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Crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima TM0439: implications for the mechanism of bacterial GntR transcription regulators with Zn2+-binding FCD domains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The GntR superfamily of dimeric transcription factors, with more than 6200 members encoded in bacterial genomes, are characterized by N-terminal winged helix (WH) DNA-binding domains and diverse C-terminal, regulatory domains, which provide a basis for the classification of the constituent families. The largest of these families, FadR, contains nearly 3000 proteins with all a-helical regulatory domains classified into two related Pfam families: FadR{_}C and FCD. Only two crystal structures of the FadR family members, i.e. the E. coli FadR protein and the LldR from C. glutamicum, have been described to date in literature. Here we describe the crystal structure of TM0439, a GntR regulator with an FCD domain, found in the Thermotoga maritima genome. The FCD domain is similar to that of the LldR regulator, and contains a buried metal binding site. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy and Trp fluorescence, we show that the recombinant protein contains bound Ni{sup 2+} ions, but it is able to bind Zn{sup 2+} with K{sub D} < 70 nM . We conclude that Zn{sup 2+} is the likely physiological metal, where it may perform either or both structural and regulatory roles. Finally, we compare the TM0439 structure to two other FadR family structures recently deposited by Structural Genomics consortia. The results call for a revision in the classification of the FadR family of transcription factors.

Zheng, Meiying; Cooper, David; Grossoehmerb, Nickolas; Yu, Minmin; Hung, Li-Wei; Cieslik, Murcin; Derewendaro, Urszula; Lesley, Scott; Wilson, Ian; Giedrocb, David; Derewenda, Zygmunt

2009-06-06

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Ten years of demographic and genetic monitoring of Stachys maritima in Catalonia (2001-2010. Implications for a recovery plan  

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Full Text Available Stachys maritima is a species typical of the coastal dunes, with a wide distribution within the Mediterranean Basin. In spite of this, the species shows a clear regression. In Catalonia, it has been observed an important reduction of its populations since early 20th century, where it has disappeared from several localities in which it was relatively common (Tarragonès, Barcelonès. Herein we present the results of the demographic monitoring of the species during the last 10 years (2001-2010 in the known localities in Catalonia. Besides corroborating the disappearance (northern Sant Martí d’Empúries, the re-discovering (Llobregat Delta beach and the detection of new populations (inner dunes of the Montgrí, a large year-to-year fluctuation of the monitored populations is stated; the possible reasons are discussed. In addition, the present work also includes the results of the allozyme diversity analysis of the new detected populations as well as the rediscoveries of the period 2004-2008, which were not included in a former study of genetic diversity carried out in 2002-2003. It is necessary to emphasize that the contribution of the new populations to the genetic diversity of Stachys maritima is very small, which can be attributed to their limited population size and /or to founder effects. Despite that the species is included in the Annex 2 (“En Perill d’Extinció” within the Catàleg de Flora Amenaçada de Catalunya (Catalogue of Endangered Flora of Catalonia, and some “soft” conservation measures have been applied at local level (signposting of the beach accesses, environmental education, etc. coupled with other more significant measures (e.g. translocation of individuals discovered in an artificial sandbank, it would be necessary the coordinated action and the scientific support of any initiative of conservation that could be carried out. The general frame to initiate actions of conservation should be the recovery plan of Stachys maritima, whose draft and application is mandatory in accordance to the Catàleg.Stachys maritima es una especie característica de dunas litorales, con una amplia área de distribución en el Mediterráneo. A pesar de ello, la especie muestra una clara regresión. En Catalunya se ha observado una importante reducción de sus poblaciones desde principios del siglo XX, donde ha desaparecido de diversas localidades en las que era relativamente abundante (Tarragonès, Barcelonès. Se presentan los resultados del seguimiento demográfico de la especie durante los últimos 10 años (2001-2010 en las localidades conocidas en Catalunya. Al margen de corroborar la desaparición de algunos núcleos (núcleo norte de Sant Martí d’Empúries, el redescubrimiento de otros (playa del Delta del Llobregat o la detección de nuevas poblaciones (dunas interiores del Montgrí, se constata una gran fluctuación interanual de los núcleos monitorizados, las posibles causas de la cual se discuten detenidamente. Por otro lado, el presente trabajo incluye también los resultados del análisis de la diversidad isoenzimática de las nuevas poblaciones detectadas así como los redescubrimientos del periodo 2004-2008, que no se habían incluido en los estudios de diversidad genética de los años 2002-2003. Cabe destacar que la contribución de los nuevos núcleos a la diversidad genética de Stachys maritima es muy pequeña y se puede atribuir a su reducido tamaño poblacional y/o a efectos fundadores. A pesar que la especie se ha incluido en el Anexo 2 (“En Perill d’Extinció” del Catàleg de Flora Amenaçada de Catalunya, y que a escala local se han realizado algunas medidas de conservación “blandas” (señalización de los accesos a la playa, educación ambiental, etc., junto a otras medidas más significativas pero realizadas con carácter de urgencia (p. ej. la translocación de individuos descubiertos en un arenal, sería necesario la acción coordinada y el apoyo científico de cualquier iniciativa de conservación que se lleve a cabo. El marco general para iniciar

Massó, S.

2010-12-01

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Crystal structures of the antitermination factor NusB from Thermotoga maritima and implications for RNA binding.  

Science.gov (United States)

NusB is a prokaryotic transcription factor involved in antitermination processes, during which it interacts with the boxA portion of the mRNA nut site. Previous studies have shown that NusB exhibits an all-helical fold, and that the protein from Escherichia coli forms monomers, while Mycobacterium tuberculosis NusB is a dimer. The functional significance of NusB dimerization is unknown. We have determined five crystal structures of NusB from Thermotoga maritima. In three crystal forms the protein appeared monomeric, whereas the two other crystal forms contained assemblies, which resembled the M. tuberculosis dimers. In solution, T. maritima NusB could be cross-linked as dimers, but it migrated as a monomer in gel-filtration analyses, suggesting a monomer/dimer equilibrium with a preference for the monomer. Binding to boxA-like RNA sequences could be detected by gel-shift analyses and UV-induced cross-linking. An N-terminal arginine-rich sequence is a probable RNA binding site of the protein, exhibiting aromatic residues as potential stacking partners for the RNA bases. Anions located in various structures support the assignment of this RNA binding site. The proposed RNA binding region is hidden in the subunit interface of dimeric NusB proteins, such as NusB from M. tuberculosis, suggesting that such dimers have to undergo a considerable conformational change or dissociate for engagement with RNA. Therefore, in certain organisms, dimerization may be employed to package NusB in an inactive form until recruitment into antitermination complexes. PMID:15279620

Bonin, Irena; Robelek, Rudolf; Benecke, Heike; Urlaub, Henning; Bacher, Adelbert; Richter, Gerald; Wahl, Markus C

2004-11-01

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?????H15 (Bacteria???????2) : Hippea maritima  

Full Text Available Hippea maritima MH2 = ATCC 700847 = DSM 10411 T 40.4 MIROSHNICHENKO (M.L.), RAINEY (F.A.), RHODE ilic, sulfur-reducing bacterium from submarine hot vents . Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol, 1999, 49, 1033-1038.

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?????H15 (Bacteria???????1) : Hippea maritima  

Full Text Available Hippea maritima MH2 = ATCC 700847 = DSM 10411 T 40.4 MIROSHNICHENKO, M.L., RAINEY, F.A., RHODE, ilic, sulfur-reducing bacterium from submarine hot vents . Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol, 1999, 49, 1033-1038.

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Novel inositol catabolic pathway in Thermotoga maritima.  

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myo-inositol (MI) is a key sugar alcohol component of various metabolites, e.g. phosphatidylinositol-based phospholipids that are abundant in animal and plant cells. The seven-step pathway of MI degradation was previously characterized in various soil bacteria including Bacillus subtilis. Through a combination of bioinformatics and experimental techniques we identified a novel variant of the MI catabolic pathway in the marine hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. By using in vitro biochemical assays with purified recombinant proteins we characterized four inositol catabolic enzymes encoded in the TM0412-TM0416 chromosomal gene cluster. The novel catabolic pathway in T.?maritima starts as the conventional route using the myo-inositol dehydrogenase IolG followed by three novel reactions. The first 2-keto-myo-inositol intermediate is oxidized by another, previously unknown NAD-dependent dehydrogenase TM0412 (named IolM), and a yet unidentified product of this reaction is further hydrolysed by TM0413 (IolN) to form 5-keto-l-gluconate. The fourth step involves epimerization of 5-keto-l-gluconate to d-tagaturonate by TM0416 (IolO). T.?maritima is unable to grow on myo-inositol as a single carbon source. The determined in vitro specificity of the InoEFGK (TM0418-TM0421) transporter to myo-inositol-phosphate suggests that the novel pathway in Thermotoga utilizes a phosphorylated derivative of inositol. PMID:23441918

Rodionova, Irina A; Leyn, Semen A; Burkart, Michael D; Boucher, Nathalie; Noll, Kenneth M; Osterman, Andrei L; Rodionov, Dmitry A

2013-08-01

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Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization Detects Extensive Genomic Diversity in Thermotoga maritima  

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Comparisons between genomes of closely related bacteria often show large variations in gene content, even between strains of the same species. Such studies have focused mainly on pathogens; here, we examined Thermotoga maritima, a free-living hyperthermophilic bacterium, by using suppressive subtractive hybridization. The genome sequence of T. maritima MSB8 is available, and DNA from this strain served as a reference to obtain strain-specific sequences from Thermotoga sp. strain RQ2, a very c...

Nesbø, Camilla L.; Nelson, Karen E.; Doolittle, W. Ford

2002-01-01

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Micropropagation of Plantago maritima L. - a vanishing species in Poland  

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Full Text Available A vanishing species in Poland - Plantago maritima L. was regenerated in vitro from tips of shoots (obtained in vitro and from different explants of 4-week-old seedlings: seedling tips, hypocotyls, cotyledons, roots. Murashige and Skoog basal medium, supplemented with 0.6 pM indole-3-acetic acid in combination with cytokinins 6-benzyladenine, zeatin or kinetin, was used. The plants obtained in the result of micropropagation were normal in appearence. It was proved that Plantago maritima species was amenable to propagation from different kinds of explants. The method may be of significance for protection of sea plantain.

Emilia Andrzejewska-Golec

2009-03-01

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ROOT-EXUDED OXYGEN IN THE AQUATIC ANGIOSPERM 'RUPPIA MARITIMA'  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential impact of oxygen from roots on the source of inorganic nitrogen for Ruppia maritima L. (Potamogetonales) was investigated in laboratory experiments. Roots released oxygen at an average rate of 2 to 3 micrograms O2 (mg dry wt)/hr. A distinctive oxygenated zone with a...

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Pterocarpin and isoflavan derivatives from Canavalia maritima (Aubl. Thou.  

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Full Text Available P terocarpin and isoflavan derivatives were isolated from ethanol extract of Canavalia maritima (Aubl. Thou on column chromatography. By analyzing spectral data, the structures were elucidated as 2-hydroxy-3, 9-dimethoxypterocarpin (1, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-8,9-methylenedioxypterocarpan (2, medicarpin (3, 7-hydroxy-2',4'-dimethoxy isoflavan (4, 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyisofalvone (5 5,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (6, 3,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxylflavone (7 and quercetin (8. This paper firstly reports the compounds of pterocarpan and isoflavan from C . maritima, which would help understand the pharmaceutical mechanisms of these bioactive substances for wide medical applications. T he 1 3C-NMR spectr al data of Compound 1 was reported for the first time.

Xinping Huang

2012-01-01

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Transcriptional regulation of the carbohydrate utilization network in Thermotoga maritima  

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Full Text Available Hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Thermotogales lineage can produce hydrogen by fermenting a wide range of carbohydrates. Previous experimental studies identified a large fraction of genes committed to carbohydrate degradation and utilization in the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Knowledge of these genes enabled comprehensive reconstruction of biochemical pathways comprising the carbohydrate utilization network. However, transcriptional factors (TFs and regulatory mechanisms driving this network remained largely unknown. Here, we used an integrated approach based on comparative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data for the reconstruction of the carbohydrate utilization regulatory networks in 11 Thermotogales genomes. We identified DNA-binding motifs and regulons for 19 orthologous TFs in the Thermotogales. The inferred regulatory network in T. maritima contains 181 genes encoding TFs, sugar catabolic enzymes and ABC-family transporters. In contrast to many previously described bacteria, a transcriptional regulation strategy of Thermotoga does not employ global regulatory factors. The reconstructed regulatory network in T. maritima was validated by gene expression profiling on a panel of mono- and disaccharides and by in vitro DNA-binding assays. The observed upregulation of genes involved in catabolism of pectin, trehalose, cellobiose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, glucose, galactose, and ribose showed a strong correlation with the UxaR, TreR, BglR, CelR, AraR, RhaR, XylR, GluR, GalR, and RbsR regulons. Ultimately, this study elucidated the transcriptional regulatory network and mechanisms controlling expression of carbohydrate utilization genes in T. maritima. In addition to improving the functional annotations of associated transporters and catabolic enzymes, this research provides novel insights into the evolution of regulatory networks in Thermotogales.

DmitryARodionov

2013-08-01

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Germinação de sementes de Matelea maritima (Jack.) Woods (Asclepiadaceae)  

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Sementes de M. maritima germinam na temperatura ótima de 25°C com valores máximos na luz, sendo o processo otimizado em temperatura alternada de 25/30°C. Escarificação mecânica promove a germinação. Em sementes nuas, a germinação é promovida e acelerada tanto na luz quanto no escuro. Temperatura de armazenamento e tempo de estocagem alteram a fotossensibilidade das sementes: sementes estocadas à temperatura ambiente por 90 dias perdem o fotoblastismo positivo enquanto que nas est...

1999-01-01

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Synergistic TRAIL sensitizers from Barleria alluaudii and Diospyros maritima#  

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Barleria alluaudii and Diospyros maritima were both investigated as part of an ongoing search for synergistic TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-?-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) sensitizers. As a result of this study, two naphthoquinone epoxides, 2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrolapachol (1) and 2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydro-8-hydroxylapachol (2), both not previously isolated from natural sources, and the known 2-methyl anthraquinone (3) were identified from B. alluaudii. Time-dependent density functional theory ...

Whitson, Emily L.; Sun, Han; Thomas, Cheryl L.; Henrich, Curtis J.; Sayers, Thomas J.; Mcmahon, James B.; Griesinger, Christian; Mckee, Tawnya C.

2012-01-01

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Influence of micronutrient availability on biomass production in Cineraria maritima  

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Full Text Available Cineraria maritima is an annual exotic medicinal herb. Aerial parts of the plants are commercially utilized for the preparation of homeopathic eye drops. Therefore the whole biomass of the aerial part is in much demand, commercially. The raw materials are of limited availability, and the indigenous requirement is met mostly, by import of the prepared drug formulation at higher cost. Concerted efforts are being made for the cultivation of this exotic medicinal plant. The effect of low to high supplies of micronutrients-Fe, Mn, B, and Zn on shoot biomass production, have been studied in C. maritima grown in sand culture. Higher doses of boron (at 1.0 mg/l and zinc (at 0.1 mg/l are observed to be beneficial for shoot biomass production, as compared to Iron (at 11.2 mg/l and Manganese (at 1 mg/l. Low supplies of iron, manganese, zinc, and boron, however, uniformly decrease biomass production. This study shows that higher supplies of B and Zn are beneficial for higher biomass production in C. maritima .

Srivastava N

2006-01-01

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The Genome Organization of Thermotoga maritima Reflects Its Lifestyle  

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Recent studies have revealed that microbial genomes have many more organizational features than previously thought. Here, an integrated approach utilizing multiple ‘omics’ datasets and bioinformatics tools is established that elucidates genomic features spanning various levels of cellular organization. This methodology produces gene annotation improvements and includes the definition of transcription units. These enhancements to the annotation enable identification of a set of genetic elements instrumental to gene expression and regulation including promoters, ribosome binding sites (RBSs) and untranslated regions (UTRs). This was applied to characterize the genome organization of Thermotoga maritima—a phylogenetically deep-branching, hyperthermophilic bacterium with a small 1.86 Mb genome. Analysis derived from this multiomics approach in combination with bioinformatics tools demonstrate that the genome organization of T. maritima reflects its lifestyle, both with respect to its extreme growth temperature and compact genome. Comparative analysis of genome features suggests that thermodynamic limitations on binding kinetics for RNA polymerase and the ribosome necessitate increased sequence conservation of promoters and RBSs. Thus, restricting the sequences capable of initiating transcription and translation. Furthermore, this organism has uncharacteristically short 5’UTRs (11-17 nucleotides), which reduce the potential for 5’UTR regulatory interactions. The short intergenic distances in the T. maritima genome (5 bp on average) leave little space for regulation through transcription factor binding. The net effect of these constraints, temperature and genomic space, is a reduced ability to tune gene expression. This effect is readily apparent in global gene expression patterns, which show a high fraction of genes expressed independent of growth state with a tight, linear mRNA/protein correlation (Pearson r = 0.62, p < 2.2 x 10-16 t-test). This methodology for characterizing the genome organization is applicable to any culturable bacteria, and as similar studies are completed in diverse taxa, comparative analysis of genome features may provide insights into microbial evolution.

Latif, Haythem; Lerman, Joshua A.; Portnoy, Vasiliy A.; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Nagarajan, Harish; Rutledge, Alexandra C.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lee, Dae-Hee; Qiu, Yu; Zengler, Karsten

2013-04-25

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Chemical Constituents from the Stems of Diospyros maritima  

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Full Text Available A new phenolic, bis(6-hydroxy-2,3,4-trimethoxylphen-1-ylmethane (1 and a new butanedioate, butylmethyl succinate (2, along with twenty-nine known compounds including one naphthoquinone derivative, two chromanones, eight benzenoids, one lignan, one tocopherol, and sixteen triterpenoids were isolated from the stems of Diospyros maritima. epi-Isoshinanolone (3 was isolated in pure form for the first time. In addition, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchomanone (4 was isolated from a natural source for the first time. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data as well as direct comparison with authentic samples.

Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

2009-12-01

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Diterpene and other constituents from Stemodia maritima (Scrophulariaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new diterpene, (5S*,8S*,9R*,10S*)-11?,12?-epoxy-9?-hydroxy-19(4 -> 3)abeo-abieta-3,13-diene-19,18-olide, together with the known compounds stemodin, D-mannitol, betulinic acid, a mixture of 3?-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-sitosterol and 3?-O-?-D-glucopyranosylstigmasterol and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,8,3'-trimethoxyflavone were isolated from the leaves and stems of Stemodia maritima. Structural elucidation of all compounds was based on interpretation of spectral data, mainly NMR (1D and 2D) and MS, including comparison with values described in the literature. (author)

2010-01-01

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Diterpene and other constituents from Stemodia maritima (Scrophulariaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um novo diterpeno, (5S*,8S*,9R*,10S*)-11?,12?-epoxi-9?-hidróxi-19(4?3) abeo-abieta-3,13-dieno-19,18-olideo, e as substâncias conhecidas estemodina, D-manitol, ácido betulínico, uma mistura de 3?-O-?-D-glicopiranosil-?-sitosterol e 3?-O-?-D-glicopiranosil [...] estigmasterol, e 5,7,4'-triidróxi-3,8,3'-trimetoxiflavona, foram isolados das folhas e talos de Stemodia maritima. A elucidação estrutural de todas as substâncias baseou-se na interpretação de dados espectrais, principalmente RMN (1D e 2D) e espectrometria de massa (EM), envolvendo comparação com valores descritos na literatura. Abstract in english A new diterpene, (5S*,8S*,9R*,10S*)-11?,12?-epoxy-9?-hydroxy-19(4?3) abeo-abieta-3,13-diene-19,18-olide, together with the known compounds stemodin, D-mannitol, betulinic acid, a mixture of 3?-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-sitosterol and 3?-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl [...] stigmasterol and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,8,3'-trimethoxyflavone were isolated from the leaves and stems of Stemodia maritima. Structural elucidation of all compounds was based on interpretation of spectral data, mainly NMR (1D and 2D) and MS, including comparison with values described in the literature.

Rodrigues, Francisco E. A.; Lima, Jefferson Q.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceição F. de; Vasconcelos, Jackson N.; Santiago, Gilvandete M. P.; Mafezoli, Jair; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Arriaga, Angela M. C..

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Germinação de sementes de Matelea maritima (Jack.) Woods (Asclepiadaceae) / Seed germination in Matelea maritima (Jack.) Woods (Asclepiadaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Sementes de M. maritima germinam na temperatura ótima de 25°C com valores máximos na luz, sendo o processo otimizado em temperatura alternada de 25/30°C. Escarificação mecânica promove a germinação. Em sementes nuas, a germinação é promovida e acelerada tanto na luz quanto no escuro. Temperatura de [...] armazenamento e tempo de estocagem alteram a fotossensibilidade das sementes: sementes estocadas à temperatura ambiente por 90 dias perdem o fotoblastismo positivo enquanto que nas estocadas sob baixa temperatura (10°C) este efeito permanece. O teste do tetrazólio demonstra que aos 180 dias de estocagem 46% das sementes permaneceram viáveis. Análises topoquímicas indicam que a principal fonte de reserva destas sementes, localizada nos cotilédones, é proteica. Abstract in english Seeds of M. maritima germinate at an optimum temperature of 25°C, with maximum values in light, the process being optimized by alternate temperatures of 25/35°C. Mechanical scarification promotes germination. In uncoated seeds germination is promoted and enhanced both in light and in darkness. Tempe [...] rature and time of storage affect seed photosensitivity: positive photoblastism is lost in seeds maintained at room temperature for 90 days while being maintained in seeds kept at low temperature (10°C). The tetrazolium test showed that at 180 days of storage, 46% of the seeds remain viable. Topochemical analysis indicates that the main storage of these seeds located in the cotyledons is protein.

CUZZUOL, GERALDO ROGÉRIO FAUSTINI; LUCAS, NEIDE M. C..

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ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF SUAEDA MARITIMA (L. DUMORTIER STEM IN TRITON INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIC RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic effect of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier stem extracts in triton induced hyperlipidemia. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier were administered at dose 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg/day orally, respectively. Simultaneous administrations of stem extracts of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier significantly prevent the rise in serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL whereas significant increases in the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL in both secretary and excretory phase. The Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier methanol extract of stem at dose 300mg/kg body weight orally showed significant antihyperlipidemic activity which may be due to the presence of triterpenoids and sterols found in the preliminary phytochemical screening.

Rajinder mann

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
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Germinação de sementes de Matelea maritima (Jack. Woods (Asclepiadaceae  

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Full Text Available Sementes de M. maritima germinam na temperatura ótima de 25°C com valores máximos na luz, sendo o processo otimizado em temperatura alternada de 25/30°C. Escarificação mecânica promove a germinação. Em sementes nuas, a germinação é promovida e acelerada tanto na luz quanto no escuro. Temperatura de armazenamento e tempo de estocagem alteram a fotossensibilidade das sementes: sementes estocadas à temperatura ambiente por 90 dias perdem o fotoblastismo positivo enquanto que nas estocadas sob baixa temperatura (10°C este efeito permanece. O teste do tetrazólio demonstra que aos 180 dias de estocagem 46% das sementes permaneceram viáveis. Análises topoquímicas indicam que a principal fonte de reserva destas sementes, localizada nos cotilédones, é proteica.

CUZZUOL GERALDO ROGÉRIO FAUSTINI

1999-01-01

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The structure of the fructan sinistrin from Urginea maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure of sinistrin from red squill (Urginea maritima) was determined by methylation analysis and 13C NMR spectroscopy, using the fructans from Pucinella peisonis and quack-grass (Agropyron repens) as reference substances. Application of the reductive cleavage method showed that, of the beta-D-fructofuranosyl residues in sinistrin, 33% were 1-linked, 19% were 6-linked, 25% were terminal, and 19% were 1,6-linked. The average dp was 31 and, of the 3.24% of alpha-D-glucopyranosyl residues, 0.54% were terminal and 2.70% were 6-substituted. The fructan of quack grass was also highly branched with a (2-->6)-linked backbone, terminal alpha-D-glucopyranosyl residues, and a dp of approximately 45. The fructan from Pucinella peisonis was slightly branched, with a dp of approximately 10 and a (2-->6)-linked backbone. PMID:1473105

Spies, T; Praznik, W; Hofinger, A; Altmann, F; Nitsch, E; Wutka, R

1992-11-01

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Aureispira maritima sp. nov., isolated from marine barnacle debris.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel gliding marine bacterium (strain 59SA(T)) was isolated from marine barnacle debris. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate formed a distinct lineage within the genus Aureispira in the family 'Saprospiraceae'. The DNA G+C content of strain 59SA(T) was 38.7 mol%, the major respiratory quinone was MK-7 and the predominant cellular fatty acids were 20 : 4omega6c and 16 : 0. On the basis of the data from DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological and chemotaxonomic analyses and 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain 59SA(T) represents a novel species of the genus Aureispira, for which the name Aureispira maritima sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 59SA(T) (=IAM 15439(T)=TISTR 1726(T)). PMID:17766852

Hosoya, Shoichi; Arunpairojana, Vullapa; Suwannachart, Chatrudee; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit; Yokota, Akira

2007-09-01

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Diterpene and other constituents from Stemodia maritima (Scrophulariaceae)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new diterpene, (5S{sup *},8S{sup *},9R{sup *},10S{sup *})-11{beta},12{beta}-epoxy-9{alpha}-hydroxy-19(4 -> 3)abeo-abieta-3,13-diene-19,18-olide, together with the known compounds stemodin, D-mannitol, betulinic acid, a mixture of 3{beta}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl-{beta}-sitosterol and 3{beta}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosylstigmasterol and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,8,3'-trimethoxyflavone were isolated from the leaves and stems of Stemodia maritima. Structural elucidation of all compounds was based on interpretation of spectral data, mainly NMR (1D and 2D) and MS, including comparison with values described in the literature. (author)

Rodrigues, Francisco E.A.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Vasconcelos, Jackson N.; Mafezoli, Jair; Arriaga, Angela M.C., E-mail: angelamcarriaga@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DQOI/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Curso de Pos-Graducao em Quimica; Lima, Jefferson Q. [Instituto Federal do Ceara, Juazeiro do Norte, CE (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia Ambiental; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DQOI/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (CCT/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias

2010-07-01

25

Perianth development in the basal monocot Triglochin maritima (Juncaginaceae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Basal monocots exhibit considerable variation in inflorescence and floral structure. In some cases, such as Triglochin maritima, it is not clear whether the lateral and terminal structures of the inflorescence are flowers or pseudanthia, or where the limits between flowers and inflorescence lie. To address these questions, morphological studies were carried out, and the results show that in T. maritima both terminal and lateral structures are flowers, not pseudanthia. The terminal flower of T...

Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Kim, Sangtae; Ma, Hong; Hauser, Bernard A.; Leebens-mack, Jim; Johansen, Bo

2006-01-01

26

Contribution of Spartina maritima to the reduction of eutrophication in estuarine systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salt marshes are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, performing important ecosystem functions, particularly nutrient recycling. In this study, a comparison is made between Mondego and Tagus estuaries in relation to the role of Spartina maritima in nitrogen retention capacity and cycling. Two mono-specific S. maritima stands per estuary were studied during 1yr (biomass, nitrogen (N) pools, litter production, decomposition rates). Results showed that the oldest Tagus salt marsh population presented higher annual belowground biomass and N productions, and a slower decomposition rate for litter, contributing to the higher N accumulation in the sediment, whereas S. maritima younger marshes had higher aboveground biomass production. Detritus moved by tides represented a huge amount of aboveground production, probably significant when considering the N balance of these salt marshes. Results reinforce the functions of salt marshes as contributing to a reduction of eutrophication in transitional waters, namely through sedimentation processes. PMID:18684544

Sousa, Ana I; Lillebø, Ana I; Caçador, Isabel; Pardal, Miguel A

2008-12-01

27

Función de Batis maritima en la regeneración del manglar en Riohacha Guajira, Caribe Colombiano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó el estudio de la dinámica sucesional de un bosque de manglar en Riohacha, Guajira (Colombia. Se usó un análisis de fotografías aéreas para determinar avances y retroceso de las formaciones vegetales y el estudio de datos sobre el crecimiento de plantas Batis maritima y Laguncularia racemosa, así como los factores del suelo que afectan cada fase. Se propone un modelo en el cual B. maritima ejerce efectos positivos en la regeneración de bosques de manglar a través de la modificación del hábitat y la facilitación mediante la determinación de cinco fases sucesionales.

Lowy Cerón Petter David

2004-12-01

28

Transcriptional analysis of dynamic heat-shock response by the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

The thermal stress response of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima was characterized using a 407-open reading frame-targeted cDNA microarray. Transient gene expression was followed for 90 min, following a shift from 80 degrees C to 90 degrees C. While some aspects of mesophilic heat-shock response were conserved in T. maritima, genome content suggested differentiating features that were borne out by transcriptional analysis. Early induction of predicted heat-shock operons hrcA-grpE-dnaJ (TM0851-TM0850-TM0849), groES-groEL (TM0505-TM0506), and dnaK-sHSP (TM0373-TM0374) was consistent with conserved CIRCE elements upstream of hrcA and groES. Induction of the T. maritima rpoE/ sigW and rpoD/ sigA homologs suggests a mechanism for global heat-shock response in the absence of an identifiable ortholog to a major heat-shock sigma factor. In contrast to heat-shock response in Escherichia coli, the majority of genes encoding ATP-dependent proteases were downregulated, including clpP (TM0695), clpQ (TM0521), clpY (TM0522), lonA (TM1633), and lonB (TM1869). Notably, T. maritima showed indications of a late heat-shock response with the induction of a marR homolog (TM0816), several other putative transcriptional regulators (TM1023, TM1069), and two alpha-glucosidases (TM0434 and TM1068). Taken together, the results reported here indicate that, while T. maritima shares core elements of the bacterial heat-shock response with mesophiles, the thermal stress regulatory strategies of this organism differ significantly. However, it remains to be elucidated whether these differences are related to thermophilicity or phylogenetic placement. PMID:14991425

Pysz, Marybeth A; Ward, Donald E; Shockley, Keith R; Montero, Clemente I; Conners, Shannon B; Johnson, Matthew R; Kelly, Robert M

2004-06-01

29

Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of an esterase with a novel domain from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A thermostable esterase (EstA) from Thermotoga maritima was cloned and purified. Crystals of EstA and its selenomethionine derivative were grown and diffract to beyond 2.6?Å resolution at 100?K using synchrotron radiation.

2007-01-01

30

Phosphoglycerate kinase and triosephosphate isomerase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima form a covalent bifunctional enzyme complex.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima has been purified to homogeneity. A second larger enzyme with PGK activity and identical N-terminal sequence was also found. Surprisingly, this enzyme displayed triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) activity. No other TIM is detectable in T. maritima crude extracts. As shown by ultracentrifugal analysis, PGK is a 43 kDa monomer, whereas the bifunctional PGK-TIM fusion protein is a homotetramer of 240-285 kDa. SDS...

Schurig, H.; Beaucamp, N.; Ostendorp, R.; Jaenicke, R.; Adler, E.; Knowles, J. R.

1995-01-01

31

Spartina maritima influence on the dynamics of the phosphorus sedimentary cycle in a warm temperate estuary (Mondego estuary, Portugal)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract During the last decades the Mondego estuary has been under severe ecological stress mainly caused by eutrophication. In this salt march system, Spartina maritima covers about 10.5 ha of the intertidal areas. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Spartina maritima marshes on the dynamics of phosphorus (P) binding in the surface sediment. We compare phosphate and oxygen fluxes, P-adsorption capacity, phosphate concentrations and total amount, and the extract...

Lillebø, Ana; Coelho, J.; Flindt, M.; Jensen, H.; Marques, J.; Pedersen, C.; Pardal, M.

2007-01-01

32

Complete genome sequence of Hippea maritima type strain (MH2T)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hippea maritima (Miroshnichenko et al. 1999) is the type species of the genus Hippea, which belongs to the family Desulfurellaceae within the class Deltaproteobacteria. The anaerobic, moderately thermophilic marine sulfur-reducer was first isolated from shallow-water hot vents in Matipur Harbor, Papua New Guinea. H. maritima was of interest for genome se- quencing because of its isolated phylogenetic location, as a distant next neighbor of the ge- nus Desulfurella. Strain MH2T is the first type strain from the order Desulfurellales with a com- pletely sequenced genome. The 1,694,430 bp long linear genome with its 1,723 protein- coding and 57 RNA genes consists of one circular chromosome and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

2011-01-01

33

HISTOANATOMICAL AND ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON SOME HALOPHYTES FROM ROMANIA - PLANTAGO MARITIMA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an histoanatomical and ecophysiological study of Plantago maritima. Studies were conducted to assess the diversity of anatomical adaptations of vegetative organs (roots, aerial stems, rhizomes and leaves in this taxa. Results are presented with original photographs. The analysis of leaf anatomy in P. maritima showed that the leaves contained xeromorphic traits (high development of palisade and water storage parenchyma. Stomatal density is high for both epidermis and cuticle is very thick. Analyses made in the scope of the present study indicated that total ash content of the dry leaf matter is 11.98%. Rhizome is strong and shows aeriferous tissue. Leaf relative water content (LRWC values indicates that juvenile leaves harvested from eroded and nude soil, exposed to salt stress and heat can accumulate more water.

Nicoleta IANOVICI

2011-01-01

34

Reactivation of methionine synthase from Thermotoga maritima (TM0268) requires the downstream gene product TM0269  

Science.gov (United States)

The crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima gene product TM0269, determined as part of genome-wide structural coverage of T. maritima by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics, revealed structural homology with the fourth module of the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli, despite the lack of significant sequence homology. The gene specifying TM0269 lies in close proximity to another gene, TM0268, which shows sequence homology with the first three modules of E. coli MetH. The fourth module of E. coli MetH is required for reductive remethylation of the cob(II)alamin form of the cofactor and binds the methyl donor for this reactivation, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Measurements of the rates of methionine formation in the presence and absence of TM0269 and AdoMet demonstrate that both TM0269 and AdoMet are required for reactivation of the inactive cob(II)alamin form of TM0268. These activity measurements confirm the structure-based assignment of the function of the TM0269 gene product. In the presence of TM0269, AdoMet, and reductants, the measured activity of T. maritima MetH is maximal near 80°C, where the specific activity of the purified protein is ?15% of that of E. coli methionine synthase (MetH) at 37°C. Comparisons of the structures and sequences of TM0269 and the reactivation domain of E. coli MetH suggest that AdoMet may be bound somewhat differently by the homologous proteins. However, the conformation of a hairpin that is critical for cobalamin binding in E. coli MetH, which constitutes an essential structural element, is retained in the T. maritima reactivation protein despite striking divergence of the sequences.

Huang, Sha; Romanchuk, Gail; Pattridge, Katherine; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.; Matthews, Rowena G.; Ludwig, Martha

2007-01-01

35

Reactivation of methionine synthase from Thermotoga maritima (TM0268) requires the downstream gene product TM0269.  

Science.gov (United States)

The crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima gene product TM0269, determined as part of genome-wide structural coverage of T. maritima by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics, revealed structural homology with the fourth module of the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli, despite the lack of significant sequence homology. The gene specifying TM0269 lies in close proximity to another gene, TM0268, which shows sequence homology with the first three modules of E. coli MetH. The fourth module of E. coli MetH is required for reductive remethylation of the cob(II)alamin form of the cofactor and binds the methyl donor for this reactivation, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Measurements of the rates of methionine formation in the presence and absence of TM0269 and AdoMet demonstrate that both TM0269 and AdoMet are required for reactivation of the inactive cob(II)alamin form of TM0268. These activity measurements confirm the structure-based assignment of the function of the TM0269 gene product. In the presence of TM0269, AdoMet, and reductants, the measured activity of T. maritima MetH is maximal near 80 degrees C, where the specific activity of the purified protein is approximately 15% of that of E. coli methionine synthase (MetH) at 37 degrees C. Comparisons of the structures and sequences of TM0269 and the reactivation domain of E. coli MetH suggest that AdoMet may be bound somewhat differently by the homologous proteins. However, the conformation of a hairpin that is critical for cobalamin binding in E. coli MetH, which constitutes an essential structural element, is retained in the T. maritima reactivation protein despite striking divergence of the sequences. PMID:17656578

Huang, Sha; Romanchuk, Gail; Pattridge, Katherine; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A; Matthews, Rowena G; Ludwig, Martha

2007-08-01

36

The carbohydrate-binding specificity and molecular modelling of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora lectins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The carbohydrate-binding specificity of lectins from the seeds of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora was studied by hapten-inhibition of haemagglutination using various sugars and sugar derivatives as inhibitors, including N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid. Despite some discrepancies, both lectins exhibited a very similar carbohydrate-binding specificity as previously reported for other lectins from Diocleinae (tribe Phaseoleae, sub-tribe Diocleinae). Accordingly, both ...

Márcio Viana Ramos; Renato de Azevedo Moreira; José Tadeu Abreu Oliveira; Benildo Sousa Cavada; Pierre Rougé

1996-01-01

37

Analysis of the Thermotoga maritima genome combining a variety of sequence similarity and genome context tools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The proliferation of genome sequence data has led to the development of a number of tools and strategies that facilitate computational analysis. These methods include the identification of motif patterns, membership of the query sequences in family databases, metabolic pathway involvement and gene proximity. We re-examined the completely sequenced genome of Thermotoga maritima by employing the combined use of the above methods. By analyzing all 1877 proteins encoded in this genome, we identif...

Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Ouzounis, Christos A.; Iliopoulos, Ioannis; Vonstein, Veronika; Overbeek, Ross

2000-01-01

38

Crystal structure of a phosphatase with a unique substrate binding domain from Thermotoga maritima  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have determined the crystal structure of a phosphatase with a unique substrate binding domain from Thermotoga maritima, TM0651 (gi 4981173), at 2.2 Å resolution by selenomethionine single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) techniques. TM0651 is a member of the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily, with sequence homology to trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and sucrose-6F-phosphate phosphohydrolase. Selenomethionine labeled TM0651 crystallized in space group C2 with three monomers p...

2003-01-01

39

Perianth development in the basal monocot Triglochin maritima (Juncaginaceae)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Basal monocots exhibit considerable variation in inflorescence and floral structure. In some cases, such as Triglochin maritima, it is not clear whether the lateral and terminal structures of the inflorescence are flowers or pseudanthia, or where the limits between flowers and inflorescence lie. To address these questions, morphological studies were carried out, and the results show that in T. maritima both terminal and lateral structures are flowers, not pseudanthia. The terminal flower of T. maritima develops from the apical inflorescence meristem, suggesting that the apical meristem identity changes from â??â??inflorescence'' to â??â??flower'' during inflorescence development. In addition, distal flowers of T. maritima are reduced, and there is no distinct flower-subtending bract; instead, the perianth develops are reduced, and there is no distinct flower-subtending bract; instead, the perianth develops unidirectionally, resulting in an abaxial-median bract-like tepal and bilaterally symmetrical flowers, similar to those of other basal monocots, such as Aponogeton and Acorus. It is possible that the leaf primordium changes its positional homology from â??â??flower-subtending bract'' to â??â??tepal.'' Therefore, in some basal angiosperms with abbreviated development of lateral flowers the demarcation of the flower vs. the inflorescence is ontogenetically ambiguous. In situ hybridization experiments show that a putative ortholog of the B-class gene APETALA3/DEFICIENS is expressed in developing stamens and carpels, and may also be expressed in the shoot axis of the very young inflorescence. This expression pattern seems to be consistent with the gradual transition between inflorescence and flower that was observed morphologically.

Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Douglas E.

2006-01-01

40

The aquatic vascular plant Ruppia maritima as an indicator organism for contaminated sediments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ongoing estuarine ecological risk assessment case study for the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in the Great Bay Estuary (New Hampshire, Maine) was the catalyst to continue development a rooted aquatic plant sediment toxicity test. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate effects of lead, the primary site contaminant on R. maritima in the Great Bay. Although the aquatic vascular plant Zostra marina comprises up to 46% of the Great Bay subtidal habitat, R. maritima`s much smaller size makes it a more practical laboratory organism. Effects on Ruppia may offer useful insights into potential effects on Zostra or other aquatic vascular plants. Presently rooted vascular plants are not found in Clark Cove located adjacent to a landfill disposal site on the shipyard. The absence of rooted vegetation can be contributed to, physical parameters of the site (turbidity, grain size, texture) or chemical parameters (heavy metal/Pb contamination, redox potential). Exposure of bedded and nonbedded plants occurred over a four day and ten day period using lead sulfate. Concentrations for bedded exposures were as follows, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0 simultaneously extracted metal/acid volatile sulfide (SEM/AVS) molar ratios, and 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 and 100.0mg/l Pb for water only exposures. Reduction in cumulative leaf growth was observed for the Clark Cove sediments as well as the spiked sediments as compared to reference sediments.

Tagliabue, M.D.; Thursby, G.B.; Walker, H.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Johnston, R.K.

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
41

Contribution of Spartina maritima to the reduction of eutrophication in estuarine systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Salt marshes are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, performing important ecosystem functions, particularly nutrient recycling. In this study, a comparison is made between Mondego and Tagus estuaries in relation to the role of Spartina maritima in nitrogen retention capacity and cycling. Two mono-specific S. maritima stands per estuary were studied during 1 yr (biomass, nitrogen (N) pools, litter production, decomposition rates). Results showed that the oldest Tagus salt marsh population presented higher annual belowground biomass and N productions, and a slower decomposition rate for litter, contributing to the higher N accumulation in the sediment, whereas S. maritima younger marshes had higher aboveground biomass production. Detritus moved by tides represented a huge amount of aboveground production, probably significant when considering the N balance of these salt marshes. Results reinforce the functions of salt marshes as contributing to a reduction of eutrophication in transitional waters, namely through sedimentation processes. - The crucial capacity of salt marshes to retain nitrogen, thus reducing eutrophication, greatly depends on the salt marsh maturity, rather than the estuarine system.

Sousa, Ana I. [IO - Institute of Oceanography, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); IMAR - Institute of Marine Research, Department of Zoology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)], E-mail: aisousa@fc.ul.pt; Lillebo, Ana I. [CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Cacador, Isabel [IO - Institute of Oceanography, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pardal, Miguel A. [IMAR - Institute of Marine Research, Department of Zoology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)

2008-12-15

42

Complexes of Thermotoga maritima S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase provide insights into substrate specificity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous aliphatic cations and are essential for cellular growth and differentiation. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is a critical pyruvoyl-dependent enzyme in the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway. The crystal structures of AdoMetDC from humans and plants and of the AdoMetDC proenzyme from Thermotoga maritima have been obtained previously. Here, the crystal structures of activated T. maritima AdoMetDC (TmAdoMetDC) and of its complexes with S-adenosylmethionine methyl ester and 5{prime}-deoxy-5{prime}-dimethylthioadenosine are reported. The results demonstrate for the first time that TmAdoMetDC autoprocesses without the need for additional factors and that the enzyme contains two complete active sites, both of which use residues from both chains of the homodimer. The complexes provide insights into the substrate specificity and ligand binding of AdoMetDC in prokaryotes. The conservation of the ligand-binding mode and the active-site residues between human and T. maritima AdoMetDC provides insight into the evolution of AdoMetDC.

Bale, Shridhar; Baba, Kavita; McCloskey, Diane E.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E.

2010-06-25

43

Structural Insight inot the low Affinity Between Thermotoga maritima CheA and CheB Compared to their Escherichia coli/Salmonella typhimurium Counterparts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CheA-mediated CheB phosphorylation and the subsequent CheB-mediated demethylation of the chemoreceptors are important steps required for the bacterial chemotactic adaptation response. Although Escherichia coli CheB has been reported to interact with CheA competitively against CheY, we have observed that Thermotoga maritima CheB has no detectable CheA-binding. By determining the CheY-like domain crystal structure of T. maritima CheB, and comparing against the T. maritima CheY and Salmonella typhimurium CheB structures, we propose that the two consecutive glutamates in the {beta}4/{alpha}4 loop of T. maritima CheB that is absent in T. maritima CheY and in E. coli/S. typhimurium CheB may be one factor contributing to the low CheA affinity.

S Park; B Crane

2011-12-31

44

The role of Spartina maritima and Sarcocornia fruticosa on trace metals retention in Ria Formosa, Portugal  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last years, phytoremediation has become an increasingly recognized pathway for contaminant removal from water and shallow soils. Assessing the phytoremediation potential of wetlands is complex due to variable conditions of hydrology, soil/sediment types, plant species diversity, growing season and water chemistry. Physico-chemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating contaminants. Saltmarsh plants can sequestrate and inherently tolerate high metal concentrations found in saltmarsh sediments. An increasing number of studies have been carried out to understand the role of halophyte vegetation on retention, biovailability and remediation of the pollutants in coastal areas (estuaries and lagoons). It is already known that the accumulation capacity and the pattern of metal distribution in the plant tissues vary among plant species, namely monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous, and with sediment characteristics. During the last decades, there has been a large increase in urbanization and industrialization of the area surrounding Ria Formosa. Due to this reality, anthropogenic contaminants, including trace metals, are transported via untreated sewage and agricultural effluents to several parts of the lagoon. The dominant producers are Spartina maritima (Poales: Poaceae) and Sarcocornia fruticosa (Caryophyllales: Chenopodiaceae), appearing in pure stands respectively in the lower and in the upper saltmarshes. The aim of this work was to survey, comparatively, the role of S. maritima and S. fruticosa on minor and trace element (Ag, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn), contents and distribution amongst sediment and plant tissues. Both S. maritima and S. fruticosa could fix metals from the surrounding belowground environment and accumulate metals, mainly in roots (also in rhizomes in the case of the former). Metal translocation to aerial parts of the plants was, in general, residual.

Moreira da Silva, Manuela; Duarte, Duarte; Isidoro, Jorge; Chícharo, Luís

2013-04-01

45

POLYMERIZATION PROPERTIES OF THE T. MARITIMA ACTIN, MreB: ROLES OF TEMPERATURE, NUCLEOTIDES AND IONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

MreB is a bacterial ortholog of actin that affects cell shape, polarity and chromosome segregation. Although a significant body of work has explored its cellular functions, we know very little about the biochemical behavior of MreB. We have cloned, overexpressed in E. coli, and purified untagged MreB1 from Thermotoga maritima. We have characterized the conditions that regulate its monomer-to-polymer assembly reaction, the critical concentrations of that reaction, the manner in which MreB uses...

Bean, Greg J.; Amann, Kurt J.

2008-01-01

46

Anthemis maritima L. in different coastal habitats: A tool to explore plant plasticity  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthemis maritima, a plant which has the ability to colonise different stressful coastal environments, sand dunes and rocky cliff ecosystems, exhibits a high degree of leaf trait plasticity. The key parameters are the regulation of stomatal density and size, the succulence index and the specific antioxidant response. With the aim to explore plant plasticity, we analysed various morphological and physiological traits of the leaves of A. maritima populations dwelling in three different coastal areas of Italy. The highest values of stomatal density, leaf thickness, and succulence index were found in plants living in a sub-arid climate, on rocky cliffs, with the highest soil pH and salinity. Although this population exhibited the highest concentration of oxygen reactive species (hydrogen peroxide), it also had the lowest value of lipid peroxidation, an indicator of oxidative stress. Ascorbate was the main protective molecule in this population, while phenols appeared to carry out this role in plants living on soils with the lowest salinity and highest annual rainfall.

Spanò, Carmelina; Balestri, Mirko; Bottega, Stefania; Grilli, Isa; Forino, Laura Maria Costantina; Ciccarelli, Daniela

2013-09-01

47

Allosteric inhibitor specificity of Thermotoga maritima 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

3-Deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAH7PS) catalyses the first step of the shikimate pathway for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. Allosteric regulation of Thermotoga maritima DAH7PS is mediated by L-Tyr binding to a discrete ACT regulatory domain appended to a core catalytic (?/?)8 barrel. Variants of T. maritima DAH7PS (TmaDAH7PS) were created to probe the role of key residues in inhibitor selection. Substitution Ser31Gly severely reduced inhibition by L-Tyr. In contrast both L-Tyr and L-Phe inhibited the TmaHis29Ala variant, while the variant where Ser31 and His29 were interchanged (His29Ser/Ser31His), was inhibited to a greater extent by L-Phe than L-Tyr. These studies highlight the role and importance of His29 and Ser31 for determining both inhibitory ligand selectivity and the potency of allosteric response by TmaDAH7PS. PMID:23916814

Cross, Penelope J; Parker, Emily J

2013-09-17

48

Exploring the genome of the salt-marsh Spartina maritima (Poaceae, Chloridoideae) through BAC end sequence analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spartina species play an important ecological role on salt marshes. Spartina maritima is an Old-World species distributed along the European and North-African Atlantic coasts. This hexaploid species (2n = 6x = 60, 2C = 3,700 Mb) hybridized with different Spartina species introduced from the American coasts, which resulted in the formation of new invasive hybrids and allopolyploids. Thus, S. maritima raises evolutionary and ecological interests. However, genomic information is dramatically lacking in this genus. In an effort to develop genomic resources, we analysed 40,641 high-quality bacterial artificial chromosome-end sequences (BESs), representing 26.7 Mb of the S. maritima genome. BESs were searched for sequence homology against known databases. A fraction of 16.91% of the BESs represents known repeats including a majority of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons (13.67%). Non-LTR retrotransposons represent 0.75%, DNA transposons 0.99%, whereas small RNA, simple repeats and low-complexity sequences account for 1.38% of the analysed BESs. In addition, 4,285 simple sequence repeats were detected. Using the coding sequence database of Sorghum bicolor, 6,809 BESs found homology accounting for 17.1% of all BESs. Comparative genomics with related genera reveals that the microsynteny is better conserved with S. bicolor compared to other sequenced Poaceae, where 37.6% of the paired matching BESs are correctly orientated on the chromosomes. We did not observe large macrosyntenic rearrangements using the mapping strategy employed. However, some regions appeared to have experienced rearrangements when comparing Spartina to Sorghum and to Oryza. This work represents the first overview of S. maritima genome regarding the respective coding and repetitive components. The syntenic relationships with other grass genomes examined here help clarifying evolution in Poaceae, S. maritima being a part of the poorly-known Chloridoideae sub-family. PMID:23877482

Ferreira de Carvalho, J; Chelaifa, H; Boutte, J; Poulain, J; Couloux, A; Wincker, P; Bellec, A; Fourment, J; Bergès, H; Salmon, A; Ainouche, M

2013-12-01

49

Analysis of the Thermotoga maritima genome combining a variety of sequence similarity and genome context tools.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proliferation of genome sequence data has led to the development of a number of tools and strategies that facilitate computational analysis. These methods include the identification of motif patterns, membership of the query sequences in family databases, metabolic pathway involvement and gene proximity. We re-examined the completely sequenced genome of Thermotoga maritima by employing the combined use of the above methods. By analyzing all 1877 proteins encoded in this genome, we identified 193 cases of conflicting annotations (10%), of which 164 are new function predictions and 29 are amendments of previously proposed assignments. These results suggest that the combined use of existing computational tools can resolve inconclusive sequence similarities and significantly improve the prediction of protein function from genome sequence. PMID:11071948

Kyrpides, N C; Ouzounis, C A; Iliopoulos, I; Vonstein, V; Overbeek, R

2000-11-15

50

Regulation of Endo-Acting Glycosyl Hydrolases in the Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga maritima Grown on Glucan- and Mannan-Based Polysaccharides  

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The genome sequence of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima encodes a number of glycosyl hydrolases. Many of these enzymes have been shown in vitro to degrade specific glycosides that presumably serve as carbon and energy sources for the organism. However, because of the broad substrate specificity of many glycosyl hydrolases, it is difficult to determine the physiological substrate preferences for specific enzymes from biochemical information. In this study, T. maritima was gr...

Chhabra, Swapnil R.; Shockley, Keith R.; Ward, Donald E.; Kelly, Robert M.

2002-01-01

51

Provisioning Mass by Females of the Maritime Earwig, Anisolabis maritima, is not Adjusted Based on the Number of Young  

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The amount of parental provisioning is thought to reflect the need of offspring. This hypothesis was tested in the case of provisioning food mass to young with controlled clutch size using the maritime earwig, Anisolabis maritima Bonelli (Dermaptera: Anisolabididae). The female provisioned a constant mass of food to the young irrespective of the number of nymphs and the distance of food carrying. In addition, the survival rate of young did not change with adjusted clutch size. This study show...

2011-01-01

52

Progressive Provisioning by the Females of the Earwig, Anisolabis maritima, Increases the Survival Rate of the Young  

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Provisioning the young is an important form of insect parental care and is believed to improve the survival and growth of the young. Anisolabis maritima Bonelli (Dermaptera: Anisolabididae) is a cosmopolitan species of earwig that shows sub-social behavior in which the females tend clutches of eggs in soil burrows. The defensive and provisioning behaviors of these females were examined in this study. When disturbed, maternal individuals abandoned the nest less than non-maternal individuals. F...

2010-01-01

53

Genome-Wide Transcriptional Variation within and between Steady States for Continuous Growth of the Hyperthermophile Thermotoga Maritima  

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Maltose-limited, continuous growth of the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima at different temperatures and dilution rates (80°C/0.25 h?1, 80°C/0.17 h?1, and 85°C/0.25 h?1) showed that transcriptome-wide variation in gene expression within mechanical steady states was minimal compared to that between steady states, supporting the efficacy of chemostat-based approaches for functional genomics studies.

Shockley, Keith R.; Scott, Kevin L.; Pysz, Marybeth A.; Conners, Shannon B.; Johnson, Matthew R.; Montero, Clemente I.; Wolfinger, Russell D.; Kelly, Robert M.

2005-01-01

54

Characterization of two genes encoding metal tolerance proteins from Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima that confers manganese tolerance in yeast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Manganese (Mn(2+)) is an essential micronutrient in plants. However increased Mn(2+) levels are toxic to plant cells. Metal tolerance proteins (MTPs), member of cation diffusion facilitator protein (CDF) family, have important roles in metal homeostatis in different plant species and catalyse efflux of excess metal ions. In this study, we identified and characterized two MTP genes from Beta vulgaris spp. maritima (B. v. ssp. maritima). Overexpression of these two genes provided Mn tolerance in yeast cells. Sequence analyses displayed BmMTP10 and BmMTP11 as members of the Mn-CDF family. Functional analyses of these proteins indicated that they are specific to Mn(2+) with a role in reducing excess cellular Mn(2+) levels when expressed in yeast. GFP-fusion constructs of both proteins localized to the Golgi apparatus as a punctuated pattern. Finally, Q-RT-PCR results showed that BmMTP10 expression was induced threefold in response to the excess Mn(2+) treatment. On the other hand BmMTP11 expression was not affected in response to excess Mn(2+) levels. Thus, our results suggest that the BmMTP10 and BmMTP11 proteins from B. v. ssp. maritima have non-redundant functions in terms of Mn(2+) detoxification with a similar in planta localization and function as the Arabidopsis Mn-CDF homolog AtMTP11 and this conservation shows the evolutionary importance of these vesicular proteins in heavy metal homeostatis among plant species. PMID:23864431

Erbasol, Isil; Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan; Koc, Ahmet; Pedas, Pai; Karakaya, Huseyin Caglar

2013-10-01

55

The influence of Spartina maritima on carbon retention capacity in salt marshes from warm-temperate estuaries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salt marshes constitute highly productive systems playing an important role on ecosystem functions. The aim of this study is to compare the role of Spartina maritima salt marshes on carbon cycling. Thus, four salt marshes located in two mesotidal estuarine systems (Tagus and Mondego, two salt marshes per estuary) were studied. The S. maritima above- and belowground biomass, carbon production, decomposition rates (through a litterbag experiment) and carbon content in the sediment were estimated for a one year period in both systems and compared. In Corroios (located at the Tagus estuary) S. maritima salt marsh had the highest belowground production (1008 gC m(-2) y(-1)), slower decomposition rate (k=0.0024 d(-1)), and the highest carbon content in sediments (750 gC m(-2) y(-1)); and thus, the highest carbon retention capacity. The other three salt marshes had comparatively higher aboveground productions, higher decomposition rates and lower carbon retention capacity. Therefore, Corroios had the most important carbon cycling characteristics. As a whole, results show that differences in carbon cycling in salt marshes depend mostly on its own characteristics and maturity, rather than the system itself. The intrinsic characteristics of the salt marshes, namely the physicochemical conditions determined by the maturity of the system, are more important factors affecting the role of warm-temperate mesotidal salt marshes as carbon sinks. PMID:20304438

Sousa, Ana I; Lillebø, Ana I; Pardal, Miguel A; Caçador, Isabel

2010-01-01

56

The carbohydrate-binding specificity and molecular modelling of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora lectins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The carbohydrate-binding specificity of lectins from the seeds of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora was studied by hapten-inhibition of haemagglutination using various sugars and sugar derivatives as inhibitors, including N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid. Despite some discrepancies, both lectins exhibited a very similar carbohydrate-binding specificity as previously reported for other lectins from Diocleinae (tribe Phaseoleae, sub-tribe Diocleinae. Accordingly, both lectins exhibited almost identical hydropathic profiles and their three-dimensional models built up from the atomic coordinates of ConA looked very similar. However, docking experiments of glucose and mannose in their monosaccharide-binding sites, by comparison with the ConA-mannose complex used as a model, revealed conformational changes in side chains of the amino acid residues involved in the binding of monosaccharides. These results fully agree with crystallographic data showing that binding of specific ligands to ConA requires conformational chances of its monosaccharide-binding site.

Márcio Viana Ramos

1996-12-01

57

Elementary analysis of Alternanthera Maritima and Blutaparon Portulacoides (Gomphreneae, Amaranthacear) by X-ray fluorescence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phytochemical study and the evaluation of biological activities of plants species have been intensified in the last years. The modernization of analytical equipment allowed significant progress in the natural products chemistry. Most of the plants researches emphasize the isolation of secondary metabolites and the metal analysis is neglected. In this study, aqueous and ethanolic extracts and the intact plant of Alternanthera maritima (aerial parts and roots) and Blutaparon portulacoides (aerial parts and roots), species commonly found on the beaches of eastern coast of Brazil (Restinga de Marica, RJ), were selected for analysis by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). With the standard sample aid, the correlation between the elementary sensitivity and the atomic numbers of the elements was determined. The elements P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, As, Zn, Br, Sr, Sn and Sb, supported in membranes, were detected in the two analyzed plants, but only the elements in the interval 26 (Fe) ? Z ? 30 (Zn) were quantified with elementary concentration between 8,7 and 895,0 ?g.g-1. (author)

2002-08-11

58

The carbohydrate-binding specificity and molecular modelling of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora lectins  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The carbohydrate-binding specificity of lectins from the seeds of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora was studied by hapten-inhibition of haemagglutination using various sugars and sugar derivatives as inhibitors, including N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid. Despite some discre [...] pancies, both lectins exhibited a very similar carbohydrate-binding specificity as previously reported for other lectins from Diocleinae (tribe Phaseoleae, sub-tribe Diocleinae). Accordingly, both lectins exhibited almost identical hydropathic profiles and their three-dimensional models built up from the atomic coordinates of ConA looked very similar. However, docking experiments of glucose and mannose in their monosaccharide-binding sites, by comparison with the ConA-mannose complex used as a model, revealed conformational changes in side chains of the amino acid residues involved in the binding of monosaccharides. These results fully agree with crystallographic data showing that binding of specific ligands to ConA requires conformational chances of its monosaccharide-binding site.

Márcio Viana, Ramos; Renato de Azevedo, Moreira; José Tadeu Abreu, Oliveira; Benildo Sousa, Cavada; Pierre, Rougé.

59

Amorphus suaedae sp. nov., isolated from the root of a tidal flat plant, Suaeda maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel bacterial strain, YC6899(T), was isolated from the root of Suaedae maritima growing on a tidal flat of Namhae Island, Korea. Cells were Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, slightly halophilic and heterotrophic. Strain YC6899(T) grew optimally at a salinity of 2-4?%, at 25-37 °C and at pH 6.5-8.0. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that strain YC6899(T) was closely related to Amorphus orientalis YIM D10(T) (96.1?% similarity) and Amorphus coralli RS.Sph.026(T) (95.9?%). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids, an unknown aminophospholipid, an unknown aminoglycolipid, unknown glycolipids and unknown lipids. The major fatty acids of strain YC6899(T) were C19?:?0 cyclo ?8c and C18?:?1?7c. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.3 mol%. Strain YC6899(T) contained ubiquinone-10 (Q-10) as the major respiratory quinone system. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain YC6899(T) represents a novel species within the genus Amorphus, for which the name Amorphus suaedae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6899(T) (?=?KACC 14912(T)?=?NBRC 107845(T)). PMID:23687061

Hwang, Jung Moon; Chung, Eu Jin; Park, Jeong Ae; Jeong, Jae Heon; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

2013-10-01

60

Characterization of Di-myo-Inositol-1,1(prm1)-Phosphate in the Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga maritima  

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Di-myo-inositol-1,1(prm1)-phosphate (DIP) is present at a significant concentration ((symbl)160 nmol/mg of protein) in the cytoplasm of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. The concentration of DIP was independent of the pH of the growth medium or the cell growth phase but increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl in the growth medium, reaching a maximum ((symbl)450 nmol/mg of protein) at 0.4 to 0.6 M NaCl. A large-scale purification procedure for DIP which yields appro...

Ramakrishnan, V.; Verhagen, M.; Adams, M.

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Formylglycinamide Ribonucleotide Amidotransferase from Thermotoga maritima: Structural Insights into Complex Formation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the fourth step of the purine biosynthetic pathway, formyl glycinamide ribonucleotide (FGAR) amidotransferase, also known as PurL, catalyzes the conversion of FGAR, ATP, and glutamine to formyl glycinamidine ribonucleotide (FGAM), ADP, P{sub i}, and glutamate. Two forms of PurL have been characterized, large and small. Large PurL, present in most Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes, consists of a single polypeptide chain and contains three major domains: the N-terminal domain, the FGAM synthetase domain, and the glutaminase domain, with a putative ammonia channel located between the active sites of the latter two. Small PurL, present in Gram-positive bacteria and archaea, is structurally homologous to the FGAM synthetase domain of large PurL, and forms a complex with two additional gene products, PurQ and PurS. The structure of the PurS dimer is homologous with the N-terminal domain of large PurL, while PurQ, whose structure has not been reported, contains the glutaminase activity. In Bacillus subtilis, the formation of the PurLQS complex is dependent on glutamine and ADP and has been demonstrated by size-exclusion chromatography. In this work, a structure of the PurLQS complex from Thermotoga maritima is described revealing a 2:1:1 stoichiometry of PurS:Q:L, respectively. The conformational changes observed in TmPurL upon complex formation elucidate the mechanism of metabolite-mediated recruitment of PurQ and PurS. The flexibility of the PurS dimer is proposed to play a role in the activation of the complex and the formation of the ammonia channel. A potential path for the ammonia channel is identified.

Morar, Mariya; Hoskins, Aaron A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Ealick, Steven E. (MIT); (Cornell)

2008-10-02

62

Phenological development stages variation versus mercury tolerance, accumulation, and allocation in salt marsh macrophytes Triglochin maritima and Scirpus maritimus prevalent in Ria de Aveiro coastal lagoon (Portugal).  

Science.gov (United States)

Efficient and sustainable management of rapidly mounting environmental issues has been the focus of current intensive research. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of plant phenological development stage variation on mercury (Hg) tolerance, accumulation, and allocation in two salt marsh macrophytes Triglochin maritima and Scirpus maritimus prevalent in historically Hg-contaminated Ria de Aveiro coastal lagoon (Portugal). Both plant samples and the sediments vegetated by monospecific stands of T. maritima and S. maritimus were collected from reference (R) and sites with moderate (M) and high (H) Hg contamination in Laranjo bay within Ria de Aveiro lagoon. Hg tolerance, uptake, and allocation in T. maritima and S. maritimus, physico-chemical traits (pH, redox potential, and organic matter content) and Hg concentrations in sediments vegetated by these species were impacted differentially by phenological development stages variation irrespective of the Hg contamination level. In T. maritima, Hg concentration increased with increase in Hg contamination gradient where root displayed significantly higher Hg followed by rhizome and leaf maximally at H. However, in S. maritimus, the highest Hg concentration was perceptible in rhizome followed by root maximally at M. Between the two studied plant species, S. maritimus displayed higher Hg tolerance index (depicted by higher plant dry mass allocated to reproductive stage) and higher available Hg at M (during all growth stages) and H (during senescent stage) when compared to T. maritimus. Both plant species proved to be Hg excluder (low root/rhizome-leaf Hg translocation). Additionally, T. maritima also acted as Hg stabilizer while, S. maritimus as Hg accumulator. It can be inferred from the study that (a) the plant phenological development stage variations significantly influenced plant Hg sensitivity by impacting sediment chemistry, plant growth (in terms of plant dry mass), Hg accumulation, and its subsequent allocation capacity, contingent to Hg contamination gradient; (b) S. maritimus accumulated higher Hg but restricted its translocation to above-ground part using exclusion process at both M and H due to its accelerated growth during Hg-tolerant reproductive/metabolically active phenological development stage greater than its counterpart T. maritima; and (c) the studied salt marsh plants although hailed from the same C3 and monocot group did not necessarily display similar phenotypic plasticity and behavior towards Hg-contaminated scenario during their life cycle. PMID:23184133

Anjum, Naser A; Ahmad, Iqbal; Válega, Mónica; Figueira, Etelvina; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda

2013-06-01

63

Periplasmic Binding Proteins in Thermophiles: Characterization and Potential Application of an Arginine-Binding Protein from Thermotoga maritima: A Brief Thermo-Story  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arginine-binding protein from the extremophile Thermotoga maritima is a 27.7 kDa protein possessing the typical two-domain structure of the periplasmic binding proteins family. The protein is characterized by a very high specificity and affinity to bind to arginine, also at high temperatures. Due to its features, this protein could be taken into account as a potential candidate for the design of a biosensor for arginine. It is important to investigate the stability of proteins when they are used for biotechnological applications. In this article, we review the structural and functional features of an arginine-binding protein from the extremophile Thermotoga maritima with a particular eye on its potential biotechnological applications.

Sabato D'Auria

2013-02-01

64

Prevention of selenite-induced cataractogenesis by an ethanolic extract of Cineraria maritima: an experimental evaluation of the traditional eye medication.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the antioxidant potential of an ethanolic extract of Cineraria maritima and its efficacy in preventing selenite-induced cataractogenesis were assessed in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro phase of the study, lenses dissected out from the eyes of Wistar rats were incubated for 24 h at 37 °C in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) alone (group I), in DMEM containing 100 ?M of selenite only (group II), or in DMEM containing 100 ?M of selenite and 300 ?g/ml C. maritima extract added at the same time (group III). Gross morphological examination of the lenses revealed dense opacification in group II, minimal opacification in group III, and no opacification in group I lenses. The mean activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were significantly lower in group II than in group I or group III lenses, while malondialdehyde concentration was significantly higher in group II lenses than in group I and group III lenses. In the in vivo phase of the study, dense opacification of lenses was noted in all rat pups (100%) that had received a single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite alone (19 ?M/kg body weight) on postpartum day 10, whereas cataract formation occurred in only 33.3% of rat pups that had received selenite as well as an intraperitoneal injection of the extract of C. maritima (350 mg/kg body weight) for five consecutive days. These observations suggest that the ethanolic extract of C. maritima may prevent experimental selenite-induced cataractogenesis. PMID:20949376

Anitha, Thirugnanasambandhar Sivasubramanian; Annadurai, Thangaraj; Thomas, Philip A; Geraldine, Pitchairaj

2011-10-01

65

Protein Electrophoresis and DNA in Herbs Produced from Irradiated Ambrosia maritima Seeds Grown under Soil Salinity and Their Resistance to Insect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Damsisa (Ambrosia maritima L.) is one of the wild plants present in Egypt and different African countries of the Nile Valley. It considered as potential source of molluscicides for treatment of infected sites. In this study, DNA amplifications technique and protein electrophoresis were used for the evaluation of response of Damsisa herbs to gamma rays (?-rays), soil salinity and their interaction on alleviation of salt stress. This study also examined the effect of herb as bio-r...

Hussein, O. S.

2012-01-01

66

Spatial genetic structure in Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima and Beta macrocarpa reveals the effect of contrasting mating system, influence of marine currents, and footprints of postglacial recolonization routes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the factors that contribute to population genetic divergence across a species' range is a long-standing goal in evolutionary biology and ecological genetics. We examined the relative importance of historical and ecological features in shaping the present-day spatial patterns of genetic structure in two related plant species, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima and Beta macrocarpa. Using nuclear and mitochondrial markers, we surveyed 93 populations from Brittany (France) to Morocco - the southern limit of their species' range distribution. Whereas B. macrocarpa showed a genotypic structure and a high level of genetic differentiation indicative of selfing, the population genetic structure of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima was consistent with an outcrossing mating system. We further showed (1) a strong geographic clustering in coastal B. vulgaris subsp. maritima populations that highlighted the influence of marine currents in shaping different lineages and (2) a peculiar genetic structure of inland B. vulgaris subsp. maritima populations that could indicate the admixture of distinct evolutionary lineages and recent expansions associated with anthropogenic disturbances. Spatial patterns of nuclear diversity and differentiation also supported a stepwise recolonization of Europe from Atlantic-Mediterranean refugia after the last glacial period, with leading-edge expansions. However, cytoplasmic diversity was not impacted by postglacial recolonization: stochastic long-distance seed dispersal mediated by major oceanic currents may mitigate the common patterns of reduced cytoplasmic diversity observed for edge populations. Overall, the patterns we documented here challenge the general view of reduced genetic diversity at the edge of a species' range distribution and provide clues for understanding how life-history and major geographic features interact to shape the distribution of genetic diversity. PMID:24963380

Leys, Marie; Petit, Eric J; El-Bahloul, Yasmina; Liso, Camille; Fournet, Sylvain; Arnaud, Jean-François

2014-05-01

67

Subcellular concentrations of sugar alcohols and sugars in relation to phloem translocation in Plantago major, Plantago maritima, Prunus persica, and Apium graveolens  

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Sugar and sugar alcohol concentrations were analyzed in subcellular compartments of mesophyll cells, in the apoplast, and in the phloem sap of leaves of Plantago major (common plantain), Plantago maritima (sea plantain), Prunus persica (peach) and Apium graveolens (celery). In addition to sucrose, common plantain, sea plantain, and peach also translocated substantial amounts of sorbitol, whereas celery translocated mannitol as well. Sucrose was always present in vacuole and cytosol of mesophy...

2008-01-01

68

Seasonal variation of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd concentrations in the root-sediment system of Spartina maritima and Halimione portulacoides from Tagus estuary salt marshes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd have been determined in leaves, stems and roots of Spartina maritima and Halimione portulacoides from the Tagus estuary salt mash (Corroios) and in the sediments between their roots. Biological materials and sediments were sampled every 2 months, between July 1991 and July 1992. Root biomass increased from July to September and from January to March. The greatest metal concentrations occurred in the roots, with lowest levels in January and increasing levels during the growth periods. Zn, Pb and Cu in sediments exhibited a corresponding change in concentrations, reaching maximum in January and subsequently decreasing in spring. The ratios between metal concentrations in the root and in sediments were higher for H. portulacoides when compared to S. maritima, whose roots are surrounded by a more acidic and reduced sediment environment. It was concluded, therefore, that H. portulacoides is a more effective accumulator of metals than S. maritima, and both root-sediment systems exhibited a seasonal variation of metal concentrations. PMID:11285730

Caçador, I; Vale, C; Catarino, F

2000-04-01

69

Elementary analysis of Alternanthera Maritima and Blutaparon Portulacoides (Gomphreneae, Amaranthacear) by X-ray fluorescence; Analise elementar de Alternanthera Maritima e Blutaparon Portulacoides (Gomphreneae, Amaranthacear) por fluorescencia de raios-X  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phytochemical study and the evaluation of biological activities of plants species have been intensified in the last years. The modernization of analytical equipment allowed significant progress in the natural products chemistry. Most of the plants researches emphasize the isolation of secondary metabolites and the metal analysis is neglected. In this study, aqueous and ethanolic extracts and the intact plant of Alternanthera maritima (aerial parts and roots) and Blutaparon portulacoides (aerial parts and roots), species commonly found on the beaches of eastern coast of Brazil (Restinga de Marica, RJ), were selected for analysis by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). With the standard sample aid, the correlation between the elementary sensitivity and the atomic numbers of the elements was determined. The elements P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, As, Zn, Br, Sr, Sn and Sb, supported in membranes, were detected in the two analyzed plants, but only the elements in the interval 26 (Fe) {<=} Z {<=} 30 (Zn) were quantified with elementary concentration between 8,7 and 895,0 {mu}g.g{sup -1}. (author)

Salvador, M.J.; Dias, D.A.; Zucchi, O.L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Fisica e Quimica]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp,br; mjsalva@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, V.F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

2002-07-01

70

Structural analysis of alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase from Thermotoga maritima reveals characteristics for thermostability and substrate specificity.  

Science.gov (United States)

An alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase (TmAFase) from Thermotoga maritima MSB8 is a highly thermostable exo-acting hemicellulase that exhibits a relatively higher activity towards arabinan and arabinoxylan, compared with other glycoside hydrolase 51 family enzymes. In the present study, we carried out the enzymatic characterization and structural analysis of TmAFase. Tight domain associations found in TmAFase, such as an inter-domain disulfide bond (Cys306 and Cys476) in each monomer, a novel extended arm (amino acids 374-385) at the dimer interface, and total 12 salt bridges in the hexamer, may account for the thermostability of the enzyme. One of the xylan binding determinants (Trp96) was identified in the active site, and a region of amino acids (374-385) protrudes out forming an obvious wall at the substrate-binding groove to generate a cavity. The altered cavity shape with a strong negative electrostatic distribution is likely related to the unique substrate preference of TmAFase towards branched polymeric substrates. PMID:23221536

Dumbrepatil, Arti; Park, Jung-Mi; Jung, Tae Yang; Song, Hyung-Nam; Jang, Myoung-Uoon; Han, Nam Soo; Kim, Tae-Jip; Woo, Eui Jeon

2012-12-01

71

Stationary phase and nutrient levels trigger transcription of a genomic locus containing a novel peptide (TM1316) in the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima encodes numerous putative peptides/proteins of 100 amino acids or less. While most of these open reading frames (ORFs) are transcribed during growth, their corresponding physiological roles are largely unknown. The onset of stationary phase in T. maritima was accompanied by significant morphological changes and upregulation of several ORFs located in the TM1298-TM1336 genome locus. This region contains putative HicAB toxin-antitoxin pairs, hypothetical proteins, radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes, and ABC transporters. Of particular note was the TM1315-TM1319 operon, which includes a putative 31-amino-acid peptide (TM1316) that was the most highly transcribed gene in the transcriptome during stationary phase. Antibodies directed against a synthetic version of TM1316 were used to track its production, which correlated closely with transcriptomic data. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that TM1316 was localized to the cell envelope and prominent in cell aggregates formed during stationary phase. The only functionally characterized locus with an organization similar to that of TM1315-TM1319 is in Bacillus subtilis, which contains subtilosin A, a cyclic peptide with Cys-to-?-carbon linkages that functions as an antilisterial bacteriocin. While the organization of TM1316 resembled that of the Bacillus peptide (e.g., in its number of amino acids and spacing of Cys residues), preparations containing high levels of TM1316 affected the growth of neither Thermotoga species nor Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated from the same locale as T. maritima. Several other putative Cys-rich peptides could be identified in the TM1298-TM1336 locus, and while their roles are also unclear, they merit examination as potential antimicrobial agents in hyperthermophilic biotopes. PMID:23974142

Frock, Andrew D; Montero, Clemente I; Blumer-Schuette, Sara E; Kelly, Robert M

2013-11-01

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Properties and gene structure of the Thermotoga maritima alpha-amylase AmyA, a putative lipoprotein of a hyperthermophilic bacterium.  

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Thermotoga maritima MSB8 has a chromosomal alpha-amylase gene, designated amyA, that is predicted to code for a 553-amino-acid preprotein with significant amino acid sequence similarity to the 4-alpha-glucanotransferase of the same strain and to alpha-amylase primary structures of other organisms. Upstream of the amylase gene, a divergently oriented open reading frame which can be translated into a polypeptide with similarity to the maltose-binding protein MalE of Escherichia coli was found. ...

Liebl, W.; Stemplinger, I.; Ruile, P.

1997-01-01

73

The Effect of Zostera noltii, Spartina maritima and Scirpus maritimus on Sediment Pore-water Profiles in a Temperate Intertidal Estuary  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the present work was to study the effect of plants common in temperate latitudes (Zostera noltii, Spartina maritima and Scirpus maritimus) on sediment nutrient profiles, and to compare it to sand- and mud-flats without vegetation. The study focused on the organic matter contents, the concentration of dissolved inorganic nutrients (PO4–P, NH3–N, NO3–N), an on the estimation of the total amount of these nutrients during day and night conditions and their potential net-flu...

Lillebø, A.; Flindt, M.; Pardal, M.; Marques, J.

2006-01-01

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Characterization of exceptionally thermostable single-stranded DNA-binding proteins from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga neapolitana  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in SSBs because they find numerous applications in diverse molecular biology and analytical methods. Results We report the characterization of single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSBs from the thermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima (TmaSSB and Thermotoga neapolitana (TneSSB. They are the smallest known bacterial SSB proteins, consisting of 141 and 142 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 16.30 and 16.58 kDa, respectively. The similarity between amino acid sequences of these proteins is very high: 90% identity and 95% similarity. Surprisingly, both TmaSSB and TneSSB possess a quite low sequence similarity to Escherichia coli SSB (36 and 35% identity, 55 and 56% similarity, respectively. They are functional as homotetramers containing one single-stranded DNA binding domain (OB-fold in each monomer. Agarose mobility assays indicated that the ssDNA-binding site for both proteins is salt independent, and fluorescence spectroscopy resulted in a size of 68 ± 2 nucleotides. The half-lives of TmaSSB and TneSSB were 10 h and 12 h at 100°C, respectively. When analysed by differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSC the melting temperature (Tm was 109.3°C and 112.5°C for TmaSSB and TneSSB, respectively. Conclusion The results showed that TmaSSB and TneSSB are the most thermostable SSB proteins identified to date, offering an attractive alternative to TaqSSB and TthSSB in molecular biology applications, especially with using high temperature e. g. polymerase chain reaction (PCR.

Mickiewicz Ma?gorzata

2010-10-01

75

Constitutive high-level expression of a codon-optimized ?-fructosidase gene from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima in Pichia pastoris.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enzymes for use in the sugar industry are preferred to be thermotolerant. In this study, a synthetic codon-optimized gene encoding a highly thermostable ?-fructosidase (BfrA, EC 3.2.1.26) from the bacterium Thermotoga maritima was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The gradual increase of the transgene dosage from one to four copies under the control of the constitutive glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter had an additive effect on BfrA yield without causing cell toxicity. Maximal values of cell biomass (115 g/l, dry weight) and overall invertase activity (241 U/ml) were reached at 72 h in fed-batch fermentations using cane sugar as the main carbon source for growth. Secretion driven by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-factor signal peptide resulted in periplasmic retention (44 %) and extracellular release (56 %) of BfrA. The presence of N-linked oligosaccharides did not influence the optimal activity, thermal stability, kinetic properties, substrate specificity, and exo-type action mode of the yeast-secreted BfrA in comparison to the native unglycosylated enzyme. Complete inversion of cane sugar at initial concentration of 60 % (w/v) was achieved by periplasmic BfrA in undisrupted cells reacting at pH 5.5 and 70 °C, with average productivity of 4.4 g of substrate hydrolyzed per grams of biomass (wet weight) per hour. The high yield of fully active glycosylated BfrA here attained by recombinant P. pastoris in a low-cost fermentation process appears to be attractive for the large-scale production of this thermostable enzyme useful for the manufacture of inverted sugar syrup. PMID:22821437

Menéndez, Carmen; Martínez, Duniesky; Trujillo, Luis E; Mazola, Yuliet; González, Ernesto; Pérez, Enrique R; Hernández, Lázaro

2013-02-01

76

Interaction indole-3-acetic acid IAA with lectin Canavalia maritima seeds reveal new function of lectins in plant physiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: Lectins are a class of proteins of non-immune origin characterized by its capability in interacts specifically and reversibly to mono and oligosaccharides. In plant several possible roles have been suggested including their function in seed maturation, cell wall assembly, defense mechanisms, or rhizobial nodulation of legume roots. Nearly all application and proposed of the plant lectins are based on their specific carbohydrate binding. However, it has been reported that lectins from legumes, might interact with other molecules, such as non proteic amino acids and hydrophobic compounds. This study show the first the crystal structure based on molecular replacement of the Canavalia maritima (CML) complexed with IAA correlated with possible role in plant development. Purified CML was dissolved in 20 mMTrisHCl pH 7.6 containing 5 mM IAA, the suitable co-crystals from CML-IAA complex grew in condition 4 of screen I (0.1 M TrisHCl pH 8.5 and 2.0 M ammonium sulfate). This crystal belong to the orthorhombic space group I222 with unit-cell parameters a = 67.1 ; b = 70.7 , c = 97.7 , The structure was refined at 2.1 of resolution to a final R factor of 20.63 % and an R free of 22.54 %. To check the relative position of the IAA molecule in relation to the biological assemble of the CML, the tetrameric structure was generate by crystallographic symmetry. IAA molecules are positioned in the central cavity. The IAA is stabilized by interacting through hydrogen bounds and Van der Waals forces with the amino acids residues Ser 108 and Asn131, and two water molecules. The hydrophilic interactions occur between IAA and side chains of Ser 108, Asn131 and water molecules 26 and 31 by H-bonds. The OG oxygen from Ser108 display H-bonds with O2 and O3 oxygen atoms from IAA, 3.1 and 2.8 respectively. The tetrameric structure of CML complexed with IAA revels which this protein can act during the seedling in plant development. (author)

Silva Filho, J.C.; Santi-Gadelha, T.; Gadelha, C.A.A.; Delatorre, P. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Teixeira, C.S.; Rocha, B.A.M.; Nobrega, R.B.; Alencar, K.L.L.; Cavada, B.S. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

2012-07-01

77

Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of PotA, a membrane-associated ATPase of the spermidine-preferential uptake system in Thermotoga maritima.  

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A membrane-associated ATPase, PotA, is a component of the spermidine-preferential uptake system in prokaryotes that plays an important role in normal cell growth by regulating the cellular polyamine concentration. No three-dimensional structures of membrane-associated ATPases in polyamine-uptake systems have been determined to date. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of PotA from Thermotoga maritima are reported. Diffraction data were collected and processed to 2.7?Å resolution from both native and selenomethionine-labelled crystals. Preliminary crystallographic analysis revealed that the crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group P3112 (or P3212), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 88.9, c = 221.2?Å, ? = 90, ? = 90, ? = 120°, indicating that a dimer was present in the asymmetric unit. PMID:24915082

Sugiyama, Shigeru; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Kakinouchi, Keisuke; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Kanai, Ken; Murata, Michio; Adachi, Hiroaki; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Igarashi, Kazuei

2014-06-01

78

Fungal decontamination and enhancement of shelf life of edible split beans of wild legume Canavalia maritima by the electron beam irradiation  

Science.gov (United States)

Ripened split beans of the coastal sand dune wild legume Canavalia maritima serve as one of the traditional nutritional sources of the coastal dwellers in Southwest coast of India. Nine fungi were isolated from the unirradiated dry beans by plating on the potato dextrose agar medium. Toxigenic fungus Aspergillus niger showed the highest incidence (33-50%) followed by Aspergillus flavus (14-20%) and Penicillium chrysogenum (7-13%). Unirradiated dry beans and irradiated dry beans with electron beam doses 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 kGy were monitored for occurrence of fungal species and their incidence during 0, 3 and 6 months storage period under laboratory conditions. Irradiation resulted in dose-dependent decrease in fungal species (5-7, 4-6, 3-6 and 0 on irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 or 15 kGy, respectively) as well as incidence (80-99, 19-46, 13-21 and 0%, respectively). Although aflatoxins (B1 and B2) were found below detectable level (<2 ng/g) in 0, 3 and 6 months stored unirradiated and irradiated beans (2.5 and 5 kGy), they were not present in beans irradiated with 10 and 15 kGy. In spite of occurrence of toxigenic fungus Aspergillus ochraceus in unirradiated and irradiated beans (2.5 and 5 kGy) stored for 3 and 6 months, the beans were devoid of ochratoxin-A. Electron beam irradiation dose 10 kGy could be recommended for fungal decontamination and improvement of shelf life of C. maritima ripened dry split beans.

Supriya, P.; Sridhar, K. R.; Ganesh, S.

2014-03-01

79

Structural Analysis of Semi-specific Oligosaccharide Recognition by a Cellulose-binding Protein of Thermotoga maritima Reveals Adaptations for Functional Diversification of the Oligopeptide Periplasmic Binding Protein Fold  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) constitute a protein superfamily that binds a wide variety of ligands. In prokaryotes, PBPs function as receptors for ATP-binding cassette or tripartite ATP-independent transporters and chemotaxis systems. In many instances, PBPs bind their cognate ligands with exquisite specificity, distinguishing, for example, between sugar epimers or structurally similar anions. By contrast, oligopeptide-binding proteins bind their ligands through interactions with the peptide backbone but do not distinguish between different side chains. The extremophile Thermotoga maritima possesses a remarkable array of carbohydrate-processing metabolic systems, including the hydrolysis of cellulosic polymers. Here, we present the crystal structure of a T. maritima cellobiose-binding protein (tm0031) that is homologous to oligopeptide-binding proteins. T. maritima cellobiose-binding protein binds a variety of lengths of {beta}(1 {yields} 4)-linked glucose oligomers, ranging from two rings (cellobiose) to five (cellopentaose). The structure reveals that binding is semi-specific. The disaccharide at the nonreducing end binds specifically; the other rings are located in a large solvent-filled groove, where the reducing end makes several contacts with the protein, thereby imposing an upper limit of the oligosaccharides that are recognized. Semi-specific recognition, in which a molecular class rather than individual species is selected, provides an efficient solution for the uptake of complex mixtures.

Cuneo, Matthew J.; Beese, Lorena S.; Hellinga, Homme W.; (Duke)

2010-05-25

80

Isolation, identification and expression analysis of salt-induced genes in Suaeda maritima, a natural halophyte, using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite wealth of information generated on salt tolerance mechanism, its basics still remain elusive. Thus, there is a need of continued effort to understand the salt tolerance mechanism using suitable biotechnological techniques and test plants (species to enable development of salt tolerant cultivars of interest. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to generate information on salt stress responsive genes in a natural halophyte, Suaeda maritima, using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization (PCR-SSH technique. Results Forward and reverse SSH cDNA libraries were constructed after exposing the young plants to 425 mM NaCl for 24 h. From the forward SSH cDNA library, 429 high quality ESTs were obtained. BLASTX search and TIGR assembler programme revealed overexpression of 167 unigenes comprising 89 singletons and 78 contigs with ESTs redundancy of 81.8%. Among the unigenes, 32.5% were found to be of special interest, indicating novel function of these genes with regard to salt tolerance. Literature search for the known unigenes revealed that only 17 of them were salt-inducible. A comparative analysis of the existing SSH cDNA libraries for NaCl stress in plants showed that only a few overexpressing unigenes were common in them. Moreover, the present study also showed increased expression of phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene, indicating the possible accumulation of a much studied osmoticum, glycinebetaine, in halophyte under salt stress. Functional categorization of the proteins as per the Munich database in general revealed that salt tolerance could be largely determined by the proteins involved in transcription, signal transduction, protein activity regulation and cell differentiation and organogenesis. Conclusion The study provided a clear indication of possible vital role of glycinebetaine in the salt tolerance process in S. maritima. However, the salt-induced expression of a large number of genes involved in a wide range of cellular functions was indicative of highly complex nature of the process as such. Most of the salt inducible genes, nonetheless, appeared to be species-specific. In light of the observations made, it is reasonable to emphasize that a comparative analysis of ESTs from SSH cDNA libraries generated systematically for a few halophytes with varying salt exposure time may clearly identify the key salt tolerance determinant genes to a minimum number, highly desirable for any genetic manipulation adventure.

Sahu Binod B

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Some Active Ingredients, Total Protein and Amino Acids in Plants Produced from Irradiated Ambrosia maritima Seeds Growing under Different Soil Salinity Levels  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out at the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology during two successive seasons, of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009, respectively in pots 30 cm in diameter. The aim of this experiment was to study the response of damsisa (Ambrosia maritima L. seeds that exposed to different doses of radiation (0, 20, 40, 80 Gy after planting in soils contain mixtures of salts. The dose rate was 0.89 and 0.87 rad sec-1. The salts used were NaCl, CaCl2 and MgSO4 in ratio 2:2:1 with concentrations 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm. Irradiated and un- irradiated seeds were sown in, sand-loamy, soil with mixture of salts. Also, a group of irradiated and un-irradiated seeds were sown in normal soils without salt and serve as a control, all pots irrigated with tap water until field capacity. It was observed that saline condition decreased ambrosin, protein and amino acids trend, in damsisa shoots. While, the results obtained refer to increasing proline concentration separated as a result of uses ?-rays and salinity treatments. The extreme sensitivity of the metabolic processes of proline synthesis and degradation themselves may be of benefit by regulating metabolic processes which adversely affected by stress. So, it was concluded that ?-rays improve plant growth and increase its chemical components under saline stress condition.

A.R. Ghalab

2012-01-01

82

A ConA-like lectin isolated from Canavalia maritima seeds alters the expression of genes related to virulence and biofilm formation in Streptococcus mutans  

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Full Text Available Bacteria form biofilms as an adaptive mechanism in response to environmental changes. Streptococcus mutans is the biofilm-forming bacterium that is primarily associated with dental caries. The expression of important genes by bacteria in biofilms is different from that of planktonic cells. Lectins are proteins that bind specifically to carbohydrates and may have important biological activities on bacterial cells, acting as antibacterial and anti-biofilm agents. ConM (Canavalia maritima lectin is a protein that is able to inhibit the planktonic growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of ConM and concanavalin A (ConA on the expression of genes related to virulence and biofilm formation in S. mutans. The results showed that ConM significantly reduced the expression of genes encoding enzymes related to adhesion, formation and regulation of biofilms. On the contrary, ConA did not alter the expression of the genes studied. Because the two lectins have a high degree of similarity, the differences in the actions of ConM and ConA may be explained by the small structural differences in the carbohydrate recognition domain of the lectins.

Theodora Thays Arruda Cavalcante

2013-12-01

83

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of ligand-free and arginine-bound forms of Thermotoga maritima arginine-binding protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

The arginine-binding protein from Thermotoga maritima (TmArgBP) is an arginine-binding component of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system in this hyperthermophilic bacterium. This protein is endowed with an extraordinary stability towards thermal and chemical denaturation. Its structural characterization may provide useful insights for the clarification of structure-stability relationships and for the design of new biosensors. Crystallization trials were set up for both arginine-bound and ligand-free forms of TmArgBP and crystals suitable for crystallographic investigations were obtained for both forms. Ordered crystals of the arginine adduct of TmArgBP could only be obtained by using the detergent LDAO as an additive to the crystallization medium. These crystals were hexagonal, with unit-cell parameters a = 78.2, c = 434.7 Å, and diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution. The crystals of the ligand-free form were orthorhombic, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.8, b = 91.9, c = 117.9 Å, and diffracted to 2.25 Å resolution. PMID:22102257

Ruggiero, Alessia; Dattelbaum, Jonathan D; Pennacchio, Anna; Iozzino, Luisa; Staiano, Maria; Luchansky, Matthew S; Der, Bryan S; Berisio, Rita; D'Auria, Sabato; Vitagliano, Luigi

2011-11-01

84

Protein Electrophoresis and DNA in Herbs Produced from Irradiated Ambrosia maritima Seeds Grown under Soil Salinity and Their Resistance to Insect  

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Full Text Available Damsisa (Ambrosia maritima L. is one of the wild plants present in Egypt and different African countries of the Nile Valley. It considered as potential source of molluscicides for treatment of infected sites. In this study, DNA amplifications technique and protein electrophoresis were used for the evaluation of response of Damsisa herbs to gamma rays (?-rays, soil salinity and their interaction on alleviation of salt stress. This study also examined the effect of herb as bio-resistant for insect infestation in Phaseolus beans. Protein electrophoresis revealed that the number of protein bands separated from plants grown in saline soil not changed either grown from irradiated or un-irradiated seeds except 40 Gray (Gy dose. Meanwhile, it was observed that mixing Damsisa herb with infested Phaseolus beans reduced insect ability to lays eggs or complete life cycle. Also, it was found that herbs produced from irradiated seeds and grown in normal or in saline soil were more effective in destruction of Callosobruchus maculatus insect and decreased the loss from infested beans.

O.S. Hussein

2012-01-01

85

A loose domain swapping organization confers a remarkable stability to the dimeric structure of the arginine binding protein from Thermotoga maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

The arginine binding protein from Thermatoga maritima (TmArgBP), a substrate binding protein (SBP) involved in the ABC system of solute transport, presents a number of remarkable properties. These include an extraordinary stability to temperature and chemical denaturants and the tendency to form multimeric structures, an uncommon feature among SBPs involved in solute transport. Here we report a biophysical and structural characterization of the TmArgBP dimer. Our data indicate that the dimer of the protein is endowed with a remarkable stability since its full dissociation requires high temperature as well as SDS and urea at high concentrations. In order to elucidate the atomic level structural properties of this intriguing protein, we determined the crystallographic structures of the apo and the arginine-bound forms of TmArgBP using MAD and SAD methods, respectively. The comparison of the liganded and unliganded models demonstrates that TmArgBP tertiary structure undergoes a very large structural re-organization upon arginine binding. This transition follows the Venus Fly-trap mechanism, although the entity of the re-organization observed in TmArgBP is larger than that observed in homologous proteins. Intriguingly, TmArgBP dimerizes through the swapping of the C-terminal helix. This dimer is stabilized exclusively by the interactions established by the swapping helix. Therefore, the TmArgBP dimer combines a high level of stability and conformational freedom. The structure of the TmArgBP dimer represents an uncommon example of large tertiary structure variations amplified at quaternary structure level by domain swapping. Although the biological relevance of the dimer needs further assessments, molecular modelling suggests that the two TmArgBP subunits may simultaneously interact with two distinct ABC transporters. Moreover, the present protein structures provide some clues about the determinants of the extraordinary stability of the biomolecule. The availability of an accurate 3D model represents a powerful tool for the design of new TmArgBP suited for biotechnological applications. PMID:24832102

Ruggiero, Alessia; Dattelbaum, Jonathan D; Staiano, Maria; Berisio, Rita; D'Auria, Sabato; Vitagliano, Luigi

2014-01-01

86

A Loose Domain Swapping Organization Confers a Remarkable Stability to the Dimeric Structure of the Arginine Binding Protein from Thermotoga maritima  

Science.gov (United States)

The arginine binding protein from Thermatoga maritima (TmArgBP), a substrate binding protein (SBP) involved in the ABC system of solute transport, presents a number of remarkable properties. These include an extraordinary stability to temperature and chemical denaturants and the tendency to form multimeric structures, an uncommon feature among SBPs involved in solute transport. Here we report a biophysical and structural characterization of the TmArgBP dimer. Our data indicate that the dimer of the protein is endowed with a remarkable stability since its full dissociation requires high temperature as well as SDS and urea at high concentrations. In order to elucidate the atomic level structural properties of this intriguing protein, we determined the crystallographic structures of the apo and the arginine-bound forms of TmArgBP using MAD and SAD methods, respectively. The comparison of the liganded and unliganded models demonstrates that TmArgBP tertiary structure undergoes a very large structural re-organization upon arginine binding. This transition follows the Venus Fly-trap mechanism, although the entity of the re-organization observed in TmArgBP is larger than that observed in homologous proteins. Intriguingly, TmArgBP dimerizes through the swapping of the C-terminal helix. This dimer is stabilized exclusively by the interactions established by the swapping helix. Therefore, the TmArgBP dimer combines a high level of stability and conformational freedom. The structure of the TmArgBP dimer represents an uncommon example of large tertiary structure variations amplified at quaternary structure level by domain swapping. Although the biological relevance of the dimer needs further assessments, molecular modelling suggests that the two TmArgBP subunits may simultaneously interact with two distinct ABC transporters. Moreover, the present protein structures provide some clues about the determinants of the extraordinary stability of the biomolecule. The availability of an accurate 3D model represents a powerful tool for the design of new TmArgBP suited for biotechnological applications.

Ruggiero, Alessia; Dattelbaum, Jonathan D.; Staiano, Maria; Berisio, Rita; D'Auria, Sabato; Vitagliano, Luigi

2014-01-01

87

Effect of Air-Borne Salinity on the Growth and Appearance of the Tropical Perennial Strandline Plant, Commelina erecta subsp. maritima (C.V. Morton C.V. Morton  

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Full Text Available Selection of salt spray tolerant plants with good physical appearance is of concern to ornamental growers in coastal communities. Commelina erecta subsp. maritima (C.V. Morton C.V. Morton is a seashore plant that is widely distributed along the coast of West Africa. Therefore, the effect of salt spray was examined on the plant in a greenhouse experiment to determine its responses to various levels of air-borne salinity and to have an insight in the ecophysiological adaptations underlying these responses. It was also aimed to determine if varying levels of salt spray differentially damaged the plant. Filtered seawater was used to spray potted plants at: two sprays per week (2SS, four sprays per week (4SS or six sprays per week (6SS while in the control treatment (CSS, plants were sprayed with deionized water. Plants sprayed with seawater did not differ significantly (p > 0.05 in percentage necrotic leaf area compared to the control. All the plants survived but growth was inhibited by salt spray. Salt spray caused a significant (p < 0.05 reduction in leaf size and total chlorophyll content. Salt was accumulated in the shoot of salt-sprayed plants which led to ion toxicity. Salt sprays led to reduction in amount of essential nutrients in plant parts. C. erecta subsp. maritima adjusted osmotically to salt stress and increased stem succulence for ion dilution. The growth of the plant was negatively affected by salt sprays but it showed no significant necrotic damage, hence it is suitable for use as a landscaping plant in coastal beaches.

Otitoloju Kekere

2014-02-01

88

Environmental implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors examine the environmental implications and applications of current information and communication technologies. The book also reviews emerging trends in information technology and some of the attendant issues for policy makers, particularly those relating to economic growth in developing countries.

Elkington, J.; Shopley, J.

1988-01-01

89

Industrial implications of hydrogen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two major industrial implications of hydrogen are examined: problems related to the effect of hydrogen on materials properties (hydrogen embrittlement), and problems related to the use and production of hydrogen as a future energy vector

1982-06-07

90

Unemployed Youth: The Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Never has youth been better educated or more qualified to enter the job market, yet never has youth known such lack of employment. Ramifications of effects of unemployment on youth make unemployment a great values issue of today. Implications presented indicate Canada may be on the verge of social crisis. (Author/BEF)

Goodland, M. C.

1979-01-01

91

Advances in fuzzy implication functions  

CERN Document Server

Fuzzy implication functions are one of the main operations in fuzzy logic. They generalize the classical implication, which takes values in the set {0,1}, to fuzzy logic, where the truth values belong to the unit interval [0,1]. These functions are not only fundamental for fuzzy logic systems, fuzzy control, approximate reasoning and expert systems, but they also play a significant role in mathematical fuzzy logic, in fuzzy mathematical morphology and image processing, in defining fuzzy subsethood measures and in solving fuzzy relational equations. This volume collects 8 research papers on fuzzy implication functions. Three articles focus on the construction methods, on different ways of generating new classes and on the common properties of implications and their dependencies. Two articles discuss implications defined on lattices, in particular implication functions in interval-valued fuzzy set theories. One paper summarizes the sufficient and necessary conditions of solutions for one distributivity equation...

Beliakov, Gleb; Sola, Humberto; Pradera, Ana

2013-01-01

92

Galicia, ¿En la Ora maritima de R.F. Avieno?  

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Full Text Available The classical sources have been some times studied in order to identify names and places with the present Geograghy. This position can produce mistaken interpretations, as in the case of the Ora maritime, a complicated and dark work attributed to Rufus Festus Avienus. We propose here an interpretation of the verses that have been related to the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula.

En ocasiones, las fuentes antiguas han sido abordadas con el afán de identificar los lugares y accidentes geográficos que mencionan con los que conocemos en la actualidad. Ello puede conducir a interpretaciones erróneas, como en el caso de la Ora marítima, un texto complejo y lleno de incógnitas atribuido a Rufo Festo Avieno. A continuación planteamos una propuesta de interpretación de los versos que tradicionalmente se vinculan con el territorio del Noroeste peninsular (vv. 90-200

Suárez Piñeiro, Ana M.

2002-12-01

93

Astrophysical implications of periodicity  

Science.gov (United States)

Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

Muller, Richard A.

94

Astrophysical implications of periodicity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed

1988-10-20

95

Collider implications of singlet fermions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss some of the phenomenological implications when the standard electroweak model is extended to include singlet, vectorlike fermions with masses within the reach of TeV colliders. We show that for an arbitrary number of doublets and singlets, the flavor-violating Yukawa interactions involve only the fermion masses and the elements of the left-handed mixing matrix. Implications of this result for some recently proposed new physics possibilities at the hadronic colliders are discussed. These include model-independent restrictions for the exotic decay of the top quark (t?cH), and also Z pair and Higgs-boson production from the decays of the singlet fermions

1992-12-01

96

Mind, Matter and the Implicate Order The Implicate Order Revisited  

CERN Multimedia

Proposes that Bohm's alternative interpretation of quantum theory resolves the paradoxes such as Schrodinger's cat, and the EPR paradox. This work uses Bohm's concepts of "implicate order", "active information" and "soma-significance" as tools to tackle several well-known problems in the philosophy of mind.

Pylkkänen, Paavo T I

2007-01-01

97

Strong implicative hyper K-ideals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A condition for a strong hyper K-ideal to be a strong implicative hyper K-ideal is given. Homomorphic images and inverse images of strong implicative hyper K-ideals are considered.

Young Bae Jun

2006-05-01

98

Congruence Relations on Lattice Implication Algebras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lattice implication algebra is an important logic algebra, congruence relations is one of important contents in it. The basic properties and the structures of general congruence relations on lattice implication algebras are discussed; The results that a lattice implication algebra is congruence-permutable is obtained.

Yi Liu

2011-05-01

99

A Bayesian Model for Discovering Typological Implications  

CERN Document Server

A standard form of analysis for linguistic typology is the universal implication. These implications state facts about the range of extant languages, such as ``if objects come after verbs, then adjectives come after nouns.'' Such implications are typically discovered by painstaking hand analysis over a small sample of languages. We propose a computational model for assisting at this process. Our model is able to discover both well-known implications as well as some novel implications that deserve further study. Moreover, through a careful application of hierarchical analysis, we are able to cope with the well-known sampling problem: languages are not independent.

Daumé, Hal

2009-01-01

100

PIPER (Practical Implications of Physics Education Research)  

... PIPER (Practical Implications of Physics Education Research) PIPER (Practical Implications of Physics Education Research) PIPER is a project from the ...Resources You are here Education I am a teacher Support for teachers PIPER (Practical Implications of Physics Education Research) I am a ...Support for teachers Physics Teacher Network Stimulating Physics Network Girls in physics PIPER (Practical Implications of Physics Education Research) Supporting Physics Teaching ...Schools Exploring physics, uncovering choice Benchmark tools for practical work in science PIPER (Practical Implications of Physics Education Research) PIPER is a ...

 
 
 
 
101

Inflationary implications of supersymmetry breaking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll parameters and the geometry of the Kähler manifold of the chiral scalars. We analyse the inflationary implications of this bound, and in particular discuss to what extent the requirements of single field and slow-roll can both be met in F-term inflation

2013-07-23

102

Inflationary implications of supersymmetry breaking  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll parameters and the geometry of the Kähler manifold of the chiral scalars. We analyse the inflationary implications of this bound, and in particular discuss to what extent the requirements of single field and slow-roll can both be met in F-term inflation.

Borghese, Andrea; Roest, Diederik; Zavala, Ivonne [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

2013-07-23

103

Ophthalmic implications of seasonal affective disorder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is presented with a discussion of its standard treatment of phototherapy. A number of ophthalmic implications related to SAD are proposed. These implications relate to both the condition and the phototherapy used in its treatment, especially the use of full spectrum light which contains ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation. 12 references

1989-01-01

104

Implications of Solar and Atmospheric Neutrinos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The implications of the deficit of solar neutrinos are discussed. If all of the experiments are taken literally the relative suppressions render an astrophysical explanation unlikely. Allowing MSW conversions, the data simultaneously determine the temperature of the core of the sun to within five percent. The implications of the atmospheric $\

Langacker, Paul

1993-01-01

105

HIV: implication in Burkitt lymphoma.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The risk of Burkitt lymphoma (BL is increased in HIV-infected patients as compared to general population in Europe and in the US. This effect might be due to immune suppression and low CD4-cell counts associated with the development of AIDS. However, there is also evidence of a direct effect of HIV on B cell proliferation and differentiation, which may account for the development of B cell malignancies. We shall discuss possible mechanisms of implication of HIV in BL with a focus on the role of different viral components (Tat, Nef and gp120 proteins, viral envelope in the c-myc/IgH translocation characteristic of BL.

Vassetzky Y. S.

2012-07-01

106

Clinical implications of impaired microcirculation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various types of microcirculation disturbances have been described in the course of systemic diseases, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and the so-called "idiopathic oedema" syndrome. This article summarizes the relevant microcirculatory disorders associated with diabetes and their pathophysiology. These functional disorders occur before or in association with anatomical lesions of diabetic microangiopathy. Increased capillary permeability to albumin is frequently observed in diabetes. In a placebo-controlled trial, Daflon 500 mg, a purified, micronized, flavonoidic fraction, significantly improved this disorder. Patients complaining of an oedematous syndrome almost always have an increased extracellular fluid volume, probably largely due to increased capillary permeability. Diabetes and "idiopathic oedema" therefore constitute two examples of the major clinical implications of impaired microcirculation. PMID:8919261

Valensi, P; Behar, A

1995-09-01

107

Mining TCGA Data Using Boolean Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Boolean implications (if-then rules) provide a conceptually simple, uniform and highly scalable way to find associations between pairs of random variables. In this paper, we propose to use Boolean implications to find relationships between variables of different data types (mutation, copy number alteration, DNA methylation and gene expression) from the glioblastoma (GBM) and ovarian serous cystadenoma (OV) data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We find hundreds of thousands of Boolean implications from these data sets. A direct comparison of the relationships found by Boolean implications and those found by commonly used methods for mining associations show that existing methods would miss relationships found by Boolean implications. Furthermore, many relationships exposed by Boolean implications reflect important aspects of cancer biology. Examples of our findings include cis relationships between copy number alteration, DNA methylation and expression of genes, a new hierarchy of mutations and recurrent copy number alterations, loss-of-heterozygosity of well-known tumor suppressors, and the hypermethylation phenotype associated with IDH1 mutations in GBM. The Boolean implication results used in the paper can be accessed at http://crookneck.stanford.edu/microarray/TCGANetworks/.

Sinha, Subarna; Tsang, Emily K.; Zeng, Haoyang; Meister, Michela; Dill, David L.

2014-01-01

108

National and international social implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Every new technology since slash-and-burn has required new social institutions to go along with it, and nuclear technology is no exception. There is, therefore, a need to go beyond decisionmaking among alternative peaceful proliferation schemes. There is a need also to look at the needs for new national and/or transnational institutions that will have to accompany any proliferations in area. There are five social implications that bear on the need to develop new social institutions. First is the issue of Great Power relations, in an era of nuclear proliferation. Second is the conflict between nationalism and internationalism. The third is the issue of the military and diplomatic strategies of small nations, particularly small nations on the threshold of nuclear capacity, and the question of military versus civilian rule in those nations. Fourth, and possibly the most important is the role of multinational corporations in nuclear regulation, and fifth, the question of secrecy and how that bears on power values of primacy in democratic states

1978-09-30

109

Implications of Donald Macdonald's report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chairman of the session debating the implications of the Macdonald report identified three important aspects of utility restructuring: equity, efficiency and sustainability. Dr. Jan Carr, a member of the Macdonald Committee, predicted that the continental energy market will likely demand a much larger number of smaller energy transactions, and the value in having inherently low-cost generation located close to load centres, and/or close to the US border. Douglas Hall, Vice President of RBC Dominion Securities criticized the Macdonald Committee for leaving 70 per cent of Hydro's generating capacity in public hands. He favored transferring all assets to the private sector, and questioned the Committee's assumption that the utility could be broken down into four components that would share overhead and still compete against each other. John Murphy, President of the Power Workers Union stated that the Union was not ideologically opposed to competition in the electricity industry, but he questioned the Committee's assumption that competition would promote efficient supply of power at the least cost to the economy. Tony Jennings, Chief Executive of the Municipal Electric Association tackled a series of myths about municipal electric utilities, and IPPSO Counsel Jay Sheppard emphasized the need for making sure that the entity buying the power in the short term is truly independent and is not doing incestuous deals with its friends at Ontario Hydro Generation (one of the four components of the proposed, restructured Corporation) , because otherwise competition will not work

1996-10-22

110

Imaging implications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on laparoscopic cholecystectomy that has rapidly become the preferred technique for elective surgical removal of the gallbladder. The authors sought to ascertain the implications of this new technique for radiological imaging by performing a survey questionnaire of the membership of the International Society of Biliary Radiology (ISBR). Detailed questionnaires were sent to 145 members representing 12 countries. Because data were sought from consulting radiologists rather than responsible surgeons, results were primarily qualitative in nature. Inquiries were made as to current pre-, intra-, and postoperative imaging strategies. Preoperatively we inquired whether specific radiological findings influence the decision to use or not use the laparoscopic method versus open surgery (ie, stone size, thick gallbladder wall on US, porcelain gallbladder, bile duct dilatation). Is preoperative imaging performed of the common bile duct either routinely or for specific indications, and which imaging method is preferred (ie, US, intravenous cholangiography, or ERCP)? Is intraoperative cholangiography performed routinely, never, or for indications only? Are there specific cholangiographic techniques used during laparoscopic cholangiography that differ from standard operative cholangiographic methods?

1991-12-01

111

Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Origins and Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis examines the origins and implications of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) established in 2001 by China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. It analyzes the organization from the Chinese, Russian, and Central A...

T. Craig

2003-01-01

112

Changes in Europe. Implications for energy markets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presented at a conference evaluates the different implications of previous crises influencing the quality of the European energy markets. Topics covered include: Facts on energy involving the challenges, different measures, and future trends in ...

P. Vlaanderen

1991-01-01

113

The Implications of Multiple Circadian Clock Origins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Michael Rosbash considers whether the mechanisms that govern circadian rhythms in different organisms have arisen multiple times in evolution, and discusses the implications for our understanding of circadian clocks.

Rosbash, Michael

2009-01-01

114

Globalization of Information: Intellectual Property Law Implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The globalization of information, facilitated by the Internet, has significant implications for intellectual property regimes domestically and internationally. Assessment of these implications and their probable outcomes is unavoidably value-driven. Many commentators foresee harmonization of intellectual property laws but some predict disparity in political economy outcomes. Some also see profound effects on sovereignty. A critical review of recent literature on these topics discloses a preva...

Nayyer, Kim

2002-01-01

115

Pedagogical Implications on Medical Students’ Linguistic Needs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, an extended teaching implication is performed based on the study of medical students’ linguistic needs in Tawian (Hwang, Lin, 2010). The aims of previous study were to provide a description of the linguistic needs and perceptions of medical students and faculty members in Taiwan. However, this paper put more thoughts on the pedagogical application of the findings. The paper presented teaching implication of medical English or general English based on perceptions of m...

Yanling Hwang

2011-01-01

116

Impacts of oil sands process water on fen plants: Implications for plant selection in required reclamation projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fen plant growth in peat contaminated with groundwater discharges of oil sands process water (OSPW) was assessed in a greenhouse over two growing seasons. Three treatments (non-diluted OSPW, diluted OSPW and rainwater) were tested on five vascular plants and four mosses. All vascular plants tested can grow in salinity and naphthenic acids levels currently produced by oil sands activity in northwestern Canada. No stress sign was observed after both seasons. Because of plant characteristics, Carex species (C. atherodes and C. utriculata) and Triglochin maritima would be more useful for rapidly restoring vegetation and creating a new peat-accumulating system. Groundwater discharge of OSPW proved detrimental to mosses under dry conditions and ensuring adequate water levels would be crucial in fen creation following oil sands exploitation. Campylium stellatum would be the best choice to grow in contaminated areas and Bryum pseudotriquetrum might be interesting as it has spontaneously regenerated in all treatments. - Highlights: ? Fen plant growth was assessed under groundwater discharges of oil sands process water. ? Sedge and grass species were not stressed after two growing seasons in greenhouse. ? Carex species and Triglochin maritima would be helpful in created contaminated fens. ? In dry conditions, contaminated groundwater discharge was detrimental for mosses. ? Campylium stellatum would be the best choice in created fens with contaminated water. - Sedges and grasses tolerated the contact with oil sands process water and could probably grow well in contaminated created fens, but mosses were particularly affected under dry conditions.

2012-08-01

117

Biological implications of global change: Northern perspectives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A compilation of abstracts is presented from papers presented at a conference on biological implications of global change in northern climates. Topics of the papers included plant phenology as a means of tracking global warming, goose populations and their response to global change, implications of global change for animal agriculture, regional aspects of global warming, climatic influences on migratory birds, Arctic climate change and its effect on wildlife, peatlands, muskox and caribou response to climatic change, boreal forest response to past climatic change, implications of greenhouse warming for agriculture, Arctic insects and global change, CO[sub 2]-induced climatic change impacts on hydropower capacity, ringed seals as climatic change monitors, climate warming impacts on polar bears, northern Canadian vegetation in a changing climate, wildfire as a force in global change, and bioclimatic change in the boreal forest. 57 refs.

1992-01-01

118

The CH/? hydrogen bond: Implication in chemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

The CH/? hydrogen bond is the weakest extreme of hydrogen bonds that occurs between a soft acid CH and a soft base ?-system. Implication in chemistry of the CH/? hydrogen bond includes issues of conformation, crystal packing, and specificity in host/guest complexes. The result obtained by analyzing the Cambridge Structural Database is reviewed. The peculiar axial preference of isopropyl group in ?-phellandrene and folded conformation of levopimaric acid have been explained in terms of the CH/? hydrogen bond, by high-level ab initio MO calculations. Implication of the CH/? hydrogen bond in structural biology is also discussed, briefly.

Nishio, M.

2012-06-01

119

Supervision and Motivational Theory: Some Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suggests useful implications for supervisors offered by motivational theories, including the importance of serving as a source of reinforcement for teachers and the necessity of helping the teacher make appropriate instructional choices and gather evidence on the effectiveness of those choices. (Author/JM)

Reyes, Donald J.

1982-01-01

120

The implications of Jesus’ radical love  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

How to cite this book review: Pieterse, H.J.C., 2011, ‘The implications of Jesus’ radical love’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 67(3), Art. #1139, 1 page. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v67i3.1139

Pieterse, Hennie J. C.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

The implications of Jesus’ radical love  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to cite this book review: Pieterse, H.J.C., 2011, ‘The implications of Jesus’ radical love’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 67(3, Art. #1139, 1 page. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v67i3.1139

Hennie J.C. Pieterse

2011-03-01

122

Social Constructionism and Ethics: Implications for Counseling  

Science.gov (United States)

Social constructionism is set forth as an epistemological framework from which to establish an ethical base for the field of counseling. The development of the social constructionist movement in counseling is described. Implications of a social constructionist position are considered in relation to ethics. A case example is provided to illustrate…

Guterman, Jeffrey T.; Rudes, James

2008-01-01

123

Family Trends: What Implications for Family Policy?  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews trends and research findings related to marriage and divorce, unwed parenthood, labor force participation of women, and life expectancy to assess their implications for family policy. Outlines number of policy and programmatic measures as ways of helping to bring about more equitable distribution of well-being among diverse groups of…

Zimmerman, Shirley L.

1992-01-01

124

The hydrogen economy: future policy implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The acceptance of hydrogen as a viable energy option has ramifications which go far beyond the scientific and technical. Consistency with national goals, legal, social and environmental consequences and the implications for the entire energy resource base are some of the aspects which must be carefully considered in pursuing hydrogen as an energy option.

Slotin, L.A.

1983-01-01

125

IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBALIZATION ON THE WORLD ECONOMY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the issues of maximum interes to our century is the analysis of implications of globalization on the world economy and this proves to be even more important now in the middle of financial crisis. Forecasts from the World Bank are very optimistic o

2009-01-01

126

Changes in Europe. Implications for energy markets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presented at a conference evaluates the different implications of previous crises influencing the quality of the European energy markets. Topics covered include: Facts on energy involving the challenges, different measures, and future trends in Central and Eastern Europe; energy efficiency and oil production/consumption/export in the USSR; international energy cooperation. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Vlaanderen, P. [International Energy Agency Paris, (France)

1991-12-31

127

Origin of comets - implications for planetary formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primordial and episodic theories for the origin of comets are discussed. The implications of the former type for the origin of the solar system are considered. Candidate sites for the formation of comets are compared. The possible existence of a massive inner Oort cloud is discussed

1985-01-01

128

Exploring emotional intelligence. Implications for nursing leaders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emotional intelligence is being touted in the popular literature as an important characteristic for successful leaders. However, caution needs to be exercised regarding the connection between emotional intelligence and workplace success. The author contrasts 2 current models of emotional intelligence, the measurements being used, and the ability of emotional intelligence to predict success. Implications for the workplace are discussed. PMID:11984256

Vitello-Cicciu, Joan M

2002-04-01

129

Corporal Punishment: Legalities, Realities, and Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a quiz that will help readers determine the reliability of their own perceptions relating to corporal punishment in schools. Discusses U.S. Courts and corporal punishment, worldwide and nationwide legality, and the realities of corporal punishment in the United States. Discusses implications for what teachers can do to address corporal…

Hinchey, Patricia H.

2003-01-01

130

MSW Implications of Solar Neutrino Experiments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I discuss the implications for future solar neutrino experiments of the most recent gallium data in the context of the MSW mechanism. At the low energy end of the solar neutrino spectrum we need to measure the $^7$Be component directly; and at the high energy end, we need precise measurements of the shape of the spectrum.

Rosen, S. P.

1992-01-01

131

MSW implications of solar neutrino experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I discuss the implications for future solar neutrino experiments of the most recent gallium data. To choose between different MSW solutions, we must either measure the 7Be and pp neutrinos separately or determine the spectral shape of 8B neutrinos

1992-02-01

132

Self-Directed Learning: Implications for Museums  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-directed learning (SDL) has numerous implications for understanding adult learners and for improving their museum experiences. Through a review of the conceptual and empirical literature, the relationship between SDL and education within a museum setting is explored in this article. Discussion includes an overview of SDL, inquiry into two…

Banz, Richard

2008-01-01

133

Measurement Implications of "A Nation at Risk."  

Science.gov (United States)

The implications of "A Nation at Risk" for the field of measurement are examined. These are a need for more frequent and varied tests; responsibility for eliminating measurement problems; and a resurgence of standardized testing at the high school level. The need for measures of teaching quality will increase. (DWH)

Hogan, Thomas P.

1983-01-01

134

Applications of robust control theory - Educational implications  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey is made of applications of robust control theory to problems of flight control, control of flexible space structures, and engine control which have appeared in recent conferences and journals. An analysis is made of which theoretical techniques are most commonly used and what implications this has for graduate and undergraduate education in aerospace engineering.

Dorato, P.; Yedavalli, R. K.

1992-01-01

135

Contradictory implications of the nonadditive entropy  

CERN Multimedia

It is shown that the concept of nonadditive black hole entropy leads to the contradictory implications in the framework of statistical thermodynamics. In particular, a black hole with the nonadditive entropy cannot be in thermal equilibrium with ordinary matter. Moreover, such black holes are mutually exclusive, i.e. they cannot compose a single system.

Ropotenko, K

2012-01-01

136

Tiered Pricing: Implications for Library Collections  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years an increasing number of publishers have adopted tiered pricing of journals. The design and implications of tiered-pricing models, however, are poorly understood. Tiered pricing can be modeled using several variables. A survey of current tiered-pricing models documents the range of key variables used. A sensitivity analysis…

Hahn, Karla

2005-01-01

137

Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology—An Update  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some engineers and scientists are either directly or indirectly involved with nanotechnology issues. Nanotechnology concerns dealing with environmental implications and regulatory compliance encompass practicing areas for these technical individuals. Areas of particular concern include current/proposed environmental regulations and procedures for quantifying both health risks and hazard risks. This article addresses both of these issues.

2011-01-01

138

Constructivism and Education: Misunderstandings and Pedagogical Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Constructivism is a popular concept in contemporary teacher education programs. However, a genuine concern arises with the concept's application because many teachers and teacher educators claim that knowledge is constructed, without appreciating the epistemological and pedagogical implications such a claim entails. This article employs Phillips'…

Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Strobel, Johannes

2008-01-01

139

Early Adolescent Childbearing: Some Social Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews some of the current research findings on fertility among adolescents which indicate that illegitimacy may be becoming increasingly concentrated in the teenage years, and considers the implications of this phenomenon for mothers, children and society. The relationship of the changing sexual activity of American teenagers, the…

Hoeppner, Marie

140

Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are perceived, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise. Keywords: ERP, Chinese Cultural Implications, Societal Culture, StrategyImplementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are perceived, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise. Keywords: ERP, Chinese Cultural Implications, Societal Culture, StrategyImplementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are perceived, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise. Keywords: ERP, Chinese Cultural Implications, Societal Culture, Strategy

Mukesh Srivastava

2009-05-01

 
 
 
 
141

Organizational Structure: Dimensions, Determinants and Managerial Implication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examined the meaning, nature, forms, dimensions, determinants and managerial implication of organizational structure and its impacts on the organisation. The review revealed that the dimension of organisation structure generally consists of complexity, formalization and centralization, and that strategy, size, culture, technology, environment, people and the like determine the organisation’s structure. work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, centralization, decentralization and formalization are key elements to be considered in designing an effective organizational structure. In conclusion, the structure of an organisation has far-reaching implication on the organisation and its workforce. therefore, it was recommended among others that organisation should adopt a structure that enables it to maintain a competitive advantage in the industry it operates.

Ugbomhe, O. U.

2011-08-01

142

Cognitive Variables Implicated In Chronic Pain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the creation of gate control theory, the importance of psychological variables in chronic pain has emerged. Thus, the cognitive variables are emphasized in between behaviors, emotions and social factors for the explanation of chronic pain. Considering the gate control theory, cognitive variables modulate the other two dimensions of the chronic pain experience: the motivational-afective dimension and the sensory-discriminative dimension (Camacho Martel & Anarte Ortiz, 2001; Gatchel, Peng, Peters, Fuchs & Turk, 2007. The aim of this work is to review the main cognitive variables implicated in the chronic pain experience. Moreover, empirical evidence that support the importance of these variables is presented. Furthermore, it is discussed the clinical implications and the importance of this area in the local context.

Moretti, Luciana Sofía

2010-12-01

143

Growth Laws in Cancer: Implications for Radiotherapy  

CERN Multimedia

Comparing both, the more conventional Gompertz tumor growth law (GL) and the ``Universal'' law (UL), recently proposed and applied to cancer,we have investigated the growth law's implications on various radiotherapy regimen. According to GL, the surviving tumor cell fraction could be reduced 'ad libidum', independently of the initial tumor mass,simply by increasing the number of treatments. On the contrary, if tumor growth dynamics would indeed follow the Universal scaling law, there is a lower limit of the survival fraction that cannot be reduced any further regardless of the total number of treatments. This finding can explain the so called ``tumor size effect'' and re-emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis as it implies that radiotherapy may be successful provided the tumor mass at treatment onset is rather small. Taken together with our previous works, implications of these findings include revisiting standard radiotherapy regimen and overall treatment protocols.

Castorina, P; Gabriele, P; Guiot, C

2006-01-01

144

Synthetic symmetrization in the crystallization and structure determination of CelA from Thermotoga maritima  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Protein crystallization continues to be a major bottleneck in X-ray crystallography. Previous studies suggest that symmetric proteins, such as homodimers, might crystallize more readily than monomeric proteins or asymmetric complexes. Proteins that are naturally monomeric can be made homodimeric artificially. Our approach is to create homodimeric proteins by introducing single cysteines into the protein of interest, which are then oxidized to form a disulfide bond between the two monomers. By...

2011-01-01

145

[Multiple sclerosis: social and economic implications].  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease of the Central Nervous System. It is more frequently diagnosed in young individuals between 20 and 40 years old. MS is the leading non-traumatic cause for disability in young adults in western countries. Portuguese prevalence of the disease is about 50 per 100,000 inhabitants, which means that there are around 5,000 people with MS in Portugal. Our goal was to determine social and economic implications of MS through the description of patient's quality of life and economic difficulties, and to assess the dividend spent by the National Health System (NHS) with this disease. The studied population consisted of 50 individuals with MS in any stage of the disease to whom no exclusion criteria were used. The following questionnaires were applied: Multiple Sclerosis: Socio-Economic Implications and MS and Quality of Life (MSQoL-54). For data processing purposes we used SPSS v.16 and Microsoft Excel 2003. The confidence interval was 95%. In addition we based the cost calculations on K and C constants (official values from 2002). The results obtained were similar to those described in literature in what concerns the clinical presentation and the onset of the disease. Social implications evaluated by MSQoL revealed the majority of the inquiries had a score above 50 (n = 31). In what concerns economic implications the value of 40 843 250 euro was obtained as the mínimum spent by NHS. This number probably represents an under-valorization of the real value since only the direct costs were analyzed. It is necessary that new studies especially with bigger study populations can determine precisely the economic impact of MS in the Portuguese society. PMID:20687991

Machado, April; Valente, Francisco; Reis, Mariana; Saraiva, Pedro; Silva, Rita; Martins, Rosa; Cruz, Simão; Rodrigues, Tiago

2010-01-01

146

Public health implications of environmental exposures.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a public health agency with responsibility for assessing the public health implications associated with uncontrolled releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The biological effects of low-level exposures are a primary concern in these assessments. One of the tools used by the agency for this purpose is the risk assessment paradigm originally outlined and described by the National Academy of Science in 1983. Because ...

Rosa, C. T.; Pohl, H. R.; Williams, M.; Ademoyero, A. A.; Chou, C. H.; Jones, D. E.

1998-01-01

147

Equine hyperkalemic periodic paralysis: review and implications.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this review is to present an up-to-date summary of the signs, diagnosis, treatment, and implications of equine hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. The review encompasses all original articles published between 1986 and early 1993. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is the result of a genetic mutation in the skeletal muscle sodium channel gene. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait; most affected horses are heterozygotes. The classical signs are muscle fasciculation, spasm, a...

1994-01-01

148

Dark matter implications for linear colliders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The existence of dark matter is currently one of the strongest motivations for physics beyond the standard model. Its implications for future colliders are discussed. In the case of neutralino dark matter, cosmological bounds do not provide useful upper limits on superpartner masses. However, in simple models, cosmological considerations do imply that for supersymmetry to be observable at a 500 GeV linear collider, some signature of supersymmetry must appear before the LHC

2001-07-09

149

Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory

1998-12-01

150

Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study

1991-01-01

151

Economic Implications of Deeper Asian Integration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Asian countries are once again focused on options for large, comprehensive regional integration schemes. In this paper we explore the implications of such broad-based regional trade initiatives in Asia, highlighting the bridging of the East and South Asian economies. We place emphasis on the alternative prospects for insider and outsider countries. We work with a global general equilibrium model of the world economy, benchmarked to a projected 2017 sets of trade and production patterns. W...

Francois, Joseph Francis; Wignaraja, Ganeshan

2008-01-01

152

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE: IMPLICATIONS FROM A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article aims to research the ample cultural implications behind the expansion and adoption of corporate governance principles and practices and on the cultural differences inherent in the process of translation/localization of American, English or transnational practices towards continental Europe. More precisely, in the last part of this article, we shall compare the Olivencia rapport from Spain and the Code Corporate Governance Code of the Bucharest Stock Exchange, with a view to analy...

2010-01-01

153

Some Fiscal Implications of Monetary Policy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the implications of alternative monetary targeting procedures for real interest rates and economic activity. We find that countercyclical monetary policy rules lead to higher real interest rates, higher average tax rates, lower output but lower variability of tax rates and consumption relative to procyclical rules. For a country with a high level of public debt (e.g. Italy), the adoption of a counter cyclical proceedure such as interest rate pegging may conceivably raise public debt ...

Salyer, Kevin; Dellas, Harris

2001-01-01

154

Cosmological Implications of Radiatively Generated Axion Scale  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study cosmological implications of supersymmetric axion models in which the axion scale is generated radiatively. Such models lead to the so-called thermal inflation and subsequent reheating should be constrained not to yield a too large axion energy density at the time of nucleosynthesis. We examine how plausible it is that this nucleosynthesis constraint is satisfied for both hadronic and Dine-Fischler-Srednicki-Zhitnitskii type axion models. Baryogenesis and the possib...

Choi, K.; Chun, E. J.; Kim, J. E.

1996-01-01

155

PACAP is Implicated in the Stress Axes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a highly conserved pleiotropic neuropeptide that functions as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator and neurotrophic factor. Accumulating evidence implicates PACAP as an important regulator of both central and/or peripheral components of the stress axes, particularly exposure to prolonged or traumatic stress. Indeed, PACAP and its cognate receptors are widely expressed in the brain regions and peripheral tissues that mediate stress-re...

Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Shintani, Norihito; Tanida, Mamoru; Hayata, Atsuko; Hashimoto, Ryota; Baba, Akemichi

2011-01-01

156

Endocannabinoids and Their Implications for Epilepsy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review covers the main features of a newly discovered intercellular signaling system in which endogenous ligands of the brain's cannabinoid receptors, or endocannabinoids, serve as retrograde messengers that enable a cell to control the strength of its own synaptic inputs. Endocannabinoids are released by bursts of action potentials, including events resembling interictal spikes, and probably by seizures as well. Activation of cannabinoid receptors has been implicated in neuroprotection ...

Alger, Bradley E.

2004-01-01

157

The Risk Implications of Multinational Enterprise  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose â?? Multinational structure has been linked to operational flexibilities that can improve corporate adaptability and a knowledge-based view suggests that multinational resource diversity can facilitate responsive opportunities. The enhanced maneuverability from this can reduce earnings volatility and hence the corporate performance risk. But, the internationalization process may also require irreversible investments that increase corporate exposures and leave the risk implications of multinational enterprize somewhat ambiguous. Hence, the purpose of the paper is to present an empirical study of the implied relationships between the degree of multinationality and various risk measures including downside risk, upside potential, and performance risk. Design/methodology/approach â?? The paper provides a brief literature review, develops hypotheses, and tests them in two-stage least square regressions on archival data to control for pre-selection biases. Findings â?? The analyses indicate that multinationality is associated with lower downside risk as well as higher upside potential and leads to reduced performance risk. The study finds no trace of diminishing effects from higher degrees of multinationality. Research limitations/implications â?? The empirical study uses a sample of large US-based corporations, which could affect the generalizability of results. However, this is consistent with other studies and eases comparability of findings. Practical implications â?? The findings add to the ongoing debate about the risk effects of a multinational corporate structure and confirms that a diverse multinational presence is associated with positive risk outcomes. Originality/value â?? The paper complements a limited number of studies with equivocal results and adopts alternative risk outcome measures. The study extends the industry scope by introducing a comprehensive sample of firms operating in different manufacturing and service businesses.

Andersen, Torben Juul

2011-01-01

158

PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF LOCATION-BASED SCHEDULING  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The traditional method for planning, scheduling and controlling activities and resources in construction projects is the CPM-scheduling, which has been the predominant scheduling method since its introduction in the late 1950s. Over the years, CPM has proven to be a very powerful technique for planning, scheduling and controlling projects. However, criticism has been raised on the CPM method, specifically in the case of construction projects, for deficient management of construction work and discontinuous flow of resources. Alternative scheduling techniques, often called repetitive or linear scheduling methods, have proven to be well suited for projects of a repetitive nature, such as building projects. As the repetitive or linear scheduling methods may include locations or places, they are also referred to by the comprehensive term of location-based scheduling (LBS), which is the concept that will be used in this study. LBS is a scheduling method that rests upon the theories of line-of-balance and which usesthe graphic representation of a flowline chart. As such, LBS is adapted for planning and management of workflows and, thus, may provide a solution to the identified shortcomings of CPM. Even though LBS has a long history and is well grounded theoretically, it has gained generally little attention in the construction industry. Besides the theoretical research available on LBS, some studies report on the application of LBS, but empirical data on the practical implications of LBS is limited. This study rests upon three case studies of residential projects carried out in Denmark in 2006. The purpose is to test and evaluate the practical implications of LBS when applied on site. The study concludes, with emphasis from the site management involved, that improved schedule overview, establishment of workflows and improved project control constitute the three most important implications of LBS.

Andersson, Niclas; Christensen, Knud

2007-01-01

159

Task Complexity and Its Implication for Pedagogy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper was to present the rationale for the Task-based Language teaching and discuss its significance within the SLA approaches to language teaching. First, different approaches to Task-based language teaching research and practice were discussed, then the notion of ‘Task Complexity” has been touched upon and different models for estimating task difficulty or Task Complexity were mentioned. Attempt, then, was made to elaborate on the empirical studies within the Cognition Hypothesis (Robinson, 2003, 2005, 2007. Finally, the implications of Task Complexity for SLA research and pedagogy were widely discussed.

Mohammad Hossein Yousefi

2012-07-01

160

Implications of Delgamuukw on treaty areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The implications of the Delgamuukw decision rendered by the Supreme Court of Canada in December 1997 were discussed. The decision obligates regulatory authorities to consult with First Nations prior to issuing any permits for exploration or extraction of natural resources where such proposed projects might infringe on treaty and Aboriginal rights. The case arose out of an urgent need for First Nations to gain control over their land which was being devastated by the forest industry in British Columbia. The paper also discusses previous court decisions, such as the Lubicon example and the Treaty 8 Tribal Association examples as landmark decisions leading inevitably to the Delgamuukw decision. 11 refs.

Favelle, G. [Eagle Feather Consulting Group Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

1998-12-31

 
 
 
 
161

Reliability implications for commercial Plowshare applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the premise that there will always be a finite chance of a Plowshare project failure, the implications of such a failure are examined. It is suggested that the optimum reliability level will not necessarily be the highest attainable, but rather that which results in minimum average project cost. The type of performance guarantee that the U. S. should provide for nuclear explosive services, the determination of nuclear yield, courses of action to take in the event of failure, and methods to offset remedial costs are discussed. (author)

1970-05-01

162

Device implications of spin-transfer torques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article examines spin-transfer torques from the perspective of three technological applications: hard disk drives, magnetic random access memory (MRAM), and current-tunable high-frequency oscillators. In hard disk drives, spin-transfer torques are a source of noise, and we discuss the implications spin-transfer noise will have on future sensor designs. For MRAM, we evaluate the feasibility of spin-transfer-driven switching. Finally, we discuss the possibility of GHz communication applications enabled by nanoscale spin-transfer oscillators

2008-04-01

163

Device implications of spin-transfer torques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article examines spin-transfer torques from the perspective of three technological applications: hard disk drives, magnetic random access memory (MRAM), and current-tunable high-frequency oscillators. In hard disk drives, spin-transfer torques are a source of noise, and we discuss the implications spin-transfer noise will have on future sensor designs. For MRAM, we evaluate the feasibility of spin-transfer-driven switching. Finally, we discuss the possibility of GHz communication applications enabled by nanoscale spin-transfer oscillators.

Katine, J.A. [Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, Yerba Buena Road, San Jose, CA 95135 (United States); Fullerton, Eric E. [Center of Magnetic Recording Research and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0401 (United States)], E-mail: efullerton@ucsd.edu

2008-04-15

164

Genetic testing: ethical implications in the workplace.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human genome project has led to impressive scientific advances in understanding the genetic basis of disease. To date, genetic risks associated with occupational illnesses are not well understood. Recent research, however, has uncovered an allele that appears directly related to the risk of contracting chronic beryllium disease; other chromosomal abnormalities have been identified in association with cancer. Progress from the human genome project has potential implications for predicting, screening, and diagnosing occupational diseases. Ethical issues associated with the use of genetic testing in the workplace will present employers, insurers, and physicians with challenging decisions related to promoting health in the workplace while avoiding potential misuse of sensitive genetic information. PMID:12225935

McCunney, Robert J

2002-01-01

165

Corporate Language and Implications for Organizational Learning  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper explores empirically implications of language use for MNCsâ?? learning from subsidiaries. Drawing on sociolinguistic literature, the article argues that while employing a single corporate language facilitates quick and direct communication of explicit knowledge, such a language design is insufficient to leverage contextually specific and culturally embedded knowledge. This indicates the need for disentangling language and culture. The paper further argues for the need to go beyond national language to consider how prevailing kinds of corporate talk may curb headquarters potential for learning from cultural and contextual diversity.

Zølner, Mette

2013-01-01

166

Mobile systems development : Challenges, implications and issues  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper takes a systems development perspective on mobility, building on preliminary findings of an on-going multiple case study covering 7 companies. The questions driving this paper are: What are the challenges facing development practice in the mobile industry, how do they affect practice and how are they dealt with? Analysis of the empirical data is done following a structured and inductive approach. A framework showing the segmentation of the mobile industry into five layers is proposed and challenges are presented according to two dimensions, namely a business dimension and a development dimension. Finally, implications stemming from these challenges are discussed and issues inviting for future research are proposed.

Hosbond, Jens Henrik

2005-01-01

167

Arab Spring: Geopolitical Implications for Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article sets out to examine the geopolitical implications of the Arab Spring for Iran. It hypothesizes that in spite of the initial short-term benefits of the Arab Spring, in the long-term it has transformed into an acute challenge for Iran. Developments in Bahrain, Egypt, and Syria-- thanks to their prominent positions in Iran’s foreign policy apparatus-- have contributed to serious friction between Iran and other regional rivals, namely Saudi Arabia, Israel and Turkey. The Arab Spring seems to have given rise to an Iranian Autumn.

Reza Ekhtiari Amiri

2012-09-01

168

Systemic-Functional Grammar: Some Implications for Language Teaching.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews aspects of Halliday's Systemic-Functional Grammar, emphasizing language functions, modality vs modulation, process types, transitivity, information distribution, and cohesion. Implications for language teaching are discussed. (AM)

McTear, Michael F.

1979-01-01

169

Implications of Curriculum Reform for School Buildings in Scotland  

Science.gov (United States)

Scotland's Building Excellence programme is exploring the implications of curriculum reform for school building design. It includes events which bring together teachers, designers, school managers and local authorities.

Scott-Watson, W.

2008-01-01

170

Public health implications of altered puberty timing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Changes in puberty timing have implications for the treatment of individual children, for the risk of later adult disease, and for chemical testing and risk assessment for the population. Children with early puberty are at a risk for accelerated skeletal maturation and short adult height, early sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated with an increased risk for testicular cancer according to several, but not all, epidemiologic studies. Girls and, possibly, boys who exhibit premature adrenarche are at a higher risk for developing features of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in adulthood. Altered timing of puberty also has implications for behavioral disorders. For example, an early maturation is associated witha greater incidence of conduct and behavior disorders during adolescence. Finally, altered puberty timing is considered an adverse effect in reproductive toxicity risk assessment for chemicals. Recent US legislation has mandated improved chemical testing approaches for protecting children's health and screening for endocrine-disrupting agents, which has led to changes in the US Environmental Protection Agency's risk assessment and toxicity testing guidelines to include puberty-related assessments and to the validation of pubertal male and female rat assays for endocrine screening Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2

Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.

2008-01-01

171

Abiding IPRs in Technological Implications for Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focal objective of this article is to analyze the role of intellectual property rights in technological implications within a general context. The performance of the IPRs system and its interaction with national innovation system with some degrees of success has also been highlighted. Major encounter over subsequently decade will be to identify policies and solutions that would permit marketplace economy to flourish in the framework of this intellectual property insurrection. There has been a lot of dispute on the role of intellectual property protection regime specially in fostering innovation, technology development of a country. IPRs are expected to emboli the innovation, by rewarding inventor with a grant of domination rights over the mercantile exploitation for a specified time period. This article tries to attempts to review the role of the IPR regime in technological development and also have suggested some policy implications for country like Pakistan and some reflecting lessons for other developing countries with similar settings and common characteristics. Keywords -

Murtaza Hussain Shaikh A

2014-03-01

172

IRON-TOLERANT CYANOBACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROBIOLOGY  

Science.gov (United States)

The review is dedicated to the new group of extremophiles - iron tolerant cyanobacteria. The authors have analyzed earlier published articles about the ecology of iron tolerant cyanobacteria and their diversity. It was concluded that contemporary iron depositing hot springs might be considered as relative analogs of Precambrian environment. The authors have concluded that the diversity of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria is understudied. The authors also analyzed published data about the physiological peculiarities of iron tolerant cyanobacteria. They made the conclusion that iron tolerant cyanobacteria may oxidize reduced iron through the photosystem of cyanobacteria. The involvement of both Reaction Centers 1 and 2 is also discussed. The conclusion that iron tolerant protocyanobacteria could be involved in banded iron formations generation is also proposed. The possible mechanism of the transition from an oxygenic photosynthesis to an oxygenic one is also discussed. In the final part of the review the authors consider the possible implications of iron tolerant cyanobacteria for astrobiology.

Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Mummey, Daniel L.; Sarkisova, Svetlana A.; McKay, David S.

2006-01-01

173

Cosmological Implications of Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking  

CERN Document Server

We provide a taxonomy of dynamical supersymmetry breaking theories, and discuss the cosmological implications of the various types of models. Models in which supersymmetry breaking is produced by chiral superfields which only have interactions of gravitational strength (\\eg\\ string theory moduli) are inconsistent with standard big bang nucleosynthesis unless the gravitino mass is greater than $\\CO(3) \\times 10^4$ GeV. This problem cannot be solved by inflation. Models in which supersymmetry is dynamically broken by renormalizable interactions in flat space have no such cosmological problems. Supersymmetry can be broken either in a hidden or the visible sector. However hidden sector models suffer from several naturalness problems and have difficulties in producing an acceptably large gluino mass.

Banks, T; Nelson, A E; Banks, Tom; Kaplan, David B.; Nelson, Ann E.

1994-01-01

174

Environmental implications of China's WTO accession  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China's accession to the WTO in 2001 completed the country's entry into the global economy. We investigate environmental implications of WTO-accession. There are several hypotheses in this area: The scale hypothesis says that production is scaled up and in turn, pollution increases. The composition hypothesis says that composition of industries changes and pollution reflects the new composition. The technique hypothesis says that production methods become cleaner and pollution decreases. We analyze the relative strength of the hypotheses by means of an environmental CGE-model, and in the case of air pollution find support for a composition effect in favor of clean industries. Thanks to the composition effect, emissions to air of greenhouse gases fall. Emissions of particles and SO2 also fall, but emissions of NOx and VOC rise. Since particle and SO2-emissions fall we estimate that public health improves (author)

2005-01-01

175

Implications of the Human Genome Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Human Genome Project (HGP), launched in 1991, aims to map and sequence the human genome by 2006. During the fifteen-year life of the project, it is projected that $3 billion in federal funds will be allocated to it. The ultimate aims of spending this money are to analyze the structure of human DNA, to identify all human genes, to recognize the functions of those genes, and to prepare for the biology and medicine of the twenty-first century. The following summary examines some of the implications of the program, concentrating on its scientific import and on the ethical and social problems that it raises. Its aim is to expose principles that might be used in applying the information which the HGP will generate. There is no attempt here to translate the principles into detailed proposals for legislation. Arguments and discussion can be found in the full report, but, like this summary, that report does not contain any legislative proposals.

Kitcher, P.

1998-11-01

176

Vascular calcification in diabetes: mechanisms and implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death among adults with diabetes, and CVD prevention remains a major challenge. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) score measured by electron beam tomography (EBT) or multi-slice detector computed tomography correlates closely with plaque burden and coronary angiography, and predicts coronary events independently of other risk factors. Further, progression of CAC over several years has been shown to predict increased mortality. Coronary calcification is an active process strongly associated with atherosclerotic plaque evolution and is an accepted surrogate endpoint in studies of patients with diabetes older than 30. In this review, recent findings regarding the mechanisms and implications of vascular calcification in diabetes will be discussed. PMID:23526400

Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Budoff, Matthew J; Hokanson, John E

2013-06-01

177

Air transportation energy efficiency - Alternatives and implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Results from recent studies of air transportation energy efficiency alternatives are discussed, along with some of the implications of these alternatives. The fuel-saving alternatives considered include aircraft operation, aircraft modification, derivative aircraft, and new aircraft. In the near-term, energy efficiency improvements should be possible through small improvements in fuel-saving flight procedures, higher density seating, and higher load factors. Additional small near-term improvements could be obtained through aircraft modifications, such as the relatively inexpensive drag reduction modifications. Derivatives of existing aircraft could meet the requirements for new aircraft and provide energy improvements until advanced technology is available to justify the cost of a completely new design. In order to obtain significant improvements in energy efficiency, new aircraft must truly exploit advanced technology in such areas as aerodynamics, composite structures, active controls, and advanced propulsion.

Williams, L. J.

1976-01-01

178

Implications of laboratory diagnosis on brucellosis therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis with a huge economic impact on animal husbandry and public health. The diagnosis of human brucellosis can be protracted because the disease primarily presents as fever of unknown origin with unspecific clinical signs and symptoms. The isolation rate of the fastidious etiologic agent from blood cultures is low, and therefore laboratory diagnosis is mainly based on serologic and molecular testing. However, seronegative brucellosis patients have been described, and antibody titers of diagnostic significance are difficult to define. Whether the molecular detection of Brucella DNA in clinical samples should be followed by long-term antibiotic treatment or not is also a matter of debate. The aim of this article is to review and discuss the implications of laboratory test results in the diagnosis of human brucellosis on disease therapy. PMID:21810055

Al Dahouk, Sascha; Nöckler, Karsten

2011-07-01

179

Gaming Goes Mobile: Issues and Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A recent report by the telecommunications research firm Analysys predicts that mobile games will replace ringtones, logos and other personalisation services as one of the key drivers of the mobile market. Despite the rapid growth of the mobile gaming market, there appears to have been little critical analysis of this phenomenon. The paper aims to investigate the industrial and social implications of mobile gaming, by bringing together some of the current research on both mobile communications and computer games. Beginning with a broad overview of the major stakeholders in the market, the paper examines how mobile gaming functions as a vehicle for convergence, bringing together previously disparate industries around a common form of content. It also examines the regulatory complexities that arise when gaming becomes mobile, and in particular how the rise of technologies like location-based services might impact on issues such as privacy.

Finn, Mark

2005-10-01

180

Waste management implications of concentrating slimes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The anticipated increase in demand for sand-size tailings from the uranium industry suggests that the fine-grained or 'slime' fraction will require special attention for disposal. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) required information on the behaviour and environmental significance of the fine-grained tailings fraction in disposal facilities. Beak Consultants and Golder Associates were contracted to review the significant characteristics of slimes disposal and prepare a report on the physical and chemical characteristics of fine-grained tailings (Phase 1). This report (Phase 2) presents a summary of disposal and management practices for slimes and outlines potential concerns related to these practices. The report also presents an approach to disposal planning and the implications of available and potential management techniques. Experience with the disposal of uranium slimes is scarce and, therefore, relevant information was borrowed from the other mining sectors to predict the consequences of various disposal scenarios

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Heat Shock Proteins and their clinical Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge of the physiological role of heat shock proteins is currently limited; however better understanding of their function and thereby the acquisition of the capacity to harness their power might lead to their use as therapeutic agents and revolutionize clinical practice in a number of areas. Future work is needed to translate the experimental data on the capacity of heat shock proteins to induce tumor protection and immunity to infectious agents into the clinical environment. Approach to cancer vaccine is based on the role of HSP in the presentation of antigens. In several infections and especially autoimmune diseases, the implications of immune responses against HSP are still not properly or fully understood. HSP have clinical significance in conditions such as cardiac hypertrophy, vascular wall injury, cardiac surgery, ischemic preconditioning and ageing. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000: 558-560

M. M. Pathan

182

Implications of LHCb measurements and future prospects  

CERN Multimedia

During 2011 the LHCb experiment at CERN collected 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV pp collisions. Due to the large production cross-sections, these data provide unprecedented samples of heavy flavoured hadrons. The first results from LHCb have made a significant impact on the flavour physics landscape and have definitively proved the concept of a dedicated experiment in the forward region at a hadron collider. This document discusses the implications of these first measurements on classes of extensions to the Standard Model, bearing in mind the interplay with the results of direct searches at ATLAS and CMS. The physics potential of an upgrade to the LHCb detector, which would allow an order of magnitude more data to be collected, is emphasised.

Gershon, Tim

2012-01-01

183

Implications of nonlinearity for spherically symmetric accretion  

CERN Multimedia

Stationary solutions of spherically symmetric accretion processes have been subjected to a time-dependent radial perturbation, whose equation includes nonlinearity to any arbitrary order. Regardless of the order of nonlinearity, the equation of the perturbation bears a form that is remarkably similar to the metric equation of an analogue acoustic black hole. Casting the perturbation as a standing wave and maintaining nonlinearity in it up to the second order, brings out the time-dependence of the perturbation in the form of a Lienard system. A dynamical systems analysis of this Lienard system reveals a saddle point in real time, with the implication that instabilities will develop in the accreting system when the perturbation is extended into the nonlinear regime. The instability of initial subsonic states may also adversely affect the temporal evolution of the flow towards a final stable transonic state.

Sen, Sourav

2012-01-01

184

Implications of inherent safe nuclear power system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The safety of present day nuclear power reactors and research reactors depends on a combination of design features of passive and active systems, and the alert judgement of their operators. A few inherently safe designs of nuclear reactors for power plants are currently under development. In these designs, the passive systems are emphasized, and the active systems are minimized. Also efforts are made to eliminate the potential for human failures that initiate the series of accidents. If a major system fails in these designs, the core is flooded automatically with coolants that flow by gravity, not by mechanical pumps or electromagnetic actuators. Depending on the choice of the coolants--water, liquid metal and helium gas--there are three principal types of inherently safe reactors. In this paper, these inherently safe reactor designs are reviewed and their implications are discussed. Further, future perspectives of their acceptance by nuclear industries are discussed. (author)

1987-11-01

185

Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter  

Science.gov (United States)

We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has shown that the application of shear not only accelerates the transitions to more stable polymorphs, but also causes orientation of the crystallites[1]. The implications of orientation on the structures formed under conditions of shear and cooling will be described using x-ray diffraction and mechanical measurements. 1 G. Mazzanti, S. E. Guthrie, E. B. Sirota et al., Crystal Growth & Design 3 (5), 721 (2003).

Guthrie, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

2004-03-01

186

Ethical implications of neuroimaging in sports concussion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 1.6 to 3.8 million traumatic brain injuries that occur each year are related to sports injuries. New research has broadened the understanding of the acute and chronic pathophysiology of concussion associated with brain injury, and recent advances in diagnostic capabilities with neuroimaging are leading to new ethical questions around sport and care of the head-injured athlete. In this review, we synthesize the current literature on neuroimaging for assessing concussed athletes and explore ethical issues in the context of return to play, short- and long-term neurologic health effects following concussion and resource allocation that are emerging with new implications as neurotechnology becomes an increasingly powerful tool on the playing field of health. PMID:21897290

Valerio, J; Illes, J

2012-01-01

187

Persuasive Recommender Systems Conceptual Background and Implications  

CERN Document Server

Whether users are likely to accept the recommendations provided by a recommender system is of utmost importance to system designers and the marketers who implement them. By conceptualizing the advice seeking and giving relationship as a fundamentally social process, important avenues for understanding the persuasiveness of recommender systems open up. Specifically, research regarding influential factors in advice seeking relationships, which is abundant in the context of human-human relationships, can provide an important framework for identifying potential influence factors in recommender system context. This book reviews the existing literature on the factors in advice seeking relationships in the context of human-human, human-computer, and human-recommender system interactions. It concludes that many social cues that have been identified as influential in other contexts have yet to be implemented and tested with respect to recommender systems. Implications for recommender system research and design are dis...

Yoo, Kyung-Hyan; Zanker, Markus

2013-01-01

188

Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are percei [...] ved, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise.

Mukesh, Srivastava; Betsy J, Gips.

189

XIPHOID FORAMEN AND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In this case report, we want to present a case of pear shaped foramina at the xiphoid process of sternum. The context and purpose: Variations and foramen in the xiphoid process of sternum are frequent. They are clinically important due to their proximity to heart, lungs, diaphragm, liver and stomach. Results: The pear shaped foramina was present in the xiphoid process. It resembled the glenoid fossa of scapula in shape. The maximum length of the foramina was 1.6cm and breadth 1.4cm. Conclusions, brief summary and potential implications: A sound knowledge of xiphoid process variations and anomalies is very important during sternal bone marrow aspiration, radiological reporting, acupuncture and assessing injuries during autopsy and post mortem examination.

Santhosh kumar N

2014-06-01

190

Maspin: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maspin, a non-inhibitory member of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily, has been characterized as a tumor suppressor gene in multiple cancer types. Among the established anti-tumor effects of Maspin are the inhibition of cancer cell invasion, attachment to extracellular matrices, increased sensitivity to apoptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis. However, while significant experimental data support the role of Maspin as a tumor suppressor, clinical data regarding the prognostic implications of Maspin expression have led to conflicting results. This highlights the need for a better understanding of the context dependencies of Maspin in normal biology and how these are perturbed in the context of cancer. In this review, we outline the regulation and roles of Maspin in normal and developmental biology while discussing novel evidence and emerging theories related to its functions in cancer. We provide insight into the immense therapeutic potential of Maspin and the challenges related to its successful clinical translation. PMID:22752408

Bodenstine, Thomas M; Seftor, Richard E B; Khalkhali-Ellis, Zhila; Seftor, Elisabeth A; Pemberton, Philip A; Hendrix, Mary J C

2012-12-01

191

Pituitary stem cells: candidates and implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pituitary is the master endocrine gland of the body. It undergoes many changes after birth, and these changes may be mediated by the differentiation of pituitary stem cells. Stem cells in any tissue source must display (1) pluripotent capacity, (2) capacity for indefinite self-renewal, and (3) a lack of specialization. Unlike neural stem cells identified in the hippocampus and subventricular zone, pituitary stem cells are not associated with one specific cell type. There are many major candidates that are thought to be potential pituitary stem cell sources. This article reviews the evidence for each of the major cell types and discuss the implications of identifying a definitive pituitary stem cell type. PMID:23423660

Nassiri, Farshad; Cusimano, Michael; Zuccato, Jeff A; Mohammed, Safraz; Rotondo, Fabio; Horvath, Eva; Syro, Luis V; Kovacs, Kalman; Lloyd, Ricardo V

2013-09-01

192

Implications of new generations on neutrino masses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We explore the possible implications that new families, that are being searched for at the LHC, would have on neutrino masses. In particular, we have explored the possibility that the smallness of the observed neutrino masses is naturally understood in a modified version of the Standard Model (SM) with complete extra generations of fermions, i.e., that have right-handed neutrinos, in which neutrino masses are generated at two loops. With one extra family it is not possible to fit the observed spectrum of masses and mixings. However, the radiative mass generated provides an important constraint in these kind of models, so the neutrino masses do not exceed their cosmological bound. Within the context of two extra families, we analyse the allowed parameter space and the possible phenomenological signals.

2013-02-07

193

Implications of LHCb measurements and future prospects  

CERN Multimedia

During 2011 the LHCb experiment at CERN collected $1.0 {\\mbox{fb}^{-1}}$ of $\\sqrt{s} = 7 {\\mathrm{\\,Te\\kern -0.1em V}}$ $pp$ collisions. Due to the large heavy quark production cross-sections, these data provide unprecedented samples of heavy flavoured hadrons. The first results from LHCb have made a significant impact on the flavour physics landscape and have definitively proved the concept of a dedicated experiment in the forward region at a hadron collider. This document discusses the implications of these first measurements on classes of extensions to the Standard Model, bearing in mind the interplay with the results of searches for on-shell production of new particles at ATLAS and CMS. The physics potential of an upgrade to the LHCb detector, which would allow an order of magnitude more data to be collected, is emphasised.

Aaij, R; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Anelli, M; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Band, H; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Beigbeder-Beau, C; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernard, F; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; van Beveren, V; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bochin, B; Boer Rookhuizen, H; Bogdanova, G; Bonaccorsi, E; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Brarda, L; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cacérès, T; Cachemiche, J -P; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casajus Ramo, A; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Ceelie, L; Chadaj, B; Chanal, H; Charles, M; Charlet, D; Charpentier, Ph; Chebbi, M; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciambrone, P; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corajod, B; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; D'Antone, I; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Groen, P; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Decreuse, G; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Domke, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Drancourt, C; Duarte, O; Dumps, R; Dupertuis, F; Duval, P -Y; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Evangelisti, F; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Faulkner, P J W; Fave, V; Felici, G; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Föhr, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Fournier, C; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frei, R; Frosini, M; Fuchs, H; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Gets, S; Ghez, Ph; Giachero, A; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golovtsov, V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gong, G; Gong, H; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gromov, V; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Guzik, Z; Gys, T; Hachon, F; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; van der Heijden, B; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hofmann, W; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jamet, O; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jansen, L; Jansweijer, P; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karavichev, O; Karbach, T M; Kashchuk, A; Kechadi, T; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kihm, T; Kluit, R; Kochebina, O; Komarov, V; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kos, J; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Kristic, R; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudenko, Y; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Landi, L; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Laptev, S; Latham, T; Lax, I; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Likhoded, A; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V

2013-01-01

194

Dialectics of mindfulness: implications for western medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Mindfulness as a clinical and nonclinical intervention for a variety of symptoms has recently received a substantial amount of interest. Although the application of mindfulness appears straightforward and its effectiveness is well supported, the concept may easily be misunderstood. This misunderstanding may severely limit the benefit of mindfulness-based interventions. It is therefore necessary to understand that the characteristics of mindfulness are based on a set of seemingly paradoxical structures. This article discusses the underlying paradox by disentangling it into five dialectical positions - activity vs. passivity, wanting vs. non-wanting, changing vs. non-changing, non-judging vs. non-reacting, and active acceptance vs. passive acceptance, respectively. Finally, the practical implications for the medical professional as well as potential caveats are discussed.

Lynch Siobhan

2011-05-01

195

Name Strategy Its Existence and Implications  

CERN Document Server

It is argued that colour name strategy, object name strategy, and chunking strategy in memory are all aspects of the same general phenomena, called stereotyping. It is pointed out that the Berlin-Kay universal partial ordering of colours and the frequency of traffic accidents classified by colour are surprisingly similar. Some consequences of the existence of a name strategy for the philosophy of language and mathematics are discussed. It is argued that real valued quantities occur {\\it ab initio}. The implication of real valued truth quantities is that the {\\bf Continuum Hypothesis} of pure mathematics is side-stepped. The existence of name strategy shows that thought/sememes and talk/phonemes can be separate, and this vindicates the assumption of thought occurring before talk used in psycholinguistic speech production models.

Roberts, M D

1998-01-01

196

Multiple Sclerosis: Oral Manifestations and Dental Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS, a disease of the central nervous system, involves the nerves of the spinal cord and brain. Common early symptoms include visual disturbances, facial pain or trigeminal neuralgia and paresthesia or numbness of feet, legs, hands and arms. Also, many of the medications used in the symptomatic management of the condition have the potential to cause Dry Mouth and associated Oral Disease. Patients taking these medications have a predisposition to hemorrhage and are particularly susceptible to infection. The principal side effects of the medications in the oral cavity are: Stomatitis, ulcers, gingivitis, candidiasis and certain other opportunistic infections (e.g. herpes simplex. Dentists should also be aware of the importance of this disease in the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of certain oro-facial lesions or conditions. This study reviews the oro-facial manifestations of the disease and discusses the dental implications.

2007-01-01

197

The Cosmic Infrared Background Measurements and Implications  

CERN Multimedia

The cosmic infrared background records much of the radiant energy released by processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In the past few years, data from the Cosmic Background Explorer mission provided the first measurements of this background, with additional constraints coming from studies of the attenuation of TeV gamma-rays. At the same time there has been rapid progress in resolving a significant fraction of this background with the deep galaxy counts at infrared wavelengths from the Infrared Space Observatory instruments and at submillimeter wavelengths from the Submillimeter Common User Bolometer Array instrument. This article reviews the measurements of the infrared background and sources contributing to it, and discusses the implications for past and present cosmic processes.

Hauser, M G; Hauser, Michael G.; Dwek, Eli

2001-01-01

198

Wheelchair propulsion biomechanics: implications for wheelchair sports.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this article is to provide the reader with a state-of-the-art review on biomechanics in hand rim wheelchair propulsion, with special attention to sport-specific implications. Biomechanical studies in wheelchair sports mainly aim at optimising sport performance or preventing sport injuries. The sports performance optimisation question has been approached from an ergonomic, as well as a skill proficiency perspective. Sports medical issues have been addressed in wheelchair sports mainly because of the extremely high prevalence of repetitive strain injuries such as shoulder impingement and carpal tunnel syndrome. Sports performance as well as sports medical reflections are made throughout the review. Insight in the underlying musculoskeletal mechanisms of hand rim wheelchair propulsion has been achieved through a combination of experimental data collection under realistic conditions, with a more fundamental mathematical modelling approach. Through a synchronised analysis of the movement pattern, force generation pattern and muscular activity pattern, insight has been gained in the hand rim wheelchair propulsion dynamics of people with a disability, varying in level of physical activity and functional potential. The limiting environment of a laboratory, however, has hampered the drawing of sound conclusions. Through mathematical modelling, simulation and optimisation (minimising injury and maximising performance), insight in the underlying musculoskeletal mechanisms during wheelchair propulsion is sought. The surplus value of inverse and forward dynamic simulation of hand rim stroke dynamics is addressed. Implications for hand rim wheelchair sports are discussed. Wheelchair racing, basketball and rugby were chosen because of the significance and differences in sport-specific movement dynamics. Conclusions can easily be transferred to other wheelchair sports where movement dynamics are fundamental. PMID:11347685

Vanlandewijck, Y; Theisen, D; Daly, D

2001-01-01

199

Efficiently applying uncertain implication rules to the transferable belief model  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses the use of implication rules (with uncertainty) within the Transferable Belief Model (TBM) where the rules convey knowledge about relationships between two frames of discernment. Technical challenges include: a) computational scalability of belief propagation, b) logical consistency of the rules, and c) uncertainty of the rules. This paper presents a simplification of the formalism developed by Ristic and Smets for incorporating uncertain implication rules into the TBM. By imposing two constraints on the form of implication rules, and restricting results to singletons of the frame of discernment, we derive a belief function that can be evaluated in polynomial time.

Farrell, William J.; Knapp, Andrew M.

2013-05-01

200

Policy implications of technologies for cognitive enhancement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Advanced Concepts Group at Sandia National Laboratory and the Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes at Arizona State University convened a workshop in May 2006 to explore the potential policy implications of technologies that might enhance human cognitive abilities. The group's deliberations sought to identify core values and concerns raised by the prospect of cognitive enhancement. The workshop focused on the policy implications of various prospective cognitive enhancements and on the technologies/nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science--that enable them. The prospect of rapidly emerging technological capabilities to enhance human cognition makes urgent a daunting array of questions, tensions, ambitions, and concerns. The workshop elicited dilemmas and concerns in ten overlapping areas: science and democracy; equity and justice; freedom and control; intergenerational issues; ethics and competition; individual and community rights; speed and deliberations; ethical uncertainty; humanness; and sociocultural risk. We identified four different perspectives to encompass the diverse issues related to emergence of cognitive enhancement technologies: (1) Laissez-faire--emphasizes freedom of individuals to seek and employ enhancement technologies based on their own judgment; (2) Managed technological optimism--believes that while these technologies promise great benefits, such benefits cannot emerge without an active government role; (3) Managed technological skepticism--views that the quality of life arises more out of society's institutions than its technologies; and (4) Human Essentialism--starts with the notion of a human essence (whether God-given or evolutionary in origin) that should not be modified. While the perspectives differ significantly about both human nature and the role of government, each encompasses a belief in the value of transparency and reliable information that can allow public discussion and decisions about cognitive enhancement. The practical question is how to foster productive discussions in a society whose attention is notably fragmented and priorities notably diverse. The question of what to talk about remains central, as each of the four perspectives is concerned about different things. Perhaps the key issue for initial clarification as a condition for productive democratic discussion has to do with the intended goals of cognitive enhancement, and the mechanisms for allowing productive deliberation about these goals.

Sarewitz, Daniel R. (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Karas, Thomas H.

2007-02-01

 
 
 
 
201

Implications of observations of international oil spills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intentional releases of crude oil on the open ocean were carried out in the Norwegian Sea in 1989 and 1991. The releases were used to evaluate selected satellite-tracked surface drifting buoys for their ability to simulate the movement of oil on the sea surface, and to improve our understanding of the behavior and fate of oil at sea. The crude oil used in 1989 rapidly formed a stable, highly viscous emulsion with water; the crude oil used in 1991 formed a very unstable emulsion, and spread rapidly to a relatively uniform, thin sheen. Both the surface drifters and a simple drift model simulated slick drift relatively well in 1989, but were significantly in error two out of three times in 1991. A physical explanation and numerical model have been constructed to explain the data. Implications of these and other observations, both for surface drifters and models of oil spills, are discussed. The model hypothesized incorporates the physics of oil entrainment, resurfacing, and transport in a framework that appears to explain all 4 experimental oil spills. The data implies that oils that form stable, viscous emulsions will drift quite differently from those that do not. For oils that emulsify, the key piece of environmental information necessary to compute a trajectory is the wind; for nonemulsifying oils and petroleum products, currents dominate the trajectory

1993-04-01

202

Multistage carcinogenesis: implications for risk estimation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In undertaking a quantitative estimation of carcinogenesis risk, it is essential to keep in mind that carcinogenesis is a multistage process, and that each stage can be affected by different classes of risk factors. Furthermore, different mechanisms are involved in the various stages of carcinogenesis. Thus, a dose-response analysis of one given factor cannot provide an accurate estimation of carcinogenic risk. Carcinogenic risk estimation is usually undertaken for a specific chemical or group of chemicals; however, the concept of multistage carcinogenesis is based on biological processes and not on the mechanisms of action of the agents involved. It is therefore important to consider three related, but different, factors involved in carcinogenesis: stage, agent, and activity of agent. This is especially important in developing a short-term test for stage-related risk factors, such as tumor-promoting agents. For this reason, carcinogens should not be classified according to only one chemical activity. This article briefly reviews the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in multistage carcinogenesis, and discusses their implications for risk estimation. Special consideration is given to the effect of treatment frequency on the response of tumor-promoting agents, as seen in long-term tests in experimental animals. It is proposed that exposure frequency be taken into account together with exposure dose. 85 references.

Yamasaki, H.

1988-04-01

203

The public health implications of melioidosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melioidosis, which is caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a potentially fatal tropical infection, little known outside its main endemic zone of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Though it has received more attention in recent years on account of its claimed suitability as a biological weapon agent, the principal threat from melioidosis is a result of naturally occurring events. Occasional case clusters, sporadic cases outside the known endemic zone and infections in unusual demographic groups highlight a changing epidemiology. As melioidosis is the result of an environmental encounter and not person-to-person transmission, subtle changes in its epidemiology indicate a role environmental factors, such as man-made disturbances of soil and surface water. These have implications for travel, occupational and tropical medicine and in particular for risk assessment and prevention. Practical problems with definitive laboratory diagnosis, antibiotic treatment and the current lack of a vaccine underline the need for prevention through exposure avoidance and other environmental health measures. It is likely that the increasing population burden of the tropical zone and extraction of resources from the humid tropics will increase the prevalence of melioidosis. Climate change-driven extreme weather events will both increase the prevalence of infection and gradually extend its main endemic zone.

Timothy J.J. Inglis

2009-02-01

204

Safety implications of diesel generator aging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The emergency diesel generators in a nuclear power plant have an important safety function-supplying emergency electrical power to maintain cooling and other vital functions. The research reviewed in this article addresses the safety implications of aging of these emergency diesel generators and the influence of aging on their reliability. Historical operational information was assembled on component and system failures and their causes. One significant research result is that the fast-starting and fast-loading test procedure mandated by Regulatory Guide 1.108 and the standard Technical Specifications has contributed to wear and degradation. Other equally important aging and degradation factors for the diesel generators are identified and reviewed. A new approach developed represents a more balanced aging management program that includes (1) slow-start testing during which operating parameters are monitored, (2) analysis of data trends, (3) training, and (4) maintenance. This approach should improve safety by identifying aging degradation that leads to future diesel generator failures. Timely maintenance could then prevent actual failures

1990-01-01

205

The Spiral Curriculum: implications for online learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an apparent disjuncture between the requirements of the medical spiral curriculum and the practice of replacing previous online material in undergraduate courses. This paper investigates the extent to which students revisit previous online material for the purposes of building the educational spiral, and the implications for the implementation of a Faculty's Learning Management System implementation. Methods At the University of Cape Town, medical students' last date of access to 16 previous online courses was determined. Students completed a survey to determine their reasons for revisiting this material and the perceived benefits of this availability. Results 70% of the students revisited their previous online courses. The major reasons were to review lecture presentations, lectures notes, and quizzes. The perceived benefits were for understanding new material, preparation for assessments, and convenience. Although student comments were not always in line with the concept of the spiral curriculum, most referred to processes of building on previous work, and some mentioned the spiral curriculum specifically. Conclusion This study suggests that the practice of replacing previous online courses may hinder rather than support student learning. Although students visit previous material for ranges of reasons, a large number are aware of the spiral curriculum, and use the online environment to build upon previous material. Any practice, which entails replacing material and redesigning curricula content may be detrimental to the students' future learning needs, and such activities may need revision.

Gibbs Trevor

2007-12-01

206

Knowledge Management: Implications on Business Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every organization or individual has been traditionally managing the knowledge unconsciously. Now, the time has changed, as a result, a need is felt to manage knowledge consciously. Over the past one decade there has been an increasing recognition to knowledge management. More conscious and active management of knowledge can bring significant contribution and benefits to the organizations. Knowledge is an asset, which helps in achieving individual or organizational goal. The speed of changes generated by human knowledge is moving at a quantum leap, most of them are unexpected and some of them are uncontrolled, simply cannot turn back. We are living in an age of science and technology, knowledge and its varied application. The varied applications of knowledge will inevitably determine our future. In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight the knowledge, its source and forms, flow of knowledge management, knowledge creativity, functions of knowledge management and emergence of knowledge societies in general and its implications on business education in particular.

Nisar Ahmed I. Mulla

2009-12-01

207

NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF LEGUMES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Legumes are plants in the family Fabaceae characterized by seeds in pods that are often edible though sometimes poisonous. The nutrient content (protein, carbohydrate and micronutrients of legumes contribute to address under-nutrition, especially protein-calorie malnutrition among children and nursing mothers in developing countries where supplementing cereal-based diets with legumes is suggested as one of the best solutions to protein calorie malnutrition. Anti-nutritional factors, in legumes, may limit their biological value and acceptance as a regular food item, yet they are readily removable and recent research has shown potential health benefits of some of these compounds; and hence, manipulation of processing conditions may be required to remove or reduce only those unwanted components. Moreover, legumes play a role in prevention, improvement and/or treatment of disease conditions such as, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer diseases (e.g breast and prostate cancers and lowers blood cholesterol level. Most of these disease conditions are associated with over-nutrition and obesity and are considered as diseases of the rich. It is, therefore, claimed that including legumes in a health-promoting diet is important in meeting the major dietary recommendations to improve the nutritional status of undernourished as well as over-nourished individuals, and to reduce risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and cancer. In this review, some of the scientific viewpoints that attempt to justify the nutritional contributions, anti-nutritional considerations and health implications of legumes are discussed.

Mebrahtom Gebrelibanos*, Dinka Tesfaye, Y. Raghavendra and Biruk Sintayeyu

2013-04-01

208

Slim Disk Viscosity Prescriptions and Observational Implications  

CERN Document Server

We examine the effects of the different viscosity prescriptions and the magnitude of the viscosity parameter, $\\alpha$, on the structure of the slim disk, and discuss the observational implications on accretion-flow into a stellar-mass black hole. For the range of $\\alpha = 10^{-2} \\sim 10^{0}$ we calculate the disk spectra and from spectral fitting we derive $\\Tin$, maximum temperature of the disk, $\\Rin$, the size of the region emitting blackbody radiation with $\\Tin$, and $p\\equiv -{\\rm dln} T_{\\rm eff}/{\\rm dln}~r$, the slope of the effective temperature distribution. It was founded that the estimated $\\Tin$ slightly increases as $\\alpha$ increases. This is because the larger the magnitude of viscosity is, the larger becomes the accretion velocity and, hence, the more enhanced becomes advective energy transport, which means less efficient radiative cooling and thus higher temperatures. Furthermore we check different viscosity prescriptions with the form of the viscous stress tensor of $t_{r \\varphi} = -\\a...

Watarai, K; Watarai, Ken-ya; Mineshige, Shin

2001-01-01

209

Microbiological implications of the food irradiation process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the wholesomeness of irradiated food which met in 1976 concluded after a detailed and critical review of the available information, that the microbiological aspects of food irradiation were fully comparable to those of conventional processes used in modern food technology. Processing of food by irradiation may be considered from the microbiological point of view as separate procedures: high dose treatment (> 10 kGy), for sterilisation (radappertization) and low dose treatment (< 10 kGy) for pasteurisation (radicidation, radurization), (for definitions see p. 43), disinfestation, or inhibition of sprouting. No public health hazards related to micro-organisms arise from high dose irradiation because this process results in commercially sterile products. On the other hand, it is important to consider the possible microbiological hazards when food is irradiated with a low dose. The microbiological implications relate to the natural radiation resistance of bacteria, yeasts, fungi and viruses or to the mutagenic effects of ionising radiation in micro-organisms. Both areas of concern were reviewed in detail by Ingram and Ingram and Farkas. (orig.)

1981-08-01

210

Implications of cloning technique for reproductive medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The birth of Dolly following the transfer of mammary gland nuclei into enucleated eggs established cloning as a feasible technique in mammals, but the moral implications and high incidence of developmental abnormalities associated with cloning have induced the majority of countries to legislate against its use with human gametes. Because of such negative connotations, restrictive political reactions could jeopardize the therapeutic and scientific promise that certain types of cloning may present. For example, in addition to its proposed use as a way of generating stem cells, the basic technique of nuclear transplantation has proven useful in other ways, including its application to immature eggs as a new approach to the prevention of the aneuploidy common in older women, and for some recent advances in preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Thus, while attempts at reproductive cloning in man would seem premature and even dangerous at present, this field will require rational rather than emotional reactions as a basis for legislation if the therapeutic promise of stem cell research and the experimental potential of nuclear transplantation techniques are to be fully realized. PMID:15151711

Takeuchi, Takumi; Palermo, Gianpiero D

2004-05-01

211

Macroeconomic implications of energy policy. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report examines the macroeconomic impacts of rising energy prices and the implications on state energy policy. The industrial sector is faced with rising energy prices and a very energy inefficient capital stock. Industry is also constrained by the availability of financial capital. A review of the empirical data shows that in the short-run, this situation has a negative effect on capital investment and leads to greater substitution of labor. This seems to indicate that there are limited financial opportunities for short-run energy conservation within the existing capital stock. The long-run situation, however, offers the potential for significant reductions in energy use, by replacement and new investment in energy efficient plant and equipment. This again is within the limits of the overall supply of financial capital. State energy policy should be directed toward incentives and regulations tailored specifically to encourage investments in energy efficient capital. Reallocating the existing stock of financial capital in this manner would be more effective than attempts to increase the aggregate supply of financial capital.

Gallo, D.E.

1980-09-15

212

Investigating Interruptions: Implications for Flightdeck Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

A fundamental aspect of multiple task management is attending to new stimuli and integrating associated task requirements into an ongoing task set; this is "interruption management" (IM). Anecdotal evidence and field studies indicate the frequency and consequences of interruptions, however experimental investigations of mechanisms influencing IM are scarce. Interruptions on commercial flightdecks are numerous, of various forms, and have been cited as contributing factors in many aviation incident and accident reports. This research grounds an experimental investigation of flightdeck interruptions in a proposed IM stage model. This model organizes basic research, identifies influencing mechanisms, and suggests appropriate dependent measures for IM. Fourteen airline pilots participated in a flightdeck simulation experiment to investigate the general effects of performing an interrupting task and interrupted procedure, and the effects of specific task factors: (1) modality; (2) embeddedness, or goal-level, of an interruption; (3) strength of association, or coupling-strength, between interrupted tasks; (4) semantic similarity; and (5) environmental stress. General effects of interruptions were extremely robust. All individual task factors significantly affected interruption management, except "similarity." Results extend the Interruption Management model, and are interpreted for their implications for interrupted flightdeck performance and intervention strategies for mitigating their effects on the flightdeck.

Latorella, Kara A.

1999-01-01

213

Relativistic implications of the quantum phase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quantum phase leads to projective representations of symmetry groups in quantum mechanics. The projective representations are equivalent to the unitary representations of the central extension of the group. A celebrated example is Wigner's formulation of special relativistic quantum mechanics as the projective representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group. However, Wigner's formulation makes no mention of the Weyl-Heisenberg group and the hermitian representation of its algebra that are the Heisenberg commutation relations fundamental to quantum physics. We put aside the relativistic symmetry and show that the maximal quantum symmetry that leaves the Heisenberg commutation relations invariant is the projective representations of the conformally scaled inhomogeneous symplectic group. The Weyl-Heisenberg group and noncommutative structure arises directly because the quantum phase requires projective representations. We then consider the relativistic implications of the quantum phase that lead to the Born line element and the projective representations of an inhomogeneous unitary group that defines a noninertial quantum theory. (Understanding noninertial quantum mechanics is a prelude to understanding quantum gravity.) The remarkable properties of this symmetry and its limits are studied.

2012-02-08

214

The coevolutionary implications of host tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Host tolerance to infectious disease, whereby hosts do not directly "fight" parasites but instead ameliorate the damage caused, is an important defense mechanism in both plants and animals. Because tolerance to parasite virulence may lead to higher prevalence of disease in a population, evolutionary theory tells us that while the spread of resistance genes will result in negative frequency dependence and the potential for diversification, the evolution of tolerance is instead likely to result in fixation. However, our understanding of the broader implications of tolerance is limited by a lack of fully coevolutionary theory. Here we examine the coevolution of tolerance across a comprehensive range of classic coevolutionary host-parasite frameworks, including equivalents of gene-for-gene and matching allele and evolutionary invasion models. Our models show that the coevolution of host tolerance and parasite virulence does not lead to the generation and maintenance of diversity through either static polymorphisms or through "Red-queen" cycles. Coevolution of tolerance may however lead to multiple stable states leading to sudden shifts in parasite impacts on host health. More broadly, we emphasize that tolerance may change host-parasite interactions from antagonistic to a form of "apparent commensalism," but may also lead to the evolution of parasites that are highly virulent in nontolerant hosts. PMID:24475902

Best, Alex; White, Andy; Boots, Mike

2014-05-01

215

Implications and Prospects of the GNEP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As increased recognition for a role of an economical carbon-free nuclear energy, it is expected that possibility for introduction and an expansion of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be increased around the world,1) with pursuing self-reliant nuclear fuel cycle in certain states to secure assurances of nuclear fuel supply. However, the pursuit of sensitive nuclear technology such as enrichment and reprocessing has led to concerns about nuclear proliferation. The disclosure of nuclear black market has threatened the current global nonproliferation regime.2) To respond to these concerns, efforts have been made to overcome the loophole of the existing nuclear nonproliferation regime. In February 2004, US President Bush proposed that nuclear exporters refuse to transfer sensitive nuclear technology to prevent new states from producing fissile material to close a loophole in the NPT.3) Meanwhile as the amount of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) by once-through fuel cycle increases, the US needs multiple repositories by the end of the century.4) In February 2006, therefore, Bush administration announced the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), which can bring about expansion of nuclear energy including SNF management while decreasing the risk of nuclear proliferation. It is expected that the GNEP will have an effect on national nuclear programs of participating countries as well as nuclear international cooperation. In this regard, this paper discusses the implication of the GNEP and its prospects

2008-05-01

216

Language Learning Strategies: Classification and Pedagogical Implication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to explore language learning strategies (Rubin, 1975, Naiman et . al ., 1978; Fillmore, 1979; O'Malley et . al ., 1985 and 1990; Politzer and Groarty, 1985; Prokop, 1989; Oxford, 1990; and Wenden, 1991. In the current study a total of 79 university students participating in a 3 month English course participated. This study attempted to explore what language learning strategies successful learners used and to what extent the strategies contributed to success in learning English in Indonesia . Factor analyses, accounting for 62.1 %, 56.0 %, 41.1 %, and 43.5 % of the varience of speaking, listening, reading and writing measures in the language learning strategy questionnaire, suggested that the questionnaire constituted three constructs. The three constructs were named metacognitive strategies, deep level cognitive and surface level cognitive strategies. Regression analyses, performed using scales based on these factors revealed significant main effects for the use of the language learning strategies in learning English, constituting 43 % of the varience in the posttest English achievement scores. An analysis of varience of the gain scores of the highest, middle, and the lowest groups of performers suggested a greater use of metacognitive strategies among successful learners and a greater use of surface level cognitive strategies among unsuccessful learners. Implications for the classroom and future research are also discussed.

Ag. Bambang Setiyadi

2001-01-01

217

Biological behaviour and clinical implications of micrometastases.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: The most important prognostic determinant in cancer is the identification of disseminated tumour burden (metastases). Micrometastases are microscopic (smaller than 2 mm) deposits of malignant cells that are segregated spatially from the primary tumour and depend on neovascular formation (angiogenesis) to propagate. METHODS: The electronic literature (1966 to present) on micrometastases and their implications in malignant melanoma and epithelial cancers was reviewed. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical techniques combined with serial sectioning offer the best accuracy for detection of nodal micrometastases. Molecular techniques should be reserved for blood samples or bone marrow aspirates. Detection of micrometastases in regional lymph nodes and\\/or bone marrow confers a poor prognosis in epithelial cancers. The concept of sentinel node biopsy combined with serial sectioning and dedicated screening for micrometastases may improve staging procedures. Strategies against angiogenesis may provide novel therapies to induce and maintain micrometastatic dormancy. CONCLUSION: The concept of micrometastases has resulted in a paradigm shift in the staging of epithelial tumours and our overall understanding of malignant processes.

Kell, M R

2012-02-03

218

Internet Protocol Television (IPTV Implication for Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper illustrates the development of Internet Protocol Television (IPTV and its implication for education. IPTV is a new type of educational technology that provides digital content (text, graphic, audio and video which users watch as television broadcasting on the Internet. With the capabilities of IPTV that could be used for educational purpose. Therefore, the IPTV project’s (Suan Dusit Internet Broadcasting: SDIB aim has been to develop into a platform that increase educational opportunities that support distant education. The IPTV system was designed to broadcast in four channels (kids, video on demand, variety and radio. More than seven hundred program are being transmitted both trough live and video on demand streams via computer, set top boxes and mobile devices. The IPTV system has been implemented and used in 80 pilot schools. The data of an evaluation of the IPTV system was collected from questionnaires and interviews. The results indicated that IPTV users were highly satisfied with the contents, set top boxes, LCD television, and overall IPTV systems.

2013-01-01

219

Exponential evolution - Implications for intelligent extraterrestrial life  

Science.gov (United States)

The implications for intelligent extraterrestrial life are investigated for some measures of biologic complexity, including maximal levels of brain development, which are exponential functions of time through intervals of 10 to the 6th to the 9th years. Trends in brain evolution are shown to indicate that other organisms could attain human levels within approximately 10 to the 7th years. The number and longevity terms in appropriate modifications of the Drake Equation, together with trends in the evolution of biological complexity on earth, are suggested to provide rough estimates of the prevalence of life forms at specified levels of complexity within the Galaxy. If life occurs throughout the cosmos, exponential evolutionary processes indicate that higher intelligence will soon (10 to the 9th years) become more prevalent than it now is. It is suggested that changes in the physical universe become less rapid as time increases from the Big Bang, while changes in biological complexity may be most rapid at later times.

Russell, D. A.

220

Diagnosis and clinical implications of pancreatobiliary reflux  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sphincter of Oddi is located at the distal end of the pancreatic and bile ducts and regulates the outflow of bile and pancreatic juice. A common channel can be so long that the junction of the pancreatic and bile ducts is located outside of the duodenal wall, as occurs in pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM; in such cases, sphincter action does not functionally affect the junction. As the hydropressure within the pancreatic duct is usually greater than in the bile duct, pancreatic juice frequently refluxes into the biliary duct (pancreatobiliary reflux in PBM, resulting in carcinogenetic conditions in the biliary tract. Pancreatobiliary reflux can be diagnosed from elevated amylase level in the bile, secretin-stimulated dynamic magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and pancreatography via the minor duodenal papilla. Recently, it has become obvious that pancreatobiliary reflux can occur in individuals without PBM. Pancreatobiliary reflux might be related to biliary carcinogenesis even in some individuals without PBM. Since few systemic studies exist with respect to clinical relevance and implications of the pancreatobiliary reflux in individuals with normal pancreaticobiliary junction, further prospective clinical studies including appropriate management should be performed.

Terumi Kamisawa, Hajime Anjiki, Naoto Egawa, Masanao Kurata, Goro Honda, Kouji Tsuruta

2008-11-01

 
 
 
 
221

Environmental implications of excessive selenium: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selenium is a naturally occurring trace element that is nutritionally required in small amounts but it can become toxic at concentrations only twice those required. The narrow margin between beneficial and harmful levels has important implications for human activities that increase the amount of selenium in the environment. Two of these activities, disposal of fossil fuel wastes and agricultural irrigation of arid, seleniferous soils, have poisoned fish and wildlife, and threatened public health at several locations in the United States. Research studies of these episodes have generated a data base that clearly illustrates the environmental hazard of excessive selenium. It is strongly bioaccumulated by aquatic organisms and even slight increases in waterborne concentrations can quickly result in toxic effects such as deformed embryos and reproductive failure in wildlife. The selenium data base has been very beneficial in developing hazard assessment procedures and establishing environmentally sound water quality criteria. The two faces of selenium, required nutrient and potent toxin, make it a particularly important trace element in the health of both animals and man. Because of this paradox, environmental selenium in relation to agriculture, fisheries, and wildlife will continue to raise important land and water management issues for decades to come. If these issues are dealt with using prudence and the available environmental selenium data base, adverse impacts to natural resources and public health can be avoided. PMID:9448924

Lemly, A D

1997-12-01

222

Framework and implications of virtual neurorobotics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite decades of societal investment in artificial learning systems, truly “intelligent” systems have yet to be realized. These traditional models are based on input-output pattern optimization and/or cognitive production rule modeling. One response has been social robotics, using the interaction of human and robot to capture important cognitive dynamics such as cooperation and emotion; to date, these systems still incorporate traditional learning algorithms. More recently, investigators are focusing on the core assumptions of the brain “algorithm” itself—trying to replicate uniquely “neuromorphic” dynamics such as action potential spiking and synaptic learning. Only now are large-scale neuromorphic models becoming feasible, due to the availability of powerful supercomputers and an expanding supply of parameters derived from research into the brain’s interdependent electrophysiological, metabolomic and genomic networks. Personal computer technology has also led to the acceptance of computer-generated humanoid images, or “avatars”, to represent intelligent actors in virtual realities. In a recent paper, we proposed a method of virtual neurorobotics (VNR in which the approaches above (social-emotional robotics, neuromorphic brain architectures, and virtual reality projection are hybridized to rapidly forward-engineer and develop increasingly complex, intrinsically intelligent systems. In this paper, we synthesize our research and related work in the field and provide a framework for VNR, with wider implications for research and practical applications.

2008-07-01

223

Surprises from Saturn: Implications for Other Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

The exploration of Saturn by Cassini has provided many surprises regarding: Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere, interactions with its diverse moons, and interactions with the solar wind. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 Saturn radii (RS), was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' observed. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field-aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, unexpected heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, which provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission and a return will be made in 2017. In addition, highly accelerated electrons are seen at Saturn's high Mach number (MA˜100) quasi-parallel bow shock. Here we review some of these key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system objects.

Coates, A. J.

2014-05-01

224

Extremophile Diatoms: Implications to the Drake Equation  

Science.gov (United States)

Diatoms are unicellular Eukaryotes that (as a group and phylogenetically) are not strictly regarded as extremophiles , since the vast majority of diatoms are mesophilic photoautotrophs. However, among the terrestrial Eukaryotes, diatoms are by far the single group of organisms with the ability to inhabit the greatest range of hostile environments on Earth. They are the dominant eukaryotes in the polar regions; in fumaroles, hot springs and geysers; and in hypersaline and hyperalkaline lakes and pools. Cryophilic species such as Fragilaria sublinearis and Chaetoceras fragilis are able to carry out respiration at extremely low rates at low temperatures in darkness. The Drake Equation refers to the likelihood of there being intelligent life at the technological level of electromagnetic communication. However, consideration of the range of conditions suitable for the habitability of eukaryotic diatoms and prokaryotic extremophiles, the likelihood that life exists elsewhere in the cosmos becomes many orders of magnitude greater than that predicted by the classical Drake Equation. In this paper we review the characteristics of diatoms as eukaryotic extremophiles and consider the implications to adjustments needed to the Drake Equation to assess the possibility that life exists elsewhere in the Universe.

Sterrenburg, Frithjof A. S.; Hoover, Richard B.

2011-01-01

225

Italian occupational health: concepts, conflicts, implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines Italy's worker-based model for occupational health, especially its key concepts and its relation to social conflict. It briefly reviews the history of three approaches to occupational health in Italy: university-based, industry-based, and government-based. It then analyzes the worker-based approach, which emerged in the late 1960s and early 1970s as worker groups and trade unions mobilized around new concepts of occupational health. Five key concepts are discussed: the workers' homogeneous group; workers' subjectivity; the use of contract language; the development of local occupational health institutions; and the use of occupational hazard risk maps. The analysis illustrates how the social processes of mobilization and institutionalization affected the ideas and structures of Italian occupational health. Worker mobilization in Italy produced ideological changes in the nation's occupational health system, institutional changes in universities and governments, and legislative changes at national and local levels. The institutionalization of reforms, however, created new conflicts and problems and tended to restrict worker participation and promote expert intervention. The paper concludes with a brief outline of the history of occupational health approaches in the United States and then discusses the implications of the five Italian concepts for US occupational health policy. PMID:6380322

Reich, M R; Goldman, R H

1984-09-01

226

Italian occupational health: concepts, conflicts, implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines Italy's worker-based model for occupational health, especially its key concepts and its relation to social conflict. It briefly reviews the history of three approaches to occupational health in Italy: university-based, industry-based, and government-based. It then analyzes the worker-based approach, which emerged in the late 1960s and early 1970s as worker groups and trade unions mobilized around new concepts of occupational health. Five key concepts are discussed: the workers' homogeneous group; workers' subjectivity; the use of contract language; the development of local occupational health institutions; and the use of occupational hazard risk maps. The analysis illustrates how the social processes of mobilization and institutionalization affected the ideas and structures of Italian occupational health. Worker mobilization in Italy produced ideological changes in the nation's occupational health system, institutional changes in universities and governments, and legislative changes at national and local levels. The institutionalization of reforms, however, created new conflicts and problems and tended to restrict worker participation and promote expert intervention. The paper concludes with a brief outline of the history of occupational health approaches in the United States and then discusses the implications of the five Italian concepts for US occupational health policy.

Reich, M R; Goldman, R H

1984-01-01

227

Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several lines of evidence converge to the idea that rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a good model to foster our understanding of psychosis. Both REMS and psychosis course with internally generated perceptions and lack of rational judgment, which is attributed to a hyperlimbic activity along with hypofrontality. Interestingly, some individuals can become aware of dreaming during REMS, a particular experience known as lucid dreaming (LD), whose neurobiological basis is still controversial. Since the frontal lobe plays a role in self-consciousness, working memory and attention, here we hypothesize that LD is associated with increased frontal activity during REMS. A possible way to test this hypothesis is to check whether transcranial magnetic or electric stimulation of the frontal region during REMS triggers LD. We further suggest that psychosis and LD are opposite phenomena: LD as a physiological awakening while dreaming due to frontal activity, and psychosis as a pathological intrusion of dream features during wake state due to hypofrontality. We further suggest that LD research may have three main clinical implications. First, LD could be important to the study of consciousness, including its pathologies and other altered states. Second, LD could be used as a therapy for recurrent nightmares, a common symptom of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, LD may allow for motor imagery during dreaming with possible improvement of physical rehabilitation. In all, we believe that LD research may clarify multiple aspects of brain functioning in its physiological, altered and pathological states. PMID:23838126

Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Araujo, John F

2013-11-01

228

Science and religion: implications for science educators  

Science.gov (United States)

A religious perspective on life shapes how and what those with such a perspective learn in science; for some students a religious perspective can hinder learning in science. For such reasons Staver's article is to be welcomed as it proposes a new way of resolving the widely perceived discord between science and religion. Staver notes that Western thinking has traditionally postulated the existence and comprehensibility of a world that is external to and independent of human consciousness. This has led to a conception of truth, truth as correspondence, in which our knowledge corresponds to the facts in this external world. Staver rejects such a conception, preferring the conception of truth as coherence in which the links are between and among independent knowledge claims themselves rather than between a knowledge claim and reality. Staver then proposes constructivism as a vehicle potentially capable of resolving the tension between religion and science. My contention is that the resolution between science and religion that Staver proposes comes at too great a cost—both to science and to religion. Instead I defend a different version of constructivism where humans are seen as capable of generating models of reality that do provide richer and more meaningful understandings of reality, over time and with respect both to science and to religion. I argue that scientific knowledge is a subset of religious knowledge and explore the implications of this for science education in general and when teaching about evolution in particular.

Reiss, Michael J.

2010-03-01

229

Exploring Marital Satisfaction among Graduate Students: Implications for Service Delivery  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides a synopsis of the theoretical and empirical literature describing the effects of graduate study on marital satisfaction. These findings offer implications for psychoeducational and responsive interventions for family counselors working with this population.

Gold, Joshua M.

2006-01-01

230

Nutrition - Fertility Interactions in Developing Countries: Implications for Program Design.  

Science.gov (United States)

While lowering infant mortality decreases fertility, improvements in nutrition increase fertility. It is this apparent conflict, its policy implications, and the physiological and psychological elements of the nutrition-fertility interaction which are the...

M. F. Zeitlin N. P. Schlossman M. J. Meurer J. D. Wray J. B. Stanbury

1980-01-01

231

Energy implications of alternative solid waste management systems. Final report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the energy implications of alternative solid waste management systems. As state and local governments move away from a traditional single facility strategies to more integrated waste management systems, energy use and recovery patterns...

A. L. White M. B. Becker S. T. Schatzki

1990-01-01

232

Loss of genes implicated in gastric function during platypus evolution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several genes implicated in food digestion have been deleted or inactivated in platypus. This loss perhaps explains the anatomical and physiological differences in the gastrointestinal tract between monotremes and other vertebrates and provides insights into platypus genome evolution.

Ordon?ez, Gonzalo R.; Hillier, Ladeana W.; Warren, Wesley C.; Gru?tzner, Frank; Lo?pez-oti?n, Carlos; Puente, Xose S.

2008-01-01

233

Facilitating Organisational Commitment to Evaluation: Implications from Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research conducted among trainers in Nigeria explores key issues inhibiting organizational commitment to training evaluation. Inferences are drawn to arrive at strategies for facilitating organizational commitment. Implications for trainer role and effectiveness are given. (JOW)

Akin-Ogundeji, Oladele

1988-01-01

234

Welfare Implication of Foreign Aid and Domestically Funded Microfinance Programs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microfinance as well as women’s economic participation has welfare implications in developing countries. A two-sector model has been developed to analyze these implications. The findings suggest that the welfare cost of microfinance depends on the country’s overall level of development and society’s attitude towards women’s economic participation. The difference in the welfare cost of government funded microfinance and donor funded microfinance programs can be minimized by increasing ...

2012-01-01

235

Shopper marketing implications on communication strategies and actions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Shopper marketing is an international recent concept and approach to marketing. Since shopper marketing is in the early stages of development, it is also an emerging research field, and consequently questions and challenges acrossall the marketing-mix variables are emerging. This paper addressesshopper marketing implications on one of those variables – communication.Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to study the implications of the shopper marketing approach on marketing/brand comm...

Silveira, Paulo Duarte; Marreiros, Cristina

2013-01-01

236

Fuzzifying Bi-Ideals of Semigroups and Implication Operators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the notion of (?,?-fuzzy bi-ideal of a semigroup is introduced and related properties are investigated. Also, the definition of implication operator in the Lukasiewicz system of continuous-valued logic for fuzzy bi-ideals is considered. In particular, the relationship between fuzzy bi-ideals with thresholds and implication-based fuzzy bi-ideals is analyzed.

H. Hedayati

2011-12-01

237

Implications of the Higgs discovery for the MSSM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The implications of the discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC with a mass of approximately 125 GeV are summarised in the context of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, the MSSM. Discussed are the implications from the measured mass and production/decay rates of the observed particle and from the constraints in the search for the heavier Higgs states at the LHC.

Djouadi, Abdelhak

2013-01-01

238

Siderophilic Cyanobacteria: Implications for Early Earth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of all extant environs, iron-depositing hot springs (IDHS) may exhibit the greatest similarity to late Precambrian shallow warm oceans in regards to temperature, O2 gradients and dissolved iron and H2S concentrations. Despite the insights into the ecology, evolutionary biology, paleogeobiochemistry, and astrobiology examination of IDHS could potentially provide, very few studies dedicated to the physiology and diversity of cyanobacteria (CB) inhabiting IDHS have been conducted. Results. Here we describe the phylogeny, physiology, ultrastructure and biogeochemical activity of several recent CB isolates from two different greater Yellowstone area IDHS, LaDuke and Chocolate Pots. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated that 6 of 12 new isolates examined couldn't be placed within established CB genera. Some of the isolates exhibited pronounced requirements for elevated iron concentrations, with maximum growth rates observed when 0.4-1 mM Fe(3+) was present in the media. In light of "typical" CB iron requirements, our results indicate that elevated iron likely represents a salient factor selecting for "siderophilicM CB species in IDHS. A universal feature of our new isolates is their ability to produce thick EPS layers in which iron accumulates resulting in the generation of well preserved signatures. In parallel, siderophilic CB show enhanced ability to etch the analogs of iron-rich lunar regolith minerals and impact glasses. Despite that iron deposition by CB is not well understood mechanistically, we recently obtained evidence that the PS I:PS II ratio is higher in one of our isolates than for other CB. Although still preliminary, this finding is in direct support of the Y. Cohen hypothesis that PSI can directly oxidize Fe(2+). Conclusion. Our results may have implications for factors driving CB evolutionary relationships and biogeochemical processes on early Earth and probably Mars.

Brown, I. I.; Mummey, D.; Sarkisova, S.; Shen, G.; Bryant, D. A.; Lindsay, J.; Garrison, D.; McKay, D. S.

2006-01-01

239

Implications of climate change for potamodromous fishes.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is little understanding of how climate change will impact potamodromous freshwater fishes. Since the mid 1970s, a decline in annual rainfall in south-western Australia (a globally recognized biodiversity hotspot) has resulted in the rivers of the region undergoing severe reductions in surface flows (ca. 50%). There is universal agreement amongst Global Climate Models that rainfall will continue to decline in this region. Limited data are available on the movement patterns of the endemic freshwater fishes of south-western Australia or on the relationship between their life histories and hydrology. We used this region as a model to determine how dramatic hydrological change may impact potamodromous freshwater fishes. Migration patterns of fishes in the largest river in south-western Australia were quantified over a 4 year period and were related to a number of key environmental variables including discharge, temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen. Most of the endemic freshwater fishes were potamodromous, displaying lateral seasonal spawning migrations from the main channel into tributaries, and there were significant temporal differences in movement patterns between species. Using a model averaging approach, amount of discharge was clearly the best predictor of upstream and downstream movement for most species. Given past and projected reductions in surface flow and groundwater, the findings have major implications for future recruitment rates and population viabilities of potamodromous fishes. Freshwater ecosystems in drying climatic regions can only be managed effectively if such hydro-ecological relationships are considered. Proactive management and addressing existing anthropogenic stressors on aquatic ecosystems associated with the development of surface and groundwater resources and land use is required to increase the resistance and resilience of potamodromous fishes to ongoing flow reductions. PMID:24307662

Beatty, Stephen J; Morgan, David L; Lymbery, Alan J

2014-06-01

240

Implications for environmental health of multiple stressors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose effects of ionising radiation have revealed that similar mechanisms can be induced by chemical stressors in the environment. This means that interactions between radiation and chemicals are likely and that the outcomes following mixed exposures to radiation and chemicals may not be predictable for human health, by consideration of single agent effects. Our understanding of the biological effects of low dose exposure has undergone a major paradigm shift. We now possess technologies which can detect very subtle changes in cells due to small exposures to radiation or other pollutants. We also understand much more now about cell communication, systems biology and the need to consider effects of low dose exposure at different hierarchical levels of organisation from molecules up to and including ecosystems. Furthermore we understand, at least in part, some of the mechanisms which drive low dose effects and which perpetuate these not only in the exposed organism but also in its progeny and in certain cases, its kin. This means that previously held views about safe doses or lack of harmful effects cannot be sustained. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and all national radiation and environmental protection organisations have always accepted a theoretical risk and have applied the precautionary principle and the LNT (linear-non-threshold) model which basically says that there is no safe dose of radiation. Therefore even in the absence of visible effects, exposure of people to radiation is strictly limited. This review will consider the historical context and the new discoveries and will focus on evidence for emergent effects after mixed exposures to combined stressors which include ionising radiation. The implications for regulation of low dose exposures to protect human health and environmental security will be discussed. PMID:19454807

Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, Colin

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
241

Implications for environmental health of multiple stressors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose effects of ionising radiation have revealed that similar mechanisms can be induced by chemical stressors in the environment. This means that interactions between radiation and chemicals are likely and that the outcomes following mixed exposures to radiation and chemicals may not be predictable for human health, by consideration of single agent effects. Our understanding of the biological effects of low dose exposure has undergone a major paradigm shift. We now possess technologies which can detect very subtle changes in cells due to small exposures to radiation or other pollutants. We also understand much more now about cell communication, systems biology and the need to consider effects of low dose exposure at different hierarchical levels of organisation from molecules up to and including ecosystems. Furthermore we understand, at least in part, some of the mechanisms which drive low dose effects and which perpetuate these not only in the exposed organism but also in its progeny and in certain cases, its kin. This means that previously held views about safe doses or lack of harmful effects cannot be sustained. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and all national radiation and environmental protection organisations have always accepted a theoretical risk and have applied the precautionary principle and the LNT (linear-non-threshold) model which basically says that there is no safe dose of radiation. Therefore even in the absence of visible effects, exposure of people to radiation is strictly limited. This review will consider the historical context and the new discoveries and will focus on evidence for emergent effects after mixed exposures to combined stressors which include ionising radiation. The implications for regulation of low dose exposures to protect human health and environmental security will be discussed.

Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, Colin [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada)

2009-06-01

242

BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level.. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

Serghei M RGULESCU

2012-06-01

243

BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

SERGHEI MARGULESCU

2012-05-01

244

CHO Quasispecies—Implications for Manufacturing Processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells are a source of multi-ton quantities of protein pharmaceuticals. They are, however, immortalized cells, characterized by a high degree of genetic and phenotypic diversity. As is known for any biological system, this diversity is enhanced by selective forces when laboratories (no sharing of gene pools grow cells under (diverse conditions that are practical and useful. CHO cells have been used in culture for more than 50 years, and various lines of cells are available and have been used in manufacturing. This article tries to represent, in a cursory way, the history of CHO cells, particularly the origin and subsequent fate of key cell lines. It is proposed that the name CHO represents many different cell types, based on their inherent genetic diversity and their dynamic rate of genetic change. The continuing remodeling of genomic structure in clonal or non-clonal cell populations, particularly due to the non-standardized culture conditions in hundreds of different labs renders CHO cells a typical case for “quasispecies”. This term was coined for families of related (genomic sequences exposed to high mutation rate environments where a large fraction of offspring is expected to carry one or more mutations. The implications of the quasispecies concept for CHO cells used in protein manufacturing processes are significant. CHO genomics/transcriptomics may provide only limited insights when done on one or two “old” and poorly characterized CHO strains. In contrast, screening of clonal cell lines, derived from a well-defined starting material, possibly within a given academic or industrial environment, may reveal a more narrow diversity of phenotypes with respect to physiological/metabolic activities and, thus, allow more precise and reliable predictions of the potential of a clone for high-yielding manufacturing processes.

Florian M. Wurm

2013-10-01

245

Discovering indigenous science: Implications for science education  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous science relates to both the science knowledge of long-resident, usually oral culture peoples, as well as the science knowledge of all peoples who as participants in culture are affected by the worldview and relativist interests of their home communities. This article explores aspects of multicultural science and pedagogy and describes a rich and well-documented branch of indigenous science known to biologists and ecologists as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Although TEK has been generally inaccessible, educators can now use a burgeoning science-based TEK literature that documents numerous examples of time-proven, ecologically relevant, and cost effective indigenous science. Disputes regarding the universality of the standard scientific account are of critical importance for science educators because the definition of science is a de facto gatekeeping device for determining what can be included in a school science curriculum and what cannot. When Western modern science (WMS) is defined as universal it does displace revelation-based knowledge (i.e., creation science); however, it also displaces pragmatic local indigenous knowledge that does not conform with formal aspects of the standard account. Thus, in most science classrooms around the globe, Western modern science has been taught at the expense of indigenous knowledge. However, because WMS has been implicated in many of the world's ecological disasters, and because the traditional wisdom component of TEK is particularly rich in time-tested approaches that foster sustainability and environmental integrity, it is possible that the universalist gatekeeper can be seen as increasingly problematic and even counter productive. This paper describes many examples from Canada and around the world of indigenous people's contributions to science, environmental understanding, and sustainability. The authors argue the view that Western or modern science is just one of many sciences that need to be addressed in the science classroom. We conclude by presenting instructional strategies that can help all science learners negotiate border crossings between Western modern science and indigenous science.

Snively, Gloria; Corsiglia, John

2001-01-01

246

Deadenylation: enzymes, regulation, and functional implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lengths of the eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) poly(A) tails are dynamically changed by the opposing effects of poly(A) polymerases and deadenylases. Modulating poly(A) tail length provides a highly regulated means to control almost every stage of mRNA lifecycle including transcription, processing, quality control, transport, translation, silence, and decay. The existence of diverse deadenylases with distinct properties highlights the importance of regulating poly(A) tail length in cellular functions. The deadenylation activity can be modulated by subcellular locations of the deadenylases, cis-acting elements in the target mRNAs, trans-acting RNA-binding proteins, posttranslational modifications of deadenylase and associated factors, as well as transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of the deadenylase genes. Among these regulators, the physiological functions of deadenylases are largely dependent on the interactions with the trans-acting RNA-binding proteins, which recruit deadenylases to the target mRNAs. The task of these RNA-binding proteins is to find and mark the target mRNAs based on their sequence features. Regulation of the regulators can switch on or switch off deadenylation and thereby destabilize or stabilize the targeted mRNAs, respectively. The distinct domain compositions and cofactors provide various deadenylases the structural basis for the recruitments by distinct RNA-binding protein subsets to meet dissimilar cellular demands. The diverse deadenylases, the numerous types of regulators, and the reversible posttranslational modifications together make up a complicated network to precisely regulate intracellular mRNA homeostasis. This review will focus on the diverse regulators of various deadenylases and will discuss their functional implications, remaining problems, and future challenges. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Conflict of interest: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. PMID:24523229

Yan, Yong-Bin

2014-05-01

247

Habit formation: implications for alcoholism research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Characteristics of individuals with severe alcohol use disorders include heightened cue sensitivity, compulsive seeking, craving, and continued alcohol use in the face of negative consequences. Animal models are useful for understanding behavioral and neurological mechanisms underlying problematic alcohol use. Seeking of operant reinforcers including alcohol is processed by two mechanisms, commonly referred to as "goal-directed" (action-outcome) and "habitual" (stimulus-response). As substance use disorders are characterized by continued use regardless of unfavorable outcomes, it is plausible that drug use causes an unnatural disruption of these mechanisms. We present a critical analysis of literature pertaining to behavioral neuroscience alcoholism research involving habit formation. Traditionally, when operant behavior is unaffected by a loss of subjective value of a reinforcer (devaluation), the behavior is considered habitual. Acquisition of instrumental behavior requires corticostriatal mechanisms that depend heavily on the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, whereas practiced behavior is more predominantly controlled by the dorsal striatum. Dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the neurological adaptations involved in stimulus-response action, and drugs of abuse appear to facilitate habitual behavior through high levels of dopamine release. Evidence suggests that the use of alcohol as a reinforcer expedites habit formation, and that a history of alcohol use produces alterations in striatal morphology, aids habit learning for non-psychoactive reinforcers, and promotes alcohol drinking despite aversive adulterants. In this review, we suggest directions for future alcoholism research that seeks to measure action made despite a devalued outcome, including procedural modifications and genotypic, pharmacological, or neurological manipulations. Most alcoholism models currently in use fail to reach substantial blood ethanol concentrations, a shortcoming that may be alleviated through the use of high-drinking rodent lines. Additionally, satiety, one common mechanism of devaluing reinforcers, is not recommended for alcohol research because the psychoactive effects of alcohol depress response rates, mimicking devaluation effects. Overall, further research of habit formation and potentially related perseverative behaviors could be invaluable in discovering genetic variance, traits that correlate with persistent alcohol seeking, implicated neural structures and processes of alcohol use, and eventually novel pharmacological treatment for alcoholism. PMID:24835007

O'Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas

2014-06-01

248

GEMAS - Soil geochemistry and health implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The GEMAS Project resulted in a large coherent data set displaying baseline levels of elements in agricultural and grazing land soil, which has a wide variety of applications. Medical geology is an emerging new discipline providing a link between geoscience and medicine by interpreting natural geological factors in relation to human and animal health and their geographical distribution. Medical geology shows not only problems related to harmful health effects of natural geological materials and processes, but also deals with their beneficial aspects. Since the GEMAS project demonstrates the importance of geological factors in geochemical patterns in European soil, this data set can be used in improving our understanding of how the geological processes may affect human health in Europe. The main potential health problems are related to deficiency of nutrients in soil and toxic effects of potentially harmful elements. Deficiency in macro- (e.g., K, Fe, Mg, P) and micro-nutrients (e.g., Se, Zn, Cl) can be responsible for a reduction in crop productivity and certain health issues for livestock and humans. On the other hand, bioavailability of crucial elements depends on soil parameters, e.g., pH; namely, low pH in soil (in northern Europe) makes more micronutrients bioavailable, with the exception of Mo, P and Ca. Rocks underlying the soil layer have a major impact on soil composition, and soil parent material can be a main source of toxic metals, for instance, soil developed on black shale (e.g., Oslo region) shows potentially toxic levels of metals, such as As, Cd, U, Zn and Pb. High content of organic matter is another factor amplifying the toxic levels of metals in soil. Several important topics with health implications can be then addressed using the GEMAS data set, namely, soil properties and element bioavailability, arsenic toxicity, selenium deficiency, potential health effects of liming, uranium in European soil, influence of recent and historical volcanic activity on soil composition and its health consequences. References Reimann, C., Birke, M., Demetriades, A., Filzmoser, P. & O'Connor, P. (Editors), 2014. Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils - Part A: Methodology and interpretation of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B), Schweizerbarth, Hannover, 528 pp. Reimann, C., Birke, M., Demetriades, A., Filzmoser, P. & O'Connor, P. (Editors), 2014. Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils - Part B: General background information and further analysis of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B), Schweizerbarth, Hannover, 352 pp.

Ernstsen, Vibeke; Ladenberger, Anna; Wragg, Joanna; Gulan, Aleksandra

2014-05-01

249

Functional implications of seizure-induced neurogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The neurobiological doctrine governing the concept of neurogenesis has undergone a revolution in the past few years. What was once considered dubious is now well accepted: new neurons are born in the adult brain. Science fiction is quickly becoming a reality as scientists discover ways to convert skin, bone, or blood cells into neurons. In the epilepsy arena, widespread interest has developed because of the evidence that neurogenesis increases after seizures, trauma, and other insults or injuries that alter seizure susceptibility. This review discusses some of the initial studies in this field, and their often surprising functional implications. The emphasis will be on the granule cells of hippocampus, because they are perhaps more relevant to epilepsy than other areas in which neurogenesis occurs throughout life, the olfactory bulb and subventricular zone. In particular, the following questions will be addressed: 1. Do granule cells that are born in the adult brain become functional, and what are the limits of their function? Do they behave homogeneously? Results from our own laboratory have focused on cells that become established outside the normal boundaries of the granule cell layer, forming a group of "ectopic" granule cells in the hilar region. 2. Is increased neurogenesis beneficial, or might it actually exacerbate seizures? Evidence is presented that supports the hypothesis that new granule cells may not necessarily act to ameliorate seizures, and might even contribute to them. Furthermore, cognitive deficits following seizures might in part be due to new circuits that develop between new cells and the host brain. 3. How do the new cells interact with the host brain? Several changes occur in the dentate gyrus after seizures, and increased neurogenesis is only one of many. What is the interdependence of this multitude of changes, if any? 4. Is neurogenesis increased after seizures in man? Research suggests that the data from human epileptics are actually inconsistent with the studies in animal models of epilepsy, because there is little evidence of increased neurogenesis in epileptic tissue resected from intractable epileptics. Yet neurogenesis has been shown to occur in humans throughout adult life. What might be the reasons for these seemingly disparate results? PMID:15250595

Scharfman, Helen E

2004-01-01

250

Implications European Environmental Legislation for Photovoltaic Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is given of European environmental legislation which is effective now or proposed and which may have implications for the photovoltaic industry. The focus will be on legislation, which has been implemented already in national law, like the WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment) and ROHS (restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances) directives. Photovoltaic modules are presently excluded from the WEEE- and ROHS- directives, but this situation may very well change in the future. As a common European waste policy the producer will be responsible for its end-of-life collection and 'treatment' of his products. When PV modules are included in the ROHS regulation, it will be prohibited to put lead- or cadmium-containing modules on the EU-market, above the regulatory limits for hazardous metal contents. Therefore an overview is also given of repair, recovery and recycling technologies for PV modules, design-for-recycling concepts and the replacement of lead and cadmium. A number of other proposals for future legislation may have an impact on photovoltaic products as well. Among these are Reach (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), F-gases (regulation on certain fluorinated greenhouse gases) and EuP (eco-design requirements for energy-using products). A change of the module design, with the research, development, implementation and certification necessary to be able to produce photovoltaic systems that comply with such legislation, may be very time-consuming and expensive. Therefore a pro-active approach by the PV community is desirable. Environmental life cycle thinking and eco-design is becoming increasingly important as part of the European product and waste policy and will have its impact on the PV industry as well. Design-for-recycling must be encouraged to allow for an easy, cost-effective disassembly, with a high retrieval of for instance the precious crystalline silicon solar cells. A closed production cycle, i.e. guaranteed take back system, would probably prevent the commission as well as member states to impose legislative measures.

De Wild-Scholten, M.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Wambach, K. [Deutsche Solar, Geschaeftsbereich Solar Materials, Freiberg/Sachsen (Germany); Alsema, E.A. [Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jager-Waldau, A. [DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Renewable Energies Unit, European Commission, Ispra (Italy)

2005-06-01

251

Generic implications of ATWS events at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant: generic implications. Vol. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is the first of two volumes. It documents the work of an interoffice, interdisciplinary NRC Task Force established to determine the generic implications of two anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 on February 22 and 25, 1983. A second report will document the NRC actions to be taken based on the work of the Task Force. The Task Force was established to address three questions: (1) Is there a need for prompt action for similar equipment in other facilities. (2) Are NRC and its licensees learning the sefety-management lessons, and, (3) How should the priority and content of the ATWS rule be adjusted. A number of short-term actions were taken through Bulletins and an Information Notice. Intermediate-term actions to address the generic issues will be addressed in the separate report and implemented through appropriate regulatory mechanisms

1983-01-01

252

The aging of China's population: perspectives and implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

"China's efforts to accelerate the pace of modernization emphasize the promotion of economic development and the reduction of its population growth through the adoption of a one-child per family policy. However, that policy has implications for the eventual aging of the country's population. This article reviews the changes in the status of the elderly, explores the changes in size of the elderly population, and various related social and policy implications." Topics considered include socioeconomic changes, underlying population dynamics, the current situation of the elderly, some international comparisons, implications of aging, planning for support of the elderly, health care, living arrangements and family support, retirement, and the status of the widowed, divorced, and unmarried in the elderly population. PMID:12269187

Yang, Q

1988-03-01

253

Welfare Implication of Foreign Aid and Domestically Funded Microfinance Programs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microfinance as well as women’s economic participation has welfare implications in developing countries. A two-sector model has been developed to analyze these implications. The findings suggest that the welfare cost of microfinance depends on the country’s overall level of development and society’s attitude towards women’s economic participation. The difference in the welfare cost of government funded microfinance and donor funded microfinance programs can be minimized by increasing the administrative efficiency of public spending on microfinance.

Md. Abul Basher

2012-02-01

254

Software Development Methodologies, Trends and Implications: A Testing Centric View  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The practice of software development has evolved steadily over the decades. Numerous methods and models (e.g., life cycle models and agile methods have been proposed to enhance its efficiency and effectiveness. This study provides a testing centric view of software development practices. Specifically, it reviews software development methodologies (i.e., methods and models, identifies the latest trends in the industry and discusses their implications. The review of methodologies, the identification of these trends and the discussion of their implications will be useful to software development educators, students, practitioners and researchers.

Xihui Zhang

2010-01-01

255

eBay Law: The Legal Implications of the C2C Electronic Commerce Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper attempts to address some of the legal implications of the popular Consumer-to-Consumer electronic commerce model, in particular the implications of the successful and popular auctions site eBay.

Guadamuz, Andres

2003-01-01

256

75 FR 76460 - Lymphohematopoietic Cancers Induced by Chemicals and Other Agents: Overview and Implications for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Implications for Risk Assessment'' is available...Lymphohematopoietic Cancers Induced by Chemicals...and Implications for Risk Assessment.'' Comments...the lymphohematopoietic cancers induced by chemical agents...Internet. If you submit an electronic comment, EPA...

2010-12-08

257

Implications of State Performance Indicators for Community College Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

The views of state legislators and agencies that govern higher education must be considered along with institutional perspectives on approaches to assessment of student learning outcomes. This chapter provides a review of performance indicators from twenty-nine recent state reports and discusses their implications for the assessment of student…

Burke, Joseph C.; Minassians, Henrik P.

2004-01-01

258

IMPLICATION OF MARKETING PLAN: FOR MARKETING LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper describes the meaning and purpose of marketing in academic libraries and discusses five laws of library science in the view of marketing. It also describes marketing process, its development and implication of marketing plan, and list of the tools and techniques for marketing

V. A. NAIKWADI AND P. M. CHASKAR

2012-11-01

259

Ordered direct implicational basis of a finite closure system  

CERN Multimedia

Closure system on a finite set is a unifying concept in logic programming, relational data bases and knowledge systems. It can also be presented in the terms of finite lattices, and the tools of economic description of a finite lattice have long existed in lattice theory. We present this approach by describing the so-called $D$-basis and introducing the concept of ordered direct basis of an implicational system. A direct basis of a closure operator, or an implicational system, is a set of implications that allows one to compute the closure of an arbitrary set by a single iteration. This property is preserved by the D-basis at the cost of following a prescribed order in which implications will be attended. In particular, using an ordered direct basis allows to optimize the forward chaining procedure in logic programming that uses the Horn fragment of propositional logic. One can extract the D-basis from any direct unit basis S in time polynomial in the size of S, and it takes only linear time of the cardinalit...

Adaricheva, Kira; Rand, Robert

2011-01-01

260

Atrial Arrhythmias and Their Implications for Space Flight - Introduction  

Science.gov (United States)

This panel will discuss the implications of atrial arrhythmias in astronauts from a variety of perspectives; including historical data, current practices, and future challenges for exploration class missions. The panelists will present case histories, outline the evolution of current NASA medical standards for atrial arrhythmias, discuss the use of predictive tools, and consider potential challenges for current and future missions.

Polk, J. D.; Barr, Y. R.; Bauer, P.; Hamilton, D. R.; Kerstman, E.; Tarver, B.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Guattari's Ecosophy and Implications for Pedagogy  

Science.gov (United States)

Guattari's ecosophy has implications for many types of pedagogy practiced in the school. While Guattari never explicitly advocated the educational use of ecosophy, I explore in this article how it can be used as a lens to "read" pedagogy in nuanced ways, highlighting oppressive premises and practices. I first discuss Guattari's…

Greenhalgh-Spencer, Heather

2014-01-01

262

Health Implications of Smokeless Tobacco Use. Volume 6, Number 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concerned with the increase in use of chewing tobacco and snuff, this brochure looks at the health risks of using smokeless tobacco. It presents five questions about smokeless tobacco use and provides answers to the questions developed by a consensus development conference on health implications of smokeless tobacco use convened by the National…

National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD. Office of Medical Applications of Research.

263

College Teaching and Teachers: Legal Implications of Academic Affairs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document presents the proceedings of a conference at the University of Alabama designed to examine the legal implications of academic affairs. Papers cover women's rights in academe, and some extra-legal concerns, the outlook for faculty bargaining, an industrial relations approach to faculty collective bargaining, and the courts and academic…

Diener, Thomas J., Ed.

264

Implications of a light dilaton in gauge theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recent observation that gauge theory with a dilaton accommodates both a regularized Coulomb phase and a confining phase is reviewed. In addition to the contribution from the linearly increasing gauge potential dilaton-mass couplings may induce a scalar contribution and some implications of the vector and scalar contributions to the confining potential are outlined

1997-06-15

265

DMPD: Therapeutic implications of the TLR and VDR partnership.  

Full Text Available 17276732 Therapeutic implications of the TLR and VDR partnership. Liu PT, Krutzik SR, Modlin RL. Trends Mol Med. 2007 Mar;13(3):117-24. Epub 2007 Feb 5. ( Authors Liu PT, Krutzik SR, Modlin RL. Publication Trends Mol Med. 2007 Mar;13(3):117-24. Epub 2007 Feb 5. P

266

The precision of higgs boson measurements and their implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The prospects for a precise exploration of the properties of a single or many observed Higgs bosons at future accelerators are summarized, with particular emphasis on the abilities of a Linear Collider (LC). Some implications of these measurements for discerning new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) are also discussed.

J. Conway et al.

2002-12-05

267

Bimetric gravity doubly coupled to matter: theory and cosmological implications  

CERN Multimedia

A ghost-free theory of gravity with two dynamical metrics both coupled to matter is shown to be consistent and viable. Its cosmological implications are studied, and the models, in particular in the context of partially massless gravity, are found to naturally explain the cosmic acceleration without resorting to dark energy.

Akrami, Yashar; Mota, David F; Sandstad, Marit

2013-01-01

268

Implications for the evolution of chondrules from Agglomeratic olivine chondrules  

Science.gov (United States)

There is considerable evidence that chondrules formed by the melting of solid materials and, by default, the early solar nebula is the preferred location for chondrule formation. Agglomeratic olivine (AO) chondrules supply perhaps the most intriguing, direct evidence for chondrule formation from agglomeration of solids. We review the characteristics of AO chondrules and discuss their implications for understanding chondrule precursors and chondrule evolution.

Weisberg, M. K.; Prinz, M.

1994-01-01

269

Implications of Recovering for Mental Health Systems and Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation outlines the implications of psychiatric disability recovery for mental health systems and programs. Schizophrenia and other serious psychiatric disabilities have been viewed as irreversible illnesses with increasing disability over time. Mental health program planning, policies, and practices have been developed and implemented…

Spaniol, LeRoy

270

Observations and implications of extra-terrestrial neutrinos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several examples of the data on extra-terrestrial neutrinos are treated to illustrate the progress in experimental neutrino astrophysics. Limits obtained from searches for stellar point sources of neutrinos and relic supernovae neutrinos are briefly described. The observations of atmospheric and solar neutrinos and their implications are discussed in greater detail

1989-06-19

271

Face-Recognition Memory: Implications for Children's Eyewitness Testimony.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews studies of face-recognition memory and considers implications for assessing the dependability of children's performances as eyewitnesses. Considers personal factors (age, intellectual differences, and gender) and situational factors (familiarity of face, retention interval, and others). Also identifies developmental questions for future…

Chance, June E.; Goldstein, Alvin G.

1984-01-01

272

Components of Statistical Thinking and Implications for Instruction and Assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on statistical thinking as the third arm of statistical development. The paper opens with a survey of recent definitions of statistical thinking and then attempts to differentiate statistical thinking from statistical literacy and statistical reasoning. Implications for instruction are traced, emphasizing beginning courses for…

Chance, Beth L.

273

Marital Conflict Behaviors and Implications for Divorce over 16 Years  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined self-reported marital conflict behaviors and their implications for divorce. Husbands and wives (N = 373 couples; 47% White American, 53% Black American) reported conflict behaviors in Years 1, 3, 7, and 16 of their marriages. Individual behaviors (e.g., destructive behaviors) and patterns of behaviors between partners (e.g.,…

Birditt, Kira S.; Brown, Edna; Orbuch, Terri L.; McIlvane, Jessica M.

2010-01-01

274

Treating Communication Anxiety: Implications of the Communibiological Paradigm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Offers a synopsis of M. Beatty and J. McCroskey's 1998 reconceptualization of communication apprehension via the communibiological paradigm. Examines possible treatment implications of this model of communication anxiety for teachers of speech communication, particularly of public speaking. Advances pedagogical strategies, based upon the premise…

Kelly, Lynne; Keaten, James A.

2000-01-01

275

Technology, Narcissism, and the Moral Sense: Implications for Instruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses narcissism, child-rearing practices that lead to child-centeredness, and social insensitivity and their implications for instruction. Considers moral education and the moral sense; cultivating the moral sense through technology; and idea and product technologies. Also includes a commentary on the article by Jonathan Ross and a response…

Ryan, Francis; Bednar, Maryanne; Sweeder, John

1999-01-01

276

Winston Churchill's "Iron Curtain" Address: Implications for the Present.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluates the "Iron Curtain" speech made by Winston Churchill in 1946, discussing its relevance and implications for the present. Examines Churchill's predictions for the future and his assessment of the USSR. Reviews world developments since the speech and proposes foreign policy goals for the next 40 years. (GEA)

Bush, George

1988-01-01

277

Climate and sea level change: observations, projections and implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The theme of the book is sea level change and the major subject areas addressed are observations, projections and implications. There are case studies on the Bay of Bengal, Egypt, Bangladesh, the Mississippi River, Norfolk UK, the Netherlands, South America and Hong Kong. Two chapters have been abstracted.

Warrick, R.A.; Barrow, E.M.; Wigley, T.M.L. (eds.) (Waikato University, Hamilton (New Zealand). Centre for Environmental and Resource Studies)

1993-01-01

278

The Bologna Process: Perspectives and Implications for the Russian University  

Science.gov (United States)

This article draws on the discourses of educational policy in Europe to focus on the implications of the Bologna Process for higher education in Russia. The Bologna Process, as a multi-dimensional discourse involving a variety of social actors, reflects some of the complexities and contradictions of globalisation, in many local cases evoking…

Telegina, Galina; Schwengel, Hermann

2012-01-01

279

Islam and Citizenship Education in Singapore: Challenges and Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The religious diversity of Singapore, coupled with the current phenomenon of Islamic revivalism, makes the management of religion a paramount concern for the Singapore government. By examining the developments of Islam in Singapore, this article explores the challenges and implications these developments have on citizenship education in the…

Tan, Charlene

2007-01-01

280

Local Citation Analysis of Graduate Biology Theses: Collection Development Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper will focus on the citation analysis of graduate masters theses from Carleton University's Biology Department with implications for library collection management decisions. Twenty-five masters theses were studied to determine citation types and percentages, ranking of journals by frequency of citation and by number of authors citing, and…

Miller, Laura Newton

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Managerialism and Higher Education Governance: Implications for South African Universities?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article identifies some of the implications of corporate forms of higher education governance for the management of South African universities. It explores corporate higher educational governance with reference to institutional autonomy incorporating academic freedom. It is the contention of this article that the primary driver of higher…

Adams, F.

2006-01-01

282

A Review of Teacher Nonverbal Immediacy: Implications for Intercultural Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews research which has focused upon teacher nonverbal immediacy behaviors, and notes implications for additional research which considers culture as a key research variable. Specifically, the paper: (1) reviews and discusses previous research which has investigated nonverbal communication in classrooms, with an emphasis on teacher…

Ikeda, Tomoko; Beebe, Steven A.

283

The Male Role in Contraception: Implications for Health Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many males still perceive contraception as a woman's responsibility. This paper describes male contraceptives and their effectiveness and draws implications for school and community health education professionals. More equitable sharing of the responsibility for contraception might result in more effective contraception. (PP)

Chng, Chwee Lye

1983-01-01

284

Extrasensory Perception Research: Difficulties and Implications for Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, gradually increased acceptance and heightened attention have been granted to extrasensory perception (ESP) research as a legitimate branch of scientific inquiry. This research holds significant implications for education despite difficulties involved with its consideration. Extrasensory perception, an organism's apparent access to…

McAdams, Elizabeth E.

285

The plasma-solid transition:some implications in astrophysics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using a criterion proposed by Salpeter,and standard solid state physics,we have determined the Debye temperature of a solid in equilibrium with the electron gas surrounding it.The results obtained can have implications in studies of the interstellar medium.

Celebonovic, V.; Dappen, W.

2002-01-01

286

A Cognitive Theory of Resistance and Reactance: Implications for Treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attempts to integrate the formulations of Brehm and Brehm and of Guidano and sets forth a cognitive theory of resistance and reactance within a cognitive developmental and individual differences context. Differentiates resistance from reactance and explores developmental antecedents of characterological reactance. Describes implications for…

Dowd, E. Thomas; Seibel, Cynthia A.

1990-01-01

287

The Implications of a Mixed Media Network for Information Interchange.  

Science.gov (United States)

A mixed media network for information interchange is what we are always likely to have. Amid the current permutations of the storage and distribution media we see the emergence of two trends -- toward the common denominators of electronic display on the TV system and of digital processing and control. The economic implications of a mixed network…

Meaney, John W.

288

A Gaming Frame of Mind: Digital Contexts and Academic Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

When considering the interdisciplinary nature of education, researchers need to acknowledge students' traditional and multimodal literacies and learning environments. Technological changes have brought about new learning spaces and what students learn through their video gaming experiences seems to have important academic implications and…

Abrams, Sandra S.

2009-01-01

289

Examining Female Life Events: Implications for Counselors and Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports the findings of a study examining the impact of female life events (menarche, "the sex talk", and loss of virginity) on women. Fifty-one women from 2 universities responded to a questionnaire containing quantitative and qualitative items. Discussion and implications for counseling girls and women are presented. (Contains 2…

Schwiebert, Valerie; Alston, Anne; Bradford, Caroline; Sealander, Karen A.

2008-01-01

290

Development of U.S. Lodging Industry and its Implication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available
This article reviews the development of U.S. lodging industry and its implications, it shows the high degree of concentration in some aspects related to development of U.S. lodging industry such as market size, major players, and customer types.. And then further analyses the factors and its implications that influencing the lodging industry of US, it mainly was studied from the aspects of economic, social and technological sides. Finally forecasts the key trends of the lodging industry.
Key words: Development, Influence Factor, Issue, Trend
Résumé: Cet article passe en revue le développement de l’industrie de logement des Etat-Unis et son implication. Cette rétrospective montre la concentration de haut niveau sous certains aspects relatifs au développement de cette industrie tels que la dimension du marché, les acteurs principaux et les types des clients. Et puis l’article analyse les facteurs et ses implications qui influent l’industrie de logement des Etat-Unis dans les perspectives économique, sociale et technologique. Finalement, l’auteur prévoit les tendances importantes de l’industrie.
Mots-Clés: développement, facteurs influants, problème, tendance

Jin-zhao WANG

2007-02-01

291

Percutaneous Treatment of Thrombosed Arteriovenous Fistulas: Clinical and Economic Implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and objectives: Maintenance of previously thrombosed arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) as functional vascular accesses can be highly expensive, with relevant financial implications for healthcare systems. The aim of our study was to evaluate the costs and health outcomes of vascular access care in hemodialysis patients with AVF thrombosis.

Coentra?o, Lui?s; Bizarro, Pedro; Ribeiro, Carlos; Neto, Ricardo; Pestana, Manuel

2010-01-01

292

Fiscal implications of personal tax adjustments in the Czech republic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Writers of the study investigate the fiscal implications of the changes in personal income tax implemented in the Czech Republic in January 2006. In addition to evaluating the direct effect of this tax reform, our analysis takes into account its employment effect on the government budget due to individuals entering or leaving employment.

2006-01-01

293

A Divergent Look at Adoption: Implications for Family Counselors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adoption has significantly added to the landscape of possible family forms. Recent research efforts on adoption (1994-present) are reviewed and implications for family-counselor practice are explored. Attention is given to research on special-needs adoptions, adoptive-family process, birth-family reunions, and community perspectives on adoption.…

Kleist, David M.

1998-01-01

294

Diversity and Technology: Classroom Implications of the Digital Divide  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper analyzes the intersection of technology and diversity in classrooms with reference to the implications of the inequity of access and usage for under-represented groups including low-income, minority students, students from culturally diverse backgrounds, students with disabilities, and female students. Strategies at national and…

Kalyanpur, Maya; Kirmani, Mubina H.

2005-01-01

295

Marital and Family Therapy Research: Outcomes and Implications for Practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of marriage-and-family therapy-outcome studies from the past 10 years is discussed. Results indicate success over a broad scope of practices, including problems traditionally treated with individual psychotherapy, and when used in collaboration with other treatment modalities. Implications for the field are presented. (Author/EMK)

Baldwin, Cynthia; Huggins, Don

1998-01-01

296

Global University Rankings: Implications in General and for Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

Global university rankings have arrived, and though still in a process of rapid evolution, they are likely to substantially influence the long-term development of higher education across the world. The inclusions, definitions, methods, implications and effects are of great importance. This paper analyses and critiques the two principal rankings…

Marginson, Simon

2007-01-01

297

Primary and Secondary Labor Markets: Implications for Vocational Rehabilitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews theoretical and empirical work in labor economics and the sociology of work relating to the segmentation of the labor market into a primary and a secondary sector and examines the implications for vocational rehabilitation. Transition into primary sector employment is explored as an important aspect of career development for individuals…

Hagner, David

2000-01-01

298

General Relativistic Dynamics of Irrotational Dust Cosmological Implications  

CERN Document Server

The non--linear dynamics of cosmological perturbations of an irrotational collisionless fluid is analyzed within General Relativity. Relativistic and Newtonian solutions are compared, stressing the different role of boundary conditions in the two theories. Cosmological implications of relativistic effects, already present at second order in perturbation theory, are studied and the dynamical role of the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor is elucidated.

Matarrese, S; Sáez, D; Matarrese, Sabino; Pantano, Ornella; Saez, Diego

1994-01-01

299

Child Soldiers: Implications for U.S. Forces.  

Science.gov (United States)

On Tuesday, June 11, 2002, the Center for Emerging Threats and Opportunities, or CETO, conducted a day-long seminar on Child Soldiers: Implications for U.S. Forces at Liversedge Hall, Marine Corps Base, Quantico, Va. The purpose of the seminar was to help...

C. Borchini S. Lanz E. O'Connell

2002-01-01

300

Constructivism: Its Theoretical Underpinnings, Variations, and Implications for Classroom Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of constructivism and its implications for classroom practices. To that end, it first describes the basic features of constructivism along with its major forms or variations. It then elucidates the constructivist view of knowledge, learning, teaching, and the relationship among these constructs. More specifically,…

Yilmaz, Kaya

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Sound efficacy of prophylactic HPV vaccination: Basics and implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccine efficacy is almost too good to be true. The benefits of herd immunity will, however, not be gained without high vaccine coverage. Here the authors of two recent papers on HPV16/18 vaccine efficacy elaborate on the basics and implications of this approach for infection and cancer prevention. PMID:23162784

Lehtinen, Matti; Paavonen, Jorma

2012-09-01

302

The effect of macrofauna, meiofauna and microfauna on the degradation of Spartina maritima detritus from a salt marsh area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Decomposition of salt marsh plants results from physical, chemical and biological processes including abiotic and biotic fragmentation, microbial decay and chemical transformation. According to literature data, only a few species have the ability to feed directly on living plant material, so fungi and bacteria seem to be the principal competitors for the organic substrates. Nevertheless, by consuming bacteria, protists and fungi associated to the detritus, macrofauna and meiofauna re...

Lillebø, Ana Isabel; Flindt, Mogens R.; Pardal, Miguel A?ngelo; Marques, Joa?o Carlos

1999-01-01

303

Tax incidence on services rendered on the high seas; Incidencia de ISS sobre servicos prestados em aguas maritimas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper analyze the legal aspects of the incidence of ISSQN tax (Tax on Services of any Nature), on the services provide on the high seas. Also comment the controversy surrounding the active tax competency (municipality who may be due to the tax) for the charging of the incident ISSQN on the services provided on the high seas, if overcome the arguments in favor of non-levy of the tax.

Paco, Daniel Hora do; Giamattey, Ricardo Henrique Dionisio; Miranda, Thales Ribamar [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

304

Ventilation and air conditioning systems in maritime productions units; Panorama dos sistemas de VAC em unidades maritimas de producao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an Offshore Stationary Production Unit (SPU), the adequate project of the Ventilation and Air Conditioning (VAC) System is not only a thermal comfort requirement but part of the essential safety services of the installation and complement for area classification requirements associated with electrical equipment. The VAC installations are sometimes the object of complaints by onboard team. Problems such as unsatisfactory system performance, high noise levels in the accommodation quarters, offices and other areas and the discomfort caused by unbalanced ventilation and air conditioning systems, are some of the most frequent complaints. Air Conditioning systems are classified as Direct and Indirect Expansion. Decentralized systems with Indirect Expansion has been adopted in PETROBRAS projects. This conception is not used in VAC Systems for platforms installed in North Sea, where the use of Centralized Systems with Direct Expansion are more common. The objective of this work is to compare the VAC conception projects, analyzing their advantages and disadvantages . The evaluation of VAC System in PETROBRAS project, and their steps in SPU development, is also scope of this paper. (author)

Guedes, Fernando Pedrosa; Sztajnbok, Ernani Luis [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Padua, Carlos Eduardo Dantas de; Passos, Alfredo Silveira [DUOVAC Engenharia Ltda. (Brazil)

2004-07-01

305

Non-nuclear mining with radiological implications in Araxa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are now over twnety years since the radiological characteristics of the Brazilian regions of Araxa, Tapira and Barreiros, three locations adjacent to each other, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, started being surveyed. The radioactivity of the Araxa region is associated with mineral deposits of niobium rich pyrochlore and phosphate rich apatite. The biological availability of natural radium isotops in some segments of the Araxa soil allows a large variation in the 228Ra, 224Ra and 226Ra concentrations in vegetables and edible roots. This fact makes quite difficult a quantitative local assessment of the radiological implications of mining the Araxa mineral deposits of pyrochlore and apatite for production of niobium and phosphate fertilizers, respectively; since one cannot easily separate the naturally occurring from the technologically enhanced radionuclide contents of foods. This paper deals tentatively with the radiological implications of the industrial operations taking place in the Araxa region for the exploration of the pyrochlore and apatite deposits

1981-01-01

306

Ecological and evolutive implications of bacterial defences against predators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial communities are often heavily consumed by microfaunal predators, such as protozoa and nematodes. Predation is an important cause of mortality and determines the structure and activity of microbial communities in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and bacteria evolved various defence mechanisms helping them to resist predation. In this review, I summarize known antipredator defence strategies and their regulation, and explore their importance for bacterial fitness in various environmental conditions, and their implications for bacterial evolution and diversification under predation pressure. I discuss how defence mechanisms affect competition and cooperation within bacterial communities. Finally I present some implications of bacterial defence mechanisms for ecosystem services provided by microbial communities, such as nutrient cycling, virulence and the biological control of plant diseases. PMID:22040156

Jousset, Alexandre

2012-08-01

307

Implications of bilateral free trade agreements on access to medicines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The TRIPS Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) mandated the introduction of protection of intellectual property rights, notably patents, for pharmaceutical products. While the implications for the access to medicines contained in the terms of this Agreement raised significant concerns, a recent new wave of free trade agreements, negotiated outside the WTO, requires even higher levels of intellectual property protection for medicines than those mandated by that Agreement. The measures involved include the extension of the patent term beyond 20 years; prohibition of use of test data on drug efficacy and safety for certain periods for the approval of generic products; the linkage between drug registration and patent protection; in some cases, limitations to the grounds for granting compulsory licences. This article reviews some of these measures that further limit the competition of generic products and discusses their possible implication for access to medicines. PMID:16710551

Correa, Carlos María

2006-05-01

308

Implications of bilateral free trade agreements on access to medicines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The TRIPS Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO mandated the introduction of protection of intellectual property rights, notably patents, for pharmaceutical products. While the implications for the access to medicines contained in the terms of this Agreement raised significant concerns, a recent new wave of free trade agreements, negotiated outside the WTO, requires even higher levels of intellectual property protection for medicines than those mandated by that Agreement. The measures involved include the extension of the patent term beyond 20 years; prohibition of use of test data on drug efficacy and safety for certain periods for the approval of generic products; the linkage between drug registration and patent protection; in some cases, limitations to the grounds for granting compulsory licences. This article reviews some of these measures that further limit the competition of generic products and discusses their possible implication for access to medicines.

Correa Carlos María

2006-01-01

309

Implications of bilateral free trade agreements on access to medicines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The TRIPS Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) mandated the introduction of protection of intellectual property rights, notably patents, for pharmaceutical products. While the implications for the access to medicines contained in the terms of this Agreement raised significant concerns, a recent new wave of free trade agreements, negotiated outside the WTO, requires even higher levels of intellectual property protection for medicines than those mandated by that Agreement. The measures involved include the extension of the patent term beyond 20 years; prohibition of use of test data on drug efficacy and safety for certain periods for the approval of generic products; the linkage between drug registration and patent protection; in some cases, limitations to the grounds for granting compulsory licences. This article reviews some of these measures that further limit the competition of generic products and discusses their possible implication for access to medicines.

Correa, Carlos Maria

2006-01-01

310

Stakeholder participation in radiological decision making: processes and implication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1998, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency has been organizing a series of workshops to address the various aspects of stakeholder involvement in radiological protection decision making. These workshops have been instrumental in forging consensus and improving understanding of key issues in this area. Building on the experience of the first two 'Villigen workshops', the third in the series extensively analysed three case studies, which covered the licensing of a new facility, the clean-up and release of an old facility, and the rehabilitation of a large, contaminated area. Consideration was given to the stakeholder involvement processes that had been used, and the implications that these did or could have on radiological protection policy, regulation and application. The workshop papers analysing these processes and implications are presented in these proceedings, which should provide valuable examples and lessons for governments, regulators and practitioners. (author)

2003-10-21

311

Implications of OPEC's downstream strategies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A recent change in the structure of the oil industry has been OPEC's entry into the downstream markets, and the implications this may have for the future. The author focusses on some of these implications from the perspective of Kuwait and the Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC), which provides 90% of the state's annual revenues. Downstream participation is viewed as a way to stabilize long-term oil revenues, maximize revenues, and diversify the sources of hydrogen revenues. The results for host countries have been positive, and should be welcomed for their potential benefits because of a commitment to fair and open competition and not objected by the European Economic Community or the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Sultan, N.H.

1985-11-01

312

Large fluctuations of disentaglement force and implications for polymer dynamics  

CERN Multimedia

This paper examines the effect of cooling on disentanglement forces in polymers and the implications for both single chain pullout and polymer dynamics. I derive the explicit dependence of the distribution of these forces on temperature, which is found to exhibit a rich behaviour. Most significantly, it is shown to be dominated by large fluctuations up to a certain temperature $T_0$ that can be determined from molecular parameters. The effects of these fluctuations on chain friction are analysed and they are argued to undermine the traditional melt-based models that rely on a typical chain friction coefficient. A direct implication for first principles calculation of viscosity is discussed. This quantifies the limit of validity of such descriptions, such as Rouse dynamics and the Tube model, and pave the way to model polymer dynamics around the glass transition temperature.

Blumenfeld, R

2001-01-01

313

Naturalness, supersymmetry and implications for LHC and dark matter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is shown that the Hyperbolic Branch of the radiative electroweak symmetry breaking contains in it three regions: the Focal Point, Focal Curves, and Focal Surfaces. Further, the Focal Point is shown to lie on the boundary of a Focal Curve. These focal regions allow for a small {mu} while scalar masses can become large and may lie in the several TeV region. It is shown that for the mSUGRA model the current LHC-7 constraint depletes the Focal Point region while regions on Focal Curves and Focal Surfaces remain largely intact. The LHC implications for models which lie on Focal Curves are briefly discussed as well as the implications of dark matter constraints for the Focal Point, Focal Curves and Focal Surfaces are discussed.

Akula, Sujeet; Liu Mengxi [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Nath, Pran, E-mail: nath@neu.edu [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Peim, Gregory [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

2012-03-19

314

Naturalness, Supersymmetry and Implications for LHC and Dark Matter  

CERN Multimedia

It is shown that the Hyperbolic Branch of the radiative electroweak symmetry breaking contains in it three regions: the Focal Point, Focal Curves, and Focal Surfaces. Further, the Focal Point is shown to lie on the boundary of a Focal Curve. These focal regions allow for a small $\\mu$ while scalar masses can become large and may lie in the several TeV region. It is shown that for the mSUGRA model the current LHC-7 constraint depletes the Focal Point region while regions on Focal Curves and Focal Surfaces remain largely intact. The LHC implications for models which lie on Focal Curves are briefly discussed as well as the implications of dark matter constraints for the Focal Point, Focal Curves and Focal Surfaces are discussed.

Akula, Sujeet; Nath, Pran; Peim, Gregory

2011-01-01

315

Misuse of "study drugs:" prevalence, consequences, and implications for policy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-medical/illegal use of prescription stimulants popularly have been referred to as "study drugs". This paper discusses the current prevalence and consequences of misuse of these drugs and implications of this information for drug policy. Results Study drugs are being misused annually by approximately 4% of older teens and emerging adults. Yet, there are numerous consequences of misuse of prescription stimulants including addiction, negative reactions to high dosages, and medical complications. Policy implications include continuing to limit access to study drugs, finding more safe prescription drug alternatives, interdiction, and public education. Conclusion Much more work is needed on prescription stimulant misuse assessment, identifying the extent of the social and economic costs of misuse, monitoring and reducing access, and developing prevention and cessation education efforts.

Spruijt-Metz Donna

2006-06-01

316

Fast Reconnection and Reconnection Diffusion: Implications for Star Formation  

CERN Document Server

Fast reconnection of magnetic field in turbulent fluids allows magnetic fields change their topology and connections. As a result the traditional concept of magnetic field being frozen into plasma is no more applicable. Plasma which is at one instance can be associated with a given magnetic field lines at the next instant is distributed along a different set of magnetic field lines. This diffusion is enabled by reconnection and therefore is termed "reconnection diffusion". The astrophysical implications of this concept include many astrophysical phenomena, e.g. heat transfer in plasmas, advection of metals in plasmas etc. However, the most dramatic implications of the concept are related to star formation process. The reason for that is that the existing theory of star formation was developed assuming that the decoupling of mass and magnetic field is due to neutrals drifting in respect to magnetic field with entrained ions, i.e. through the process of ambipolar diffusion. This implies that if the ionization o...

Lazarian, A

2011-01-01

317

Pathological and Evolutionary Implications of Retroviruses as Mobile Genetic Elements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Retroviruses, a form of mobile genetic elements, have important roles in disease and primate evolution. Exogenous retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, have significant pathological implications that have created a massive public health challenge in recent years. Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs, which are the primary focus of this review, can also be pathogenic, as well as being beneficial to a host in some cases. Furthermore, retroviruses may have played a key role in primate evolution that resulted in the incorporation of these elements into the human genome. Retroviruses are mobile genetic elements that have important roles in disease and primate evolution. We will further discuss the pathogenic potential of retroviruses, including their role in cancer biology, and will briefly summarize their evolutionary implications.

Mark A. Brown

2013-10-01

318

Globalization and Science Education: The Implications for Indigenous Knowledge Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Much of the current diversity literature in science education does not address the complexity of the issues of indigenous learners in their postcolonial environments and calls for a “one size fits all” instructional approach (Lee, 2001.  Indigenous knowledge needs to be promoted and supported. There is currently a global initiative of maintaining worldviews, languages, and environments of which science education can be a part (McKinley, 2007. This paper is organized around five main topics that further guide the theoretical framework for this important area: a describing postcolonialism and indigeneity related to science education, b defining the terms indigenous knowledge, traditional ecological knowledge, c western modern science and the effects of globalization on these terms d examining the research on learning implications of IK and/or TEK in classrooms with a focus on the research into student learning in indigenous language, e connecting place-based education to curricular implications for indigenous knowledge systems.

Cassie Quigley

2009-02-01

319

Squark Flavor Implications from B --> K* l+ l-  

CERN Multimedia

Recent experimental and theoretical progress regarding B --> K* l+ l- decays led to improved bounds on the Wilson coefficients C_9 and C_10 of four-fermion operators of the |Delta B|=|Delta S|=1 effective Hamiltonian. We analyze the resulting implications on squark flavor violation in the MSSM and obtain new constraints on flavor-changing left-right mixing in the up-squark-sector. We find the dimensionless flavor mixing parameter (delta^u_23)_LR, depending on the flavor-diagonal MSSM masses and couplings, to be as low as \\lesssim 0.1. This has implications for models based on radiative flavor violation and leads to BR(B_s --> mu+ mu-) \\gtrsim 1 x 10^-9. Rare top decays t --> c gamma, t --> c g, t --> c Z have branching ratios predicted to be below \\lesssim few times 10^-8, 10^-6 and 10^-7, respectively.

Behring, Arnd; Hiller, Gudrun; Schacht, Stefan

2012-01-01

320

Implications of Mirror Dark Matter on Neutron Stars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the implications of asymmetric Dark Matter on neutron stars. We construct a '' mixed neutron star '' model composed of ordinary baryons and of asymmetric Dark Matter baryons. We derive the general relativistic structure equations for each specie, the equation for the mass within a given radius, and the redshift as function of radius. We present one specific numerical model as an illustrative example. In this example, the mass of the dark neutron equals half that of the ordinary neutron. The main results are: a total mass of 3.74Mo , a total mass within the neutron-sphere equaling 1.56Mo , the neutrons mass is 1.34Mo , the star radius is 31.9 km, the neutron-sphere radius is 11.1 km, and the redshifts from the neutron-sphere and from the star surface are 0.72, 0.25, respectively. We comment briefly on possible astrophysical implications. (author)

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
321

ERP in large Danish enterprises: Implications for SCM  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper argues that with the present state of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) adoption by the companies, the potential benefits of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and integration is about to be unleashed. This paper presents the results and the implications of a survey on ERP adoption in the 500 largest Danish enterprises. The study is based on telephone interviews with ERP managers in 88.4% of the "top 500" enterprises in Denmark. Based on the survey, the paper suggests the following four propositions: (i) ERP has become the pervasive infrastructure; (ii) ERP has become a contemporary technology; (iii) ERP adoption has matured; and (iv) ERP adoption is converging towards a dominant design. Finally, the paper discusses the general implications of the surveyed state of practice on the SCM research challenges. Consequently we argue that research needs to adjust its conceptions of the ERP concept towards ERP II in order to accommodate to the emerging practices.

Møller, Charles

2004-01-01

322

Patents and plant breeding: Implications for food security  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines the inter-relationship between plant variety protection (PVP laws and patent laws and their implications for food security. PVP laws were developed to encourage and protect agricultural innovations by conferring exclusive rights upon the developers of new plant varieties, subject to exceptions for farmers to save seeds for future plantings and for plant breeders to develop new varieties. With the application of recombinant DNA technologies to agriculture and the possibility of patenting DNA and associated enabling technologies the seed saving privilege and breeders’ exception in PVP laws could be circumvented. This has important implications for food security, as does recent efforts of plant breeders to patent their breeding methods. This article examines two recent determinations by the European Patent Office’s Enlarged Board of Appeal concerning attempts to patent plant breeding methods.

Michael Blakeney

2011-08-01

323

Evolution in invasive plants: implications for biological control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evidence is increasing that invasive plants can undergo rapid adaptive evolution during the process of range expansion. Here, we argue that evolutionary change during invasions will also affect plant–antagonist inter-actions and, thus, will have important implications for biological control programmes targeted at invasive plants. We explore how altered selection in the new range might influence the evolution of plant defence (resistance and tolerance) and life history. The degree to which s...

Mu?ller-scha?rer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs; Steinger, Thomas

2005-01-01

324

The Political Implications of Violence Against Women in Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using the primary and secondary tools of analysis, this paper brings out in succinct details, the diverse forms of violence that affect Africa women with greater emphasis, the implications of the phenomenon of violence against women’s political participation is discussed. We thus, canvass the elimination of all forms of violence against women through a new continental gender reawakening process. We reasoned that only this would enable women contribute their quota to the socio-econo...

Adebukola Foluke Osunyikanmi

2011-01-01

325

Warming Oceans, Phytoplankton, and River Discharge: Implications for Cholera Outbreaks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phytoplankton abundance is inversely related to sea surface temperature (SST). However, a positive relationship is observed between SST and phytoplankton abundance in coastal waters of Bay of Bengal. This has led to an assertion that in a warming climate, rise in SST may increase phytoplankton blooms and, therefore, cholera outbreaks. Here, we explain why a positive SST-phytoplankton relationship exists in the Bay of Bengal and the implications of such a relationship on cholera dynamics. We f...

2011-01-01

326

Eating disordered patients: personality, alexithymia, and implications for primary care.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are becoming more apparent in primary care. Descriptions of character traits related to people with eating disorders are rarely reported in the primary care literature and there is little awareness of the implications of alexithymia--a concept that defines the inability to identify or express emotion. We hypothesised that many individuals with active eating disorders have alexithymic traits and a tendency to somatize their distress. AIM: To analyse the character t...

Beales, D. L.; Dolton, R.

2000-01-01

327

Quantifying cerebral blood flow: regional regulation with global implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 1948, Seymour S. Kety and Carl F. Schmidt published back-to-back papers in the JCI that are widely acknowledged as landmarks. Upon publication, the studies resolved a century-old debate, irrefutably demonstrating that cerebral blood flow is regionally regulated. The reported findings turned out to be so powerful in their implications that they provided the inspirational spark that illuminated a brand-new field: functional brain imaging. Thus these papers are landmarks of the rarest kind, n...

2004-01-01

328

CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI) on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered...

Yoon-Doo Kim; Seok Yoon

2012-01-01

329

Environmental implications of alternative enrgy supply strategies for Pakistan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Atmospheric emissions of major pollutants from energy production and use in Pakistan are quantified, and alternative enrgy supply strategies evaluated for a medium to long term future on the basis of their economic and environmental implications. It is suggested that Pakistan should pursue a strategy leading to a large reduction in pollutant emissions through measures such as promoting improvements in energy efficiency, discouraging wasteful use of energy and developing alternative enrgy options to shift away from fossil fuels. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

Khan, A.M.; Jalal, A.I.; Raza, H.A. (Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (Pakistan))

1992-01-01

330

Implications of bilateral free trade agreements on access to medicines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The TRIPS Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) mandated the introduction of protection of intellectual property rights, notably patents, for pharmaceutical products. While the implications for the access to medicines contained in the terms of this Agreement raised significant concerns, a recent new wave of free trade agreements, negotiated outside the WTO, requires even higher levels of intellectual property protection for medicines than those mandated by that Agreement. The measur...

2006-01-01

331

Drought-induced forest decline: causes, scope and implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A large number of episodes of forest mortality associated with drought and heat stress have been detected worldwide in recent decades, suggesting that some of the world's forested ecosystems may be already responding to climate change. Here, we summarize a special session titled ‘Drought-induced forest decline: causes, scope and implications’ within the 12th European Ecological Federation Congress, held in Ávila (Spain) from 25 to 29 September 2011. The session focused on the interacting...

Marti?nez-vilalta, Jordi; Lloret, Francisco; Breshears, David D.

2012-01-01

332

Conjecture on the physical implications of the scale anomaly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Murray Gell-Mann, after co-inventing QCD, recognized the interplay of the scale anomaly, the renormalization group, and the origin of the strong scale, {Lambda}{sub QCD}. I tell a story, then elaborate this concept, and for the sake of discussion, propose a conjecture that the physical world is scale invariant in the classical, {h_bar}, limit. This principle has implications for the dimensionality of space-time, the cosmological constant, the weak scale, and Planck scale.

Hill, Christopher T.; /Fermilab

2005-10-01

333

Marriage as 'ordained by God' (with implications for gay marriages)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article focuses on marriage. It appears that marriage is in the first place a social cultural institution with legal implications, and not religious by nature. Concepts and practices regarding marriage change along with social and cultural movements. Regarding the twenty first century, a marked shift from patriarchy towards equality has been observed. Marriage practices have changed: the man is no longer sole breadwinner and head of the household, the woman no longer only the pleasing wi...

2007-01-01

334

Implications of radiation-compensation criteria for the nuclear industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of attributable risk and probability of causation concepts for assessing workmen's compensation are reviewed and applied to radiation workers in nuclear power plants. Estimations of cancer incidence for certain primary cancer sites for the period 1980 to 2045 are used to derive possible compensation costs, ranging from about 30 to 400 million dollars. The probability of causation method is shown to be quite sensitive to input parameter selection. Implications for the nuclear industry are reviewed. 18 references, 44 figures, 30 tables

1983-01-01

335

Part 4. Safety implications of alternative fuel types  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides an assessment of safety implications associated with alternatives relative to the reference (U,Pu) oxide fuel in fast breeder reactors. The alternatives considered include thorium- and uranium-based oxide, carbide and metal fuel types for the LMFBR and oxide fuel types for the GCFR. Major emphasis is put on low probability, but potentially large-consequence accidents, e.g., core-disruptive accidents

1980-07-01

336

Cost and Emissions Implications of Coupling Wind and Solar Power  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We assess the implications on long-run average energy production costs and emissions of CO2 and some criteria pollutants from coupling wind, solar and natural gas generation sources. We utilize five-minute meteorological data from a US location that has been estimated to have both high-quality wind and solar resources, to simulate production of a coupled generation system that produces a constant amount of electric energy. The natural gas turbine is utilized to provide ...

Seth Blumsack; Kelsey Richardson

2012-01-01

337

Breast cancer screening in British Columbia: implications of diagnostic trajectories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite reductions in mortality rates, breast cancer remains the most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death in Canadian women. Organized screening programs have contributed to the decrease in breast cancer mortality by allowing for early diagnosis and treatment. The diagnostic phase following an abnormal screen has implications for patient well-being, clinical practice, and resource management in health care. We present data from British Columbia that show that improv...

Mckay, Rachel

2008-01-01

338

Homers regulate drug-induced neuroplasticity: Implications for addiction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder, characterized by an uncontrollable motivation to seek and use drugs. Converging clinical and preclinical observations implicate pathologies within the corticolimbic glutamate system in the genetic predisposition to, and the development of, an addicted phenotype. Such observations pose cellular factors regulating glutamate transmission as likely molecular candidates in the etiology of addiction. Members of the Homer family of proteins regulate s...

2008-01-01

339

Abnormal brain structure implicated in stimulant drug addiction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Addiction to drugs is a major contemporary public health issue, characterized by maladaptive behavior to obtain and consume an increasing amount of drugs at the expense of the individual's health and social and personal life. We discovered abnormalities in fronto-striatal brain systems implicated in self-control in both stimulant-dependent individuals and their biological siblings who have no history of chronic drug abuse; these findings support the idea of an underlying neurocognitive endophenotype for stimulant drug addiction. PMID:22301321

Ersche, Karen D; Jones, P Simon; Williams, Guy B; Turton, Abigail J; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T

2012-02-01

340

Social capital and health – implications for health promotion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article is a review of the PhD Thesis of Malin Eriksson, entitled ‘Social capital, health and community action – implications for health promotion.’ The article presents a theoretical overview of social capital and its relation to health, reviews empirical findings of the links between social capital and (self-rated) health, and discusses the usefulness of social capital in health promotion interventions at individual and community levels. Social capital, conceptualized as an indiv...

Eriksson, Malin

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Social capital and health : implications for health promotion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article is a review of the PhD Thesis of Malin Eriksson, entitled 'Social capital, health and community action - implications for health promotion.' The article presents a theoretical overview of social capital and its relation to health, reviews empirical findings of the links between social capital and (self-rated) health, and discusses the usefulness of social capital in health promotion interventions at individual and community levels. Social capital, conceptualized as an individual ...

Eriksson, Malin

2011-01-01

342

Learning Styles and Their Implications in Learning and Teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Learning style in SLA is one of the individual factors in SLA. This paper starts by stating the importance of studying learning styles. Then it quotes several definitions of learning style. The main part of it sums up the types and models of learning styles. Learning style is mainly divided into three categories: perceptual learning style, cognitive learning style and personality learning style. In the end, it states the implications of learning style for language learning and language teaching.

Wen Xu

2011-04-01

343

The implication of subcortical motor centers in voluntary human activities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main objective of the present dissertation was to analyse the subcortical implications in the preparation and execution of complex voluntary movements. Three different tasks were selected on purpose. They all are everyday activities which although functionally related have differential characteristics. The first task was the sit-to-stand manoeuvre. Simple ballistic movements are executed faster in reaction time task paradigms when the imperative signal is accompanied by a startling audito...

Queralt Blasco, Ana

2009-01-01

344

Prenatal Psychology: Implications for the Practice of Medicine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Through the combined efforts of embryologists, neuro-embryologists, physiologists, obstetricians, pediatricians, nurses, psychiatrists, psychologists and many other health professionals a new science of pre- and perinatal psychology has begun to emerge. This science explores the psychology of conception, pregnancy, labor, delivery and the postpartum period, as well as the unborn and newborn child's intellectual and emotional development. Implications of this new knowledge for the family physi...

Verny, Thomas R.

1984-01-01

345

Molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoids – anti-inflammatory implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glucocorticoids (GCs) play important roles in many biological processes including inflammatory responses. The study of this process has involved investigations of cross-talk abilities by GC receptor (GR) with cellular signaling pathways that have been associated with inflammatory disorders or implicated as contributory for the adverse effects observed with GC therapy. This thesis aims to provide additional insights into this area of research and contains studies made to investigate aspects of...

Johansson-haque, Krishan

2012-01-01

346

Implication of the polyamine system in mental disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The polyamine pathway has an essential role in many cellular functions and has been implicated in several pathological conditions. Accumulating evidence suggests that the polyamine system also plays a role in the etiology and pathology of mental disorders. Alterations in the expression and activity of polyamine metabolic enzymes, as well as changes in the levels of the individual polyamines, have been observed in multiple conditions, including schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety and suicid...

Fiori, Laura M.; Turecki, Gustavo

2008-01-01

347

Public perceptions of energy system risks: some policy implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; perceptions, beliefs and attitudes; the survey of public perceptions and attitudes towards energy systems; attitudes towards the five energy systems (nuclear, coal, oil, solar and hydro); perceptions of energy systems - the underlying dimensions of belief (economic benefits; environmental risk; psychological and physical risk; indirect risk; technology development); differential analysis of the perceptions of those pro and con nuclear energy; summary of perceptions of energy systems - relevance to the Austrian dilemma; policy implications. (U.K.)

1980-01-01

348

Non-coding RNAs enter mitosis: functions, conservation and implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Nuage (or commonly known as chromatoid body in mammals) is a conserved germline-specific organelle that has been linked to the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway. piRNAs are a class of gonadal-specific RNAs that are ~23-29 nucleotides in length and protect genome stability by repressing the expression of deleterious retrotransposons. More recent studies in Drosophila have implicated the piRNA pathway in other functions including canalization of embryonic developm...

Pek Jun; Kai Toshie

2011-01-01

349

Clinical implications of microRNAs in human glioblastoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most common and dismal brain tumors in adults. Further elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of GBM is mandatory to improve the overall survival of patients. A novel small non-coding RNA molecule, microRNA (miRNA), appears to represent one of the most attractive target molecules contributing to the pathogenesis of various types of tumors. Recent global analyses have revealed that several miRNAs are clinically implicated in GBM, with some reports indicating...

Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Guan, Yanlei; Yoshimoto, Koji; Hata, Nobuhiro; Amano, Toshiyuki; Nakamizo, Akira; Sasaki, Tomio

2013-01-01

350

'Mathematical model of K Capture and its implications'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mechanism of K Capture, the nuclear absorption of electron in the K shell, as induced by electricity, is explained in this article. Furthermore, a mathematical model of K Capture is formulated. Then, K Capture is applied to explain the negative results obtained by Steven Jones and the positive results obtained by Pons-Fleischmann in Deuterium Oxide Electrolysis Experiments. The most important implication of K Capture is the possibility of obtaining nuclear energy by fusion at low temperature from heavy water

2000-07-24

351

Total imprecision of exposure biomarkers: implications for calculating exposure limits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Assessment of the imprecision of exposure biomarkers usually focuses on laboratory performance only. Unrecognized imprecision leads to underestimation of the true toxicity of the exposure. We have assessed the total imprecision of exposure biomarkers and the implications for calculation of exposure limits. METHODS: In a birth cohort study, mercury concentrations in cord blood, cord tissue, and maternal hair were used as biomarkers of prenatal methylmercury exposure. We determined ...

2008-01-01

352

An n??* Interaction in Aspirin: Implications for Structure and Reactivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stereoelectronic effects modulate molecular structure, reactivity, and conformation. We find that the interaction between the ester and carboxyl moieties of aspirin has a previously unappreciated quantum mechanical character that arises from the delocalization of an electron pair (n) of a donor group into the antibonding orbital (?*) of an acceptor group. This interaction affects the physicochemical attributes of aspirin, and could have implications for its pharmacology.

2011-01-01

353

Implications of water environment policy for irrigated agriculture in Portugal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research develops a bio-economic modelling framework for the assessment of agricultural and water policy change implications for irrigated agriculture. It aims to contribute towards the implementation of the Water Framework Directive within the European Union, particularly in regard to the principles of cost recovery of water services and water demand management for irrigation. The bio-economic framework combines local agro-ecological with socio-economic elements, allowing for the int...

Prazeres Sa Nogueira Saraiva, Joao Paulo

2009-01-01

354

Targeting in Advertising Markets: Implications for Offline Versus Online Media  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We develop a model with many advertisers (products) and many advertising markets (media). Each advertiser sells to a different segment of consumers, and each medium is targeting a different audience. We characterize the competitive equilibrium in the advertising markets and evaluate the implications of targeting. An increase in targeting leads to an increase in the total number of consumer-product matches, and hence in the social value of advertising. Yet, targeting also increases the concent...

Bergemann, Dirk; Bonatti, Alessandro

2011-01-01

355

Workplace bullying after whistleblowing:Future research and implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Findings: Empirical research has documented the link between whistleblowing and workplace bullying and the devastating effects on health that may follow (e.g. depression and symptoms analogous to post traumatic stress). Implications for practice are as follows: first, to provide clear examples of unwanted workplace behavior; and second, to help clinicians to gain a balance between the client's need to re-tell and the need for psychological treatment.

Bjørkelo, Brita

2013-01-01

356

Legal implications of premenstrual syndrome: a Canadian perspective.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A summary of the symptoms, prevalence and history of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is presented. The legal implications of PMS, particularly its use as a defence in criminal prosecutions and as an implicit factor in specific offences, are discussed by means of an analysis of Canadian legal cases, with reference to those in England and the United States. The authors offer suggestions on how physicians can make use of PMS in a courtroom more reliable. They conclude that PMS is unlikely to become ...

1986-01-01

357

Implications of global budget payment system on nursing home costs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pressure on health care systems due to the increasing expenditures of the elderly population is pushing policy makers to adopt new regulation and payment schemes for nursing home services. We sketch a simple theoretical model to predict the behavior of nursing homes under different payment schemes. We then investigate the implications of prospective payments on nursing home costs using a panel of 41 homes in Southern Switzerland observed over a 12-years period (1999-2010). To evaluate ...

Di Giorgio, Laura; Filippini, Massimo; Masiero, Giuliano

2012-01-01

358

Clinical and Public Health Implications of Emerging Genetic Technologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The clinical utility of many emerging genetic technologies has yet to be established. For many new genetic tests, no practice guidelines are available to help clinicians decide when and how to use them in practice. The clinical and public health implications of new genetic technologies are easiest to evaluate when these tests are compared with other genetic tests, including those already well established in clinical practice. Genetic tests can be divided into different categories based on the...

Laberge, Anne-marie; Burke, Wylie

2010-01-01

359

Gender Differences in Website Design: Implications for Education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the implications of a gendered website production and preference aesthetic for the teaching of computer studies. Where the website production aesthetic is concerned, it finds evidence of statistically significant differences on 13 of the 23 factors against which sixty student websites were rated. These results were suggestive of a website aesthetic continuum with male and female production aesthetic tendencies at either end. The preference tests, conducted with 67 subjects...

Gloria Moss; Gunn, Rod W.

2007-01-01

360

Interlanguage Pragmatics Theory and Its Implications for Foreign Language  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The major purpose of college English teaching is to cultivate and develop student’s pragmatic competence. Interlanguage pragmatics is a new interdisciplinary branch of study based on the theories of pragmatics and second language acquisition which has direct guide significance for foreign language teaching. This paper firstly introduces the theoretical models of the two theories and then focuses on the implications for foreign language teaching.

Qian Huang

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Diabetes and oral disease: implications for health professionals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

“Diabetes and Oral Disease: Implications for Health Professionals” was a one-day conference convened by the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine, the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, and the New York Academy of Sciences on May 4, 2011in New York City. The program included an examination of the bidirectional relationship between oral disease and diabetes and the inter-professional working relationships for the care of people who have diabetes. The overall g...

Albert, David A.; Ward, Angela; Allweiss, Pamela; Graves, Dana T.; Knowler, William C.; Kunzel, Carol; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Novak, Karen F.; Oates, Thomas W.; Papapanou, Panos N.; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Taylor, George W.; Lamster, Ira B.; Lalla, Evanthia

2012-01-01

362

Environmental issues in economic partnership agreements: Implications for developing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This issue paper, titled 'Environmental Issues in Economic Partnership Agreements: Implications for Developing Countries', and written by Mrs. Beatrice Dove-Edwin, is a contribution to that process. The paper exhaustively reviews all rules related to trade and environment in several of the already signed EPAs. The aim of the paper is to enable ACP countries to understand how trade policy related to the environment has been introduced in EPAs, and how those policies might impact sustainable de...

2009-01-01

363

Implications of SCUBA observations for the Planck Surveyor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the implications for the Planck Surveyor of the recent sub-millimetre number counts obtained using the SCUBA camera. Since it observes at the same frequency as one of the higher frequency science channels on Planck, SCUBA can provide constraints on the point-source contribution to the CMB angular power spectrum, which require no extrapolation in frequency. We have calculated the two-point function of these sub-millimetre sources, using a Poisson model normaliz...

Scott, Douglas; White, Martin

1998-01-01

364

Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) contamination of the indoor environment: Health implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 1998, widespread contamination of water-damaged school portables with the toxigenic mold Stachybotrys chartarum was detected in the province of Ontario. This mold may cause human disease through direct irritation, type 1 hypersensitivity or the production of toxins. A variety of respiratory, dermatological, eye and constitutional symptoms have been associated with heavy and prolonged exposure to S chartarum. S chartarum has also been potentially implicated as a rare cause of idiopathic pul...

Bitnun, Ari; Nosal, Robert M.

1999-01-01

365

Imaging of Brain Dopamine Pathways: Implications for Understanding Obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is typically associated with abnormal eating behaviors. Brain imaging studies in humans implicate the involvement of dopamine (DA)-modulated circuits in pathologic eating behavior(s). Food cues increase striatal extracellular DA, providing evidence for the involvement of DA in the nonhedonic motivational properties of food. Food cues also increase metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex indicating the association of this region with the motivation for food consumption. Similar to drug-...

Wang, Gene-jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Fowler, Joanna S.

2009-01-01

366

Implications of managed care for health systems, clinicians, and patients.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rhetoric and realities of managed care are easily confused. The rapid growth of managed care in the United States has had many implications for patients, doctors, employers, state and federal programmes, the health insurance industry, major medical institutions, medical research, and vulnerable patient populations. It has restricted patients' choice of doctors and limited access to specialists, reduced the professional autonomy and earnings of doctors, shifted power from the non-profit to...

Fairfield, G.; Hunter, D. J.; Mechanic, D.; Rosleff, F.

1997-01-01

367

Implications of Mirror Dark Matter on Neutron Stars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the implications of asymmetric dark matter on neutron stars. we construct a "mixed neutron star" model composed of ordinary baryons and of asymmetric dark matter baryons. We derive the general relativistic structure equations for each specie, the equation for the mass within a given radius, and the redshift as function of radius. We present one specific numerical model as an illustrative example. In this example, the mass of the dark neutron equals half that of the ...

Goldman, Itzhak

2011-01-01

368

Possible Implications of Asymmetric Fermionic Dark Matter for Neutron Stars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider the implications of fermionic asymmetric dark matter for a "mixed neutron star" composed of ordinary baryons and dark fermions. We find examples, where for a certain range of dark fermion mass -- when it is less than that of ordinary baryons -- such systems can reach higher masses than the maximal values allowed for ordinary ("pure") neutron stars. This is shown both within a simplified, heuristic Newtonian analytic framework with non-interacting particles and vi...

Goldman, I.; Mohapatra, R. N.; Nussinov, S.; Rosenbaum, D.; Teplitz, V.

2013-01-01

369

Monitoring a common agent : implications for financial contracting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the problem of multiple principals who want to obtain income from a privately informed agent and design their contracts non-cooperatively. Our analysis reveals that the degree of coordination between principals has strong implications for the shapes of contracts and the amount of monitoring. Equity-like contracts and excessive monitoring emerge when principals are able to coordinate monitoring or verify each others? monitoring efforts. When this is not possible, free riding in monito...

2005-01-01

370

Implications of high-energy neutron observations from solar flares  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The time-dependent flux of high-energy neutrons discovered from the solar flare of 1980 June 21 provides a new technique for determining the total number and energy spectrum of accelerated protons and nuclei at the Sun. The implications of these observations on gamma-ray emission, relativistic electron spectrum and number, proton and electron energy contents, and the location of the interaction region are also examined

1983-10-01

371

Essential aspects and practical implications of sexual identity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sexual identity is a multidimensional construct that includes sex identity, gender identity, socio-sexual identity, and erotic identity. Sexual identity has theoretical and practical implications for sexual and reproductive health. For adults, concordance among biological sex, gender and role identity, and erotic identity is expected. However, 10% of the general population reports itself as non-heterosexual and another significant percent shows discordant sexual behavior with sexual identit...

2010-01-01

372

The Finnish Team Academy model: implications for management education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article explores an innovative model of management education, the Team Academy based in Finland, in which teams of learners create and operate real enterprises, supported by coaches. The contributions of the article are to provide insights into how the Team Academy works, and to review its implications for theories of management learning and educational design. Based on a case study of the Team Academy model we argue that management education programmes need to be construed as artificial...

Tosey, Pc; Dhaliwal, S.; Hassinen, J.

2013-01-01

373

Systematic Implications of Seed Coat Morphology in Malvaceae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seed morphological characters and seed coat sculpture of 14 species of Malvaceae were examined to assess systematic implications of seed coat sculpture. These taxa are Malva aegyptia L., M. parviflora L., M. neglecta Wallr., M. nicaeensis All., M. sylvestris L., Lavatera cretica L., Alcea rosea All., Sida alba L., Abutilon theophrasti Medicus, A. pannosum (G. Forster) Schlecht., Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., H. trionum L., and Gossypium barbadens...

El Naggar, Salah M. I.

2001-01-01

374

The 2011 Brisbane Floods: Causes, Impacts and Implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On 13th January 2011 major flooding occurred throughout most of the Brisbane River catchment, most severely in Toowoomba and the Lockyer Creek catchment (where 23 people drowned), the Bremer River catchment and in Brisbane, the state capital of Queensland. Some 56,200 claims have been received by insurers with payouts totalling $2.55 billion. This paper backgrounds weather and climatic factors implicated in the flooding and the historical flood experience of Brisbane. We examine the time hist...

2011-01-01

375

Advances in Seabed Liquefaction and its Implications for Marine Structures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A review is presented of recent advances in seabed liquefaction and its implications for marine structures. The review is organized in seven sections: Residual liquefaction, including the sequence of liquefaction, mathematical modelling, centrifuge modelling and comparison with standard wave-flume results; Momentary liquefaction; Floatation of buried pipelines; Sinking of pipelines and marine objects; Liquefaction at gravity structures; Stability of rock berms in liquefied soils; and Impact of seismic-induced liquefaction.

Sumer, B. Mutlu

2013-01-01

376

Software Development Methodologies, Trends and Implications: A Testing Centric View  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The practice of software development has evolved steadily over the decades. Numerous methods and models (e.g., life cycle models and agile methods) have been proposed to enhance its efficiency and effectiveness. This study provides a testing centric view of software development practices. Specifically, it reviews software development methodologies (i.e., methods and models), identifies the latest trends in the industry and discusses their implications. The review of methodologies, the identif...

Xihui Zhang; Tao Hu; Hua Dai; Xiang Li

2010-01-01

377

Interlanguage Pragmatics Theory and Its Implications for Foreign Language  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The major purpose of college English teaching is to cultivate and develop student’s pragmatic competence. Interlanguage pragmatics is a new interdisciplinary branch of study based on the theories of pragmatics and second language acquisition which has direct guide significance for foreign language teaching. This paper firstly introduces the theoretical models of the two theories and then focuses on the implications for foreign language teaching.

Qian Huang

2010-09-01

378

Idiom Taxonomies and Idiom Comprehension: Implications for English Teachers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Idioms are an important part of a language, as they are used to express ideas in a more concise and effective way. Idioms have a considerable role in a foreign language as in the mother tongue. Therefore, their learning and teaching in L2 are worthy of attention and research. This paper intends to define idioms, introduce their different taxonomies, discuss L2 idiom processing and comprehension, and use the information to endow English teachers with some pedagogical implications.

Noorolhoda Saberian

2012-01-01

379

Idiom Taxonomies and Idiom Comprehension: Implications for English Teachers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Idioms are an important part of a language, as they are used to express ideas in a more concise and effective way. Idioms have a considerable role in a foreign language as in the mother tongue. Therefore, their learning and teaching in L2 are worthy of attention and research. This paper intends to define idioms, introduce their different taxonomies, discuss L2 idiom processing and comprehension, and use the information to endow English teachers with some pedagogical implications.

Noorolhoda Saberian; Zahra Fotovatnia

2011-01-01

380

Idiom Taxonomies and Idiom Comprehension: Implications for English Teachers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Idioms are an important part of a language, as they are used to express ideas in a more concise and effective way. Idioms have a considerable role in a foreign language as in the mother tongue. Therefore, their learning and teaching in L2 are worthy of attention and research. This paper intends to define idioms, introduce their different taxonomies, discuss L2 idiom processing and comprehension, and use the information to endow English teachers with some pedagogical implications.

Noorolhoda Saberian; Zahra Fotovatnia

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Origin of the Old Testament Plagues: Explications and Implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analyses of past disasters may supply insights to mitigate the impact of recurrences. In this context, we offer a unifying causative theory of Old Testament plagues, which has present day public health implications. We propose the root cause to have been an aberrant El Niño-Southern Oscillation teleconnection that brought unseasonable and progressive climate warming along the ancient Mediterranean littoral, including the coast of biblical Egypt, which, in turn, initiated the serial catastrop...

Ehrenkranz, N. Joel; Sampson, Deborah A.

2008-01-01

382

Being and Implication: On Hegel and the Greeks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work shows that being must originally be understood as implication. We begin with what Heidegger calls Hegelrsquo;s lsquo;new concept of beingrsquo; in the emPhenomenology of Spirit/em: time as history is the essence of being. This concept however, is not univocalmdash;for supersession means destroying-preserving. Hegel shows himself to be the thinker of truth as essentially ambiguous; and the emPhenomenology/em is onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, the history of the being and unity, time and aspect, of the conceptrsquo;s ambiguity. For Heidegger however, conceptual ambiguity confirms that Hegelrsquo;s history of being is stuck in a vulgar interpretation of time; and the emPhenomenology/em can explain neither the origin of this time, nor the necessity of negation for the historical determination of beingmdash;for Hegel cannot think the ground of the concept of being, that is, the grounding of the ground. If Heidegger argues however, that the emPhenomenology/em is pre-determined by its ancient point of departure, we must go back to the Greeks, back to Aristotlersquo;s original insight (overlooked by the entire history of philosophy as metaphysics: being and unity emimply/em one anothermdash;for they are essentially implications. Thus the question of the meaning of being becomes the question of the meaning of implication.

Andrew Haas

2007-12-01

383

Tobacco, politics and economics: implications for global health.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the expanding presence of multinational cigarette companies into almost every country in the world, and discusses the health implications of this global penetration. Cigarettes deserve special attention because tobacco is the only legally available consumer product that is harmful to one's health when used as intended. A temptation exists to blame governments for the existence of health-threatening products within their borders. However, this paper illustrates the extent to which extra-national forces influence domestic policies and circumstances. Cigarette smokers are often blamed for their lethal habit, despite billion-dollar promotional schemes which attract people to smoking, obscuring the harmful consequences of consuming a highly addictive drug. Multinational cigarette companies are increasingly targeting Asian and Third World populations. To facilitate this market penetration, political avenues are often pursued with considerable success, disregarding the health implications associated with cigarette tobacco. The use of tobacco in development programs (e.g. the U.S. 'Food for Peace' program) has political and economic implications for donor and recipient countries, and lucrative advantages for the tobacco companies. However, this paper recommends that corporate profits and foreign policy should not be pursued at the expense of tobacco-related diseases and premature deaths among Third World peoples. PMID:1776045

Stebbins, K R

1991-01-01

384

Universal Access to E-Mail: Feasibility and Societal Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

"Universal Access to E-Mail: Feasibility and Societal Implications" by Robert H. Anderson, Tora K. Bikson, Sally Ann Law, and Bridger M. Mitchell; 1995; Rand Corporation; 267 pages, 24 tables, 18 figures; bibliography, is available for downloading from Rand Corporation's Web site. "This is the final report of a two-year RAND study. It is designed as a sourcebook on key social, technical, economic, and international issues related to providing universal access to e-mail within the United States. It is our hope that this report will help stimulate public policy discussions regarding the feasibility, desirability, and implications of universal e-mail access. Decision makers involved with such public policy issues are the primary audience for this report, but it should also be of interest to academic and business professionals involved with telecommunications policy and its social implications." The report is available in both HTML and .PDF (Adobe Acrobat) format. A free Acrobat Reader download site is available from the page.

Anderson, Robert H.; Bikson, Tora K.; Law, Sally A.; Mitchell, Bridger M.

1995-01-01

385

Depositional History of a Saline Blue Hole on Eleuthera Island, Bahamas: Implications for Sea Level History and Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical, chemical and biological properties of Duck Pond Blue Hole (DPBH), located on the southern portion of Eleuthera Island, Bahamas, were examined to analyze its depositional history and the record of climate and anthropogenic changes on the island. DPBH is a small (.001 km2), circular inland blue hole with average salinity ranging from 20-28 ppt and a maximum depth of ~8 m. Sediment cores were recovered using standard piston coring techniques along a transect consisting of three sites yielding cores of varying lengths--170, 155 and 151 cm, respectively. Radiocarbon dating, x-ray fluorescence (XRF), grain size analysis, loss on ignition (LOI), smear slide and mollusk processing and identification were performed on the cores. The sediment recovered is dominated by brown, tan and white carbonate sand with varying amounts of organic matter. Sedimentation rates vary between 0.1-0.5 mm/year. Mollusks are found throughout the cores but gastropods dominate in the upper portions, which date from 2000 years BP to present day. Bivalves are abundant in intervals dating between 5000 and 2500 years BP. The most common bivalve species were Polymesoda maritima, Anomalocardis auberiana and Ervilia concentrica. The most common gastropods were Cerithidea costata and Cerithium lutosum. Drill holes made by predaceous gastropods occur on some of the gastropods, but on most of the bivalves. Drilling frequency is highest between 5000 and 2500 years BP even though gastropods are rarely preserved in that interval. Through smear slide analysis, diatoms, forams and ostracodes were also found to occur throughout the core record. Peaks in Fe and Sr from XRF scans at 0.5 cm intervals may represent records of high atmospheric dust concentrations and sea level fluctuations, respectively. Plotting mollusk bed depths versus calibrated age reveals a sea level rise over the last 6000 years that includes a rapid rise and subsequent fall at ~2500 year BP.

Brady, K.; Bernard, M.; Bender, S.; Roy, Z.; Boush, L. E.; Myrbo, A.; Brown, E. T.; Buynevich, I. V.; Berman, M.; Gnivecki, P.

2013-12-01

386

INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 41 (IAS 41) – IMPLICATION FOR REPORTING CROP ASSETS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A series of articles were written regarding International Accounting Standard 41 (IAS 41) – Agriculture in order to outpost the the implication of this standard over valuating the different biological assets. Valuation of crop assets are also a part of the IAS 41 objective.  Anyway,  this paper investigates the implications of International Accounting Standard 41 for European Union (EU) entities reporting on holdings of crop asset from thre  points of view: implication of pr...

Cornel Gabriel Ni??; Petru ?tefea

2013-01-01

387

Multiple pathogenic proteins implicated in neuronopathic Gaucher disease mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gaucher disease, a prevalent lysosomal storage disease (LSD), is caused by insufficient activity of acid ?-glucosidase (GCase) and the resultant glucosylceramide (GC)/glucosylsphingosine (GS) accumulation in visceral organs (Type 1) and the central nervous system (Types 2 and 3). Recent clinical and genetic studies implicate a pathogenic link between Gaucher and neurodegenerative diseases. The aggregation and inclusion bodies of ?-synuclein with ubiquitin are present in the brains of Gaucher disease patients and mouse models. Indirect evidence of ?-amyloid pathology promoting ?-synuclein fibrillation supports these pathogenic proteins as a common feature in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, multiple proteins are implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic neuronopathic Gaucher disease (nGD). Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses showed significant amounts of ?-amyloid and amyloid precursor protein (APP) aggregates in the cortex, hippocampus, stratum and substantia nigra of the nGD mice. APP aggregates were in neuronal cells and colocalized with ?-synuclein signals. A majority of APP co-localized with the mitochondrial markers TOM40 and Cox IV; a small portion co-localized with the autophagy proteins, P62/LC3, and the lysosomal marker, LAMP1. In cultured wild-type brain cortical neural cells, the GCase-irreversible inhibitor, conduritol B epoxide (CBE), reproduced the APP/?-synuclein aggregation and the accumulation of GC/GS. Ultrastructural studies showed numerous larger-sized and electron-dense mitochondria in nGD cerebral cortical neural cells. Significant reductions of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate production and oxygen consumption (28-40%) were detected in nGD brains and in CBE-treated neural cells. These studies implicate defective GCase function and GC/GS accumulation as risk factors for mitochondrial dysfunction and the multi-proteinopathies (?-synuclein-, APP- and A?-aggregates) in nGD. PMID:24599400

Xu, You-Hai; Xu, Kui; Sun, Ying; Liou, Benjamin; Quinn, Brian; Li, Rong-Hua; Xue, Ling; Zhang, Wujuan; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Witte, David; Grabowski, Gregory A

2014-08-01

388

Exceptional visuospatial imagery in schizophrenia; implications for madness and creativity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biographical and historical accounts suggest a link between scientific creativity and schizophrenia. Longitudinal studies of gifted children indicate that visuospatial imagery plays a pivotal role in exceptional achievements in science and mathematics. We asked whether visuospatial imagery is enhanced in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ). We compared SZ and matched healthy controls (HC) on five visuospatial tasks tapping parietal and frontoparietal functions. Two aspects of visuospatial transformation, spatial location and mental imagery manipulation were examined with Paper Folding Test (PFT) and jigsaw puzzle task (JPT), respectively. Visuospatial intelligence was assessed with Ravens Progressive Matrices, which is associated with frontoparietal network activity. Hemispatial inattention implicating parietal function was assessed with line bisection (LB) task. Mediated by prefrontal cortex, spatial delayed response task (DRT) was used to index working memory maintenance, which was impaired in SZ compared to HC. In contrast, SZ showed intact visuospatial intelligence and transformation of location. Further, SZ performed significantly better than HC on JPT indicating enhanced mental imagery manipulation. Spatial working memory (SWM) maintenance and mental imagery manipulation were strongly associated in HC but dissociated in SZ. Thus, we observed enhanced mental imagery manipulation in SZ but the dissociation of mental imagery from working memory suggests a disrupted frontoparietal network. Finally, while HC showed the expected leftward pseudoneglect, SZ showed increased rightward LB bias implicating left hemispatial inattention and impaired right parietal control of spatial attention. The current results chart a unique profile of impaired, spared and enhanced parietal-mediated visuospatial functions implicating parietal abnormalities as a biobehavioral marker for SZ. We discuss these results in relation to creative cognition. PMID:24273503

Benson, Taylor L; Park, Sohee

2013-01-01

389

Implications of nuclear data uncertainties to reactor design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uncertainties in nuclear data require significant allowances to be made in the design and the operating conditions of reactor cores and of shielded-reactor-plant and fuel-processing systems. These allowances result in direct cost increases due to overdesign of components and equipment and reduced core and fuel operating performance. Compromising the allowances for data uncertainties has indirect cost implications due to increased risks of failure to meet plant and fuel performance objectives, with warrantees involved in some cases, and to satisfy licensed safety requirements. Fast breeders are the most sensitive power reactors to the uncertainties in nuclear data over the neutron energy range of interest for fission reactors, and this paper focuses on the implications of the data uncertainties to design and operation of fast breeder reactors and fuel-processing systems. The current status of uncertainty in predicted physics parameters due to data uncertainties is reviewed and compared with the situation in 1966 and that projected for within the next two years due to anticipated data improvements. Implications of the uncertainties in the predicted physics parameters to design and operation are discussed for both a near-term prototype or demonstration breeder plant (?300 MW(e)) and a longer-term large (?1000 MW(e)) plant. Significant improvements in the nuclear data have been made during the past three years, the most important of these to fast power reactors being the 239Pu alpha below 15 keV. The most important remaining specific data uncertainties are illustrated by their individual contributions to the computational uncertainty of selected physics parameters, and recommended priorities and accuracy requirements for improved data are presented

1970-10-01

390

Exceptional visuospatial imagery in schizophrenia; implications for madness and creativity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biographical and historical accounts suggest a link between scientific creativity and schizophrenia. Longitudinal studies of gifted children indicate that visuospatial imagery plays a pivotal role in exceptional achievements in science and mathematics. We asked whether visuospatial imagery is enhanced in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ. We compared SZ and matched healthy controls (HC on five visuospatial tasks tapping parietal and frontoparietal functions. Two aspects of visuospatial transformation, spatial location and mental imagery manipulation were examined with Paper Folding Test and Jigsaw Puzzle Task, respectively. Visuospatial intelligence was assessed with Ravens Progressive Matrices, which is associated with frontoparietal network activity. Hemispatial inattention implicating parietal function was assessed with line bisection task. Mediated by prefrontal cortex, spatial delayed response task was used to index working memory maintenance, which was impaired in SZ compared to HC. In contrast, SZ showed intact visuospatial intelligence and transformation of location. Further, SZ performed significantly better than HC on jigsaw puzzle task indicating enhanced mental imagery manipulation. Spatial working memory maintenance and mental imagery manipulation were strongly associated in HC but dissociated in SZ. Thus, we observed enhanced mental imagery manipulation in SZ but the dissociation of mental imagery from working memory suggests a disrupted frontoparietal network. Finally, while HC showed the expected leftward pseudoneglect, SZ showed increased rightward line bisection bias implicating left hemispatial inattention and impaired right parietal control of spatial attention. The current results chart a unique profile of impaired, spared and enhanced parietal-mediated visuospatial functions implicating parietal abnormalities as a biobehavioral marker for SZ. We discuss these results in relation to creative cognition.

TaylorBenson

2013-11-01

391

Volcanic resurfacing rates and implications for volatiles on Io  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The discovery of current volcanism on Io during the Voyager 1 mission raises important new questions about the history of volatile material on Io, the rates of material deposition, the age of the currently observed surface, the loss rates of volatiles, and the ultimate fate of volatiles. An initial comparison of resurfacing rates based on two separate observations and implications for supply of material to the jovian torus are presented. In estimating the resurfacing rates and surface ages the lack of recognisable impact craters down to the limiting resolution of about 600 m is examined and from imaging data the material ejection and deposition rates of the active volcanic plumes are estimated. (UK)

1979-08-30

392

ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL TOURISM ON TURKISH ECONOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study outlines, with a review of earlier studies, the effects of international tourism by showing developments in tourism-related economic parameters and discusses the implications of such tourism on the economy of Turkey. It asks how far international tourism contributes to the economic growth and development of Turkey; how far the country fully values its tourism potential by varying the focus of tourism facilities beyond the sun-sea-sand type of tourism, in order to lead to development of the industry countrywide and contribute further to economic growth; and other positive and negative effects of international tourism on the economy.

Mustafa Akal

2010-04-01

393

Texture specific mass matrices with Dirac neutrinos and their implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Considering Dirac neutrinos and Fritzsch-like texture six zero and five zero mass matrices, detailed predictions for cases pertaining to normal/inverted hierarchy as well as degenerate scenario of neutrino masses have been carried out. All the cases considered here pertaining to inverted hierarchy and degenerate scenario of neutrino masses are ruled out by the existing data. For the normal hierarchy cases, the lower limit of m?1 and of s13 as well as the range of Dirac-like CP violating phase ?l would have implications for the texture specific cases considered here.

2009-05-01

394

Congenital cytomegalovirus: implications for maternal-child nursing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading infectious cause of neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Despite its prevalence and devastating consequences, there is limited public and professional awareness about it. This practice-focused article presents two stories describing the family experience of congenital CMV; a literature review describing incidence and epidemiology of congenital CMV; sequelae including infection; the extent of public awareness about congenital CMV; and risk reduction approaches. Implications for maternal-child nurses, whose work uniquely situates them with populations of childbearing women, are discussed. PMID:24201241

Alex, Marion Rita

2014-01-01

395

Macroeconomic Implication of Fiscal Deficit and Public Debt in Nepal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fiscal deficit is a gap between government receipts and government expenditure and public debt is an accumulation of yearly deficits. Nepal has been adopting budget deficit since 1952 when first formal budget was announced. The fiscal deficit/GDP is 4.48 percent and public debt/GDP is 35.60 percent in 2011 in Nepal. This study is focused to investigate the various macroeconomic implications of fiscal deficit and public debt in Nepal by analyzing the annual time series data from 1975 to 2011. ...

Bista, Nar Bahadur

2014-01-01

396

Contesting conventional periodontal wisdom : implications for periodontal classifications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper examines the common approach used to classify periodontal diseases and how this obstructs our understanding of the disease process. We address the implications of including etiological and pathogenesis-related considerations in the classifications of complex diseases like periodontitis and argue that the number of periodontal entities in a classification system ought to be determined by well-documented differences in the management of each entity. We finally discuss how an ecosocial theory of disease distribution can be helpful to understand the determinants of the distribution of disease in the population.

Lopez, Rodrigo; Baelum, Vibeke

2012-01-01

397

A q-deformed logistic map and its implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new q-deformed logistic map is proposed and it is found to have concavity in parts of the x-space. Its one-cycle and two-cycle non-trivial fixed points are obtained which are found to be qualitatively and quantitatively different from those of the usual logistic map. The stability of the proposed q-logistic map is studied using the Lyapunov exponent, and with a change in the value of the deformation parameter q, one is able to go from the chaotic to regular dynamical regime. The implications of this q-logistic map on Parrondo's paradox are examined.

2011-01-28

398

Barriers to Research and Implications for Training Counselors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research is an important part of quality clinical practice in the field of counseling. This study addresses the constraints that produce a gap in master’s level practitioner research among counselors in Illinois. Ninety-nine master’s level clinicians responded to surveys and answered a series of questions regarding what constrains them from being more involved in research. These respondents provided valuable feedback regarding possible recommendations for training that might encourage increased research activity for future master’s level counselors. Training improvements such as mentored research activity and training in less complex research methods were indicated. Keywords: Clinical practice, Implications, Barriers to research, less complex research

James R Ruby

2013-03-01

399

Distributional implications of tax evasion and the crisis in Greece  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current Greek crisis and the government's fiscal consolidation effort have elevated tax evasion to one of the most crucial policy issues in the domestic debate. The paper attempts to shed light on one aspect of the phenomenon, namely its distributional implications. We compare a large panel data sample of personal income tax returns in 2006-2010 (incomes earned in 2005-2009) with data from the European Union Survey of Income and Living Conditions of the same years. We show that the deviat...

Leventi, Chrysa; Matsaganis, Manos; Flevotomou, Maria

2013-01-01

400

13C NMR tracers in neurochemistry implications for molecular imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview of 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy methods and their applications in the study of the metabolism of brain cells in vitro and in the in vivo brain is presented as well as their implications for modern molecular imaging techniques. Various topics will be discussed, such as general properties of the 13C NMR spectrum, 13C NMR spectroscopy acquisition protocols, determination of fractional 13C enrichment, 13C(2H) NMR methodologies, and the use of 13C hyper polarized substrates for NMR spectroscopy and imaging. Some illustrative applications are described, both in vitro and in vivo.

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
401

13C NMR tracers in neurochemistry: implications for molecular imaging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An overview of 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy methods and their applications in the study of the metabolism of brain cells in vitro and in the in vivo brain is presented as well as their implications for modern molecular imaging techniques. Various topics will be discussed, such as general properties of the 13C NMR spectrum, 13C NMR spectroscopy acquisition protocols, determination of fractional 13C enrichment, 13C(2H) NMR methodologies, and the use of 13C hyperpolarized su...

2009-01-01

402

Minimal Theory for Lepto-Baryons and Cosmological Implications  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the simplest models where baryon and lepton numbers are defined as local symmetries spontaneously broken at the low scale and discuss the implications for cosmology. We define the simplest anomaly-free theory for spontaneous baryon and lepton number violation which predicts the existence of lepto-baryons. In this context we study the new sphaleron condition on the chemical potentials and show the relation between the present baryon asymmetry and the B-L asymmetry generated in the early universe. The properties of the cold dark matter candidate for which stability is a natural consequence from symmetry breaking are briefly discussed.

Perez, Pavel Fileviez; Patel, Hiren H

2014-01-01

403

Connectedness and suicide prevention in adolescents: pathways and implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adolescent suicide is a major public health concern. Stressing the need for public health-based solutions, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identified "connectedness" as one means of pursuing this agenda. To advance this effort in suicide prevention with adolescents, (1) consistencies and variation in the literature overtly linking connectedness to suicide thoughts and behaviors (STB) are reviewed, (2) three more specific mechanistic pathways are proposed whereby connectedness may influence STB, and (3) several implications related to use of connectedness as a public health framework for adolescent suicide prevention and intervention are outlined. PMID:24444252

Whitlock, Janis; Wyman, Peter A; Moore, Sarah R

2014-06-01

404

Assessment of private dental practice: implications for dental education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development and testing methods for assessing the quality of private general dental practice are described. The assessment instrument, evolved through the contributions of a panel of private practitioners, provides for the evaluation of the structure, process, and outcome of practice. General practitioners, trained as evaluators, tested the instrument in 300 urban group, urban nongroup, and rural practices in 14 states. The distribution of assessment scores for the entire project sample is compared with those of the sample dentists who graduated before and after 1974. The implications of the project and its results to dental education are discussed. PMID:3478405

Morris, A L; Bohannan, H M

1987-11-01

405

Policy implications of the Kyoto protocol for Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors explore climate policy in Canada from a historical perspective, as well as considering the motivations underlying domestic and international policy development. Canadian policy makers are faced with constraints and opportunities dictated by the economy of the country, its political structure, the environment and its place in the global context. One must also recognize the uncertainties associated with the potential impact of politics, technology, the economy or the environment. To further illustrate their analysis of policy development, several scenarios were proposed that display potential implications of different policy and alternative outcomes of international negotiations now taking place. refs.

Bernstein, S.; Gore, C. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

2001-12-31

406

GHG emission trading implications on energy sector in Baltic States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article deals with the issues related to the implementation of EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trading scheme in Baltic States. The main objectives of the article are to analyse the main features and requirements of EU emission trading scheme and to assess the results of the first trading GHG trading period based on verified GHG emissions in Baltic States. The main aim of the article is to compare GHG emission trading results among Baltic States and provide with some insights for the next GHG trading period and assess possible implications on energy sector of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. (author)

Streimikiene, Dalia [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); Roos, Inge [Tallinn University of Technology, Department of Thermal Engineering, Kopli 116, 11712 Tallinn (Estonia)

2009-05-15

407

Outsourcing ship management: Implications for the logistics chain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the probability that shipping companies outsource the management of vessels to ship management companies, a decision with many implications for the logistics chain. Data on 39,925 vessels are used to investigate to the extent to which 4,049 different ship-owners (each operating a fleet of at least two vessels) outsource to ship-management service providers. We rely on multinomial Logit random and fixed effects regressions...

Cariou, Pierre; Wolff, Franc?ois-charles

2011-01-01

408

Implications of complete watershed soil moisture measurements to hydrologic modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of six microwave data collection flights for measuring soil moisture were made over a small 7.8 square kilometer watershed in southwestern Minnesota. These flights were made to provide 100 percent coverage of the basin at a 400 m resolution. In addition, three flight lines were flown at preselected areas to provide a sample of data at a higher resolution of 60 m. The low level flights provide considerably more information on soil moisture variability. The results are discussed in terms of reproducibility, spatial variability and temporal variability, and their implications for hydrologic modeling.

Engman, E. T.; Jackson, T. J.; Schmugge, T. J.

1983-01-01

409

New Types of Fuzzy Filter on Lattice Implication Algebras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Extending the {\\it belongs} to ($\\in$ relation and {\\itquasi-coincidence with}($q$ relation between fuzzy points and a fuzzy subsets, the concept of $(\\alpha, \\beta$-fuzzy filters and $(\\overline{\\alpha}, \\overline{\\beta}$-fuzzy filters of lattice implication algebras are introduced, where$\\alpha,\\beta\\in\\{\\in_{h},q_{\\delta},\\in_{h}\\veeq_{\\delta},\\in_{h}\\wedge q_{\\delta}\\}$,$\\overline{\\alpha},\\overline{\\beta}\\in\\{\\overline{\\in_{h}},\\overline{q_{\\delta}},\\overline{\\in_{h}}\\vee\\overline{q_{\\delta}},\\overline{\\in_{h}}\\wedge\\overline{q_{\\delta}}\\}$ but $\\alpha\

Yi Liu

2011-01-01

410

Implications of current constraints on parton charge symmetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the first time, charge symmetry breaking terms in parton distribution functions have been included in a global fit to high energy data. We review the results obtained for both valence and sea quark charge symmetry violation and compare these results with the most stringent experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation for parton distribution functions, as well as with theoretical estimates of charge symmetry violation. The limits allowed in the global fit would tolerate a rather large violation of charge symmetry. We discuss the implications of this for various observables, including extraction of the Weinberg angle in neutrino DIS and the Gottfried and Adler sum rules.

J. T. Londergan; A. W. Thomas

2005-11-01

411

The Ramanujan master theorem and its implications for special functions  

CERN Document Server

We study a number of possible extensions of the Ramanujan master theorem, which is formulated here by using methods of Umbral nature. We discuss the implications of the procedure for the theory of special functions, like the derivation of formulae concerning the integrals of products of families of Bessel functions and the successive derivatives of Bessel type functions. We stress also that the procedure we propose allows a unified treatment of many problems appearing in applications, which can formally be reduced to the evaluation of exponential- or Gaussian-like integrals.

Gorska, K; Dattoli, G; Duchamp, G H E; Penson, K A

2011-01-01

412

The Implications of Interactions for Science and Philosophy  

CERN Document Server

Reductionism has dominated science and philosophy for centuries. Complexity has recently shown that interactions---which reductionism neglects---are relevant for understanding phenomena. When interactions are considered, reductionism becomes limited in several aspects. In this paper, I argue that interactions imply non-reductionism, non-materialism, non-predictability, non-Platonism, and non-nihilism. As alternatives to each of these, holism, informism, adaptation, contextuality, and meaningfulness are put forward, respectively. A worldview that includes interactions not only describes better our world, but can help to solve many open scientific, philosophical, and social problems caused by implications of reductionism.

Gershenson, Carlos

2011-01-01

413

A q-deformed logistic map and its implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new q-deformed logistic map is proposed and it is found to have concavity in parts of the x-space. Its one-cycle and two-cycle non-trivial fixed points are obtained which are found to be qualitatively and quantitatively different from those of the usual logistic map. The stability of the proposed q-logistic map is studied using the Lyapunov exponent, and with a change in the value of the deformation parameter q, one is able to go from the chaotic to regular dynamical regime. The implications of this q-logistic map on Parrondo's paradox are examined.

Banerjee, Subhashish; Parthasarathy, R, E-mail: subhashish@cmi.ac.in, E-mail: sarathy@cmi.ac.in [Chennai Mathematical Institute, Padur PO, Siruseri 603103 (India)

2011-01-28

414

Modified Einstein-Cartan Gravity and its Implications for Cosmology  

CERN Document Server

We propose a modification of Einstein-Cartan gravity equations. The modified cosmology departs from the standard model of cosmology for small Hubble parameter. A characteristic Hubble scale h0, which is intrinsically related to cosmological constant, marks the boundary between the validity domains of the standard model of cosmology and modified cosmology. For large Hubble parameter, the standard model of cosmology is restored. In the opposite limit of small Hubble parameter, which is the case for present epoch, Lorentz-violating effects would manifest themselves. One of the implications is that there may be no need to invoke dark matter to account for cosmological mass discrepancies.

Lu, Wei

2014-01-01

415

GALLEX: First results and implications for neutrino physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The GALLEX experiment, located in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory, completed its first measurements of the production rate of Ge-71 from Ga-71 due to solar neutrinos. The GALLEX detector is uniquely sensitive to the low energy neutrinos produced by proton-proton fusion in the center of the Sun. From these first measurements, which cover a period of exposure of 295 days, a rate of 83 ± 19 (stat.) ± 8 (syst.) (1 ?) SNU [1 x 10"("-"3"6") captures/target atom - second] is reported. This initial result is two standard deviations below the solar model calculations. The implications of a neutrino deficit in terms of neutrino flavor oscillations is summarized

1992-07-13

416

Cellular uptake of steroid carrier proteins--mechanisms and implications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Steroid hormones are believed to enter cells solely by free diffusion through the plasma membrane. However, recent studies suggest the existence of cellular uptake pathways for carrier-bound steroids. Similar to the clearance of cholesterol via lipoproteins, these pathways involve the recognition of carrier proteins by endocytic receptors on the surface of target cells, followed by internalization and cellular delivery of the bound sterols. Here, we discuss the emerging concept that steroid hormones can selectively enter steroidogenic tissues by receptor-mediated endocytosis, and we discuss the implications of these uptake pathways for steroid hormone metabolism and action in vivo.

Willnow, Thomas E; Nykjaer, Anders

2010-01-01

417

Human cancer predisposition and the implications for radiological protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is well established from clinical, epidemiological and laboratory studies that specific human germ line mutation can predispose to spontaneously arising cancer. Some of the responsible genes have been characterized at the molecular level and evidence is rapidly accumulating on mechanistic aspects of the problem. A major outstanding issue is the extent to which genetically determined cancer predisposition in man interacts with exposures to environmental genotoxic agents such as ionizing radiation. This brief review considers the current position regarding the different forms and frequencies of cancer-predisposing mutations in the human population and provides an interim view of the possible implications for protection of man from ionizing radiation. (author)

1994-11-01

418

Some Implications of Two Forms of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

CERN Document Server

Various theories of quantum gravity predict the existence of a minimal length scale, which leads to the modification of the usual uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics. In this paper, we study two forms of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) and calculate their implications on the energy of the harmonic oscillator and the Hydrogen atom in a more accurate way than previous studies. Then, show how the GUP modifies the Lorentz force law in classical mechanics, and propose a possible connection between the GUP and Modified Dispersion Relations. Finally, show how the GUP modifies the time-energy uncertainty principle.

Khalil, Mohammed M

2013-01-01

419

Arbitrage Opportunities and their Implications to Derivative Hedging  

CERN Document Server

We explore the role that random arbitrage opportunities play in hedging financial derivatives. We extend the asymptotic pricing theory presented by Fedotov and Panayides [Stochastic arbitrage return and its implication for option pricing, Physica A 345 (2005), 207-217] for the case of hedging a derivative when arbitrage opportunities are present in the market. We restrict ourselves to finding hedging confidence intervals that can be adapted to the amount of arbitrage return risk an investor will permit to be exposed to. The resulting hedging bands are independent of the detailed statistical characteristics of the arbitrage return.

Panayides, S

2005-01-01

420

Arbitrage opportunities and their implications to derivative hedging  

Science.gov (United States)

We explore the role that random arbitrage opportunities play in hedging financial derivatives. We extend the asymptotic pricing theory presented by Fedotov and Panayides [Stochastic arbitrage return and its implication for option pricing, Physica A 345 (2005) 207-217] for the case of hedging a derivative when arbitrage opportunities are present in the market. We restrict ourselves to finding hedging confidence intervals that can be adapted to the amount of arbitrage risk an investor will permit to be exposed to. The resulting hedging bands are independent of the detailed statistical characteristics of the arbitrage opportunities.

Panayides, Stephanos

2006-02-01

 
 
 
 
421

The implications of Galilean invariance for classical point particle lagrangians  

CERN Document Server

We explore the implications of the requirement of Galilean invariance for classical point particle lagrangians, in which the space is not assumed to be flat to begin with. We show that for the free, time-independent lagrangian, this requirement is equivalent to the existence of gradient Killing vectors on space, which is in turn equivalent to the condition that the space is a direct product, which is totally flat in the Galilean invariant direction. We then consider more general cases and see that there is no simple generalisation to these cases.

Hu, Ziyang

2011-01-01

422

Nuclear protein isoforms: implications for cancer diagnosis and therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of nuclear proteins play essential roles in the regulation of gene transcription and signal transduction pathways. Numerous studies have demonstrated a correlation between specific nuclear protein isoforms and cellular malignant process. This communication reviews the impact of major PTM events such as phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation on several important nuclear proteins including p53, histones, proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA), and retinoblastoma protein (Rb) in the process. In addition, the implications of the PTMs as cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets are considered. PMID:21328449

Shen, Fei; Kirmani, Kashif Z; Xiao, Zhimin; Thirlby, Benjamin H; Hickey, Robert J; Malkas, Linda H

2011-03-01

423

Implications of LHC searches for Higgs--portal dark matter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The search for the a Standard Model Higgs boson at the LHC is reaching a critical stage as the possible mass range for the particle has become extremely narrow and some signal at a mass of about 125 GeV is starting to emerge. We study the implications of these LHC Higgs searches for Higgs portal models of dark matter in a rather model independent way. Their impact on the cosmological relic density and on the direct detection rates are studied in the context of generic scalar...

Djouadi, Abdelhak; Lebedev, Oleg; Mambrini, Yann; Quevillon, Jeremie

2011-01-01

424

FOOD PRODUCTION, CHOICE, AND SECURITY: THE IMPLICATIONS OF GENETIC ENGINEERING &  

... Microsoft Word 97 C:\\\\PROGRAM FILES\\\\MICROSOFT OFFICE\\\\OFFICE\\\\html.dot FOOD PRODUCTION, CHOICE, AND SECURITY: THE IMPLICATIONS OF GENETIC ...States to make their own decisions over import and use of genetically-engineered organisms and/or their products, without those decisions being undermined ...little more than international harmonisation of information sharing on trade in genetically-engineered organisms and their products, and for biosafety provisions to be ...in the context of genetic engineering and the growing trade in genetically-engineered organisms and their products. To achieve this, the Biosafety ...

425

The Implications of Information Technology for Scientific Journal Publishing: A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

... for Scientific Journal Publishing: A Literature Review Special Report Hypertext Format The ... Scientific Journal Publishing: A Literature Review Portable Document Format (.pdf) The Implications ...

426

Gas flow through through a porous mantle: implications of fluidisation  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the interaction of dust and gas in the upper layers of a cometary mantle is critical for understanding cometary evolution. The state of knowledge of conditions in these layers is currently rather low, and a wide range of flow conditions and phenomena can be imagined. A model is presented here that examines the conditions under which so-called "fluidized beds" might be possible in a cometary mantle. This phenomenon, well studied in industry, occurs when the weight of a bed of particles is equal to the gas drag of a gas or fluid flowing upwards through it. Wherever fluidisation occurs in a cometary mantle, it could change the dominant heat transfer mechanism by removing intimate particle contacts (creating an expanded bed) or allowing particle convection in the now fluid-like mantle. There are also implications for the stability of the Rosetta lander, Philae, if such a state were to occur in the vicinity of the deployed anchor. A two-fluid model is used, with necessarily restricted geometries, to demonstrate the conditions (gravity, pressure, gas velocity, particle size etc.) under which fluidisation could occur, and the scientific results and implications for the Rosetta mission are explored.

Bentley, Mark; Koemle, Norbert; Kargl, Guenter; Huetter, Mag. Erika Sonja

427

Environmental implications of solar and biomass energy growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of the US Department of Energy's Technology Assessment of Solar Energy projects, 26 solar and biomass technologies were characterized by size, energy requirements, pollutant discharges, and material and labor requirements for operation and maintenance and construction. Using these parameters, this paper compares these technologies with competing fossil and nuclear technologies. Comparisons are provided both for effects per unit of useful output energy and for national scenarios in which a mix of solar and biomass technologies displaces conventional energy options. The various direct environmental implications of using solar and biomass technologies are discussed. These implications include such factors as decreased atmospheric emissions from fossil-fuel use and increased soil erosion and emissions of particulate matter from biomass energy production. The extent to which conventional emissions reductions are offset by increases in indirect pollution from the higher materials-manufacturing requirements of solar technologies is quantitatively evaluated. Overall, only a limited national environmental advantage emerges from the postulated high growth rate of solar/biomass technology through the year 2000. Atmospheric emissions of particulate matter from biocombustion are disproportionately high and should be a major concern of regulators.

Habegger, L.

1983-01-01

428

Pharmacometabolomics reveals that serotonin is implicated in aspirin response variability.  

Science.gov (United States)

While aspirin is generally effective for prevention of cardiovascular disease, considerable variation in drug response exists, resulting in some individuals displaying high on-treatment platelet reactivity. We used pharmacometabolomics to define pathways implicated in variation of response to treatment. We profiled serum samples from healthy subjects pre- and postaspirin (14 days, 81?mg/day) using mass spectrometry. We established a strong signature of aspirin exposure independent of response (15/34 metabolites changed). In our discovery (N = 80) and replication (N = 125) cohorts, higher serotonin levels pre- and postaspirin correlated with high, postaspirin, collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In a third cohort, platelets from subjects with the highest levels of serotonin preaspirin retained higher reactivity after incubation with aspirin than platelets from subjects with the lowest serotonin levels preaspirin (72?±?8 vs. 61?±?11%, P = 0.02, N = 20). Finally, ex vivo, serotonin strongly increased platelet reactivity after platelet incubation with aspirin (+20%, P = 4.9?×?10(-4), N = 12). These results suggest that serotonin is implicated in aspirin response variability. PMID:25029353

Ellero-Simatos, S; Lewis, J P; Georgiades, A; Yerges-Armstrong, L M; Beitelshees, A L; Horenstein, R B; Dane, A; Harms, A C; Ramaker, R; Vreeken, R J; Perry, C G; Zhu, H; Sànchez, C L; Kuhn, C; Ortel, T L; Shuldiner, A R; Hankemeier, T; Kaddurah-Daouk, R

2014-01-01

429

Implications of heparan sulfate and heparanase in neuroinflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), expressed on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix of most animal tissues, have essential functions in development and homeostasis, and have been implicated in several pathological conditions. The functions of HSPGs are mainly mediated through interactions of the heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharide side chains with different protein ligands. The molecular structure of HS is highly diverse, expressed in a cell-type specific manner. The flexible yet controlled structure of HS is primarily generated through a strictly regulated biosynthesis process and is further modified post-synthetically, such as desulfation by endosulfatases and fragmentation by heparanase. Heparanase is an endo-glucuronidase expressed in all tissues. The enzyme has been found up-regulated in a number of pathological conditions, implying a role in diseases mainly through degradation of HS. Emerging evidence demonstrates important roles of HS and heparanase in inflammatory reactions, particularly in the regulation of leukocyte activation and extravasation. Neuroinflammation is a common feature of various central nervous system disorders, thus it is a great interest to understand the implications of HS and heparanase in neuroinflammation. PMID:24398134

Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Bo; Li, Jin-Ping

2014-04-01

430

Performance implications of chemical mobilization after microchannel IEF.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical mobilization following IEF enables single-point detection of an ideally stationary equilibrium electrophoresis mode. Despite prior studies exploring optimization of chemical mobilization conditions and recent insight from numerical simulations, understanding of both chemical mobilization mechanisms and the implications of mobilization on IEF analytical performance remains limited. In this study, we utilize full-field imaging of microchannel IEF to assess the performance of a range of canonical chemical mobilization schemes. We empirically demonstrate and characterize key areas where limited understanding of performance implications exists, including: the effects of mobilization solution pH and ion concentration, differences between ionic and zwitterionic mobilization, and diffusion as a source of zone broadening. We utilize Simul5 simulations to gain insight into the sources of the measured performance differences. Measurements of the location, linearity, and slope of the IEF pH gradient (via fluorescent pH markers imaged before and during mobilization) as well as mobilization-associated broadening of focused analytes were performed to quantify performance and determine the dominant sources of variability. Our results suggest that nonuniform broadening of the pH gradient and changes in the pH gradient linearity stem from conductivity nonuniformities in the separation channel and not diffusion-associated band broadening during mobilization. PMID:24590929

Tentori, Augusto M; Herr, Amy E

2014-05-01

431

Australian hydro-climatic variability: Causes and Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Australia has long been known to experience marked climate variability on timescales ranging from inter-annual through to multi-decadal. Recent research is beginning to elucidate the climatic mechanisms by which different modes of hydrologic variability occur. Whilst inter-annual variability can largely be ascribed to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, longer-term modes of variability are evident that correspond to the warming and cooling epochs evidenced in both Pacific and global sea surface temperature records. In this presentation, a review of the different climate modes that affect Australia will be provided within the context of the implications for hydrological and water resource design and management. Emphasis is also placed on the explanation of the different regional impacts of climate variability. This review demonstrates the key importance of understanding the longer-term modes of variability given contemporary hydrological risk estimation practices. The presentation concludes with a discussion of the possible origins of the multi-decadal variability, including an apparent link to multi-decadal solar variability. The implications for future climate risk estimation and the predictability of a `greenhouse-enhanced' future are then discussed.

Franks, S. W.

2004-12-01

432

Environmental and economic implications of second generation biofuels for transportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The key objective of the project is to assess greenhouse gas and other environmental impacts of producing and using second generation biofuels. In addition, economic implications for Finland taking into account availability and competition of raw materials are analysed in three technology and target scenarios aiming to reach the EU's 10% target proposed for the biofuels in road transportation in 2020. Technologies for which environmental impact analysis are carried out are F-T diesel, NExBTL diesel, second generation ethanol and Brazilian ethanol. Raw materials considered include forest residues, peat, reed canary grass, straw, palm oil, rapeseed oil, waste fats and sugar cane. Economic implications for Finland by 2020 are studied in different scenarios with various assumptions as regards e.g. to self-sufficiency. Sustainability criteria for biofuels proposed by various organisations or institutions are critically analysed. The project is carried out by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA) and The Government Institute for Economic Research (VATT). The current knowledge and ongoing national and international projects are exploited to produce transparent and reliable data on environmental and economic impacts of considered biofuels. The final report of the project is scheduled to he published at the end of this year. (orig.)

Soimakallio, S. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Pasanen, K. (Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu (Finland)); Seppaelae, J. (Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Helsinki (Finland)); Honkatukia, J. (Government Institute for Economic Research, Helsinki (Finland)), Thun, R. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland))

2008-07-01

433

Implications of ?' Coupling In The Chiral Constituent Quark Model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the latest data pertaining to u-bar - d-bar asymmetry and the spin polarization functions, detailed implications of the possible values of the coupling strength of the singlet Goldstone boson ?' have been investigated in the ?CQM with configuration mixing. Using ?u, ?3, u-bar - d-bar and u-bar/d-bar, the possible ranges of the coupling parameters a, ?2a, ?2a and ?2a, representing respectively the probabilities of fluctuations to pions, K, ? and ?', are found. To further constrain the coupling strength of ?', detailed fits have been obtained for spin polarization functions, quark distribution functions and baryon octet magnetic moments. The fits clearly establish that a small non-zero value of the coupling of ?' is preferred over the higher values of ?' as well as when ? = 0, the latter implying the absence of ?' from the dynamics of ?CQM. Our best fit achieves an overall excellent fit to the data, in particular for ?u, ?d, ?8 as well as the magnetic moments ?n, ??-, ??+ and ??-. The implications of ?' on the gluon polarization have also been investigated

2007-06-13

434

Cognitive contributions to gait and falls: evidence and implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dementia and gait impairments often coexist in older adults and patients with neurodegenerative disease. Both conditions represent independent risk factors for falls. The relationship between cognitive function and gait has recently received increasing attention. Gait is no longer considered merely automated motor activity but rather an activity that requires executive function and attention as well as judgment of external and internal cues. In this review, we intend to: (1) summarize and synthesize the experimental, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging evidence that supports the role played by cognition in the control of gait; and (2) briefly discuss the implications deriving from the interplay between cognition and gait. In recent years, the dual task paradigm has been widely used as an experimental method to explore the interplay between gait and cognition. Several neuropsychological investigations have also demonstrated that walking relies on the use of several cognitive domains, including executive-attentional function, visuospatial abilities, and even memory resources. A number of morphological and functional neuroimaging studies have offered additional evidence supporting the relationship between gait and cognitive resources. Based on the findings from 3 lines of studies, it appears that a growing body of evidence indicates a pivotal role of cognition in gait control and fall prevention. The interplay between higher-order neural function and gait has a number of clinical implications, ranging from integrated assessment tools to possible innovative lines of interventions, including cognitive therapy for falls prevention on one hand and walking program for reducing dementia risk on the other. PMID:24132840

Amboni, Marianna; Barone, Paolo; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

2013-09-15

435

Psychiatric diagnosis: some implications for mental health nursing care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychiatric diagnosis: some implications for mental health nursing care This article explores some of the functions of psychiatric diagnosis and the implications this has for the mental health nursing care that service users receive. It proposes that because a psychiatric diagnosis often fails to describe the individual's experience of mental distress it can be regarded as a categorization process that, while not necessarily intentionally, serves to maintain oppressive power relations within society. It does this by establishing and maintaining the parameters of normality and abnormality in a manner that reflects particular gender, culture and class biases. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders will be used to illustrate some of the inherent biases in the diagnostic process. Mental health nursing practice needs to demonstrate an awareness of the power relations inherent in any diagnostic process and make attempts to redress these at both the individual and sociopolitical levels. If mental health nursing practice is a patient-centred partnership, as many of our nursing standards suggest, then nursing's focus should be on the patient's experience rather than the psychiatric diagnosis with which the experience is attributed. Mental health nurses need to turn to service users to learn how best to help. PMID:10718877

Crowe, M

2000-03-01

436

Oxidative stress in insulin-resistant conditions: cardiovascular implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with diabetes mellitus is increased more than 3-fold and is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetic patients. Historically, diabetes has been considered an inadequate insulin response leading to elevated plasma glucose levels with morbidities attributable to hyperglycemia. However, diabetes represents a complex pathology that often includes hypertension, dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, microalbuminuria, platelet disaggregation, abnormal fibrinolysis, and chronic inflammation. Furthermore, oxidative stress has been shown to contribute to the pathology of diabetic CVD, having implications in the development of hypertension, renal disease, and stroke. Hypertension is a common feature of diabetes and is the primary contributor to CVD, which highlights the importance of blood pressure control (<130/80 mm Hg). Recent investigations have also implicated the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in promoting oxidative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and insulin resistance. These pathophysiologic considerations will be important in developing prevention strategies for CVD in diabetes. Further research is needed to identify antioxidant and insulin-sensitizing agents that will improve CVD outcomes in patients with diabetes. PMID:16318400

Stump, Craig S; Clark, Suzanne E; Sowers, James R

2005-01-01

437

Ideology and community social psychology: theoretical considerations and practical implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses the importance of the concept of ideology in community work. The implications of a Marxist approach to ideology in community practice are analyzed in terms of the concepts of problematization (P. Freire, 1979) and consciousness-raising (J. Barreiro, 1976), illustrating the point with some examples. The traditional Marxist perspective is also examined in relation to the perspectives of social constructionism (I. Ibáñez, 1996), cultural studies (A. McRobbie, 1992), post-Marxism (E. Laclau & C. Mouffe, 1985), and feminism (D. Haraway, 1991). It is argued that the concepts of hegemony and habitus (P. Bourdieu, 1985) can be useful to community social psychology theory and practice. A "situated perspective"--in which it is possible to dialogue from different "subject positions," and articulate transformation and political action--is argued. The implications of this shifting in the concept of ideology by means of theoretical developments outside social communitypsychology can help to define the external (outside) agent's position in community practice. PMID:12125780

Montenegro, Marisela

2002-08-01

438

Gender Differences in Website Design: Implications for Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the implications of a gendered website production and preference aesthetic for the teaching of computer studies. Where the website production aesthetic is concerned, it finds evidence of statistically significant differences on 13 of the 23 factors against which sixty student websites were rated. These results were suggestive of a website aesthetic continuum with male and female production aesthetic tendencies at either end. The preference tests, conducted with 67 subjects, revealed preferences to be in tune with production aesthetics such that men had a statistically significant tendency to prefer home pages produced by men, and women those produced by women. This latter tendency was higher than the former. The finding of gendered differences in website production and preference aesthetics has important implications for teaching and assessment. Teachers selecting or assessing websites, whether commercial or produced by pupils and students, need to be mindful of the aesthetic employed in those websites. When selecting websites for educational purposes, a match should be made between the website and end-user preferences. Assessment of students' work should ideally be mindful of the potential for positive bias on the part of the assessor in the direction of work displaying their own favoured aesthetic.

Gloria Moss

2007-12-01

439

Working memory and older adults: implications for occupational therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atkinson and Shiffrin's (1968) modal model of memory is still commonly used by rehabilitation professionals to evaluate memory impairment in older adults. However, research to date has been unable to indicate that short-term memory declines with age. These findings have led some rehabilitation professionals to mistakenly conclude that short-term memory is not affected by the aging process. This article reviews both the traditional concept of short-term memory, as outlined by Atkinson and Shiffrin, and the more recent conceptualization of short-term memory in terms of Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) model of working memory. The implications of the concept of working memory has implications for occupational therapy interventions for older adults. For example, clients with dementia may experience difficulties in performing tasks that require drawing inferences. Similarly, language that contains vague references may present problems for these clients. In addition, changes in working memory in older adults suggest that they may experience difficulties with medication management and what Rule, Milke, and Dobbs (1992) called wayfinding. Therefore, evaluations of working memory would provide a better indication of older adults' memory performance than the modal model. PMID:7573339

Andiel, C; Liu, L

1995-01-01

440

Implication of PSA uncertainties on risk-informed decision making  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear power plants risk-informed policy is introduced in order to improve safety decision making and regulatory efficiency. The corresponding regulatory guides define the acceptable risk measures and their changes resulting from the modifications in the licensed design of the nuclear power plant. The risk measures used in the acceptance guidelines are the core damage frequency and large early release frequency. The risk measures and their corresponding changes are assessed by the Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The uncertainties of Probabilistic Safety Assessment should be appropriately addressed in the context of the decision making, considering their implication on the obtained results. The Probabilistic Safety Assessment uncertainties include epistemic uncertainties resulting from parameter, model, and completeness uncertainties. The paper presents the obtained results from the uncertainty analysis of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment of the reference nuclear power plant and their implication on risk-informed decision making. The paper focuses particularly on parameter and model uncertainties. The analysed modification is extension of the test interval of the emergency diesel generators. The core damage frequency is the used risk measure in the analysis. The need for the appropriate consideration of the uncertainties in the Probabilistic Safety Assessment in order to adequately support the risk-informed decision making is identified. The deficiency of usage of percentile measures is identified and acknowledged. The need for the adaptation of the risk-informed decision-making principles considering new nuclear power plants is recognized.

Volkanovski, Andrija, E-mail: andrija.volkanovski@ijs.s [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova Cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Cepin, Marko, E-mail: marko.cepin@fe.uni-lj.s [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2011-04-15

 
 
 
 
441

Fraud and Its Implications for Bank Performance in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, the volume and frequency of fraudulent practices in Nigerian banks have been on the increase with obvious implications on bank performance. The performance of Nigerian banking industry is a product of its returns and services rendered to the public as a whole. However, the occurrence and frequency of fraud in the banking sector over the years has negatively affected the performance of these banks in Nigeria. It is on this note that this paper examines the problem of fraud and its implications for bank performanc