-04-01

391

Effect of age on the mating propensity of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of age on the mating propensity of both wild and laboratory-reared Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was investigated under laboratory and field cage conditions. The optimal age for wild flies ranged from 7 to 13 days, whereas in laboratory-reared flies it was between 3 and 5 days old. Virgin flies were selective and more prone to mate than flies that were held with both sexes combined and therefore, had a chance to mate before the test. The difference among ages in laboratory-reared flies was significant only in virgin flies. Virgin females showed a tendency to increase their mating propensity as they got older, whereas virgin males showed a bimodal pattern, with peaks at 4 and 11 days old. When flies of both strains and different ages were combined, laboratory-reared females accounted for 72% of the all the matings and most matings were by 4-day-old females. Wild males accounted for 67% of all the matings and the maximum number of matings were by 10-day-old males. For quality control purpose, flies should be virgin and at their optimal age, this will produce more robust data for statistical analysis. For control purpose, it is recommended to release sterile flies at 1-2 days old, because flies in the field will be at their maximum mating propensity. Our results support the concept that releasing males only will make the Sterile Insect Technique more effective, since sterile males will be virgin and therefore, more prone to mate. (argin and therefore, more prone to mate. (author)

392

Toxoplasma gondii-induced neuronal alterations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The zoonotic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii infects over 30% of the human population. The intracellular parasite can persist lifelong in the CNS within neurons modifying their function and structure, thus leading to specific behavioural changes of the host. In recent years, several in vitro studies and murine models have focused on the elucidation of these modifications. Furthermore, investigations of the human population have correlated Toxoplasma seropositivity with changes in neurological functions; however, the complex underlying mechanisms of the subtle behavioural alteration are still not fully understood. The parasites are able to induce direct modifications in the infected cells, for example by altering dopamine metabolism, by functionally silencing neurons as well as by hindering apoptosis. Moreover, indirect effects of the peripheral immune system and alterations of the immune status of the CNS, observed during chronic infection, might also contribute to changes in neuronal connectivity and synaptic plasticity. In this review, we will provide an overview and highlight recent advances, which describe changes in the neuronal function and morphology upon T. gondii infection. PMID:25376390

Parlog, A; Schlüter, D; Dunay, I R

2015-03-01

393

Treatment of Persistent Mating Induced Endometritis in Arabian Maiden Mares  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the treatment of Persistent Mating Induced Endometritis (PMIE in Arabian maiden mares using uterine lavage containing antibiotics alone or with uterotonic agents. Maiden mares (n = 42 with PMIE were subjected to detailed clinical examinations including palpation per rectum, vaginoscopy and cytological examination. The mares were qualified as PMIE due to accumulation of uterine fluid 1-2 days post breeding. Uterine lavage containing crystalline penicillin and streptomycin sulphate was performed (n = 36 6 h post-breeding. After 8 h of mating maiden mares were randomly divided into 3 groups, 12 animals in each group. The first group injected with 250 ?g of cloprostenol (PGF2 S.C. and the second group received oxytocin 20 I.U. I.M., while the third group with no hormonal treatment. Control maiden mares (n = 6 received neither uterine lavage nor hormonal preparations. Results of pregnancy rate revealed 83.3% pregnancy of maiden mares treated with uterine lavage and PGF2 and 66.6% in mares treated with uterine lavage and oxytocin. In a conclusion, maiden mares with PMIE could be successfully treated with uterine lavage and PGF2 .

M.B. Taha

2007-01-01

394

Male aggression and mating opportunity in a poeciliid fish  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  One function of aggression in animals is to gain access to mates. Aggression may therefore be avoured by sexual selection, the strength of which can be assessed using repeatability of ggressive behaviour. Here, we tested the hypotheses that male swordtails, Xiphophorus sp., are consistent in the aggressive and mating behaviours exhibited and in the time spent at a close distance to females (female attendance, and that aggressive males gain increased opportunity to attempt copulation compared to their less aggressive conspecifics (sneak frequency. As predicted, aggression between males, and male display and sneak frequency were repeatable. However, male aggression was not significantly correlated with sneak frequency. The function of aggression in this species is not clear-cut and may have an indirect female access function through formation of dominance hierarchies or defence of resources. A surprising finding highlighted by this study was the contradictory results for consistency in female contact, with high repeatability scores indicating consistency in behaviour but the within-subjects component of repeated measures ANOVA showing differences in female contact between trials. The possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

Horst Kaiser

2011-10-01

395

Ageing, mate preferences and sexuality: a mini-review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolutionary constraints that lead to the evolution of sexual reproduction are framed by the better repair mechanisms that repair fatal mutations, as well as the need for variable immune systems imposed on large organisms by parasites, such as viruses and bacteria. Besides the evolution of sexual reproduction, these factors also affect mate choice, especially as regards the gene complex that encodes the immune system. The need to increase both the likelihood of gametes to encounter each other as well as sufficient provision of nutrition for the offspring then leads to the evolution of two sexes: large numbers of small mobile sperms ensure that gametes meet, whereas large egg cells full of energy provide for the zygote, thus leading to a developmental advantage. The asymmetric investment in the offspring then affects not only mate choice criteria, but also cognitive strategies. Men place more importance on youthfulness and fertility than women, who regard resource holding potential as a more relevant criterion. Consequently, female jealousy is connected to endangered access to resources, whereas male jealousy is rooted in paternal uncertainty. Cognitive adaptations developed to ensure reproductive success show sex differences, such as in error management. The most obvious function of sexual behavior is reproduction. To foster the benefits for the offspring, reproduction partners should also develop an emotional bond, which is mediated by hormones connected to sexual intercourse. With increasing age, reproduction loses importance, while pair bonding functions remain relevant. Therefore, sexuality never ceases to be part of a relationship. PMID:19229111

Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Grammer, Karl

2009-01-01

396

Mating compatibility between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, is a highly polyphagous fruit pest that occurs predominantly in Africa yet has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. It is extremely morphologically and genetically similar to the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel); as such the specific relationship between these two species is unresolved. We assessed prezygotic compatibility between B. dorsalis and B. invadens using standardized field cage mating tests, which have proven effectiveness in tephritid cryptic species studies. These tests were followed by an assessment of postzygotic compatibility by examining egg viability, larval and pupal survival, and sex ratios of offspring produced from parental and subsequent F1 crosses to examine for hybrid breakdown as predicted under a two-species hypothesis. B. dorsalis was sourced from two countries (Pakistan and China), and each population was compared with B. invadens from its type locality of Kenya. B. invadens mated randomly with B. dorsalis from both localities, and there were generally high levels of hybrid viability and survival resulting from parental and F1 crosses. Furthermore, all but one hybrid cross resulted in equal sex ratios, with the single deviation in favor of males and contrary to expectations under Haldane's rule. These data support the hypothesis that B. dorsalis and B. invadens represent the same biological species, an outcome that poses significant implications for pest management and international trade for sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24772542

Bo, W; Ahmad, S; Dammalage, T; Tomas, U Sto; Wornoayporn, V; Ul Haq, I; Cáceres, C; Vreysen, M J B; Schutze, M K

2014-04-01

397

Identifying Context-Specific Gene Profiles of Social, Reproductive, and Mate Preference Behavior in a Fish Species with Female Mate Choice  

OpenAIRE

Sensory and social inputs interact with underlying gene suites to coordinate social behavior. Here we use a naturally complex system in sexual selection studies, the swordtail, to explore how genes associated with mate preference, receptivity, and social affiliation interact in the female brain under specific social conditions. We focused on 11 genes associated with mate preference in this species (neuroserpin, neuroligin-3, NMDA-receptor, tPA, stathmin-2,?-1 adrenergic receptor) or with fe...

MaryERamsey; TaraL.Maginnis; RyanY.Wong

2012-01-01

398

Evolutionary transition from single to multiple mating in fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Queens of leafcutter ants exhibit the highest known levels of multiple mating (up to 10 mates per queen) among ants. Multiple mating may have been selected to increase genetic diversity among nestmate workers, which is hypothesized to be critical in social systems with large, long-lived colonies under severe pressure of pathogens. Advanced fungus-growing (leafcutter) ants have large numbers (104-106 workers) and long-lived colonies, whereas basal genera in the attine tribe have small (<200 workers) colonies with probably substantially shorter lifespans. Basal attines are therefore expected to have lower queen mating frequencies, similar to those found in most other ants. We tested this prediction by analysing queen mating frequency and colony kin structure in three basal attine species: Myrmicocrypta ednaella, Apterostigma collare and Cyphomyrmex longiscapus. Microsatellite marker analyses revealed that queens in all three species were single mated, and that worker-to-worker relatedness in these basal attine species is very close to 0.75, the value expected under exclusively single mating. Fungus growing per se has therefore not selected for multiple queen mating. Instead, the advanced and highly productive social structure of the higher attine ants, which is fully dependent on the rearing of an ancient clonal fungus, may have necessitated high genetic diversity among nestmate workers. This is not the case in the lower attines, which rear fungi that were more recently derived from free-living fungal populations.

Villesen, Poul; Gertsch, P J

1999-01-01

399

The relationship between intraspecific assortative mating and reproductive isolation between divergent populations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term 'assortative mating' has been applied to describe two very different phenomena: (1 the tendency for individuals to choose phenotypically similar mates from among conspecifics; or (2 the tendency to prefer conspecific over hete- rospecific mates (behavioral reproductive isolation. Both forms of assortative mating are widespread in nature, but the relationship between these behaviors remains unclear. Namely, it is plausible that a preference for phenotypically similar conspecifics incidentally reduces the probability of mating with phenotypically divergent heterospecifics. We present a model to calculate how the level of reproductive isolation depends on intraspecific assortative mating and the phenotypic divergence between species. For empirically reasonable levels of intraspecific assortment on a single trait axis, we show that strong reproductive isolation requires very substantial phenotypic divergence. We illustrate this point by applying our model to empirical data from threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus and Darwin’s Finches (Geospiza spp. We conclude that typical levels of intraspecific assortment cannot generally be extrapolated to explain levels of interspecific reproductive isolation. Instead, reproductive isolation between species likely arises from different mate choice behaviors, or multivariate assortative mating [Current Zoology 58 (3: 481–489, 2012].

Daniel I. BOLNICK, Mark KIRKPATRICK

2012-06-01

400

Studies on mating behaviour of radio-sterilized males of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on mating behaviour of normal and radio-sterilized males of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv were carried out under laboratory conditions with 12:12 Light: Dark photoperiodic cycle. Results indicated that both sterilized as well as unsterilized males mated equally well in both the phases of photoperiodic cycle and majority of the males mated in middle (5 to 8 hrs.) part of the phases. There was no significant change in mating behaviour of sterilized males, except slight increase in mating frequency and period of copulation. The maximum number of males mate only once in a single day, however some males were observed to mate more than 4 times in control and 6 times in irradiated regimen. The average respective mating frequency of control and sterilized male were 16.4 and 19.2 in dark phase, 17.8 and 18.8 in light phase. The period of copulation varied from 15 to 45 minutes in control males and 15 to 60 minutes in sterilized males. (author)

401

Influence of experimental illumination and seasonal variation on crossbreending mating in the snail Biomphalaria Glabrata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The crossbreeding activities of the Schistosoma mansoni vector snail Biomphalaria glabrata were counted in a laboratory aquarium throughout the year under two regimes of 12h light: 12h dark from 7 A., M. to 10 P. M. Mating increased significantly in Authmn and Winter and just missed a significant inverse correlation with temperature and a direct one with locomotion. Other similar experiments were carried out to compare mating under various ilumination conditions in complete daily cycle measurements. Mating counts decreased under the regimes which submited snail to a total exposure of 12h light and 12 dark during a daily cycle in the following sequence: 12h light: 12h dark alternating hourly with light gradient, 12h light: 12h dark, 1h light: 1h dark and 12h dark: 12h light. Under two constant illuminations, the mating scored less than under the previous conditions, except under 12h light. Under darkeness the mating count was lower than light conditions. There was no way to differentiate the night and day rhythms of mating on different days in each regime, except for mating under 12h light: 12 dark alternating with light gradient, constant dark and 12h dark: 12h light conditions. Mating increased in certain light and temperature conditions, in wich the intensities, should have an optimum value.

F. Pimentel-Souza

1988-03-01

402

Delayed selfing and resource reallocations in relation to mate availability in the freshwater snail Physa acuta.  

Science.gov (United States)

We study the influence of mate availability on the mating behavior of the self-fertile, preferentially outcrossing freshwater snail Physa acuta. Previous optimization theory indicated that mating system interacts with life-history traits to influence the age at first reproduction, providing three testable predictions. First, isolated individuals should reproduce later than individuals with available mates in the expectancy of finding a partner and avoiding the cost of inbreeding. Second, resource reallocation to future fecundity is needed for such reproductive delays to evolve. Third, the reproductive delay can be optimized with respect to life-history traits (e.g., survival, growth) and the mating system (inbreeding depression). Our results largely validate these predictions. First, reproduction is significantly delayed in isolated individuals ("selfers") as compared with individuals frequently exposed to mates ("outcrossers"). Second, delayed reproduction is associated with reallocation to future growth, survival, and fecundity, although fecundity is also affected by the mating system (selfing vs. outcrossing). Third, the reproductive delay found (approximately 2 wk) is consistent with quantitative predictions from optimization models. The delay is largely heritable, which might be partly explained by among-family differences in the amount of inbreeding depression (mating system) but not growth or survival. PMID:14582009

Tsitrone, Anne; Jarne, Philippe; David, Patrice

2003-10-01

403

Divergent selection and the evolution of signal traits and mating preferences.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mating preferences are common in natural populations, and their divergence among populations is considered an important source of reproductive isolation during speciation. Although mechanisms for the divergence of mating preferences have received substantial theoretical treatment, complementary experimental tests are lacking. We conducted a laboratory evolution experiment, using the fruit fly Drosophila serrata, to explore the role of divergent selection between environments in the evolution of female mating preferences. Replicate populations of D. serrata were derived from a common ancestor and propagated in one of three resource environments: two novel environments and the ancestral laboratory environment. Adaptation to both novel environments involved changes in cuticular hydrocarbons, traits that predict mating success in these populations. Furthermore, female mating preferences for these cuticular hydrocarbons also diverged among populations. A component of this divergence occurred among treatment environments, accounting for at least 17.4% of the among-population divergence in linear mating preferences and 17.2% of the among-population divergence in nonlinear mating preferences. The divergence of mating preferences in correlation with environment is consistent with the classic by-product model of speciation in which premating isolation evolves as a side effect of divergent selection adapting populations to their different environments.

2005-11-01

404

Egg production and oviposition in the tobacco budworm: effect of age at mating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Female tobacco budworms, Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), that emerged in the laboratory contained no mature eggs, although ooecyte development had proceeded as far as yolk deposition