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Sample records for maritima tm0439 implications

  1. Structure of Thermotoga maritima TM0439: implications for the mechanism of bacterial GntR transcription regulators with Zn2+-binding FCD domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, the crystal structure of TM0439, a GntR regulator with an FCD domain found in the Thermotoga maritima genome, is described. The GntR superfamily of dimeric transcription factors, with more than 6200 members encoded in bacterial genomes, are characterized by N-terminal winged-helix DNA-binding domains and diverse C-terminal regulatory domains which provide a basis for the classification of the constituent families. The largest of these families, FadR, contains nearly 3000 proteins with all-?-helical regulatory domains classified into two related Pfam families: FadR-C and FCD. Only two crystal structures of FadR-family members, those of Escherichia coli FadR protein and LldR from Corynebacterium glutamicum, have been described to date in the literature. Here, the crystal structure of TM0439, a GntR regulator with an FCD domain found in the Thermotoga maritima genome, is described. The FCD domain is similar to that of the LldR regulator and contains a buried metal-binding site. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy and Trp fluorescence, it is shown that the recombinant protein contains bound Ni2+ ions but that it is able to bind Zn2+ with Kd < 70 nM. It is concluded that Zn2+ is the likely physiological metal and that it may perform either structural or regulatory roles or both. Finally, the TM0439 structure is compared with two other FadR-family structures recently deposited by structural genomics consortia. The results call for a revision in the classification of the FadR family of transcription factors

  2. Structure of Thermotoga maritima TM0439: implications for the mechanism of bacterial GntR transcription regulators with Zn{sup 2+}-binding FCD domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Meiying; Cooper, David R. [Integrated Center for Structure-Function Innovation, Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908-0736 (United States); Grossoehme, Nickolas E. [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405-7102 (United States); Yu, Minmin [Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS4R0230, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hung, Li-Wei [Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS4R0230, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physics Division, MS D454, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Cieslik, Marcin; Derewenda, Urszula [Integrated Center for Structure-Function Innovation, Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908-0736 (United States); Lesley, Scott A. [The Scripps Research Institute, North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, 10675 John Jay Hopkins Drive, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Wilson, Ian A. [The Scripps Research Institute, North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Giedroc, David P. [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405-7102 (United States); Derewenda, Zygmunt S., E-mail: zsd4n@virginia.edu [Integrated Center for Structure-Function Innovation, Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908-0736 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Here, the crystal structure of TM0439, a GntR regulator with an FCD domain found in the Thermotoga maritima genome, is described. The GntR superfamily of dimeric transcription factors, with more than 6200 members encoded in bacterial genomes, are characterized by N-terminal winged-helix DNA-binding domains and diverse C-terminal regulatory domains which provide a basis for the classification of the constituent families. The largest of these families, FadR, contains nearly 3000 proteins with all-?-helical regulatory domains classified into two related Pfam families: FadR-C and FCD. Only two crystal structures of FadR-family members, those of Escherichia coli FadR protein and LldR from Corynebacterium glutamicum, have been described to date in the literature. Here, the crystal structure of TM0439, a GntR regulator with an FCD domain found in the Thermotoga maritima genome, is described. The FCD domain is similar to that of the LldR regulator and contains a buried metal-binding site. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy and Trp fluorescence, it is shown that the recombinant protein contains bound Ni{sup 2+} ions but that it is able to bind Zn{sup 2+} with K{sub d} < 70 nM. It is concluded that Zn{sup 2+} is the likely physiological metal and that it may perform either structural or regulatory roles or both. Finally, the TM0439 structure is compared with two other FadR-family structures recently deposited by structural genomics consortia. The results call for a revision in the classification of the FadR family of transcription factors.

  3. Crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima TM0439: implications for the mechanism of bacterial GntR transcription regulators with Zn2+-binding FCD domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Meiying; Cooper, David; Grossoehmerb, Nickolas; Yu, Minmin; Hung, Li-Wei; Cieslik, Murcin; Derewendaro, Urszula; Lesley, Scott; Wilson, Ian; Giedrocb, David; Derewenda, Zygmunt

    2009-06-06

    The GntR superfamily of dimeric transcription factors, with more than 6200 members encoded in bacterial genomes, are characterized by N-terminal winged helix (WH) DNA-binding domains and diverse C-terminal, regulatory domains, which provide a basis for the classification of the constituent families. The largest of these families, FadR, contains nearly 3000 proteins with all a-helical regulatory domains classified into two related Pfam families: FadR{_}C and FCD. Only two crystal structures of the FadR family members, i.e. the E. coli FadR protein and the LldR from C. glutamicum, have been described to date in literature. Here we describe the crystal structure of TM0439, a GntR regulator with an FCD domain, found in the Thermotoga maritima genome. The FCD domain is similar to that of the LldR regulator, and contains a buried metal binding site. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy and Trp fluorescence, we show that the recombinant protein contains bound Ni{sup 2+} ions, but it is able to bind Zn{sup 2+} with K{sub D} < 70 nM . We conclude that Zn{sup 2+} is the likely physiological metal, where it may perform either or both structural and regulatory roles. Finally, we compare the TM0439 structure to two other FadR family structures recently deposited by Structural Genomics consortia. The results call for a revision in the classification of the FadR family of transcription factors.

  4. Solute distribution in Suaeda maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, J; Wyn Jones, R G

    1983-07-01

    The distribution of sodium, potassium and glycinebetaine in shoot tissues of salt-treated Suaeda maritima was examined by semi-micro techniques after extraction into toluene-water. Much higher K/Na ratios were observed in the apical regions and in axillary buds than in more mature, fully vacuolated tissues. The younger tissues also contained very high levels of glycinebetaine. Electron-probe X-ray microanalysis of bulkfrozen and fractured preparations showed higher K/Na ratios and higher levels of sulphur and phosphorus in the cytoplasm of leaf primordial cells than in vacuoles of either young or old leaves, although the total counts were higher in the vacuolar samples. The results are discussed in relation to current models of subcellular solute compartmentation and salt tolerance in the Chenopodiaceae. PMID:24264268

  5. The Halophyte Cakile maritima Reduces Phenanthrene Phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Moez; Rabhi, Mokded; Amrani, Abdelhak El; Abdelly, Chedly

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that the halophyte plant model Thellungiella salsuginea was more tolerant to phenanthrene (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon: PAH) than its relative glycophyte Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present work, we investigated the potential of another halophyte with higher biomass production, Cakile maritma, to reduce phenanthrene phytotoxicity. Sand was used instead of arable soil with the aim to avoid pollutant degradation by microorganisms or their interaction with the plant. After 6 weeks of treatment by 500 ppm phenanthrene (Phe), stressed plants showed a severe reduction (-73%) in their whole biomass, roots being more affected than leaves and stems. In parallel, Guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activity was increased by 185 and 62% in leaves and roots, respectively. Non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (assayed by ABTS test) was maintained unchanged in all plant organs. The model halophytic plant Thellungiella salsuginea was used as a biomarker of phenanthrene stress severity and was grown at 0 (control), 125, 250, and 375 ppm. T. salsuginea plants grown on the sand previously contaminated by 500 ppm Phe then treated by C. maritma culture (phytoremediation culture) showed similar biomass production as plants subjected to 125 ppm Phe. This suggests that the phytotoxic effects of phenanthrene were reduced by 75% by the 6-week treatment by C. maritima. Our findings indicate that C. maritima can constitute a potentially good candidate for PAH phytoremediation. PMID:25581445

  6. Three new flavonol glycosides from Suaeda maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Latif, Rasha R; Mansour, Ragaa M A; Sharaf, Mohamed; Farag, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Three new flavonol glycosides isolated from the 70% methanol extract of Suaeda maritima (Chenopodiaceae) were characterized based on spectroscopic and chemical methods as quercetin 3-O-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1?' ? 6?)-?-d-galactopyranoside-7-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl(1??' ? 2??)-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1?' ? 6?)-?-d-galactopyranoside-7-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl(1??' ? 2??)-glucopyranoside, and kaempferol 3-O-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1?' ? 6?)-?-d-galactopyranoside-7-O-(2??'-O-trans-feruloyl)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1??' ? 2??)-?-d-glucopyranoside. In addition, four known compounds, namely, quercetin and kaempferol, methyl cis, trans-ferulate, and methyl trans-ferulate were identified. The plant extract and these compounds showed cytotoxic activity against the human tumor cell lines MCF7, HCT116, and HEPG2. PMID:24679058

  7. ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF SUAEDA MARITIMA (L.) DUMORTIER STEM IN TRITON INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Rajinder mann; Surendra Kr. Sharma; Sumitra Singh

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic effect of Suaeda maritima (L.) Dumortier stem extracts in triton induced hyperlipidemia. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Suaeda maritima (L.) Dumortier were administered at dose 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg/day orally, respectively. Simultaneous administrations of stem extracts of Suaeda maritima (L.) Dumortier significantly prevent the rise in serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), Low density li...

  8. Phytochemical study, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Stemodia maritima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca R. L. da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stemodinol, a new natural compound, together with known compounds including jaceidin, stemodin, stemodinoside B, isocrenatoside, verbascoside, crenatoside, and isoverbascoside, were isolated from Stemodia maritima Linn. The antioxidant (DPPH method and antimicrobial activities of stemodin, stemodinoside B, and crenatoside were investigated. Among the components tested, only crenatoside isolated from the roots showed a high antioxidant power. Stemodin and stemodinoside B exhibited antibacterial activities.

  9. Transcriptional regulation of the carbohydrate utilization network in Thermotoga maritima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DmitryARodionov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Thermotogales lineage can produce hydrogen by fermenting a wide range of carbohydrates. Previous experimental studies identified a large fraction of genes committed to carbohydrate degradation and utilization in the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Knowledge of these genes enabled comprehensive reconstruction of biochemical pathways comprising the carbohydrate utilization network. However, transcriptional factors (TFs and regulatory mechanisms driving this network remained largely unknown. Here, we used an integrated approach based on comparative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data for the reconstruction of the carbohydrate utilization regulatory networks in 11 Thermotogales genomes. We identified DNA-binding motifs and regulons for 19 orthologous TFs in the Thermotogales. The inferred regulatory network in T. maritima contains 181 genes encoding TFs, sugar catabolic enzymes and ABC-family transporters. In contrast to many previously described bacteria, a transcriptional regulation strategy of Thermotoga does not employ global regulatory factors. The reconstructed regulatory network in T. maritima was validated by gene expression profiling on a panel of mono- and disaccharides and by in vitro DNA-binding assays. The observed upregulation of genes involved in catabolism of pectin, trehalose, cellobiose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, glucose, galactose, and ribose showed a strong correlation with the UxaR, TreR, BglR, CelR, AraR, RhaR, XylR, GluR, GalR, and RbsR regulons. Ultimately, this study elucidated the transcriptional regulatory network and mechanisms controlling expression of carbohydrate utilization genes in T. maritima. In addition to improving the functional annotations of associated transporters and catabolic enzymes, this research provides novel insights into the evolution of regulatory networks in Thermotogales.

  10. Quantitative ion localization within Suaeda maritima leaf mesophyll cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, D M; Hall, J L; Flowers, T J; Kent, B

    1981-05-01

    Grown under saline conditions, Suaeda maritima accumulates Na(+) and Cl(-) into its leaves, where individual mesophyll cells behave differently in their compartmentation of these ions. Measurements of ion concentrations within selected subcellular compartments show that freeze-substitution with dry sectioning is a valuable preparative technique for analytical electron microscopy of highly vacuolate plant material. Using this approach, absolute estimates were made of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) concentrations in the cytoplasm, cell walls, chloroplasts and vacuoles of leaf mesophyll cells. PMID:24302209

  11. The Genome Organization of Thermotoga maritima Reflects Its Lifestyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latif, Haythem; Lerman, Joshua A.; Portnoy, Vasiliy A.; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Nagarajan, Harish; Rutledge, Alexandra C.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lee, Dae-Hee; Qiu, Yu; Zengler, Karsten

    2013-04-25

    Recent studies have revealed that microbial genomes have many more organizational features than previously thought. Here, an integrated approach utilizing multiple ‘omics’ datasets and bioinformatics tools is established that elucidates genomic features spanning various levels of cellular organization. This methodology produces gene annotation improvements and includes the definition of transcription units. These enhancements to the annotation enable identification of a set of genetic elements instrumental to gene expression and regulation including promoters, ribosome binding sites (RBSs) and untranslated regions (UTRs). This was applied to characterize the genome organization of Thermotoga maritima—a phylogenetically deep-branching, hyperthermophilic bacterium with a small 1.86 Mb genome. Analysis derived from this multiomics approach in combination with bioinformatics tools demonstrate that the genome organization of T. maritima reflects its lifestyle, both with respect to its extreme growth temperature and compact genome. Comparative analysis of genome features suggests that thermodynamic limitations on binding kinetics for RNA polymerase and the ribosome necessitate increased sequence conservation of promoters and RBSs. Thus, restricting the sequences capable of initiating transcription and translation. Furthermore, this organism has uncharacteristically short 5’UTRs (11-17 nucleotides), which reduce the potential for 5’UTR regulatory interactions. The short intergenic distances in the T. maritima genome (5 bp on average) leave little space for regulation through transcription factor binding. The net effect of these constraints, temperature and genomic space, is a reduced ability to tune gene expression. This effect is readily apparent in global gene expression patterns, which show a high fraction of genes expressed independent of growth state with a tight, linear mRNA/protein correlation (Pearson r = 0.62, p < 2.2 x 10-16 t-test). This methodology for characterizing the genome organization is applicable to any culturable bacteria, and as similar studies are completed in diverse taxa, comparative analysis of genome features may provide insights into microbial evolution.

  12. Synergistic TRAIL sensitizers from Barleria alluaudii and Diospyros maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Emily L; Sun, Han; Thomas, Cheryl L; Henrich, Curtis J; Sayers, Thomas J; McMahon, James B; Griesinger, Christian; McKee, Tawnya C

    2012-03-23

    Barleria alluaudii and Diospyros maritima were both investigated as part of an ongoing search for synergistic TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-?-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) sensitizers. As a result of this study, two naphthoquinone epoxides, 2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrolapachol (1) and 2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydro-8-hydroxylapachol (2), both not previously isolated from natural sources, and the known 2-methylanthraquinone (3) were identified from B. alluaudii. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra were utilized to establish the absolute configuration of 1 and 2. Additionally, five known naphthoquinone derivatives, maritinone (4), elliptinone (5), plumbagin (6), (+)-cis-isoshinanolone (7), and ethylidene-6,6'-biplumbagin (8), were isolated from D. maritima. Compounds 1, 2, and 4-6 showed varying levels of synergy with TRAIL. Maritinone (4) and elliptinone (5) showed the highest synergistic effect, with more than a 3-fold increase in activity observed with TRAIL than with compound alone. PMID:22313254

  13. ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF SUAEDA MARITIMA (L. DUMORTIER STEM IN TRITON INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder mann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic effect of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier stem extracts in triton induced hyperlipidemia. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier were administered at dose 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg/day orally, respectively. Simultaneous administrations of stem extracts of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier significantly prevent the rise in serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL whereas significant increases in the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL in both secretary and excretory phase. The Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier methanol extract of stem at dose 300mg/kg body weight orally showed significant antihyperlipidemic activity which may be due to the presence of triterpenoids and sterols found in the preliminary phytochemical screening.

  14. Thermotoga maritima and Caldicellulosiruptor sacharolyticus co-culture for biohydrogen production

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, A. A.; Mota, M.; Alves, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    T. maritima and C. saccharolyticus co-culture (1:3) is advantageous for hydrogen production from mixture of glucose and xylose. The higher hydrogen production observed in co-culture was associated to lower lactic acid formation.

  15. Low-affinity Na+ uptake in the halophyte Suaeda maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Suo-Min; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Flowers, Timothy J

    2007-10-01

    Na(+) uptake by plant roots has largely been explored using species that accumulate little Na(+) into their shoots. By way of contrast, the halophyte Suaeda maritima accumulates, without injury, concentrations of the order of 400 mM NaCl in its leaves. Here we report that cAMP and Ca(2+) (blockers of nonselective cation channels) and Li(+) (a competitive inhibitor of Na(+) uptake) did not have any significant effect on the uptake of Na(+) by the halophyte S. maritima when plants were in 25 or 150 mM NaCl (150 mM NaCl is near optimal for growth). However, the inhibitors of K(+) channels, TEA(+) (10 mM), Cs(+) (3 mM), and Ba(2+) (5 mM), significantly reduced the net uptake of Na(+) from 150 mM NaCl over 48 h, by 54%, 24%, and 29%, respectively. TEA(+) (10 mM), Cs(+) (3 mM), and Ba(2+) (1 mm) also significantly reduced (22)Na(+) influx (measured over 2 min in 150 mM external NaCl) by 47%, 30%, and 31%, respectively. In contrast to the situation in 150 mm NaCl, neither TEA(+) (1-10 mM) nor Cs(+) (0.5-10 mM) significantly reduced net Na(+) uptake or (22)Na(+) influx in 25 mM NaCl. Ba(2+) (at 5 mm) did significantly decrease net Na(+) uptake (by 47%) and (22)Na(+) influx (by 36% with 1 mM Ba(2+)) in 25 mM NaCl. K(+) (10 or 50 mM) had no effect on (22)Na(+) influx at concentrations below 75 mM NaCl, but the influx of (22)Na(+) was inhibited by 50 mM K(+) when the external concentration of NaCl was above 75 mM. The data suggest that neither nonselective cation channels nor a low-affinity cation transporter are major pathways for Na(+) entry into root cells. We propose that two distinct low-affinity Na(+) uptake pathways exist in S. maritima: Pathway 1 is insensitive to TEA(+) or Cs(+), but sensitive to Ba(2+) and mediates Na(+) uptake under low salinities (25 mM NaCl); pathway 2 is sensitive to TEA(+), Cs(+), and Ba(2+) and mediates Na(+) uptake under higher external salt concentrations (150 mM NaCl). Pathway 1 might be mediated by a high-affinity K transporter-type transporter and pathway 2 by an AKT1-type channel. PMID:17766398

  16. Glycerol fermentation to hydrogen by Thermotoga maritima: Proposed pathway and bioenergetic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Maru, B.T.; Bielen, A.A.M.; Constanti, M; Medina, F.; Kengen, S.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The production of biohydrogen from glycerol, by the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima DSM 3109, was investigated in batch and chemostat systems. T. maritima converted glycerol to mainly acetate, CO2 and H2. Maximal hydrogen yields of 2.84 and 2.41 hydrogen per glycerol were observed for batch and chemostat cultivations, respectively. For batch cultivations: i) hydrogen production rates decreased with increasing initial glycerol concentration, ii) growth and hydrogen production w...

  17. Rhizosphere O2 dynamics in young Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Zeljko; Pedersen, Mia Østergaard; Larsen, Morten; Kristensen, Erik; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2015-01-01

    Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima often share the same habitat, but R. maritima appears more resistant to environmental stress. We investigated the impact of light intensity and water column O2 concentrations on radial oxygen loss (ROL), in young specimens of Z. marina and R. maritima. Planar op...... ability of R. maritima to maintain higher ROL than Z. marina could be an important feature defining its potential for colonizing and maintaining growth in eutrophic sediments....

  18. Crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and structure analysis of Thermotoga maritima mannitol dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. maritima mannitol dehydrogenase has been crystallized in space group P212121 with a = 84.43, b = 120.61, c = 145.76 Å. The crystals diffracted to 3.3 Å resolution at the Canadian Light Source. Diffraction data have been collected from a crystal of Thermotoga maritima mannitol dehydrogenase at the Canadian Light Source. The crystal diffracted to 3.3 Å resolution and belongs to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 83.43, b = 120.61, c = 145.76 Å. The structure is likely to be solved by molecular replacement

  19. Characterization of a tetrameric inositol monophosphatase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Roberts, M.F.

    1999-10-01

    Inositol monophosphatase (I-1-Pase) catalyzes the dephosphorylation step in the de novo biosynthetic pathway of inositol and is crucial for all inositol-dependent processes. An extremely heat-stable tetrameric form of I-1-Pase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In addition to its different quaternary structure, this enzyme displayed a 20-fold higher rate of hydrolysis of D-inositol 1-phosphate than of the L isomer. The homogeneous recombinant T. maritima I-1-Pase possessed an unusually high V{sub max} that was much higher than the V{sub max} of the same enzyme from another hyperthermophile, Methanococcus jannaschii. Although T. maritima is a eubacterium, its I-1-Pase is more similar to archaeal I-1-Pases than to the other known bacterial or mammalian I-1-Pases with respect to substrate specificity, Li{sup +} inhibition, inhibition by high Mg{sup 2+} concentrations, metal ion activation, heat stability, and activation energy. Possible reasons for the observed kinetic differences are discussed based on an active site sequence alignment of the human and T. maritima I-1-Pases.

  20. Perianth development in the basal monocot Triglochin maritima (Juncaginaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Kim, Sangtae; Ma, Hong; Hauser, Bernard A.; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Johansen, Bo

    changes from ‘‘inflorescence'' to ‘‘flower'' during inflorescence development. In addition, distal flowers of T. maritima are reduced, and there is no distinct flower-subtending bract; instead, the perianth develops are reduced, and there is no distinct flower-subtending bract; instead, the perianth...

  1. IMPACTS OF SALINITY AND NUTRIENT STRESS TO RUPPIA MARITIMA AND ZOSTERA MARINA: A MESOCOSM EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy seagrass beds were once found throughout the shallow areas of Narragansett Bay, R.I. but have disappeared due to infilling, pollution and disease. In Greenwich Bay, a highly developed embayment within Narragansett Bay, Ruppia maritima has colonized an area on the norther...

  2. ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF SALINITY AND NUTRIENT STRESS TO RUPPIA MARITIMA AND ZOSTERA MARINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy seagrass beds were once found throughout the shallow areas of Narragansett Bay, R.I. but have disappeared due to infilling, pollution and disease. In Greenwich Bay, a highly developed embayment within Narragansett Bay, Ruppia maritima has colonized an area on the norther...

  3. Structure of an essential GTPase, YsxC, from Thermotoga maritima

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kwok-Ho; Wong, Kam-Bo

    2011-01-01

    Apo and GDP-bound crystal structures of an essential GTPase, YsxC, from T. maritima were determined to maximal resolutions of 2.3 and 1.9?Å, respectively. Switch I in GDP–YsxC can adopt both an ‘open’ and ‘closed’ conformation, suggesting a mechanism for diffusion of GDP out of the nucleotide-binding pocket.

  4. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plants of western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tania; Stoyanova, Albena; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2014-08-01

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica and Artemisia maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/FID were camphor and 1,8-cineole from A. maritima, and camphor and artemisia ketone from A. nilagirica. Additionally, the oils were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, mosquito biting deterrent, and larvicidal activities. A. nilagirica essential oil demonstrated nonselective antifungal activity against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. maritima did not show antifungal activity. Both Artemisia spp. exhibited considerable mosquito biting deterrence, whereas only A. nilagirica showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Antibacterial effects assessed by an agar dilution assay demonstrated greater activity of A. maritima essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to A. nilagirica. PMID:25127023

  5. Spartina maritima influence on the dynamics of the phosphorus sedimentary cycle in a warm temperate estuary (Mondego estuary, Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Lillebø, Ana; Coelho, J.; Flindt, M; Jensen, H.; Marques, J; Pedersen, C; Pardal, M.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract During the last decades the Mondego estuary has been under severe ecological stress mainly caused by eutrophication. In this salt march system, Spartina maritima covers about 10.5 ha of the intertidal areas. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Spartina maritima marshes on the dynamics of phosphorus (P) binding in the surface sediment. We compare phosphate and oxygen fluxes, P-adsorption capacity, phosphate concentrations and total amount, and the extract...

  6. Rhizosphere O2 dynamics in young Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Zeljko; Pedersen, Mia Østergaard; Larsen, Morten; Kristensen, Erik; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2015-01-01

    Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima often share the same habitat, but R. maritima appears more resistant to environmental stress. We investigated the impact of light intensity and water column O2 concentrations on radial oxygen loss (ROL), in young specimens of Z. marina and R. maritima. Planar optode imaging revealed that ROL of Z. marina was localized to the root tip, while R. maritima showed ROL along extensive root sections. The total root biomass of the 2 species was similar, but, while R. m...

  7. Structural analysis of DNA sequence: evidence for lateral gene transfer in Thermotoga maritima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worning, Peder; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Nelson, K. E.; Brunak, Søren; Ussery, David

    2000-01-01

    The recently published complete DNA sequence of the bacterium Thermotoga maritima provides evidence, based on protein sequence conservation, for lateral gene transfer between Archaea and Bacteria. We introduce a new method of periodicity analysis of DNA sequences, based on structural parameters......, which brings independent evidence for the lateral gene transfer in the genome of T.maritima, The structural analysis relates the Archaea-like DNA sequences to the genome of Pyrococcus horikoshii. Analysis of 24 complete genomic DNA sequences shows different periodicity patterns for organisms of...... different origin, The typical genomic periodicity for Bacteria is 11 bp whilst it is 10 bp for Archaea, Eukaryotes have more complex spectra but the dominant period in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is 10.2 bp. These periodicities are most likely reflective of differences in chromatin structure....

  8. Structural analysis of DNA sequence: evidence for lateral gene transfer in Thermotoga maritima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worning, Peder; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2000-01-01

    The recently published complete DNA sequence of the bacterium Thermotoga maritima provides evidence, based on protein sequence conservation, for lateral gene transfer between Archaea and Bacteria. We introduce a new method of periodicity analysis of DNA sequences, based on structural parameters, which brings independent evidence for the lateral gene transfer in the genome of T.maritima, The structural analysis relates the Archaea-like DNA sequences to the genome of Pyrococcus horikoshii. Analysis of 24 complete genomic DNA sequences shows different periodicity patterns for organisms of different origin, The typical genomic periodicity for Bacteria is 11 bp whilst it is 10 bp for Archaea, Eukaryotes have more complex spectra but the dominant period in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is 10.2 bp. These periodicities are most likely reflective of differences in chromatin structure.

  9. Crystal structure of a phosphatase with a unique substrate binding domain from Thermotoga maritima

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Dong Hae; Roberts, Anne; Jancarik, Jaru; Yokota, Hisao; Kim, Rosalind; Wemmer, David E.; kim, Sung-Hou

    2003-01-01

    We have determined the crystal structure of a phosphatase with a unique substrate binding domain from Thermotoga maritima, TM0651 (gi 4981173), at 2.2 Å resolution by selenomethionine single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) techniques. TM0651 is a member of the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily, with sequence homology to trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and sucrose-6F-phosphate phosphohydrolase. Selenomethionine labeled TM0651 crystallized in space group C2 with three monomers pe...

  10. Purification of Thermotoga maritima enzymes for the degradation of cellulosic materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Bronnenmeier, K; Kern, A.; Liebl, W.; Staudenbauer, W L

    1995-01-01

    A separation procedure for the analysis of the enzyme components of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima involved in cellulose and xylan degradation was developed. Resolution of the enzymes was achieved by a combination of fast protein liquid chromatography anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Enzyme fractions were assayed for hydrolysis of Avicel, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), beta-glucan, laminarin, xylan, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside, p-nitrophenyl-be...

  11. Seablite (Suaeda maritima) Product for Cooking, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Ampornsri Pornpitakdamrong; Yuttana Sudjaroen

    2014-01-01

    Seablite (Suaeda maritima) is a salt marsh plant growing in mangrove forest. Local people in Samut Songkram, Thailand use seablite for different types of cooking such as traditional seablite salad, seablite curry with crabs, or scalded seablite with chili paste. The objectives of this research were: 1) to develop appropriate commercial seablite products of Samut Songkram province; 2) to evaluate the nutritional values of the seablite products; and 3) to investigate b...

  12. Evidence for the cytoplasmic localization of betaine in leaf cells of Suaeda maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J L; Harvey, D M; Flowers, T J

    1978-01-01

    An attempt has been made to localize glycinebetaine in shoots of Suaeda maritima L. Dum. using a technique based on the formation of an iodoplatinate precipitate. Deposits were largely restricted to the cytoplasm of salt-grown plants and were analysed by transmission analytical electron microscopy. The results are considered to support the hypothesis that glycinebetaine acts as a cytoplasmic osmoticum to balance high vacuolar salt levels in certain halophytes. PMID:24414361

  13. The effect of salt on protein synthesis in the halophyte Suaeda maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J L; Flowers, T J

    1973-12-01

    An amino acid-incorporating microsomal fraction has been isolated from the leaves of the halophyte Suaeda maritima and the characteristics of the incorporation described. There were no differences in the properties of the microsomes isolated from plants grown in saline and non-saline conditions. The incorporation was severely inhibited by high concentrations of sodium or potassium ions. The results are discussed in relation to the mechanism of salt tolerance in halophytes and the localization of salt in the cells. PMID:24474465

  14. Contribution of Spartina maritima to the reduction of eutrophication in estuarine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt marshes are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, performing important ecosystem functions, particularly nutrient recycling. In this study, a comparison is made between Mondego and Tagus estuaries in relation to the role of Spartina maritima in nitrogen retention capacity and cycling. Two mono-specific S. maritima stands per estuary were studied during 1 yr (biomass, nitrogen (N) pools, litter production, decomposition rates). Results showed that the oldest Tagus salt marsh population presented higher annual belowground biomass and N productions, and a slower decomposition rate for litter, contributing to the higher N accumulation in the sediment, whereas S. maritima younger marshes had higher aboveground biomass production. Detritus moved by tides represented a huge amount of aboveground production, probably significant when considering the N balance of these salt marshes. Results reinforce the functions of salt marshes as contributing to a reduction of eutrophication in transitional waters, namely through sedimentation processes. - The crucial capacity of salt marshes to retain nitrogen, thus reducing eutrophication, greatly depends on the salt marsh maturity, rather than the estuarine system

  15. Structure of a NAD kinase from Thermotoga maritima at 2.3 Å resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oganesyan, Vaheh; Huang, Candice; Adams, Paul D.; Jancarik, Jaru; Yokota, Hisao A.; Kim, Rosalind [Berkeley Structural Genomics Center, Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kim, Sung-Hou, E-mail: shkim@lbl.gov [Berkeley Structural Genomics Center, Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The expression, purification, crystallization, and structure determination of NAD-kinase from T. maritima are reported. Similarity to other NAD-kinases as well as homo-oligomrization state of the enzyme from T. maritima are discussed. NAD kinase is the only known enzyme that catalyzes the formation of NADP, a coenzyme involved in most anabolic reactions and in the antioxidant defense system. Despite its importance, very little is known regarding the mechanism of catalysis and only recently have several NAD kinase structures been deposited in the PDB. Here, an independent investigation of the crystal structure of inorganic polyphosphate/ATP-NAD kinase, PPNK-THEMA, a protein from Thermotoga maritima, is reported at a resolution of 2.3 Å. The crystal structure was solved using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) data collected at the Se absorption-peak wavelength in a state in which no cofactors or substrates were bound. It revealed that the 258-amino-acid protein is folded into two distinct domains, similar to recently reported NAD kinases. The N-terminal ?/?-domain spans the first 100 amino acids and the last 30 amino acids of the polypeptide and has several topological matches in the PDB, whereas the other domain, which spans the middle 130 residues, adopts a unique ?-sandwich architecture and only appreciably matches the recently deposited PDB structures of NAD kinases.

  16. Factors associated with determination of root ²²Na (+) influx in the salt accumulation halophyte Suaeda maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Lin; Wetson, Anne M; Wang, Suo-Min; Gurmani, Ali R; Bao, Ai-Ke; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2011-01-01

    Salinity is an increasing problem for agricultural production worldwide. The result of low-affinity Na(+) uptake is toxic to the cytoplasm of most crop plants. Nevertheless, the pathways for this low-affinity Na(+) uptake are still uncertain. In this work we used ²²Na(+) isotope tracing technology to investigate factors associated with determination of root ²²Na(+) influx in the salt accumulation halophyte Suaeda maritima. We found that a 2 min of exposure to the ²²Na(+) labeled uptake solution was optimal for determining ²²Na(+) influx into excised roots of S. maritima and that 7 min of blotting is suitable in ²²Na(+) influx experiments. ²²Na(+) influx did not increase linearly with the increasing external Na(+) concentration, in the range tested, of 2 to 300 mM NaCl. But root ²²Na(+) influx and root Na(+) concentration were well correlated. ²²Na(+) influx into excised roots of S. maritima was not, however, well correlated with the plant size. All the above results indicated further that this ²²Na(+) isotope influx procedure is a good method for quantify Na(+) uptake rate by the roots of the salt accumulation halophyte. PMID:20217274

  17. Moving closer towards restoration of contaminated estuaries: Bioaugmentation with autochthonous rhizobacteria improves metal rhizoaccumulation in native Spartina maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Jennifer; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio David; Pajuelo, Eloisa; Piedras, José María Barcia; Caviedes, Miguel Angel; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique

    2015-12-30

    Spartina maritima is an ecosystem engineer that has shown to be useful for phytoremediation purposes. A glasshouse experiment using soil from a metal-contaminated estuary was designed to investigate the effect of a native bacterial consortium, isolated from S. maritima rizhosphere and selected owing to their plant growth promoting properties and multiresistance to heavy metals, on plant growth and metal accumulation. Plants of S. maritima were randomly assigned to three soil bioaugmentation treatments (without inoculation, one inoculation and repeated inoculations) for 30 days. Growth parameters and photosynthetic traits, together with total concentrations of several metals were determined in roots and/or leaves. Bacterial inoculation improved root growth, through a beneficial effect on photosynthetic rate (AN) due to its positive impact on functionality of PSII and chlorophyll concentration. Also, favoured intrinsic water use efficiency of S. maritima, through the increment in AN, stomatal conductance and in root-to-shoot ratio. Moreover, this consortium was able to stimulate plant metal uptake specifically in roots, with increases of up to 19% for As, 65% for Cu, 40% for Pb and 29% for Zn. Thus, bioaugmentation of S. maritima with the selected bacterial consortium can be claimed to enhance plant adaptation and metal rhizoaccumulation during marsh restoration programs. PMID:26188869

  18. Structural Insight inot the low Affinity Between Thermotoga maritima CheA and CheB Compared to their Escherichia coli/Salmonella typhimurium Counterparts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Park; B Crane

    2011-12-31

    CheA-mediated CheB phosphorylation and the subsequent CheB-mediated demethylation of the chemoreceptors are important steps required for the bacterial chemotactic adaptation response. Although Escherichia coli CheB has been reported to interact with CheA competitively against CheY, we have observed that Thermotoga maritima CheB has no detectable CheA-binding. By determining the CheY-like domain crystal structure of T. maritima CheB, and comparing against the T. maritima CheY and Salmonella typhimurium CheB structures, we propose that the two consecutive glutamates in the {beta}4/{alpha}4 loop of T. maritima CheB that is absent in T. maritima CheY and in E. coli/S. typhimurium CheB may be one factor contributing to the low CheA affinity.

  19. The First Myriapod Genome Sequence Reveals Conservative Arthropod Gene Content and Genome Organisation in the Centipede Strigamia maritima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E. K.; Brena, Carlo; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Schröder, Reinhard; Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C.; Alonso, Claudio R.; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C. J.; Blankenburg, Kerstin P.; Brites, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Coyle, Marcus; Dearden, Peter K.; Du Pasquier, Louis; Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Ebert, Dieter; Eibner, Cornelius; Erikson, Galina; Evans, Peter D.; Extavour, Cassandra G.; Francisco, Liezl; Gabaldón, Toni; Gillis, William J.; Goodwin-Horn, Elizabeth A.; Green, Jack E.; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P.; Gubbala, Sai; Guigó, Roderic; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Havlak, Paul; Hayden, Luke; Helbing, Sophie; Holder, Michael; Hui, Jerome H. L.; Hunn, Julia P.; Hunnekuhl, Vera S.; Jackson, LaRonda; Javaid, Mehwish; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Jiggins, Francis M.; Jones, Tamsin E.; Kaiser, Tobias S.; Kalra, Divya; Kenny, Nathan J.; Korchina, Viktoriya; Kovar, Christie L.; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Lapraz, François; Lee, Sandra L.; Lv, Jie; Mandapat, Christigale; Manning, Gerard; Mariotti, Marco; Mata, Robert; Mathew, Tittu; Neumann, Tobias; Newsham, Irene; Ngo, Dinh N.; Ninova, Maria; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Ongeri, Fiona; Palmer, William J.; Patil, Shobha; Patraquim, Pedro; Pham, Christopher; Pu, Ling-Ling; Putman, Nicholas H.; Rabouille, Catherine; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Rhodes, Adelaide C.; Robertson, Helen E.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Rozas, Julio; Saada, Nehad; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Scherer, Steven E.; Schurko, Andrew M.; Siggens, Kenneth W.; Simmons, DeNard; Stief, Anna; Stolle, Eckart; Telford, Maximilian J.; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Thornton, Rebecca; van der Zee, Maurijn; von Haeseler, Arndt; Williams, James M.; Willis, Judith H.; Wu, Yuanqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Lawson, Daniel; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Akam, Michael; Richards, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologues of genes conserved from the bilaterian ancestor that have been lost in insects. Our analysis locates many genes in conserved macro-synteny contexts, and many small-scale examples of gene clustering. We describe several examples where S. maritima shows different solutions from insects to similar problems. The insect olfactory receptor gene family is absent from S. maritima, and olfaction in air is likely effected by expansion of other receptor gene families. For some genes S. maritima has evolved paralogues to generate coding sequence diversity, where insects use alternate splicing. This is most striking for the Dscam gene, which in Drosophila generates more than 100,000 alternate splice forms, but in S. maritima is encoded by over 100 paralogues. We see an intriguing linkage between the absence of any known photosensory proteins in a blind organism and the additional absence of canonical circadian clock genes. The phylogenetic position of myriapods allows us to identify where in arthropod phylogeny several particular molecular mechanisms and traits emerged. For example, we conclude that juvenile hormone signalling evolved with the emergence of the exoskeleton in the arthropods and that RR-1 containing cuticle proteins evolved in the lineage leading to Mandibulata. We also identify when various gene expansions and losses occurred. The genome of S. maritima offers us a unique glimpse into the ancestral arthropod genome, while also displaying many adaptations to its specific life history. PMID:25423365

  20. Structure of an essential bacterial protein YeaZ (TM0874) from Thermotoga maritima at 2.5 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of an essential bacterial protein, YeaZ, from T. maritima identifies an interface that potentially mediates protein–protein interaction. YeaZ is involved in a protein network that is essential for bacteria. The crystal structure of YeaZ from Thermotoga maritima was determined to 2.5 Å resolution. Although this protein belongs to a family of ancient actin-like ATPases, it appears that it has lost the ability to bind ATP since it lacks some key structural features that are important for interaction with ATP. A conserved surface was identified, supporting its role in the formation of protein complexes

  1. The role of Spartina maritima and Sarcocornia fruticosa on trace metals retention in Ria Formosa, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira da Silva, Manuela; Duarte, Duarte; Isidoro, Jorge; Chícharo, Luís

    2013-04-01

    Over the last years, phytoremediation has become an increasingly recognized pathway for contaminant removal from water and shallow soils. Assessing the phytoremediation potential of wetlands is complex due to variable conditions of hydrology, soil/sediment types, plant species diversity, growing season and water chemistry. Physico-chemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating contaminants. Saltmarsh plants can sequestrate and inherently tolerate high metal concentrations found in saltmarsh sediments. An increasing number of studies have been carried out to understand the role of halophyte vegetation on retention, biovailability and remediation of the pollutants in coastal areas (estuaries and lagoons). It is already known that the accumulation capacity and the pattern of metal distribution in the plant tissues vary among plant species, namely monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous, and with sediment characteristics. During the last decades, there has been a large increase in urbanization and industrialization of the area surrounding Ria Formosa. Due to this reality, anthropogenic contaminants, including trace metals, are transported via untreated sewage and agricultural effluents to several parts of the lagoon. The dominant producers are Spartina maritima (Poales: Poaceae) and Sarcocornia fruticosa (Caryophyllales: Chenopodiaceae), appearing in pure stands respectively in the lower and in the upper saltmarshes. The aim of this work was to survey, comparatively, the role of S. maritima and S. fruticosa on minor and trace element (Ag, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn), contents and distribution amongst sediment and plant tissues. Both S. maritima and S. fruticosa could fix metals from the surrounding belowground environment and accumulate metals, mainly in roots (also in rhizomes in the case of the former). Metal translocation to aerial parts of the plants was, in general, residual.

  2. Assembling a novel bifunctional cellulase-xylanase from Thermotoga maritima by end-to-end fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Su Young; Lee, Jin Suk; Cho, Kye Man; Math, Renukaradhya K; Kim, Yong Hee; Hong, Sun Joo; Cho, Yong Un; Kim, Hoon; Yun, Han Dae

    2006-11-01

    An artificial, bifunctional, thermostable cellulase-xylanase enzyme from Thermotoga maritima by gene fusion. The fusion protein exhibited both cellulase and xylanase activity when xynA was fused downstream of cel5C but no activities were shown when xynA was fused upstream of cel5C. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 5.0 and 80 degrees C over 30 min. E. coli expressed the fusion enzyme, with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 152 kDa by carboxymethyl cellulose- and xylan-SDS-PAGE. PMID:16988785

  3. ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF THE ENDENGERED PLANT CAKILE MARITIMA SCOP. SUBSP. EUXINA (POBED. NYÁR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreley Dana JIANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents anatomical featuress of the vegetative organs of an endengered plant Cakile maritima Scop.subsp. euxina (Pobed. Nyár. The root has a secondary structure, due to the phelogen and cambium activity, The stem has a one-layered epidermis, covered by thick cuticle, a differentiated cortex and a large number of collateral vascular bundles in its upper part. The leaf lobes have a homogenous mesophyll and is amphistomatic. The mechanical tissue is represented by sclerenchymatous fibers in the root and collenchyma tissue in the stem.

  4. POLYMERIZATION PROPERTIES OF THE T. MARITIMA ACTIN, MreB: ROLES OF TEMPERATURE, NUCLEOTIDES AND IONS

    OpenAIRE

    Bean, Greg J.; Amann, Kurt J.

    2007-01-01

    MreB is a bacterial ortholog of actin that affects cell shape, polarity and chromosome segregation. Although a significant body of work has explored its cellular functions, we know very little about the biochemical behavior of MreB. We have cloned, overexpressed in E. coli, and purified untagged MreB1 from Thermotoga maritima. We have characterized the conditions that regulate its monomer-to-polymer assembly reaction, the critical concentrations of that reaction, the manner in which MreB uses...

  5. Rhizosphere O2 dynamics in young Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Zeljko; Pedersen, Mia Østergaard

    2015-01-01

    Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima often share the same habitat, but R. maritima appears more resistant to environmental stress. We investigated the impact of light intensity and water column O2 concentrations on radial oxygen loss (ROL), in young specimens of Z. marina and R. maritima. Planar optode imaging revealed that ROL of Z. marina was localized to the root tip, while R. maritima showed ROL along extensive root sections. The total root biomass of the 2 species was similar, but, while R. maritima had only 1 root, of which 33% of its length showed ROL, Z. marina had 2 to 5 individual roots, where only 2 to 3 exhibited O2 leakage, but then only at root tips. ROL resulted in an oxic volume of 4.26 ± 0.51 mm3 plant?1 for Z. marina and 5.39 ± 0.47 mm3 plant?1 for R. maritima (n = 3). ROL per plant at light saturation was 2.32 ± 0.30 and 2.89 ± 0.38 nmol h?1 for Z. marina and R. maritima, respectively. These values declined by 71 and 60% in darkness. However, both species were able to maintain ROL as long as ambient O2 levels remained >50% air saturation. The calculated ROL integrated over a 24 h cycle was 48.8 ± 10.6 nmol O2 plant?1 d?1 (n = 3) for R. maritima and 30% less for Z. marina. The ability of R. maritima to maintain higher ROL than Z. marina could be an important feature defining its potential for colonizing and maintaining growth in eutrophic sediments.

  6. Isolation and analysis of genes for amylolytic enzymes of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibel, M; Brettl, C; Gosslar, U; Kriegshäuser, G; Liebl, W

    1998-01-01

    In addition to the previously identified 4-alpha-glucanotransferase gene mgtA and the alpha-amylase gene amyA of Thermotoga maritima strain MSB8 we have now isolated three further genes encoding amylolytic enzymes from a gene library of this ancestral bacterium. The genes code for the extremely thermostable enzymes pullulanase (pulA), maltodextrin phosphorylase (agpA) and alpha-glucosidase (aglA) and have the potential to encode polypeptides with calculated molecular masses of 96.3 kDa, 96.1 kDa and 52.5 kDa, respectively. Comparative amino acid sequence analysis revealed that PulA and AgpA are clearly related to other known enzymes with similar function. AglA, on the other hand, was not related to other alpha-glucosidases but appears to belong to an enzyme family containing alpha-galactosidases and 6-phospho-beta-glucosidases. Enzyme properties are reported which demonstrate the extreme thermostability of these T. maritima enzymes. PMID:9453151

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a lectin from Canavalia maritima seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lectin from C. maritima was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method and crystals diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution. A molecular-replacement search found a solution with a correlation coefficient of 69.2% and an R factor of 42.5%, refinement is in progress. A lectin from Canavalia maritima seeds (ConM) was purified and submitted to crystallization experiments. The best crystals were obtained using the vapour-diffusion method at a constant temperature of 293 K and grew in 7 d. A complete structural data set was collected to 2.1 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The ConM crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.15, b = 70.90, c = 97.37 Å. A molecular-replacement search found a solution with a correlation coefficient of 69.2% and an R factor of 42.5%. Crystallographic refinement is under way

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a lectin from Canavalia maritima seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de [BioMol-Lab, Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Caixa Postal 6043, CEP 60455-970 (Brazil); Moreno, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista [Programa de Pós-graduação em Biofísica Molecular, Departamento de Física, UNESP, São José do Rio Preto, SP 15054-000 (Brazil); Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Cajazeiras, João Batista; Rocha, Bruno Anderson M. da [BioMol-Lab, Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Caixa Postal 6043, CEP 60455-970 (Brazil); Rustiguel, Joane Kathelen Rodrigues [Programa de Pós-graduação em Biofísica Molecular, Departamento de Física, UNESP, São José do Rio Preto, SP 15054-000 (Brazil); Freitas, Beatriz Tupinamba [BioMol-Lab, Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Caixa Postal 6043, CEP 60455-970 (Brazil); Grupo de Química Biológica, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Regional do Cariri, Crato, CE 63195-000 (Brazil); Canduri, Fernanda [Programa de Pós-graduação em Biofísica Molecular, Departamento de Física, UNESP, São José do Rio Preto, SP 15054-000 (Brazil); Delatorre, Plínio [BioMol-Lab, Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Caixa Postal 6043, CEP 60455-970 (Brazil); Grupo de Química Biológica, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Regional do Cariri, Crato, CE 63195-000 (Brazil); Azevedo, Walter Filgueira Jr de, E-mail: walterfa@df.ibilce.unesp.br [Programa de Pós-graduação em Biofísica Molecular, Departamento de Física, UNESP, São José do Rio Preto, SP 15054-000 (Brazil); Cavada, Benildo S., E-mail: walterfa@df.ibilce.unesp.br [BioMol-Lab, Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Caixa Postal 6043, CEP 60455-970 (Brazil)

    2005-01-01

    A lectin from C. maritima was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method and crystals diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution. A molecular-replacement search found a solution with a correlation coefficient of 69.2% and an R factor of 42.5%, refinement is in progress. A lectin from Canavalia maritima seeds (ConM) was purified and submitted to crystallization experiments. The best crystals were obtained using the vapour-diffusion method at a constant temperature of 293 K and grew in 7 d. A complete structural data set was collected to 2.1 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The ConM crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.15, b = 70.90, c = 97.37 Å. A molecular-replacement search found a solution with a correlation coefficient of 69.2% and an R factor of 42.5%. Crystallographic refinement is under way.

  9. Anthemis maritima L. in different coastal habitats: A tool to explore plant plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, Carmelina; Balestri, Mirko; Bottega, Stefania; Grilli, Isa; Forino, Laura Maria Costantina; Ciccarelli, Daniela

    2013-09-01

    Anthemis maritima, a plant which has the ability to colonise different stressful coastal environments, sand dunes and rocky cliff ecosystems, exhibits a high degree of leaf trait plasticity. The key parameters are the regulation of stomatal density and size, the succulence index and the specific antioxidant response. With the aim to explore plant plasticity, we analysed various morphological and physiological traits of the leaves of A. maritima populations dwelling in three different coastal areas of Italy. The highest values of stomatal density, leaf thickness, and succulence index were found in plants living in a sub-arid climate, on rocky cliffs, with the highest soil pH and salinity. Although this population exhibited the highest concentration of oxygen reactive species (hydrogen peroxide), it also had the lowest value of lipid peroxidation, an indicator of oxidative stress. Ascorbate was the main protective molecule in this population, while phenols appeared to carry out this role in plants living on soils with the lowest salinity and highest annual rainfall.

  10. Structural and functional characterization of a noncanonical nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphatase from Thermotoga maritima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 2.15 Å resolution crystal structure of TM0159 with bound IMP and enzyme-kinetic data are presented. This noncanonical nucleoside triphosphatase from T. maritima helps to maintain a correct pool of DNA and RNA precursor molecules. The hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima has a noncanonical nucleoside triphosphatase that catalyzes the conversion of inosine triphosphate (ITP), deoxyinosine triphosphate (dITP) and xanthosine triphosphate (XTP) into inosine monophosphate (IMP), deoxyinosine monophosphate (IMP) and xanthosine monophosphate (XMP), respectively. The kcat/Km values determined at 323 and 353 K fall between 1.31 × 104 and 7.80 × 104 M?1 s?1. ITP and dITP are slightly preferred over XTP. Activity towards canonical nucleoside triphosphates (ATP and GTP) was not detected. The enzyme has an absolute requirement for Mg2+ as a cofactor and has a preference for alkaline conditions. A protein X-ray structure of the enzyme with bound IMP was obtained at 2.15 Å resolution. The active site houses a well conserved network of residues that are critical for substrate recognition and catalysis. The crystal structure shows a tetramer with two possible dimer interfaces. One of these interfaces strongly resembles the dimer interface that is found in the structures of other noncanonical nucleoside pyrophosphatases from human (human ITPase) and archaea (Mj0226 and PhNTPase)

  11. Structural and functional characterization of a noncanonical nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphatase from Thermotoga maritima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwad, Khaldeyah; Desai, Anna [California State University East Bay, 25800 Carlos Bee Boulevard, Hayward, CA 94542 (United States); Smith, Clyde [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Sommerhalter, Monika, E-mail: monika.sommerhalter@csueastbay.edu [California State University East Bay, 25800 Carlos Bee Boulevard, Hayward, CA 94542 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    A 2.15 Å resolution crystal structure of TM0159 with bound IMP and enzyme-kinetic data are presented. This noncanonical nucleoside triphosphatase from T. maritima helps to maintain a correct pool of DNA and RNA precursor molecules. The hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima has a noncanonical nucleoside triphosphatase that catalyzes the conversion of inosine triphosphate (ITP), deoxyinosine triphosphate (dITP) and xanthosine triphosphate (XTP) into inosine monophosphate (IMP), deoxyinosine monophosphate (IMP) and xanthosine monophosphate (XMP), respectively. The k{sub cat}/K{sub m} values determined at 323 and 353 K fall between 1.31 × 10{sup 4} and 7.80 × 10{sup 4} M{sup ?1} s{sup ?1}. ITP and dITP are slightly preferred over XTP. Activity towards canonical nucleoside triphosphates (ATP and GTP) was not detected. The enzyme has an absolute requirement for Mg{sup 2+} as a cofactor and has a preference for alkaline conditions. A protein X-ray structure of the enzyme with bound IMP was obtained at 2.15 Å resolution. The active site houses a well conserved network of residues that are critical for substrate recognition and catalysis. The crystal structure shows a tetramer with two possible dimer interfaces. One of these interfaces strongly resembles the dimer interface that is found in the structures of other noncanonical nucleoside pyrophosphatases from human (human ITPase) and archaea (Mj0226 and PhNTPase)

  12. Effect of Gamma Rays and Salinity on Growth and Chemical Composition of Ambrosia maritima L. Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work achieved to study the effects of, mixture of salt 2:2:1 (Na Cl-CaCl2 and Mg SO4), concentration of (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). on growth characters, some chemical components and some active ingredients in shoots of Ambrosia maritima plants, at different stages of growth, during two seasons. Pots 30 cm in diameter were filled of sand-loamy soils in appropriate concentration, all pots were irrigated with tap water. The exposed damsisa seeds to gamma rays, doses (0, 20, 40, and 80 Gy) before sowing together with control non irradiated seeds were sown in saline soils (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). Soil salinity treatments caused a decrease in plant height, number of leaves, content of damsin, and an increase in fresh weigh, dry weight, total sugars, total chlorophyll, amino acids and ambrosine content. Also, Gamma rays caused an increase in most of growth parameters and most of chemical composition. It was observed that 40 or 80 Gy was more effective. We investigated the combined effect of levels of salinity and doses of radiation used, this interference improve growth parameters and chemical composition in ambrosia maritima plants and caused ascertain the role of gamma irradiation in plants tolerance to soil salinity and alleviation their harmful effect on plants.

  13. The chloroplast genome of the hexaploid Spartina maritima (Poaceae, Chloridoideae): Comparative analyses and molecular dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau-Gueutin, M; Bellot, S; Martin, G E; Boutte, J; Chelaifa, H; Lima, O; Michon-Coudouel, S; Naquin, D; Salmon, A; Ainouche, K; Ainouche, M

    2015-12-01

    The history of many plant lineages is complicated by reticulate evolution with cases of hybridization often followed by genome duplication (allopolyploidy). In such a context, the inference of phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic scenarios based on molecular data is easier using haploid markers like chloroplast genome sequences. Hybridization and polyploidization occurred recurrently in the genus Spartina (Poaceae, Chloridoideae), as illustrated by the recent formation of the invasive allododecaploid S. anglica during the 19th century in Europe. Until now, only a few plastid markers were available to explore the history of this genus and their low variability limited the resolution of species relationships. We sequenced the complete chloroplast genome (plastome) of S. maritima, the native European parent of S. anglica, and compared it to the plastomes of other Poaceae. Our analysis revealed the presence of fast-evolving regions of potential taxonomic, phylogeographic and phylogenetic utility at various levels within the Poaceae family. Using secondary calibrations, we show that the tetraploid and hexaploid lineages of Spartina diverged 6-10 my ago, and that the two parents of the invasive allopolyploid S. anglica separated 2-4 my ago via long distance dispersal of the ancestor of S. maritima over the Atlantic Ocean. Finally, we discuss the meaning of divergence times between chloroplast genomes in the context of reticulate evolution. PMID:26182838

  14. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plant of Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of A. nilagirica and A. maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/...

  15. [Influence of biotic and abiotic factors on the morphology and reproduction of Suaeda maritima on a salt marsh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, M; Gloaguen, J C; Lefeuvre, J C

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on Suaeda maritima reproduction on a salt marsh. Individuals of Suaeda maritima were submitted in natural conditions to four series of densities (100, 1,000, 4,000 and 8,000 plants/m2). When density increases, individuals tend to be less or non-branched, while individual biomass decreases. Consequently, individual seed production decreases as density increases. Despite morphological modifications, Suaeda maritima present density-dependent mortality. For a unit area, total biomass and seed production are higher at intermediate density (1,000 plants/m2). Environmental factors could interfere with self-thinning. They seem to limit the effect of competition on mortality and to have an influence on individual and total seed production. This experiment stressed the importance of a biotic factor such as intra-specific competition, which occurs at the same time as abiotic factors, in Suaeda maritima dynamics in the field. PMID:11098406

  16. Characterization of two genes encoding metal tolerance proteins from Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima that confers manganese tolerance in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbasol, Isil; Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan; Koc, Ahmet; Pedas, Pai; Karakaya, Huseyin Caglar

    2013-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient in plants. However increased Mn levels are toxic to plant cells. Metal tolerance proteins (MTPs), member of cation diffusion facilitator protein (CDF) family, have important roles in metal homeostatis in different plant species and catalyse efflux of excess metal ions. In this study, we identified and characterized two MTP genes from Beta vulgaris spp. maritima (B. v. ssp. maritima). Overexpression of these two genes provided Mn tolerance in yeast cel...

  17. Proteomic and metabolic profiles of Cakile maritima Scop. Sea Rocket grown in the presence of cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taamalli, Manel; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Marrocco, Cristina; Gevi, Federica; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello

    2015-04-01

    Recent physiological reports have documented how Cakile maritima Scop. Sea Rocket could accumulate high doses of Cd without altering its physiological parameters. In the present study, we performed an integrated proteomics (2DE) and metabolomics (HPLC-MS) investigation to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying cadmium (Cd) tolerance of this halophyte. Peculiar features were observed: (i) up-regulation of thiol compound anabolism, including glutathione and phytochelatin homeostasis, which allows an intracellular chelation of Cd and its compartmentalization into vacuole by a significant up-regulation of vacuolar transporters; (ii) up-regulation of the PPP and Calvin cycle (both at the enzyme and metabolite level), which utterly promoted the maintenance of NADPH/NADP(+) homeostasis, other than the accumulation of triose-phosphates (serving as anabolic intermediates for triacylglycerol biosynthesis) and the glyoxylate precursor phosphoglycolate, to promote photorespiration and consequently CO2 release. An up-regulation of carbonic anhydrase was also observed. This halophyte is also correlated with a highly efficient antioxidant system, especially a high up-regulation of SOD1, resulting more efficient in coping with heavy metals stress than common plants. Interestingly, exposure to high Cd concentrations partly affected photosystem integrity and metabolic activity, through the up-regulation of enzymes from the Calvin cycle and glutathione-ascorbate homeostasis and PAP3 which stabilizes thylakoid membrane structures. In addition, up-regulation of Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase CYP38 increases stability and biogenesis of PSII. Finally, metabolomics results confirmed proteomics and previous physiological evidence, also suggesting that osmoprotectants, betaine and proline, together with plant hormones, methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid, might be involved in mediating responses to Cd-induced stress. Taken together, these peculiar features confirm that Cakile maritima Scop. Sea Rocket seemed to be naturally equipped to withstand even high doses of Cd pollution. PMID:25639878

  18. Growth Habit and Mechanical Architecture of the Sand Dune?adapted Climber Clematis flammula var. maritima L.

    OpenAIRE

    Isnard, Sandrine; ROWE, NICK; Speck, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Clematis flammula var. maritima is a woody lianoid plant that grows on coastal sand dunes in the Mediterranean region. Older perennial stems are present as extensive underground axes. These generate surface growth of shorter?lived stems producing monospecific trellises above the surface of the sand. Despite its sand dune habitat and shortage of host support plants, this variety of Clematis shows mechanical characteristics during growth that are closely comparable with those of scandent woody ...

  19. The First Myriapod Genome Sequence Reveals Conservative Arthropod Gene Content and Genome Organisation in the Centipede Strigamia maritima

    OpenAIRE

    Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E. K.; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Schröder, Reinhard; Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C.; Alonso, Claudio R.; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C. J.; Blankenburg, Kerstin P.

    2014-01-01

    Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologue...

  20. Whole-Genome Expression Profiling of Thermotoga maritima in Response to Growth on Sugars in a Chemostat

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tu N.; Ejaz, Arvin D.; Brancieri, Mark A.; Mikula, Amy M.; Nelson, Karen E.; Gill, Steven R; Noll, Kenneth M

    2004-01-01

    To provide data necessary to study catabolite-linked transcriptional networks in Thermotoga maritima, we used full-genome DNA microarray analysis of global transcriptional responses to growth on glucose, lactose, and maltose in a chemostat. A much larger number of genes changed expression in cells grown on lactose than on maltose, each relative to genes expressed in cells grown on glucose. Genes encoding putative oligopeptide transporters were often coregulated with adjacent glycosidase-encod...

  1. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima - ancestor of all beet crops - and modern sugar beets

    OpenAIRE

    ChristinZachow; RalfTilcher

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar be...

  2. Endophytic Cultivable Bacteria of the Metal Bioaccumulator Spartina maritima Improve Plant Growth but Not Metal Uptake in Polluted Marshes Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Jennifer; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Caviedes, Miguel A.; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Pajuelo, Eloisa; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio D.

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacterial population was isolated from Spartina maritima tissues, a heavy metal bioaccumulator cordgrass growing in the estuaries of Tinto, Odiel, and Piedras River (south west Spain), one of the most polluted areas in the world. Strains were identified and ability to tolerate salt and heavy metals along with plant growth promoting and enzymatic properties were analyzed. A high proportion of these bacteria were resistant toward one or several heavy metals and metalloids including As, Cu, and Zn, the most abundant in plant tissues and soil. These strains also exhibited multiple enzymatic properties as amylase, cellulase, chitinase, protease and lipase, as well as plant growth promoting properties, including nitrogen fixation, phosphates solubilization, and production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. The best performing strains (Micrococcus yunnanensis SMJ12, Vibrio sagamiensis SMJ18, and Salinicola peritrichatus SMJ30) were selected and tested as a consortium by inoculating S. maritima wild plantlets in greenhouse conditions along with wild polluted soil. After 30 days, bacterial inoculation improved plant photosynthetic traits and favored intrinsic water use efficiency. However, far from stimulating plant metal uptake, endophytic inoculation lessened metal accumulation in above and belowground tissues. These results suggest that inoculation of S. maritima with indigenous metal-resistant endophytes could mean a useful approach in order to accelerate both adaption and growth of this indigenous cordgrass in polluted estuaries in restorative operations, but may not be suitable for rhizoaccumulation purposes. PMID:26733985

  3. Thermotoga maritima AglA, an extremely thermostable NAD+-, Mn2+-, and thiol-dependent alpha-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, C; Streit, W; Schanzer, J; Bibel, M; Gosslar, U; Liebl, W

    2000-08-01

    The gene for the alpha-glucosidase AglA of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima MSB8, which was identified by phenotypic screening of a T. maritima gene library, is located within a cluster of genes involved in the hydrolysis of starch and maltodextrins and the uptake of maltooligosaccharides. According to its primary structure as deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the gene, AglA belongs to family 4 of glycosyl hydrolases. The enzyme was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. The T. maritima alpha-glucosidase has the unusual property of requiring NAD+ and Mn2+ for activity. Co2+ and Ni2+ also activated AglA, albeit less efficiently than Mn2+. T. maritima AglA represents the first example of a maltodextrin-degrading alpha-glucosidase with NAD+ and Mn2+ requirement. In addition, AglA activity depended on reducing conditions. This third requirement was met by the addition of dithiothreitol (DTT) or beta-mercaptoethanol to the assay. Using gel permeation chromatography, T. maritima AglA behaved as a dimer (two identical 55-kDa subunits), irrespective of metal depletion or metal addition, and irrespective of the presence or absence of NAD+ or DTT. The enzyme hydrolyzes maltose and other small maltooligosaccharides but is inactive against the polymeric substrate starch. AglA is not specific with respect to the configuration at the C-4 position of its substrates because glycosidic derivatives of D-galactose are also hydrolyzed. In the presence of all cofactors, maximum activity was recorded at pH 7.5 and 90 degrees C (4-min assay). AglA is the most thermoactive and the most thermostable member of glycosyl hydrolase family 4. When incubated at 50 degrees C and 70 degrees C, the recombinant enzyme suffered partial inactivation during the first hours of incubation, but thereafter the residual activity did not drop below about 50% and 20% of the initial value, respectively, within a period of 48 h. PMID:10972187

  4. Redox-Active Profile Characterization of Remirea maritima Extracts and It Cytotoxic Effect in Mouse Fibroblasts (L929 and Melanoma (B16F10 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Anne A. Dória

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Remirea maritima is a tropical plant with a reticulated root system belonging to the family Cyperaceae, also known to have biologically active secondary metabolites. However, very few data on R. maritima’s biological actions are available and there are no reports regarding the redox-active profile of this plant. In this study, we examined the total phenolic content of Remirea maritima hydroalcoholic (RMHA extracts, redox properties against different reactive species generated in vitro and their cytotoxic effect against fibroblasts (L929 and melanoma (B16F10 cells. Total reactive antioxidant potential index (TRAP and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR results revealed that RMHA at all concentrations tested showed significant antioxidant capacity. RMHA was also effective against hydroxyl radical formation, reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ and in scavenging nitric oxide (NO radicals. In vitro, the level of lipid peroxidation was reduced by RMHA extract and the data showed significant oxidative damage protection. The RMHA cytotoxicity was evaluated by a neutral red assay in fibroblast (L929 and melanome (B16F10 cells. The obtained results showed that the RMHA (40 and 80 µg/mL, respectively reduced 70% of the viable cells. In conclusion, this study represents the first report regarding the antioxidant and anti-proliferative potential of R. maritima against B16F10 melanoma cells.

  5. Crystal structure of a phosphatase with a unique substrate binding domain from Thermotoga maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Hae; Roberts, Anne; Jancarik, Jaru; Yokota, Hisao; Kim, Rosalind; Wemmer, David E; Kim, Sung-Hou

    2003-07-01

    We have determined the crystal structure of a phosphatase with a unique substrate binding domain from Thermotoga maritima, TM0651 (gi 4981173), at 2.2 A resolution by selenomethionine single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) techniques. TM0651 is a member of the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily, with sequence homology to trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and sucrose-6(F)-phosphate phosphohydrolase. Selenomethionine labeled TM0651 crystallized in space group C2 with three monomers per asymmetric unit. Each monomer has approximate dimensions of 65 x 40 x 35 A(3), and contains two domains: a domain of known hydrolase fold characteristic of the HAD family, and a domain with a new tertiary fold consisting of a six-stranded beta-sheet surrounded by four alpha-helices. There is one disulfide bond between residues Cys35 and Cys265 in each monomer. One magnesium ion and one sulfate ion are bound in the active site. The superposition of active site residues with other HAD family members indicates that TM0651 is very likely a phosphatase that acts through the formation of a phosphoaspartate intermediate, which is supported by both NMR titration data and a biochemical assay. Structural and functional database searches and the presence of many aromatic residues in the interface of the two domains suggest the substrate of TM0651 is a carbohydrate molecule. From the crystal structure and NMR data, the protein likely undergoes a conformational change upon substrate binding. PMID:12824492

  6. Detection of the strand exchange reaction using DNAzyme and Thermotoga maritima recombinase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hunho; Lee, Seonghwan; Min, Kyoungin; Ban, Changill

    2012-02-01

    We have designed multiple detection systems for the DNA strand exchange process. Thermostable Thermotoga maritima recombinase A (TmRecA), a core protein in homologous recombination, and DNAzyme, a catalytic DNA that can cleave a specific DNA sequence, are introduced in this work. In a colorimetric method, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified with complementary DNAs (cDNAs) were assembled by annealing. Aggregated AuNPs were then separated irreversibly by TmRecA and DNAzyme, leading to a distinct color change in the particles from purple to red. For the case of fluorometric detection, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled DNA as a fluorophore and black hole quencher 1 (BHQ1)-labeled DNA as a quencher were used; successful strand exchange was clearly detected by variations in fluorescence intensity. In addition, alterations in the impedance of a gold electrode with immobilized DNA were employed to monitor the regular exchange of DNA strands. All three methods provided sufficient evidence of efficient strand exchange reactions and have great potential for applications in the monitoring of recombination, discovery of new DNAzymes, detection of DNAzymes, and measurement of other protein activities. PMID:22178915

  7. Amorphus suaedae sp. nov., isolated from the root of a tidal flat plant, Suaeda maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jung Moon; Chung, Eu Jin; Park, Jeong Ae; Jeong, Jae Heon; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

    2013-10-01

    A novel bacterial strain, YC6899(T), was isolated from the root of Suaedae maritima growing on a tidal flat of Namhae Island, Korea. Cells were Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, slightly halophilic and heterotrophic. Strain YC6899(T) grew optimally at a salinity of 2-4?%, at 25-37 °C and at pH 6.5-8.0. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that strain YC6899(T) was closely related to Amorphus orientalis YIM D10(T) (96.1?% similarity) and Amorphus coralli RS.Sph.026(T) (95.9?%). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids, an unknown aminophospholipid, an unknown aminoglycolipid, unknown glycolipids and unknown lipids. The major fatty acids of strain YC6899(T) were C19?:?0 cyclo ?8c and C18?:?1?7c. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.3 mol%. Strain YC6899(T) contained ubiquinone-10 (Q-10) as the major respiratory quinone system. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain YC6899(T) represents a novel species within the genus Amorphus, for which the name Amorphus suaedae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6899(T) (?=?KACC 14912(T)?=?NBRC 107845(T)). PMID:23687061

  8. Functional and structural characterization of a thermostable acetyl esterase from Thermotoga maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levisson, Mark; Han, Gye Won; Deller, Marc C; Xu, Qingping; Biely, Peter; Hendriks, Sjon; Ten Eyck, Lynn F; Flensburg, Claus; Roversi, Pietro; Miller, Mitchell D; McMullan, Daniel; von Delft, Frank; Kreusch, Andreas; Deacon, Ashley M; van der Oost, John; Lesley, Scott A; Elsliger, Marc-André; Kengen, Servé W M; Wilson, Ian A

    2012-06-01

    TM0077 from Thermotoga maritima is a member of the carbohydrate esterase family 7 and is active on a variety of acetylated compounds, including cephalosporin C. TM0077 esterase activity is confined to short-chain acyl esters (C2-C3), and is optimal around 100°C and pH 7.5. The positional specificity of TM0077 was investigated using 4-nitrophenyl-?-D-xylopyranoside monoacetates as substrates in a ?-xylosidase-coupled assay. TM0077 hydrolyzes acetate at positions 2, 3, and 4 with equal efficiency. No activity was detected on xylan or acetylated xylan, which implies that TM0077 is an acetyl esterase and not an acetyl xylan esterase as currently annotated. Selenomethionine-substituted and native structures of TM0077 were determined at 2.1 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively, revealing a classic ?/?-hydrolase fold. TM0077 assembles into a doughnut-shaped hexamer with small tunnels on either side leading to an inner cavity, which contains the six catalytic centers. Structures of TM0077 with covalently bound phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and paraoxon were determined to 2.4 and 2.1 Å, respectively, and confirmed that both inhibitors bind covalently to the catalytic serine (Ser188). Upon binding of inhibitor, the catalytic serine adopts an altered conformation, as observed in other esterase and lipases, and supports a previously proposed catalytic mechanism in which Ser hydroxyl rotation prevents reversal of the reaction and allows access of a water molecule for completion of the reaction. PMID:22411095

  9. The first myriapod genome sequence reveals conservative arthropod gene content and genome organisation in the centipede Strigamia maritima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E.K.

    2014-01-01

    Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologues of genes conserved from the bilaterian ancestor that have been lost in insects. Our analysis locates many genes in conserved macro-synteny contexts, and many small-scale examples of gene clustering. We describe several examples where S. maritima shows different solutions from insects to similar problems. The insect olfactory receptor gene family is absent from S. maritima, and olfaction in air is likely effected by expansion of other receptor gene families. For some genes S. maritima has evolved paralogues to generate coding sequence diversity, where insects use alternate splicing. This is most striking for the Dscam gene, which in Drosophila generates more than 100,000 alternate splice forms, but in S. maritima is encoded by over 100 paralogues. We see an intriguing linkage between the absence of any known photosensory proteins in a blind organism and the additional absence of canonical circadian clock genes. The phylogenetic position of myriapods allows us to identify where in arthropod phylogeny several particular molecular mechanisms and traits emerged. For example, we conclude that juvenile hormone signalling evolved with the emergence of the exoskeleton in the arthropods and that RR-1 containing cuticle proteins evolved in the lineage leading to Mandibulata. We also identify when various gene expansions and losses occurred. The genome of S. maritima offers us a unique glimpse into the ancestral arthropod genome, while also displaying many adaptations to its specific life history.

  10. Microsatellite markers for the tetraploid halophyte Suaeda maritima (L.) Dumort. (Chenopodiaceae) and cross-species amplification in related taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Kathleen; Hensen, Isabell; Schie, Stephan; Debener, Thomas; Weising, Kurt

    2009-07-01

    We developed 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the tetraploid halophyte Suaeda maritima (Chenopodiaceae). Population genetic parameters were estimated for three populations from different habitats (coastal and inland), using the program Tetrasat. Between two and 15 alleles per locus were observed. Mean expected heterozygosities (H(E) ) and Shannon-Wiener Diversity Indices (H') per locus and population ranged from zero to 0.852, and from zero to 2.990, respectively. The two inland populations were less diverse than the coastal one at most of the loci. All markers cross-amplified in the closely related Suaeda salsa, and all but one were transferable to Suaeda spicata and Suaeda salinaria. PMID:21564891

  11. EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS ABSCISIC ACID ON GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE HALOPHYTE SUAEDA MARITIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbarasi G.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Different types of phytohormones are being extensively used to alleviate the adverse effect of salinity stress on plant growth. Among those, Abscisic acid (ABA is a plant stress hormone and one of the most important signaling molecules in plants. Drought and salinity activate De-novo abscisic acid synthesis prevent further water loss by evaporation through stomata, mediated by changes in the guard cell turgor pressure. Under osmotic stress abscisic acid induce the accumulation of protein involved in the biosynthesis of osmolites which increasing the stress tolerance of plant. In addition, exogenous application of ABA enhances the tolerance of plants or plant cells to cold, heat, drought, anoxia and heavy metal stresses. This study was carried out to study the exogenous abscisic (ABA acid induced regulatory role on the growth, water content, protein content, chlorophyll content, osmolyte accumulation and protein profiling through SDS PAGE in a halophyte, Suaeda maritima. The osmolyte accumulation of proline and glycine betaine was found to be more in 50 µM ABA concentrations. The protein profiling through SDS PAGE revealed that ? 66KDa proteins was not expressed in the control plant and in 10?M ABA treated plants. Interestingly, the ABA treatment induced a new protein of 14.2KDa in 10?M concentration. The ABA treated plants with concentrations 50?M, 100?M and 150?M showed changes in the expression of protein in abundance than the control and 10?M ABA treated plants. The findings in this study indicate that among all the concentrations, 50?M ABA concentration treated plants exhibited higher growth rate.

  12. Characterization of Thermotoga maritima glycerol dehydrogenase for the enzymatic production of dihydroxyacetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Justin; Gross, Phillip G; Vieille, Claire

    2014-08-01

    NAD-dependent Thermotoga maritima glycerol dehydrogenase (TmGlyDH) converts glycerol into dihydroxyacetone (DHA), a valuable synthetic precursor and sunless tanning agent. In this work, recombinant TmGlyDH was characterized to determine if it can be used to catalyze DHA production. The pH optima for glycerol oxidation and DHA reduction at 50 °C were 7.9 and 6.0, respectively. Under the conditions tested, TmGlyDH had a linear Arrhenius plot up to 80 °C. TmGlyDH was more thermostable than other glycerol dehydrogenases, remaining over 50 % active after 7 h at 50 °C. TmGlyDH was active on racemic 1,2-propanediol and produced (R)-1,2-propanediol from hydroxyacetone with an enantiomeric excess above 99 %, suggesting that TmGlyDH can also be used for chiral synthesis. (R)-1,2-propanediol production from hydroxyacetone was demonstrated for the first time in a one-enzyme cycling reaction using glycerol as the second substrate. Negative cooperativity was observed with glycerol and DHA, but not with the cofactor. Apparent kinetic parameters for glycerol, DHA, and NAD(H) were determined over a broad pH range. TmGlyDH showed little activity with N(6)-carboxymethyl-NAD(+) (N(6)-CM-NAD), an NAD(+) analog modified for easy immobilization to amino groups, but the double mutation V44A/K157G increased catalytic efficiency with N(6)-CM-NAD(+) ten-fold. Finally, we showed for the first time that a GlyDH is active with immobilized N(6)-CM-NAD(+), suggesting that N(6)-CM-NAD(+) can be immobilized on an electrode to allow TmGlyDH activity in a system that reoxidizes the cofactor electrocatalytically. PMID:24664447

  13. Formylglycinamide Ribonucleotide Amidotransferase from Thermotoga maritima: Structural Insights into Complex Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morar, Mariya; Hoskins, Aaron A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Ealick, Steven E. (MIT); (Cornell)

    2008-10-02

    In the fourth step of the purine biosynthetic pathway, formyl glycinamide ribonucleotide (FGAR) amidotransferase, also known as PurL, catalyzes the conversion of FGAR, ATP, and glutamine to formyl glycinamidine ribonucleotide (FGAM), ADP, P{sub i}, and glutamate. Two forms of PurL have been characterized, large and small. Large PurL, present in most Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes, consists of a single polypeptide chain and contains three major domains: the N-terminal domain, the FGAM synthetase domain, and the glutaminase domain, with a putative ammonia channel located between the active sites of the latter two. Small PurL, present in Gram-positive bacteria and archaea, is structurally homologous to the FGAM synthetase domain of large PurL, and forms a complex with two additional gene products, PurQ and PurS. The structure of the PurS dimer is homologous with the N-terminal domain of large PurL, while PurQ, whose structure has not been reported, contains the glutaminase activity. In Bacillus subtilis, the formation of the PurLQS complex is dependent on glutamine and ADP and has been demonstrated by size-exclusion chromatography. In this work, a structure of the PurLQS complex from Thermotoga maritima is described revealing a 2:1:1 stoichiometry of PurS:Q:L, respectively. The conformational changes observed in TmPurL upon complex formation elucidate the mechanism of metabolite-mediated recruitment of PurQ and PurS. The flexibility of the PurS dimer is proposed to play a role in the activation of the complex and the formation of the ammonia channel. A potential path for the ammonia channel is identified.

  14. Hoeflea suaedae sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from the root of the halophyte Suaeda maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eu Jin; Park, Jeong Ae; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bibi, Fehmida; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

    2013-06-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, short rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain YC6898(T), was isolated from the surface-sterilized root of a halophyte (Suaeda maritima) inhabiting tidal flat of Namhae Island, Korea. Strain YC6898(T) grew optimally at 30-37 °C and pH 6.5-7.5. The strain inhibited mycelial growth of Pythium ultimum and Phytophthora capsici. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YC6898(T) belongs to the genus Hoeflea in the family Phyllobacteriaceae. Its closest relatives were Hoeflea alexandrii AM1V30(T) (96.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Hoeflea anabaenae WH2K(T) (95.7%), Hoeflea phototrophica DFL-43(T) (95.5%) and Hoeflea marina LMG 128(T) (94.8%). Strain YC6898(T) contained Q-10 as the major ubiquinone. The major fatty acids of strain YC6898(T) were C18:1?7c (61.1%), C16:0 (11.9%), 11-methyl C18:1?7c (9.6%) and C19:0 cyclo ?8c (8.0%). The polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, unknown lipids and an unknown glycolipid. The total genomic DNA G+C content was 53.7 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analysis, strain YC6898(T) represents a novel species of the genus Hoeflea, for which the name Hoeflea suaedae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6898(T) (=KACC 14911(T)=NBRC 107700(T)). PMID:23159752

  15. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia vestita Wall ex DC. and Artemisia maritima L. against Haemonchus contortus from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irum, Shamaila; Ahmed, Haroon; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Mushtaq, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra; Donskow-?ysoniewska, Katarzyna; Qayyum, Mazhar; Simsek, Sami

    2015-09-15

    Current study was designed to evaluate in vivo and in vitro anthelmintic activity of Artemisia vestita Wall ex DC. and Artemisia maritima L. against Haemonchus contortus in comparison with ivermectin to investigate the effect of plant extracts on survival of infective L3 and adults under in vitro condition. Plant extracts were given to H. contortus infected sheep orally and it was infected with L3 stage of H. contortus at dose of 5000 larvae/sheep. Total of 25-30 larvae were incubated with plant extracts in PBS alone and ivermectin at different concentration used as positive control. It was recorded that there is a significant decrease in fecal egg count (FEC) after post-treatment period for both plants. The highest fecal egg count reduction for A. vestita was 87.2% at 100mg/kg while for A. maritima it was 84.5% on day 28 post-treatment. Investigated extracts indicated significant activity against larvae and adult worms. PMID:26194429

  16. Some soil properties and microbial biomass of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea and Eucalyptus camaldulensis from the Eastern Mediterranean coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacide Kizildag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salt-affected soils occupy wide areas that have ecological importance in semi-arid and arid regions. Excessive amounts of salt have adverse effects on soil physical and chemical properties and also on the microbiological processes. The soils of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were found to be under salinity stress in the present study area. Thus, the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus contents, microbial biomass, and carbon mineralization were determined in the soils sampled from the Tarsus-Karabucak Forest of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (Turkey. Method: Carbon mineralization of all samples was measured by the CO2 respiration method over 30 d at 28?C and constant moisture. Results: There were no significant differences in the carbon mineralization among the soils. The average fungi count in 1 g of air dried soils of E. camaldulensis, P. pinea, and P. maritima were found to be a 72000 colony forming unit (cfu/g, 25300 cfu/g, and 28500 cfu/g, respectively. The total bacterial counts were 4x103 cfu/g, 10x103 cfu/g, and 7x103 cfu/g and the counts of anaerobic bacteria were 17800 cfu/g, 42900 cfu/g, and 27300 cfu/g, respectively. Conclusion: It is possible to conclude that salt, as an ecological factor, had no effect on microbial activity. This may be as a result of heavy rains which decreased the salt concentrations of the soil in the sampling region.

  17. Molecular and biochemical characterization of bifunctional pyruvate decarboxylases and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductases from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eram, Mohammad S; Wong, Alton; Oduaran, Erica; Ma, Kesen

    2015-12-01

    Hyperthermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea produce ethanol as a metabolic end product, which is resulted from acetaldehyde reduction catalysed by an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). However, the enzyme that is involved in the production of acetaldehyde from pyruvate is not well characterized. An oxygen sensitive and coenzyme A-dependent pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity was found to be present in cell free extracts of T. maritima and T. hypogea. Both enzymes were purified and found to have pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR) activity, indicating their bifunctionality. Both PDC and POR activities from each of the purified enzymes were characterized in regards to their optimal assay conditions including pH dependency, oxygen sensitivity, thermal stability, temperature dependency and kinetic parameters. The close relatedness of the PORs that was shown by sequence analysis could be an indication of the presence of such bifunctionality in other hyperthermophilic bacteria. This is the first report of a bifunctional PDC/POR enzyme in hyperthermophilic bacteria. The PDC and the previously reported ADHs are most likely the key enzymes catalysing the production of ethanol from pyruvate in bacterial hyperthermophiles. PMID:26032540

  18. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of Suaeda maritima (L.) dumort ethanolic extract on concanavalin-A induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, S; Gnanadesigan, M; Inbaneson, S Jacob; Kalaiarasi, A

    2011-06-01

    Hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of Suaeda maritima (L.) Dumort on concanavalin-A induced stress in Wistar albino rats have been reported. Rats were administered with ethanolic extract of Suaeda maritimna at the concentration of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg of body wt. for 9 days and concanavalin-A was administrated (iv) 12 mg/kg on 9th day. Rats in concanavalin-A administered group showed elevated levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilurubin. Pretreatment of rats with ethanolic extract (300 mg/kg) significantly reduced these serum parameters compared to concavalin-A administered group. Histopathological examination of liver sections showed that, normal liver architecture was disturbed by hepatotoxin intoxication. The extract treated group and silymarin treated group retained the normal cell architecture, although less visible changes were observed. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of triterpenioids and may be responsible for the hepatoprotective activity. The LD50 was calculated as 3 g/kg of the body weight. IC50 values of hydroxyl (52.21+/-1.32 microg/ml) and nitric oxide radicals (09.14+/-0.94 microg/ml) scavenging results showed comparable activity with vitamin-C. Results of this study may be useful for the development of herbal medicine from Suaeda maritima for the treatment of hepatitis. PMID:21702225

  19. Redox-Active Profile Characterization of Remirea maritima Extracts and Its Cytotoxic Effect in Mouse Fibroblasts (L929) and Melanoma (B16F10) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dória, Grace Anne A; Santos, Anderson R; Bittencourt, Leonardo S; Bortolin, Rafael C; Menezes, Paula P; Vasconcelos, Bruno S; Souza, Rebeca O; Fonseca, Maria José V; Santos, Alan Diego C; Saravanan, Shanmugam; Silva, Francilene A; Gelain, Daniel P; Moreira, José Cláudio F; Prata, Ana Paula N; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Araújo, Adriano A S

    2015-01-01

    Remirea maritima is a tropical plant with a reticulated root system belonging to the family Cyperaceae, also known to have biologically active secondary metabolites. However, very few data on R. maritima's biological actions are available and there are no reports regarding the redox-active profile of this plant. In this study, we examined the total phenolic content of Remirea maritima hydroalcoholic (RMHA) extracts, redox properties against different reactive species generated in vitro and their cytotoxic effect against fibroblasts (L929) and melanoma (B16F10) cells. Total reactive antioxidant potential index (TRAP) and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR) results revealed that RMHA at all concentrations tested showed significant antioxidant capacity. RMHA was also effective against hydroxyl radical formation, reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ and in scavenging nitric oxide (NO) radicals. In vitro, the level of lipid peroxidation was reduced by RMHA extract and the data showed significant oxidative damage protection. The RMHA cytotoxicity was evaluated by a neutral red assay in fibroblast (L929) and melanome (B16F10) cells. The obtained results showed that the RMHA (40 and 80 µg/mL, respectively) reduced 70% of the viable cells. In conclusion, this study represents the first report regarding the antioxidant and anti-proliferative potential of R. maritima against B16F10 melanoma cells. PMID:26121396

  20. Purification, crystallization, crystallographic analysis and phasing of the CRISPR-associated protein Csm2 from Thermotoga maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Gloria; Augusto, Gilles; Rangel, Giulliana; Zelanis, André; Mori, Marcelo A; Barbosa Campos, Cláudia; Würtele, Martin

    2015-10-01

    The clusters of regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) system consists of an intriguing machinery of proteins that confer bacteria and archaea with immunity against phages and plasmids via an RNA-guided interference mechanism. Here, the cloning, recombinant expression in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Csm2 from Thermotoga maritima are reported. Csm2 is thought to be a component of an important protein complex of the type IIIA CRISPR-Cas system, which is involved in the CRISPR-Cas RNA-guided interference pathway. The structure of Csm2 was solved via cadmium single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (Cd-SAD) phasing. Owing to its involvement in the CRISPR-Cas system, the crystal structure of this protein could be of importance in elucidating the mechanism of type IIIA CRISPR-Cas systems in bacteria and archaea. PMID:26457510

  1. X-ray microanalysis of ion distribution within root cortical cells of the halophyte Suaeda maritima (L.) Dum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajibagheri, M A; Flowers, T J

    1989-01-01

    The ion content of compartments within cortical cells of mature roots of the halophyte Suaeda maritima grown at 200 mol·m(-3) NaCl has been studied by X-ray microanalysis of freeze-substituted thin sections. Sodium and Cl were found in the vacuoles at about four-times the concentration in the cytoplasm or cell walls, whereas K was more concentrated in the cell walls and cytoplasm than in vacuoles. The vacuolar Na concentration was 12- to 13-times higher than that of K. The Na concentration of cell walls of cortical cells was about 95 mol·m(-3) of analysed volume. The cytoplasmic K concentration within the mature cortical cells was estimated to be 55 mol·m(-3) of analysed volume. PMID:24212281

  2. Permeability and reactivity of Thermotoga maritima in latex bimodal blend coatings at 80 degrees C: a model high temperature biocatalytic coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngberg, Olav K; Solheid, Chris; Charaniya, Salim; Ma, Yue; Thiagarajan, Venkata; Scriven, L E; Flickinger, Michael C

    2005-06-01

    Thermostable polymers cast as thin, porous coatings or membranes may be useful for concentrating and stabilizing hyperthermophilic microorganisms as biocatalysts. Hydrogel matrices can be unstable above 65 degrees C. Therefore a 55-microm thick, two layer (cell coat + polymer top coat) bimodal, adhesive latex coating of partially coalesced polystyrene particles was investigated at 80 degrees C using Thermotoga maritima as a model hyperthermophile. Coating permeability (pore structure) was critical for maintaining T. maritima viability. The permeability of bimodal coatings generated from 0.8 v/v of a suspension of non-film-forming 800 nm polystyrene particles with high glass transition temperature (T(g) = 94 degrees C, 26.9% total solids) blended with 0.2 v/v of a suspension of film-forming 158 nm polyacrylate/styrene particles (T(g) approximately -5 degrees C, 40.9% total solids) with 0.3 g sucrose/g latex was measured in a KNO3 diffusion cell. Diffusivity ratio remained above 0.04 (D(eff)/D) when incubated at 80 degrees C in artificial seawater (ASW) for 5 days. KNO3 permeability was corroborated by cryogenic-SEM images of the pore structure. In contrast, the permeability of a mono-dispersed acrylate/vinyl acetate latex Rovace SF091 (T(g) approximately 10 degrees C) rapidly decreased and became impermeable after 2 days incubation in ASW at 80 degrees C. Thermotoga maritima were entrapped in these coatings at a cell density of 49 g cell wet weight/liter of coating volume, 25-fold higher than the density in liquid culture. Viable T. maritima were released from single-layer coatings at 80 degrees C but accurate measurement of the percentage of viable entrapped cells by plate counting was not successful. Metabolic activity could be measured in bilayer coatings by utilization of glucose and maltose, which was identical for latex-entrapped and suspended cells. Starch was hydrolyzed for 200 h by latex-entrapped cells due to the slow diffusion of starch through the polymer top coat compared to only 24 h by suspended T. maritima. The observed reactivity and stability of these coatings was surprising since cryo-SEM images suggested that the smaller low T(g) polyacrylate/styrene particles preferentially bound to the T. maritima toga-sheath during coat formation. This model system may be useful for concentrating, entrapment and stabilization of metabolically active hyperthermophiles at 80 degrees C. PMID:15778817

  3. Overproduction, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the peroxiredoxin domain of a larger natural hybrid protein from Thermotoga maritima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystals of the peroxiredoxin domain of a larger natural hybrid protein from T. maritima were obtained which diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution on a synchrotron source. Thermotoga maritima contains a natural hybrid protein constituted of two moieties: a peroxiredoxin domain at the N-terminus and a nitroreductase domain at the C-terminus. The peroxiredoxin (Prx) domain has been overproduced and purified from Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant Prx domain, which is homologous to bacterial Prx BCP and plant Prx Q, folds properly into a stable protein that possesses biological activity. The recombinant protein was crystallized and synchrotron data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group I422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.67, c = 141.20 Å

  4. Periplasmic Binding Proteins in Thermophiles: Characterization and Potential Application of an Arginine-Binding Protein from Thermotoga maritima: A Brief Thermo-Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabato D'Auria

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Arginine-binding protein from the extremophile Thermotoga maritima is a 27.7 kDa protein possessing the typical two-domain structure of the periplasmic binding proteins family. The protein is characterized by a very high specificity and affinity to bind to arginine, also at high temperatures. Due to its features, this protein could be taken into account as a potential candidate for the design of a biosensor for arginine. It is important to investigate the stability of proteins when they are used for biotechnological applications. In this article, we review the structural and functional features of an arginine-binding protein from the extremophile Thermotoga maritima with a particular eye on its potential biotechnological applications.

  5. Study with an isotopic method using tritiated water of hydric exchanges in Plantago maritima L. var Graminaea and Plantago lanceolata L.: effect of an antitranspirant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study with an isotopic method using tritiated water of total hydric exchanges in an halophyte (Plantago maritima) and a glycophyte (Plantago lanceolata) grown in the presence or not of NaCl and treated or not by an antitranspirant, point out two facts: the specific origin for the plant salinity resistances and the stomatal nature which characterizes the modality for the efficience of antitranspirant tested

  6. Haplotype Detection from Next-Generation Sequencing in High-Ploidy-Level Species: 45S rDNA Gene Copies in the Hexaploid Spartina maritima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutte, Julien; Aliaga, Benoît; Lima, Oscar; Ferreira de Carvalho, Julie; Ainouche, Abdelkader; Macas, Jiri; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Coriton, Olivier; Ainouche, Malika; Salmon, Armel

    2015-01-01

    Gene and whole-genome duplications are widespread in plant nuclear genomes, resulting in sequence heterogeneity. Identification of duplicated genes may be particularly challenging in highly redundant genomes, especially when there are no diploid parents as a reference. Here, we developed a pipeline to detect the different copies in the ribosomal RNA gene family in the hexaploid grass Spartina maritima from next-generation sequencing (Roche-454) reads. The heterogeneity of the different domains of the highly repeated 45S unit was explored by identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and assembling reads based on shared polymorphisms. SNPs were validated using comparisons with Illumina sequence data sets and by cloning and Sanger (re)sequencing. Using this approach, 29 validated polymorphisms and 11 validated haplotypes were reported (out of 34 and 20, respectively, that were initially predicted by our program). The rDNA domains of S. maritima have similar lengths as those found in other Poaceae, apart from the 5?-ETS, which is approximately two-times longer in S. maritima. Sequence homogeneity was encountered in coding regions and both internal transcribed spacers (ITS), whereas high intragenomic variability was detected in the intergenic spacer (IGS) and the external transcribed spacer (ETS). Molecular cytogenetic analysis by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed the presence of one pair of 45S rDNA signals on the chromosomes of S. maritima instead of three expected pairs for a hexaploid genome, indicating loss of duplicated homeologous loci through the diploidization process. The procedure developed here may be used at any ploidy level and using different sequencing technologies. PMID:26530424

  7. Diversity and Ecological Characterization of Sporulating Higher Filamentous Marine Fungi Associated with Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald in Two Portuguese Salt Marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Maria da Luz; Carvalho, Luís; Pang, Ka-Lai; Barata, Margarida

    2015-10-01

    Fungal communities associated with early stages of decomposition of Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald were assessed in two geographically distinct salt marshes in Portugal by direct observation of fungal sporulating structures. Twenty-three fungal taxa were identified from 390 plant samples, 11 of which were common to both study sites. Natantispora retorquens, Byssothecium obiones, Phaeosphaeria spartinicola, Phoma sp. 1 and Stagonospora sp. were the most frequent fungal taxa in the studied communities. The fungal species Anthostomella spissitecta, Camarosporium roumeguerii, Coniothyrium obiones, Decorospora gaudefroyi, Halosarpheia trullifera, Leptosphaeria marina and Stagonospora haliclysta were recorded for the first time on S. maritima plants; with the exception of C. roumeguerii and L. marina, all of these species were also new records for Portugal. The differences between species composition of the communities associated with S. maritima were attributed to differences in abiotic conditions of the salt marshes. Although the fungal taxa were distributed differently along the host plants, common species to both fungal communities were found on the same relative position, e.g. B. obiones, Lulworthia sp. and N. retorquens occurred on the basal plant portions, Buergenerula spartinae, Dictyosporium pelagicum and Phoma sp. 1 on the middle plant portions and P. spartinicola and Stagonospora sp. on the top plant portions. The distinct vertical distribution patterns reflected species-specific salinity requirements and flooding tolerance, but specially substrate preferences. The most frequent fungi in both communities also exhibited wider distribution ranges and produced a higher number of fruiting structures, suggesting a more active key role in the decay process of S. maritima. PMID:25851444

  8. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima—ancestor of all beet crops—and modern sugar beets

    OpenAIRE

    Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar be...

  9. Haplotype Detection from Next-Generation Sequencing in High-Ploidy-Level Species: 45S rDNA Gene Copies in the Hexaploid Spartina maritima

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Boutte; Benoît Aliaga; Oscar Lima; Julie Ferreira de Carvalho; Abdelkader Ainouche; Jiri Macas; Mathieu Rousseau-Gueutin; Olivier Coriton; Malika Ainouche; Armel Salmon

    2016-01-01

    Gene and whole-genome duplications are widespread in plant nuclear genomes, resulting in sequence heterogeneity. Identification of duplicated genes may be particularly challenging in highly redundant genomes, especially when there are no diploid parents as a reference. Here, we developed a pipeline to detect the different copies in the ribosomal RNA gene family in the hexaploid grass Spartina maritima from next-generation sequencing (Roche-454) reads. The heterogeneity of the different domain...

  10. The first myriapod genome sequence reveals conservative arthropod gene content and genome organisation in the centipede Strigamia maritima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E.K.; Brena, Carlo; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S.T.; Schröder, Reinhard; Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C; Alonso, Claudio R; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C J; Blankenburg, Kerstin P; Brites, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Coyle, Marcus; Dearden, Peter K; Du Pasquier, Louis; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Ebert, Dieter; Eibner, Cornelius; Erikson, Galina; Evans, Peter D; Extavour, Cassandra G; Francisco, Liezl; Gabaldón, Toni; Gillis, William J; Goodwin-Horn, Elizabeth A; Green, Jack E; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis; Gubbala, Sai; Guigó, Roderic; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Havlak, Paul; Hayden, Luke; Helbing, Sophie; Holder, Michael; Hui, Jerome H L; Hunn, Julia P; Hunnekuhl, Vera S; Jackson, LaRonda; Javaid, Mehwish; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Jiggins, Francis M; Jones, Tamsin E; Kaiser, Tobias S; Kalra, Divya; Kenny, Nathan J; Korchina, Viktoriya; Kovar, Christie L; Kraus, F Bernhard; Lapraz, François; Lee, Sandra L; Lv, Jie; Mandapat, Christigale; Manning, Gerard; Mariotti, Marco; Mata, Robert; Mathew, Tittu; Neumann, Tobias; Newsham, Irene; Ngo, Dinh N; Ninova, Maria; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Ongeri, Fiona; Palmer, William J; Patil, Shobha; Patraquim, Pedro; Pham, Christopher; Pu, Ling-Ling; Putman, Nicholas H; Rabouille, Catherine; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Rhodes, Adelaide C; Robertson, Helen E; Robertson, Hugh M; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Rozas, Julio; Saada, Nehad; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Scherer, Steven E; Schurko, Andrew M; Siggens, Kenneth W; Simmons, DeNard; Stief, Anna; Stolle, Eckart; Telford, Maximilian J; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Thornton, Rebecca; van der Zee, Maurijn; von Haeseler, Arndt; Williams, James M; Willis, Judith H; Wu, Yuanqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Lawson, Daniel; Muzny, Donna M; Worley, Kim C; Gibbs, Richard A; Akam, Michael; Richards, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We pres...... various gene expansions and losses occurred. The genome of S. maritima offers us a unique glimpse into the ancestral arthropod genome, while also displaying many adaptations to its specific life history....

  11. Salt-inducible isoform of plasma membrane H+ATPase gene in rice remains constitutively expressed in natural halophyte, Suaeda maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Binod Bihari; Shaw, Birendra Prasad

    2009-07-01

    To look into a possible involvement of plasma membrane H+ATPase (PM-H+ATPase, EC 3.6.3.6) in mitigation of physiological disturbances imposed by salt stress, response of the enzyme was studied in two Oryza sativa Indica cultivars, salt-tolerant Lunishri and non-tolerant Badami, and a natural halophyte Suaeda maritima after challenge of the young plants with NaCl. Significant increase in activity of the enzyme was observed in response to NaCl in all the test plants with S. maritima showing maximum increase. Protein blot analysis, however, did not show any increase in the amount of the enzyme (protein). RNA blot analysis, on the other hand, revealed significant increase in transcript level of the enzyme upon NaCl treatment. In the rice cultivars, salt treatment also induced expression of a new isoform of PM-H+ATPase gene, not reported so far. The induced transcript showed maximum homology to OSA7 (O. sativa PM-H+ATPase isoform 7). Similar transcript message, however, remained constitutively present in S. maritima, along with the transcript of another isoform of PM-H+ATPase showing resemblance to OSA3 (O. sativa PM-H+ATPase isoform 3). The latter was the only PM-H+ATPase isoform expressed in both the rice cultivars not exposed to NaCl. In the salt-treated test plants, both rice and S. maritima, the salt-inducible PM-H+ATPase isoform resembling OSA7 was expressed in much greater amount than that resembling OSA3. Appearance of a new PM-H+ATPase transcript, besides increase in the enzyme activity, indicates the important role of the enzyme in maintaining ion-homeostasis in plants under salt stress, enabling them to survive under saline conditions. PMID:19167778

  12. Isolation, identification and expression analysis of salt-induced genes in Suaeda maritima, a natural halophyte, using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Sahu Binod B; Shaw Birendra P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite wealth of information generated on salt tolerance mechanism, its basics still remain elusive. Thus, there is a need of continued effort to understand the salt tolerance mechanism using suitable biotechnological techniques and test plants (species) to enable development of salt tolerant cultivars of interest. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to generate information on salt stress responsive genes in a natural halophyte, Suaeda maritima, using PCR-based su...

  13. Characterization of two genes encoding metal tolerance proteins from Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima that confers manganese tolerance in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbasol, Isil; Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan

    2013-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient in plants. However increased Mn levels are toxic to plant cells. Metal tolerance proteins (MTPs), member of cation diffusion facilitator protein (CDF) family, have important roles in metal homeostatis in different plant species and catalyse efflux of excess metal ions. In this study, we identified and characterized two MTP genes from Beta vulgaris spp. maritima (B. v. ssp. maritima). Overexpression of these two genes provided Mn tolerance in yeast cells. Sequence analyses displayed BmMTP10 and BmMTP11as members of the Mn-CDF family. Functional analyses of these proteins indicated that they are specific to Mn with a role in reducing excess cellular Mn levels when expressed in yeast. GFP-fusion constructs of both proteins localized to the Golgi apparatus as a punctuated pattern. Finally, Q-RT-PCR results showed that BmMTP10 expression was induced threefold in response to the excess Mn treatment. On the other hand BmMTP11 expression was not affected in response to excess Mn levels. Thus, our results suggest that the BmMTP10 and BmMTP11 proteins from B. v. ssp. maritima have non-redundant functions in terms of Mn detoxification with a similar in planta localization and function as the Arabidopsis Mn-CDF homolog AtMTP11 and this conservation shows the evolutionary importance of these vesicular proteins in heavy metal homeostatis among plant species. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  14. A ocorrência do mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren, Nasutitermitinae, em afloramentos rochosos no Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS The occurrence of facultative mutualism between Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae and the termite Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren, Nasutitermitinae, on rock outcrops in Itapuã State Park, Viamão, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Copstein Waldemar

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A presença de colônias de C. silvestrii é comum nos lajeados existentes em Itapuã. Na estação Morro da Grota1, 92,0 % dos termiteiros situados na rocha exposta e em ilhas de vegetação estão associados a D. maritima. Esta convivência ocorre em 31,2 % das ilhas na qual esta bromélia se faz presente. Nas ilhas, a comparação entre os substratos aonde D. maritima vegeta, o solo litólico húmico existente sob o manto do musgo Campylopus spp. e o substrato constituído pelo cupinzeiro indica que este último possui os teores mais elevados dos nutrientes P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn e Mn, maior CTC e maiores teores de partículas finas, principalmente o silte. O estabelecimento de D. maritima sobre os termiteiros de grande porte aumenta o seu valor de cobertura em ilhas de vegetação quando comparado com ilhas sem termiteiros ou com termiteiros de pequeno porte em áreas entre 2,7 a 8,0 m². Este fato é atribuído à melhoria físico-química do substrato e ao aumento de superfície e volume aptos a serem colonizados pela bromélia e proporciona maior competitividade em relação a outras espécies vegetais. As características apresentadas pela interação entre este cupim e D. maritima, pela primeira vez descrita na literatura, permitem indicar esta relação ecológica como mutualismo facultativo. Inferimos que o conjunto de observações apresentado constitui um modelo temporal de crescimento deste mutualismo, cujas fases inicial e tardia estão descritas neste trabalho.The presence of colonies of C. silvestrii is common, both on the rock surface and at islands of vegetation. At Morro da Grota1 station, 92,0 % of the termite nests on rocky outcrops and at island of vegetation are associated with this bromeliad. These nests are associated with D. maritima, in 31,2 % of the islands where this bromeliad occurs. At these island communities, the comparison between the substrata where D. maritima occurs, the litolic Waldemar & Irgang: Mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii humic soil existing under the mantle of the moss Campylopus spp. and the substratum produced by termites indicates that this possesses higher levels of the nutrients P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Mn, CEC and higher fine particles content, mainly silt. The establishment of D. maritima rosettes on great termite nests increase their value of relative coverage at islands inside areas between 2,7 to 8,0 m². This fact is attributed to the improvement physical-chemistry of the substratum and the increase of surface and volume to be colonized for the Bromeliad. It provides for greater competitiveness at this species in relation to other vegetal species. The features presented for the interaction between this termite and D. maritima, for the first time described in literature, lead to the classification of this ecological relationship as facultative mutualism. The set of observations constitute a temporal model of development of this mutualism at island's vegetation, whose phases, initial and advanced are described.

  15. A ocorrência do mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae) e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren), Nasutitermitinae, em afloramentos rochosos no Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS / The occurrence of facultative mutualism between Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae) and the termite Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren), Nasutitermitinae, on rock outcrops in Itapuã State Park, Viamão, RS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Celso Copstein, Waldemar; Bruno Edgar, Irgang.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A presença de colônias de C. silvestrii é comum nos lajeados existentes em Itapuã. Na estação Morro da Grota1, 92,0 % dos termiteiros situados na rocha exposta e em ilhas de vegetação estão associados a D. maritima. Esta convivência ocorre em 31,2 % das ilhas na qual esta bromélia se faz presente. N [...] as ilhas, a comparação entre os substratos aonde D. maritima vegeta, o solo litólico húmico existente sob o manto do musgo Campylopus spp. e o substrato constituído pelo cupinzeiro indica que este último possui os teores mais elevados dos nutrientes P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn e Mn, maior CTC e maiores teores de partículas finas, principalmente o silte. O estabelecimento de D. maritima sobre os termiteiros de grande porte aumenta o seu valor de cobertura em ilhas de vegetação quando comparado com ilhas sem termiteiros ou com termiteiros de pequeno porte em áreas entre 2,7 a 8,0 m². Este fato é atribuído à melhoria físico-química do substrato e ao aumento de superfície e volume aptos a serem colonizados pela bromélia e proporciona maior competitividade em relação a outras espécies vegetais. As características apresentadas pela interação entre este cupim e D. maritima, pela primeira vez descrita na literatura, permitem indicar esta relação ecológica como mutualismo facultativo. Inferimos que o conjunto de observações apresentado constitui um modelo temporal de crescimento deste mutualismo, cujas fases inicial e tardia estão descritas neste trabalho. Abstract in english The presence of colonies of C. silvestrii is common, both on the rock surface and at islands of vegetation. At Morro da Grota1 station, 92,0 % of the termite nests on rocky outcrops and at island of vegetation are associated with this bromeliad. These nests are associated with D. maritima, in 31,2 % [...] of the islands where this bromeliad occurs. At these island communities, the comparison between the substrata where D. maritima occurs, the litolic Waldemar & Irgang: Mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii humic soil existing under the mantle of the moss Campylopus spp. and the substratum produced by termites indicates that this possesses higher levels of the nutrients P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Mn, CEC and higher fine particles content, mainly silt. The establishment of D. maritima rosettes on great termite nests increase their value of relative coverage at islands inside areas between 2,7 to 8,0 m². This fact is attributed to the improvement physical-chemistry of the substratum and the increase of surface and volume to be colonized for the Bromeliad. It provides for greater competitiveness at this species in relation to other vegetal species. The features presented for the interaction between this termite and D. maritima, for the first time described in literature, lead to the classification of this ecological relationship as facultative mutualism. The set of observations constitute a temporal model of development of this mutualism at island's vegetation, whose phases, initial and advanced are described.

  16. Accuracy of replication in the polymerase chain reaction. Comparison between Thermotoga maritima DNA polymerase and Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.S., Diaz; E.C., Sabino.

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available For certain applications of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), it may be necessary to consider the accuracy of replication. The breakthrough that made PCR user friendly was the commercialization of Thermus aquaticus (Taq) DNA polymerase, an enzyme that would survive the high temperatures needed fo [...] r DNA denaturation. The development of enzymes with an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease proofreading activity, lacking in Taq polymerase, would be an improvement when higher fidelity is needed. We used the forward mutation assay to compare the fidelity of Taq polymerase and Thermotoga maritima (ULTMA™) DNA polymerase, an enzyme that does have proofreading activity. We did not find significant differences in the fidelity of either enzyme, even when using optimal buffer conditions, thermal cycling parameters, and number of cycles (0.2% and 0.13% error rates for ULTMA™ and Taq, respectively, after reading about 3,000 bases each). We conclude that for sequencing purposes there is no difference in using a DNA polymerase that contains an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease activity for DNA amplification. Perhaps the specificity and fidelity of PCR are complex issues influenced by the nature of the target sequence, as well as by each PCR component.

  17. The seasonal dormancy pattern and germination of Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora (L. Dostal seeds in hydrotime model terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bochenek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in hydrotime model parameters were determined in Matricaria maritima L. subsp. inodora seeds during burial in a field in order to describe the seasonal dormancy pattern. Seeds were exhumed at regular intervals over a year and incubated at different water potentials at 19°C. Germination time courses were analyzed to determine hydrotime population parameters. Values of ?b(50, ?H and ??b varied each month. Mean base water potential values in seeds exhumed each month were related to precipitation over 20 days before their exhumation. Soil temperature could be a trend-controlling factor of this relationship. The seeds were in deep dormancy after remaining 80-90 days in soil below or above limit temperature 15°C. The application of the hydrotime model to describe and predict seasonal dormancy patterns of weed seed is promising, especially for species with a considerable diversification of life strategies and ecophysiological flexibility of diaspores. It could also suggest mechanisms of seasonal dormancy changes of seeds in natural conditions and provide a basis for their examination. One of advantages of the dormancy pattern description of weed seeds remaining in a soil bank by means of threshold models is its simplicity.

  18. Transcriptomic profiling of the salt stress response in excised leaves of the halophyte Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupa, Monika; Go??biewski, Marcin; Domagalski, Krzysztof; Kurnik, Katarzyna; Abu Nahia, Karim; Z?och, Micha?; Tretyn, Andrzej; Tyburski, Jaros?aw

    2016-02-01

    Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima is a halophytic relative of cultivated beets. In the present work a transcriptome response to acute salt stress imposed to excised leaves of sea beet was investigated. Salt treatments consisted of adding NaCl directly to the transpiration stream by immersing the petioles of excised leaves into the salt solutions. Sequencing libraries were generated from leaves subjected to either moderate or strong salt stress. Control libraries were constructed from untreated leaves. Sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform. We obtained 32970 unigenes by assembling the pooled reads from all the libraries with Trinity software. Screening the nr database returned 18 362 sequences with functional annotation. Using the reference transcriptome we identified 1 246 genes that were differentially expressed after 48h of NaCl stress. Genes related to several cellular functions such as membrane transport, osmoprotection, molecular chaperoning, redox metabolism or protein synthesis were differentially expressed in response to salt stress. The response of sea beet leaves to salt treatments was marked out by transcriptomic up-regulation of genes related to photosynthetic carbon fixation, ribosome biogenesis, cell wall-building and cell wall expansion. Furthermore, several novel and undescribed transcripts were responsive to salinity in leaves of sea beet. PMID:26795151

  19. Structure of a d-tagatose 3-epimerase-related protein from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of a hyperthermophilic d-tagatose 3-epimerase-related protein with a unique active-site architecture was determined. The crystal structure of a d-tagatose 3-epimerase-related protein (TM0416p) encoded by the hypothetical open reading frame TM0416 in the genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima was determined at a resolution of 2.2 Å. The asymmetric unit contained two homologous subunits and a dimer was generated by twofold symmetry. The main-chain coordinates of the enzyme monomer proved to be similar to those of d-tagatose 3-epimerase from Pseudomonas cichorii and d-psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens; however, TM0416p exhibited a unique solvent-accessible substrate-binding pocket that reflected the absence of an ?-helix that covers the active-site cleft in the two aforementioned ketohexose 3-epimerases. In addition, the residues responsible for creating a hydrophobic environment around the substrate in TM0416p differ entirely from those in the other two enzymes. Collectively, these findings suggest that the substrate specificity of TM0416p is likely to differ substantially from those of other d-tagatose 3-epimerase family enzymes

  20. Accuracy of replication in the polymerase chain reaction. Comparison between Thermotoga maritima DNA polymerase and Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Diaz

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available For certain applications of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR, it may be necessary to consider the accuracy of replication. The breakthrough that made PCR user friendly was the commercialization of Thermus aquaticus (Taq DNA polymerase, an enzyme that would survive the high temperatures needed for DNA denaturation. The development of enzymes with an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease proofreading activity, lacking in Taq polymerase, would be an improvement when higher fidelity is needed. We used the forward mutation assay to compare the fidelity of Taq polymerase and Thermotoga maritima (ULTMA™ DNA polymerase, an enzyme that does have proofreading activity. We did not find significant differences in the fidelity of either enzyme, even when using optimal buffer conditions, thermal cycling parameters, and number of cycles (0.2% and 0.13% error rates for ULTMA™ and Taq, respectively, after reading about 3,000 bases each. We conclude that for sequencing purposes there is no difference in using a DNA polymerase that contains an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease activity for DNA amplification. Perhaps the specificity and fidelity of PCR are complex issues influenced by the nature of the target sequence, as well as by each PCR component.

  1. Ligands of thermophilic ABC transporters encoded in a newly sequenced genomic region of Thermotoga maritima MSB8 screened by differential scanning fluorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Nathalie; Noll, Kenneth M

    2011-09-01

    The chromosome of Thermotoga maritima strain MSB8 was found to have an 8,870-bp region that is not present in its published sequence. The isolate that was sequenced by The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) in 1999 is apparently a laboratory variant of the isolate deposited at the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSM 3109) in 1986. This newly sequenced region from the DSMZ culture was located between TM1848 (cbp, cellobiose phosphorylase) and TM1847 (the 3' end of a truncated ROK regulator). The new region contained seven genes: a beta glucosidase gene (bglA), three trehalose ABC transporter genes (treEFG), three xylose ABC transporter genes (xylE2F2K2), and the 5' end of a gene encoding the ROK regulator TM1847. We present a new differential scanning fluorimetry method using a low pH that was necessary to screen potential ligands of these exceptionally thermostable periplasmic substrate-binding proteins. This method showed that trehalose, sucrose, and glucose stabilized TreE, and their binding was confirmed by measuring changes in intrinsic fluorescence upon ligand binding. Binding constants of 0.024 ?M, 0.300 ?M, and 56.78 ?M at 60°C, respectively, were measured. XylE2 ligands were similarly determined and xylose, glucose, and fucose bound with K(d) (dissociation constant) values of 0.042 ?M, 0.059 ?M, and 1.436 ?M, respectively. Since there is no discernible phenotypic difference between the TIGR isolate and the DSMZ isolate despite the variance in their genomes, we propose that they be called genomovars: T. maritima MSB8 genomovar TIGR and T. maritima MSB8 genomovar DSM 3109, respectively. PMID:21764944

  2. The Effect of Zostera noltii, Spartina maritima and Scirpus maritimus on Sediment Pore-water Profiles in a Temperate Intertidal Estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Lillebø, A.; Flindt, M; Pardal, M.; Marques, J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the effect of plants common in temperate latitudes (Zostera noltii, Spartina maritima and Scirpus maritimus) on sediment nutrient profiles, and to compare it to sand- and mud-flats without vegetation. The study focused on the organic matter contents, the concentration of dissolved inorganic nutrients (PO4–P, NH3–N, NO3–N), an on the estimation of the total amount of these nutrients during day and night conditions and their potential net-fluxes. I...

  3. Ligands of Thermophilic ABC Transporters Encoded in a Newly Sequenced Genomic Region of Thermotoga maritima MSB8 Screened by Differential Scanning Fluorimetry ? †

    OpenAIRE

    Boucher, Nathalie; Noll, Kenneth M

    2011-01-01

    The chromosome of Thermotoga maritima strain MSB8 was found to have an 8,870-bp region that is not present in its published sequence. The isolate that was sequenced by The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) in 1999 is apparently a laboratory variant of the isolate deposited at the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSM 3109) in 1986. This newly sequenced region from the DSMZ culture was located between TM1848 (cbp, cellobiose phosphorylase) and TM1847 (the 3? end of a ...

  4. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima - ancestor of all beet crops - and modern sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChristinZachow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 47.4% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (?45.8% than for sugar beet (?57.5%. Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes.

  5. The structural basis of substrate promiscuity in UDP-hexose 4-epimerase from the hyperthermophilic Eubacterium Thermotoga maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun-Mi; Choi, Jin Myung; di Luccio, Eric; Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Sang-Jae; Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Sung Haeng; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2015-11-01

    UDP-galactose 4-epimerase (GalE) catalyzes the interconversion of UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc) and UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal), which is a pivotal step in the Leloir pathway for d-galactose metabolism. Although GalE is widely distributed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, little information is available regarding hyperthermophilic GalE. We overexpressed the TM0509 gene, encoding a putative GalE from Thermotoga maritima (TMGalE), in Escherichia coli and characterized the encoded protein. To further investigate the molecular basis of this enzyme's catalytic function, we determined the crystal structures of TMGalE and TMGalE bound to UDP-Glc at resolutions of 1.9 Å and 2.0 Å, respectively. The enzyme was determined to be a homodimer with a molecular mass of 70 kDa. The enzyme could reversibly catalyze the epimerization of UDP-GalNAc/UDP-GlcNAc as well as UDP-Gal/UDP-Glc at elevated temperatures, with an apparent optimal temperature and pH of 80 °C and 7.0, respectively. Our data showed that TM0509 is a UDP-galactosugar 4-epimerase involved in d-galactose metabolism; consequently, this study provides the first detailed characterization of a hyperthermophilic GalE. Moreover, the promiscuous substrate specificity of TMGalE, which is more similar to human GalE than E. coli GalE, supports the notion that TMGalE might exhibit the earliest form of sugar-epimerizing enzymes in the evolution of galactose metabolism. PMID:26344854

  6. Characterization of exceptionally thermostable single-stranded DNA-binding proteins from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga neapolitana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickiewicz Małgorzata

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in SSBs because they find numerous applications in diverse molecular biology and analytical methods. Results We report the characterization of single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSBs from the thermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima (TmaSSB and Thermotoga neapolitana (TneSSB. They are the smallest known bacterial SSB proteins, consisting of 141 and 142 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 16.30 and 16.58 kDa, respectively. The similarity between amino acid sequences of these proteins is very high: 90% identity and 95% similarity. Surprisingly, both TmaSSB and TneSSB possess a quite low sequence similarity to Escherichia coli SSB (36 and 35% identity, 55 and 56% similarity, respectively. They are functional as homotetramers containing one single-stranded DNA binding domain (OB-fold in each monomer. Agarose mobility assays indicated that the ssDNA-binding site for both proteins is salt independent, and fluorescence spectroscopy resulted in a size of 68 ± 2 nucleotides. The half-lives of TmaSSB and TneSSB were 10 h and 12 h at 100°C, respectively. When analysed by differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSC the melting temperature (Tm was 109.3°C and 112.5°C for TmaSSB and TneSSB, respectively. Conclusion The results showed that TmaSSB and TneSSB are the most thermostable SSB proteins identified to date, offering an attractive alternative to TaqSSB and TthSSB in molecular biology applications, especially with using high temperature e. g. polymerase chain reaction (PCR.

  7. Influência da luz sobre o crescimento e a produção de biomassa de Ruppia maritima L. em cultivo experimental Influence of light regimes on growth and biomass production of Ruppia maritima L. under controlled culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioni Gonçalves Colares

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de diferentes regimes de luz sobre o crescimento de Ruppia marítima foi avaliado nos níveis de irradiância de 40, 200 e 400 µmol m-2 s¹, durante 40 dias. A longevidade de novas folhas produzidas foi determinada e a formação de folhas, raízes e "ramets" registrada diariamente. As respostas de crescimento de R. maritima variaram em função dos níveis de irradiância, durante as condições de cultivo experimental, com as plantas apresentando diferentes estratégias de adaptação aos diferentes regimes de luz testados. Em irradiância de 40 µmol m-2 s-1, a longevidade (57,7 ± 2,7 dias e o comprimento final das folhas (11,5 ± 0,3cm foram maiores, embora a biomassa aérea e a taxa de crescimento específico das folhas tenham sido menores. Maiores irradiâncias levaram à maior produção de folhas, raízes, "ramets" e ramificações. Os resultados obtidos mostram que R. maritima apresenta melhor crescimento em ambientes com maiores intensidades luminosas e possui capacidade de ajustar suas características demográficas e respostas de crescimento a diferentes condições de luminosidade do ambiente.The effect of different light regimes on growth of plants of Ruppia maritima plants was assessed at irradiance levels of 40, 200 and 400 µmol m² s¹ , for 40 days. The longevity of newborn leaves was determined and the formation of leaves, roots and ramets was recorded daily. The growth response of R. maritima varied as a function of irradiance levels during experimental culture conditions, and plants showed different strategies of adapting to the different light regimes tested. At irradiance of 40 µmol m-2 s-1, longevity (57.7 ± 2.7 days and final leaf length (11.5 ± 0.3cm were greater, but aerial biomass and specific growth rate of the leaves were lower. Higher levels of irradiance caused higher production of leaves, roots, ramets and ramifications. The results showed that R. maritima grows better at higher light intensities, and can adjust demographic characteristics and growth to different light conditions in the environment.

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the putative ABC transporter ATP-binding protein from Thermotoga maritima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The putative ABC transporter ATP-binding protein TM0222 from T. maritima was cloned, overproduced, purified and crystallized. A complete MAD diffraction data set has been collected to 2.3 Å resolution. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are ATP hydrolysis-dependent transmembrane transporters. Here, the overproduction, purification and crystallization of the putative ABC transporter ATP-binding protein TM0222 from Thermotoga maritima are reported. The protein was crystallized in the hexagonal space group P6422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 148.49, c = 106.96 Å, ? = 120.0°. Assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the calculated VM is 2.84 Å3 Da?1, which corresponds to a solvent content of 56.6%. A three-wavelength MAD data set was collected to 2.3 Å resolution from SeMet-substituted TM0222 crystals. Data sets were collected on the BL38B1 beamline at SPring-8, Japan

  9. Fungal decontamination and enhancement of shelf life of edible split beans of wild legume Canavalia maritima by the electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, P.; Sridhar, K. R.; Ganesh, S.

    2014-03-01

    Ripened split beans of the coastal sand dune wild legume Canavalia maritima serve as one of the traditional nutritional sources of the coastal dwellers in Southwest coast of India. Nine fungi were isolated from the unirradiated dry beans by plating on the potato dextrose agar medium. Toxigenic fungus Aspergillus niger showed the highest incidence (33-50%) followed by Aspergillus flavus (14-20%) and Penicillium chrysogenum (7-13%). Unirradiated dry beans and irradiated dry beans with electron beam doses 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 kGy were monitored for occurrence of fungal species and their incidence during 0, 3 and 6 months storage period under laboratory conditions. Irradiation resulted in dose-dependent decrease in fungal species (5-7, 4-6, 3-6 and 0 on irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 or 15 kGy, respectively) as well as incidence (80-99, 19-46, 13-21 and 0%, respectively). Although aflatoxins (B1 and B2) were found below detectable level (Aspergillus ochraceus in unirradiated and irradiated beans (2.5 and 5 kGy) stored for 3 and 6 months, the beans were devoid of ochratoxin-A. Electron beam irradiation dose 10 kGy could be recommended for fungal decontamination and improvement of shelf life of C. maritima ripened dry split beans.

  10. Salt tolerance in the halophyte Suaeda maritima L. Dum. : The maintenance of turgor pressure and water-potential gradients in plants growing at different salinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clipson, N J; Tomos, A D; Flowers, T J; Jones, R G

    1985-08-01

    Osmotic potentials and individual epidermal cell turgor pressures were measured in the leaves of seedlings of Suaeda maritima growing over a range of salinities. Leaf osmotic potentials were lower (more negative) the higher the salt concentration of the solution and were lowest in the youngest leaves and stem apices, producing a gradient of osmotic potential towards the apex of the plant. Epidermal cell turgor pressures were of the order of 0.25 to 0.3 MPa in the youngest leaves measured, decreasing to under 0.05 MPa for the oldest leaves. This pattern of turgor pressure was largely unaffected by external salinity. Calculation of leaf water potential indicated that the gradient between young leaves and the external medium was not altered by salinity, but with older leaves, however, this gradient diminished from being the same as that for young leaves in the absence of NaCl, to under 30% of this value at 400 mM NaCl. These results are discussed in relation to the growth response of S. maritima. PMID:24241145

  11. Genetic structure of coastal and inland populations of the annual halophyte Suaeda maritima (L.) dumort. in Central Europe, inferred from amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, K; Weising, K; Hensen, I

    2009-11-01

    Naturally occurring inland salt habitats are highly threatened due to increasing fragmentation and area reduction, while the surroundings of former potash mining dumps have experienced a massive invasion by halophytes over the last 20 years. We reconstructed colonisation patterns of these purely anthropogenic inland salt sites using molecular markers in the obligate halophyte Suaeda maritima (L.) dumort. (Chenopodiaceae), a typical plant in such areas. In the present study, 120 individual plants from 40 coastal and inland populations in Central Europe were subjected to AFLP analysis with nine primer combinations. A total of 243 AFLP band positions were scored as presence/absence characters. Genetic diversity values were not significantly different in populations from natural and anthropogenic inland salt sites as compared to coastal habitats. Results from principal coordinate analysis, neighbour-joining analysis and analysis of molecular variance (amova) all indicated that most of the genetic variation is preserved within populations, while genetic differentiation among populations is comparatively low. We conclude that S. maritima has repeatedly and independently colonised the surroundings of former potash mining dumps in Central Germany. However, the absence of founder effects and the lack of phylogeographic structure prevented us from identifying putative donor populations. PMID:19796358

  12. Interaction indole-3-acetic acid IAA with lectin Canavalia maritima seeds reveal new function of lectins in plant physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Filho, J.C.; Santi-Gadelha, T.; Gadelha, C.A.A.; Delatorre, P. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Teixeira, C.S.; Rocha, B.A.M.; Nobrega, R.B.; Alencar, K.L.L.; Cavada, B.S. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Lectins are a class of proteins of non-immune origin characterized by its capability in interacts specifically and reversibly to mono and oligosaccharides. In plant several possible roles have been suggested including their function in seed maturation, cell wall assembly, defense mechanisms, or rhizobial nodulation of legume roots. Nearly all application and proposed of the plant lectins are based on their specific carbohydrate binding. However, it has been reported that lectins from legumes, might interact with other molecules, such as non proteic amino acids and hydrophobic compounds. This study show the first the crystal structure based on molecular replacement of the Canavalia maritima (CML) complexed with IAA correlated with possible role in plant development. Purified CML was dissolved in 20 mMTrisHCl pH 7.6 containing 5 mM IAA, the suitable co-crystals from CML-IAA complex grew in condition 4 of screen I (0.1 M TrisHCl pH 8.5 and 2.0 M ammonium sulfate). This crystal belong to the orthorhombic space group I222 with unit-cell parameters a = 67.1 ; b = 70.7 , c = 97.7 , The structure was refined at 2.1 of resolution to a final R factor of 20.63 % and an R free of 22.54 %. To check the relative position of the IAA molecule in relation to the biological assemble of the CML, the tetrameric structure was generate by crystallographic symmetry. IAA molecules are positioned in the central cavity. The IAA is stabilized by interacting through hydrogen bounds and Van der Waals forces with the amino acids residues Ser 108 and Asn131, and two water molecules. The hydrophilic interactions occur between IAA and side chains of Ser 108, Asn131 and water molecules 26 and 31 by H-bonds. The OG oxygen from Ser108 display H-bonds with O2 and O3 oxygen atoms from IAA, 3.1 and 2.8 respectively. The tetrameric structure of CML complexed with IAA revels which this protein can act during the seedling in plant development. (author)

  13. Interaction indole-3-acetic acid IAA with lectin Canavalia maritima seeds reveal new function of lectins in plant physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lectins are a class of proteins of non-immune origin characterized by its capability in interacts specifically and reversibly to mono and oligosaccharides. In plant several possible roles have been suggested including their function in seed maturation, cell wall assembly, defense mechanisms, or rhizobial nodulation of legume roots. Nearly all application and proposed of the plant lectins are based on their specific carbohydrate binding. However, it has been reported that lectins from legumes, might interact with other molecules, such as non proteic amino acids and hydrophobic compounds. This study show the first the crystal structure based on molecular replacement of the Canavalia maritima (CML) complexed with IAA correlated with possible role in plant development. Purified CML was dissolved in 20 mMTrisHCl pH 7.6 containing 5 mM IAA, the suitable co-crystals from CML-IAA complex grew in condition 4 of screen I (0.1 M TrisHCl pH 8.5 and 2.0 M ammonium sulfate). This crystal belong to the orthorhombic space group I222 with unit-cell parameters a = 67.1 ; b = 70.7 , c = 97.7 , The structure was refined at 2.1 of resolution to a final R factor of 20.63 % and an R free of 22.54 %. To check the relative position of the IAA molecule in relation to the biological assemble of the CML, the tetrameric structure was generate by crystallographic symmetry. IAA molecules are positioned in the central cavity. The IAA is stabilized by interacting through hydrogen bounds and Van der Waals forces with the amino acids residues Ser 108 and Asn131, and two water molecules. The hydrophilic interactions occur between IAA and side chains of Ser 108, Asn131 and water molecules 26 and 31 by H-bonds. The OG oxygen from Ser108 display H-bonds with O2 and O3 oxygen atoms from IAA, 3.1 and 2.8 respectively. The tetrameric structure of CML complexed with IAA revels which this protein can act during the seedling in plant development. (author)

  14. Isolation, identification and expression analysis of salt-induced genes in Suaeda maritima, a natural halophyte, using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahu Binod B

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite wealth of information generated on salt tolerance mechanism, its basics still remain elusive. Thus, there is a need of continued effort to understand the salt tolerance mechanism using suitable biotechnological techniques and test plants (species to enable development of salt tolerant cultivars of interest. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to generate information on salt stress responsive genes in a natural halophyte, Suaeda maritima, using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization (PCR-SSH technique. Results Forward and reverse SSH cDNA libraries were constructed after exposing the young plants to 425 mM NaCl for 24 h. From the forward SSH cDNA library, 429 high quality ESTs were obtained. BLASTX search and TIGR assembler programme revealed overexpression of 167 unigenes comprising 89 singletons and 78 contigs with ESTs redundancy of 81.8%. Among the unigenes, 32.5% were found to be of special interest, indicating novel function of these genes with regard to salt tolerance. Literature search for the known unigenes revealed that only 17 of them were salt-inducible. A comparative analysis of the existing SSH cDNA libraries for NaCl stress in plants showed that only a few overexpressing unigenes were common in them. Moreover, the present study also showed increased expression of phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene, indicating the possible accumulation of a much studied osmoticum, glycinebetaine, in halophyte under salt stress. Functional categorization of the proteins as per the Munich database in general revealed that salt tolerance could be largely determined by the proteins involved in transcription, signal transduction, protein activity regulation and cell differentiation and organogenesis. Conclusion The study provided a clear indication of possible vital role of glycinebetaine in the salt tolerance process in S. maritima. However, the salt-induced expression of a large number of genes involved in a wide range of cellular functions was indicative of highly complex nature of the process as such. Most of the salt inducible genes, nonetheless, appeared to be species-specific. In light of the observations made, it is reasonable to emphasize that a comparative analysis of ESTs from SSH cDNA libraries generated systematically for a few halophytes with varying salt exposure time may clearly identify the key salt tolerance determinant genes to a minimum number, highly desirable for any genetic manipulation adventure.

  15. Fungal decontamination and enhancement of shelf life of edible split beans of wild legume Canavalia maritima by the electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripened split beans of the coastal sand dune wild legume Canavalia maritima serve as one of the traditional nutritional sources of the coastal dwellers in Southwest coast of India. Nine fungi were isolated from the unirradiated dry beans by plating on the potato dextrose agar medium. Toxigenic fungus Aspergillus niger showed the highest incidence (33–50%) followed by Aspergillus flavus (14–20%) and Penicillium chrysogenum (7–13%). Unirradiated dry beans and irradiated dry beans with electron beam doses 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 kGy were monitored for occurrence of fungal species and their incidence during 0, 3 and 6 months storage period under laboratory conditions. Irradiation resulted in dose-dependent decrease in fungal species (5–7, 4–6, 3–6 and 0 on irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 or 15 kGy, respectively) as well as incidence (80–99, 19–46, 13–21 and 0%, respectively). Although aflatoxins (B1 and B2) were found below detectable level (1 and B2). • Irradiated split beans (10 kGy) showed improved shelf life up to six months without deterioration under normal laboratory conditions

  16. Structural analysis of Canavalia maritima and Canavalia gladiata lectins complexed with different dimannosides: new insights into the understanding of the structure-biological activity relationship in legume lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Gustavo Arruda; Oliveira, Taianá Maia; Moreno, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista; de Souza, Emmanuel Prata; da Rocha, Bruno Anderson Matias; Benevides, Raquel Guimarães; Delatorre, Plínio; de Azevedo, Walter Filgueira; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2007-11-01

    Plant lectins, especially those purified from species of the Leguminosae family, represent the best studied group of carbohydrate-binding proteins. The legume lectins from Diocleinae subtribe are highly similar proteins that present significant differences in the potency/efficacy of their biological activities. The structural studies of the interactions between lectins and sugars may clarify the origin of the distinct biological activities observed in this high similar class of proteins. In this way, this work presents a crystallographic study of the ConM and CGL (agglutinins from Canavalia maritima and Canavalia gladiata, respectively) in the following complexes: ConM/CGL:Man(alpha1-2)Man(alpha1-O)Me, ConM/CGL:Man(alpha1-3)Man(alpha1-O)Me and ConM/CGL:Man(alpha1-4)Man(alpha1-O)Me, which crystallized in different conditions and space group from the native proteins. The structures were solved by molecular replacement, presenting satisfactory values for R(factor) and R(free). Comparisons between ConM, CGL and ConA (Canavalia ensiformis lectin) binding mode with the dimannosides in subject, presented different interactions patterns, which may account for a structural explanation of the distincts biological properties observed in the lectins of Diocleinae subtribe. PMID:17881248

  17. Protein Electrophoresis and DNA in Herbs Produced from Irradiated Ambrosia maritima Seeds Grown under Soil Salinity and Their Resistance to Insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Damsisa (Ambrosia maritima L. is one of the wild plants present in Egypt and different African countries of the Nile Valley. It considered as potential source of molluscicides for treatment of infected sites. In this study, DNA amplifications technique and protein electrophoresis were used for the evaluation of response of Damsisa herbs to gamma rays (?-rays, soil salinity and their interaction on alleviation of salt stress. This study also examined the effect of herb as bio-resistant for insect infestation in Phaseolus beans. Protein electrophoresis revealed that the number of protein bands separated from plants grown in saline soil not changed either grown from irradiated or un-irradiated seeds except 40 Gray (Gy dose. Meanwhile, it was observed that mixing Damsisa herb with infested Phaseolus beans reduced insect ability to lays eggs or complete life cycle. Also, it was found that herbs produced from irradiated seeds and grown in normal or in saline soil were more effective in destruction of Callosobruchus maculatus insect and decreased the loss from infested beans.

  18. Some Active Ingredients, Total Protein and Amino Acids in Plants Produced from Irradiated Ambrosia maritima Seeds Growing under Different Soil Salinity Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Ghalab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology during two successive seasons, of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009, respectively in pots 30 cm in diameter. The aim of this experiment was to study the response of damsisa (Ambrosia maritima L. seeds that exposed to different doses of radiation (0, 20, 40, 80 Gy after planting in soils contain mixtures of salts. The dose rate was 0.89 and 0.87 rad sec-1. The salts used were NaCl, CaCl2 and MgSO4 in ratio 2:2:1 with concentrations 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm. Irradiated and un- irradiated seeds were sown in, sand-loamy, soil with mixture of salts. Also, a group of irradiated and un-irradiated seeds were sown in normal soils without salt and serve as a control, all pots irrigated with tap water until field capacity. It was observed that saline condition decreased ambrosin, protein and amino acids trend, in damsisa shoots. While, the results obtained refer to increasing proline concentration separated as a result of uses ?-rays and salinity treatments. The extreme sensitivity of the metabolic processes of proline synthesis and degradation themselves may be of benefit by regulating metabolic processes which adversely affected by stress. So, it was concluded that ?-rays improve plant growth and increase its chemical components under saline stress condition.

  19. [Comparison of glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase activities in the roots and aerial organs of an obligate halophyte: Suaeda maritima var. macrocarpa and a glycophyte: Phaseolus vulgaris, grown in presence of different concentration of NaCl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucand, J; Billard, J P

    1979-10-01

    The glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase activities of an obligate halophyte, Suaeda maritima var. macrocarpa and a glycophyte. Phaseolus vulgaris are compared in function of salinity (increasing concentrations of NaCl) of the culturing solution. In culture, addition of NaCl stimulates glutamine synthetase activity and lowers glutamine dehydrogenase activity in the aerial organs and in the roots of Suaeda as opposed to what is observed in the glycophyte. Hence the obligatory halophily of Suaeda is related to an increase of the glutamine synthetase activity in a sal-trich medium corresponding to the stimulation of nitrate reductase and proteogenesis. PMID:42495

  20. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima—ancestor of all beet crops—and modern sugar beets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (?45.8%) than for sugar beet (?57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes. PMID:25206350

  1. Effect of dietary supplementation with Suaeda maritima on blood physiology, innate immune response, and disease resistance in olive flounder against Miamiensis avidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Ju-Sang; Kim, Man-Chul; Dharaneedharan, Subramanian; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Hong, Seung-Hyun; Song, Chang-Young; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-06-01

    The effect of Suaeda maritima enriched diet on blood physiology, innate immune response, and disease resistance in olive flounder Paralichythys olivaceus against Miamiensis avidus on weeks 1, 2, and 4 was investigated. Feeding with any enriched diet and then challenging with M. avidus significantly increased white blood cells (WBC) on weeks 2 and 4; the red blood cells (RBC) significantly increased with 0.1% and 1.0% enriched diets on week 4. The hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) levels significantly increased when fed with 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diets on weeks 2 and 4. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) did not significantly vary with any diet and time; however the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) significantly increased with 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diets on weeks 2 and 4. The leukocytes such as lymphocytes (Lym), monocytes (Mon), neutrophils (Neu) and biochemical parameters such as total protein (TP), glucose (GLU), and calcium (CAL) levels significantly increased in 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diet fed groups on weeks 2 and 4. The serum lysozyme activity was significantly enhanced in 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diet fed groups from weeks 1 to 4 when compared to the control (0% herbal extract enriched diet). The scuticocidal activity and respiratory burst activity were significantly enhanced when fish were fed with 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diets from weeks 2 and 4. The protective effect in terms of cumulative mortality (50% and 40%) was low in groups on being fed with 0.1% and 1.0% supplemented diet. Therefore the present study suggested that 0.1% and 1.0% S. maritime-supplemented diets protect the hematological and biochemical parameters, improving the innate immunity, affording protection disease from M. avidus infection in olive flounder. PMID:22490817

  2. Post-translational Modification of Ribosomal Proteins: Structural and Functional Characterization of RimO from Thermotoga maritima, a Radical S-adenosylmethionine methylthiotransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arragain, S.; Latour, J; Forouhar, F; Neely, H; Montelione, G; Hunt, J; Mulliez, E; Fontecave, M; Atta, M; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of ribosomal proteins are important for the accuracy of the decoding machinery. A recent in vivo study has shown that the rimO gene is involved in generation of the 3-methylthio derivative of residue Asp-89 in ribosomal protein S12 (Anton, B. P., Saleh, L., Benner, J. S., Raleigh, E. A., Kasif, S., and Roberts, R. J. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105, 1826-1831). This reaction is formally identical to that catalyzed by MiaB on the C2 of adenosine 37 near the anticodon of several tRNAs. We present spectroscopic evidence that Thermotoga maritima RimO, like MiaB, contains two [4Fe-4S] centers, one presumably bound to three invariant cysteines in the central radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) domain and the other to three invariant cysteines in the N-terminal UPF0004 domain. We demonstrate that holo-RimO can specifically methylthiolate the aspartate residue of a 20-mer peptide derived from S12, yielding a mixture of mono- and bismethylthio derivatives. Finally, we present the 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the central radical AdoMet and the C-terminal TRAM (tRNA methyltransferase 2 and MiaB) domains in apo-RimO. Although the core of the open triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel of the radical AdoMet domain was conserved, RimO showed differences in domain organization compared with other radical AdoMet enzymes. The unusually acidic TRAM domain, likely to bind the basic S12 protein, is located at the distal edge of the radical AdoMet domain. The basic S12 protein substrate is likely to bind RimO through interactions with both the TRAM domain and the concave surface of the incomplete TIM barrel. These biophysical results provide a foundation for understanding the mechanism of methylthioation by radical AdoMet enzymes in the MiaB/RimO family.

  3. Post-translational Modification of Ribosomal Proteins - Structural and Functional Characterization of RimO from Thermotoga Maritima, A Radiacal S-Adenosylmethionine Methylthiotransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arragain, S.; Garcia-Serres, R; Blondin, G; Douki, T; Clemancey, M; Latour, J; Forouhar, F; Neely, H; Montelione, G; et. al.

    2010-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of ribosomal proteins are important for the accuracy of the decoding machinery. A recent in vivo study has shown that the rimO gene is involved in generation of the 3-methylthio derivative of residue Asp-89 in ribosomal protein S12 (Anton, B. P., Saleh, L., Benner, J. S., Raleigh, E. A., Kasif, S., and Roberts, R. J. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105, 1826-1831). This reaction is formally identical to that catalyzed by MiaB on the C2 of adenosine 37 near the anticodon of several tRNAs. We present spectroscopic evidence that Thermotoga maritima RimO, like MiaB, contains two [4Fe-4S] centers, one presumably bound to three invariant cysteines in the central radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) domain and the other to three invariant cysteines in the N-terminal UPF0004 domain. We demonstrate that holo-RimO can specifically methylthiolate the aspartate residue of a 20-mer peptide derived from S12, yielding a mixture of mono- and bismethylthio derivatives. Finally, we present the 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the central radical AdoMet and the C-terminal TRAM (tRNA methyltransferase 2 and MiaB) domains in apo-RimO. Although the core of the open triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel of the radical AdoMet domain was conserved, RimO showed differences in domain organization compared with other radical AdoMet enzymes. The unusually acidic TRAM domain, likely to bind the basic S12 protein, is located at the distal edge of the radical AdoMet domain. The basic S12 protein substrate is likely to bind RimO through interactions with both the TRAM domain and the concave surface of the incomplete TIM barrel. These biophysical results provide a foundation for understanding the mechanism of methylthioation by radical AdoMet enzymes in the MiaB/RimO family.

  4. A loose domain swapping organization confers a remarkable stability to the dimeric structure of the arginine binding protein from Thermotoga maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Alessia; Dattelbaum, Jonathan D; Staiano, Maria; Berisio, Rita; D'Auria, Sabato; Vitagliano, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The arginine binding protein from Thermatoga maritima (TmArgBP), a substrate binding protein (SBP) involved in the ABC system of solute transport, presents a number of remarkable properties. These include an extraordinary stability to temperature and chemical denaturants and the tendency to form multimeric structures, an uncommon feature among SBPs involved in solute transport. Here we report a biophysical and structural characterization of the TmArgBP dimer. Our data indicate that the dimer of the protein is endowed with a remarkable stability since its full dissociation requires high temperature as well as SDS and urea at high concentrations. In order to elucidate the atomic level structural properties of this intriguing protein, we determined the crystallographic structures of the apo and the arginine-bound forms of TmArgBP using MAD and SAD methods, respectively. The comparison of the liganded and unliganded models demonstrates that TmArgBP tertiary structure undergoes a very large structural re-organization upon arginine binding. This transition follows the Venus Fly-trap mechanism, although the entity of the re-organization observed in TmArgBP is larger than that observed in homologous proteins. Intriguingly, TmArgBP dimerizes through the swapping of the C-terminal helix. This dimer is stabilized exclusively by the interactions established by the swapping helix. Therefore, the TmArgBP dimer combines a high level of stability and conformational freedom. The structure of the TmArgBP dimer represents an uncommon example of large tertiary structure variations amplified at quaternary structure level by domain swapping. Although the biological relevance of the dimer needs further assessments, molecular modelling suggests that the two TmArgBP subunits may simultaneously interact with two distinct ABC transporters. Moreover, the present protein structures provide some clues about the determinants of the extraordinary stability of the biomolecule. The availability of an accurate 3D model represents a powerful tool for the design of new TmArgBP suited for biotechnological applications. PMID:24832102

  5. The influence of changes in the degree and frequency of disturbance on the annual salt marsh plant (Suaeda maritima, Artemisia scoparia) communities in estuarine tidal flats: A case study of the Kushida River in Mie Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Korehisa Kaneko; Seiich Nohara

    2014-01-01

    s?1 and 1500 m3?s?1, the establishment of the Suaeda maritima and Artemisia scoparia communities is delayed until sufficient substrate is formed by the deposition of new sediment. In contrast, a water level of 2 - 3 m was observed on one day each in 2005, 2007 and 2009, with average water volumes of 488.5, 566.4 and 690.1 m3?s?1 over the bare ground exposed after flooding and erosi

  6. Positive implicative ordered filters of implicative semigroups

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung Ho Kim; Young Bae Jun

    2000-01-01

    We introduce the notion of positive implicative ordered filters in implicative semigroups. We show that every positive implicative ordered filter is both an ordered filter and an implicative ordered filter. We give examples that an ordered filter (an implicative ordered filter) may not be a positive implicative ordered filter. We also give equivalent conditions of positive implicative ordered filters. Finally we establish the extension property for positive implicative ordered filters.

  7. Isomorphic Implication

    OpenAIRE

    Bauland, Michael; Hemaspaandra, Edith

    2004-01-01

    We study the isomorphic implication problem for Boolean constraints. We show that this is a natural analog of the subgraph isomorphism problem. We prove that, depending on the set of constraints, this problem is in P, NP-complete, or NP-hard, coNP-hard, and in parallel access to NP. We show how to extend the NP-hardness and coNP-hardness to hardness for parallel access to NP for some cases, and conjecture that this can be done in all cases.

  8. Modos de vida maritima en Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højrup, Thomas; Schriewer, Klaus

    Analyse og syntese af de biologiske livsformers betydning som mulighedsbetingelse for de anvendte teknologier og fangstmåders betydning som mulighedsbetingelse for de to produktionsmåders sameksistens i euroæisk fiskeri i 500 år og deres betydning som mulighedsbetingelser for de sameksisterende k...

  9. The halophyte Cakile maritima reduces phenanthrene phytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Shiri, Moez; Rabhi, Mokded; El Amrani, Abdelhak; Abdelly, Chedly

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that the halophyte plant model Thellungiella salsuginea was more tolerant to phenanthrene (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon: PAH) than its relative glycophyte Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present work, we investigated the potential of another halophyte with higher biomass production, Cakile maritma, to reduce phenanthrene phytotoxicity. Sand was used instead of arable soil with the aim to avoid pollutant degradation by microorganisms or their interaction with the...

  10. Implications and Fuzzy Logic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, C.

    Buenos Aires : Instituto Argentino de Matemática, 2008. s. 39-41. [International Conference on Residuated Structures: Algebra and Logic. 16.04.2008-19.04.2008, Buenos Aires ] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA100300503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : fuzzy logic * abstract algebraic logic * weakly implicative logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  11. Manpower Implications of Mechanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, B. F.

    The fruit and vegetable industry is on the road to total mechanization. The scientific and social communities need to collaborate as technological innovations influence manpower development and utilization. An awareness of the implications of technological advancement and manpower problems is required so that the U. S. fruit and vegetable grower…

  12. Logic, Algebra and Implication.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles

    Rio de Janeiro : ECEME - Escola de Comando e Estado-Maior do Exército, 2013 - (Béziau, J.; Buchsbaum, A.; Costa-Leite, A.; Altair, A.). s. 34-35 [UniLog 2013. World Congress and School on Universal Logic /4./. 29.03.2013-07.04.2013, Rio de Janeiro] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * consequence relations * weakly implicative logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  13. Primal implication as encryption

    OpenAIRE

    Krupski, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    We propose a "cryptographic" interpretation for the propositional connectives of primal infon logic introduced by Y. Gurevich and I. Neeman and prove the corresponding soundness and completeness results. Primal implication $\\imp{\\varphi}{\\psi}$ corresponds to the encryption of $\\psi$ with a secret key $\\varphi$, primal disjunction $\\vp{\\varphi}{\\psi}$ is a group key and $\\bot$ reflects some backdoor constructions such as full superuser permissions or a universal decryption k...

  14. Implications of recent MINER$\

    CERN Document Server

    Wolcott, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Among the most important tasks of neutrino oscillation experiments is correctly estimating the parent neutrino energy from the by-products of their interactions. Large uncertainties in our current understanding of such processes can significantly hamper this effort. We explore several recent measurements made using the \\mnv{} detector in the few-GeV NuMI muon neutrino beam at Fermilab: the differential cross-section vs. $Q^2$ for charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, the differential cross-sections vs. pion angle and pion kinetic energy for resonant single charged pion production, and the differential cross-sections vs. pion angle and kinetic energy for coherent pion production. We furthermore discuss their implications for energy reconstruction in oscillation measurements.

  15. Parameterized prime implicant/implicate computations for regular logics

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, Anavi; Murray, Neil V.

    1997-01-01

    Prime implicant/implicate generating algorithms for multiple-valued logics (MVL's) are introduced. Techniques from classical logic not requiring large normal forms or truth tables are adapted to certain "regular'' multiple-valued logics. This is accomplished by means of signed formulas, a meta-logic for multiple valued logics; the formulas are normalized in a way analogous to negation normal form. The logic of signed formulas is classical in nature. The presented method is bas...

  16. Glycemic variability: Clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi Venkata Satya Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycemic control and its benefits in preventing microvascular diabetic complications are convincingly proved by various prospective trials. Diabetes control and complications trial (DCCT had reported variable glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C as a cause of increased microvascular complications in conventional glycemic control group versus intensive one. However, in spite of several indirect evidences, its link with cardiovascular events or macrovascular complications is still not proved. Glycemic variability (GV is one more tool to explain relation between hyperglycemia and increased cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. In fact GV along with fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, HbA1C, and quality of life has been proposed to form glycemic pentad, which needs to be considered in diabetes management. Postprandial spikes in blood glucose as well as hypoglycemic events, both are blamed for increased cardiovascular events in Type 2 diabetics. GV includes both these events and hence minimizing GV can prevent future cardiovascular events. Modern diabetes management modalities including improved sulfonylureas, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1-based therapy, newer basal insulins, and modern insulin pumps address the issue of GV effectively. This article highlights mechanism, clinical implications, and measures to control GV in clinical practice.

  17. Neutrino Experiments and Their Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Balantekin, A. B

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in solar, reactor, and accelerator neutrino physics are reviewed. Implications for neutrino physics, solar physics, nuclear two-body physics, and r-process nucleosynthesis are briefly discussed.

  18. The privacy implications of Bluetooth

    OpenAIRE

    Kostakos, Vassilis

    2008-01-01

    A substantial amount of research, as well as media hype, has surrounded RFID technology and its privacy implications. Currently, researchers and the media focus on the privacy threats posed by RFID, while consumer groups choose to boycott products bearing RFID tags. At the same, however, a very similar technology has quietly become part of our everyday lives: Bluetooth. In this paper we highlight the fact that Bluetooth is a widespread technology that has real privacy implic...

  19. Mind, Matter and the Implicate Order The Implicate Order Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Pylkkänen, Paavo T I

    2007-01-01

    Proposes that Bohm's alternative interpretation of quantum theory resolves the paradoxes such as Schrodinger's cat, and the EPR paradox. This work uses Bohm's concepts of "implicate order", "active information" and "soma-significance" as tools to tackle several well-known problems in the philosophy of mind.

  20. Policy Implications of Education Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jo Ann; O'Brien, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: This concluding article identifies the policy implications of education informatics and explores impacts of current copyright laws, legislative structures, publishing practices, and education organizations. Synthesizing the discussions in the preceding articles, this article highlights the importance of designing information…

  1. A Bayesian Model for Discovering Typological Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Daumé, Hal

    2009-01-01

    A standard form of analysis for linguistic typology is the universal implication. These implications state facts about the range of extant languages, such as ``if objects come after verbs, then adjectives come after nouns.'' Such implications are typically discovered by painstaking hand analysis over a small sample of languages. We propose a computational model for assisting at this process. Our model is able to discover both well-known implications as well as some novel implications that deserve further study. Moreover, through a careful application of hierarchical analysis, we are able to cope with the well-known sampling problem: languages are not independent.

  2. Cosmological implications of Heisenberg's principle

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalo, Julio A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this book is to analyze the all important implications of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle for a finite universe with very large mass-energy content such as ours. The earlier and main contributors to the formulation of Quantum Mechanics are briefly reviewed regarding the formulation of Heisenberg's Principle. After discussing “indeterminacy” versus ”uncertainty”, the universal constants of physics are reviewed and Planck's units are given. Next, a novel set of units, Heisenberg–Lemaitre units, are defined in terms of the large finite mass of the universe. With the help of Heisenberg's principle, the time evolution of the finite zero-point energy for the universe is investigated quantitatively. Next, taking advantage of the rigorous solutions of Einstein's cosmological equation for a flat, open and mixed universe of finite mass, the most recent and accurate data on the “age” (to) and the expansion rate (Ho) of the universe and their implications are reconsidered.

  3. Implications of a superlight gravitino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A superlight gravitino of mass ? MW2MPl-1 has been predicted in certain no-scale theories. Astrophysical, laboratory as well as theoretical implications of such a gravitino are explored. Most important among them is the consequence that spontaneously broken supergravity becomes a strongly coupled system at the TeV scale a evidenced by a breakdown of tree-level unitarity. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  4. Weakly Implicative Predicate Fuzzy Logics.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr

    Ostrava : University of Ostrava, 2005 - (Novák, V.; Št?pni?ka, M.). s. 25-28 [The Logic of Soft Computing /4./, Workshop of the ERCIM Working Group on Soft Computing. 05.10.2005-07.10.2005, Ostrava] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA100300503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : weakly implicative logic * fuzzy logic * predicate logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  5. The Implications of Financial Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Nevalainen, Riku

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This thesis aims to be the first paper to study comprehensively the full implications of financial distress and its indirect costs. Specifically, I investigate whether financially distressed companies operationally underperform their more conservatively financed counterparts and whether the distressed companies engage in inefficient asset sales. This is the first paper to study the effects of financial distress as the earlier literature concentrates purely on the e...

  6. Female genital cutting: nursing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenstein, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC) is a practice that affects millions of girls and women worldwide. This deeply rooted practice has cultural, religious, and psychosexual meaning to its practitioners, but it also carries long-term physical and mental complications. Decried as a human rights violation, nonetheless this practice is still carried out today. Nurses are in a unique position to contact and educate women who have been cut or are at risk for mutilation. To advocate for these women, a thorough understanding of the practice of FGC, its cultural overtones, religious implications, and psychosexual effects is needed. PMID:23835896

  7. Pharmacogenomics and migraine: possible implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, P.; Brosen, K.

    2008-01-01

    cases pharmacodynamic variability we mention possible implications for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. Pharmacogenomics will most likely in the future be one part of our therapeutic armamentarium and will provide a stronger scientific basis for optimizing drug therapy on the basis of......Pharmacogenomics is the science about how inherited factors influence the effects of drugs. Drug response is always a result of mutually interacting genes with important modifications from environmental and constitutional factors. Based on the genetic variability of pharmacokinetic and in some...

  8. Practical implications of 'postmodern philosophy'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savi? Mile V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the implications of the discourse about postmodernity. Postmodernity is analyzed as a complex discursive figure. Within the discourse about postmodernity three levels are distinguished: the postmodern condition, postmodernism, and reflection of the postmodern condition. Special attention is paid to globalization and the problem of the enforcement of modern projects in East-European societies, particularly Serbia. These societies are termed object-societies, while their modification of modernity is called eastmodernity. The author's answer to the complexity of the postmodern condition is a conception of the politics of subsistence.

  9. Pharmacogenomics and migraine: possible implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, P.; Brosen, K.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics is the science about how inherited factors influence the effects of drugs. Drug response is always a result of mutually interacting genes with important modifications from environmental and constitutional factors. Based on the genetic variability of pharmacokinetic and in some cases pharmacodynamic variability we mention possible implications for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. Pharmacogenomics will most likely in the future be one part of our therapeutic armamentarium and will provide a stronger scientific basis for optimizing drug therapy on the basis of each patient's genetic constitution Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2

  10. Pharmacogenomics and migraine : possible implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; BrØsen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics is the science about how inherited factors influence the effects of drugs. Drug response is always a result of mutually interacting genes with important modifications from environmental and constitutional factors. Based on the genetic variability of pharmacokinetic and in some cases pharmacodynamic variability we mention possible implications for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. Pharmacogenomics will most likely in the future be one part of our therapeutic armamentarium and will provide a stronger scientific basis for optimizing drug therapy on the basis of each patient's genetic constitution.

  11. Networking activism: implications for Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Vatikiotis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of December 2008 against police brutality through a wave of demonstrations and street protests in Athens, which was strongly advocated by protest activities and practices across the world, addresses several issues in relation to the transformative potentials of mediated collective action. The paper critically evaluates different accounts of December events, probing then into thevery networking of that movement. From this perspective, it points out another aspect of the local-global interplay in protest culture along new mediating practices (beyond the creation of transnational publics, that of the implications of transnational networking for local social activism and identi?cation, addressing relevant questions in the Greek context.

  12. Ophthalmic implications of seasonal affective disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is presented with a discussion of its standard treatment of phototherapy. A number of ophthalmic implications related to SAD are proposed. These implications relate to both the condition and the phototherapy used in its treatment, especially the use of full spectrum light which contains ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation. 12 references

  13. Fantastic filters of lattice implication algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Young Bae Jun

    2000-01-01

    The notion of a fantastic filter in a lattice implication algebra is introduced, and the relations among filter, positive implicative filter, and fantastic filter are given. We investigate an equivalent condition for a filter to be fantastic, and state an extension property for fantastic filter.

  14. Cosmological implications of unimodular gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Pankaj; Jaiswal, Atul; Karmakar, Purnendu; Kashyap, Gopal [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Singh, Naveen K., E-mail: pkjain@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: atijazz@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: purnendu@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: gopal@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: naveenks@prl.res.in [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India)

    2012-11-01

    We consider a model of gravity and matter fields which is invariant only under unimodular general coordinate transformations (GCT). The determinant of the metric is treated as a separate field which transforms as a scalar under unimodular GCT. Furthermore we also demand that the theory is invariant under a new global symmetry which we call generalized conformal invariance. We study the cosmological implications of the resulting theory. We show that this theory gives a fit to the high-z supernova data which is identical to the standard Big Bang model. Hence we require some other cosmological observations to test the validity of this model. We also consider some models which do not obey the generalized conformal invariance. In these models we can fit the supernova data without introducing the standard cosmological constant term. Furthermore these models introduce only one dark component and hence solve the coincidence problem of dark matter and dark energy.

  15. The economic implications of biosimilars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surya C; Bagnato, Karen M

    2015-12-01

    Between 2013 and 2014, spending on specialty drugs, including biologics, increased 32.4%, while spending on small-molecule drugs increased just 6.8%. By 2016, 8 of the 10 top-selling drugs are expected to be biologics. While many biologics will be going off patent, there will likely be multiple prospective manufacturers of biosimilars, and a growing emphasis on regulatory guidelines to ensure their efficacy and safety, in the very near future. A strong factor and assumption surrounding biosimilar development and use is the potential for healthcare cost savings; the introduction of biosimilars is expected to reduce drug costs, although to a lesser degree than seen with small-molecule generic drugs. Managed care clinicians and providers must carefully consider the economic implications and potential cost-effectiveness of uptake of biosimilars for therapy in clinical practice. PMID:26788809

  16. MARKETING IMPLICATION IN WINE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?tefan MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wine, a very complex product in viticulture, has proved its tremendous importance not only to the individual but rational nutrition and increasing national income of a country cultivators (evidenced by the upward trend of the share of crop production horticulture and viticulture in the global economy agricultural. More interesting is, given the continued growth in the number of scientific publications and their quality (at least since the 1980s - where "wine" is the centerpiece of these studies - we can not but be witnessing a growing interest more to this "potion" and found that the growing popularity of wine in the science reveals the emergence of a new academic field, ie "wine economy" (or wine-economy. This study aims to make a foray into "wine economy" and to outline some of the implications of marketing in this area.

  17. Safety implications of control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safety Implications of Control Systems (SIOC) Program has three interrelated objectives: (1) to investigate failure modes and effects in non-safety control systems, including single failures and common cause, common mode, cascade, and other credible multiple failures, (2) to assess the impact upon safety of control system designs and their dynamic behavior, using methods that include computer modeling and analysis of system dynamics under stress, and (3) to develop criteria for determining the relative importance of control system influences upon safety, and with these as a basis to recommend design and operational standards for the systems involved. In support of these goals, the SIOC Program consists of three principal activities: (1) an augmented failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) of the overall plant; (2) specific analysis of the plant electrical system; and (3) a hybrid computer model to augment the FMEA. This paper will discuss the status of each of these activities

  18. Impacts of oil sands process water on fen plants: Implications for plant selection in required reclamation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fen plant growth in peat contaminated with groundwater discharges of oil sands process water (OSPW) was assessed in a greenhouse over two growing seasons. Three treatments (non-diluted OSPW, diluted OSPW and rainwater) were tested on five vascular plants and four mosses. All vascular plants tested can grow in salinity and naphthenic acids levels currently produced by oil sands activity in northwestern Canada. No stress sign was observed after both seasons. Because of plant characteristics, Carex species (C. atherodes and C. utriculata) and Triglochin maritima would be more useful for rapidly restoring vegetation and creating a new peat-accumulating system. Groundwater discharge of OSPW proved detrimental to mosses under dry conditions and ensuring adequate water levels would be crucial in fen creation following oil sands exploitation. Campylium stellatum would be the best choice to grow in contaminated areas and Bryum pseudotriquetrum might be interesting as it has spontaneously regenerated in all treatments. - Highlights: ? Fen plant growth was assessed under groundwater discharges of oil sands process water. ? Sedge and grass species were not stressed after two growing seasons in greenhouse. ? Carex species and Triglochin maritima would be helpful in created contaminated fens. ? In dry conditions, contaminated groundwater discharge was detrimental for mosses. ? Campylium stellatum would be the best choice in created fens with contaminated water. - Sedges and grasses tolerated the contact with oil sands process water and could probably grow well in contaminated created fens, but mosses were particularly affected under dry conditions.

  19. On implications in sectionally pseudocomplemented posets

    CERN Document Server

    Cärulis, Jänis

    2007-01-01

    A sectionally pseudocomplemented poset P is one which has the top element and in which every principal order filter is a pseudocomplemented poset. The sectional pseudocomplements give rise to an implication-like operation on P which coincides with the relative pseudocomplementation if P is relatively psudocomplemented. We characterise this operation and study some elementary properties of upper semilattices, lower semilattices and lattices equipped with this kind of implication. We deal also with a few weaker versions of implication. Sectionally pseudocomplemented lattices have already been studied in the literature.

  20. Energy implications of bottled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs-for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration-are far smaller than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.

  1. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law

    CERN Document Server

    Richmond, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold even for ages over 100. Beyond 106 there is so far no statistical evidence available because the number of survivors is too small even in the largest nations. However assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1,000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis usi...

  2. National and international social implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every new technology since slash-and-burn has required new social institutions to go along with it, and nuclear technology is no exception. There is, therefore, a need to go beyond decisionmaking among alternative peaceful proliferation schemes. There is a need also to look at the needs for new national and/or transnational institutions that will have to accompany any proliferations in area. There are five social implications that bear on the need to develop new social institutions. First is the issue of Great Power relations, in an era of nuclear proliferation. Second is the conflict between nationalism and internationalism. The third is the issue of the military and diplomatic strategies of small nations, particularly small nations on the threshold of nuclear capacity, and the question of military versus civilian rule in those nations. Fourth, and possibly the most important is the role of multinational corporations in nuclear regulation, and fifth, the question of secrecy and how that bears on power values of primacy in democratic states

  3. Revalidation: implications for Australian anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, L J

    2015-09-01

    In early 2015, the Medical Board of Australia commissioned research into international revalidation models and what might be applicable for Australia. This review examines the implications for Australian anaesthetists. What problem is revalidation seeking to address? What is happening in similar countries? Is there an issue with Australian anaesthetists' performance? Isn't continuing professional development enough? Could the Medical Board target known high-risk doctors? What is the evidence for the benefit of revalidation? How is and how should the profession be involved? Revalidation has been introduced in other developed countries. It commonly involves continuing professional development, feedback from colleagues, co-workers and patients, clinical audit and peer review. Although its evidence base is limited, the General Medical Council in the United Kingdom is evaluating its revalidation system, which should provide useful guidance for other countries. Australian anaesthetists and their professional organisations must remain informed about, and engaged in, the national debate about revalidation, to ensure that any new process is workable for Australian anaesthesia practice. PMID:26310418

  4. Mobile IPTV: Implications for Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannee Suanpang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile IPTV (Internet Protocol Television provides digital content which users watch as a television broadcast via the Internet on a mobile device. This paper presents the development of IPTV, Suan Dusit Internet Broadcasting, (SDIB to mobile IPTV and discusses the implications for education. Mobile IPTV was developed as a prototype and designed to support users via wireless and mobile networks regardless of the mobile device. The system can be broadcasted through both live and video on demand (VOD utilizing a mobile browser (smart phones, smart TVs, and tablets and web browsers (Windows, Mac, and UNIX. The mobile IPTV prototype has been used and evaluated in this study. The results of student’s behavior when using mobile phones in their learning found that the highest mobile use was for Facebook and Line to communicate and share information with their classmates. The results of student’s attitudes towards using mobile phones in their learning found that the highest mobile use was for sharing information with classmates, sharing learning experiences on social networks, and using mobile phones to support their studies. The result of the IPTV and mobile IPTV system evaluation found that overall mobile IPTV had a higher user satisfaction than IPTV. Furthermore, mobile IPTV creates a good learning experience for the users. This paper provides guidelines in technical issues for helping educational institutions to develop mobile IPTV for education.

  5. Climatic implications of ice microphysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, K.N. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Based on aircraft measurements of mid-latitude cirrus clouds, ice crystal size distribution and ice water content (IWC) are shown to be dependent on temperature. This dependence is also evident from the theoretical consideration of ice crystal growth. Using simple models of the diffusion and accretion growth of ice particles, the computed mean ice crystal size and IWC compare reasonably well with the measured mean values. The temperature dependence of ice crystal size and IWC has important climatic implications in that the temperature field perturbed by external radiative forcings, such as greenhouse warming, can alter the composition of ice crystal clouds. Through radiative transfer, ice microphysics can in turn affect the temperature field. Higher IWC would increase cloud solar albedo and infrared emissivity, while for a given IWC, larger crystals would reduce cloud albedo and emissivity. The competing effects produced by greenhouse temperature perturbations via ice micro-physics and radiation interactions and feedbacks are assessed by a one-dimensional radiative-convective climate model that includes an advanced radiation parameterization program. 3 figs.

  6. Imaging implications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on laparoscopic cholecystectomy that has rapidly become the preferred technique for elective surgical removal of the gallbladder. The authors sought to ascertain the implications of this new technique for radiological imaging by performing a survey questionnaire of the membership of the International Society of Biliary Radiology (ISBR). Detailed questionnaires were sent to 145 members representing 12 countries. Because data were sought from consulting radiologists rather than responsible surgeons, results were primarily qualitative in nature. Inquiries were made as to current pre-, intra-, and postoperative imaging strategies. Preoperatively we inquired whether specific radiological findings influence the decision to use or not use the laparoscopic method versus open surgery (ie, stone size, thick gallbladder wall on US, porcelain gallbladder, bile duct dilatation). Is preoperative imaging performed of the common bile duct either routinely or for specific indications, and which imaging method is preferred (ie, US, intravenous cholangiography, or ERCP)? Is intraoperative cholangiography performed routinely, never, or for indications only? Are there specific cholangiographic techniques used during laparoscopic cholangiography that differ from standard operative cholangiographic methods?

  7. Implications of increased ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implications of increased ethanol production in Canada, assuming a 10% market penetration of a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend, are evaluated. Issues considered in the analysis include the provision of new markets for agricultural products, environmental sustainability, energy security, contribution to global warming, potential government cost (subsidies), alternative options to ethanol, energy efficiency, impacts on soil and water of ethanol crop production, and acceptance by fuel marketers. An economic analysis confirms that ethanol production from a stand-alone plant is not economic at current energy values. However, integration of ethanol production with a feedlot lowers the break-even price of ethanol by about 35 cents/l, and even further reductions could be achieved as technology to utilize lignocellulosic feedstock is commercialized. Ethanol production could have a positive impact on farm income, increasing cash receipts to grain farmers up to $53 million. The environmental impact of ethanol production from grain would be similar to that from crop production in general. Some concerns about ethanol/gasoline blends from the fuel industry have been reduced as those blends are now becoming recommended in some automotive warranties. However, the concerns of the larger fuel distributors are a serious constraint on an expansion of ethanol use. The economics of ethanol use could be improved by extending the federal excise tax exemption now available for pure alcohol fuels to the alcohol portion of alcohol/gasoline blends. 9 refs., 10 tabs

  8. Sex Differences in Intelligence: Implications for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F.

    1997-01-01

    A psychobiosocial model that is based on the inextricable link between the biological bases of intelligence and environmental events is proposed as an alternative to nature/nurture dichotomies. Societal implications and applications to teaching and learning are suggested. (MMU)

  9. On the implications of recent SNO results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Model-dependent and model-independent implications of the Super Kamiokande and SNO results are outlined. Related deductions about the deformation of the solar neutrino spectrum, and the existence of oscillations between two active types of neutrinos, are revisited

  10. Tuberous sclerosis - clinical manifestations and genetic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-five patients with tuberous sclerosis have been studied with regard to their clinical manifestations, radiological features and genetic background. The practical implications of the condition in southern Africa are reviewed with reference to the literature

  11. Corporate Language and Implications for Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores empirically implications of language use for MNCs’ learning from subsidiaries. Drawing on sociolinguistic literature, the article argues that while employing a single corporate language facilitates quick and direct communication of explicit knowledge, such a language design is...

  12. Hosting Multinationals: Economic and Fiscal Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Peter; Köthenbürger, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Switzerland is a prime location for both domestically owned as well as foreign-owned multinational enterprises (MNEs). In this paper, we review the literature on MNE activity with respect to its main fundamental (non-policy) drivers, the non-fiscal consequences of MNEs for various economic aggregates, and the fiscal implications associated with the operation of foreign affiliate networks. In particular, the paper puts emphasis on the fiscal implications of hosting MNEs and their relation to t...

  13. Globalization of Information: Intellectual Property Law Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Nayyer, Kim

    2002-01-01

    The globalization of information, facilitated by the Internet, has significant implications for intellectual property regimes domestically and internationally. Assessment of these implications and their probable outcomes is unavoidably value-driven. Many commentators foresee harmonization of intellectual property laws but some predict disparity in political economy outcomes. Some also see profound effects on sovereignty. A critical review of recent literature on these topics discloses a preva...

  14. Implicational (Semilinear) Logics I: A New Hierarchy.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, C.

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 49, ?. 4 (2010), s. 417-446. ISSN 1432-0665 R&D Projects: GA ?R GEICC/08/E018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * hierarchy of implicational logics * implicative logics * Leibniz hierarchy * linearly ordered logical matrices * mathematical fuzzy logic * non-classical logics * semilinear logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.414, year: 2010

  15. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  16. Implications of Donald Macdonald's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chairman of the session debating the implications of the Macdonald report identified three important aspects of utility restructuring: equity, efficiency and sustainability. Dr. Jan Carr, a member of the Macdonald Committee, predicted that the continental energy market will likely demand a much larger number of smaller energy transactions, and the value in having inherently low-cost generation located close to load centres, and/or close to the US border. Douglas Hall, Vice President of RBC Dominion Securities criticized the Macdonald Committee for leaving 70 per cent of Hydro's generating capacity in public hands. He favored transferring all assets to the private sector, and questioned the Committee's assumption that the utility could be broken down into four components that would share overhead and still compete against each other. John Murphy, President of the Power Workers Union stated that the Union was not ideologically opposed to competition in the electricity industry, but he questioned the Committee's assumption that competition would promote efficient supply of power at the least cost to the economy. Tony Jennings, Chief Executive of the Municipal Electric Association tackled a series of myths about municipal electric utilities, and IPPSO Counsel Jay Sheppard emphasized the need for making sure that the entity buying the power in the short term is truly independent and is not doing incestuous deals with its friends at Ontario Hydro Generation (one of the s at Ontario Hydro Generation (one of the four components of the proposed, restructured Corporation) , because otherwise competition will not workThe chairman of the session debating the implications of the Macdonald report identified three important aspects of utility restructuring: equity, efficiency and sustainability. Dr. Jan Carr, a member of the Macdonald Committee, predicted that the continental energy market will likely demand a much larger number of smaller energy transactions, and the value in having inherently low-cost generation located close to load centres, and/or close to the US border. Douglas Hall, Vice President of RBC Dominion Securities criticized the Macdonald Committee for leaving 70 per cent of Hydro's generating capacity in public hands. He favored transferring all assets to the private sector, and questioned the Committee's assumption that the utility could be broken down into four components that would share overhead and still compete against each other. John Murphy, President of the Power Workers Union stated that the Union was not ideologically opposed to competition in the electricity industry, but he questioned the Committee's assumption that competition would promote efficient supply of power at the least cost to the economy. Tony Jennings, Chief Executive of the Municipal Electric Association tackled a series of myths about municipal electric utilities, and IPPSO Counsel Jay Sheppard emphasized the need for making sure that the entity buying the power in the short term is truly independent and is not doing incestuous deals with its friends at Ontario Hydro Generation (one of the

  17. Possible implications of exponential decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiclassical concepts are developed which could make the appearance of a logarithmic nonlinearity in a Schroedinger-type equation plausible. This approach is based on the introduction of a novel wave function describing the center of mass (CM) motion of unstable particles or composite systems subject to statistical changes of their internal quantum state. The element of statistical randomness associated with a purely exponential decay law suggests the use of thermodynamic concepts like entropy and free energy. These concepts are applied only to a domain open-quotes blurredclose quotes by the quantum uncertainty principle where the problematic definition of a time and entropy operator might be possible. The paper consists of three main parts. Section 1 develops an extended nonrelativistic equation of motion. The proposed equation contains yet reinterprets the BBM equation, and for stable systems is reduced to the Schroedinger equation. Definite predictions are made for observable quantities. In Section 2, the family of localized, nonspreading ground-state solutions to the BBM equation is extended, in two and three spatial dimensions, to states classified by finite quantized angular momenta and definite values of entropy. The statistical behavior of CM systems and their electromagnetic interaction are investigated. In Section 3, implications of these concepts are outlined with emphasis on possible experimental manifestations. Suggested laboratory tests include high-precision measurements of unstable particle diffraction on linear gratings as well as neutron interferometer experiments of the type previously attempted to test the BBM equation. A further testing possibility is the investigation of particle resonances. An important feature of the present model is a subtle combination of quantum and classical aspects, achieved without compromising fundamental principles, while reinterpreting microreversibility. 46 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Quasi-implicative lattices and the logic of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper seeks to provide a number of reformulations of the quasi-implicative conditions which are more intuitively plausible. Three sets of conditions are examined, and it is shown that each set of conditions is both necessary and sufficient to ensure that an ortholattice is orthomodular, and each set of conditions uniquely specifies the implication operation to be Mittelstaedt's quasi-implication. Various properties of the quasi-implication are then investigated. In particular, it is shown that the quasi-implication fails to satisfy a number of laws associated with the classical material conditional. Various weakenings of these laws, satisfied by the quasi-implication, are also discussed. (orig./BJ)

  19. Essentializing race: its implications on racial categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Melody Manchi; Hong, Ying-yi; Chiu, Chi-yue

    2013-04-01

    Racial classification has drawn increasing attention in public discourse; it intertwines with issues related to racialized perceptions. However, few social psychological studies have systematically examined racial categorization processes and their implications for interracial relations. In 5 studies, we investigated the role of racial essentialism in influencing several important psychological aspects of racial categorization. Results linked the belief in racial essentialism to an increased tendency to engage in race-based categorization (Studies 1-3) and greater sensitivity in discerning racial group membership (Studies 4-5). These results are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding and managing interracial relations in the United States. PMID:23397967

  20. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF LOCATION-BASED SCHEDULING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas; Christensen, Knud

    2007-01-01

    . Even though LBS has a long history and is well grounded theoretically, it has gained generally little attention in the construction industry. Besides the theoretical research available on LBS, some studies report on the application of LBS, but empirical data on the practical implications of LBS is...... limited. This study rests upon three case studies of residential projects carried out in Denmark in 2006. The purpose is to test and evaluate the practical implications of LBS when applied on site. The study concludes, with emphasis from the site management involved, that improved schedule overview...

  1. The CH/? hydrogen bond: Implication in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, M.

    2012-06-01

    The CH/? hydrogen bond is the weakest extreme of hydrogen bonds that occurs between a soft acid CH and a soft base ?-system. Implication in chemistry of the CH/? hydrogen bond includes issues of conformation, crystal packing, and specificity in host/guest complexes. The result obtained by analyzing the Cambridge Structural Database is reviewed. The peculiar axial preference of isopropyl group in ?-phellandrene and folded conformation of levopimaric acid have been explained in terms of the CH/? hydrogen bond, by high-level ab initio MO calculations. Implication of the CH/? hydrogen bond in structural biology is also discussed, briefly.

  2. Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology—An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Louis Theodore; Leo Stander

    2011-01-01

    Some engineers and scientists are either directly or indirectly involved with nanotechnology issues. Nanotechnology concerns dealing with environmental implications and regulatory compliance encompass practicing areas for these technical individuals. Areas of particular concern include current/proposed environmental regulations and procedures for quantifying both health risks and hazard risks. This article addresses both of these issues.

  3. Supervision and Motivational Theory: Some Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Donald J.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests useful implications for supervisors offered by motivational theories, including the importance of serving as a source of reinforcement for teachers and the necessity of helping the teacher make appropriate instructional choices and gather evidence on the effectiveness of those choices. (Author/JM)

  4. Early Adolescent Childbearing: Some Social Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeppner, Marie

    This paper reviews some of the current research findings on fertility among adolescents which indicate that illegitimacy may be becoming increasingly concentrated in the teenage years, and considers the implications of this phenomenon for mothers, children and society. The relationship of the changing sexual activity of American teenagers, the…

  5. Information Technology Monopolies: Implications for Library Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Marina I.

    1998-01-01

    Explores library-related implications of the U.S. Department of Justice's investigations into the operations of Microsoft and Intel and suggests that developing a broader understanding of information technology marketing is crucial to the short- and long-term future of libraries. (MES)

  6. The nuclear and its psychological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the 13. to 15. january 1977, the S.F.R.P. has organised at Paris, with the patronage of The National Institute of Health and Medical Research, the French Society of Radiology, a colloquium devoted to the nuclear and its psycho-implications sociological. It is a second edition, realised at the demand of the Antoine Beclere Center. (N.C.)

  7. Living Together in College: Implications for Courtship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risman, Barbara J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Implications of cohabitation for courtship were explored in a two-year study of 231 college dating couples. No differences were found between living together and other "going together" couples in rates of marriage or breakup. Differences were found in satisfaction, intimacy, problems, expectations, power, and transition to marriage. (Author)

  8. Constructivism and Education: Misunderstandings and Pedagogical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Strobel, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Constructivism is a popular concept in contemporary teacher education programs. However, a genuine concern arises with the concept's application because many teachers and teacher educators claim that knowledge is constructed, without appreciating the epistemological and pedagogical implications such a claim entails. This article employs Phillips'…

  9. The CHARGE Association: Implications for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas W.; Dunne, Michele T.

    1988-01-01

    CHARGE association is described as a diagnostic label for a group of congenital malformations, including coloboma, heart defects, atresia choanae, retarded postnatal growth/central nervous system defects, genital hypoplasia, and ear deformities. Etiology and characteristics of the CHARGE association are discussed, along with implications for…

  10. Cult Affiliation and Disaffiliation: Implications for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Beth; Frye, Ellen M.; Bradley, Loretta J.

    1997-01-01

    Data on cult membership and the characteristics of cults are provided. The process of cult affiliation and its relationship to family dynamics are reviewed. Defection, the processes of disaffiliation (voluntary and involuntary), and clinical symptoms after cult disaffiliation are discussed. Implications and recommendations for counselors are…

  11. Internalized Heterosexism: Clinical Implications and Training Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashubeck-West, Susan; Szymanski, Dawn; Meyer, Jill

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on implications of empirical research on the construct of internalized heterosexism (IH) in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. First, suggestions for practice with LGB clients are provided using the framework proposed by Goodman et al. for social justice work at micro, meso, and macro levels. Second, ideas for the…

  12. Corporal Punishment: Legalities, Realities, and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a quiz that will help readers determine the reliability of their own perceptions relating to corporal punishment in schools. Discusses U.S. Courts and corporal punishment, worldwide and nationwide legality, and the realities of corporal punishment in the United States. Discusses implications for what teachers can do to address corporal…

  13. The environmental implications of landfill gas control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the implications for landfill gas control of the Environmental Protection Bill in relation to proposed, existing and closed sites. If the Bill is enacted in its present form these changes will have far reaching implications on the waste management industry and especially those involved in landfill gas monitoring and control. The paper describes the requirements for the management of landfill gas both on and around landfill sites before, during and after the cessation of waste disposal operations. It describes the duties of Waste Regulation Authorities (WRAs) under the Bill in relation to landfill gas including their duties in relation to closed sites. The paper concludes that when the WRAs fulfill these duties the risk of further incidents occurring with landfill gas will be significantly reduced. (author)

  14. Mirror neurons: their implications for group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Victor L

    2010-10-01

    Recently discovered mirror neurons in the motor cortex of the brain register the actions and intentions of both the organism and others in the environment. As such, they may play a significant role in social behavior and groups. This paper considers the potential implications of mirror neurons and related neural networks for group therapists, proposing that mirror neurons and mirror systems provide "hard-wired" support for the group therapist's belief in the centrality of relationships in the treatment process and exploring their value in accounting for group-as-a-whole phenomena. Mirror neurons further confirm the holistic, social nature of perception, action, and intention as distinct from a stimulus-response behaviorism. The implications of mirror neurons and mirroring processes for the group therapist role, interventions, and training are also discussed. PMID:21028974

  15. Growth Laws in Cancer: Implications for Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Castorina, P; Gabriele, P; Guiot, C

    2006-01-01

    Comparing both, the more conventional Gompertz tumor growth law (GL) and the ``Universal'' law (UL), recently proposed and applied to cancer,we have investigated the growth law's implications on various radiotherapy regimen. According to GL, the surviving tumor cell fraction could be reduced 'ad libidum', independently of the initial tumor mass,simply by increasing the number of treatments. On the contrary, if tumor growth dynamics would indeed follow the Universal scaling law, there is a lower limit of the survival fraction that cannot be reduced any further regardless of the total number of treatments. This finding can explain the so called ``tumor size effect'' and re-emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis as it implies that radiotherapy may be successful provided the tumor mass at treatment onset is rather small. Taken together with our previous works, implications of these findings include revisiting standard radiotherapy regimen and overall treatment protocols.

  16. Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Srivastava

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are perceived, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise. Keywords: ERP, Chinese Cultural Implications, Societal Culture, Strategy

  17. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory

    1998-12-01

    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

  18. Implications of a Rotating Mass Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Bordes, J; Chan, HM; Tsou, ST

    2000-01-01

    The fermion mass matrix, in addition to having eigenvalues (masses) which run, also changes its orientation (rotates) with changing energy scales. This means that its eigenstates at one scale will no longer be eigenstates at another scale, leading to effects where fermions of different flavours can ``transmute'' into one another. In this paper, the implications of a rotating mass matrix are analysed and possible transmuation effects are investigated both in the Standard Mode...

  19. Automotive fuels - environmental and health implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document covers papers presented to the Institute of Petroleum's conference ''Automotive Fuels: Environmental and Health Implications'' held on the 9th October 1991. This wide ranging title meant that topics covered included the biochemistry, pathology and epidemiology of automotive fuel use, combustion science, environmental chemistry and atmospheric modelling. Also discussed are the technology of fuel and engine manufacture, limiting and containing emissions and social and political aspects relating to the use of automotive fuels. (UK)

  20. DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY AND JOURNALISM: implications for Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John V. Pavlik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital technology has brought sweeping changes to journalism  and the social institutions it serves. Journalism has historically played a central role in the U.S. and other democracies, serving as a primary source of news and information for citizens on matters of public importance. This paper examines the implications of these changes for democracy. It explores the question of whether a more interactive form of journalism will produce a more engaged and informed electorate.

  1. Welfare implications of public education spending rules

    OpenAIRE

    Angelopoulos, Konstantinos; Malley, Jim; Philippopoulos, Apostolis

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we quantitatively assess the welfare implications of alternative public education spending rules. To this end, we employ a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model in which human capital externalities and public education expenditures, financed by distort- ing taxes, enhance the productivity of private education choices. We allow public education spending, as share of output, to respond to various aggregate indicators in an attempt to minimize the market imperfection due to...

  2. Ambiguity and Volatility: Asset Pricing Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Pataracchia, B.

    2011-01-01

    Using a simple dynamic consumption-based asset pricing model, this paper explores the implications of a representative investor with smooth ambiguity averse preferences [Klibano¤, Marinacci and Mukerji, Econometrica (2005)] and provides a comparative analysis of risk aversion and ambiguity aversion. The perception of ambiguity is described by a hidden Markovian consumption growth process. The hidden states di¤er both for the mean and the volatility. We show that the ambiguity-averse investor ...

  3. Incremental Satisfiability and Implication for UTVPI Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Schutt, Andreas; Stuckey, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Unit two-variable-per-inequality (UTVPI) constraints form one of the largest class of integer constraints which are polynomial time solvable (unless P=NP). There is considerable interest in their use for constraint solving, abstract interpretation, spatial databases, and theorem proving. In this paper we develop a new incremental algorithm for UTVPI constraint satisfaction and implication checking that requires O(m + n log n + p) time and O(n+m+p) space to incrementally chec...

  4. The Power of Boolean Implication Networks

    OpenAIRE

    DebashisSahoo

    2012-01-01

    Human diseases have been investigated in the context of single genes as well as complex networks of genes. Though single gene approaches have been extremely successful in the past, most human diseases are complex and better characterized by multiple interacting genes commonly known as networks or pathways. With the advent of high-throughput technologies, a recent trend has been to apply network-based analysis to the huge amount of biological data. Analysis on Boolean implication network is on...

  5. ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF INSUFFICIENT HEALTH LITERACY

    OpenAIRE

    Dukić, Nikolina; Arbula Blecich, Andrea; Cerović, Ljerka

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to elaborate the importance of health literacy in cost-effective utilization of health care services which influence the efficiency of the entire health care sector. In order to complement the theoretical framework of the economic implications and the circular influence of health literacy on the economy, an empirical analysis was carried out using S–TOFHLA. The results suggest that the patients’ personal characteristics and the accessibil...

  6. Phenomenological Implications of the Topflavor Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong Chul; Lee, Kang Young; kim, Jae Kwan

    1997-01-01

    We explore phenomenologies of the topflavour model for the LEP experiment at $m_{_Z}$ scale and the atomic parity violation (APV) experiment in the $C_s$ atoms at low energies. Implications of the model on the $Z$ peak data are studied in terms of the precision variables $\\epsilon_i$'s. We find that the LEP data give more stringent constraints on the model parameters than the APV data.

  7. Phenomenological Implications of the Topflavor Model

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, J C; Kim, J K; Lee, Jong Chul; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Jae Kwan

    1998-01-01

    We explore phenomenologies of the topflavour model for the LEP experiment at $m_{_Z}$ scale and the atomic parity violation (APV) experiment in the $C_s$ atoms at low energies. Implications of the model on the $Z$ peak data are studied in terms of the precision variables $\\epsilon_i$'s. We find that the LEP data give more stringent constraints on the model parameters than the APV data.

  8. Dental implications in oral cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Escoda Francolí, Jaume; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Araceli; Pérez-García, Sílvia; Gargallo Albiol, Jordi; Gay Escoda, Cosme

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. A study is made of the dental implications of oral cancer, with a view to avoiding the complications that appear once oncological treatment is started. Patients and Methods. The study comprised a total of 22 patients diagnosed with oral cancer according to clinical and histological criteria in the Service of Maxillofacial Surgery (Dental Clinic of the University of Barcelona, Spain) during the period 1996-2005, and posteriorly treated in different hospital centers in Barcelona. Re...

  9. Pedagogical Implications: Bridge between Teaching & Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Padhy, Prabir Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Students have different levels of motivation, different perceptions, attitudes and different responses to learning. Teachers should understand these differences and their pedagogical implications. Accordingly, teachers have to adapt their teaching styles. To be more effective in imparting education, teachers must know their own learning style to enhance the learning of others. This article discusses various learning style preferences pertaining to individual learners and how to match teaching...

  10. Welfare Implications of Exchange Rate Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Luis B

    2007-01-01

    This paper measures the welfare implications of a depreciation of the US dollar against the euro using a dynamic equilibrium model. I calibrate a simple two country stochastic endowment economy with trade in goods and financial assets and exogenous variations in the exchange rate. The model displays both a trade channel effect and an asset channel effect after a change in the value of the exchange rate. The welfare loss coming from the trade channel translates into the relative...

  11. CURRENCY SUBSTITUTION and ITS IMPLICATIONS: A SURVEY

    OpenAIRE

    Jülide YILDIRIM

    2001-01-01

    Monetary theory traditionally assumes that economic agents hold the domestic currency for transactions and speculative purposes. However the widespread financial innovations has made themovements of funds and transfer of information across markets more rapid and less costly, leading to an increased degree of currency substitution. Currency substitution has important implications for the conduct of monetary policy, exchange rate determination and stability of demand for money functions. This ...

  12. Cosmological implications of a light dilaton

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, R

    1998-01-01

    Supersymmetric Peccei-Quinn symmetry and string theory predict a complex scalar field comprising a dilaton and an axion. These fields are massless at high energies, but it is known since long that the axion is stabilized in an instanton dominated vacuum. Instantons and axions together also provide a mechanism to stabilize a dilaton, thus accounting for a dilaton as a possible cold dark matter component accompanying the axion. We briefly review the prospects of this scenario and point out further implications.

  13. Phenomenological implications of light stop and higgsinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the phenomenological implications of light tR and higgsinos in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, assuming tan2?t/mb and heavy tL and gauginos. In this simplified setting, we study the contributions to ?mBd, ?K, BR(b?s?), Rb??(Z?b anti b)/?(Z? hadrons), BR(t?bW), and their interplay. (orig.). With 6 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Implications of Theoretical Ideas Regarding Cold Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Afsar

    1995-01-01

    A lot of theoretical ideas have been floated to explain the so called cold fusion phenomenon. I look at a large subset of these and study further physical implications of the concepts involved. I suggest that these can be tested by other independent physical means. Because of the significance of these the experimentalists are urged to look for these signatures. The results in turn will be important for a better understanding and hence control of the cold fusion phenomenon.

  15. Implications of theoretical ideas regarding cold fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, A

    1995-01-01

    A lot of theoretical ideas have been floated to explain the so called cold fusion phenomenon. I look at a large subset of these and study further physical implications of the concepts involved. I suggest that these can be tested by other independent physical means. Because of the significance of these the experimentalists are urged to look for these signatures. The results in turn will be important for a better understanding and hence control of the cold fusion phenomenon.

  16. The Social Implications of Light at Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Colin

    2015-08-01

    Summary: It has been shown that Light at Night (LAN) has serious implications for both the environment and human health. What is considered here are the social implications that arise from these problems, and what needs to be done to redress these issues.Introduction: Light at Night is a serious environmental problem whose environmental and medical implications have been seriously underestimated. If no action is taken the problem will become progressively worse and may reach a point where nothing can be done about it. The issues arising from it need to be identified andappropriate action taken to mitigate these issues as far as possible. Hopefully this can be done amicably by self regulation within communities, but if this fails then stringent anti-light pollution legislation will have to be enacted. Some countries and local authorities have already begun to make faltering steps in this direction1, but so far the measures taken have been minimal and largely ineffective. Light at Night (and the light pollution resulting from it) therefore remains a problem and continues to get worse despite the measures already taken to reduce it. Domes of scattered light continue to hang above our cities, killing off our wildlife and endangering public health. Attitudes need to change and urgent measures need to be taken in order to reduce or eliminate its impact.

  17. Dissecting endonuclease and exonuclease activities in endonuclease V from Thermotoga maritima

    OpenAIRE

    Mi, Rongjuan; Abole, Anne K.; Cao, Weiguo

    2010-01-01

    Endonuclease V is an enzyme that initiates a conserved DNA repair pathway by making an endonucleolytic incision at the 3?-side 1?nt from a deaminated base lesion. DNA cleavage analysis using mutants defective in DNA binding and Mn2+ as a metal cofactor reveals a novel 3?-exonuclease activity in endonuclease V [Feng,H., Dong,L., Klutz,A.M., Aghaebrahim,N. and Cao,W. (2005) Defining amino acid residues involved in DNA-protein interactions and revelation of 3?-exonuclease activity in endonucleas...

  18. Millisecond dynamics in the allosteric enzyme imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) from Thermotoga maritima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IGPS is a 51 kDa heterodimeric enzyme comprised of two proteins, HisH and HisF, that catalyze the hydrolysis of glutamine to produce NH3 in the HisH active site and the cyclization of ammonia with N'- [(5'-phosphoribulosyl)formimino] -5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribonucleotide (PRFAR) in HisF to produce imidazole glycerol phosphate (IGP) and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide (AICAR). Binding of PRFAR and IGP stimulates glutaminase activity in the HisH enzyme over 5,000 and 100-fold, respectively, despite the active sites being >25 A apart. The details of this long-range protein communication process were investigated by solution NMR spectroscopy and CPMG relaxation dispersion experiments. Formation of the heterodimer enzyme results in a reduction in millisecond motions in HisF that extend throughout the protein. Binding of lGP results in an increase in protein-wide millisecond dynamics evidenced as severe NMR line broadening and elevated Rex values. Together, these data demonstrate a grouping of flexible residues that link the HisF active site with the protein interface to which HisH binds and provide a model for the path of communication between the IGPS active sites

  19. The Risk Implications of Multinational Enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Multinational structure has been linked to operational flexibilities that can improve corporate adaptability and a knowledge-based view suggests that multinational resource diversity can facilitate responsive opportunities. The enhanced maneuverability from this can reduce earnings volatility and hence the corporate performance risk. But, the internationalization process may also require irreversible investments that increase corporate exposures and leave the risk implications of multinational enterprize somewhat ambiguous. Hence, the purpose of the paper is to present an empirical study of the implied relationships between the degree of multinationality and various risk measures including downside risk, upside potential, and performance risk. Design/methodology/approach – The paper provides a brief literature review, develops hypotheses, and tests them in two-stage least square regressions on archival data to control for pre-selection biases. Findings – The analyses indicate that multinationality is associated with lower downside risk as well as higher upside potential and leads to reduced performance risk. The study finds no trace of diminishing effects from higher degrees of multinationality. Research limitations/implications – The empirical study uses a sample of large US-based corporations, which could affect the generalizability of results. However, this is consistent with other studies and eases comparability of findings. Practical implications – The findings add to the ongoing debate about the risk effects of a multinational corporate structure and confirms that a diverse multinational presence is associated with positive risk outcomes. Originality/value – The paper complements a limited number of studies with equivocal results and adopts alternative risk outcome measures. The study extends the industry scope by introducing a comprehensive sample of firms operating in different manufacturing and service businesses.

  20. Implications of the Foucauldian decentralization of economics

    OpenAIRE

    Zulfiqar Ali

    2011-01-01

    This essay aims to explore Foucault’s project of decentralizing economics and to hint on some implications. It also makes a comparative analysis between Foucault’s project and the projects similar to his design and aim. I argue that Foucault’s critique of the idea of economics as a science is stronger than that of the critiques which challenge the status of economics as a science by exposing its deep fictional, literary or narrative content and style. I argue that the strength of Foucault’s d...

  1. Device implications of spin-transfer torques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines spin-transfer torques from the perspective of three technological applications: hard disk drives, magnetic random access memory (MRAM), and current-tunable high-frequency oscillators. In hard disk drives, spin-transfer torques are a source of noise, and we discuss the implications spin-transfer noise will have on future sensor designs. For MRAM, we evaluate the feasibility of spin-transfer-driven switching. Finally, we discuss the possibility of GHz communication applications enabled by nanoscale spin-transfer oscillators

  2. Implications of Delgamuukw on treaty areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implications of the Delgamuukw decision rendered by the Supreme Court of Canada in December 1997 were discussed. The decision obligates regulatory authorities to consult with First Nations prior to issuing any permits for exploration or extraction of natural resources where such proposed projects might infringe on treaty and Aboriginal rights. The case arose out of an urgent need for First Nations to gain control over their land which was being devastated by the forest industry in British Columbia. The paper also discusses previous court decisions, such as the Lubicon example and the Treaty 8 Tribal Association examples as landmark decisions leading inevitably to the Delgamuukw decision. 11 refs

  3. Massive neutron stars and their implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T K Jha; Keshab C Panda

    2014-05-01

    Recent observations of high mass pulsar PSRJ1614-2230 has raised serious debate over the possible role of exotics in the dense core of neutron stars. The precise measurement of mass of the pulsar may play a very important role in limiting equation of state (EoS) of dense matter and its composition. Indirectly, it may also shape our understanding of the nucleon–hyperon or hyperon–hyperon interactions which is not well known. Within the framework of an effective chiral model, we compute models of neutron stars and analyse the hyperon composition in them. Further related implications are also discussed.

  4. Ionization potentials some variations, implications and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, L H

    1983-01-01

    Ionization Potentials: Some Variations, Implications and Applications covers several aspects of ionization potential that is a highly significant parameter in controlling the properties of electric discharge. Comprised of 17 chapters, the book covers topic relevant to ionization potentials, such as properties, concepts, and applications, in order to understand and fully comprehend all aspects of ionization potential. The opening chapter is a review of ionization potentials and a discussion of trends and features. The succeeding chapters then tackle complex topics such as the s and p electrons;

  5. Some Implications of Human-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    present on the structure. It is not conventional to model the presence of passive humans when predicting structural response, but nevertheless it is instructive to investigate which effect they do in fact have on structural behavior and modal characteristics of structures. Such investigations are made in......On structures, humans may be active which may cause structural vibrations as human activity can excite structural vibration modes. However, humans may also be passive (sitting or standing on the structure). The paper addresses this subject and explores the implications of having passive humans...

  6. Implications of White Dwarf Galactic Halos

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Fred C.; Laughlin, Greg

    1996-01-01

    Motivated by recent measurements which suggest that roughly half the mass of the galactic halo may be in the form of white dwarfs, we study the implications of such a halo. We first use current limits on the infrared background light and the galactic metallicity to constrain the allowed initial mass function (IMF) of the stellar population that produced the white dwarfs. The IMF must be sharply peaked about a characteristic mass scale $M_C \\approx 2.3 M_\\odot$. Since only a ...

  7. Micro CHP - implications - for energy companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulation and private ownership is having a marked effect on the energy industry in the UK: many companies will have to make radical changes if they are to survive. Since cost-cutting cannot go on indefinitely, it will be technology to which companies must turn if they are to hold a competitive position and here it is suggested that micro-CHP may be the answer. A comparison of costs and technical implications for various types of generating plant is given. The paper is presented under the sub-headings of (i) business opportunity; (ii) business threat; and (iii) commercial viability of micro-CHP

  8. Arab Spring: Geopolitical Implications for Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ekhtiari Amiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to examine the geopolitical implications of the Arab Spring for Iran. It hypothesizes that in spite of the initial short-term benefits of the Arab Spring, in the long-term it has transformed into an acute challenge for Iran. Developments in Bahrain, Egypt, and Syria-- thanks to their prominent positions in Iran’s foreign policy apparatus-- have contributed to serious friction between Iran and other regional rivals, namely Saudi Arabia, Israel and Turkey. The Arab Spring seems to have given rise to an Iranian Autumn.

  9. Researching Lean: Methodological implications of loose definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännmark, Mikael; Langstrand, Jostein; Johansson, Stina; Halvarsson, Agneta; Abrahamsson, Lena; Winkel, Jørgen

    practices seem to overlap with other popular management concepts, such as High Performance Work Systems, World Class Manufacturing and Total Quality Management. This confusion, combined with different methodological and theoretical traditions, has led to much debate and contradictory conclusions regarding...... operationalized, which makes it very difficult to study through a priori definitions. Practical implications/recommendations – The large variation in interpretations of Lean complicates metaanalyses regarding potential impact of Lean on the primary stakeholders of an organization, i.e. the customer, employees and...

  10. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving. PMID:26613696

  11. Implications of Curriculum Reform for School Buildings in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Watson, W.

    2008-01-01

    Scotland's Building Excellence programme is exploring the implications of curriculum reform for school building design. It includes events which bring together teachers, designers, school managers and local authorities.

  12. Abiding IPRs in Technological Implications for Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtaza Hussain Shaikh A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The focal objective of this article is to analyze the role of intellectual property rights in technological implications within a general context. The performance of the IPRs system and its interaction with national innovation system with some degrees of success has also been highlighted. Major encounter over subsequently decade will be to identify policies and solutions that would permit marketplace economy to flourish in the framework of this intellectual property insurrection. There has been a lot of dispute on the role of intellectual property protection regime specially in fostering innovation, technology development of a country. IPRs are expected to emboli the innovation, by rewarding inventor with a grant of domination rights over the mercantile exploitation for a specified time period. This article tries to attempts to review the role of the IPR regime in technological development and also have suggested some policy implications for country like Pakistan and some reflecting lessons for other developing countries with similar settings and common characteristics. Keywords -

  13. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, Mari S; Collman, Gwen W

    2008-01-01

    Changes in puberty timing have implications for the treatment of individual children, for the risk of later adult disease, and for chemical testing and risk assessment for the population. Children with early puberty are at a risk for accelerated skeletal maturation and short adult height, early sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated with an increased risk for testicular cancer according to several, but not all, epidemiologic studies. Girls and, possibly, boys who exhibit premature adrenarche are at a higher risk for developing features of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in adulthood. Altered timing of puberty also has implications for behavioral disorders. For example, an early maturation is associated witha greater incidence of conduct and behavior disorders during adolescence. Finally, altered puberty timing is considered an adverse effect in reproductive toxicity risk assessment for chemicals. Recent US legislation has mandated improved chemical testing approaches for protecting children's health and screening for endocrine-disrupting agents, which has led to changes in the US Environmental Protection Agency's risk assessment and toxicity testing guidelines to include puberty-related assessments and to the validation of pubertal male and female rat assays for endocrine screening.

  14. Neuroscience, “Giftedness” and Implications for Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Betini Bartoszeck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article briefly reviews a group of disciplines belonging to neuroscience and discusses potential educational implications for children and adolescents labeled as gifted. A short structural and functional introduction highlights the main points of the human nervous system which works as a background to bridge the gap between neuroscience, “giftedness” and creativity. Some basic evolutionary and biological characteristics findings are speculated to be in the origin of neural circuits underlying innate capacities related to learning and memory. It is discussed how information is codified in brain regions and the possible ways gifted students make cognitive links and analogies particularly on mathematical reasoning. Developmental stages and neural plasticity are analyzed and which is the role played by genetics connected to environmental experiences which may be on the gist of “giftedness”. Identification methods are listed to evaluate presumed gifted children and adolescents. A chart compares characteristics peculiar to prodigies and savant children. A list of suggested questions are presented for further research which may bring insights how the brain process information having in mind educational implications with examples for biology teaching.

  15. Forensic implications: adolescent sexting and cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenis, Panagiota; Billick, Stephen Bates

    2014-03-01

    Adolescence is marked by establishing a sense of identity, core values, a sense of one's relationship to the outside world and heightened peer relationships. In addition, there is also risk taking, impulsivity, self exploration and dramatic increase in sexuality. The dramatic increase in the use of cell phones and the Internet has additional social implications of sexting and cyberbullying. Sexting refers to the practice of sending sexually explicit material including language or images to another person's cell phone. Cyberbullying refers to the use of this technology to socially exclude, threaten, insult or shame another person. Studies of cell phone use in the 21st century report well over 50% of adolescents use them and that text messaging is the communication mode of choice. Studies also show a significant percentage of adolescents send and receive sex messaging, both text and images. This paper will review this expanding literature. Various motivations for sexting will also be reviewed. This new technology presents many dangers for adolescents. The legal implications are extensive and psychiatrists may play an important role in evaluation of some of these adolescents in the legal context. This paper will also make suggestions on future remedies and preventative actions. PMID:24129662

  16. False or Recovered Memories?: Legal and Ethical Implications for Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Places the development of the debate over false or recovered memories in its social and historical context. Identifies some of the ethical and legal implications of this area of work for therapists by using the Drama Triangle. Outlines ethical dilemmas for therapists and some of the implications for therapeutic practice. (RJM)

  17. Motivation and Gifted Students: Implications of Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinkenbeard, Pamela R.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of contemporary motivation theories reveals implications for gifted and talented students. The expectancy-value framework, intrinsic-extrinsic motivation theories, goal orientations, self-efficacy and other self-perceptions, and attribution theory are described and discussed with respect to implications for the psychology and education…

  18. Kierkegaardian Implications of Punishment, Guilt, and Forgiveness for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyshyn, Yaroslav

    1998-01-01

    Explores Soren Kierkegaard's notion of punishment, which should interest educators because it provides a way to avoid the pitfalls of unjust punishment by viewing it in conjunction with the implications of guilt and forgiveness. The paper notes the need to question the notion of punishment closely and seek to understand its implications. (SM)

  19. Destination image: Origins, Developments and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Dominique Ferreira Lopes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, tourism has become one of the main sectors of the global economy, not only because of its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP of different countries, but also because of the employment it generates. Since 2009, however, the results of tourism have been severely affected by the economic and financial crisis and it is now essential to analyze the key elements of tourist consumer behavior. In this context, the image that a destination transmits to the market becomes one of the elements which influence tourists the most when choosing a tourist destination. The authors therefore aim to identify the main elements that characterize the image of a tourist destination, as well as their implications for the management of tourist destinations.

  20. Sex differences in intelligence. Implications for education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, D F

    1997-10-01

    Sex differences in intelligence is among the most politically volatile topics in contemporary psychology. Although no single finding has unanimous support, conclusions from multiple studies suggest that females, on average, score higher on tasks that require rapid access to and use of phonological and semantic information in long-term memory, production and comprehension of complex prose, fine motor skills, and perceptual speed. Males, on average, score higher on tasks that require transformations in visual-spatial working memory, motor skills involved in aiming, spatiotemporal responding, and fluid reasoning, especially in abstract mathematical and scientific domains. Males, however, are also over-represented in the low-ability end of several distributions, including mental retardation, attention disorders, dyslexia, stuttering, and delayed speech. A psychobiosocial model that is based on the inextricable links between the biological bases of intelligence and environmental events is proposed as an alternative to nature-nurture dichotomies. Societal implications and applications to teaching and learning are suggested. PMID:9329293

  1. Environmental implications of China's WTO accession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's accession to the WTO in 2001 completed the country's entry into the global economy. We investigate environmental implications of WTO-accession. There are several hypotheses in this area: The scale hypothesis says that production is scaled up and in turn, pollution increases. The composition hypothesis says that composition of industries changes and pollution reflects the new composition. The technique hypothesis says that production methods become cleaner and pollution decreases. We analyze the relative strength of the hypotheses by means of an environmental CGE-model, and in the case of air pollution find support for a composition effect in favor of clean industries. Thanks to the composition effect, emissions to air of greenhouse gases fall. Emissions of particles and SO2 also fall, but emissions of NOx and VOC rise. Since particle and SO2-emissions fall we estimate that public health improves (author)

  2. The health implications of deportation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Juliana E; Palazuelos, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The United States detains and deports over 400,000 people annually. This large-scale effort has important consequences for the health of affected individuals and communities. A growing body of research suggests that deportation increases stress and mental illness, economic deprivation, and individual exposure to violence, while also contributing to destabilization and crime at the community level. The challenges to reintegration experienced by deportees are additional push factors that increase their desire to re-emigrate. Furthermore, the related destabilization of local communities also contributes to the push, not just for deportees, but for all affected people in the region. This phenomenon has important implications for the long-term effectiveness of current U.S. deportation policies, which may be contributing to destabilization in home countries and thus potentiating further unauthorized emigration to the U.S. PMID:25913338

  3. The Risk Implications of Multinational Enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Multinational structure has been linked to operational flexibilities that can improve corporate adaptability and a knowledge-based view suggests that multinational resource diversity can facilitate responsive opportunities. The enhanced maneuverability from this can reduce earnings...... volatility and hence the corporate performance risk. But, the internationalization process may also require irreversible investments that increase corporate exposures and leave the risk implications of multinational enterprize somewhat ambiguous. Hence, the purpose of the paper is to present an empirical...... debate about the risk effects of a multinational corporate structure and confirms that a diverse multinational presence is associated with positive risk outcomes. Originality/value – The paper complements a limited number of studies with equivocal results and adopts alternative risk outcome measures. The...

  4. Risk Implications of Energy Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena

    2014-01-01

    In many countries in Europe and the rest of the world, electricity systems are on the verge of a new era: they are transforming from begin CO2-intensive and centralised towards becoming sustainable and more integrated. The role of policy makers in this transition is evident: ambitious targets of abandoning the use of fossil fuels and increasing the use of renewable energy sources (RES) need to become reality through respective investments in new technologies. Understanding the effects of energy policy and support instruments on investments, especially in terms of risks, is crucial for developing an adequate policy framework in energy systems with high shares of renewable energies. This dissertation contributes to the research area of RES policy support. With a special focus on risk implications of policy, the economic consequences of different RES support instruments are investigated, both from an investor's perspective and from a societal point of view. This dissertation assesses energy policy and especially renewable support instruments with regard to their differences in investment incentives, effectiveness of deploying renewable technologies, cost-efficiency (in terms of required support levels) and welfare economic effects. Focus lies on policy incentives for electricity generation from renewable energies that have significant influence on the risk profile of investments (such as renewable quota systems and fixed feed-in tariffs). The consequences of different policy portfolios are evaluated. We show, both qualitatively and quantitatively, that policy makers cannot neglect risk implications when designing RES support instruments without compromising either on effectiveness or cost-efficiency of energy policy. The central research questions are: how can risk implications of RES policy instruments be integrated into policy design, so that the policies provide adequate investment incentives? And can the consideration of such risk implications in policy design make overall energy policy more successful? These questions are answered in seven research papers (four journal papers, two conference papers and a working paper), based on a combination of micro-economic and policy analysis. Financial theory is used for the quantitative analysis of investment problems under uncertainty, including mean-variance portfolio theory, real option analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and time series analysis of the underlying data. Modelling of stochastic price processes plays an important role in the analysis. Using concrete cases for offshore wind in Denmark and Germany, we show that feed-in premiums structurally require higher support levels than feed-in tariffs due to the higher risk exposure. We quantify this effect for several cases, and obtain differences of 4.3-10 EUR/MWh, corresponding to up to 40% of the support payments in particular cases. Lower risk exposure under feed-in tariffs also leads to faster deployment and in some situations smaller project sizes. The results for tradable green certificate schemes are more ambiguous, depending on the characteristics of the underlying stochastic processes. We also show that policies that reduce risk for investors can trigger more successful energy transitions, if certain conditions are fulfilled and policy safeguards are put in place for later phases of the development. Overall, this dissertation contributes with model development in the area of support scheme analysis, using several innovative approaches for partial models that produce easily and quickly applicable results. Thus, tools are provided that help in the design of RES support policies, e.g. when deciding between support instruments and when determining adequate support levels.

  5. Rumen bypass nutrients: Manipulation and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feeds available for ruminants in developing countries are either agro-industrial by-products or specially grown forage crops. Many of these feeds are low in protein and require supplementation with non-protein N (NPN) to maintain efficient rumen function and digestibility. The principles for utilizing high energy, low protein feeds by ruminants are discussed in relation to the supply of NPN, the establishment of efficient rumen function, maximizing feed intake by means of supplements, and increasing total energy and protein intake by using supplements which bypass the rumen. To illustrate it the application of these principles to feeding systems based on molasses, chopped whole sugar cane and derinded sugar cane is discussed. The implications of the principles in increasing the feeding value of straw are also discussed. (author)

  6. Implications of global warming on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the build up of green house gases in atmosphere, less heat escapes through the atmosphere promoting global warming. This may result in world wide droughts, sea-level rise inundating islands and coastal countries, cataclysmic hurricanes etc. Human health as a result of these changes, will be affected both physiologically and psychologically. Physiological effects may be more pronounced in cases occurring due to changes in rainfall and temperature patterns, food production amounts, water availability, etc. Psychological impact may be more in cases of catastrophes like floods, hurricanes or famine. In this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the implications of global warming on human health due to temperature change. Food production changes and ultra-violet radiation effects and cataclysmic disaster effects. (author)

  7. Racism and cardiovascular disease: implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer; McGibbon, Elizabeth; Waldron, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    The social determinants of health (SDH) are recognized as a prominent influence on health outcomes across the lifespan. Racism is identified as a key SDH. In this article, the authors describe the concept of racism as an SDH, its impact in discriminatory actions and inactions, and the implications for cardiovascular nurses. Although research in Canada on the links among racism, stress, and cardiovascular disease is limited, there is growing evidence about the stress of racism and its long-term impact on cardiovascular health. The authors discuss how cardiovascular nursing could be enhanced through an understanding of racism-related stress, and race-based differences in cardiovascular care. The authors conclude with strategies for action to address this nursing concern. PMID:24400461

  8. Nursing implications for Hepatic arterial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurses working in Nuclear Medicine assist in Hepatic Artery Catheter (HAC) perfusion studies. This scan is not widely performed in Australia, the St George hospital for example performs approximately five per year. The purpose of this article is firstly to review the indications and rationale of HAC patency studies. Secondly, this article will stress the clinical implications for the Nuclear Medicine Nurse during this study. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of patient education during the procedure. A brief overview of hepatic anatomy and the radiopharmaceuticals administered during the scan is discussed. Finally, a step by step protocol is presented to show how the perfusion/ shunt study is performed. Copyright (1999) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  9. IMPLICATIONS OF MYCOTOXINS IN LIVESTOCK FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer DENLI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of foods and feeds is a significant problem in worldwide. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi, particularly by many species of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Claviceps and Alternaria in many agricultural crops, especially in cereals and most oilseeds. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearelenone and fumonisins are the mycotoxins of greatest agro-economic importance. Mycotoxins have various acute and chronic effects on animals (especially monogastrics depending on species and susceptibility of an animal within a species. The most applied method to prevent mycotoxicosis in animals involves the addition to the diet of additives with the ability to bind or metabolize mycotoxin in the gastrointestinal digesta, aluminosilicates, activated charcoal, yeast and several polymers have been tested regarding the adsorption of mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of different species. The efficiency of mycotoxin binders, however, differs considerably depending mainly on the chemical structure of both the adsorbent and the toxin. This review describes the most implications of mycotoxins in livestock feeds.

  10. Heat Shock Proteins and their clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pathan

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the physiological role of heat shock proteins is currently limited; however better understanding of their function and thereby the acquisition of the capacity to harness their power might lead to their use as therapeutic agents and revolutionize clinical practice in a number of areas. Future work is needed to translate the experimental data on the capacity of heat shock proteins to induce tumor protection and immunity to infectious agents into the clinical environment. Approach to cancer vaccine is based on the role of HSP in the presentation of antigens. In several infections and especially autoimmune diseases, the implications of immune responses against HSP are still not properly or fully understood. HSP have clinical significance in conditions such as cardiac hypertrophy, vascular wall injury, cardiac surgery, ischemic preconditioning and ageing. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000: 558-560

  11. Phonological development in young bilinguals: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Cynthia; Scarpelli, Chiara

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews recent research on bilingual phonological development and describes the nature of bilingual phonology, focusing on characteristics of cross-linguistic influence on bilingual phonological abilities. There is evidence of positive and negative transfer (acceleration and deceleration) on children's phonological abilities. Several methodological issues limit the ability to generalize findings from previous research to larger groups of bilingual children (e.g., small sample size, lack of consideration of age of acquisition of each language, and language abilities of the participants). Sources of heterogeneity in language development are presented and discussed. Phonological abilities are related to language abilities in bilingual first language learners of English and Spanish. Empirical evidence from research in our laboratory supports this claim. We discuss implications of research findings and limitations for future research and clinical practice. We provide specific recommendations for bilingual research and for clinical assessment of young bilingual children. PMID:25922995

  12. Promoting biofuels: Implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in biofuels is growing worldwide as concerns about the security of energy supply and climate change are moving into the focus of policy makers. With the exception of bioethanol from Brazil, however, production costs of biofuels are typically much higher than those of fossil fuels. As a result, promotion measures such as tax exemptions or blending quotas are indispensable for ascertaining substantial biofuel demand. With particular focus on developing countries, this paper discusses the economic justification of biofuel promotion instruments and investigates their implications. Based on data from India and Tanzania, we find that substantial biofuel usage induces significant financial costs. Furthermore, acreage availability is a binding natural limitation that could also lead to conflicts with food production. Yet, if carefully implemented under the appropriate conditions, biofuel programs might present opportunities for certain developing countries

  13. Changing NHS structures: implications for nursing careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmer, R; Dowling, M

    This article explores what implications the flatter NHS structures (after the restructuring of April 1999) might have for nursing careers. It examines issues of recognition, reward systems and career pathways and the problems these may pose for the retention of qualified staff within nursing. It is seen that flatter structures will offer little in the way of traditional vertical promotion opportunities and readers are invited to explore the possibility of lateral promotion, continuous development, career grids and the rise of the generic nurse. Speculation about the introduction of competency-based pay systems is introduced. The article attempts to progress the debate in the area of the links between structure and supporting human resource infrastructures within the public sector set against background context of severe cash constraints. It seeks to raise the issues and open debate among practitioners. PMID:12271196

  14. The international remote monitoring project and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becoming aware of the significant changes of the past several years and their effect on the expectations to international safeguards, it is necessary to reflect on which direction the development of nuclear safeguards in a new era needs to take. The time-proven monitoring techniques, based on quantitative factors and demonstrated universal application, have shown their merit. However, the new expectations suggest a possibility that a future IAEA safeguards system could rely more heavily on the value of a comprehensive, transparent, and open implementation regime. Within such a regime, the associated measures need to be determined and technological support identified. This paper will identify proven techniques which, with appropriate implementation support, could most quickly make available additional measures for a comprehensive, transparent and open implementation regime. In particular, it will examine the future of remote monitoring in International Safeguards, and provide an update on the International Remote Monitoring Project and related implications. (author)

  15. Chronobiology of bipolar disorder: therapeutic implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaspezia, Sara; Benedetti, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that psychopathological symptoms of bipolar disorder arise in part from a malfunction of the circadian system, linking the disease with an abnormal internal timing. Alterations in circadian rhythms and sleep are core elements in the disorders, characterizing both mania and depression and having recently been shown during euthymia. Several human genetic studies have implicated specific genes that make up the genesis of circadian rhythms in the manifestation of mood disorders with polymorphisms in molecular clock genes not only showing an association with the disorder but having also been linked to its phenotypic particularities. Many medications used to treat the disorder, such as antidepressant and mood stabilizers, affect the circadian clock. Finally, circadian rhythms and sleep researches have been the starting point of the developing of chronobiological therapies. These interventions are safe, rapid and effective and they should be considered first-line strategies for bipolar depression. PMID:26112914

  16. Waste management implications of concentrating slimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anticipated increase in demand for sand-size tailings from the uranium industry suggests that the fine-grained or 'slime' fraction will require special attention for disposal. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) required information on the behaviour and environmental significance of the fine-grained tailings fraction in disposal facilities. Beak Consultants and Golder Associates were contracted to review the significant characteristics of slimes disposal and prepare a report on the physical and chemical characteristics of fine-grained tailings (Phase 1). This report (Phase 2) presents a summary of disposal and management practices for slimes and outlines potential concerns related to these practices. The report also presents an approach to disposal planning and the implications of available and potential management techniques. Experience with the disposal of uranium slimes is scarce and, therefore, relevant information was borrowed from the other mining sectors to predict the consequences of various disposal scenarios

  17. Patient satisfaction: Implications and predictors of success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Eric D; Sanders, James O

    2013-05-15

    Patient satisfaction is an individual's cognitive evaluation of, and emotional reaction to, his or her health-care experience. This concept is increasing in importance as survey data are being used by health-care facilities for self-assessment, accreditation requirements, and compensation formulas. High patient satisfaction is associated with increased market share, financial gains, decreased malpractice claims, and improved reimbursement rates. Modifiable factors that contribute to satisfaction include physician-patient communication, the setting of appropriate expectations, minimization of waiting times, and provision of continuity of care. There are also factors that are less amenable to change, including chronic illness, opioid dependence, and sociodemographic status. Satisfaction with a surgical outcome differs from satisfaction with an office visit. Accurate expectations and patient-reported outcome measures are important determinants of satisfaction after a surgical procedure. Physicians can improve patient satisfaction in their practice by understanding the implications of satisfaction and the predictors of success. PMID:23677370

  18. Hostility Patterns: Implications for Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofhauser, Cynthia D

    2015-07-01

    In order to present the state of the science of hostility among and across disciplines, a review of the literature was completed. The knowledge gained may influence nursing practice. Scholarly works from nursing, medical and basic sciences, psychology, sociology, education, philosophy, business, communication, and criminology were reviewed. Similar patterns in the use of the concept were discovered. The patterns revealed five themes: hostility as a health-risk factor, hostility as a factor in family relationships, hostility as a factor in perceived challenge, hostility as a factor in criminal behavior, and hostility as a factor in the workplace. Based on the knowledge gained about hostility, implications for nursing practice related to changing the hostile working environment for nurses were suggested using modeling and role-modeling nursing theory. PMID:26109695

  19. Low energy implications of minimal superstring unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the phenomenological implications of effective supergravities based on string vacua with spontaneously broken N =1 supersymmetry by dilation and moduli F-terms. We further require Minimal String Unification, namely that large string threshold corrections ensure the correct unification of the gauge couplings at the grand unification scale. The whole supersymmetric mass spectrum turns out to be determined in terms of only two independent parameters, the dilaton-moduli mixing angle and the gravitino mass. In particular we discuss the region of the parameter space where at least one superpartner is ''visible'' at LEPII. We find that the most likely candidates are the scalar partner of the right-handed electron and the lightest chargino, with interesting correlations between their masses and with the mass of the lightest higgs. We show how discovering SUSY particles at LEPII might rather sharply discriminate between scenarios with pure dilaton SUSY breaking and mixed dilaton-moduli breaking. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs

  20. Environmental control implications of coal use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilzbach, K. E.; Livengood, C. D.; Farber, P. S.

    1980-01-01

    The Environmental Control Technology for Coal Utilization program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting DOE by providing information required in the planning and guidance of R and D programs for coal utilization technologies and the associated environmental controls. Both available and developing technologies for the entire energy system from the mine mouth through ultimate waste disposal are analyzed. The tools of technology assessment and systems analysis are used to provide balanced evaluations of the engineering, environmental, and economic aspects of the technologies, as well as identification of synergistic effects and secondary or indirect impacts. This paper deals with three topics: First, the assessments performed to date that indicate the nature of our current work are briefly reviewed. Next, the computerized models and data bases utilized in our assessments are described. Lastly, some of the results from a major ongoing study of environmental controls for industrial boilers are presented and their implications discussed.

  1. Nuclear power: Health implications of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides general guidelines for national public health and environmental authorities. It does not provide detailed technical data, but instead broadly surveys the whole field, indicating the present position as assessed by members of the Working Group. The Working Group considered three major facets: physiological, toxicological and dosimetric aspects of the transuranium elements; the application of occupational health control, including health physics; and environmental behaviour together with public health implications associated with the transuranium elements. The intention was to cover all aspects relevant to health, with respect both to those who are occupationally engaged in work with such elements and to the general public who might be affected as the result of such operations. Consideration was also given to routine and emergency situations

  2. Persuasive Recommender Systems Conceptual Background and Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, Kyung-Hyan; Zanker, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Whether users are likely to accept the recommendations provided by a recommender system is of utmost importance to system designers and the marketers who implement them. By conceptualizing the advice seeking and giving relationship as a fundamentally social process, important avenues for understanding the persuasiveness of recommender systems open up. Specifically, research regarding influential factors in advice seeking relationships, which is abundant in the context of human-human relationships, can provide an important framework for identifying potential influence factors in recommender system context. This book reviews the existing literature on the factors in advice seeking relationships in the context of human-human, human-computer, and human-recommender system interactions. It concludes that many social cues that have been identified as influential in other contexts have yet to be implemented and tested with respect to recommender systems. Implications for recommender system research and design are dis...

  3. Implications of ?- ? flavored CP symmetry of leptons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, R. N.; Nishi, C. C.

    2015-08-01

    We discuss gauge models incorporating ?-? flavored CP symmetry (called CP ?? in the text) in combination with L ? - L ? invariance to understand neutrino mixings and discuss their phenomenological implications. We show that viable leptogenesis in this setting requires that the lightest right-handed neutrino mass must be between 109-1012 GeV and for effective two hierarchical right-handed neutrinos, leptogenesis takes place only in a narrower range of 5 × 1010-1012 GeV. A multi-Higgs realization of this idea implies that there must be a pseudoscalar Higgs boson with mass less than 300 GeV. Generically, the vev alignment problem can be naturally avoided in our setting.

  4. Exploring Forensic Implications of the Fusion Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the forensic implications of Apple's Fusion Drive. The Fusion Drive is an example of auto-tiered storage. It uses a combination of a flash drive and a magnetic drive. Data is moved between the drives automatically to maximize system performance. This is different from traditional caches because data is moved and not simply copied. The research included understanding the drive structure, populating the drive, and then accessing data in a controlled setting to observe data migration strategies. It was observed that all the data is first written to the flash drive with 4 GB of free space always maintained. If data on the magnetic drive is frequently accessed, it is promoted to the flash drive while demoting other information. Data is moved at a block-level and not a file-level. The Fusion Drive didn't alter the timestamps of files with data migration.

  5. Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has shown that the application of shear not only accelerates the transitions to more stable polymorphs, but also causes orientation of the crystallites[1]. The implications of orientation on the structures formed under conditions of shear and cooling will be described using x-ray diffraction and mechanical measurements. 1 G. Mazzanti, S. E. Guthrie, E. B. Sirota et al., Crystal Growth & Design 3 (5), 721 (2003).

  6. Implications of inherent safe nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of present day nuclear power reactors and research reactors depends on a combination of design features of passive and active systems, and the alert judgement of their operators. A few inherently safe designs of nuclear reactors for power plants are currently under development. In these designs, the passive systems are emphasized, and the active systems are minimized. Also efforts are made to eliminate the potential for human failures that initiate the series of accidents. If a major system fails in these designs, the core is flooded automatically with coolants that flow by gravity, not by mechanical pumps or electromagnetic actuators. Depending on the choice of the coolants--water, liquid metal and helium gas--there are three principal types of inherently safe reactors. In this paper, these inherently safe reactor designs are reviewed and their implications are discussed. Further, future perspectives of their acceptance by nuclear industries are discussed. (author)

  7. Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mukesh, Srivastava; Betsy J, Gips.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are percei [...] ved, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise.

  8. Prenatal and adult stress interplay - behavioral implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Sanna Lemming; Wegener, G; Rosenberg, Raben; Lund, S P; Hougaard, Karin Sørig

    stressful events, but also that this interaction is complex and could influence the interplay between PPI and basal startle. Our results suggest that circumstances dating back to early development may have implications for adult life behavior, and based on this we propose a new theory of a threshold in the......The origin of adult behavior and the possible pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders remain elusive, but extensive research indicates that interaction of genes and environment play a crucial role for adult phenotype. Differences in susceptibility may arise by earlier experiences and genomic...... that a single aversive procedure would induce long-term hyperactivity in the HPA-axis of rats that had become vulnerable by prenatal stress, and thereby change reactivity in the ASR. Prenatal stress was achieved by maternal gestational exposure to Chronic Mild Stress (CMS). At age 3 months, the...

  9. IRON-TOLERANT CYANOBACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROBIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Mummey, Daniel L.; Sarkisova, Svetlana A.; McKay, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The review is dedicated to the new group of extremophiles - iron tolerant cyanobacteria. The authors have analyzed earlier published articles about the ecology of iron tolerant cyanobacteria and their diversity. It was concluded that contemporary iron depositing hot springs might be considered as relative analogs of Precambrian environment. The authors have concluded that the diversity of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria is understudied. The authors also analyzed published data about the physiological peculiarities of iron tolerant cyanobacteria. They made the conclusion that iron tolerant cyanobacteria may oxidize reduced iron through the photosystem of cyanobacteria. The involvement of both Reaction Centers 1 and 2 is also discussed. The conclusion that iron tolerant protocyanobacteria could be involved in banded iron formations generation is also proposed. The possible mechanism of the transition from an oxygenic photosynthesis to an oxygenic one is also discussed. In the final part of the review the authors consider the possible implications of iron tolerant cyanobacteria for astrobiology.

  10. Rehabilitation treatment taxonomy: implications and continuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Dijkers, Marcel; Hart, Tessa; Whyte, John; M Zanca, Jeanne; Packel, Andrew; Tsaousides, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    In relation to the conceptual framework for a rehabilitation treatment taxonomy (RTT), which has been proposed in other articles in this supplement, this article discusses a number of issues relevant to its further development, including creating distinctions within the major target classes; the nature and quantity of allowable targets of treatment; and bracketing as a way of specifying (1) the skill or knowledge taught; (2) the nature of compensation afforded by changes in the environment, assistive technology, and orthotics/prosthetics; and (3) the ingredients in homework a clinician assigns. Clarification is provided regarding the role of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, focusing a taxonomy on ingredients versus other observable aspects of treatment, and regarding our lack of knowledge and its impact on taxonomy development. Finally, this article discusses the immediate implications of the work to date and presents the need for rehabilitation stakeholders of all disciplines to be involved in further RTT development. PMID:24370324

  11. Implications of LHCb measurements and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 2011 the LHCb experiment at CERN collected 1.0 fb-1 of ?(s) = 7 TeV pp collisions. Due to the large heavy quark production cross-sections, these data provide unprecedented samples of heavy flavoured hadrons. The first results from LHCb have made a significant impact on the flavour physics landscape and have definitively proved the concept of a dedicated experiment in the forward region at a hadron collider. This document discusses the implications of these first measurements on classes of extensions to the Standard Model, bearing in mind the interplay with the results of searches for on-shell production of new particles at ATLAS and CMS. The physics potential of an upgrade to the LHCb detector, which would allow an order of magnitude more data to be collected, is emphasised. (orig.)

  12. [Rett's syndrome: pathophysiology and anesthesiological implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häuser, F M; Lukasewitz, P; Wichert, A; Lennartz, H

    1999-09-01

    Rett's syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder which is caused by a mutation on the x-chromosome; thus, it only affects the female sex. After seemingly normal postnatal development affected girls lose already acquired mental, motoric and social skills. The last stage of the syndrome is characterized by microcephaly, severe mental retardation, spastic paraparesis, epilepsia, respiratory dysrhythmia, neurogenic scoliosis, abnormal joint alignment and muscle contractures. Rett's syndrome is probably the leading cause for progressive mental retardation in girls, but still it is relatively unknown. This paper describes Rett syndrome and its pathophysiology. The following case report discusses special anesthesiological implications due to the immature cardiorespiratory system and describes a coagulation disorder following treatment with valproic acid. PMID:10542899

  13. Name Strategy Its Existence and Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, M D

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that colour name strategy, object name strategy, and chunking strategy in memory are all aspects of the same general phenomena, called stereotyping. It is pointed out that the Berlin-Kay universal partial ordering of colours and the frequency of traffic accidents classified by colour are surprisingly similar. Some consequences of the existence of a name strategy for the philosophy of language and mathematics are discussed. It is argued that real valued quantities occur {\\it ab initio}. The implication of real valued truth quantities is that the {\\bf Continuum Hypothesis} of pure mathematics is side-stepped. The existence of name strategy shows that thought/sememes and talk/phonemes can be separate, and this vindicates the assumption of thought occurring before talk used in psycholinguistic speech production models.

  14. Implications of LHCb measurements and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Anelli, M; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Band, H; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Beigbeder-Beau, C; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernard, F; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; van Beveren, V; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bochin, B; Boer Rookhuizen, H; Bogdanova, G; Bonaccorsi, E; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Brarda, L; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cacérès, T; Cachemiche, J -P; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casajus Ramo, A; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Ceelie, L; Chadaj, B; Chanal, H; Charles, M; Charlet, D; Charpentier, Ph; Chebbi, M; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciambrone, P; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corajod, B; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; D'Antone, I; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Groen, P; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Decreuse, G; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Domke, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Drancourt, C; Duarte, O; Dumps, R; Dupertuis, F; Duval, P -Y; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Evangelisti, F; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Faulkner, P J W; Fave, V; Felici, G; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Föhr, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Fournier, C; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frei, R; Frosini, M; Fuchs, H; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Gets, S; Ghez, Ph; Giachero, A; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golovtsov, V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gong, G; Gong, H; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gromov, V; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Guzik, Z; Gys, T; Hachon, F; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; van der Heijden, B; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hofmann, W; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jamet, O; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jansen, L; Jansweijer, P; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karavichev, O; Karbach, T M; Kashchuk, A; Kechadi, T; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kihm, T; Kluit, R; Kochebina, O; Komarov, V; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kos, J; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Kristic, R; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudenko, Y; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Landi, L; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Laptev, S; Latham, T; Lax, I; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Likhoded, A; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maino, M; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mauricio, J; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meissner, M; Mejia, H; Mendez-Munoz, V; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Mul, F; Müller, K; Munneke, B; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nawrot, A; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nikolaiko, Y; Nisar, S; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Ostankov, A; Otalora Goicochea, J M; van Overbeek, M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; van Petten, O; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Piedigrossi, D; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, M; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Rethore, F; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roeland, E; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; de Roo, K; Rouvinet, J; Roy, L; Rudloff, K; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Saornil Gamarra, S; Sapunov, M; Saputi, A; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savidge, T; Savrie, M; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schimmel, A; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schneider, T; Schopper, A; Schuijlenburg, H; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Sigurdsson, S; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Slater, M W; Sluijk, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Squerzanti, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; Tikhonov, A; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tocut, V; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ullaland, O; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vink, W; Volkov, S; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Vouters, G; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Warda, K; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Wenerke, P; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xue, T; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zappon, F; Zavertyaev, M; Zeng, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A; Zwart, A; Bharucha, A; Bigi, I I; Bobeth, C; Bobrowski, M; Brod, J; Buras, A J; Davies, C T H; Datta, A; Delaunay, C; Descotes-Genon, S; Ellis, J; Feldmann, T; Fleischer, R; Gedalia, O; Girrbach, J; Guadagnoli, D; Hiller, G; Hochberg, Y; Hurth, T; Isidori, G; Jager, S; Jung, M; Kagan, A; Kamenik, J F; Lenz, A; Ligeti, Z; London, D; Mahmoudi, F; Matias, J; Nandi, S; Nir, Y; Paradisi, P; Perez, G; Petrov, A A; Rattazzi, R; Sharpe, S R; Silvestrini, L; Soni, A; Straub, D M; van Dyk, D; Virto, J; Wang, Y M; Weiler, A; Zupan, J

    2013-01-01

    During 2011 the LHCb experiment at CERN collected $1.0 {\\mbox{fb}^{-1}}$ of $\\sqrt{s} = 7 {\\mathrm{\\,Te\\kern -0.1em V}}$ $pp$ collisions. Due to the large heavy quark production cross-sections, these data provide unprecedented samples of heavy flavoured hadrons. The first results from LHCb have made a significant impact on the flavour physics landscape and have definitively proved the concept of a dedicated experiment in the forward region at a hadron collider. This document discusses the implications of these first measurements on classes of extensions to the Standard Model, bearing in mind the interplay with the results of searches for on-shell production of new particles at ATLAS and CMS. The physics potential of an upgrade to the LHCb detector, which would allow an order of magnitude more data to be collected, is emphasised.

  15. Implications of the Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitcher, P.

    1998-11-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP), launched in 1991, aims to map and sequence the human genome by 2006. During the fifteen-year life of the project, it is projected that $3 billion in federal funds will be allocated to it. The ultimate aims of spending this money are to analyze the structure of human DNA, to identify all human genes, to recognize the functions of those genes, and to prepare for the biology and medicine of the twenty-first century. The following summary examines some of the implications of the program, concentrating on its scientific import and on the ethical and social problems that it raises. Its aim is to expose principles that might be used in applying the information which the HGP will generate. There is no attempt here to translate the principles into detailed proposals for legislation. Arguments and discussion can be found in the full report, but, like this summary, that report does not contain any legislative proposals.

  16. Cosmological implications of the Machian principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, Hans J; Zoennchen, Jochen H

    2006-12-01

    The famous idea of Ernst Mach concerning the non-absolute but relational character of particle inertia is taken up in this paper and is reinvestigated with respect to its cosmological implications. From Thirring's general relativistic study of the old Newtonian problem of the relativity of rotations in different reference systems, it appears that the equivalence principle with respect to rotating reference systems, if at all, can only be extended to the system of the whole universe, if the mass of the universe scales with the effective radius or extent of the universe. A reanalysis of Thirring's derivations still reveals this astonishing result, and thus the general question must be posed: how serious this result has to be taken with respect to cosmological implications. As we will show, the equivalence principle is, in fact, fulfilled by a universe with vanishing curvature, i.e. with a curvature parameter k = 0, which just has the critical density rho (crit) = (3H)(2)/8piG, where H is the Hubble constant. It turns out, however, that this principle can only permanently be fulfilled in an evolving cosmos, if the cosmic mass density, different from its conventional behaviour, varies with the reciprocal of the squared cosmic scale. This, in fact, would automatically be realized, if the mass of each cosmic particle scales with the scale of the universe. The latter fact, on one hand, is a field-theoretical request from a general relativistic field theory which fulfills H. Weyl's requirement of a conformal scale invariance. On the other hand, it can perhaps also be concluded on purely physical grounds, when taking into account that as source of the cosmic metrics only an effective mass density can be taken. This mass density represents the bare mass density reduced by its mass equivalent of gravitational self-binding energy. Some interesting cosmological conclusions connected with this fact are pointed out in this paper. PMID:16944092

  17. Learning to Listen - Implications for Interdisciplinary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redish, Edward

    2015-04-01

    For more than twenty years, researchers in the University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group (UMd-PERG) have been developing a theoretical framework for trying to understand how students think about and learn physics - Resources. The Resources Framework provides tools for interpreting how our students respond to our instruction. What may appear on the surface to be serious misconceptions can turn out to have a subtler explanation once one takes into account the roles played in student thinking by (1) experiential knowledge, (2) the dynamic character of their cognitive responses, (3) epistemological assumptions and expectations, (4) framing of the activity along multiple dimensions. The Resources Framework also provides tools to help us understand what knowledge our students bring into our classes and how they use that knowledge to interpret what they are learning. What we have learned in this research has powerful implications for instruction, especially in service courses where an expert is charged with teaching a discipline to students from a different discipline, such as when physicists teach physics to biologists or engineers. For more than a decade, the UMd-PERG and our collaborators have been studying how life science students respond to physics instruction. We have found many surprising results by listening carefully to what students say: Often, ``student errors'' turn out to be failures of communication between teacher and student. Many common practices turn out to be counterproductive and misleading. I will give examples from NEXUS/Physics, an introductory physics class for life science students, and I will suggest implications for instruction and curriculum development. Support gratefully acknowledged for multiple NSF grants.

  18. Cosmological implications of the Machian principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, Hans J.; Zoennchen, Jochen H.

    2006-12-01

    The famous idea of Ernst Mach concerning the non-absolute but relational character of particle inertia is taken up in this paper and is reinvestigated with respect to its cosmological implications. From Thirring’s general relativistic study of the old Newtonian problem of the relativity of rotations in different reference systems, it appears that the equivalence principle with respect to rotating reference systems, if at all, can only be extended to the system of the whole universe, if the mass of the universe scales with the effective radius or extent of the universe. A reanalysis of Thirring’s derivations still reveals this astonishing result, and thus the general question must be posed: how serious this result has to be taken with respect to cosmological implications. As we will show, the equivalence principle is, in fact, fulfilled by a universe with vanishing curvature, i.e. with a curvature parameter k = 0, which just has the critical density ? _{{crit}} = {3H2 } {8? G}, where H is the Hubble constant. It turns out, however, that this principle can only permanently be fulfilled in an evolving cosmos, if the cosmic mass density, different from its conventional behaviour, varies with the reciprocal of the squared cosmic scale. This, in fact, would automatically be realized, if the mass of each cosmic particle scales with the scale of the universe. The latter fact, on one hand, is a field-theoretical request from a general relativistic field theory which fulfills H. Weyl’s requirement of a conformal scale invariance. On the other hand, it can perhaps also be concluded on purely physical grounds, when taking into account that as source of the cosmic metrics only an effective mass density can be taken. This mass density represents the bare mass density reduced by its mass equivalent of gravitational self-binding energy. Some interesting cosmological conclusions connected with this fact are pointed out in this paper.

  19. Environmental implications and applications of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka

    Recent advances in material science and nanotechnology have given rise to a myriad of developments, while in the meantime call for research into the impacts of nanomaterials on the environment and human health. Although considerable progress has been made in the past decade concerning the behavior of nanomaterials in biological systems, such understanding is critically lacking with respect to the fate of nanomaterials in ecosystems. Accordingly, this dissertation addresses the interactions between nanomaterials and algae---the major constituent of the aquatic food chain (Part I, Chapter two), and exploits the physicochemistry of nanoscaled synthetic dendritic polymers for environmental applications, especially for water purification that is a focused theme of the entire dossier (Part II, Chapters two--five). This dissertation is organized as follows. Chapter one presents a general review of the physical/physicochemical properties, characterizations, implications---especially ecological implication, and applications of a host of most produced and studied nanomaterials. In addition, advances in environmental applications of nanomaterials are discussed. Chapter two examines algal responses to two major types of engineered nanomaterials---quantum dots and polystyrene. Inhibited photosynthetic activities of green algae are observed as a result of the physical adsorption of the nanomaterials. Chapter three elucidates the physicochemical properties of poly(amidoamine)-tris(hydroxymethyl)amidomethane- and amine-terminated dendrimers towards their applications in water remediation. Here, the capacities and mechanisms of the dendrimers in hosting cationic copper, anionic nitrate, polyaromatic phenanthrene, and the more heterogeneous humic acids are discussed. Based on the results of Chapter three, Chapter four presents a dendrimer-based novel optical scheme for improving the detection sensitivity and selectivity of environmental pollutants. Specifically, the surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanowire and the high hosting capacity of dendrimers are utilized for enhancing the detection limit of copper down to the nanomolar level. Chapter five exploits a promising use of dendrimers for the removal of potentially harmful discharged nanoparticles. Here fullerenols are used as a model nanomaterial, and their interactions with dendrimers of two different generations are studied using spectrophotometry and thermodynamics methods. Chapter six summarizes the key findings in this dissertation and presents future work that is stimulated by this PhD research.

  20. Policy implications of technologies for cognitive enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarewitz, Daniel R. (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Karas, Thomas H.

    2007-02-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group at Sandia National Laboratory and the Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes at Arizona State University convened a workshop in May 2006 to explore the potential policy implications of technologies that might enhance human cognitive abilities. The group's deliberations sought to identify core values and concerns raised by the prospect of cognitive enhancement. The workshop focused on the policy implications of various prospective cognitive enhancements and on the technologies/nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science--that enable them. The prospect of rapidly emerging technological capabilities to enhance human cognition makes urgent a daunting array of questions, tensions, ambitions, and concerns. The workshop elicited dilemmas and concerns in ten overlapping areas: science and democracy; equity and justice; freedom and control; intergenerational issues; ethics and competition; individual and community rights; speed and deliberations; ethical uncertainty; humanness; and sociocultural risk. We identified four different perspectives to encompass the diverse issues related to emergence of cognitive enhancement technologies: (1) Laissez-faire--emphasizes freedom of individuals to seek and employ enhancement technologies based on their own judgment; (2) Managed technological optimism--believes that while these technologies promise great benefits, such benefits cannot emerge without an active government role; (3) Managed technological skepticism--views that the quality of life arises more out of society's institutions than its technologies; and (4) Human Essentialism--starts with the notion of a human essence (whether God-given or evolutionary in origin) that should not be modified. While the perspectives differ significantly about both human nature and the role of government, each encompasses a belief in the value of transparency and reliable information that can allow public discussion and decisions about cognitive enhancement. The practical question is how to foster productive discussions in a society whose attention is notably fragmented and priorities notably diverse. The question of what to talk about remains central, as each of the four perspectives is concerned about different things. Perhaps the key issue for initial clarification as a condition for productive democratic discussion has to do with the intended goals of cognitive enhancement, and the mechanisms for allowing productive deliberation about these goals.

  1. Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinna F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Federica Pinna, Lucia Sanna, Bernardo Carpiniello Department of Public Health, Clinical and Molecular Medicine - Unit of Psychiatry, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy Abstract: A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific treatment. Further investigations are needed to overcome the methodological limitations of previous studies, to understand the actual impact of alexithymia on ED outcome, and to allow more precise implications for treatment to be drawn. Additional research should also be undertaken to specify which of the alexithymic dimensions are specifically relevant to the course and outcome of ED, and to identify treatment protocols producing a significantly greater efficacy in ED patients with relevant alexithymic traits. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, treatment

  2. Practical implications of nanodosimetry in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satti, Jahangir A

    2012-01-01

    The grandiose promises made decades ago of cost reduction, miracle cures for cancers and universal availability of nanomedicine are still a far cry. Even we do not have any viable model to exploit nanotechnology in medicine. The most important arena of the nanotechnology is the development of nanoscale drugs for routine clinical practice. The current chemo protocols are based on maximum tolerable dose philosophy. Such a dose, when translated into active nanoscale clusters, quantitatively outnumbers the cells in an average human body. These nanoscale drug issues are discussed in this paper. A theoretical framework for commonly used drug aspirin has been considered as an example. The possible quantum physical effects have also been theoretically evaluated. Further, the amount of drug molecules in a standardized aspirin dose of 100 milligram has been computed into nanoclusters. The calculations show that the processing of nanoscale drug is a monumental task which requires new types of manufacturing facilities. Also there is a need to develop new protocols which will help realize the practical implementation of nanodosimetry in day to day drug administrations. These protocols will need to examine the implications of dose-responses such as necrosis, apoptosis and hormesis in medicine for routine clinical practice. PMID:22942869

  3. FDI in Indian retail – and its implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Chandrasekhar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The health of a nation is gauged not only by the quantum of FDI it attracts but also the trend it follows. In turn this is dependent on the economic policies formulated and practiced and the willingness of all concerned to engage with global economic practices. Since the early 1990’s when the government embarked on a policy of liberalization it has been observed that FDI inflows showed a steady increase until the last couple of years when in fact there has been a de-growth particularly 2010 over 2009 by almost 30%. On the other hand China has attracted FDI more than 4 times the quantum of India during the same period. Investors will look to invest in ‘opportunities’ as they see bearing the most attractive returns within a given frame work considering both the ‘home’ as well as ‘host’ country. Facts and figures very clearly indicate the positive impact even in India for certain sectors when FDI has been embraced. On the other hand, India most urgently requires gathering as much as investment as is possible to keep the momentum of growth going and one such opportunity is the organizing of our retail segment which would support development endeavor in a big way. The issue of embracing partial FDI in retail has seen some level of procrastination which requires more urgent and serious attention. Can India afford to lose this opportunity? This paper attempts to study the implications for this investment as also providing some suggestions.

  4. Equine hyperkalemic periodic paralysis: review and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, J M

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to present an up-to-date summary of the signs, diagnosis, treatment, and implications of equine hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. The review encompasses all original articles published between 1986 and early 1993. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is the result of a genetic mutation in the skeletal muscle sodium channel gene. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait; most affected horses are heterozygotes. The classical signs are muscle fasciculation, spasm, and weakness associated with hyperkalemia. However, these signs are only rarely observed in affected horses. Potential sequelae to attacks are abrasions and involuntary recumbency; these problems are not specific for hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, but they occur more frequently in hyperkalemic periodic paralysis-affected horses. It is also likely that hyperkalemic periodic paralysis results in greater muscle mass. There are suggestions that homozygotes may be more severely affected and show signs of upper respiratory obstruction as foals. The practitioner needs to be aware of the tests for hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, and their limitations, so that he can properly diagnose this condition. The industry has the difficult problem of deciding whether or not testing should be mandatory and the fate of positive horses. PMID:8050073

  5. Some practical implications of source term reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a brief summary of the current knowledge of severe accident source terms and suggests how this knowledge might be applied to a number of specific aspects of reactor safety. In preparing the report, consideration has been restricted to source term issues relating to light water reactors (LWRs). Consideration has also generally been restricted to the consequences of hypothetical severe accidents rather than their probability of occurrence, although it is recognized that, in the practical application of source term research, it is necessary to take account of probability as well as consequences. The specific areas identified were as follows: Exploration of the new insights that are available into the management of severe accidents; Investigating the impact of source term research on emergency planning and response; Assessing the possibilities which exist in present reactor designs for preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents and how these might be used effectively; Exploring the need for backfitting and assessing the implications of source term research for future designs; and Improving the quantification of the radiological consequences of hypothetical severe accidents for probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) and informing the public about the realistic risks associated with nuclear power plants. 7 refs

  6. Organisational implications of concentration orthopaedic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J; Mould, G

    2001-11-01

    The re-organisation of the acute health services in 1999 is causing many acute trusts to consider the practical implications of concentrating services. This may be in terms of the complete merger of departments at different units or a less radical policy of the alternation of the responsibility for emergency receiving between units. The benefits may include the opportunity to improve the quality of care by providing more specialist services, more attractive working conditions with a larger pool of specialists providing the on-call rota and enhanced opportunity for training. Economic theory indicates that concentration should lead to economies of scale by greater sharing of fixed overhead costs, whilst statistical theory specifies that concentration should produce a relative decline in the variability of demand. This paper examines the effects of concentration on emergency admissions in an orthopaedic department by means of a series of simulation experiments. It examines the potential economies of scale for theatre utilisation and bed usage associated with increasing the volume of non-elective patients. As the volume of patients increases so the relative variability of demand decreases and the relative demand for emergency operating theatre time declines. Concentration could offer savings on theatre time allocated to trauma patients, but the impact on wards is less significant with concentration having a limited effect on the demand for beds. PMID:12661388

  7. Extremophile Diatoms: Implications to the Drake Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrenburg, Frithjof A. S.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms are unicellular Eukaryotes that (as a group and phylogenetically) are not strictly regarded as extremophiles , since the vast majority of diatoms are mesophilic photoautotrophs. However, among the terrestrial Eukaryotes, diatoms are by far the single group of organisms with the ability to inhabit the greatest range of hostile environments on Earth. They are the dominant eukaryotes in the polar regions; in fumaroles, hot springs and geysers; and in hypersaline and hyperalkaline lakes and pools. Cryophilic species such as Fragilaria sublinearis and Chaetoceras fragilis are able to carry out respiration at extremely low rates at low temperatures in darkness. The Drake Equation refers to the likelihood of there being intelligent life at the technological level of electromagnetic communication. However, consideration of the range of conditions suitable for the habitability of eukaryotic diatoms and prokaryotic extremophiles, the likelihood that life exists elsewhere in the cosmos becomes many orders of magnitude greater than that predicted by the classical Drake Equation. In this paper we review the characteristics of diatoms as eukaryotic extremophiles and consider the implications to adjustments needed to the Drake Equation to assess the possibility that life exists elsewhere in the Universe.

  8. [Clinical implications of the "war against cancer"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Miranda, Daniela; Fernández González, Loreto

    2015-03-01

    This article discusses the origin and implications of the "war on cancer" metaphor. Commonly present in mass media, the "war on cancer" notion circulates also among patients, their loved ones, their support networks, and oncological multidisciplinary teams. In our view when cancer is uprooted of its illness status, and conceptualized as an "enemy", myths about disease and those who suffer it (especially the idea of psychogenesis) are strengthened. Two topics in which the war metaphor is particularly problematic in the clinical context, are analyzed in depth. The first one is the relationship between the oncologic patient and his or her loved ones and support networks. When patients are insistently prompted to fight the disease and think positive, the expression of emotions associated to the adaptive process of receiving a diagnosis of cancer may be inhibited. Secondly, the war metaphor promotes an authoritarian view among the health teams and on the physician-patient relationship, undermining the patent's autonomy in the decision-making process, which may affect his global quality of life. Also, it encourages emotional isolation, concealment of psychiatric symptoms and conspiracies of silence. It is concluded that public policies to avoid the "war on" notion are required. Instead, education of the general population about wrong beliefs about cancer should be encouraged. PMID:26005822

  9. Risk implication of severe accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) is in the process of conducting independent Probabilistic Safety Analyses (PSAs) of all swiss nuclear power plants, in support of the ongoing periodic safety reviews, and other regulatory requirements. These studies are full scope level 1 / level 2 PSAs, including external events and uncertainties. The uncertainty analyses address both the so-called lack of knowledge uncertainties as well as stochastic uncertainties. These studies are being maintained as living PSA for use in regulatory decision making. An example level 2 study for a PWR type reactor, with large, dry containment is used for the present accident management study. In the analysis, the evaluation of accident progression does not credit automatic systemic recoveries (due to recovery of AC power, for instance), for lack of plant-specific data, and severe accident management strategies (SAMs), which are not yet implemented. The risk implications of SAMs are discussed in the present article. For all SAM strategies, with the exception of accident management involving SGTRs, all of the level 2 analyses are repeated

  10. The public health implications of melioidosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Timothy J.J., Inglis; Anastácio Q., Sousa.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis, which is caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a potentially fatal tropical infection, little known outside its main endemic zone of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Though it has received more attention in recent years on account of its claimed suitability as a bi [...] ological weapon agent, the principal threat from melioidosis is a result of naturally occurring events. Occasional case clusters, sporadic cases outside the known endemic zone and infections in unusual demographic groups highlight a changing epidemiology. As melioidosis is the result of an environmental encounter and not person-to-person transmission, subtle changes in its epidemiology indicate a role environmental factors, such as man-made disturbances of soil and surface water. These have implications for travel, occupational and tropical medicine and in particular for risk assessment and prevention. Practical problems with definitive laboratory diagnosis, antibiotic treatment and the current lack of a vaccine underline the need for prevention through exposure avoidance and other environmental health measures. It is likely that the increasing population burden of the tropical zone and extraction of resources from the humid tropics will increase the prevalence of melioidosis. Climate change-driven extreme weather events will both increase the prevalence of infection and gradually extend its main endemic zone.

  11. Investigating Interruptions: Implications for Flightdeck Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorella, Kara A.

    1999-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of multiple task management is attending to new stimuli and integrating associated task requirements into an ongoing task set; this is "interruption management" (IM). Anecdotal evidence and field studies indicate the frequency and consequences of interruptions, however experimental investigations of mechanisms influencing IM are scarce. Interruptions on commercial flightdecks are numerous, of various forms, and have been cited as contributing factors in many aviation incident and accident reports. This research grounds an experimental investigation of flightdeck interruptions in a proposed IM stage model. This model organizes basic research, identifies influencing mechanisms, and suggests appropriate dependent measures for IM. Fourteen airline pilots participated in a flightdeck simulation experiment to investigate the general effects of performing an interrupting task and interrupted procedure, and the effects of specific task factors: (1) modality; (2) embeddedness, or goal-level, of an interruption; (3) strength of association, or coupling-strength, between interrupted tasks; (4) semantic similarity; and (5) environmental stress. General effects of interruptions were extremely robust. All individual task factors significantly affected interruption management, except "similarity." Results extend the Interruption Management model, and are interpreted for their implications for interrupted flightdeck performance and intervention strategies for mitigating their effects on the flightdeck.

  12. Clinical implications of vitamin D deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyjaszek-Matuszek, Beata; Lenart-Lipi?ska, Monika; Wo?niakowska, Ewa

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a common medical problem worldwide and its prevalence rises along with latitude, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, limited sunlight exposure and aging. A great body of evidence has shown that patients with vitamin D deficiency have increased cardiovascular risks and total mortality. Conversely, the presence of comorbidities progressive with age such as abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and hypertension places the patients at an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. The multidirectional effect of vitamin D deficiency is present in different phases of the aging process. Based on the literature review, the risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency most often found in post-menopausal women include limited sun exposure and time spent outdoors, inadequate dietary vitamin D intake, winter season and increased age. Vitamin D supplementation in this group might offer prevention of falls and fractures and may be beneficial for cardiovascular health, what may be especially important in osteoporotic and elderly populations. Prevention and treatment processes involve education regarding sunlight exposure and pharmacological cholecalciferol supplementation according to the recommendations for Central Europe. This manuscript reviews the role of vitamin D and its deficiency and considers their clinical implications, with particular regard to peri- and postmenopausal women. PMID:26327893

  13. Comprehensive Map of Molecules Implicated in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannadham, Jaisri; Jaiswal, Hitesh Kumar; Agrawal, Stuti; Rawal, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic affecting over 1.5 billion people and is one of the risk factors for several diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. We have constructed a comprehensive map of the molecules reported to be implicated in obesity. A deep curation strategy was complemented by a novel semi-automated text mining system in order to screen 1,000 full-length research articles and over 90,000 abstracts that are relevant to obesity. We obtain a scale free network of 804 nodes and 971 edges, composed of 510 proteins, 115 genes, 62 complexes, 23 RNA molecules, 83 simple molecules, 3 phenotype and 3 drugs in "bow-tie" architecture. We classify this network into 5 modules and identify new links between the recently discovered fat mass and obesity associated FTO gene with well studied examples such as insulin and leptin. We further built an automated docking pipeline to dock orlistat as well as other drugs against the 24,000 proteins in the human structural proteome to explain the therapeutics and side effects at a network level. Based upon our experiments, we propose that therapeutic effect comes through the binding of one drug with several molecules in target network, and the binding propensity is both statistically significant and different in comparison with any other part of human structural proteome. PMID:26886906

  14. Environmental Implications of Hydroxyl Radicals ((•)OH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorovski, Sasho; Strekowski, Rafal; Barbati, Stephane; Vione, Davide

    2015-12-23

    The hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) is one of the most powerful oxidizing agents, able to react unselectively and instantaneously with the surrounding chemicals, including organic pollutants and inhibitors. The (•)OH radicals are omnipresent in the environment (natural waters, atmosphere, interstellar space, etc.), including biological systems where (•)OH has an important role in immunity metabolism. We provide an extensive view on the role of hydroxyl radical in different environmental compartments and in laboratory systems, with the aim of drawing more attention to this emerging issue. Further research on processes related to the hydroxyl radical chemistry in the environmental compartments is highly demanded. A comprehensive understanding of the sources and sinks of (•)OH radicals including their implications in the natural waters and in the atmosphere is of crucial importance, including the way irradiated chromophoric dissolved organic matter in surface waters yields (•)OH through the H2O2-independent pathway, and the assessment of the relative importance of gas-phase vs aqueous-phase reactions of (•)OH with many atmospheric components. Moreover, considering the fact that people spend so much more time in dwellings than outside, the impact of the reactivity of indoor hydroxyl radicals on health and well-being is another emerging research topic of great concern. PMID:26630000

  15. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  16. The Greek crisis: Causes and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlamis Prodromos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and critically discusses the origins and causes of the Greek fiscal crisis and its implications for the euro currency as well as the SEE economies. In the aftermath of the 2007-2009 financial crisis the enormous increase in sovereign debt has emerged as an important negative outcome, since public debt was dramatically increased in an effort by the US and the European governments to reduce the accumulated growth of private debt in the years preceding the recent financial turmoil. Although Greece is the country member of the eurozone that has been in the middle of this ongoing debt crisis, since November 2009 when it was made clear that its budget deficit and mainly its public debt were not sustainable, Greece’s fiscal crisis is not directly linked to the 2007 US subprime mortgage loan market crisis. As a result of this negative downturn the Greek government happily accepted a rescue plan of 110 billion euros designed and financed by the European Union and the IMF. A lengthy austerity programme and a fiscal consolidation plan have been put forward and are to be implemented in the next three years.

  17. The question concerning emergence: Implications for artificiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S. M.; Zimmer, R. M.; Elstob, C. M.

    1998-07-01

    This position paper has three parts. In the first part, a brief historical background and various modern formulations of the concept of emergence are presented. A number of problems associated with the concept are identified. One outstanding problem involves the incommensurability of secondary qualities (or phenomenal qualia) with materialist (externalist) ontologies. The intractability of this problem with respect to existing scientific approaches is an indicator of ontological category error, in this case, an attempt to subsume subjectivity into objectivity. In the second part, various attempts at solving the mind-body problem (of which the subjectivity-objectivity issue is a modern incarnation) are investigated and shown to be problematic. It is argued that these problems necessitate reconsidering the metaphysical foundations upon which the concept of emergence is grounded. In the third part, the notion of emergence is reconsidered and a new theory grounded in a synthesis of Heideggerian and Whiteheadian metaphysics is outlined. Finally, the implications of this synthesis for artificing (technology) are briefly considered. It is maintained that "strong" artificiality, the artifactual realization of natural phenomena such as life and mind, is impossible and that this result follows from the essence of artificing. Thus, ontology does not entail technology.

  18. Neurocardiology: therapeutic implications for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David S

    2012-04-01

    The term "neurocardiology" refers to physiologic and pathophysiological interplays of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. This selective review provides an update about cardiovascular therapeutic implications of neurocardiology, with emphasis on disorders involving primary or secondary abnormalities of catecholamine systems. Concepts of scientific integrative medicine help understand these disorders. Scientific integrative medicine is not a treatment method or discipline but a way of thinking that applies systems concepts to acute and chronic disorders of regulation. Some of these concepts include stability by negative feedback regulation, multiple effectors, effector sharing, instability by positive feedback loops, allostasis, and allostatic load. Scientific integrative medicine builds on systems biology but is also distinct in several ways. A large variety of drugs and non-drug treatments are now available or under study for neurocardiologic disorders in which catecholamine systems are hyperfunctional or hypofunctional. The future of therapeutics in neurocardiology is not so much in new curative drugs as in applying scientific integrative medical ideas that take into account concurrent chronic degenerative disorders and interactions of multiple drug and non-drug treatments with each other and with those disorders. PMID:21108771

  19. Atherosclerosis in epilepsy: its causes and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Sherifa A

    2014-12-01

    Evidence from epidemiological, longitudinal, prospective, double-blinded clinical trials as well as case reports documents age-accelerated atherosclerosis with increased carotid artery intima media thickness (CA-IMT) in patients with epilepsy. These findings raise concern regarding their implications for age-accelerated cognitive and behavioral changes in midlife and risk of later age-related cognitive disorders including neurodegenerative processes such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Chronic epilepsy, cerebral atherosclerosis, and age-related cognitive disorders including AD share many clinical manifestations (e.g. characteristic cognitive deficits), risk factors, and structural and pathological brain abnormalities. These shared risk factors include increased CA-IMT, hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), lipid abnormalities, weight gain and obesity, insulin resistance (IR), and high levels of inflammatory and oxidative stresses. The resulting brain structural and pathological abnormalities include decreased volume of the hippocampus, increased cortical thinning of the frontal lobe, ventricular expansion and increased white matter ischemic disease, total brain atrophy, and ?-amyloid protein deposition in the brain. The knowledge that age-accelerated atherosclerosis may contribute to age-accelerated cognitive and behavioral abnormalities and structural brain pathologies in patients with chronic epilepsy represents an important research path to pursue future clinical and management considerations. PMID:25164495

  20. [Burnout : concepts and implications affecting public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Burnout was originally described as a mental condition characterized by reduced work performance, impotence, frustration and lack of capability to reach objectives or goals while performing a job. For some authors, burnout is a poorly defined mixture of symptoms and signs, while other professionals think of it as a disease and a potential threat to public health. Worldwide, it has been observed that the most afflicted professionals and technicians are those who work providing services or assistance to other people, especially those dedicated to health care. This paper focuses on the idea that burnout should be considered a disease more than a syndrome. On the other hand, definitions of health and disease have changed with time, as well as theoretical and methodological references about burnout. In addition, burnout remains a condition that is being discussed in various scientific areas, with radically opposing positions; these approaches are discussed in this article. After presenting different conceptions regarding burnout, the essay concludes with an exploration of its implications and the identification of possible treatments, especially for health workers, among whom it is more common depending on their predisposing conditions and environments. PMID:25504242

  1. Karyomorphology of Taiwanese Begonia (Begoniaceae): taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginuma, Kazuo; Peng, Ching-I

    2002-06-01

    The karyomorphology of all 14 species of Taiwanese Begonia was investigated to elucidate their chromosome features and chromosomal evolution. Among all species investigated, differences in chromosome features are found in: (1) chromosome number 2 n = 22, 26, 36, 38, 52, 60, 64, 82, and (2) frequencies of chromosomes with secondary, tertiary, and/or small constrictions of polyploids, ranging from 23% to 63%, which is higher than the expected value of about 9%. It is suggested that after polyploidization from the diploid species (i.e., 2 n = 22 and frequencies of chromosomes with secondary, tertiary, and/or small constrictions of polyploids of about 9%), chromosome translocations occurred, followed by a decrease in chromosome number, and subsequently stabilized genomes were formed in various species in Taiwan. The karyomorphological evidence also suggested that the chromosome morphology has evolved in parallel in the begonias belonging to different sections in Taiwan. The variation in chromosomal features is more complex than the variation in floral and fruit morphologies. Karyomorphological data also supports the recognition of five new species in Taiwan: Begonia bouffordii, B. chuyunshanensis, B. pinglinensis, B. tengchiana, and B. wutaiana. Based on detailed karyomorphological analyses, the taxonomic implications, speciation, and chromosomal evolution in Taiwanese Begoniaare discussed. PMID:12579372

  2. Associations and implications of cerebral microbleeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinig, Timothy J

    2013-07-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMB) are small haemosiderin deposits, detected with varying sensitivity by specific MRI sequences. CMB prevalence increases most clearly and reliably with age, but CMB are also associated with various acquired and heritable cerebral vasculopathies (most commonly arteriolosclerosis and amyloid angiopathy). CMB often coincide with the other radiological features of small vessel disease, cortical microinfarction, lacunar infarction and periventricular white matter hyperintensity. CMB distribution may suggest an underlying cause; in particular, lobar-restricted or corticosubcortical CMB suggest amyloid angiopathy. In both ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage, CMB appear to be a marker of underlying vasculopathy severity, and therefore a predictor of recurrence. Although CMB are also associated with several broad clinical neurological impairments (cognitive impairment, depression and gait instability), it is debatable whether CMB themselves are causative. The clinical implications of CMB detection remain unclear. Thrombolysis for ischaemic stroke is not contraindicated. It is uncertain whether more conservative antithrombotic strategies are warranted if CMB are detected in patients with symptomatic vascular disease or atrial fibrillation. Studies (observational and randomized) of various treatment strategies in patients with CMB and these concomitant conditions are required to resolve these treatment dilemmas. PMID:23707603

  3. Language Learning Strategies: Classification and Pedagogical Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ag. Bambang Setiyadi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to explore language learning strategies (Rubin, 1975, Naiman et . al ., 1978; Fillmore, 1979; O'Malley et . al ., 1985 and 1990; Politzer and Groarty, 1985; Prokop, 1989; Oxford, 1990; and Wenden, 1991. In the current study a total of 79 university students participating in a 3 month English course participated. This study attempted to explore what language learning strategies successful learners used and to what extent the strategies contributed to success in learning English in Indonesia . Factor analyses, accounting for 62.1 %, 56.0 %, 41.1 %, and 43.5 % of the varience of speaking, listening, reading and writing measures in the language learning strategy questionnaire, suggested that the questionnaire constituted three constructs. The three constructs were named metacognitive strategies, deep level cognitive and surface level cognitive strategies. Regression analyses, performed using scales based on these factors revealed significant main effects for the use of the language learning strategies in learning English, constituting 43 % of the varience in the posttest English achievement scores. An analysis of varience of the gain scores of the highest, middle, and the lowest groups of performers suggested a greater use of metacognitive strategies among successful learners and a greater use of surface level cognitive strategies among unsuccessful learners. Implications for the classroom and future research are also discussed.

  4. Framework and implications of virtual neurorobotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of societal investment in artificial learning systems, truly “intelligent” systems have yet to be realized. These traditional models are based on input-output pattern optimization and/or cognitive production rule modeling. One response has been social robotics, using the interaction of human and robot to capture important cognitive dynamics such as cooperation and emotion; to date, these systems still incorporate traditional learning algorithms. More recently, investigators are focusing on the core assumptions of the brain “algorithm” itself—trying to replicate uniquely “neuromorphic” dynamics such as action potential spiking and synaptic learning. Only now are large-scale neuromorphic models becoming feasible, due to the availability of powerful supercomputers and an expanding supply of parameters derived from research into the brain’s interdependent electrophysiological, metabolomic and genomic networks. Personal computer technology has also led to the acceptance of computer-generated humanoid images, or “avatars”, to represent intelligent actors in virtual realities. In a recent paper, we proposed a method of virtual neurorobotics (VNR in which the approaches above (social-emotional robotics, neuromorphic brain architectures, and virtual reality projection are hybridized to rapidly forward-engineer and develop increasingly complex, intrinsically intelligent systems. In this paper, we synthesize our research and related work in the field and provide a framework for VNR, with wider implications for research and practical applications.

  5. NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebrahtom Gebrelibanos*, Dinka Tesfaye, Y. Raghavendra and Biruk Sintayeyu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Legumes are plants in the family Fabaceae characterized by seeds in pods that are often edible though sometimes poisonous. The nutrient content (protein, carbohydrate and micronutrients of legumes contribute to address under-nutrition, especially protein-calorie malnutrition among children and nursing mothers in developing countries where supplementing cereal-based diets with legumes is suggested as one of the best solutions to protein calorie malnutrition. Anti-nutritional factors, in legumes, may limit their biological value and acceptance as a regular food item, yet they are readily removable and recent research has shown potential health benefits of some of these compounds; and hence, manipulation of processing conditions may be required to remove or reduce only those unwanted components. Moreover, legumes play a role in prevention, improvement and/or treatment of disease conditions such as, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer diseases (e.g breast and prostate cancers and lowers blood cholesterol level. Most of these disease conditions are associated with over-nutrition and obesity and are considered as diseases of the rich. It is, therefore, claimed that including legumes in a health-promoting diet is important in meeting the major dietary recommendations to improve the nutritional status of undernourished as well as over-nourished individuals, and to reduce risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and cancer. In this review, some of the scientific viewpoints that attempt to justify the nutritional contributions, anti-nutritional considerations and health implications of legumes are discussed.

  6. Biological behaviour and clinical implications of micrometastases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kell, M R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The most important prognostic determinant in cancer is the identification of disseminated tumour burden (metastases). Micrometastases are microscopic (smaller than 2 mm) deposits of malignant cells that are segregated spatially from the primary tumour and depend on neovascular formation (angiogenesis) to propagate. METHODS: The electronic literature (1966 to present) on micrometastases and their implications in malignant melanoma and epithelial cancers was reviewed. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical techniques combined with serial sectioning offer the best accuracy for detection of nodal micrometastases. Molecular techniques should be reserved for blood samples or bone marrow aspirates. Detection of micrometastases in regional lymph nodes and\\/or bone marrow confers a poor prognosis in epithelial cancers. The concept of sentinel node biopsy combined with serial sectioning and dedicated screening for micrometastases may improve staging procedures. Strategies against angiogenesis may provide novel therapies to induce and maintain micrometastatic dormancy. CONCLUSION: The concept of micrometastases has resulted in a paradigm shift in the staging of epithelial tumours and our overall understanding of malignant processes.

  7. Implications of terrain movements in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Mohamed M.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the causes of localized terrain movements in Egypt. The motivation behind this research has been the vast progress in constructing huge engineering structures (dams, bridge,, tall buildings, etc.) as well as extending the urban activities in many new cities. These must be properly studied to ensure their safety versus their cost and other economic factors. In addition, the recent tendency is towards building nuclear power stations whose locations must be carefully investigated against the hazard and danger of inevitable atomic leakage, especially in the case of seismically active regions. Also the discovery of new oil wells and mines and the effects of future depletion require considerable attention from qualified investigators. The relative tectonic movements of North Africa and Southern Europe, the seismic activities around the Alexandria region, the presence of faults related to the region of the High Dam and its reservoir in Aswan, the erosion of the banks of the River Nile and its islands as well as coastal lines along the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, and the deformation and damage to large buildings in the Cairo area are examined here as a few examples of the implications of the earth's deformations within Egyptian territory. Strong recommendations are made concerning the necessity of studying and monitoring the terrain movements in the areas where new cities, large engineering constructions and power plants are planned to be erected.

  8. Environmental health implications of global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Robert T.; Patz, Jonathan; Gubler, Duane J.; Parson, Edward A.; Vincent, James H.

    2005-07-01

    This paper reviews the background that has led to the now almost-universally held opinion in the scientific community that global climate change is occurring and is inescapably linked with anthropogenic activity. The potential implications to human health are considerable and very diverse. These include, for example, the increased direct impacts of heat and of rises in sea level, exacerbated air and water-borne harmful agents, and - associated with all the preceding - the emergence of environmental refugees. Vector-borne diseases, in particular those associated with blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes, may be significantly impacted, including redistribution of some of those diseases to areas not previously affected. Responses to possible impending environmental and public health crises must involve political and socio-economic considerations, adding even greater complexity to what is already a difficult challenge. In some areas, adjustments to national and international public health practices and policies may be effective, at least in the short and medium terms. But in others, more drastic measures will be required. Environmental monitoring, in its widest sense, will play a significant role in the future management of the problem. (Author)

  9. Rehabilitation of executive functions: Implications and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Executive Functions (EF concern a range of abilities including problem-solving, planning, initiation, selfmonitoring,conscious attention, cope with new situations and the ability to modify plans if necessary. It’s a high cognitive function that is crucial for a person to get engaged and maintain daily activities whilst keeping a good quality of life. Problems in the EF were formerly known as Dysexecutive Syndrome (DS. There are many models concerning DS, although the literature on the subject still remains unclear. Several works appoint the effects brought by elderly life, as well as abuse of drugs and some psychopathologies. These factors are known to increase the distress of the frontal circuits and that could be associated to executive deficits. The effects of DS would compromise individuals in day-to-day routine, academic, social and labor fields. There is a growing body of studies trying to determine the causes, implications, associations and the best way to take care of these effects. This work intends to review DS, focusing on the most important fields related to this area, such as psychopathology associations, cognitive reserve, assessment and cognitive rehabilitation programs.

  10. Humanistic Education: Concerns, Implications and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khatib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanistic approach introduced by the ideas of Scholars like Erickson, Roger, and Maslow began to permeate the field of second language teaching and learning towards the end of 1970. According to Lei (2007 humanistic approach emphasizes the importance of the inner world of the learner and places the individual’s thought, emotions and feelings at the forefront of all human development. Due to this new shift of focus, language education and pedagogy moved away from the previous behavioristic and mentalistic approaches, and as a result, a new kind of education known as humanistic education emerged. Consequently, significant changes occurred in all aspects of language education, that is, the traditional roles of teachers and learners were redefined and the previously authoritarian teaching practices were replaced by learner-centered classrooms. This paper is of two-fold. First, it is going to take a detailed look at the main principles and features of humanistic education, and second, it is aimed at discussing the implications and applications of humanistic education. Finally, it tries to clarify the new roles and responsibilities considered for language teachers to be able to fully engage the students in the learning process.

  11. Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Araujo, John F

    2013-11-01

    Several lines of evidence converge to the idea that rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a good model to foster our understanding of psychosis. Both REMS and psychosis course with internally generated perceptions and lack of rational judgment, which is attributed to a hyperlimbic activity along with hypofrontality. Interestingly, some individuals can become aware of dreaming during REMS, a particular experience known as lucid dreaming (LD), whose neurobiological basis is still controversial. Since the frontal lobe plays a role in self-consciousness, working memory and attention, here we hypothesize that LD is associated with increased frontal activity during REMS. A possible way to test this hypothesis is to check whether transcranial magnetic or electric stimulation of the frontal region during REMS triggers LD. We further suggest that psychosis and LD are opposite phenomena: LD as a physiological awakening while dreaming due to frontal activity, and psychosis as a pathological intrusion of dream features during wake state due to hypofrontality. We further suggest that LD research may have three main clinical implications. First, LD could be important to the study of consciousness, including its pathologies and other altered states. Second, LD could be used as a therapy for recurrent nightmares, a common symptom of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, LD may allow for motor imagery during dreaming with possible improvement of physical rehabilitation. In all, we believe that LD research may clarify multiple aspects of brain functioning in its physiological, altered and pathological states. PMID:23838126

  12. Microbiological implications of the food irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the wholesomeness of irradiated food which met in 1976 concluded after a detailed and critical review of the available information, that the microbiological aspects of food irradiation were fully comparable to those of conventional processes used in modern food technology. Processing of food by irradiation may be considered from the microbiological point of view as separate procedures: high dose treatment (> 10 kGy), for sterilisation (radappertization) and low dose treatment (< 10 kGy) for pasteurisation (radicidation, radurization), (for definitions see p. 43), disinfestation, or inhibition of sprouting. No public health hazards related to micro-organisms arise from high dose irradiation because this process results in commercially sterile products. On the other hand, it is important to consider the possible microbiological hazards when food is irradiated with a low dose. The microbiological implications relate to the natural radiation resistance of bacteria, yeasts, fungi and viruses or to the mutagenic effects of ionising radiation in micro-organisms. Both areas of concern were reviewed in detail by Ingram and Ingram and Farkas. (orig.)

  13. Safety implications of diesel generator aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergency diesel generators in a nuclear power plant have an important safety function-supplying emergency electrical power to maintain cooling and other vital functions. The research reviewed in this article addresses the safety implications of aging of these emergency diesel generators and the influence of aging on their reliability. Historical operational information was assembled on component and system failures and their causes. One significant research result is that the fast-starting and fast-loading test procedure mandated by Regulatory Guide 1.108 and the standard Technical Specifications has contributed to wear and degradation. Other equally important aging and degradation factors for the diesel generators are identified and reviewed. A new approach developed represents a more balanced aging management program that includes (1) slow-start testing during which operating parameters are monitored, (2) analysis of data trends, (3) training, and (4) maintenance. This approach should improve safety by identifying aging degradation that leads to future diesel generator failures. Timely maintenance could then prevent actual failures

  14. Practical implications of neutron survey instrument performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvements have been made to the Monte Carlo modelling used to calculate the response of the neutron survey instruments most commonly used in the UK, for neutron energies up to 20 MeV. The improved modelling of the devices includes the electronics and battery pack, allowing better calculations of both the energy and angle dependence of response. These data are used to calculate the response of the instruments in rotationally and fully isotropic, as well as unidirectional fields. Experimental measurements with radionuclide sources and monoenergetic neutron fields have been, and continue to be made, to test the calculated response characteristics. The enhancements to the calculations have involved simulation of the sensitivity of the response to variations in instrument manufacture, and will include the influence of the user and floor during measurements. The practical implications of the energy and angle dependence of response, variations in manufacture, and the influence of the user are assessed by folding the response characteristics with workplace energy and direction distributions. (authors)

  15. Effects of Odor on Emotion, with Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko Kadohisa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of smell is found widely in the animal kingdom. Human and animal studies show that odor perception is modulated by experience and/or physiological state (such as hunger, and that some odors can arouse emotion, and can lead to the recall of emotional memories. Further, odors can influence psychological and physiological states. Individual odorants are mapped via gene-specified receptors to corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, which directly projects to the piriform cortex and the amygdala without a thalamic relay. The odors to which a glomerulus responds reflect the chemical structure of the odorant. The piriform cortex and the amygdala both project to the orbitofrontal cortex which with the amygdala is involved in emotion and associative learning, and to the entorhinal/hippocampal system which is involved in long-term memory including episodic memory. Evidence that some odors can modulate emotion and cognition is described, and the possible implications for the treatment of psychological problems, for example in reducing the effects of stress, are considered.

  16. Clinical implications of vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Matyjaszek-Matuszek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a common medical problem worldwide and its prevalence rises along with latitude, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, limited sunlight exposure and aging. A great body of evidence has shown that patients with vitamin D deficiency have increased cardiovascular risks and total mortality. Conversely, the presence of comorbidities progressive with age such as abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and hypertension places the patients at an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. The multidirectional effect of vitamin D deficiency is present in different phases of the aging process. Based on the literature review, the risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency most often found in post-menopausal women include limited sun exposure and time spent outdoors, inadequate dietary vitamin D intake, winter season and increased age. Vitamin D supplementation in this group might offer prevention of falls and fractures and may be beneficial for cardiovascular health, what may be especially important in osteoporotic and elderly populations. Prevention and treatment processes involve education regarding sunlight exposure and pharmacological cholecalciferol supplementation according to the recommendations for Central Europe. This manuscript reviews the role of vitamin D and its deficiency and considers their clinical implications, with particular regard to peri- and postmenopausal women.

  17. Knowledge Management: Implications on Business Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ahmed I. Mulla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Every organization or individual has been traditionally managing the knowledge unconsciously. Now, the time has changed, as a result, a need is felt to manage knowledge consciously. Over the past one decade there has been an increasing recognition to knowledge management. More conscious and active management of knowledge can bring significant contribution and benefits to the organizations. Knowledge is an asset, which helps in achieving individual or organizational goal. The speed of changes generated by human knowledge is moving at a quantum leap, most of them are unexpected and some of them are uncontrolled, simply cannot turn back. We are living in an age of science and technology, knowledge and its varied application. The varied applications of knowledge will inevitably determine our future. In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight the knowledge, its source and forms, flow of knowledge management, knowledge creativity, functions of knowledge management and emergence of knowledge societies in general and its implications on business education in particular.

  18. Physiological Implications of Myocardial Scar Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, William J; Clarke, Samantha A; Quinn, T Alexander; Holmes, Jeffrey W

    2015-10-01

    Once myocardium dies during a heart attack, it is replaced by scar tissue over the course of several weeks. The size, location, composition, structure, and mechanical properties of the healing scar are all critical determinants of the fate of patients who survive the initial infarction. While the central importance of scar structure in determining pump function and remodeling has long been recognized, it has proven remarkably difficult to design therapies that improve heart function or limit remodeling by modifying scar structure. Many exciting new therapies are under development, but predicting their long-term effects requires a detailed understanding of how infarct scar forms, how its properties impact left ventricular function and remodeling, and how changes in scar structure and properties feed back to affect not only heart mechanics but also electrical conduction, reflex hemodynamic compensations, and the ongoing process of scar formation itself. In this article, we outline the scar formation process following a myocardial infarction, discuss interpretation of standard measures of heart function in the setting of a healing infarct, then present implications of infarct scar geometry and structure for both mechanical and electrical function of the heart and summarize experiences to date with therapeutic interventions that aim to modify scar geometry and structure. One important conclusion that emerges from the studies reviewed here is that computational modeling is an essential tool for integrating the wealth of information required to understand this complex system and predict the impact of novel therapies on scar healing, heart function, and remodeling following myocardial infarction. PMID:26426470

  19. Implications for global energy markets: energy market outlook and implications for gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijver, Walter van de

    1998-07-01

    This paper examines the Shell companies views on the implications for global energy markets, and discusses the belief in precautionary measures such as greenhouse gases emissions limits, the need for the developed countries to take the lead in reducing emissions, and the goal of better living standards globally spread and globally sustainable. The energy future is considered, and the changing world of gas, Shell initiatives in gas development including the Camisea gas and condensate field project in South America, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) developments in India, China and Brazil are considered. (UK)

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF CONSERVATION TILLAGE: A SYSTEMS APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation tillage is projected to be the major soil protection method and candidate best management practice for improving surface water quality. Environmental and health implications as well as the agronomic virtues of conservation tillage must be identified and evaluated. A ...

  1. Empirical Traffic Data and Their Implications for Traffic Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Helbing, Dirk

    1998-01-01

    From single vehicle data a number of new empirical results about the temporal evolution, correlation, and density-dependence of macroscopic traffic quantities have been determined. These have relevant implications for traffic modeling and allow to test existing traffic models.

  2. Ions in water and biophysical implications from chaos to cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Yizhak

    2012-01-01

    This book offers a physicochemical point of view of the effects of ions on water structure, discusses their biophysical implications, and suggests innovative solutions that will challenge the biophysics research establishment.

  3. Common Pediatric Disabilities: Medical Aspects and Educational Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Janet Siantz; Colson, Steven

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents definitions of common pediatric disabilities and information about incidence, causes, diagnosis, common characteristics, complications with educational implications, and multidisciplinary intervention approaches. It covers the following conditions: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, fragile…

  4. Theory of Multiple Intelligences: Implications for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2001-01-01

    Reviews implications of Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences for higher education: responding to increased access, the necessity of meeting the needs of diverse users, and the accountability movement. (EV)

  5. A Palestinian state : implications for security and American policy

    OpenAIRE

    Colbert, Jim

    2004-01-01

    This important collection of essays, with contributions by scholars and Middle East Security and policy experts, explores the effects of a Palestinian State on regional security and its implications for American interests.

  6. Implications of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act Amendments of 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Richard P.

    1977-01-01

    Explains the provisions of the Equal Credit Opportunities Act Amendments of 1976 (Public Law 94-239, 94th Congress, H.R. 6516, March 23, 1976), discusses their implications, and suggests enforcement improvements in the Act. (Author/RK)

  7. Implications of recent progress in heavy-quark hadroproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Garzelli, M V; Sigl, G

    2016-01-01

    We discuss recent theoretical progress in heavy-quark hadro-production, in particular focusing on processes involving charm-quarks, and on their implications in different fields of particle phenomenology, from collider to astroparticle physics.

  8. On Power Idealization Filter Topologies of Lattice Implication Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Shi-Zhong Bai; Xiu-Yun Wu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce power idealization filter topologies with respect to filter topologies and power ideals of lattice implication algebras, and to investigate some properties of power idealization filter topological spaces and their quotient spaces.

  9. Alterations in polyadenylation and its implications for endocrine disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LennartFriis-Hansen

    2013-05-01

    This review gives a detailed description of alterations in polyadenylation in endocrine disease, an overview of the current literature on polyadenylation and summarizes the clinical implications of the current state of research in this field.

  10. Co-benefits of CDM projects and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Qie; Xu, Bo; Wennersten, Ronald; Brandt, Nils

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to study the co-benefits of clean development mechanism (CDM) projects, and further to discuss the policy of its implications. It has been found that many energy-related climate change mitigation (CCM) activities, including CDM projects, are able to produce a significant amount of co-benefits, while the policy implications have been limited. Through co-benefits assessment of Chinese CDM projects, it can be concluded that: (1) there are uncertainties relating to co-benefits ass...

  11. Welfare Implication of Foreign Aid and Domestically Funded Microfinance Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Abul Basher

    2012-01-01

    Microfinance as well as women’s economic participation has welfare implications in developing countries. A two-sector model has been developed to analyze these implications. The findings suggest that the welfare cost of microfinance depends on the country’s overall level of development and society’s attitude towards women’s economic participation. The difference in the welfare cost of government funded microfinance and donor funded microfinance programs can be minimized by increasing the admi...

  12. The firing cost implications of alternative severance pay designs

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, Donald O.

    2010-01-01

    Economists have concerns about the firing cost implications of mandated severance plans. Analysis reveals that predicted severance plan consequences depend critically on the precise structure of the plan. Whether governments mandate (i) severance insurance plans or (ii) severance savings plans is important; savings plans have no firing cost effects on employer layoff decisions. The firing cost implications of insurance plan are sensitive to the types of job separations that qualify a worker f...

  13. The Military Coup and its Implications for the Thai Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore  attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup.......The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore  attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup....

  14. Effects of ?9-THC on Working Memory: Implications for Schizophrenia?

    OpenAIRE

    Vadhan, Nehal P.; Serper, Mark R.; HANEY, MARGARET

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the acute effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive component of marijuana, on working memory, and the implications for schizophrenia. Working memory deficits are a hallmark feature of schizophrenia, and have been implicated as an etiologic mechanism contributing to the onset of the disorder. Regular marijuana smokers may also exhibit subtle working memory impairment relative to healthy controls, and an association between marijua...

  15. Shopper marketing implications on communication strategies and actions

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Paulo Duarte; Marreiros, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Shopper marketing is an international recent concept and approach to marketing. Since shopper marketing is in the early stages of development, it is also an emerging research field, and consequently questions and challenges acrossall the marketing-mix variables are emerging. This paper addressesshopper marketing implications on one of those variables – communication.Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to study the implications of the shopper marketing approach on marketing/brand commun...

  16. Shopper marketing implications on communication strategies and actions

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Paulo Duarte; Marreiros, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Shopper marketing is an international recent concept and approach to marketing. Since shopper marketing is in the early stages of development, it is also an emerging research field, and consequently questions and challenges acrossall the marketing-mix variables are emerging. This paper addressesshopper marketing implications on one of those variables – communication.Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to study the implications of the shopper marketing approach on marketing/brand commun...

  17. Socio-economic implications of lignite development. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This working paper addresses the socio-economic implications of lignite development in the rural areas of Arkansas and Louisiana. It draws upon the experience with lignite development in Texas as well as the coal and lignite development in the West. The general implications of lignite development are identified and discussed and are illustrated with a case study of Mt. Pleasant, Texas. Requirements for future research relevant to Arkansas and Louisiana are identified

  18. AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE AND POLICY IMPLICATION FOR SOCIAL ENTERPRISE

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Doo Kim; Seok Yoon; Heon-Goo Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study looked at the current status of Korean social enterprises and their problems and suggested governmental policy implications for enhancing the competitiveness of social enterprises. As the study methods, the current status of social enterprises was analyzed and performance of social enterprise support was examined and then policy implications for promoting the social enterprises were analyzed. First, the direction of governmental policy regarding the promotion of social enterprise s...

  19. The endocannabinoid system and cancer: therapeutic implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindon, Josée; Hohmann, Andrea G

    2011-08-01

    The endocannabinoid system is implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions (inflammation, immunomodulation, analgesia, cancer and others). The main active ingredient of cannabis, ?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9) -THC), produces its effects through activation of CB(1) and CB(2) receptors. CB(1) receptors are expressed at high levels in the central nervous system (CNS), whereas CB(2) receptors are concentrated predominantly, although not exclusively, in cells of the immune system. Endocannabinoids are endogenous lipid-signalling molecules that are generated in the cell membrane from phospholipid precursors. The two best characterized endocannabinoids identified to date are anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Here we review the relationship between the endocannabinoid system and anti-tumour actions (inhibition of cell proliferation and migration, induction of apoptosis, reduction of tumour growth) of the cannabinoids in different types of cancer. This review will focus on examining how activation of the endocannabinoid system impacts breast, prostate and bone cancers in both in vitro and in vivo systems. The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for cancer, as identified in clinical trials, is also discussed. Identification of safe and effective treatments to manage and improve cancer therapy is critical to improve quality of life and reduce unnecessary suffering in cancer patients. In this regard, cannabis-like compounds offer therapeutic potential for the treatment of breast, prostate and bone cancer in patients. Further basic research on anti-cancer properties of cannabinoids as well as clinical trials of cannabinoid therapeutic efficacy in breast, prostate and bone cancer is therefore warranted. PMID:21410463

  20. BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGHEI MARGULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

  1. BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei M RGULESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level.. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

  2. Definitions of fuel poverty: Implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines why the definition of fuel poverty is important in policy formulation and describes how the Government's current definitions evolved from the original concept. It discusses the determination of income and fuel costs and the possibilities for a relative and common European measure. It examines problems inherent in assessing fuel costs as a percentage of income and puts forward the arguments for a ‘budget standard’ approach. The paper illustrates how the size of the problem depends on the definition and chosen threshold and suggests advantages for a rating scale. It illustrates how the income composition and thresholds also govern the distribution of the target populations and the relative importance of the main causal factors, and examines the consequent policy implications. It explores the definition of vulnerable households and the importance of severity and questions whether the UK fuel poverty strategy is targeted at households least able to afford their fuel costs (as the name implies) or primarily those at risk from excess winter and summer mortality and morbidity. Finally, after examining the role of supplementary indicators, it looks at the opportunities for changing the definition and comments on the Government review of the definition and targets. - Highlights: ? There are major failings in the existing official definitions of fuel poverty. ? expressing fuel costs as a percentage of income is a poor indicator of fuel poverty. ? A budget standard approach provides a more consistent, meaningful and fairer measure. ? The scale and nature of the problem changes dramatically with different definitions. ? The definition is crucial to the mix of policies and allocation of resources required.

  3. Implications of climate change for potamodromous fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Stephen J; Morgan, David L; Lymbery, Alan J

    2014-06-01

    There is little understanding of how climate change will impact potamodromous freshwater fishes. Since the mid 1970s, a decline in annual rainfall in south-western Australia (a globally recognized biodiversity hotspot) has resulted in the rivers of the region undergoing severe reductions in surface flows (ca. 50%). There is universal agreement amongst Global Climate Models that rainfall will continue to decline in this region. Limited data are available on the movement patterns of the endemic freshwater fishes of south-western Australia or on the relationship between their life histories and hydrology. We used this region as a model to determine how dramatic hydrological change may impact potamodromous freshwater fishes. Migration patterns of fishes in the largest river in south-western Australia were quantified over a 4 year period and were related to a number of key environmental variables including discharge, temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen. Most of the endemic freshwater fishes were potamodromous, displaying lateral seasonal spawning migrations from the main channel into tributaries, and there were significant temporal differences in movement patterns between species. Using a model averaging approach, amount of discharge was clearly the best predictor of upstream and downstream movement for most species. Given past and projected reductions in surface flow and groundwater, the findings have major implications for future recruitment rates and population viabilities of potamodromous fishes. Freshwater ecosystems in drying climatic regions can only be managed effectively if such hydro-ecological relationships are considered. Proactive management and addressing existing anthropogenic stressors on aquatic ecosystems associated with the development of surface and groundwater resources and land use is required to increase the resistance and resilience of potamodromous fishes to ongoing flow reductions. PMID:24307662

  4. Implications for environmental health of multiple stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose effects of ionising radiation have revealed that similar mechanisms can be induced by chemical stressors in the environment. This means that interactions between radiation and chemicals are likely and that the outcomes following mixed exposures to radiation and chemicals may not be predictable for human health, by consideration of single agent effects. Our understanding of the biological effects of low dose exposure has undergone a major paradigm shift. We now possess technologies which can detect very subtle changes in cells due to small exposures to radiation or other pollutants. We also understand much more now about cell communication, systems biology and the need to consider effects of low dose exposure at different hierarchical levels of organisation from molecules up to and including ecosystems. Furthermore we understand, at least in part, some of the mechanisms which drive low dose effects and which perpetuate these not only in the exposed organism but also in its progeny and in certain cases, its kin. This means that previously held views about safe doses or lack of harmful effects cannot be sustained. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and all national radiation and environmental protection organisations have always accepted a theoretical risk and have applied the precautionary principle and the LNT (linear-non-threshold) model which basically says that there is no safe dose of radiation. Therefore even in the absence of visible effects, exposure of people to radiation is strictly limited. This review will consider the historical context and the new discoveries and will focus on evidence for emergent effects after mixed exposures to combined stressors which include ionising radiation. The implications for regulation of low dose exposures to protect human health and environmental security will be discussed.

  5. Discovering indigenous science: Implications for science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snively, Gloria; Corsiglia, John

    2001-01-01

    Indigenous science relates to both the science knowledge of long-resident, usually oral culture peoples, as well as the science knowledge of all peoples who as participants in culture are affected by the worldview and relativist interests of their home communities. This article explores aspects of multicultural science and pedagogy and describes a rich and well-documented branch of indigenous science known to biologists and ecologists as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Although TEK has been generally inaccessible, educators can now use a burgeoning science-based TEK literature that documents numerous examples of time-proven, ecologically relevant, and cost effective indigenous science. Disputes regarding the universality of the standard scientific account are of critical importance for science educators because the definition of science is a de facto gatekeeping device for determining what can be included in a school science curriculum and what cannot. When Western modern science (WMS) is defined as universal it does displace revelation-based knowledge (i.e., creation science); however, it also displaces pragmatic local indigenous knowledge that does not conform with formal aspects of the standard account. Thus, in most science classrooms around the globe, Western modern science has been taught at the expense of indigenous knowledge. However, because WMS has been implicated in many of the world's ecological disasters, and because the traditional wisdom component of TEK is particularly rich in time-tested approaches that foster sustainability and environmental integrity, it is possible that the universalist gatekeeper can be seen as increasingly problematic and even counter productive. This paper describes many examples from Canada and around the world of indigenous people's contributions to science, environmental understanding, and sustainability. The authors argue the view that Western or modern science is just one of many sciences that need to be addressed in the science classroom. We conclude by presenting instructional strategies that can help all science learners negotiate border crossings between Western modern science and indigenous science.

  6. CHO Quasispecies—Implications for Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian M. Wurm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells are a source of multi-ton quantities of protein pharmaceuticals. They are, however, immortalized cells, characterized by a high degree of genetic and phenotypic diversity. As is known for any biological system, this diversity is enhanced by selective forces when laboratories (no sharing of gene pools grow cells under (diverse conditions that are practical and useful. CHO cells have been used in culture for more than 50 years, and various lines of cells are available and have been used in manufacturing. This article tries to represent, in a cursory way, the history of CHO cells, particularly the origin and subsequent fate of key cell lines. It is proposed that the name CHO represents many different cell types, based on their inherent genetic diversity and their dynamic rate of genetic change. The continuing remodeling of genomic structure in clonal or non-clonal cell populations, particularly due to the non-standardized culture conditions in hundreds of different labs renders CHO cells a typical case for “quasispecies”. This term was coined for families of related (genomic sequences exposed to high mutation rate environments where a large fraction of offspring is expected to carry one or more mutations. The implications of the quasispecies concept for CHO cells used in protein manufacturing processes are significant. CHO genomics/transcriptomics may provide only limited insights when done on one or two “old” and poorly characterized CHO strains. In contrast, screening of clonal cell lines, derived from a well-defined starting material, possibly within a given academic or industrial environment, may reveal a more narrow diversity of phenotypes with respect to physiological/metabolic activities and, thus, allow more precise and reliable predictions of the potential of a clone for high-yielding manufacturing processes.

  7. Widening economic & social disparities: implications for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, N J

    2007-10-01

    India is often characterized as an emerging economic super power. The huge demographic dividend, the high quality engineering and management talent, the powerful Indian diaspora and the emerging Indian transnational--kneeling the optimism. In contrast, there is another profile of India which is rather gloomy. This is the country with the largest number of the poor, illiterates and unemployed in the world. High infant mortality, morbidity and widespread anaemia among women and children continue. India suffers from acute economic and social disparities. This article addresses four dimensions of such disparities, viz. regional, rural-urban, social, and gender. There is empirical evidence to indicate that during the last two decades all these disparities have been increasing. As a result of economic reforms, the southern and western States experienced accelerated economic and social development as compared to northern and eastern States. This has led to widening gap in income, poverty and other indicators of development between the two regions. Rural-urban divide also widened in the wake of reforms. While large and medium cities experience unprecedented economic prosperity, the rural areas experience economic stagnation. As a result, there is widespread agrarian distress which results in farmers' suicide and rural unrest. Socially backward sections, especially scheduled castes and tribes (SCs and STs) have gained little from the new prosperity which rewards disproportionately those with assets, skills and higher education. STs have often been victims of development as a result of displacement. The gender gap in social and economic status, traditionally more in India as compared to other societies; has further widened by the economic reforms and globalization. The approach paper to the Eleventh Plan stresses the importance of more inclusive economic growth. It emphasizes the need for bridging the divides discussed in this article. Unless these are achieved in a time-bound manner, there could be serious adverse implications for the Indian economy, society and politics. PMID:18032812

  8. Siderophilic Cyanobacteria: Implications for Early Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Mummey, D.; Sarkisova, S.; Shen, G.; Bryant, D. A.; Lindsay, J.; Garrison, D.; McKay, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    Of all extant environs, iron-depositing hot springs (IDHS) may exhibit the greatest similarity to late Precambrian shallow warm oceans in regards to temperature, O2 gradients and dissolved iron and H2S concentrations. Despite the insights into the ecology, evolutionary biology, paleogeobiochemistry, and astrobiology examination of IDHS could potentially provide, very few studies dedicated to the physiology and diversity of cyanobacteria (CB) inhabiting IDHS have been conducted. Results. Here we describe the phylogeny, physiology, ultrastructure and biogeochemical activity of several recent CB isolates from two different greater Yellowstone area IDHS, LaDuke and Chocolate Pots. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated that 6 of 12 new isolates examined couldn't be placed within established CB genera. Some of the isolates exhibited pronounced requirements for elevated iron concentrations, with maximum growth rates observed when 0.4-1 mM Fe(3+) was present in the media. In light of "typical" CB iron requirements, our results indicate that elevated iron likely represents a salient factor selecting for "siderophilicM CB species in IDHS. A universal feature of our new isolates is their ability to produce thick EPS layers in which iron accumulates resulting in the generation of well preserved signatures. In parallel, siderophilic CB show enhanced ability to etch the analogs of iron-rich lunar regolith minerals and impact glasses. Despite that iron deposition by CB is not well understood mechanistically, we recently obtained evidence that the PS I:PS II ratio is higher in one of our isolates than for other CB. Although still preliminary, this finding is in direct support of the Y. Cohen hypothesis that PSI can directly oxidize Fe(2+). Conclusion. Our results may have implications for factors driving CB evolutionary relationships and biogeochemical processes on early Earth and probably Mars.

  9. Sonographic findings of ischemic colitis: Clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find out clinical implications of sonographic findings in cases of ischemic colitis. Sonographic images were retrospectively reviewed in 39 patients who were diagnosed of ischemic colitis either by endoscopic biopsy (n=36) or by surgery (n=3). Each patients, were described in one of the three segments (ascending colon, transverse colon, or descending including sigmoid colon) were involved. Morphologic patterns in cross section images were described in terms of which layer in the bowel wall was thickened and whether there was a distinction among layers. Degree of wall thickening and presence or absence of ascites were described in each patient and were correlated with longevity of hospitalization. Follow-up sonography was performed in six patients. Most commonly involved segment was descending including sigmoid colon (n=24), followed by the entire colon (n=6),ascending plus transvers colon (n=6), and in ascending colon (n=3). The most common morphologic pattern was thickening of echogenic middle layer (n=25), followed by thickening of echolucent inner layer (n=12), panmural thickening with loss of distinction among layers (n=2). Nine patients with ascites were hospitalized for average period 13.3 days whereas 30 other patients without ascites were hospitalized for average 9.5 days. Nine patients with ascites showed more severe wall thickening (mean 15.3 mm) than patients without ascites (mean 10.3 mm). When follow-up sonography was done, wall thickening was not seen in any of six patients, and their symptoms had been improved as well. In cases of ischemic colitis, severe wall thickening and/or presence of ascites are associated with longer hospitalization (or necessary of surgery).

  10. Thermoluminescence of ice and its implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of six glow curves of hexagonal ice irradiated at 77 K with various doses of ?-rays have been subjected to rigorous analysis. It shows the presence of as many as 11 thermoluminescence (TL) peaks at 108.2 ± 1.7 K, 115.5 ± 1.4 K, 123.4 ± 3.6 K, 131.8 ± 2.5 K, 138.9 ± 2.2 K, 149.8 ± 1.2 K, 161.3 ± 0.9 K, 168.4 ± 0.8 K, 178.0 ± 0.8 K, 194.1 ± 0.8 K and 203.8 ± 3.9 K (for a heating rate of 0.05 K/s) with thermal activation energies of 0.29 ± 0.01 eV, 0.31 ± 0.01 eV, 0.34 ± 0.01 eV, 0.40 ± 0.00 eV, 0.40 ± 0.01 eV, 0.41 ± 0.01 eV, 0.69 ± 0.01 eV, 0.70 ± 0.00 eV, 0.70 ± 0.01 eV, 0.70 ± 0.01 eV and 0.70 ± 0.01 eV, respectively. The lifetime of electrons in the trap giving rise to the most intense TL peak of ice (161.3 ± 0.9 K) estimated from TL data at 273 K is ?55 ns, while that at 77 K is ?2.0 x 10+18 years i.e. ice can be used for TL dating of icy bodies in the solar system. The physical basis of these findings have been provided keeping in mind the formation of H0, O-, OH-, HO2- and trapped electrons that are known to be produced by irradiation of ice. The implications of these findings have been discussed.

  11. Thermoluminescence of ice and its implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, L., E-mail: louis.rey@bluewin.c [Chemin de Verdonnet, 2 CH-1010 Lausanne (Switzerland); Aerial-CRT-Parc d' Innovation, B.P. 40443, F 67412 Illkirch Cedex (France); Gartia, R.K., E-mail: rkgartia02@yahoo.i [Physics Department, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India); Bishal Singh, K. [Physics Department, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India); Basanta Singh, Th. [Luminescence Dating Laboratory, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India)

    2009-12-15

    A set of six glow curves of hexagonal ice irradiated at 77 K with various doses of gamma-rays have been subjected to rigorous analysis. It shows the presence of as many as 11 thermoluminescence (TL) peaks at 108.2 +- 1.7 K, 115.5 +- 1.4 K, 123.4 +- 3.6 K, 131.8 +- 2.5 K, 138.9 +- 2.2 K, 149.8 +- 1.2 K, 161.3 +- 0.9 K, 168.4 +- 0.8 K, 178.0 +- 0.8 K, 194.1 +- 0.8 K and 203.8 +- 3.9 K (for a heating rate of 0.05 K/s) with thermal activation energies of 0.29 +- 0.01 eV, 0.31 +- 0.01 eV, 0.34 +- 0.01 eV, 0.40 +- 0.00 eV, 0.40 +- 0.01 eV, 0.41 +- 0.01 eV, 0.69 +- 0.01 eV, 0.70 +- 0.00 eV, 0.70 +- 0.01 eV, 0.70 +- 0.01 eV and 0.70 +- 0.01 eV, respectively. The lifetime of electrons in the trap giving rise to the most intense TL peak of ice (161.3 +- 0.9 K) estimated from TL data at 273 K is approx55 ns, while that at 77 K is approx2.0 x 10{sup +18} years i.e. ice can be used for TL dating of icy bodies in the solar system. The physical basis of these findings have been provided keeping in mind the formation of H{sup 0}, O{sup -}, OH{sup -}, HO{sub 2}{sup -} and trapped electrons that are known to be produced by irradiation of ice. The implications of these findings have been discussed.

  12. Chrysotile dissolution rates: Implications for carbon sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Uncertainties in serpentine dissolution kinetics hinder carbon sequestration models. • A pH dependent, far from equilibrium dissolution rate law for chrysotile. • Fchrysotile (mol/m2/s) = 10?0.21pH?10.57 at 22 °C over pH 2–10. • Laboratory dissolution rates consistent with mine waste weathering observations. • Potential for carbon sequestration in mine tailings and aquifers is assessed. - Abstract: Serpentine minerals (e.g., chrysotile) are a potentially important medium for sequestration of CO2 via carbonation reactions. The goals of this study are to report a steady-state, far from equilibrium chrysotile dissolution rate law and to better define what role serpentine dissolution kinetics will have in constraining rates of carbon sequestration via serpentine carbonation. The steady-state dissolution rate of chrysotile in 0.1 m NaCl solutions was measured at 22 °C and pH ranging from 2 to 8. Dissolution experiments were performed in a continuously stirred flow-through reactor with the input solutions pre-equilibrated with atmospheric CO2. Both Mg and Si steady-state fluxes from the chrysotile surface, and the overall chrysotile flux were regressed and the following empirical relationships were obtained: FMg=-0.22pH-10.02;FSi=-0.19pH-10.37;Fchrysotile=-0.21pH-10.57 where FMg, FSi, and Fchrysotile are the log10 Mg, Si, and molar chrysotile fluxes in mol/m2/s, respectively. Element fluxes were used in reaction-path calculations to constrain the rate of CO2 sequestration in two geological environments that have been proposed as potential sinks for anthropogenic CO2. Carbon sequestration in chrysotile tailings at 10 °C is approximately an order of magnitude faster than carbon sequestration in a serpentinite-hosted aquifer at 60 °C on a per kilogram of water basis. A serpentinite-hosted aquifer, however, provides a larger sequestration capacity. The chrysotile dissolution rate law determined in this study has important implications for constraining potential rates of sequestration in serpentinite-hosted aquifers and under accelerated sequestration scenarios in mine tailings

  13. Researching Lean: Methodological implications of loose definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännmark, Mikael; Langstrand, Jostein

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Lean Production has in Sweden become the dominating ideal for ‘best practice’ in rationalization, organizational development and how to organize the work system. However, research into the effects of Lean for different stakeholders has produced ambiguous results. Furthermore, Lean practices seem to overlap with other popular management concepts, such as High Performance Work Systems, World Class Manufacturing and Total Quality Management. This confusion, combined with different methodological and theoretical traditions, has led to much debate and contradictory conclusions regarding Lean. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate some key methodological issues that need to be considered in future Lean research to allow increased understanding of Lean effects for different stakeholders, primarily meaning the customer, employer and employees. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a multiple comparative case study, in which five Lean case studies are presented. All of the studies are of recent origin, and based in Sweden. The cases have been compared and contrasted based on the approaches to Lean, in terms of local ideals, operationalization and implementation. Findings – The findings from the case studies are in line with the existing literature, indicating that Lean has changed over time and that operationalization of the concept varies considerably between work life sectors. The findings demonstrate that approaches related to Lean differ significantly between the studied organizations and stakeholders. This applies to both the interpretations of the Lean concept itself, but also of the operationalization of Lean and implementation design. Although the cases show great similarities in the Lean ideals, the concept takes on many different forms when operationalized, which makes it very difficult to study through a priori definitions. Practical implications/recommendations – The large variation in interpretations of Lean complicates metaanalyses regarding potential impact of Lean on the primary stakeholders of an organization, i.e. the customer, employees and employer. Based on the case studies, we suggest that future investigations describe the Lean interventions in more detail. General descriptions or analogies, e.g. ‘learning organizations’, presumably increase the present confusion regarding Lean impact on different stakeholders. The case studies also illustrate the importance of describing factors that may mediate the effects of Lean, e.g. the local context of the investigated organizations, implementation design. More research is needed to identify these factors, how, and to what degree they mediate the consequences from Lean. Originality/value – The multidisciplinary approach of the included case studies provides an empirical richness that allows us to address the specific issues that need to be focused in the various disciplines investigating the impact of Lean on different organizational stakeholders.

  14. Implications of Water Development for Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Rosegrant, M. W.

    2001-05-01

    Water development for agriculture-the major water user worldwide-is one of the most critical factors for food security in many regions of the world. The role of water withdrawals in irrigated agriculture and food security has been receiving substantial attention in recent years. This paper will address key questions regarding implications of water development for food security at both regional and global scale, including what is the current status of water availability for agriculture? How will water availability and water demand evolve over the next three decades, taking into account availability and variability in water resources, the water supply infrastructure, and irrigation and nonagricultural water demands? What is the role of irrigation in food production now and in the future? What risk will be put on regional and global food production, demand and trade if municipal and industrial water demand is high, environmental water requirement is increasing, or groundwater overdraft is phased off? What is the contribution of infrastructure investment in enhancing irrigation water supply capacity, improving water use efficiency, and increasing rainfall harvesting particularly in arid and semi-arid regions and countries? These questions are explored through a global modeling framework, IMPACT-Water, developed in the International Food Policy Research Institute. In general, the results show that, under plausible assumptions on developments in irrigation and water investment, the rapid growth in water demand, particularly for domestic and industrial purposes, coupled with the a continued slowdown in investments, could be a serious threat to future growth in food production, causing negative impacts on low-income developing countries and the poor consumers in these countries. Food production, demand and trade and food prices will be increasingly affected by declining water availibility for irrigation. Developing countries, especially those with arid climates, poor infrastructure development, and rapidly increasing populations are substantially more negatively affected by future climate variability and declining water availability for irrigation and other uses. As a result, both investments in the water sector and net cereal imports will need to be increased considerably in these countries.

  15. GEMAS - Soil geochemistry and health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Ladenberger, Anna; Wragg, Joanna; Gulan, Aleksandra

    2014-05-01

    The GEMAS Project resulted in a large coherent data set displaying baseline levels of elements in agricultural and grazing land soil, which has a wide variety of applications. Medical geology is an emerging new discipline providing a link between geoscience and medicine by interpreting natural geological factors in relation to human and animal health and their geographical distribution. Medical geology shows not only problems related to harmful health effects of natural geological materials and processes, but also deals with their beneficial aspects. Since the GEMAS project demonstrates the importance of geological factors in geochemical patterns in European soil, this data set can be used in improving our understanding of how the geological processes may affect human health in Europe. The main potential health problems are related to deficiency of nutrients in soil and toxic effects of potentially harmful elements. Deficiency in macro- (e.g., K, Fe, Mg, P) and micro-nutrients (e.g., Se, Zn, Cl) can be responsible for a reduction in crop productivity and certain health issues for livestock and humans. On the other hand, bioavailability of crucial elements depends on soil parameters, e.g., pH; namely, low pH in soil (in northern Europe) makes more micronutrients bioavailable, with the exception of Mo, P and Ca. Rocks underlying the soil layer have a major impact on soil composition, and soil parent material can be a main source of toxic metals, for instance, soil developed on black shale (e.g., Oslo region) shows potentially toxic levels of metals, such as As, Cd, U, Zn and Pb. High content of organic matter is another factor amplifying the toxic levels of metals in soil. Several important topics with health implications can be then addressed using the GEMAS data set, namely, soil properties and element bioavailability, arsenic toxicity, selenium deficiency, potential health effects of liming, uranium in European soil, influence of recent and historical volcanic activity on soil composition and its health consequences. References Reimann, C., Birke, M., Demetriades, A., Filzmoser, P. & O'Connor, P. (Editors), 2014. Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils - Part A: Methodology and interpretation of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B), Schweizerbarth, Hannover, 528 pp. Reimann, C., Birke, M., Demetriades, A., Filzmoser, P. & O'Connor, P. (Editors), 2014. Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils - Part B: General background information and further analysis of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B), Schweizerbarth, Hannover, 352 pp.

  16. Habit formation: implications for alcoholism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Characteristics of individuals with severe alcohol use disorders include heightened cue sensitivity, compulsive seeking, craving, and continued alcohol use in the face of negative consequences. Animal models are useful for understanding behavioral and neurological mechanisms underlying problematic alcohol use. Seeking of operant reinforcers including alcohol is processed by two mechanisms, commonly referred to as "goal-directed" (action-outcome) and "habitual" (stimulus-response). As substance use disorders are characterized by continued use regardless of unfavorable outcomes, it is plausible that drug use causes an unnatural disruption of these mechanisms. We present a critical analysis of literature pertaining to behavioral neuroscience alcoholism research involving habit formation. Traditionally, when operant behavior is unaffected by a loss of subjective value of a reinforcer (devaluation), the behavior is considered habitual. Acquisition of instrumental behavior requires corticostriatal mechanisms that depend heavily on the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, whereas practiced behavior is more predominantly controlled by the dorsal striatum. Dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the neurological adaptations involved in stimulus-response action, and drugs of abuse appear to facilitate habitual behavior through high levels of dopamine release. Evidence suggests that the use of alcohol as a reinforcer expedites habit formation, and that a history of alcohol use produces alterations in striatal morphology, aids habit learning for non-psychoactive reinforcers, and promotes alcohol drinking despite aversive adulterants. In this review, we suggest directions for future alcoholism research that seeks to measure action made despite a devalued outcome, including procedural modifications and genotypic, pharmacological, or neurological manipulations. Most alcoholism models currently in use fail to reach substantial blood ethanol concentrations, a shortcoming that may be alleviated through the use of high-drinking rodent lines. Additionally, satiety, one common mechanism of devaluing reinforcers, is not recommended for alcohol research because the psychoactive effects of alcohol depress response rates, mimicking devaluation effects. Overall, further research of habit formation and potentially related perseverative behaviors could be invaluable in discovering genetic variance, traits that correlate with persistent alcohol seeking, implicated neural structures and processes of alcohol use, and eventually novel pharmacological treatment for alcoholism. PMID:24835007

  17. Generic implications of ATWS events at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant: generic implications. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the first of two volumes. It documents the work of an interoffice, interdisciplinary NRC Task Force established to determine the generic implications of two anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 on February 22 and 25, 1983. A second report will document the NRC actions to be taken based on the work of the Task Force. The Task Force was established to address three questions: (1) Is there a need for prompt action for similar equipment in other facilities. (2) Are NRC and its licensees learning the sefety-management lessons, and, (3) How should the priority and content of the ATWS rule be adjusted. A number of short-term actions were taken through Bulletins and an Information Notice. Intermediate-term actions to address the generic issues will be addressed in the separate report and implemented through appropriate regulatory mechanisms

  18. Implications for global energy markets: implications for non-fossil energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper highlights the recent developments concerning non-fossil energy and examines the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on non-fossil energy sources, and the implications for non-fossil sources in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. The current contributions of fossil and non-fossil fuels to electricity production, prospects for expansion of the established non-fossil sources, new renewables in Europe to date, renewables in Europe to 2010, and policy integration in the EU are discussed. Charts illustrating the generating capacity of renewable energy plant in Britain (1992-1966), wind energy capacity in Europe (1990-2000), and projected renewable energy contributions in the EU (wind, small hydro, photovoltaic, biomass and geothermal) are provided. (UK)

  19. Deforming Etna's Basement: Implications for Edifice stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Richard; Benson, Philip; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2013-04-01

    At over 3 kilometers in height, Mt. Etna (Italy) is the largest volcano of continental Europe. The volcano formed on top of the alpine fold and thrust belt, with basaltic outflows lying unconformably on top of an alternation between sandstones, limestones and clays. Presently Etna's eastern flank is moving with speeds up to 2cm/yr to the east [Tibaldi and Groppelli, 2002]. It is the sequence of layers below the volcano that is thought to provide a complex, structurally controlled, mechanism to the volcano deformation as a whole. This is due to the interplay of gravitational forces, volcanic pressurization, and regional tectonics, which combine to play a complex role that remains poorly understood, especially when the physical and mechanical properties of the rocks are considered. In this study, we concentrate on the rock mechanical component, and in particular the formation known as Comiso Limestone. This limestone forms of one of the key lithologies of Etna's basement. The formation has been suggested to be affected by thermal weakening [Heap et al., 2013]. Previous work on Comiso Limestone suggests brittle behavior for the range of temperatures (up to 760 ?C) and a significant reduction in strength with higher temperatures. [Mollo et al., 2011]. Chiodini et al [2011], speculate carbonate assimilation. This implies that the Carbondioxide created by decarbonatization, is able to escape. Using an internally heated "Paterson" type pressure vessel, we recreated conditions at 2-4 km depth (50-100 MPa) and using an anomalously high geotherm, as expected in volcanic settings (ranging from room to 600 ?C). With the addition of confining pressure, we show a brittle to ductile transition occurs at a relatively low temperature of 300 ?C. A significant decrease in strength occurs when the rock is exposed to temperatures exceeding 400 ?C. In addition, we observe a significant difference in mechanical behavior between vented and unvented situations when decarbonatization is active (>500 ?C). As shown by Gudmundsson [2011] a large contrast in mechanical properties between two formations could cause dyke arrest or deflection. Contacts between the Comiso Limestone (overall ductile at depth) and extruded basalt flows (overall brittle) could very well facilitate such a locality, and such 'layering' will form part of future laboratory investigations. References: Chiodini, G., S. Caliro, A. Aiuppa, R. Avino, D. Granieri, R. Moretti, and F. Parello (2011), First 13C/12C isotopic characterisation of volcanic plume CO2, Bulletin of Volcanology, 73(5), 531-542. Gudmundsson, A. (2011), Deflection of dykes into sills at discontinuities and magma-chamber formation, Tectonophysics, 500(1-4), 50-64. Heap, M. J., S. Mollo, S. Vinciguerra, Y. Lavallée, K. U. Hess, D. B. Dingwell, P. Baud, and G. Iezzi (2013), Thermal weakening of the carbonate basement under Mt. Etna volcano (Italy): Implications for volcano instability, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 250(0), 42-60. Mollo, S., S. Vinciguerra, G. Iezzi, A. Iarocci, P. Scarlato, M. J. Heap, and D. B. Dingwell (2011), Volcanic edifice weakening via devolatilization reactions, Geophysical Journal International, 186(3), 1073-1077. Tibaldi, A., and G. Groppelli (2002), Volcano-tectonic activity along structures of the unstable NE flank of Mt. Etna (Italy) and their possible origin, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 115(3-4), 277-302.

  20. Evaporites in Martian Paleolakes: Observations and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, J. J.; Milliken, R.; Swayze, G. A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Dundas, C. M.; Baldridge, A. M.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Murchie, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    Ancient lakes on Mars have long been inferred from morphologic evidence [e.g., 1], and are considered high-priority targets in the search for Martian biomarkers. Minerals precipitated from lake water reflect water chemistry and temperature, as well as the composition of the contemporaneous atmosphere, providing constraints on habitability. However, proposed paleolakes have until recently shown little evidence for evaporite minerals such as carbonates and sulfates. We previously reported CRISM detections of sulfates and phyllosilicates in finely bedded deposits within impact craters in Terra Sirenum [2]. Subsequent mapping reveals that Al-phyllosilicates are found not only within these ~10 craters, but also on the intercrater plains. Sulfates, however, are found only within the craters Columbus (29S, 166W) and Cross (30S, 158W). Cross contains the acid sulfate alunite [3], while Columbus has predominantly polyhydrated Ca and possibly Mg sulfates in a “bathtub ring” around its walls. Thermal infrared data are consistent with ~40% clay and ~16% sulfate abundances in the Columbus ring, suggesting strong alteration, possibly in a lacustrine setting. Since most craters in the region lack major inlet valleys, they may have been filled by groundwater. Indeed, global hydrologic models [4] predict enhanced Noachian/Hesperian groundwater upwelling in this region, and a new regional model predicts the greatest thicknesses of evaporites in Columbus and Cross craters specifically. Therefore, groundwater may have caused regional alteration, before ponding and evaporating in the largest craters to form sulfates. A new CRISM image reveals sulfate in another deep lacustrine setting. A depression within Shalbatana Vallis (3N, 43.3W) has been described as a Hesperian-aged paleolake based on topography and morphology, including inlet channels that feed six fan-shaped deposits interpreted as deltas, the largest of which preserves features inferred to be shorelines [5]. The valley wall adjacent to this fan contains Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate, and near the bottom of the depression, over 300 meters below the shoreline elevation, polyhydrated sulfate is detected in finely bedded deposits. These sulfate deposits contrast with carbonate-bearing sediments seen in Jezero crater, another inferred paleolake site [6,7]. This difference in dominant anion could reflect local differences in water chemistry, groundwater vs. meteoric inputs, or possibly a change in atmospheric composition over time. Finding more examples of lake evaporites on Mars should improve our understanding of their paleo-environmental and astrobiological implications. [1] Cabrol N A and Grin E A (1999) Icarus 142, 160. [2] Wray J J et al. (2009) LPSC 40, #1896. [3] Swayze G A et al. (2008) AGU Fall Meeting, #P44A-04. [4] Andrews-Hanna J C et al. (2007) Nature 446, 163. [5] Di Achille G et al. (2009) GRL 36, L14201. [6] Ehlmann B L et al. (2008) Nature Geosci. 1, 355. [7] Ehlmann B L et al. (2008) Science 322, 1828.

  1. Implications of caries diagnostic strategies for clinical management decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Vibeke; Hintze, Hanne; Wenzel, Ann; Danielsen, Bo; Nyvad, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Baelum V, Hintze H, Wenzel A, Danielsen B, Nyvad B. Implications of caries diagnostic strategies for clinical management decisions. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2011. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract?-? Objectives:? In clinical practice, a visual-tactile caries examination is frequently...... supplemented by bitewing radiography. This study evaluated strategies for combining visual-tactile and radiographic caries detection methods and determined their implications for clinical management decisions in a low-caries population. Methods:? Each of four examiners independently examined preselected...

  2. ERP in large Danish enterprises: Implications for SCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    This paper argues that with the present state of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) adoption by the companies, the potential benefits of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and integration is about to be unleashed. This paper presents the results and the implications of a survey on ERP adoption in the...... technology; (iii) ERP adoption has matured; and (iv) ERP adoption is converging towards a dominant design. Finally, the paper discusses the general implications of the surveyed state of practice on the SCM research challenges. Consequently we argue that research needs to adjust its conceptions of the ERP...

  3. The Risk Premium for Equity: Explanations and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, S.; Quiggin, J.

    2001-01-01

    The equity premium puzzle shows that using standard parameters and setup, the Consumption-based Capital Asset Pricing Model's (CCAPM's) prediction of the premium associated with systematic risk is out by an order of magnitude.The object of this paper is to consider the implications of each of the broad classes of explanations of the equity premium puzzle for resource allocation, welfare and policy.We argue that the most robust implications are those that flow directly from the high price of s...

  4. Implications of hazes in observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavvas, P.; Koskinen, T.

    2015-10-01

    The current inventory of exoplanet observations provide information for the composition and temperature conditions of these environments. Moreover they indicate that hazes can be an important component of their atmospheres. From studies on solar system atmospheres (e.g. Titan) it is well established that the presence of hazes can have significant implications on the thermal structure and composition of a planetary atmosphere. In this work we will present a study for the properties of photochemical hazes in exoplanet atmospheres in terms of their potential size and density distributions. Furthermore we will discuss their implications on the atmospheric heating and photochemistry in regard to the available observations.

  5. The Political Implications of Violence Against Women in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebukola Foluke Osunyikanmi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Using the primary and secondary tools of analysis, this paper brings out in succinct details, the diverse forms of violence that affect Africa women with greater emphasis, the implications of the phenomenon of violence against women’s political participation is discussed. We thus, canvass the elimination of all forms of violence against women through a new continental gender reawakening process. We reasoned that only this would enable women contribute their quota to the socio-economic and political development of Africa.

    Key words: Violence; Africa women; Political participation; Implication

  6. 77 FR 9946 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Drug Interaction Studies-Study Design, Data Analysis, Implications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ...Interaction Studies--Study Design, Data Analysis, Implications for Dosing, and...Interaction Studies--Study Design, Data Analysis, Implications for Dosing, and...Interaction Studies--Study Design, Data Analysis, Implications for Dosing,...

  7. Observations and implications of extra-terrestrial neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several examples of the data on extra-terrestrial neutrinos are treated to illustrate the progress in experimental neutrino astrophysics. Limits obtained from searches for stellar point sources of neutrinos and relic supernovae neutrinos are briefly described. The observations of atmospheric and solar neutrinos and their implications are discussed in greater detail

  8. Clinical Implications of Dynamic Systems Theory for Phonological Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rvachew, Susan; Bernhardt, Barbara May

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine treatment outcomes in relation to the complexity of treatment goals for children with speech sound disorders. Method: The clinical implications of dynamic systems theory in contrast with learnability theory are discussed, especially in the context of target selection decisions for children with speech sound disorders. Detailed…

  9. School Transportation Issues, Laws and Concerns: Implications for Future Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durick, Jody M.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all building administrators are confronted with a variety of transportation issues. Challenges, concerns and questions can arise from various aspects, including student misbehaviors, transportation laws and its implications at the school level, to importance and implementation of a school bus safety program. As new and upcoming future…

  10. Implications of Transnational Adoption Status for Adult Korean Adoptees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Yoon, Eunju; Hacker, Jason; Caudill, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    This study used a consensual qualitative research method to explore the implications of transnational adoption in the lives of 12 adult Korean adoptees. From the analysis, 6 domains emerged: (a) adoption history and preadoptive memories, (b) meaning of adoption, (c) adoptive family dynamics, (d) racism, (e) identity formation, and (f) counseling…

  11. Medical Waste Management Implications for Small Medical Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrns, George; Burke, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the Medical Waste Management Act of 1988 for small medical facilities, public health, and the environment. Reviews health and environmental risks associated with medical waste, current regulatory approaches, and classifications. Concludes that the health risk of medical wastes has been overestimated; makes…

  12. Efficient Algorithms on the Family Associated to an Implicational System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karell Bertet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An implication system (IS on a finite set S is a set of rules called ?-implications of the kind A ? ? B, with A,B ? S. A subset X ? S satisfies A ? ? B when `` A ? X implies B ? X '' holds, so ISs can be used to describe constraints on sets of elements, such as dependency or causality. ISs are formally closely linked to the well known notions of closure operators and Moore families. This paper focuses on their algorithmic aspects. A number of problems issued from an IS ? (e.g. is it minimal, is a given implication entailed by the system can be reduced to the computation of closures ? ? (X, where ? ? is the closure operator associated to ?. We propose a new approach to compute such closures, based on the characterization of the direct-optimal IS ? do which has the following properties: it is equivalent to ? ? ? do (X (thus ? ? (X can be computed by a single scanning of ? do-implications it is of minimal size with respect to ISs satisfying 1. and 2. We give algorithms that compute ? do, and from ? do closures ? ? (X and the Moore family associated to ? ?.

  13. SOME POSSIBLE IMPLICATIONS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE FOR LINGUISTIC RULES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOEN, FRANK

    THIS PAPER IS AN EXPLORATION OF THE DEGREE TO WHICH THE COGNITIVE CAPACITIES OF HUMAN BEINGS, AS DELINEATED BY PSYCHOLOGY, ARE SEEN TO BE CONGRUENT WITH THE FINDINGS OF LINGUISTIC RESEARCH, AND SOME SPECULATIONS ABOUT THE POSSIBLE IMPLICATIONS FOR LINGUISTIC RULES THAT MAY BE DISCOVERED THROUGH AN EXAMINATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE. IT IS…

  14. Experimental implications of mirror matter-type dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Foot, R

    2003-01-01

    Mirror matter-type dark matter is one dark matter candidate which is particularly well motivated from high energy physics. The theoretical motivation and experimental evidence are pedagogically reviewed, with emphasis on the implications of recent orthopositronium experiments, the DAMA/NaI dark matter search, anomalous meteorite events etc.

  15. Psychological Impact of Migration on Latinas: Implications for Psychotherapeutic Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espin, Oliva M.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the psychological implications of the migratory process on Latin American women in the United States, addressing issues of gender roles, acculturation, language, loss, and grief, that are frequently presented by Latinas in psychotherapy. Interprets these issues as reflective of stresses created by the migratory process, and suggests ways…

  16. Critical Issues in Special Education: Implications for Personnel Preparation. Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Lyndal M., Ed.; Simpson, Richard L., Ed.

    This document is the product of a forum that attempted to identify trends in education that are affecting and will continue to affect children with disabilities from birth to age 21, and the ensuing implications for the training of personnel. The edited transcripts of two introductory presentations begin with volume--"Charting the Course for the…

  17. Environment, Biology, and Culture: Implications for Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    1996-01-01

    Introduces this special theme issue examining the roles of socialization, biology, and culture as they affect adaptive and maladaptive developmental outcomes. Problems of adolescence addressed include antisocial behavior, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, low achievement, and eating problems. Considers factors implicated in successful…

  18. IMPLICATION OF MARKETING PLAN: FOR MARKETING LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. NAIKWADI AND P. M. CHASKAR

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the meaning and purpose of marketing in academic libraries and discusses five laws of library science in the view of marketing. It also describes marketing process, its development and implication of marketing plan, and list of the tools and techniques for marketing

  19. Marital Conflict Behaviors and Implications for Divorce over 16 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S.; Brown, Edna; Orbuch, Terri L.; McIlvane, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined self-reported marital conflict behaviors and their implications for divorce. Husbands and wives (N = 373 couples; 47% White American, 53% Black American) reported conflict behaviors in Years 1, 3, 7, and 16 of their marriages. Individual behaviors (e.g., destructive behaviors) and patterns of behaviors between partners (e.g.,…

  20. Managerialism and Higher Education Governance: Implications for South African Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, F.

    2006-01-01

    This article identifies some of the implications of corporate forms of higher education governance for the management of South African universities. It explores corporate higher educational governance with reference to institutional autonomy incorporating academic freedom. It is the contention of this article that the primary driver of higher…

  1. Behavioral Momentum: Implications and Development from Reinforcement Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaud, Joseph J.; Gaither, George A.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes historical and contemporary theories of reinforcement and clinical application of reinforcement principles to behavior and modification therapy. Presents a behavioral momentum model that studies the allocation of behavior under changed environmental constraints and discusses the implications of this model on behavior modification and…

  2. Vitamin D Status of College Students: Implications for Health Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Eileen McKenna

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a pandemic with implications for compromised bone health and other chronic diseases. Few studies have examined vitamin D status in college-aged individuals where prevention of future health consequences is still possible. Serum vitamin D 25(OH)D status and vitamin D intake were examined in 98 college…

  3. Implications of the Doha Market Access Proposals for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Laborde, David; Martin, Will; VAN DER MENSBRUGGHE Dominique

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses detailed data on bound and applied tariffs to assess the consequences of the World Trade Organization s December 2008 Modalities for tariffs levied and faced by developing countries, and the welfare implications of these reforms. The authors find that the tiered formula for agriculture would halve tariffs in industrial countries and lower them more modestly in developing co...

  4. Sexual Addiction and the Internet: Implications for Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Brian J.; Chaney, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an overview of sexual addiction and explore the relationship between Internet use and sexual compulsivity. The role of Internet use in gay men's sexual behavior is described. Implications for the counseling profession are discussed, and a clinical case study is presented.

  5. Effective Organizational Vision: Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Rex D.; Akdere, Mesut

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the existing literature related to organizational vision and discusses its potential implications for human resource development (HRD). Furthermore, the paper aims to provide a forum for debate on the utility and effectiveness of organizational vision and how it is related to HRD and strategic…

  6. Sexual Objectification of Women: Clinical Implications and Training Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Carr, Erika R.; Moffitt, Lauren B.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the implications of theory and empirical research on the sexual objectification of women. Drawing largely from the American Psychological Association's 2007 "Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Girls and Women," the 2007 "Report of the American Psychological Association's Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls,"…

  7. The Computer as Rorschach: Implications for Management and User Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie

    1983-01-01

    Different views of the computer held by different participants in a medical computing project make it difficult to gain wide acceptance of an application. Researchers', programmers', and clinicians' views illustrate how users project their views onto the computer. Effects of these different views on user acceptance and implications for the management of computer projects are presented.

  8. Financial Implications of Residency Programs for Sponsoring Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiberger, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    Explores cost implications of residency programs within the Veterans Administration health care system, particularly the costs and benefits of residencies in family medicine, osteopathic medicine, and general dentistry, because they resemble optometric residencies most closely. Costs of an existing vision therapy residency are examined, and…

  9. "Looking After Children": Implications for Social Work Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Margaret; Kent, Julie; Noakes, Sara

    1998-01-01

    Examined the academic and curriculum implications for social work education of the "Looking After Children" materials as pilot tested at two British universities. Found that the materials provided an excellent tool in preparing students for child welfare practice, offered a structure through which learning could be integrated with practice, and…

  10. Survivor Revictimization: Object Relations Dynamics and Treatment Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Andrew L.

    1997-01-01

    Uses an integrated, unified framework based on object relations theory and research to provide specific and practical understanding of survivor revictimization. Focuses on revictimization dynamics, revictimization research, the survivor's world of revictimization, and treatment implications based on that framework. Offers a case study to elaborate…

  11. The Legal Implications of Administrative Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Louis W.

    Administrative decision-making encompasses three levels on which increasing legal challenges and liability and their implications need to be considered. At the local level, this may involve violations of procedural due process. A second level concerns state laws and regulations. Line administrators, who frequently make decisions on programs,…

  12. Radiological protection, environmental implications, health and risk management: forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics related to the radioactivity or radiation are presented. The importance of protection and security measures that are required both for public health, occupational health and the medical radiation is analyzed. In addition, it emphasizes the risks faced by professionals who work with radioactivity. Issues that confront the serious environmental implications of such activities are also showed

  13. Appraising the Implications of the SAT for Educational Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian

    1985-01-01

    Differences in the corrected state rankings on Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores are explained by the percentage of students taking the test and by student composition by sex, race, and average family income. Higher state per capita educational expenditures are significantly related to higher average SAT scores. Policy implications are…

  14. Environmental factors implicated in the causation of adverse pregnancy outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Nazli; Westerlund Triche, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcome from environmental factors may include congenital anomalies, increased risk for miscarriage, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction and still birth. Apart from adverse pregnancy outcome, there may be effects on the other reproductive functions like menstrual disorders and infertility. Environmental factors which have been implicated in adverse pregnancy outcome include smoking, video display terminals, anesthetic gases, antineoplastic drugs and exposure to...

  15. Commentary on "Family Obligations in Micronesian Cultures: Implications for Educators"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Russell

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes some interesting observations about the need for educators to understand the cultural positionings of Micronesian students and by implication challenges readers to extend these understandings to other migrant and minoritised student groups. The author would like to take up this challenge and illustrate how useful it is to theorise…

  16. The Same or Different? Curricular Implications of Feminism and Multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Geoffrey

    1985-01-01

    Why radical feminism, which until so recently appeared to be firmly identified with movements toward a common curriculum, will now exert pressure toward greater curricular differentiation is discussed. Multiculturalism and its implications for curricula in Canada, Australia, Africa, and Great Britain are also examined. (RM)

  17. Narrative Rationality and "First Stories": Pedagogical Implications for Children's Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Explores the implications of the interrelationships that exist among the narrative paradigm, children's television, media deregulation, epistemology, and education. Pays particular attention to the concept of narrative fidelity and the impact of television's "first stories" upon the evolution of that concept in children. Addresses specific…

  18. Financial Frictions and Real Implications of Macroprudential Policies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 3, ?. 26 (2012), s. 333-368. ISSN 1555-4961 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Debt * Equity * Bank * Default * Macroprudential policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/Derviz-financial frictions and real implications of macroprudential policies.pdf

  19. LHCb results on flavour physics and implications to BSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LHCb is a dedicated flavour physics experiment at the LHC. Precision measurements of CP violation and the study of rare decays of hadrons containing beauty and charm quarks constitute powerful searches for New Physics. A selection of recent LHCb results and their implications to physics beyond the Standard Model are discussed.

  20. Clinical implications of the molecular genetics of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Foà, Robin; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Guarini, Anna; Rossi, Davide; Gaidano, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Genetics and molecular genetics have contributed to clarify the biological bases of the clinical heterogeneity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In recent years, our knowledge of the molecular genetics of chronic lymphocytic leukemia has significantly broadened, offering potential new clinical implications. Mutations of TP53 and ATM add prognostic information independently of fluorescence in situ hybridization cytogenetic stratification. In addition, next generation sequencing technologies hav...

  1. Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderstrom, Irina R.

    2007-01-01

    Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

  2. Pluricentric Views towards English and Implications for ELT in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianli, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of the classifications or models of English language have been proposed by a number of scholars who attempt to explain the differences in the ways English is used in different localities. This paper reviews three models of classification of English language, with an aim of drawing implications on how English Language Teaching (ELT) in…

  3. Some Organizational Implications of a Management Information System. Occasional Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Marvin W.

    This discussion identifies some of the social and organizational issues which will affect the design and implementation of a university management information system (MIS). Implications are discussed which affect both the data collection, and analysis and reporting segments of the MIS process. The analysis points out the extent to which an MIS…

  4. Wireless Broadband Access: Policy Implications of Heterogeneous Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rendon Schneir, Juan

    2010-01-01

    A wireless heterogeneous network can help increase the access transmission speed and contribute thereby to the broadband deployment policies of administrations and telecommunications operators. Given the technical particularities of wireless heterogeneous networks, the deployment of wireless heterogeneous networks raises a number of challenges that need to be addressed by regulatory authorities. This article analyses the following regulatory implications: standardisation and technology neutra...

  5. The Phenomenological Diversity of Hallucinations: Some theoretical and clinical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Larøi

    2006-01-01

    Hallucinations are complex psychopathological phenomena. Nevertheless, this has not always been clear in the scientific literature, until recently. In the following paper, the phenomenology of hallucinations will be (briefly) described. Then, ways in which examining phenomenological characteristics of hallucinations may have theoretical and clinical implications, will be presented. Assessment tools that examine phenomenological aspects of hallucinations will also briefly be presented. In part...

  6. Counseling the Pregnant Woman: Implications for Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Michal L.; Barclay, Lisa K.

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 57 new mothers to examine the relationship between level of knowledge of informed consent to medical procedures during childbirth with other variables. Results showed women reporting knowledge of patient rights and desire to learn assertiveness were less likely to give birth by cesarean section. Discusses implications for counselors. (JAC)

  7. Implications of dynamical symmetry breaking for high energy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scenario of dynamical symmetry breaking as an alternative to the canonical Higgs mechanism with elementary spin-O fields is described, and its implications for high energy experiments contrasted with those of the canonical theory. The potential role of e+e- annihilation physics in unravelling the nature of spontaneous symmetry breaking is emphasized. (orig.)

  8. Rethinking the Concept of Acculturation: Implications for Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Szapocznik, Jose

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an expanded model of acculturation among international migrants and their immediate descendants. Acculturation is proposed as a multidimensional process consisting of the confluence among heritage-cultural and receiving-cultural practices, values, and identifications. The implications of this reconceptualization for the…

  9. Educational Psychologists' Constructions of Sexuality and the Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Chloe

    2012-01-01

    Despite an underlying inclusion agenda, sexuality equality remains a low priority in education. Review of literature suggests the marginalization of sexual minority young people (SMYP) in schools. This study explores educational psychologists' (EPs') constructions of sexuality and the implications for practice. Discursive psychology was used to…

  10. Oracle. Three Histories of the 1980's: Implications for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeber, James J.; And Others

    Three hypothetical scenarios for the 1980's are presented as tools for exploring the future of the Des Moines, Iowa, Independent Community School District. Each is written in the past tense as a "history" and is followed by a set of implications for education. The first scenario conveys an optimistic view of current trends, suggesting that the…

  11. Suicidality in Schizophrenia: Implications for the Counseling Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    The most common reason for early mortality in schizophrenia is suicide. To date, the most recent comprehensive study on correlates among clients with schizophrenia is "Suicidal Behavior in Schizophrenia: Characteristics of Individuals Who Had and Had Not Attempted Suicide." This article reviews this study and discusses its implications for…

  12. Suicide in Middle Level Schools: Implications for Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepfer, Conrad F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Prevention of teenage suicide and coping with it when it occurs is an increasing concern for middle-level principals. This article focuses on specific implications of the youth suicide problem for middle-level principals with considerations for other principals as well. (Author/TE)

  13. Developmental Implications of Undergraduate Student Attitudes Concerning Juvenile Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph L.; Adams, Don C.

    1998-01-01

    Compares students' preferences concerning systems of juvenile justice using gender and class standing as independent variables. Preferences of upper and lower division students differed significantly, with most upper division students opposing trial of juveniles in adult courts. Discusses implications of students' general patterns of moral…

  14. Ancient Athenian Democratic Knowledge and Citizenship: Connectivity and Intercultural Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundara, Jagdish S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the implications that ancient Athens had for modern representative democracies and the links that can be made to the philosophical principles that form the essence of intercultural education. Such an exploration shows that modern democratic societies have ignored many key aspects of the important legacy left to us by these…

  15. Pumps vs. airlifts: Theoretical and practical energy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the design of a recirculating aquaculture system five life-supporting issues should be considered which include aeration, degasification, circulation, biofiltration, and clarification. The implications associated with choosing a pumped system versus an airlift system to address these issues was e...

  16. Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study--"Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention"--was to explore and describe the perceptions and beliefs of Salvadoran mothers of low socioeconomic status regarding the language development of their young children in order to identify cultural variations in…

  17. Core Strength: Implications for Fitness and Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, Wendell; Pariser, Gina

    2002-01-01

    Presents information to promote understanding of the concept of core strength and stability, explain why this concept is important to spine health, and evaluate trunk training activities with respect to their contribution to core strength and stability, noting implications for physical fitness and low back pain. The paper reviews the anatomy and…

  18. The Bologna Process: Perspectives and Implications for the Russian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegina, Galina; Schwengel, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on the discourses of educational policy in Europe to focus on the implications of the Bologna Process for higher education in Russia. The Bologna Process, as a multi-dimensional discourse involving a variety of social actors, reflects some of the complexities and contradictions of globalisation, in many local cases evoking…

  19. Expectancy in Melody: Tests of the Implication-Realization Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    1996-01-01

    Three experiments examined implication-realization model's description of tone-to-tone expectancies for continuations of melodies. The model successfully predicted listeners' judgments across different musical styles, regardless of the listener's musical training or nationality. The collinearity of the model's predictors indicated, however, that a…

  20. Race and Gender in Education--Practical and Political Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Ranjit Kaur

    1989-01-01

    Explores equal opportunities policies in the United Kingdom with specific reference to issues of gender and race in education, and examines the practical and political implications of these policies for educational institutions. Considers the interplay of sexism and racism affecting Black women in Britain, especially in their employment as…

  1. Carol Gilligan's Perspectives and Staff Supervision: Implications for the Practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, William D.; Pressprich, Sybil T.

    1988-01-01

    Applies Gilligan's perspectives on gender identity to the supervisory process for resident advisers in an effort to help residence staff become aware of gender differences that affect performance. Discusses implications of gender identity in areas of community development, policy enforcement, teamwork, decision-making, and relationship formation.…

  2. Financial Implications of Implementing an E-Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kunal

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to outline the financial implications, while deploying information and communication technologies for implementing e-learning, and to elucidate them, while implementing an e-learning project in a conventional university environment. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a descriptive account of the various cost factors…

  3. Health Implications of Smokeless Tobacco Use. Volume 6, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD. Office of Medical Applications of Research.

    Concerned with the increase in use of chewing tobacco and snuff, this brochure looks at the health risks of using smokeless tobacco. It presents five questions about smokeless tobacco use and provides answers to the questions developed by a consensus development conference on health implications of smokeless tobacco use convened by the National…

  4. Financial Implications of Implementing an E-Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kunal

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to outline the financial implications, while deploying information and communication technologies for implementing e-learning, and to elucidate them, while implementing an e-learning project in a conventional university environment. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a descriptive account of the various cost factors…

  5. Identifying the Communication Specialist: Implications for Career Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Christopher H.

    1979-01-01

    Reports results of a survey on what practicing communication specialists do as well as what they perceive to be important skills for future communication specialists. Respondents' job descriptions indicate two types of communication specialists: journalists and trainers. Implications for academic preparation for each are included. (JMF)

  6. Does Styles Research Have Useful Implications for Educational Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews eight articles on the implications of styles research contained in this special issue of "Learning and Individual Differences". Three of the papers present original research on topics such as the nature of visualizer cognitive style and intuitive cognitive style. Five of the papers offer reviews or analyses of styles research,…

  7. Families in Demographic Perspective: Implications for Family Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, James H.

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on demographic changes in families and implications for counseling couples and families. Contends that several important demographic changes in families have major impacts on kinds of clients that present for counseling and therapy. Looks at children born to unmarried women, separation and divorce, single-parent families, and remarriage…

  8. Examining Female Life Events: Implications for Counselors and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiebert, Valerie; Alston, Anne; Bradford, Caroline; Sealander, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study examining the impact of female life events (menarche, "the sex talk", and loss of virginity) on women. Fifty-one women from 2 universities responded to a questionnaire containing quantitative and qualitative items. Discussion and implications for counseling girls and women are presented. (Contains 2…

  9. The precision of higgs boson measurements and their implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Conway et al.

    2002-12-05

    The prospects for a precise exploration of the properties of a single or many observed Higgs bosons at future accelerators are summarized, with particular emphasis on the abilities of a Linear Collider (LC). Some implications of these measurements for discerning new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) are also discussed.

  10. Challenges Facing Rural Schools: Implications for Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Aimee; Rhodes, Megan; Beall, Jimmie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the implications for gifted students of challenges facing rural schools. We explore 4 challenges with particular relevance to rural schools: (a) declining population, (b) persistent poverty, (c) changing demographics, and (d) ongoing accountability requirements. Recommendations positioned to address these challenges…

  11. Implications for Child Bilingual Acquisition, Optionality and Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratrice, Ludovica

    2014-01-01

    Amaral & Roeper's Multiple Grammars (MG) proposal offers an appealingly simple way of thinking about the linguistic representations of bilingual speakers. This article presents a commentary on the MG language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in this issue, focusing on the theory's implications for child…

  12. Using Cultural Diversity in Teaching Economics: Global Business Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitry, Darryl J.

    2008-01-01

    Globalization and increasing cross-cultural interactivity have implications for education in general and may also present valuable pedagogical opportunities in the practice of teaching economics for business students. Therefore, the author investigated this proposition and offers some empirical observations from research and teaching experiments.…

  13. K-12 Implications Seen in Some Cases before High Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Arizona's variation on government vouchers for religious schools and California's prohibition on the sale of violent video games to minors present the top two cases with implications for education in the U.S. Supreme Court term that formally begins Oct. 4. New Justice Elena Kagan brings to the court extensive education policy experience as a…

  14. The Religious Implications of an Historical Approach to Jewish Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, Rachel

    This project examines the religious implications of an approach to "limmudei kodesh" (primarily the study of Talmud) and "halakhah" (an integration of academic scholarship with traditional Torah study and the evaluation of the educational pros and cons of a curriculum built on such a synthesis). In the concerted effort over the past century to…

  15. Emotional Sequelae of Abortion: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemkau, Jeanne Parr

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes literature on normative reactions to abortion and factors that increase risk of negative emotional sequelae. Discusses characteristics of woman, social support and cultural milieu around the abortion, the medical environment and abortion procedure itself, and events subsequent to abortion which may cause conflict. Discusses implications…

  16. Multiple Intelligence Theory for Gifted Education: Criticisms and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Basak; Birgili, Bengi

    2013-01-01

    This paper scrutinizes giftedness and gifted learners under the implications of multiple intelligence theory with regard to coaching young scientists. It is one of the pluralistic theories toward intelligence while supporting to view individuals as active participants during teaching and learning processes which correspond with the applications of…

  17. Three Diagnostic Approaches to Asperger Syndrome: Implications for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klin, Ami; Pauls, David; Schultz, Robert; Volkmar, Fred

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the implications for research of the use of three alternative definitions for Asperger syndrome (AS). Differences across the three nosologic systems were examined in terms of diagnostic assignment, IQ profiles, comorbid symptoms, and familial aggregation of social and other psychiatric symptoms. Method: Standard data on…

  18. Stella, A Simulation Construction Kit: Cognitive Process and Educational Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Marlo

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the construction/simulation software called Stella which can be used in the investigation of dynamic causal models. Topics considered are its built-in perspective of system dynamics and capabilities, its potential drawbacks, and its cognitive implications for educational applications. (JJK)

  19. New Thinking about College Mathematics: Implications for High School Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Robin; Fukawa-Connelly, Tim; Conklin, Michael; Fey, James T.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes recommendations made by participants in a large project of the Mathematical Association of America (MAA), in which representatives of "partner disciplines" shared what they would like students to learn in the first two years of college mathematics. The article further suggests implications for high school mathematics.…

  20. Training for Innovation in India: Cultural Considerations and Strategic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L. Roxanne

    2008-01-01

    Global organizations with personnel in India rank innovation as a primary workforce development objective to stay competitive in the global market (NASSCOM, [2007]). This analysis reviews relevant literature for evidence of cultural factors that stand in the way of innovative performance in Indian personnel and discusses implications for the…

  1. Features and implications of the plateau inflationary potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dalianis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    After the last PLANCK CMB data the plateau inflationary potentials are favored. I give some examples of such inflationary models emphasizing particularly on the Starobinsky model and its supergravity embedding. I discuss the crucial implications, regarding the initial conditions problem, of this new sort of potentials for the standard picture of the inflationary theory.

  2. Early Intervention with Latino Families: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Rebecca L.

    2008-01-01

    Counselors and early interventionists increasingly serve Spanish-speaking families. Yet, often, cultural accommodations merely imply use of interpreters or bilingual providers. Cultural competence requires self-awareness and understanding the client's community and specific risk and resiliency factors. Implications for serving clients of Latino…

  3. eBay Law: The Legal Implications of the C2C Electronic Commerce Model

    OpenAIRE

    Guadamuz, Andres

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to address some of the legal implications of the popular Consumer-to-Consumer electronic commerce model, in particular the implications of the successful and popular auctions site eBay.

  4. Enterprise Culture--Its Meaning and Implications for Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Allan A.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the following aspects of entrepreneurship: definitions of entrepreneurship and enterprise culture; social, political, and economic context; relationship with education; entrepreneurial versus corporist education with implications for business schools; developing intrapreneurship in large corporations; and implications for training policy.…

  5. General combinatorical structure of truth tables of bracketed formulae connected by implication

    OpenAIRE

    Yildiz, Volkan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the general combinatorical structure of the truth tables of all bracketed formulae with n distinct variables connected by the binary connective of implication, an m-implication.

  6. A ‘Brexit’ would have important implications at the European and international levels

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVER, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The implications of a ‘Brexit’ for the UK has been endlessly discussed, but its implications for the EU and other international powers has hardly been considered. Tim Oliver explores the complex set of possibilities and implications at the European and international level that both the UK and EU need to keep in mind as they move forward.

  7. Process audits in maritime facilities for the production of petroleum; Auditorias de processo em instalacoes maritimas de producao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Joao Luiz Ponce [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Unidade de Negocios]. E-mail: joao.maia@poli.usp.br; jponce@petrobras.com.br

    2003-12-01

    In oil industry, the process audits are so important as the system audits (quality and environmental) and contribute highly to the improvement of the oil production processes overall. With the increasing hardness of the international safety and environmental standards, and the intense technical development of this sector, the process audit appear as an strategic tool, aiming the rising of the competitive capacity of the organization, both national and international ambit. The basic object of this work is evaluate a methodology to the conduction of process audits in offshore oil production facilities, in Brazil.Furthermore this work presents a methodological proposal to conduct a process audit in offshore oil production facilities, that can be implemented in Brazilian oil industry. This methodology was developed from the elaboration of study of case of two offshore oil production facilities, localized in Campos Basin, north of State of Rio de Janeiro. It is believed that this work will contribute to the sensitization of managers and representations of oil operator companies, that operates in Brazil and others government bodies, according the importance of the implementation of process audits. This is an opportunity of improvement of the offshore oil production process, with focus in the minimization of environmental, personal, community and financial impacts, besides contribute for the reduction of risks, as the less level as possible. (author)

  8. Cytotoxicity of the Sesquiterpene Lactones Neoambrosin and Damsin from Ambrosia maritima Against Multidrug-Resistant Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Mohamed; Jacob, Stefan; Sandjo, Louis P.; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Khalid, Hassan E.; Opatz, Till; Thines, Eckhard; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance is a prevailing phenomenon leading to chemotherapy treatment failure in cancer patients. In the current study two known cytotoxic pseudoguaianolide sesquiterpene lactones; neoambrosin (1) and damsin (2) that circumvent MDR were identified. The two cytotoxic compounds were isolated using column chromatography, characterized using 1D and 2D NMR, MS, and compared with literature values. The isolated compounds were investigated for their cytotoxic potential using resazurin assays and thereafter confirmed with immunoblotting and in silico studies. MDR cells overexpressing ABC transporters (P-glycoprotein, BCRP, ABCB5) did not confer cross-resistance toward (1) and (2), indicating that these compounds are not appropriate substrates for any of the three ABC transporters analyzed. Resistance mechanisms investigated also included; the loss of the functions of the TP53 and the mutated EGFR. The HCT116 p53-/- cells were sensitive to 1 but resistant to 2. It was interesting to note that resistant cells transfected with oncogenic ?EGFR exhibited hypersensitivity CS toward (1) and (2) (degrees of resistances were 0.18 and 0.15 for (1) and (2), respectively). Immunoblotting and in silico analyses revealed that 1 and 2 silenced c-Src kinase activity. It was hypothesized that inhibition of c-Src kinase activity may explain CS in EGFR-transfected cells. In conclusion, the significant cytotoxicity of 1 and 2 against different drug-resistant tumor cell lines indicate that they may be promising candidates to treat refractory tumors. PMID:26617519

  9. Tax incidence on services rendered on the high seas; Incidencia de ISS sobre servicos prestados em aguas maritimas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paco, Daniel Hora do; Giamattey, Ricardo Henrique Dionisio; Miranda, Thales Ribamar [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyze the legal aspects of the incidence of ISSQN tax (Tax on Services of any Nature), on the services provide on the high seas. Also comment the controversy surrounding the active tax competency (municipality who may be due to the tax) for the charging of the incident ISSQN on the services provided on the high seas, if overcome the arguments in favor of non-levy of the tax.

  10. Bidirectional voltage biased implication operations using SiOx based unipolar memristors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fei; Guckert, Lauren; Chang, Yao-Feng; Swartzlander, Earl E.; Lee, Jack

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a material implication implementation using SiOx based unipolar memristors. SiOx memristors with TaN/SiOx/Si structures have been fabricated, characterized, and used in the implication operation. The implication function and its truth table were well implemented using both positive and negative voltages for load resistor bias. The voltage range for the implication operation is reduced due to bidirectional bias. The key factors for the operation of material implication, such as load resistance, characteristics of the memristor, and design tradeoffs were investigated. This work demonstrates that unipolar SiOx based memristors are suitable for logic operations.

  11. Some Implications for Regulation of ICT and Media Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Falch, Morten; Tadayoni, Reza

    The term convergence in the areas of ICT and media means the coming together of IT, telecommunications, broadcasting and other media, technologically, market and policy wise. It is the sectoral convergence of the hitherto more separate ICT and media areas, which is in focus, even though there...... certainly are also changes taking place vertically in the different sectors. The paper examines the relationships between technology and market developments and policy and regulatory initiatives. The issue is, therefore, not solely the implications of market and technology trends on policy and regulation......, but also the reverse implications of policy and regulatory frameworks on technology and market developments. The paper analyses the convergence tendencies at a technological, market level and policy and regulatory level. It is, however, the policy level, which is the centre of attention in the paper...

  12. Ethical implications and decision making in care education process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layse Kelle Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine ethical implications for nursing practice at the point of decision making by nursing professors in practice area. Methodology. A qualitative method was adopted, with use of semistructured interviews with sixteen nursing professors who delivered care at a teaching hospital in Salvador, Bahia, from May to June 2011. The methodological reference used was the discourse of the collective subject (DCS by Lefévre and Lefévre. Results. In response to DCSs, the following subjects appeared: "Ethics is fundamental and of vital importance in the decision making process," "searching for knowledge and research to identify problems and solutions, including alternatives and support for decisions," and "to act in the best way." Conclusion. Professors who provide education about patient care also delivered care. They have the responsibility to consider the ethical implications of decision making because they stimulate fundamental reflection and could positively influence future nursing professionals.

  13. Clinical Implications of Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Olsen, Jesper; Linnemann, Dorte; Høgdall, Estrid; Troelsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) still has one of the highest incidence and mortality rate among cancers. Therefore, improved differential diagnostics and personalized treatment are still needed. Several intestinal stem cell markers have been found to be associated with CRC and might have a prognostic and...... predictive significance in CRC patients. This review provides an overview of the intestinal stem cell markers leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), B cell–specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 (BMI1), Musashi1 (MSI1), and sex-determining region y-box 9 (SOX9......) and their implications in human CRC. The exact roles of the intestinal stem cell markers in CRC development and progression remain unclear; however, high expression of these stem cell markers have a potential prognostic significance and might be implicated in chemotherapy resistance...

  14. Implications of bilateral free trade agreements on access to medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa Carlos María

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The TRIPS Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO mandated the introduction of protection of intellectual property rights, notably patents, for pharmaceutical products. While the implications for the access to medicines contained in the terms of this Agreement raised significant concerns, a recent new wave of free trade agreements, negotiated outside the WTO, requires even higher levels of intellectual property protection for medicines than those mandated by that Agreement. The measures involved include the extension of the patent term beyond 20 years; prohibition of use of test data on drug efficacy and safety for certain periods for the approval of generic products; the linkage between drug registration and patent protection; in some cases, limitations to the grounds for granting compulsory licences. This article reviews some of these measures that further limit the competition of generic products and discusses their possible implication for access to medicines.

  15. Health effects of radiation and the implications for radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Paper two elements of a multiphase analysis of radiation exposures in the living environment - the human health effects of ionizing radiation and the implications for radiation safety policy and practices - are presented. Part 1 draws together the current state of scientific knowledge and insight about the human health effects of radiation, describing these in terms of known cause-related deterministic effects and of the estimated incidence of stochastic effects as defined by biostatistics and biological models. The 1988 UNSCEAR report provides an authoritative basis for such an examination. Part 2 explores some of the major implications that the state-of-the-art of radiation biology has - or should have - for radiation safety policy and practices. (author)

  16. Clinical Implications of Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Olsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) still has one of the highest incidence and mortality rate among cancers. Therefore, improved differential diagnostics and personalized treatment are still needed. Several intestinal stem cell markers have been found to be associated with CRC and might have a prognostic and predictive significance in CRC patients. This review provides an overview of the intestinal stem cell markers leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), B cell–specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 (BMI1), Musashi1 (MSI1), and sex-determining region y-box 9 (SOX9) and their implications in human CRC. The exact roles of the intestinal stem cell markers in CRC development and progression remain unclear; however, high expression of these stem cell markers have a potential prognostic significance and might be implicated in chemotherapy resistance.

  17. Smartphone Applications - Idea sourcing and app development: Implications for firms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    John, Bredican; Debbie, Vigar-Ellis.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The smartphone has become the uniquely personal computing device choice for consumers. Applications (apps) for smartphones are set to reach revenues of £25 billion according to Gartner. This presents great opportunities for marketing as apps can provide great benefits for consumers and firms. Howeve [...] r it is Information Systems (IS) departments that have traditionally been tasked with the acquisition and/or development of such information technologies within organisations. With such strong implications for marketing, this exploratory research has focused on the sources of app ideas within firms, locations for app development and perceptions of app development success. Results indicate that while most ideas for apps currently come from IS and marketing departments within the organisation, and development of apps is also done mainly within the organisation, these development strategies are not necessarily the most effective. Managerial implications' regarding the role of IS, Marketing and the customer in app development, are discussed.

  18. Topological implications of negative curvature for biological and social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Reka; Mobasheri, Nasim

    2014-01-01

    Network measures that reflect the most salient properties of complex large-scale networks are in high demand in the network research community. In this paper we adapt a combinatorial measure of negative curvature (also called hyperbolicity) to parameterized finite networks, and show that a variety of biological and social networks are hyperbolic. This hyperbolicity property has strong implications on the higher-order connectivity and other topological properties of these networks. Specifically, we derive and prove bounds on the distance among shortest or approximately shortest paths in hyperbolic networks. We describe two implications of these bounds to cross-talk in biological networks, and to the existence of central, influential neighborhoods in both biological and social networks.

  19. Climate change and energy: The implications for the Spanish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the mutual implications between the climate change problem and the actual energy-at-a-crossroads situation of the unsustainable world energy model. The implications for the Spanish case are studied as a case example. The paper provides a brief review of the scientific evidence on climate change, analyzes the causes of the present energy dilemma and characterizes the problem to be addressed. The principal challenge for the future climate regime is to identify the nature and level of commitment that will provide sufficient incentives for all countries, with such a diversity of interests. The paper also exposes the most plausible framework for the future climate regime, the basic components of such a regime, the role to be played by the major stake holders and some guidelines for future negotiations. (Author)

  20. Pathological and Evolutionary Implications of Retroviruses as Mobile Genetic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Brown

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses, a form of mobile genetic elements, have important roles in disease and primate evolution. Exogenous retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, have significant pathological implications that have created a massive public health challenge in recent years. Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs, which are the primary focus of this review, can also be pathogenic, as well as being beneficial to a host in some cases. Furthermore, retroviruses may have played a key role in primate evolution that resulted in the incorporation of these elements into the human genome. Retroviruses are mobile genetic elements that have important roles in disease and primate evolution. We will further discuss the pathogenic potential of retroviruses, including their role in cancer biology, and will briefly summarize their evolutionary implications.

  1. Implications of the Sample Rate on Large Space Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Fixsen, D J

    2001-01-01

    The frequency at which a large space telescope's (e.g. NGST's) detector chips are read, or the sample rate, is tightly coupled to many hardware and operational aspects of the telescope's instrument and data handling elements. In this paper we discuss many of the drivers and important implications fo the sample rate: the data rate to the ground; onboard computer storage, bandwidth, and speed; the number of A->D chips, and therefore the overall size and power requirements of the analog electronics; cryocabling requirements; and detector noise and power. We discuss and parametrize these and other elements related to sample rate. Finally, we discuss the implications of sample rate in the context of achieving the most important science goals under the constraint of fixed cost.

  2. Eating disordered patients: personality, alexithymia, and implications for primary care.

    OpenAIRE

    Beales, D. L.; Dolton, R

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are becoming more apparent in primary care. Descriptions of character traits related to people with eating disorders are rarely reported in the primary care literature and there is little awareness of the implications of alexithymia--a concept that defines the inability to identify or express emotion. We hypothesised that many individuals with active eating disorders have alexithymic traits and a tendency to somatize their distress. AIM: To analyse the character t...

  3. Learning Styles and Their Implications in Learning and Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Wen Xu

    2011-01-01

    Learning style in SLA is one of the individual factors in SLA. This paper starts by stating the importance of studying learning styles. Then it quotes several definitions of learning style. The main part of it sums up the types and models of learning styles. Learning style is mainly divided into three categories: perceptual learning style, cognitive learning style and personality learning style. In the end, it states the implications of learning style for language learning and language teaching.

  4. On the implications of Vygotskian concepts for second language teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Behrooz Azabdaftari

    2013-01-01

    This paper represents an attempt to search for the implications of Vygotsky’s approach to ‘the genesis of mind’ for second language acquisition (SLA). In so doing, the present author has adopted first a retrospective view - what has already gone in the field of foreign language instruction, and a prospective view - what is contingent on the current speculations on SLA while drawing on Vygostky’s sociocultural theory (SCT) bearing on the methodology of L2 instruction. Hence, the pa...

  5. Alternative materials for crystalline silicon solar cells - Risks and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Kwapil, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    This thesis considers the use of alternative silicon materials for photovoltaics – often termed “upgraded metallurgical grade” silicon – from different angles and evaluates the risks and implications for the wafer and solar cell properties at selected steps along the entire process chain.The properties of the alternative, upgraded metallurgical grade silicon materials analyzed in the course of this thesis were governed by the simultaneous presence of boron and phosphorus in high concentration...

  6. Implications of Marijuana Legalization for Adolescent Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely avai...

  7. Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) contamination of the indoor environment: Health implications

    OpenAIRE

    Bitnun, Ari; Nosal, Robert M

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, widespread contamination of water-damaged school portables with the toxigenic mold Stachybotrys chartarum was detected in the province of Ontario. This mold may cause human disease through direct irritation, type 1 hypersensitivity or the production of toxins. A variety of respiratory, dermatological, eye and constitutional symptoms have been associated with heavy and prolonged exposure to S chartarum. S chartarum has also been potentially implicated as a rare cause of idiopathic pul...

  8. Financial and economic crisis: implications for agricultural sector in India

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak, Shah

    2012-01-01

    In the light of the fact that the financial meltdown of September 2008 led to sharp slowdown in economic activity in the US and Europe with a massive drop in demand for goods and services from major exporting nations like China, Japan, Germany and other Asian countries, including India, this paper attempts to evaluate the implications of global meltdown on agricultural sector of India, especially with respect to commodity price, investment in agriculture and in general food security of the co...

  9. Beyond Implications and Applications: the Story of ‘Safety by Design’

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kelty, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Using long-term anthropological observations at the Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology in Houston, Texas, the article demonstrates in detail the creation of new objects, new venues and new modes of veridiction which have reoriented the disciplines of materials chemistry and nanotoxicology. Beginning with the confusion surrounding the meaning of ‘implications’ and ‘applications’ the article explores the creation of new venues (CBEN and its offshoot the International Council...

  10. Working-week flexibility: Implications for employment and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Osune, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the implications for employment, productivity and wages of allowing for more flexibility in weekly hours worked introduced in the recent Spanish labour market reform (the 2012 reform). A crucial aspect of the model will be the extent to which firms will be able to choose the workweek when subject to demand shocks. The model is calibrated so that it reproduces the cross-sectional distribution of workweeks across plants and households and some features of the Spanish econom...

  11. An implication of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Kitada, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    A proof of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem is given. With this new proof a transfinite extension of G\\"odel's theorem is considered. It is shown that if one assumes the set theory ZFC on the meta level as well as on the object level, a contradiction arises. The cause is shown to be the implicit identification of the meta level and the object level hidden behind the G\\"odel numbering. An implication of these considerations is stated.

  12. Dental implications of nutritional factors in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studen-Pavlovich, D; Bonci, L; Etzel, K R

    2000-01-01

    A balanced and healthful diet is important for young athletes participating in sports. Additionally, nutritional recommendations for athletes must take into consideration the effects diet has on the developing dentition. The integration of oral and nutritional health guidelines will allow the dentist and the dietician to function as partners in providing counseling to young athletes. This article reviews caloric and nutritional requirements along with dental implications that may affect young athletes. PMID:10635474

  13. Workplace bullying after whistleblowing:Future research and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørkelo, Brita

    2013-01-01

    Findings: Empirical research has documented the link between whistleblowing and workplace bullying and the devastating effects on health that may follow (e.g. depression and symptoms analogous to post traumatic stress). Implications for practice are as follows: first, to provide clear examples of unwanted workplace behavior; and second, to help clinicians to gain a balance between the client's need to re-tell and the need for psychological treatment.

  14. Who nominates the board? - Implications on board diversity and turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Viskari, Milla

    2014-01-01

    This thesis assesses whether the type of nomination poses implications on board diversity in terms of age, gender, nationality and education, as well as turnover on a Finnish and Swedish data. The existing research on director selection and especially nomination committees is rather limited, and thus the research aims at contributing to the topic. The reviewed time period concerns 2008 to 2012, and altogether 55 Finnish and 55 Swedish public companies are included in the study, thus resul...

  15. Patents and plant breeding: Implications for food security

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Blakeney

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the inter-relationship between plant variety protection (PVP) laws and patent laws and their implications for food security. PVP laws were developed to encourage and protect agricultural innovations by conferring exclusive rights upon the developers of new plant varieties, subject to exceptions for farmers to save seeds for future plantings and for plant breeders to develop new varieties. With the application of recombinant DNA technologies to agriculture and the possibi...

  16. Policy Implications of Economic Complexity and Complexity Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Elsner, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Policy implications of complexity economics (CE) are investigated. CE deals with “Complex Adaptive (Economic) Systems” [CA(E)S], generally characterized by mechanisms and properties such as “emergence” of structure or some capacity of “self-organization”. With this, CE has manifold affinities with economic heterodoxies. CE has developed into a most promising economic research program in the last decades. With some time lag, and boosted by the financial crisis and Great Recession, a surge to e...

  17. Gender implications of biofuels expansion: A CGE analysis for Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Thurlow, James

    2010-01-01

    We use a gendered computable general equilibrium model to assess the implications of biofuels expansion in Mozambique. We compare scenarios with different gender employment intensities in producing jatropha for biodiesel. Under all scenarios, biofuels accelerate GDP growth and reduce poverty. However, a stronger tradeoff between biofuels and food availability emerges when female labour is used intensively, as women are drawn away from food production. A skills-shortage amongst female workers ...

  18. Technology-driven developments and policy implications for mathematics education

    OpenAIRE

    Trouche, L.; Drijvers, P.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074302922; Gueudet, G.; Sacristan, A.I.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of technology has done more than merely increase the range of resources available for mathematics teaching and learning: it represents the emergence of a new culture—a virtual culture with new paradigms—which differs crucially from preceding cultural forms. In this chapter, the implications of this paradigm shift for policies concerning learning, curriculum design, and teacher education will be discussed. Also, the ubiquitous possibility of emergence of ever-new forms of technology...

  19. Technological Innovation: Concept, Process, Typology and Implications in the Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Diaconu, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    Growing interest worldwide to boost innovation in business sector activities, especially the technology, is intended to maintain or increase national economic competitiveness, inclusively as an effect of awareness concerning the effects resulting from economic activity on consumption of resources and environment, which requires design of new patterns of production and consumption. In this paper we review the most important contributions in the literature in terms of the implications of techno...

  20. Arterial-Cardiac Interaction: The Concept and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Chi Young

    2011-01-01

    Vascular stiffening of the large arteries is a common feature of human aging. Increased aortic stiffness with age may contribute to pathological changes in the left ventricle and this can induce ventricular stiffening. Vascular-ventricular stiffening combined with abnormal arterial-cardiac interaction is considered an important pathophysiology of heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction. Here, I briefly review the concept and implications of arterial-cardiac interaction and this will ...

  1. The 2011 Brisbane Floods: Causes, Impacts and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Robin C. van den Honert; John McAneney

    2011-01-01

    On 13th January 2011 major flooding occurred throughout most of the Brisbane River catchment, most severely in Toowoomba and the Lockyer Creek catchment (where 23 people drowned), the Bremer River catchment and in Brisbane, the state capital of Queensland. Some 56,200 claims have been received by insurers with payouts totalling $2.55 billion. This paper backgrounds weather and climatic factors implicated in the flooding and the historical flood experience of Brisbane. We examine the time hist...

  2. Marital Conflict Behaviors and Implications for Divorce over 16 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Birditt, Kira S.; Brown, Edna; Orbuch, Terri L.; McIlvane, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined self-reported marital conflict behaviors and their implications for divorce. Husbands and wives (N = 373 couples; 47% White American, 53% Black American) reported conflict behaviors in years 1, 3, 7, and 16 of their marriages. Individual behaviors (e.g., destructive behaviors) and patterns of behaviors between partners (e.g., withdrawal-constructive) in Year 1 predicted higher divorce rates. Wives’ destructive and withdrawal behaviors decreased over time, whereas husbands’...

  3. Sepsis induced immunosuppression: Implications for secondary infections and complications

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar, Krishna M; Mazen Sires

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis is the commonest cause of admission to medical ICUs across the world. Mortality from sepsis continues to be high. Besides shock and multi-organ dysfunction occurring following the intense inflammatory reaction to sepsis, complications arising from sepsis-related immunoparalysis contribute to the morbidity and mortality from sepsis. This review explores the basis for sepsis related immune dysfunction and discusses its clinical implications for the treating intensivist. Recent trends ind...

  4. Global Warming: The Balance of Evidence and Its Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Keller

    2003-01-01

    Global warming and attendant climate change have been controversial for at least a decade. This is largely because of its societal implications. With the recent publication of the Third Assessment Report of the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change there has been renewed interest and controversy about how certain the scientific community is of its conclusions: that humans are influencing the climate and that global temperatures will continue to rise rapidly in this century...

  5. From ‘Implications’ to ‘Dimensions’: Science, Medicine and Ethics in Society

    OpenAIRE

    Pickersgill, Martyn D

    2012-01-01

    Much bioethical scholarship is concerned with the social, legal and philosophical implications of new and emerging science and medicine, as well as with the processes of research that under-gird these innovations. Science and technology studies (STS), and the related and interpenetrating disciplines of anthropology and sociology, have also explored what novel technoscience might imply for society, and how the social is constitutive of scientific knowledge and technological artefacts. More rec...

  6. Death of distance? Economic implications of infrastructure improvement in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    BROWN David; Fay, Marianne; Lall, Somik V.; Wang, Hyoung Gun; Felkner, John

    2008-01-01

    We examine the economic implications of infrastructure investment policies that try to improve economic conditions in Russia's peripheral regions. Our analysis of firm-level industrial data for 1989 and 2004 highlights a 'death of distance' in industrial location, with increasing concentration of new firms in regions with good market access. We assess the geographic determinants of growth econometrically and identify market size and proximity to Moscow and regional infrastructure as important...

  7. Arbitrage Opportunities and their Implications to Derivative Hedging

    OpenAIRE

    Panayides, Stephanos

    2005-01-01

    We explore the role that random arbitrage opportunities play in hedging financial derivatives. We extend the asymptotic pricing theory presented by Fedotov and Panayides [Stochastic arbitrage return and its implication for option pricing, Physica A 345 (2005), 207-217] for the case of hedging a derivative when arbitrage opportunities are present in the market. We restrict ourselves to finding hedging confidence intervals that can be adapted to the amount of arbitrage risk an...

  8. Resource implications of head injuries on an acute surgical unit.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, R. J.; Hittinger, R; Glazer, G

    1994-01-01

    Head injuries are expensive and demanding in terms of resources. In the UK, most are cared for outside neurosurgical centres. In the absence of specialist rehabilitation services, patients with on-going disability add to those admitted for observation and treatment on acute surgical wards. We audited the workload pattern and financial implications related to head injuries on a general surgical unit in a central London teaching hospital. Data collected prospectively at the time of admission an...

  9. China in Africa. Implications for Norwegian Foreign and Development Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Tjønneland, Elling N.; Brandtzæg, Bjørn; Kolås, Åshild; Le Pere, Garth

    2006-01-01

    China’s development will affect the history of the twenty-first century, and perhaps nowhere more importantly than in Africa. The emergence of China introduces new opportunities for Africa, new challenges and new imponderables as well. Observers are watching China’s Africa policy with a mixture of fascination and fright. The new Chinese Africa policy has major implications for development on the continent. The purpose of this report commissioned by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs an...

  10. On-orbit servicing commercial opportunities with security implications

    OpenAIRE

    Hacker, Jacob; Losekamm, Martin; Sardesai, Nikita; Johnson, Christopher; Bell, Robert; Rey, Daniel; Vigneron, Adam; Bettiol, Laura; Brack, Daniel; Braegen, Emma; Calder-Potts, George; Chatterjee, Joyeeta; Coderre, Kathleen; Côtè Bigras, Roxanne; Driedger, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The On-Orbit Servicing (OOS) working group discussed legal and political implications of developing a commercial OOS industry. The group considered the benefits that OOS and Active Debris Removal (ADR) can offer the satellite industry, as well as potential disadvantages for international relations between space faring nations. To gain an accurate perspective of stakeholders involved in such a process, the OOS working group held a mock hearing for OOS licensing, with members of the working...

  11. Suicide methods in Asia: Implications in suicide prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Paul S. F. Yip; Kevin Chien-Chang Wu; Ying-Yeh Chen

    2012-01-01

    As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications...

  12. US acid rain legislation: implications for the steaming coal trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent acid rain legislation passed by the US Congress aims to drastically reduce sulphur dioxide emissions from coal fired power stations. Compliance with this legislation is expected to impinge on industries involved in steaming coal production, consumption and exports. Australia is a major producer of low sulphur coal, therefore it is assumed that this legislation could have positive implications for the Australian steaming coal industry. 13 refs., tabs., figs

  13. What are the implications of neuroscience for musical education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Lauren; Williamon, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Background: In this paper, we consider music education in a broad sense - not merely pertaining to the development of exceptional levels of artistry in talented performers, but also to notions of musical listening and appreciation enjoyed by the casual listener. Purpose: This review cannot be exhaustive, but aims to illustrate what we already know about the neuroscience of how music is perceived, appreciated, learned and performed, and the implications that this knowledge has for music education...

  14. IEEE Std 929-2000 - Background, implications and requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEVENS III,JOHN W.

    2000-04-11

    The newly revised standard, IEEE Std 929-2000, has significant positive implications for those designing inverters for utility-interconnected PV systems and for designers and installers of such systems. A working group of roughly 20 people, including PV systems designers/installers, PV inverter manufacturers and utility engineers spent close to 3 years developing a standard that would be useful and beneficial to all.

  15. Applications and implications of nanotechnologies for the food sector

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry, Qasim; Scotter, Michael; Blackburn, James; Ross, Bryony; Boxall, Alistair; Castle, Laurence; Watkins, Richard; Aitken, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Abstract A review of the current and projected nanotechnology derived food ingredients, food additives, and food contact materials is presented in relation to potential implications for consumer safety and regulatory controls. Nanotechnology applications are expected to bring a range of benefits to the food sector, including new tastes, textures and sensations, less use of fat, enhanced absorption of nutrients, improved packaging, traceability and security of food products. The rev...

  16. Implications of learning analytics for serious game design

    OpenAIRE

    Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke; Fernández Manjón, Baltasar; Bellotti, Francesco; Fiucci, Giusy; Padrón-Nápoles, Carmen; Nadolski, Rob; Westera, Wim

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the implications of combining learning analytics and serious games for improving game quality, monitoring and assessment of player behavior, gaming performance, game progression, learning goals achievement, and user’s appreciation. We introduce two modes of serious games analytics: in-game (real time) analytics, and post-game (off-line) analytics. We also explain the GLEANER framework for in-game analytics and describe a practical example for off-line analytics. We conclu...

  17. Systematic Implications of Seed Coat Morphology in Malvaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Salah M. I. El Naggar

    2001-01-01

    Seed morphological characters and seed coat sculpture of 14 species of Malvaceae were examined to assess systematic implications of seed coat sculpture. These taxa are Malva aegyptia L., M. parviflora L., M. neglecta Wallr., M. nicaeensis All., M. sylvestris L., Lavatera cretica L., Alcea rosea All., Sida alba L., Abutilon theophrasti Medicus, A. pannosum (G. Forster) Schlecht., Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., H. trionum L., and Gossypium barbadense (L.). Seed shap...

  18. Rethinking the Concept of Acculturation: Implications for Theory and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Szapocznik, José

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an expanded model of acculturation among international migrants and their immediate descendants. Acculturation is proposed as a multidimensional process consisting of the confluence among heritage-cultural and receiving-cultural practices, values, and identifications. The implications of this reconceptualization for the acculturation construct, as well as for its relationship to psychosocial and health outcomes, are discussed. In particular, an expanded operationalizatio...

  19. Simulated Milky Way analogues: implications for dark matter direct searches

    OpenAIRE

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Calore, Francesca; Schaller, Matthieu; Lovell, Mark; Bertone, Gianfranco; Frenk, Carlos S; Crain, Robert A.; Navarro, Julio F; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We study the implications of galaxy formation on dark matter direct detection using high resolution hydrodynamic simulations of Milky Way-like galaxies simulated within the EAGLE and APOSTLE projects. We identify Milky Way analogues that satisfy observational constraints on the Milky Way rotation curve and total stellar mass. We then extract the dark matter density and velocity distribution in the Solar neighbourhood for this set of Milky Way analogues, and use them to analyse the results of ...

  20. Clinical and biological implications of driver mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Papaemmanuil, E; Gerstung, M; Malcovati, L.; Tauro, S.; Gundem, G.; Loo, P. van de; Yoon, CJ; Ellis, P.; Wedge, DC; Pellagatti, A; Shlien, A; Groves, MJ; Forbes, SA; Raine, K.; Hinton, J.

    2013-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of chronic hematological malignancies characterized by dysplasia, ineffective hematopoiesis and a variable risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Sequencing of MDS genomes has identified mutations in genes implicated in RNA splicing, DNA modification, chromatin regulation, and cell signaling. We sequenced 111 genes across 738 patients with MDS or closely related neoplasms (including chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and MDS-myelo...