Crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima TM0439: implications for the mechanism of bacterial GntR transcription regulators with Zn2+-binding FCD domains  

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The GntR superfamily of dimeric transcription factors, with more than 6200 members encoded in bacterial genomes, are characterized by N-terminal winged helix (WH) DNA-binding domains and diverse C-terminal, regulatory domains, which provide a basis for the classification of the constituent families. The largest of these families, FadR, contains nearly 3000 proteins with all a-helical regulatory domains classified into two related Pfam families: FadR{_}C and FCD. Only two crystal structures of the FadR family members, i.e. the E. coli FadR protein and the LldR from C. glutamicum, have been described to date in literature. Here we describe the crystal structure of TM0439, a GntR regulator with an FCD domain, found in the Thermotoga maritima genome. The FCD domain is similar to that of the LldR regulator, and contains a buried metal binding site. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy and Trp fluorescence, we show that the recombinant protein contains bound Ni{sup 2+} ions, but it is able to bind Zn{sup 2+} with K{sub D} < 70 nM . We conclude that Zn{sup 2+} is the likely physiological metal, where it may perform either or both structural and regulatory roles. Finally, we compare the TM0439 structure to two other FadR family structures recently deposited by Structural Genomics consortia. The results call for a revision in the classification of the FadR family of transcription factors.

Zheng, Meiying; Cooper, David; Grossoehmerb, Nickolas; Yu, Minmin; Hung, Li-Wei; Cieslik, Murcin; Derewendaro, Urszula; Lesley, Scott; Wilson, Ian; Giedrocb, David; Derewenda, Zygmunt



Ten years of demographic and genetic monitoring of Stachys maritima in Catalonia (2001-2010. Implications for a recovery plan  

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Full Text Available Stachys maritima is a species typical of the coastal dunes, with a wide distribution within the Mediterranean Basin. In spite of this, the species shows a clear regression. In Catalonia, it has been observed an important reduction of its populations since early 20th century, where it has disappeared from several localities in which it was relatively common (Tarragonès, Barcelonès. Herein we present the results of the demographic monitoring of the species during the last 10 years (2001-2010 in the known localities in Catalonia. Besides corroborating the disappearance (northern Sant Martí d’Empúries, the re-discovering (Llobregat Delta beach and the detection of new populations (inner dunes of the Montgrí, a large year-to-year fluctuation of the monitored populations is stated; the possible reasons are discussed. In addition, the present work also includes the results of the allozyme diversity analysis of the new detected populations as well as the rediscoveries of the period 2004-2008, which were not included in a former study of genetic diversity carried out in 2002-2003. It is necessary to emphasize that the contribution of the new populations to the genetic diversity of Stachys maritima is very small, which can be attributed to their limited population size and /or to founder effects. Despite that the species is included in the Annex 2 (“En Perill d’Extinció” within the Catàleg de Flora Amenaçada de Catalunya (Catalogue of Endangered Flora of Catalonia, and some “soft” conservation measures have been applied at local level (signposting of the beach accesses, environmental education, etc. coupled with other more significant measures (e.g. translocation of individuals discovered in an artificial sandbank, it would be necessary the coordinated action and the scientific support of any initiative of conservation that could be carried out. The general frame to initiate actions of conservation should be the recovery plan of Stachys maritima, whose draft and application is mandatory in accordance to the Catàleg.Stachys maritima es una especie característica de dunas litorales, con una amplia área de distribución en el Mediterráneo. A pesar de ello, la especie muestra una clara regresión. En Catalunya se ha observado una importante reducción de sus poblaciones desde principios del siglo XX, donde ha desaparecido de diversas localidades en las que era relativamente abundante (Tarragonès, Barcelonès. Se presentan los resultados del seguimiento demográfico de la especie durante los últimos 10 años (2001-2010 en las localidades conocidas en Catalunya. Al margen de corroborar la desaparición de algunos núcleos (núcleo norte de Sant Martí d’Empúries, el redescubrimiento de otros (playa del Delta del Llobregat o la detección de nuevas poblaciones (dunas interiores del Montgrí, se constata una gran fluctuación interanual de los núcleos monitorizados, las posibles causas de la cual se discuten detenidamente. Por otro lado, el presente trabajo incluye también los resultados del análisis de la diversidad isoenzimática de las nuevas poblaciones detectadas así como los redescubrimientos del periodo 2004-2008, que no se habían incluido en los estudios de diversidad genética de los años 2002-2003. Cabe destacar que la contribución de los nuevos núcleos a la diversidad genética de Stachys maritima es muy pequeña y se puede atribuir a su reducido tamaño poblacional y/o a efectos fundadores. A pesar que la especie se ha incluido en el Anexo 2 (“En Perill d’Extinció” del Catàleg de Flora Amenaçada de Catalunya, y que a escala local se han realizado algunas medidas de conservación “blandas” (señalización de los accesos a la playa, educación ambiental, etc., junto a otras medidas más significativas pero realizadas con carácter de urgencia (p. ej. la translocación de individuos descubiertos en un arenal, sería necesario la acción coordinada y el apoyo científico de cualquier iniciativa de conservación que se lleve a cabo. El marco general para iniciar

Massó, S.



Micropropagation of Plantago maritima L. - a vanishing species in Poland  


A vanishing species in Poland - Plantago maritima L. was regenerated in vitro from tips of shoots (obtained in vitro) and from different explants of 4-week-old seedlings: seedling tips, hypocotyls, cotyledons, roots. Murashige and Skoog basal medium, supplemented with 0.6 pM indole-3-acetic acid in combination with cytokinins 6-benzyladenine, zeatin or kinetin, was used. The plants obtained in the result of micropropagation were normal in appearence. It was proved that Plantago maritima speci...

Emilia Andrzejewska-Golec; Joanna Makowczy?ska



The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Geophilomorph Centipede Strigamia maritima. (United States)

Strigamia maritima (Myriapoda; Chilopoda) is a species from the soil-living order of geophilomorph centipedes. The Geophilomorpha is the most speciose order of centipedes with over a 1000 species described. They are notable for their large number of appendage bearing segments and are being used as a laboratory model to study the embryological process of segmentation within the myriapods. Using a scaffold derived from the recently published genome of Strigamia maritima that contained multiple mitochondrial protein-coding genes, here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Strigamia, the first from any geophilomorph centipede. The mitochondrial genome of S. maritima is a circular molecule of 14,938 base pairs, within which we could identify the typical mitochondrial genome complement of 13 protein-coding genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. Sequences resembling 16 of the 22 transfer RNA genes typical of metazoan mitochondrial genomes could be identified, many of which have clear deviations from the standard 'cloverleaf' secondary structures of tRNA. Phylogenetic trees derived from the concatenated alignment of protein-coding genes of S. maritima and >50 other metazoans were unable to resolve the Myriapoda as monophyletic, but did support a monophyletic group of chilopods: Strigamia was resolved as the sister group of the scolopendromorph Scolopocryptos sp. and these two (Geophilomorpha and Scolopendromorpha), along with the Lithobiomorpha, formed a monophyletic group the Pleurostigmomorpha. Gene order within the S. maritima mitochondrial genome is unique compared to any other arthropod or metazoan mitochondrial genome to which it has been compared. The highly unusual organisation of the mitochondrial genome of Strigamia maritima is in striking contrast with the conservatively evolving nuclear genome: sampling of more members of this order of centipedes will be required to see whether this unusual organization is typical of the Geophilomorpha or results from a more recent reorganisation in the lineage leading to Strigamia. PMID:25794168

Robertson, Helen E; Lapraz, François; Rhodes, Adelaide C; Telford, Maximilian J



Números cromosómicos de Cryptantha diffusa y C.maritima (Boraginaceae) / Chromosome numbers of Cryptantha diffusa and C. maritima (Boraginaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudiaron por primera vez los cromosomas mitóticos de dos especies argentinas de Cryptantha. Para C. diffusa (Phil.) I. M. Johnst. se halló 2n=56 y para C. maritima Greene var. pilosa Johnst. 2n=20, sugiriéndose que sus números básicos son x=7 y x=10, respectivamente. [...] Abstract in english Mitotic chromosome counts are given, for the first time for two species of Cryptantha from Argentina. C. diffusa (Phil.) I. M. Johnst. (2n=56) and C. maritima Greene var. pilosa Johnst. (2n=20). The basic numbers x=7 and x=10, respectively, are suggested for them. [...

Maria Laura, Las Peñas.



Transcriptional regulation of the carbohydrate utilization network in Thermotoga maritima  


Hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Thermotogales lineage can produce hydrogen by fermenting a wide range of carbohydrates. Previous experimental studies identified a large fraction of genes committed to carbohydrate degradation and utilization in the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Knowledge of these genes enabled comprehensive reconstruction of biochemical pathways comprising the carbohydrate utilization network. However, transcriptional factors (TFs) and regulatory mechanisms driving ...

DmitryARodionov; YekaterinaTarasova



Pterocarpin and isoflavan derivatives from Canavalia maritima (Aubl. Thou.  

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Full Text Available P terocarpin and isoflavan derivatives were isolated from ethanol extract of Canavalia maritima (Aubl. Thou on column chromatography. By analyzing spectral data, the structures were elucidated as 2-hydroxy-3, 9-dimethoxypterocarpin (1, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-8,9-methylenedioxypterocarpan (2, medicarpin (3, 7-hydroxy-2',4'-dimethoxy isoflavan (4, 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyisofalvone (5 5,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (6, 3,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxylflavone (7 and quercetin (8. This paper firstly reports the compounds of pterocarpan and isoflavan from C . maritima, which would help understand the pharmaceutical mechanisms of these bioactive substances for wide medical applications. T he 1 3C-NMR spectr al data of Compound 1 was reported for the first time.

Xinping Huang



Transcriptional regulation of the carbohydrate utilization network in Thermotoga maritima. (United States)

Hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Thermotogales lineage can produce hydrogen by fermenting a wide range of carbohydrates. Previous experimental studies identified a large fraction of genes committed to carbohydrate degradation and utilization in the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Knowledge of these genes enabled comprehensive reconstruction of biochemical pathways comprising the carbohydrate utilization network. However, transcriptional factors (TFs) and regulatory mechanisms driving this network remained largely unknown. Here, we used an integrated approach based on comparative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data for the reconstruction of the carbohydrate utilization regulatory networks in 11 Thermotogales genomes. We identified DNA-binding motifs and regulons for 19 orthologous TFs in the Thermotogales. The inferred regulatory network in T. maritima contains 181 genes encoding TFs, sugar catabolic enzymes and ABC-family transporters. In contrast to many previously described bacteria, a transcriptional regulation strategy of Thermotoga does not employ global regulatory factors. The reconstructed regulatory network in T. maritima was validated by gene expression profiling on a panel of mono- and disaccharides and by in vitro DNA-binding assays. The observed upregulation of genes involved in catabolism of pectin, trehalose, cellobiose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, glucose, galactose, and ribose showed a strong correlation with the UxaR, TreR, BglR, CelR, AraR, RhaR, XylR, GluR, GalR, and RbsR regulons. Ultimately, this study elucidated the transcriptional regulatory network and mechanisms controlling expression of carbohydrate utilization genes in T. maritima. In addition to improving the functional annotations of associated transporters and catabolic enzymes, this research provides novel insights into the evolution of regulatory networks in Thermotogales. PMID:23986752

Rodionov, Dmitry A; Rodionova, Irina A; Li, Xiaoqing; Ravcheev, Dmitry A; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Portnoy, Vasiliy A; Zengler, Karsten; Osterman, Andrei L



Phytochemical study, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Stemodia maritima  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Stemodinol, a new natural compound, together with known compounds including jaceidin, stemodin, stemodinoside B, isocrenatoside, verbascoside, crenatoside, and isoverbascoside, were isolated from Stemodia maritima Linn. The antioxidant (DPPH method) and antimicrobial activities of stemodin, stemodin [...] oside B, and crenatoside were investigated. Among the components tested, only crenatoside isolated from the roots showed a high antioxidant power. Stemodin and stemodinoside B exhibited antibacterial activities.

Francisca R. L. da, Silva; Francisco E. A., Rodrigues; Aldenia R. S., Gomes; Angela M. C., Arriaga; Jair, Mafezoli; Telma L. G., Lemos; Macia C. S. de, Almeida; Gilvandete M. P., Santiago; Raimundo, Braz-Filho; José G. M. da, Costa; Fabiola F. G., Rodrigues; Henrique D. M., Coutinho.



Transcriptional regulation of the carbohydrate utilization network in Thermotoga maritima  

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Full Text Available Hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Thermotogales lineage can produce hydrogen by fermenting a wide range of carbohydrates. Previous experimental studies identified a large fraction of genes committed to carbohydrate degradation and utilization in the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Knowledge of these genes enabled comprehensive reconstruction of biochemical pathways comprising the carbohydrate utilization network. However, transcriptional factors (TFs and regulatory mechanisms driving this network remained largely unknown. Here, we used an integrated approach based on comparative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data for the reconstruction of the carbohydrate utilization regulatory networks in 11 Thermotogales genomes. We identified DNA-binding motifs and regulons for 19 orthologous TFs in the Thermotogales. The inferred regulatory network in T. maritima contains 181 genes encoding TFs, sugar catabolic enzymes and ABC-family transporters. In contrast to many previously described bacteria, a transcriptional regulation strategy of Thermotoga does not employ global regulatory factors. The reconstructed regulatory network in T. maritima was validated by gene expression profiling on a panel of mono- and disaccharides and by in vitro DNA-binding assays. The observed upregulation of genes involved in catabolism of pectin, trehalose, cellobiose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, glucose, galactose, and ribose showed a strong correlation with the UxaR, TreR, BglR, CelR, AraR, RhaR, XylR, GluR, GalR, and RbsR regulons. Ultimately, this study elucidated the transcriptional regulatory network and mechanisms controlling expression of carbohydrate utilization genes in T. maritima. In addition to improving the functional annotations of associated transporters and catabolic enzymes, this research provides novel insights into the evolution of regulatory networks in Thermotogales.




Influence of micronutrient availability on biomass production in Cineraria maritima  

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Full Text Available Cineraria maritima is an annual exotic medicinal herb. Aerial parts of the plants are commercially utilized for the preparation of homeopathic eye drops. Therefore the whole biomass of the aerial part is in much demand, commercially. The raw materials are of limited availability, and the indigenous requirement is met mostly, by import of the prepared drug formulation at higher cost. Concerted efforts are being made for the cultivation of this exotic medicinal plant. The effect of low to high supplies of micronutrients-Fe, Mn, B, and Zn on shoot biomass production, have been studied in C. maritima grown in sand culture. Higher doses of boron (at 1.0 mg/l and zinc (at 0.1 mg/l are observed to be beneficial for shoot biomass production, as compared to Iron (at 11.2 mg/l and Manganese (at 1 mg/l. Low supplies of iron, manganese, zinc, and boron, however, uniformly decrease biomass production. This study shows that higher supplies of B and Zn are beneficial for higher biomass production in C. maritima .

Srivastava N



The Genome Organization of Thermotoga maritima Reflects Its Lifestyle  

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Recent studies have revealed that microbial genomes have many more organizational features than previously thought. Here, an integrated approach utilizing multiple ‘omics’ datasets and bioinformatics tools is established that elucidates genomic features spanning various levels of cellular organization. This methodology produces gene annotation improvements and includes the definition of transcription units. These enhancements to the annotation enable identification of a set of genetic elements instrumental to gene expression and regulation including promoters, ribosome binding sites (RBSs) and untranslated regions (UTRs). This was applied to characterize the genome organization of Thermotoga maritima—a phylogenetically deep-branching, hyperthermophilic bacterium with a small 1.86 Mb genome. Analysis derived from this multiomics approach in combination with bioinformatics tools demonstrate that the genome organization of T. maritima reflects its lifestyle, both with respect to its extreme growth temperature and compact genome. Comparative analysis of genome features suggests that thermodynamic limitations on binding kinetics for RNA polymerase and the ribosome necessitate increased sequence conservation of promoters and RBSs. Thus, restricting the sequences capable of initiating transcription and translation. Furthermore, this organism has uncharacteristically short 5’UTRs (11-17 nucleotides), which reduce the potential for 5’UTR regulatory interactions. The short intergenic distances in the T. maritima genome (5 bp on average) leave little space for regulation through transcription factor binding. The net effect of these constraints, temperature and genomic space, is a reduced ability to tune gene expression. This effect is readily apparent in global gene expression patterns, which show a high fraction of genes expressed independent of growth state with a tight, linear mRNA/protein correlation (Pearson r = 0.62, p < 2.2 x 10-16 t-test). This methodology for characterizing the genome organization is applicable to any culturable bacteria, and as similar studies are completed in diverse taxa, comparative analysis of genome features may provide insights into microbial evolution.

Latif, Haythem; Lerman, Joshua A.; Portnoy, Vasiliy A.; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Nagarajan, Harish; Rutledge, Alexandra C.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lee, Dae-Hee; Qiu, Yu; Zengler, Karsten



Chemical Constituents from the Stems of Diospyros maritima  

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Full Text Available A new phenolic, bis(6-hydroxy-2,3,4-trimethoxylphen-1-ylmethane (1 and a new butanedioate, butylmethyl succinate (2, along with twenty-nine known compounds including one naphthoquinone derivative, two chromanones, eight benzenoids, one lignan, one tocopherol, and sixteen triterpenoids were isolated from the stems of Diospyros maritima. epi-Isoshinanolone (3 was isolated in pure form for the first time. In addition, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchomanone (4 was isolated from a natural source for the first time. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data as well as direct comparison with authentic samples.

Yueh-Hsiung Kuo



Diterpene and other constituents from Stemodia maritima (Scrophulariaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new diterpene, (5S*,8S*,9R*,10S*)-11?,12?-epoxy-9?-hydroxy-19(4 -> 3)abeo-abieta-3,13-diene-19,18-olide, together with the known compounds stemodin, D-mannitol, betulinic acid, a mixture of 3?-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-sitosterol and 3?-O-?-D-glucopyranosylstigmasterol and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,8,3'-trimethoxyflavone were isolated from the leaves and stems of Stemodia maritima. Structural elucidation of all compounds was based on interpretation of spectral data, mainly NMR (1D and 2D) and MS, including comparison with values described in the literature. (author)


New cytotoxic saturated and unsaturated cyclohexanones from Anthemis maritima. (United States)

Two new cyclohexenones (antheminones A and B) and a new cyclohexanone, (antheminone C) along with five known compounds were isolated from the leaves of Anthemis maritima L. The structures were mainly deduced from extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The new compounds were tested in vitro for their cytotoxic activity against adherent and non-adherent cancer cell lines. Antheminones A and C exhibited significant antiproliferative activity against leukemia cells with IC(50) values ranging from 3.2 to 14 microM. PMID:18262418

Collu, Francesca; Bonsignore, Leonardo; Casu, Mariano; Floris, Costantino; Gertsch, Jürg; Cottiglia, Filippo



Synergistic TRAIL sensitizers from Barleria alluaudii and Diospyros maritima# (United States)

Barleria alluaudii and Diospyros maritima were both investigated as part of an ongoing search for synergistic TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-?-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) sensitizers. As a result of this study, two naphthoquinone epoxides, 2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrolapachol (1) and 2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydro-8-hydroxylapachol (2), both not previously isolated from natural sources, and the known 2-methyl anthraquinone (3) were identified from B. alluaudii. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra were utilized to establish the absolute configuration of 1 and 2. Additionally, five known naphthoquinone derivatives, maritinone (4), elliptinone (5), plumbagin (6), (+)-cis-isoshinanolone (7), and ethylidene-6,6?-biplumbagin (8) were isolated from D. maritima. Compounds 1, 2, and 4–6 showed varying levels of synergy with TRAIL. Maritinone (4) and elliptinone (5) showed the highest synergistic effect, with more than a three-fold increase in activity observed with TRAIL than with compound alone. PMID:22313254

Whitson, Emily L.; Sun, Han; Thomas, Cheryl L.; Henrich, Curtis J.; Sayers, Thomas J.; McMahon, James B.; Griesinger, Christian; McKee, Tawnya C.



Microsatellite marker development for the coastal dune shrub Prunus maritima (Rosaceae)1 (United States)

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in the beach plum, Prunus maritima, to investigate the genetic composition of remaining populations in need of conservation and, in future studies, to determine its relation to P. maritima var. gravesii. • Methods and Results: Fourteen primer pairs were identified and tested in four populations throughout the species’ geographic range. Of these 14 loci, 12 were shown to be polymorphic among a total of 60 P. maritima individuals sampled (15 individuals sampled from four populations). Among the polymorphic loci, the number of alleles ranged from two to 10 and observed heterozygosity of loci ranged from 0.07 to 0.93 among specimens tested. • Conclusions: These microsatellites will be useful in evaluating the population genetic composition of P. maritima and in developing approaches for further conservation and management of this species within the endangered coastal dune ecosystem of the northeastern United States. PMID:25699222

Badgley, Emily M.; Grubisha, Lisa C.; Roland, Anna K.; Connolly, Bryan A.; Klooster, Matthew R.




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Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic effect of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier stem extracts in triton induced hyperlipidemia. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier were administered at dose 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg/day orally, respectively. Simultaneous administrations of stem extracts of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier significantly prevent the rise in serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL whereas significant increases in the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL in both secretary and excretory phase. The Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier methanol extract of stem at dose 300mg/kg body weight orally showed significant antihyperlipidemic activity which may be due to the presence of triterpenoids and sterols found in the preliminary phytochemical screening.

Rajinder mann



Thermotoga maritima and Caldicellulosiruptor sacharolyticus co-culture for biohydrogen production  


T. maritima and C. saccharolyticus co-culture (1:3) is advantageous for hydrogen production from mixture of glucose and xylose. The higher hydrogen production observed in co-culture was associated to lower lactic acid formation.

Abreu, A. A.; Mota, M.; Alves, M. M.



Sequence, assembly and evolution of a primordial ferredoxin from Thermotoga maritima.  


A gene coding for the ferredoxin of the primordial, strictly anaerobic and hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli. The ferredoxin gene encodes a polypeptide of 60 amino acids that incorporates a single 4Fe-4S cluster. T. maritima ferredoxin expressed in E. coli is a heat-stable, monomeric protein, the spectroscopic properties of which show that its 4Fe-4S cluster is correctly assembled within the mesophilic host, and that it rem...

Darimont, B.; Sterner, R.



Structural analysis of DNA sequence: evidence for lateral gene transfer in Thermotoga maritima  


The recently published complete DNA sequence of the bacterium Thermotoga maritima provides evidence, based on protein sequence conservation, for lateral gene transfer between Archaea and Bacteria. We introduce a new method of periodicity analysis of DNA sequences, based on structural parameters, which brings independent evidence for the lateral gene transfer in the genome of T.maritima. The structural analysis relates the Archaea-like DNA sequences to the genome of Pyrococcus horikoshii. Anal...

Worning, Peder; Jensen, Lars J.; Nelson, Karen E.; Brunak, Søren; Ussery, David W.



Diterpene and other constituents from Stemodia maritima (Scrophulariaceae)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new diterpene, (5S{sup *},8S{sup *},9R{sup *},10S{sup *})-11{beta},12{beta}-epoxy-9{alpha}-hydroxy-19(4 -> 3)abeo-abieta-3,13-diene-19,18-olide, together with the known compounds stemodin, D-mannitol, betulinic acid, a mixture of 3{beta}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl-{beta}-sitosterol and 3{beta}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosylstigmasterol and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,8,3'-trimethoxyflavone were isolated from the leaves and stems of Stemodia maritima. Structural elucidation of all compounds was based on interpretation of spectral data, mainly NMR (1D and 2D) and MS, including comparison with values described in the literature. (author)

Rodrigues, Francisco E.A.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Vasconcelos, Jackson N.; Mafezoli, Jair; Arriaga, Angela M.C., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DQOI/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Curso de Pos-Graducao em Quimica; Lima, Jefferson Q. [Instituto Federal do Ceara, Juazeiro do Norte, CE (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia Ambiental; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DQOI/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (CCT/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias



A seascape genetic analysis reveals strong biogeographical structuring driven by contrasting processes in the polyploid saltmarsh species Puccinellia maritima and Triglochin maritima. (United States)

Little is known about the processes shaping population structure in saltmarshes. It is expected that the sea should act as a powerful agent of dispersal. Yet, in contrast, import of external propagules into a saltmarsh is thought to be small. To determine the level of connectivity between saltmarsh ecosystems at a macro-geographical scale, we characterized and compared the population structure of two polyploid saltmarsh species, Puccinellia maritima and Triglochin maritima based on a seascape genetics approach. A discriminant analysis of principal components highlighted a genetic structure for both species arranged according to a regional pattern. Subsequent analysis based on isolation-by-distance and isolation-by-resistance frameworks indicated a strong role of coastal sediment transport processes in delimiting regional structure in P. maritima, while additional overland propagule dispersal was indicated for T. maritima. The identification and comparison of regional genetic structure and likely determining factors presented here allows us to understand the biogeographical units along the UK coast, between which barriers to connectivity occur not only at the species level but at the ecosystem scale. This information is valuable in plant conservation and community ecology and in the management and restoration of saltmarsh ecosystems. PMID:24862943

Rouger, R; Jump, A S




Thirty one accessions, including one sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) 30 wild beet (29 Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima and 1 Beta macrocarpa) were included in this study. 29 Accessions were collected from wild populations along the coast of France (Atlantic and Mediterranean) and have associate...


Structure of an essential GTPase, YsxC, from Thermotoga maritima  


Apo and GDP-bound crystal structures of an essential GTPase, YsxC, from T. maritima were determined to maximal resolutions of 2.3 and 1.9?Å, respectively. Switch I in GDP–YsxC can adopt both an ‘open’ and ‘closed’ conformation, suggesting a mechanism for diffusion of GDP out of the nucleotide-binding pocket.

Chan, Kwok-ho; Wong, Kam-bo



Alkaline phosphatase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium T. maritima requires cobalt for activity. (United States)

The hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima encodes a gene sharing sequence similarities with several known genes for alkaline phosphatase (AP). The putative gene was isolated and the corresponding protein expressed in Escherichia coli, with and without a predicted signal sequence. The recombinant protein showed phosphatase activity toward the substrate p-nitrophenyl-phosphate with a k(cat) of 16 s(-1) and a K(m) of 175 microM at a pH optimum of 8.0 when assayed at 25 degrees C. T. maritima phosphatase activity increased at high temperatures, reaching a maximum k(cat) of 100 s(-1), with a K(m) of 93 microM at 65 degrees C. Activity was stable at 65 degrees C for >24 h and at 90 degrees C for 5 h. Phosphatase activity was dependent on divalent metal ions, specifically Co(II) and Mg(II). Circular dichroism spectra showed that the enzyme gains secondary structure on addition of these metals. Zinc, the most common divalent metal ion required for activity in known APs, was shown to inhibit the T. maritima phosphatase enzyme at concentrations above 0.3 moles Zn: 1 mole monomer. All activity was abolished in the presence of 0.1 mM EDTA. The T. maritima AP primary sequence is 28% identical when compared with E. coli AP. Based on a structural model, the active sites are superimposable except for two residues near the E. coli AP Mg binding site, D153 and K328 (E. coli numbering) corresponding to histidine and tryptophan in T. maritima AP, respectively. Sucrose-density gradient sedimentation experiments showed that the protein exists in several quaternary forms predominated by an octamer. PMID:11910033

Wojciechowski, Cheryl L; Cardia, James P; Kantrowitz, Evan R



Micromonospora maritima sp. nov., isolated from mangrove soil. (United States)

Strain D10-9-5(T) was isolated from mangrove soil in Samut Sakhon province, Thailand. A polyphasic approach was used to determine the taxonomic position of the strain. The strain presented single rough spores on substrate mycelium and no aerial mycelium. Chemotaxonomic data supported the assignment of strain D10-9-5(T) to the genus Micromonospora based on the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid and glycolyl muramic acid in the peptidoglycan, ribose, mannose, galactose, xylose and glucose as whole-cell sugars, MK-10(H(4)) (14.8?%), MK-10(H(6)) (46.7?%) and MK-10(H(8)) (27.5?%) as the predominant isoprenoid quinones, iso-C(15?:?0) (17.9?%), anteiso-C(17?:?0) (14.6?%), iso-C(17?:?0) (9.6?%), C(17?:?0) (8.0?%), iso-C(16?:?0) (7.7?%) and C(17?:?1)?8c (7.0?%) as the major cellular fatty acids, and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and phosphatidylethanolamine as the predominant phospholipids in the cell wall. The 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that strain D10-9-5 was closely related to Micromonospora marina JCM 12870(T) (99.6?%), Micromonospora coxensis JCM 13248 (T) (99.4?%), Micromonospora aurantiaca JCM 10878(T) (99.3?%), Micromonospora humi JCM15292(T) (99.3?%), Micromonospora halophytica JCM 3125(T) (99.1%) and Micromonospora chalcea JCM 3031(T) (99.1?%). Strain D10-9-5(T) could be clearly distinguished from related members of the genus Micromonospora by its physiological and biochemical characteristics as well as its phylogenetic position and level of DNA-DNA relatedness. Therefore, the strain represents a novel species for which the name Micromonospora maritima sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is D10-9-5(T) (?=?JCM 17013(T)?=?NBRC 108767(T)?=?PCU 322(T)?=?TISTR 2000(T)). PMID:22523171

Songsumanus, Apakorn; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Kudo, Takuji



Chemical composition of the essential oil of Jacobaea maritima (L.) Pelser & Meijden and Jacobaea maritima subsp. bicolor (Willd.) B. Nord. & Greuter (Asteraceae) collected wild in Croatia and Sicily, respectively. (United States)

In this study, the chemical compositions of the essential oils from aerial parts (JmA) and radices (JmR) of Jacobaea maritima (L.) Pelser & Meijden, collected in Croatia, and of Jacobaea maritima subsp. bicolor (Willd.) B. Nord. & Greuter, collected in Sicily, were evaluated by using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of the essential oil from J. maritima, both in JmA and JmR, were pentacosane (15.7%), heptacosane (13.1%) and nonacosane (8.1%) whereas the essential oil from J. maritima subsp. bicolor was characterised by the presence of hexadecanoic acid (14.6%), caryophyllene oxide (9.3%) and hexahydrofarnesylacetone (6.5%). The comparison of the essential oil with other studied oils of the genus Jacobaea is discussed. PMID:25533422

Maggio, Antonella; Venditti, Alessandro; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Formisano, Carmen



Substrate specificity of ribose-5-phosphate isomerases from Clostridium difficile and Thermotoga maritima. (United States)

The activity of ribose-5-phosphate isomerases (RpiB) from Clostridium difficile for D-ribose isomerization was optimal at pH 7.5 and 40 degrees C, while that from Thermotoga maritima for L-talose isomerization was optimal at pH 8.0 and 70 degrees C. C. difficile RpiB exhibited activity only with aldose substrates possessing hydroxyl groups oriented in the right-handed configuration (Fischer projections) at the C2 and C3 positions, such as D-ribose, D-allose, L-talose, L-lyxose, D-gulose, and L-mannose. In contrast, T. maritima RpiB displayed activity only with aldose substrates possessing hydroxyl groups configured the same direction at the C2, C3, and C4 positions, such as the D- and L-forms of ribose, talose, and allose. PMID:20155483

Yeom, Soo-Jin; Kim, Bi-Na; Park, Chang-Su; Oh, Deok-Kun



Using a toxicity test with Ruppia maritima (Linnaeus) to assess the effects of Roundup. (United States)

Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Monsanto's broad-spectrum herbicide Roundup, consists of one of the most used pesticides worldwide, but its effects on the marine flora are still not well understood. Were examined Roundup toxic effects on Ruppia maritima specimens collected from Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, MA, Brazil) and acclimatized under laboratory conditions. The numbers of new and dead leaves, the root and leaf length, the chlorophyll a content, and the weight of R. maritima branches were determined before and after exposure to different Roundup concentrations for seven days. High concentrations caused a significant lethal effect. In addition, significant changes were observed in the wet and dry weights, the number and length of the leaves, and the chlorophyll a content. Leaf elongation was observed in the branches exposed to low concentrations, and this change was likely activated as a compensatory mechanism. The results indicate that high concentrations of this herbicide may compromise estuarine flora. PMID:25455815

Castro, Aline de Jesus Veloso; Colares, Ioni Gonçalves; Franco, Teresa Cristina Rodrigues Dos Santos; Cutrim, Marco Valerio Jansen; Luvizotto-Santos, Ricardo



Germ cells of the centipede Strigamia maritima are specified early in embryonic development  


We provide the first systematic description of germ cell development with molecular markers in a myriapod, the centipede Strigamia maritima. By examining the expression of Strigamia vasa and nanos orthologues, we find that the primordial germ cells are specified from at least the blastoderm stage. This is a much earlier embryonic stage than previously described for centipedes, or any other member of the Myriapoda. Using these genes as markers, and taking advantage of the developmental synchro...

Green, Jack E; Akam, Michael



Several Archaeal Homologs of Putative Oligopeptide-Binding Proteins Encoded by Thermotoga maritima Bind Sugars†  


The hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima has shared many genes with archaea through horizontal gene transfer. Several of these encode putative oligopeptide ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. We sought to test the hypothesis that these transporters actually transport sugars by measuring the substrate affinities of their encoded substrate-binding proteins (SBPs). This information will increase our understanding of the selective pressures that allowed this organism to retain the...

Nanavati, Dhaval M.; Thirangoon, Kamolwan; Noll, Kenneth M.



Purification of Thermotoga maritima enzymes for the degradation of cellulosic materials.  


A separation procedure for the analysis of the enzyme components of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima involved in cellulose and xylan degradation was developed. Resolution of the enzymes was achieved by a combination of fast protein liquid chromatography anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Enzyme fractions were assayed for hydrolysis of Avicel, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), beta-glucan, laminarin, xylan, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside, p-nitrophenyl-be...

Bronnenmeier, K.; Kern, A.; Liebl, W.; Staudenbauer, W. L.



Characterization and structural modeling of a new type of thermostable esterase from Thermotoga maritima  


A bioinformatic screening of the genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima for ester-hydrolyzing enzymes revealed a protein with typical esterase motifs, though annotated as a hypothetical protein. To confirm its putative esterase function the gene (estD) was cloned, functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Recombinant EstD was found to exhibit significant esterase activity with a preference for short acyl chain esters (C4¿C8). The monomeric...

Levisson, M.; Oost, J.; Kengen, S. W. M.



Contribution of Spartina maritima to the reduction of eutrophication in estuarine systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salt marshes are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, performing important ecosystem functions, particularly nutrient recycling. In this study, a comparison is made between Mondego and Tagus estuaries in relation to the role of Spartina maritima in nitrogen retention capacity and cycling. Two mono-specific S. maritima stands per estuary were studied during 1 yr (biomass, nitrogen (N) pools, litter production, decomposition rates). Results showed that the oldest Tagus salt marsh population presented higher annual belowground biomass and N productions, and a slower decomposition rate for litter, contributing to the higher N accumulation in the sediment, whereas S. maritima younger marshes had higher aboveground biomass production. Detritus moved by tides represented a huge amount of aboveground production, probably significant when considering the N balance of these salt marshes. Results reinforce the functions of salt marshes as contributing to a reduction of eutrophication in transitional waters, namely through sedimentation processes. - The crucial capacity of salt marshes to retain nitrogen, thus reducing eutrophication, greatly depends on the salt marsh maturity, rather than the estuarine system


Complexes of Thermotoga maritima S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase provide insights into substrate specificity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous aliphatic cations and are essential for cellular growth and differentiation. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is a critical pyruvoyl-dependent enzyme in the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway. The crystal structures of AdoMetDC from humans and plants and of the AdoMetDC proenzyme from Thermotoga maritima have been obtained previously. Here, the crystal structures of activated T. maritima AdoMetDC (TmAdoMetDC) and of its complexes with S-adenosylmethionine methyl ester and 5{prime}-deoxy-5{prime}-dimethylthioadenosine are reported. The results demonstrate for the first time that TmAdoMetDC autoprocesses without the need for additional factors and that the enzyme contains two complete active sites, both of which use residues from both chains of the homodimer. The complexes provide insights into the substrate specificity and ligand binding of AdoMetDC in prokaryotes. The conservation of the ligand-binding mode and the active-site residues between human and T. maritima AdoMetDC provides insight into the evolution of AdoMetDC.

Bale, Shridhar; Baba, Kavita; McCloskey, Diane E.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E.



Structural Insight inot the low Affinity Between Thermotoga maritima CheA and CheB Compared to their Escherichia coli/Salmonella typhimurium Counterparts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CheA-mediated CheB phosphorylation and the subsequent CheB-mediated demethylation of the chemoreceptors are important steps required for the bacterial chemotactic adaptation response. Although Escherichia coli CheB has been reported to interact with CheA competitively against CheY, we have observed that Thermotoga maritima CheB has no detectable CheA-binding. By determining the CheY-like domain crystal structure of T. maritima CheB, and comparing against the T. maritima CheY and Salmonella typhimurium CheB structures, we propose that the two consecutive glutamates in the {beta}4/{alpha}4 loop of T. maritima CheB that is absent in T. maritima CheY and in E. coli/S. typhimurium CheB may be one factor contributing to the low CheA affinity.

S Park; B Crane



Scouting contaminated estuaries: heavy metal resistant and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in the native metal rhizoaccumulator Spartina maritima. (United States)

Spartina maritima is a native endangered heavy metal rhizoaccumulator cordgrass naturally growing in southwest coasts of Spain, where is used as a biotool to rehabilitate degraded salt marshes. Fifteen bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of S. maritima growing in the estuary of the Tinto River, one of the most polluted areas in the world. A high proportion of bacteria were resistant towards several heavy metals. They also exhibited multiple plant growth promoting (PGP) properties, in the absence and the presence of Cu. Bacillus methylotrophicus SMT38, Bacillusaryabhattai SMT48, B. aryabhattai SMT50 and Bacilluslicheniformis SMT51 were selected as the best performing strains. In a gnobiotic assay, inoculation of Medicago sativa seeds with the selected isolates induced higher root elongation. The inoculation of S. maritima with these indigenous metal-resistant PGP rhizobacteria could be an efficient method to increase plant adaptation and growth in contaminated estuaries during restoration programs. PMID:25467875

Mesa, J; Mateos-Naranjo, E; Caviedes, M A; Redondo-Gómez, S; Pajuelo, E; Rodríguez-Llorente, I D



Principais aspectos do Direito Marítimo e sua relação com a Lex Mercatoria e Lex Maritima / Main aspects of Maritime Law and its relation with Lex Mercatoria and Lex Maritima  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O artigo objetiva apresentar, de forma introdutória, os principais aspectos do Direito Marítimo e sua relação com a Lex Mercatoria ea Lex Maritima, a fim de que essa fonte de direito seja recepcionada de forma crítica pelo direito brasileiro, com base na ordem pública, portanto, com reservas.Abstracts: This article aims to give a general overview of the main aspects of Brazilian Maritime Law and its relationship with Lex Mercatoria and Lex Maritima, in order to introduce the last one into brazilian law in a critical approach based on the public order, thus, with restrictions.

Osvaldo Agripino Castro Junio



The first myriapod genome sequence reveals conservative arthropod gene content and genome organisation in the centipede Strigamia maritima. (United States)

Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologues of genes conserved from the bilaterian ancestor that have been lost in insects. Our analysis locates many genes in conserved macro-synteny contexts, and many small-scale examples of gene clustering. We describe several examples where S. maritima shows different solutions from insects to similar problems. The insect olfactory receptor gene family is absent from S. maritima, and olfaction in air is likely effected by expansion of other receptor gene families. For some genes S. maritima has evolved paralogues to generate coding sequence diversity, where insects use alternate splicing. This is most striking for the Dscam gene, which in Drosophila generates more than 100,000 alternate splice forms, but in S. maritima is encoded by over 100 paralogues. We see an intriguing linkage between the absence of any known photosensory proteins in a blind organism and the additional absence of canonical circadian clock genes. The phylogenetic position of myriapods allows us to identify where in arthropod phylogeny several particular molecular mechanisms and traits emerged. For example, we conclude that juvenile hormone signalling evolved with the emergence of the exoskeleton in the arthropods and that RR-1 containing cuticle proteins evolved in the lineage leading to Mandibulata. We also identify when various gene expansions and losses occurred. The genome of S. maritima offers us a unique glimpse into the ancestral arthropod genome, while also displaying many adaptations to its specific life history. PMID:25423365

Chipman, Ariel D; Ferrier, David E K; Brena, Carlo; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S T; Schröder, Reinhard; Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C; Alonso, Claudio R; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C J; Blankenburg, Kerstin P; Brites, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Coyle, Marcus; Dearden, Peter K; Du Pasquier, Louis; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Ebert, Dieter; Eibner, Cornelius; Erikson, Galina; Evans, Peter D; Extavour, Cassandra G; Francisco, Liezl; Gabaldón, Toni; Gillis, William J; Goodwin-Horn, Elizabeth A; Green, Jack E; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Gubbala, Sai; Guigó, Roderic; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Havlak, Paul; Hayden, Luke; Helbing, Sophie; Holder, Michael; Hui, Jerome H L; Hunn, Julia P; Hunnekuhl, Vera S; Jackson, LaRonda; Javaid, Mehwish; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Jiggins, Francis M; Jones, Tamsin E; Kaiser, Tobias S; Kalra, Divya; Kenny, Nathan J; Korchina, Viktoriya; Kovar, Christie L; Kraus, F Bernhard; Lapraz, François; Lee, Sandra L; Lv, Jie; Mandapat, Christigale; Manning, Gerard; Mariotti, Marco; Mata, Robert; Mathew, Tittu; Neumann, Tobias; Newsham, Irene; Ngo, Dinh N; Ninova, Maria; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Ongeri, Fiona; Palmer, William J; Patil, Shobha; Patraquim, Pedro; Pham, Christopher; Pu, Ling-Ling; Putman, Nicholas H; Rabouille, Catherine; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Rhodes, Adelaide C; Robertson, Helen E; Robertson, Hugh M; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Rozas, Julio; Saada, Nehad; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Scherer, Steven E; Schurko, Andrew M; Siggens, Kenneth W; Simmons, DeNard; Stief, Anna; Stolle, Eckart; Telford, Maximilian J; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Thornton, Rebecca; van der Zee, Maurijn; von Haeseler, Arndt; Williams, James M; Willis, Judith H; Wu, Yuanqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Lawson, Daniel; Muzny, Donna M; Worley, Kim C; Gibbs, Richard A; Akam, Michael; Richards, Stephen



Functional and structural characterization of a thermostable acetyl esterase from Thermotoga maritima.  


TM0077 from Thermotoga maritima is a member of the carbohydrate esterase family 7 and is active on a variety of acetylated compounds, including cephalosporin C. TM0077 esterase activity is confined to short-chain acyl esters (C2-C3), and is optimal around 100°C and pH 7.5. The positional specificity of TM0077 was investigated using 4-nitrophenyl-?-D-xylopyranoside monoacetates as substrates in a ?-xylosidase-coupled assay. TM0077 hydrolyzes acetate at positions 2, 3, and 4 with equal effic...

Levisson, M.; Han, Gw; Deller, Mc; Xu, Q.; Biely, P.; Hendriks, S.; Ten Eyck, Lf; Flensburg, C.; Roversi, P.; Miller, Md; Mcmullan, D.; Von Delft, F.; Kreusch, A.; Deacon, Am; Oost, J.



Chemical composition of essential oils and aromatic waters from different Italian Anthemis maritima populations. (United States)

The chemical composition of the essential oils and aromatic waters isolated from six Italian Anthemis maritima populations was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 122 and 100 chemical compounds were identified in the essential oils and the aromatic waters, respectively. The main compound classes represented in the oils were monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and terpene esters. Multivariate chemometric techniques such as cluster analysis (CA) and principal coordinate analysis (PCO) were used to classify the samples according to the geographical origin. Statistical analysis allowed the attribution of the analyzed populations to different chemotype groups. PMID:24078600

Ciccarelli, Daniela; Noccioli, Cecilia; Pistelli, Luisa




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Full Text Available The paper presents anatomical featuress of the vegetative organs of an endengered plant Cakile maritima Scop.subsp. euxina (Pobed. Nyár. The root has a secondary structure, due to the phelogen and cambium activity, The stem has a one-layered epidermis, covered by thick cuticle, a differentiated cortex and a large number of collateral vascular bundles in its upper part. The leaf lobes have a homogenous mesophyll and is amphistomatic. The mechanical tissue is represented by sclerenchymatous fibers in the root and collenchyma tissue in the stem.

Loreley Dana JIANU



Rhizosphere O2 dynamics in young Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima often share the same habitat, but R. maritima appears more resistant to environmental stress. We investigated the impact of light intensity and water column O2 concentrations on radial oxygen loss (ROL), in young specimens of Z. marina and R. maritima. Planar optode imaging revealed that ROL of Z. marina was localized to the root tip, while R. maritima showed ROL along extensive root sections. The total root biomass of the 2 species was similar, but, while R. maritima had only 1 root, of which 33% of its length showed ROL, Z. marina had 2 to 5 individual roots, where only 2 to 3 exhibited O2 leakage, but then only at root tips. ROL resulted in an oxic volume of 4.26 ± 0.51 mm3 plant?1 for Z. marina and 5.39 ± 0.47 mm3 plant?1 for R. maritima (n = 3). ROL per plant at light saturation was 2.32 ± 0.30 and 2.89 ± 0.38 nmol h?1 for Z. marina and R. maritima, respectively. These values declined by 71 and 60% in darkness. However, both species were able to maintain ROL as long as ambient O2 levels remained >50% air saturation. The calculated ROL integrated over a 24 h cycle was 48.8 ± 10.6 nmol O2 plant?1 d?1 (n = 3) for R. maritima and 30% less for Z. marina. The ability of R. maritima to maintain higher ROL than Z. marina could be an important feature defining its potential for colonizing and maintaining growth in eutrophic sediments.

Jovanovic, Zeljko; Pedersen, Mia Østergaard



Structural investigations of the highly flexible recombinant ribosomal protein L12 from Thermotoga maritima. (United States)

Ribosomal protein L7/L12, the only multicopy component of the ribosome, is involved in translation factor binding and in the ribosomal GTPase center. The gene for L7/L12 from Thermotoga maritima was cloned and the protein expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli. Purification of L7/L12 was achieved under non-denaturing conditions via heat treatment and two chromatographic steps. Circular dichroism melting profiles were monitored at 222 nm, showing the melting temperature of the protein at pH 7.5 around 110 degrees C, compared to approximately 60 degrees C for the highly homologous Escherichia coli protein. The unfolding was reversible and renaturation closely followed the path of the thermal melting. Dynamic light scattering, gel filtration chromatography, and crosslinking experiments suggested that under physiological buffer conditions Thermotoga maritima L7/L12 exists as a tetramer. The protein was crystallized under two conditions, yielding an orthorhombic (C222(1)) and a cubic (12(1)3) space group with an estimated two and three to four L7/L12 molecules per asymmetric unit, respectively. The crystals contained the full-length protein, and cryogenic buffers were developed which improved the mosaic spreads and the resolution limits. For the structure solution isoleucine was mutated to methionine at two separate positions, the mutant forms expressed as selenomethionine variants and crystallized. PMID:10782993

Wahl, M C; Huber, R; Marinkoviç, S; Weyher-Stingl, E; Ehlert, S



Anthemis maritima L. in different coastal habitats: A tool to explore plant plasticity (United States)

Anthemis maritima, a plant which has the ability to colonise different stressful coastal environments, sand dunes and rocky cliff ecosystems, exhibits a high degree of leaf trait plasticity. The key parameters are the regulation of stomatal density and size, the succulence index and the specific antioxidant response. With the aim to explore plant plasticity, we analysed various morphological and physiological traits of the leaves of A. maritima populations dwelling in three different coastal areas of Italy. The highest values of stomatal density, leaf thickness, and succulence index were found in plants living in a sub-arid climate, on rocky cliffs, with the highest soil pH and salinity. Although this population exhibited the highest concentration of oxygen reactive species (hydrogen peroxide), it also had the lowest value of lipid peroxidation, an indicator of oxidative stress. Ascorbate was the main protective molecule in this population, while phenols appeared to carry out this role in plants living on soils with the lowest salinity and highest annual rainfall.

Spanò, Carmelina; Balestri, Mirko; Bottega, Stefania; Grilli, Isa; Forino, Laura Maria Costantina; Ciccarelli, Daniela



Effect of Gamma Rays and Salinity on Growth and Chemical Composition of Ambrosia maritima L. Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work achieved to study the effects of, mixture of salt 2:2:1 (Na Cl-CaCl2 and Mg SO4), concentration of (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). on growth characters, some chemical components and some active ingredients in shoots of Ambrosia maritima plants, at different stages of growth, during two seasons. Pots 30 cm in diameter were filled of sand-loamy soils in appropriate concentration, all pots were irrigated with tap water. The exposed damsisa seeds to gamma rays, doses (0, 20, 40, and 80 Gy) before sowing together with control non irradiated seeds were sown in saline soils (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). Soil salinity treatments caused a decrease in plant height, number of leaves, content of damsin, and an increase in fresh weigh, dry weight, total sugars, total chlorophyll, amino acids and ambrosine content. Also, Gamma rays caused an increase in most of growth parameters and most of chemical composition. It was observed that 40 or 80 Gy was more effective. We investigated the combined effect of levels of salinity and doses of radiation used, this interference improve growth parameters and chemical composition in ambrosia maritima plants and caused ascertain the role of gamma irradiation in plants tolerance to soil salinity and alleviation their harmful effect on plants.


The protective role of damsissa (Ambroosia Maritima) against gamma irradiation in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work was directed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with damsissa (Ambrosia maritima) for thirty consecutive days pre- irradiation exposure in controlling the post-irradiation hazards in irradiated rats. Male albino rats (Spraue Dowley strain) weighing about 120+- 10 g were used and blood samples were collected from tails of animals thirty days after treatment with damsissa and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysis such as liver functions, kidney function and lipid profile. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant decrease in the contents of total proteins accompanied by significant increase of urea level as recorded on the 7th days post irradiation. Data obtained in this study revealed that whole body gamma irradiation induced significant elevation in all tested blood lipid functions. There was significant increase of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) whole alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed statistical significant decrease as compared with the control group. Damisissa (Ambrosia maritima) treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of damsissa may be due to its anti-inflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation


Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plant of Western Himalaya (United States)

Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of A. nilagirica and A. maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/...


Molecular genetic tagging of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima-derived resistance to the sugar beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii (United States)

Resistance in commercial sugar beet hybrids to the sugar beet cyst nematode (SBCN) principally has been based on the Hs1 gene from the wild beet Beta procumbens, yet incorporation of this resistance has been detrimental to crop yield in nematode-free fields. Accessions of B. vulgaris ssp maritima w...


Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the putative ABC transporter ATP-binding protein from Thermotoga maritima  


The putative ABC transporter ATP-binding protein TM0222 from T. maritima was cloned, overproduced, purified and crystallized. A complete MAD diffraction data set has been collected to 2.3?Å resolution.

Ethayathulla, Abdul S.; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Shinkai, Akeo; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Singh, Tej P.; Kaur, Punit; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki



Water Stress in Beta vulgaris: Osmotic Adjustment Response and Gene Expression Analysis in ssp. vulgaris and maritima  


Beta vulgaris genus comprises wild and cultivated subspecies. The “maritima” subspecies is formed by wild or weedy accessions, well adapted to low-water potential environments; it was previously shown that B. vulgaris ssp. maritima has mechanisms of osmotic adjustment more effective than the cultivated B. vulgaris ssp. vulgaris. The response to a progressive lowering of soil potential was compared in two Beta accessions, a cultivated and a wild one. Throughout the 4-months experiment unde...

Paola Vastarelli; Anna Moschella; Daniela Pacifico; Giuseppe Mandolino



Several Archaeal Homologs of Putative Oligopeptide-Binding Proteins Encoded by Thermotoga maritima Bind Sugars† (United States)

The hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima has shared many genes with archaea through horizontal gene transfer. Several of these encode putative oligopeptide ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. We sought to test the hypothesis that these transporters actually transport sugars by measuring the substrate affinities of their encoded substrate-binding proteins (SBPs). This information will increase our understanding of the selective pressures that allowed this organism to retain these archaeal homologs. By measuring changes in intrinsic fluorescence of these SBPs in response to exposure to various sugars, we found that five of the eight proteins examined bind to sugars. We could not identify the ligands of the SBPs TM0460, TM1150, and TM1199. The ligands for the archaeal SBPs are TM0031 (BglE), the ?-glucosides cellobiose and laminaribiose; TM0071 (XloE), xylobiose and xylotriose; TM0300 (GloE), large glucose oligosaccharides represented by xyloglucans; TM1223 (ManE), ?-1,4-mannobiose; and TM1226 (ManD), ?-1,4-mannobiose, ?-1,4-mannotriose, ?-1,4-mannotetraose, ?-1,4-galactosyl mannobiose, and cellobiose. For comparison, seven bacterial putative sugar-binding proteins were examined and ligands for three (TM0595, TM0810, and TM1855) were not identified. The ligands for these bacterial SBPs are TM0114 (XylE), xylose; TM0418 (InoE), myo-inositol; TM0432 (AguE), ?-1,4-digalactouronic acid; and TM0958 (RbsB), ribose. We found that T. maritima does not grow on several complex polypeptide mixtures as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen, so it is unlikely that these archaeal ABC transporters are used primarily for oligopeptide transport. Since these SBPs bind oligosaccharides with micromolar to nanomolar affinities, we propose that they are used primarily for oligosaccharide transport. PMID:16461685

Nanavati, Dhaval M.; Thirangoon, Kamolwan; Noll, Kenneth M.



Proteomic and metabolic profiles of Cakile maritima Scop. Sea Rocket grown in the presence of cadmium. (United States)

Recent physiological reports have documented how Cakile maritima Scop. Sea Rocket could accumulate high doses of Cd without altering its physiological parameters. In the present study, we performed an integrated proteomics (2DE) and metabolomics (HPLC-MS) investigation to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying cadmium (Cd) tolerance of this halophyte. Peculiar features were observed: (i) up-regulation of thiol compound anabolism, including glutathione and phytochelatin homeostasis, which allows an intracellular chelation of Cd and its compartmentalization into vacuole by a significant up-regulation of vacuolar transporters; (ii) up-regulation of the PPP and Calvin cycle (both at the enzyme and metabolite level), which utterly promoted the maintenance of NADPH/NADP(+) homeostasis, other than the accumulation of triose-phosphates (serving as anabolic intermediates for triacylglycerol biosynthesis) and the glyoxylate precursor phosphoglycolate, to promote photorespiration and consequently CO2 release. An up-regulation of carbonic anhydrase was also observed. This halophyte is also correlated with a highly efficient antioxidant system, especially a high up-regulation of SOD1, resulting more efficient in coping with heavy metals stress than common plants. Interestingly, exposure to high Cd concentrations partly affected photosystem integrity and metabolic activity, through the up-regulation of enzymes from the Calvin cycle and glutathione-ascorbate homeostasis and PAP3 which stabilizes thylakoid membrane structures. In addition, up-regulation of Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase CYP38 increases stability and biogenesis of PSII. Finally, metabolomics results confirmed proteomics and previous physiological evidence, also suggesting that osmoprotectants, betaine and proline, together with plant hormones, methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid, might be involved in mediating responses to Cd-induced stress. Taken together, these peculiar features confirm that Cakile maritima Scop. Sea Rocket seemed to be naturally equipped to withstand even high doses of Cd pollution. PMID:25639878

Taamalli, Manel; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Marrocco, Cristina; Gevi, Federica; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello



Iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis. Thermatoga maritima IscU is a structured iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein. (United States)

Genetic evidence has indicated that Isc proteins play an important role in iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis. In particular, IscU is believed to serve as a scaffold for the assembly of a nascent iron-sulfur cluster that is subsequently delivered to target iron-sulfur apoproteins. We report the characterization of an IscU from Thermatoga maritima, an evolutionarily ancient hyperthermophilic bacterium. The stabilizing influence of a D40A substitution allowed characterization of the holoprotein. Mössbauer (delta = 0.29 +/- 0.03 mm/s, DeltaE(Q) = 0.58 +/- 0.03 mm/s), UV-visible absorption, and circular dichroism studies of the D40A protein show that T. maritima IscU coordinates a [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster. Thermal denaturation experiments demonstrate that T. maritima IscU is a thermally stable protein with a thermally unstable cluster. This is also the first IscU type domain that is demonstrated to possess a high degree of secondary and tertiary structure. CD spectra indicate 36.7% alpha-helix, 13.1% antiparallel beta-sheet, 11.3% parallel beta-sheet, 20.2% beta-turn, and 19.1% other at 20 degrees C, with negligible spectral change observed at 70 degrees C. Cluster coordination also has no effect on the secondary structure of the protein. The dispersion of signals in 1H-15N heteronuclear single quantum correlation NMR spectra of wild type and D40A IscU supports the presence of significant tertiary structure for the apoprotein, consistent with a scaffolding role, and is in marked contrast to other low molecular weight Fe-S proteins where cofactor coordination is found to be necessary for proper protein folding. Consistent with the observed sequence homology and proposed conservation of function for IscU-type proteins, we demonstrate T. maritima IscU-mediated reconstitution of human apoferredoxin. PMID:11934893

Mansy, Sheref S; Wu, Gong; Surerus, Kristene K; Cowan, J A



Cloning, overexpression, purification, and physicochemical characterization of a cold shock protein homolog from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima.  


Thermotoga maritima (Tm) expresses a 7 kDa monomeric protein whose 18 N-terminal amino acids show 81% identity to N-terminal sequences of cold shock proteins (Csps) from Bacillus caldolyticus and Bacillus stearothermophilus. There were only trace amounts of the protein in Thermotoga cells grown at 80 degrees C. Therefore, to perform physicochemical experiments, the gene was cloned in Escherichia coli. A DNA probe was produced by PCR from genomic Tm DNA with degenerated primers developed from ...

Welker, C.; Bo?hm, G.; Schurig, H.; Jaenicke, R.



Emergence of gynodioecy in wild beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima L.): a genealogical approach using chloroplastic nucleotide sequences  


Gynodioecy is a breeding system where both hermaphroditic and female individuals coexist within plant populations. This dimorphism is the result of a genomic interaction between maternally inherited cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes and bi-parentally inherited nuclear male fertility restorers. As opposed to other gynodioecious species, where every cytoplasm seems to be associated with male sterility, wild beet Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima exhibits a minority of sterilizing cytoplasms amon...

Fe?nart, Ste?phane; Touzet, Pascal; Arnaud, Jean-franc?ois; Cuguen, Joe?l



The First Myriapod Genome Sequence Reveals Conservative Arthropod Gene Content and Genome Organisation in the Centipede Strigamia maritima  


Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologue...

Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E. K.; Brena, Carlo; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Schro?der, Reinhard; Torres-oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C.; Alonso, Claudio R.; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C. J.



Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima - ancestor of all beet crops - and modern sugar beets  


The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar be...

ChristinZachow; RalfTilcher



Structure of the endonuclease IV homologue from Thermotoga maritima in the presence of active-site divalent metal ions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most frequent lesion in DNA is at apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites resulting from DNA-base losses. These AP-site lesions can stall DNA replication and lead to genome instability if left unrepaired. The AP endonucleases are an important class of enzymes that are involved in the repair of AP-site intermediates during damage-general DNA base-excision repair pathways. These enzymes hydrolytically cleave the 5{prime}-phosphodiester bond at an AP site to generate a free 3{prime}-hydroxyl group and a 5{prime}-terminal sugar phosphate using their AP nuclease activity. Specifically, Thermotoga maritima endonuclease IV is a member of the second conserved AP endonuclease family that includes Escherichia coli endonuclease IV, which is the archetype of the AP endonuclease superfamily. In order to more fully characterize the AP endonuclease family of enzymes, two X-ray crystal structures of the T. maritima endonuclease IV homologue were determined in the presence of divalent metal ions bound in the active-site region. These structures of the T. maritima endonuclease IV homologue further revealed the use of the TIM-barrel fold and the trinuclear metal binding site as important highly conserved structural elements that are involved in DNA-binding and AP-site repair processes in the AP endonuclease superfamily.

Tomanicek, Stephen J.; Hughes, Ronny C.; Ng, Joseph D.; Coates, Leighton (UAH); (ORNL)



Characterization of two genes encoding metal tolerance proteins from Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima that confers manganese tolerance in yeast. (United States)

Manganese (Mn(2+)) is an essential micronutrient in plants. However increased Mn(2+) levels are toxic to plant cells. Metal tolerance proteins (MTPs), member of cation diffusion facilitator protein (CDF) family, have important roles in metal homeostatis in different plant species and catalyse efflux of excess metal ions. In this study, we identified and characterized two MTP genes from Beta vulgaris spp. maritima (B. v. ssp. maritima). Overexpression of these two genes provided Mn tolerance in yeast cells. Sequence analyses displayed BmMTP10 and BmMTP11 as members of the Mn-CDF family. Functional analyses of these proteins indicated that they are specific to Mn(2+) with a role in reducing excess cellular Mn(2+) levels when expressed in yeast. GFP-fusion constructs of both proteins localized to the Golgi apparatus as a punctuated pattern. Finally, Q-RT-PCR results showed that BmMTP10 expression was induced threefold in response to the excess Mn(2+) treatment. On the other hand BmMTP11 expression was not affected in response to excess Mn(2+) levels. Thus, our results suggest that the BmMTP10 and BmMTP11 proteins from B. v. ssp. maritima have non-redundant functions in terms of Mn(2+) detoxification with a similar in planta localization and function as the Arabidopsis Mn-CDF homolog AtMTP11 and this conservation shows the evolutionary importance of these vesicular proteins in heavy metal homeostatis among plant species. PMID:23864431

Erbasol, Isil; Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan; Koc, Ahmet; Pedas, Pai; Karakaya, Huseyin Caglar



Tryptophan-scanning mutagenesis of the ligand binding pocket in Thermotoga maritima arginine-binding protein. (United States)

The Thermotoga maritima arginine binding protein (TmArgBP) is a member of the periplasmic binding protein superfamily. As a highly thermostable protein, TmArgBP has been investigated for the potential to serve as a protein scaffold for the development of fluorescent protein biosensors. To establish a relationship between structural dynamics and ligand binding capabilities, we constructed single tryptophan mutants to probe the arginine binding pocket. Trp residues placed around the binding pocket reveal a strong dependence on fluorescence emission of the protein with arginine for all but one of the mutants. Using these data, we calculated dissociation constants of 1.9-3.3 ?M for arginine. Stern-Volmer quenching analysis demonstrated that the protein undergoes a large conformational change upon ligand binding, which is a common feature of this protein superfamily. While still active at room temperature, time-resolved intensity and anisotropy decay data suggest that the protein exists as a highly rigid structure under these conditions. Interestingly, TmArgBP exists as a dimer at room temperature in both the presence and absence of arginine, as determined by asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AF4) and supported by native gel-electrophoresis and time-resolved anisotropy. Our data on dynamics and stability will contribute to our understanding of hyperthermophilic proteins and their potential biotechnological applications. PMID:24370478

Deacon, Lindsay J; Billones, Hilbert; Galyean, Anne A; Donaldson, Teraya; Pennacchio, Anna; Iozzino, Luisa; D'Auria, Sabato; Dattelbaum, Jonathan D



Bioconversion of Stemodia maritima diterpenes and derivatives by Cunninghamella echinulata var. elegans and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. (United States)

Stemodane and stemarane diterpenes isolated from the plant Stemodia maritima and their dimethylcarbamate derivatives were fed to growing cultures of the fungi Cunninghamella echinulata var. elegans ATCC 8688a and Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 24725. C. echinulata transformed stemodin (1) to its 7alpha-hydroxy- (2), 7beta-hydroxy- (3) and 3beta-hydroxy- (4) analogues. 2alpha-(N,N-Dimethylcarbamoxy)-13-hydroxystemodane (6) gave 2alpha-(N,N-dimethylcarbamoxy)-6alpha,13-dihydroxystemodane (7) and 2alpha-(N,N-dimethylcarbamoxy)-7alpha,13-dihydroxystemodane (8). Stemodinone (9) yielded 14-hydroxy-(10) and 7beta-hydroxy- (11) congeners along with 1, 2 and 3. Stemarin (13) was converted to the hitherto unreported 6alpha,13-dihydroxystemaran-19-oic acid (18). 19-(N,N-Dimethylcarbamoxy)-13-hydroxystemarane (14) yielded 13-hydroxystemaran-19-oic acid (17) along with the two metabolites: 19-(N,N-dimethylcarbamoxy)-2beta,13-dihydroxystemarane (15) and 19-(N,N-dimethylcarbamoxy)-2beta,8,13-trihydroxystemarane (16). P. chrysosporium converted 1 into 3, 4 and 2alpha,11beta,13-trihydroxystemodane (5). The dimethylcarbamate (6) was not transformed by this microorganism. Stemodinone (9) was hydroxylated at C-19 to give 12. Both stemarin (13) and its dimethylcarbamate (14) were recovered unchanged after incubation with Phanerochaete. PMID:16725164

Lamm, Andrew S; Reynolds, William F; Reese, Paul B



Germ cells of the centipede Strigamia maritima are specified early in embryonic development. (United States)

We provide the first systematic description of germ cell development with molecular markers in a myriapod, the centipede Strigamia maritima. By examining the expression of Strigamia vasa and nanos orthologues, we find that the primordial germ cells are specified from at least the blastoderm stage. This is a much earlier embryonic stage than previously described for centipedes, or any other member of the Myriapoda. Using these genes as markers, and taking advantage of the developmental synchrony of Strigamia embryos within single clutches, we are able to track the development of the germ cells throughout embryogenesis. We find that the germ cells accumulate at the blastopore; that the cells do not internalize through the hindgut, but rather through the closing blastopore; and that the cells undergo a long-range migration to the embryonic gonad. This is the first evidence for primordial germ cells displaying these behaviours in any myriapod. The myriapods are a phylogenetically important group in the arthropod radiation for which relatively little developmental data is currently available. Our study provides valuable comparative data that complements the growing number of studies in insects, crustaceans and chelicerates, and is important for the correct reconstruction of ancestral states and a fuller understanding of how germ cell development has evolved in different arthropod lineages. PMID:24930702

Green, Jack E; Akam, Michael



Elementary analysis of Alternanthera Maritima and Blutaparon Portulacoides (Gomphreneae, Amaranthacear) by X-ray fluorescence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phytochemical study and the evaluation of biological activities of plants species have been intensified in the last years. The modernization of analytical equipment allowed significant progress in the natural products chemistry. Most of the plants researches emphasize the isolation of secondary metabolites and the metal analysis is neglected. In this study, aqueous and ethanolic extracts and the intact plant of Alternanthera maritima (aerial parts and roots) and Blutaparon portulacoides (aerial parts and roots), species commonly found on the beaches of eastern coast of Brazil (Restinga de Marica, RJ), were selected for analysis by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). With the standard sample aid, the correlation between the elementary sensitivity and the atomic numbers of the elements was determined. The elements P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, As, Zn, Br, Sr, Sn and Sb, supported in membranes, were detected in the two analyzed plants, but only the elements in the interval 26 (Fe) ? Z ? 30 (Zn) were quantified with elementary concentration between 8,7 and 895,0 ?g.g-1. (author)


Effect of Gamma Rays and Salinity on Growth and Chemical Composition of Ambrosia maritima L. Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work was achieved in pots at the wire house of the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) during the two successive seasons of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of gamma irradiation doses (0, 20, 40 and 80 Gy) on damssisa plants (Ambrosia maritima L.) under salt stress after sowing in (3:2, sand: loamy) soils with mixture of salts. The mixture of salts was sodium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium sulfate at the ratio of 2:2:1. Three concentrations of the used mixture were prepared; 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm. It was observed that irradiation of damsissa seeds with 40 or 80 Gy increased plant tolerance to salinity comparing to control, concerning plant height, fresh and dry weights and photosynthetic pigments. This increase was often significant with low concentration of salinity. On the other hand, sowing seeds in 6000 ppm concentration decreased all the previous measurements. Also, it was noticed that radiation alleviates the adverse effect of salinity by increasing total sugar and total soluble phenols in shoots of damsissa plants.


Improving thermal stability of thermophilic l-threonine aldolase from Thermotoga maritima. (United States)

Threonine aldolase (TA) catalyzes a reversible reaction, in which threonine is decomposed into glycine and acetaldehyde. The same enzyme can be used to catalyze aldol reaction between glycine and a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, thus creating various alpha-amino-alcohols. Therefore, TA is a very promising enzyme that could be used to prepare biologically active compounds or building blocks for pharmaceutical industry. Rational design was applied to thermophilic TA from Thermotoga maritima to improve thermal stability by the incorporation of salt and disulfide bridges between subunits in the functional tetramer. An activity assay together with CD analysis and Western-blot detection was used to evaluate mutants. Except one, each of the designed mutants preserved activity toward the natural substrate. One of the 10 proposed single point mutants, P56C, displayed significantly enhanced stability compared to the wild type (WT). Its initial activity was not affected and persisted longer than WT, proportionally to increased stability. Additionally one of the mutants, W86E, displayed enhanced activity, with stability similar to WT. Higher activity may be explained by a subtle change in active site availability. Salt bridge formation between glutamic acid at position 86 and arginine at position 120 in the neighboring chain may be responsible for the slight shift of the chain fragment, thus creating wider access to the active site both for the substrate and PLP. PMID:25701680

Wieteska, Lukasz; Ionov, Maksim; Szemraj, Janusz; Feller, Claudia; Kolinski, Andrzej; Gront, Dominik



The carbohydrate-binding specificity and molecular modelling of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora lectins  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The carbohydrate-binding specificity of lectins from the seeds of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora was studied by hapten-inhibition of haemagglutination using various sugars and sugar derivatives as inhibitors, including N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid. Despite some discre [...] pancies, both lectins exhibited a very similar carbohydrate-binding specificity as previously reported for other lectins from Diocleinae (tribe Phaseoleae, sub-tribe Diocleinae). Accordingly, both lectins exhibited almost identical hydropathic profiles and their three-dimensional models built up from the atomic coordinates of ConA looked very similar. However, docking experiments of glucose and mannose in their monosaccharide-binding sites, by comparison with the ConA-mannose complex used as a model, revealed conformational changes in side chains of the amino acid residues involved in the binding of monosaccharides. These results fully agree with crystallographic data showing that binding of specific ligands to ConA requires conformational chances of its monosaccharide-binding site.

Márcio Viana, Ramos; Renato de Azevedo, Moreira; José Tadeu Abreu, Oliveira; Benildo Sousa, Cavada; Pierre, Rougé.



Purification and characterization of a novel thermostable 4-alpha-glucanotransferase of Thermotoga maritima cloned in Escherichia coli. (United States)

Maltodextrin glycosyltransferase (4-alpha-glucanotransferase) of the extremely thermophilic ancestral bacterium Thermotoga maritima has been purified from an Escherichia coli clone expressing the corresponding T. maritima MSB8 chromosomal gene. T. maritima 4-alpha-glucanotransferase, an approximately 53-kDa monomeric enzyme, is the most thermophilic glycosyltransferase described to date. It retained more than 90% of its maximum activity at temperatures from 55 degrees C up to 80 degrees C. The proposed action modus is the transfer of 1,4-alpha-glucanosyl chains, thus resulting in the disproportionation of 1,4-alpha-glucans. It converted soluble starch, amylopectin, and amylose, thereby changing the iodine staining properties of these substrates. The addition of low-molecular-mass malto-oligosaccharides, which act as glucanosyl acceptor molecules, enhanced the reaction and resulted in the formation of a series of linear maltohomologues from two to more than nine glucose units in size. Use of either of the malto-oligosaccharides maltotetraose, maltopentaose, maltohexaose, or maltoheptaose as sole substrate also yielded linear maltohomologues. On the other hand, maltose and maltotriose were not disproportionated by 4-alpha-glucanotransferase, although both were good acceptors for glucanosyl transfer. Glucose did not function as an acceptor in transfer reactions. Glucose also never appeared as a reaction product. The chain length of glucanosyl segments transferred ranged from two to probably far more than six glucose residues. Comparison of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of 4-alpha-glucanotransferase with other published protein sequences revealed significant similarity to sequences near the N-termini of various eucaryotic maltases and bacterial cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases, suggesting its relatedness on the molecular level with other starch- and maltodextrin-converting enzymes. PMID:1628664

Liebl, W; Feil, R; Gabelsberger, J; Kellermann, J; Schleifer, K H



A Unique ?-1,2-Mannosyltransferase of Thermotoga maritima That Uses Di-myo-Inositol Phosphate as the Mannosyl Acceptor?  


In addition to di-myo-inositol-1,3?-phosphate (DIP), a compatible solute widespread in hyperthermophiles, the organic solute pool of Thermotoga maritima comprises 2-(O-?-d-mannosyl)-di-myo-inositol-1,3?-phosphate (MDIP) and 2-(O-?-d-mannosyl-1,2-O-?-d-mannosyl)-di-myo-inositol-1,3?-phosphate (MMDIP), two newly identified ?-1,2-mannosides. In cells grown under heat stress, MDIP was the major solute, accounting for 43% of the total pool; MMDIP and DIP accumulated to similar levels, ea...

Rodrigues, Marta V.; Borges, Nuno; Almeida, Carla P.; Lamosa, Pedro; Santos, Helena



Structure-based design of robust glucose biosensors using a Thermotoga maritima periplasmic glucose-binding protein  


We report the design and engineering of a robust, reagentless fluorescent glucose biosensor based on the periplasmic glucose-binding protein obtained from Thermotoga maritima (tmGBP). The gene for this protein was cloned from genomic DNA and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, the identity of its cognate sugar was confirmed, ligand binding was studied, and the structure of its glucose complex was solved to 1.7 Å resolution by X-ray crystallography. TmGBP is specific for glucose and exhibits h...

Tian, Yaji; Cuneo, Matthew J.; Changela, Anita; Ho?cker, Birte; Beese, Lorena S.; Hellinga, Homme W.



The interaction of ammonia and xenon with the imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase from Thermotoga maritima as detected by NMR spectroscopy  


The imidazole glycerol phosphate (ImGP) synthase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima is a 1:1 complex of the glutaminase subunit HisH and the cyclase subunit HisF. It has been proposed that ammonia generated by HisH is transported through a channel to the active site of HisF, which generates intermediates of histidine (ImGP) and de novo biosynthesis of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamideribotide. Solution NMR spectroscopy of ammonium chloride-titrated samples was used to study...

Liebold, Christoph; List, Felix; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert; Sterner, Reinhard; Brunner, Eike



Flowering time in wild beet ( Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) along a latitudinal cline (United States)

The wild beet ( Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima, a perennial species from the Mediterranean and the European Atlantic coasts) shows marked variation in flowering time in terms of both the year of first flowering and flowering date in a given year. Much of this variability is related to latitude. Beta vulgaris plants flower either in the same year as they germinate or in their second year. This is mainly due to differences in their requirement for vernalization, which is determined by a single gene B/b and by quantitative trait loci. The more southern the origin of the plants, the less vernalization is required. Also the B allele, which cancels vernalization requirement completely, has a high frequency in the Mediterranean region, but is completely absent in the northern part of the distribution of this species. We found that flowering date variation in relation to the latitude of origin is maintained under greenhouse conditions but does not follow a simple clinal relationship. From the Mediterranean northwards to the west coast of Brittany, flowering occurs progressively earlier, but from Brittany northwards to south-east England and The Netherlands it is progressively later. A possible explanation for this difference is that in the southern part of the range sensitivity to daylength and warmth control flowering time, whereas further north vernalization requirement is also a key factor. A substantial part of all differences in flowering time was heritable: heritability within populations was measured as 0.33 under greenhouse conditions. The high heritability implies evolutionary change may occur in this character.

Dijk, Henk Van; Boudry, Pierre; McCombre, Helen; Vernet, Philippe


?-Galactobiosyl units: thermodynamics and kinetics of their formation by transglycosylations catalysed by the GH36 ?-galactosidase from Thermotoga maritima. (United States)

Broad regioselectivity of ?-galactosidase from Thermotoga maritima (TmGal36A) is a limiting factor for application of the enzyme in the directed synthesis of oligogalactosides. However, this property can be used as a convenient tool in studies of thermodynamics of a glycosidic bond. Here, a novel approach to energy difference estimation is suggested. Both transglycosylation and hydrolysis of three types of galactosidic linkages were investigated using total kinetics of formation and hydrolysis of pNP-galactobiosides catalysed by monomeric glycoside hydrolase family 36 ?-galactosidase from T. maritima, a retaining exo-acting glycoside hydrolase. We have estimated transition state free energy differences between the 1,2- and 1,3-linkage (??G(‡)0 values were equal 5.34 ± 0.85 kJ/mol) and between 1,6-linkage and 1,3-linkage (??G(‡)0=1.46 ± 0.23 kJ/mol) in pNP-galactobiosides over the course of the reaction catalysed by TmGal36A. Using the free energy difference for formation and hydrolysis of glycosidic linkages (??G(‡)F-??G(‡)H), we found that the 1,2-linkage was 2.93 ± 0.47 kJ/mol higher in free energy than the 1,3-linkage, and the 1,6-linkage 4.44 ± 0.71 kJ/mol lower. PMID:25486100

Borisova, Anna S; Ivanen, Dina R; Bobrov, Kirill S; Eneyskaya, Elena V; Rychkov, Georgy N; Sandgren, Mats; Kulminskaya, Anna A; Sinnott, Michael L; Shabalin, Konstantin A



Estimation of the non-seasonal production of Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald in a South African Estuary (United States)

Net aerial production of Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald, in a warm temperature estuary in Algoa Bay, South Africa, occurring possibly as an exotic, was estimated as 523-680 g dry weight m -2 year -1. The method of production measurement designed here used community structure data and accounted for the species' extremely slow shoot production (3.1-6.7 dry g m -2 year -1) and continuous leaf turnover (516-676 dry g m -2 year -1). Standard methods of production measurement for other Spartina species failed by not accounting for the non-seasonal growth of S. maritima. N, C, organic and energy content of live and dead shoots remained constant through the seasons. The P : B ratio is 1.1, which is lower than for other Spartina species, but agrees with the low vigour shown by negligible regrowth a year after clipping. Decomposition rates were 90 mg g -1 month -1 in winter and 305 mg g -1 month -1 in summer. Monthly decomposition values showed significant correlation with air temperature ( r = 0.86; P < 0.01), and water temperature ( r = 0.80; P < 0.01), suggesting that monthly litterbag losses are a valid means of determining decomposition rate.

Pierce, Shirley M.



Selenium accumulation in submerged aquatic macrophytes Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Ruppia maritima L. from water with elevated chloride and sulfate salinity. (United States)

Submerged aquatic macrophyte species Potamogeton crispus L. (curlyleaf pondweed) and Ruppia maritima L. (widegeongrass) were examined for selenium accumulation from agricultural drainage water in the field and under laboratory conditions. High concentrations of chloride and sulfate salts were found in the drainage water of the constructed wetland at Tulare Lake Drainage District, Corcorn, California. Samples of P. crispus and R. maritima collected from the field, had similar plant-tissue Se concentrations, but the rhizomes accumulated significantly greater amounts of Se than the shoot tissues. When the plants were grown in culture solution supplemented with either chloride or sulfate salt, R. maritima was found to be more salt tolerant than P. crispus, and P. crispus accumulated more Se than R. maritima. Free seleno-amino acids were detected in the plant tissue, and organic Se was detected in the culture solution after 10 days of growth. The release of organic Se into the water by the plants may have a negative impact on the wetland environment. PMID:11800546

Wu, Lin; Guo, Xun



Comparative study of antibacterial and antifugal activity of callus culture and adult plants extracts from Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae) / Estudo comparativo da atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos obtidos da cultura de calos e da planta adulta de Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo procedeu-se a avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica dos extratos brutos de Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae) planta in natura de duas coletas distintas e obtidos por cultura de células buscando-se averiguar a manutenção da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos obtidos [...] da planta in vivo e in vitro. A ação antibacteriana e antifúngica foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar (técnica do poço) utilizando-se trinta cepas de microrganismos indicadores (bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas, leveduras e dermatófitos). Todos os extratos obtidos com solventes orgânicos avaliados apresentaram-se bioativos com halos de inibição de 6 a 20 mm. Os extratos da planta in natura das duas coletas (Restinga de Marica (RJ), verão de 1995 e 1998) inibiram o desenvolvimento de diferentes microrganismos (bactérias, leveduras e dermatófitos). Os extratos obtidos da cultura de calos desenvolvidos em duas condições de cultivo diferentes, também se mantiveram bioativos. Assim, os resultados obtidos encorajam a realização de novos estudos com esta espécie vegetal para se determinar quais as substâncias presentes nos extratos e que contribuem para a atividade biológica, como também para entender seu mecanismo de ação e avaliar sua toxicidade, visando uma possível aplicação farmacêutica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of callus culture (two different hormonal combination culture medium) and adult plants (two collect) extracts from Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae) investigating the maintenance of antimicrobial activity in vivo an [...] d in vitro. The antibacterial and antifungal activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method against thirty strains of microorganisms including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes. All the organic crude extracts studied were bioactive. Extracts of aerial parts and roots of adult plants collected during the same period of years of 1995 and 1998 (Restinga de Maricá (RJ), collect 1 and 2) inhibited the growth of several microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes) with inhibition halo between 6 and 20 mm. Plant cell callus culture extracts obtained from two culture conditions were also bioactive. Thus, the positive results suggest that the A. maritima extracts should be further studied to determine the bioactive chemical compounds as well as to understand the possible mechanisms of action and evaluate their toxicity looking toward a pharmaceutical employment.

Marcos J., Salvador; Paulo S., Pereira; Suzelei C., França; Regina C., Candido; Izabel Y., Ito; Diones A., Dias.



Crystal structure of a transcriptional regulator TM1030 from Thermotoga maritima solved by an unusual MAD experiment (United States)

The crystal structure of a putative transcriptional regulator protein TM1030 from Thermotoga maritima, a hyperthermophilic bacterium, was determined by an unusual multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion method at 2.0 Å resolution., in which data from two different crystals and two different beamlines were used. The protein belongs to the tetracycline repressor TetR superfamily. The three-dimensional structure of TM1030 is similar to the structures of proteins that function as multidrug-binding transcriptional repressors, and contains a large solvent-exposed pocket similar to the drug-binding pockets present in those repressors. The asymmetric unit in the crystal structure contains a single protein chain and the two-fold symmetry of the dimer is adopted by the crystal symmetry. The structure described in this paper is an apo-form of TM1030. Although it is known that the protein is significantly overexpressed during heat shock, its detailed function cannot be yet explained. PMID:17588774

Koclega, Katarzyna D.; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Zimmerman, Matthew D.; Cymborowski, Marcin; Evdokimova, Elena; Minor, Wladek



Characterization of a [2Fe-2S] protein encoded in the iron-hydrogenase operon of Thermotoga maritima. (United States)

Thermotoga maritima grows optimally at 80 degrees C by fermenting carbohydrates to organic acids, CO(2), and H(2). The production of H(2) is catalyzed by a cytoplasmic, heterotrimeric (alphabetagamma) Fe-hydrogenase. This is encoded by three genes, hydC (gamma), hydB (beta) and hydA (alpha), organized within a single operon that contains five additional open reading frames (ORFs). The recombinant form of the first ORF of the operon, TM1420, was produced in Escherichia coli. It has a molecular mass of 8537+/-3 Da as determined by mass spectrometry, in agreement with the predicted amino acid sequence. Purified TM1420 is red in color, has a basic p I (8.8), and contains 1.9 Fe atoms/mol that are present as a single [2Fe-2S] cluster, as determined by UV-visible absorption and EPR spectroscopy. The protein contains five cysteine residues, but their arrangement is characteristic of a subunit or domain rather than of a ferredoxin-type protein. The reduction potential of the [2Fe-2S] cluster (-233 mV at pH 6.5 and 25 degrees C) is pH independent but decreases linearly with temperature to -296 mV (-1.15 mV/ degrees C) at 80 degrees C. TM1420 is not reduced, in vitro, by the Fe-hydrogenase nor by a pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase. The protein was unstable at 70 degrees C under anaerobic conditions with a half-life of approximately 30 min. The basic nature of TM1420, its instability at the growth temperature of T. maritima, and the unusual spacing of its cysteine residues suggest that this protein does not function as a ferredoxin-type electron carrier for the Fe-hydrogenase. Instead, TM1420 is more likely part of a thermostable multi-protein complex that is involved in metal cluster assembly of the hydrogenase holoenzyme. PMID:12605255

Pan, Guangliang; Menon, Angeli Lal; Adams, Michael W W



Effect of dimerization on the stability and catalytic activity of dihydrofolate reductase from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima. (United States)

In contrast to all other chromosomally encoded dihydrofolate reductases characterized so far, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima forms a highly stable dimer. The dimer interface involves residues whose mobility is important for catalysis in monomeric DHFRs. Here, we report the generation of a variant of DHFR from T. maritima, TmDHFR-V11D, in which a single amino acid replacement was sufficient to favor the monomeric form of the enzyme in the presence of the nondenaturing zwitterionic detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate. The free energy of stabilization of monomeric TmDHFR-V11D was 15 kJ mol(-1) lower than that of the wild-type dimer, while the melting temperature of monomeric TmDHFR-V11D was comparable to that of monomeric DHFR from the thermophile Bacillus stearothermophilus, supporting the hypothesis that oligomerization is required to achieve the thermal stabilities necessary for activity at temperatures optimal for growth of hyperthermophiles. Both the steady-state turnover numbers and rates of hydride transfer were reduced in TmDHFR-V11D. However, a similar reduction of the rate constants was observed in a different variant, TmDHFR-V126E, which remained as a dimer under all experimental conditions used here. Monomeric TmDHFR-V11D had a similar rate of hydride transfer to the dimeric form, but a reduced steady-state turnover rate. Intersubunit motions therefore appear to be less important than correlated motions within individual subunits for TmDHFR-catalyzed hydride transfer, but are critical to the overall progression of the catalytic cycle. Hence, the reduced catalytic activity of TmDHFR relative to the monomeric Escherichia coli enzyme is not caused by rigidity resulting from dimerization, but is a subtle consequence of the sequence and structure of its subunits, which appear to have evolved to allow thermostability at the expense of catalysis. PMID:19453185

Loveridge, E Joel; Rodriguez, Robert J; Swanwick, Richard S; Allemann, Rudolf K



Spatial genetic structure in Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima and Beta macrocarpa reveals the effect of contrasting mating system, influence of marine currents, and footprints of postglacial recolonization routes. (United States)

Understanding the factors that contribute to population genetic divergence across a species' range is a long-standing goal in evolutionary biology and ecological genetics. We examined the relative importance of historical and ecological features in shaping the present-day spatial patterns of genetic structure in two related plant species, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima and Beta macrocarpa. Using nuclear and mitochondrial markers, we surveyed 93 populations from Brittany (France) to Morocco - the southern limit of their species' range distribution. Whereas B. macrocarpa showed a genotypic structure and a high level of genetic differentiation indicative of selfing, the population genetic structure of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima was consistent with an outcrossing mating system. We further showed (1) a strong geographic clustering in coastal B. vulgaris subsp. maritima populations that highlighted the influence of marine currents in shaping different lineages and (2) a peculiar genetic structure of inland B. vulgaris subsp. maritima populations that could indicate the admixture of distinct evolutionary lineages and recent expansions associated with anthropogenic disturbances. Spatial patterns of nuclear diversity and differentiation also supported a stepwise recolonization of Europe from Atlantic-Mediterranean refugia after the last glacial period, with leading-edge expansions. However, cytoplasmic diversity was not impacted by postglacial recolonization: stochastic long-distance seed dispersal mediated by major oceanic currents may mitigate the common patterns of reduced cytoplasmic diversity observed for edge populations. Overall, the patterns we documented here challenge the general view of reduced genetic diversity at the edge of a species' range distribution and provide clues for understanding how life-history and major geographic features interact to shape the distribution of genetic diversity. PMID:24963380

Leys, Marie; Petit, Eric J; El-Bahloul, Yasmina; Liso, Camille; Fournet, Sylvain; Arnaud, Jean-François



Transcriptome de novo assembly from next-generation sequencing and comparative analyses in the hexaploid salt marsh species Spartina maritima and Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae)  


Spartina species have a critical ecological role in salt marshes and represent an excellent system to investigate recurrent polyploid speciation. Using the 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencer, we assembled and annotated the first reference transcriptome (from roots and leaves) for two related hexaploid Spartina species that hybridize in Western Europe, the East American invasive Spartina alterniflora and the Euro-African S. maritima. The de novo read assembly generated 38?478 consensus sequences and 9...

Ferreira Carvalho, J.; Poulain, J.; Da Silva, C.; Wincker, P.; Michon-coudouel, S.; Dheilly, A.; Naquin, D.; Boutte, J.; Salmon, A.; Ainouche, M.



The Unique Chaperone Operon of Thermotoga maritima: Cloning and Initial Characterization of a Functional Hsp70 and Small Heat Shock Protein  


The hyperthermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga maritima possesses an operon encoding an Hsp70 molecular chaperone protein and a protein with meaningful homology to the small heat shock protein family of chaperones. This represents the first demonstrated co-operon organization for these two important classes of molecular chaperones. We have cloned and initially characterized these proteins as functional chaperones in vitro: the Hsp70 is capable of ATP hydrolysis and substrate binding, and the sm...

Michelini, Edward T.; Flynn, Gregory C.



Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima—ancestor of all beet crops—and modern sugar beets  


The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar be...

Zachow, Christin; Mu?ller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele



The structure and dynamic properties of the complete histidine phosphotransfer domain of the chemotaxis specific histidine autokinase CheA from Thermotoga maritima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bacterial histidine autokinase CheA contains a histidine phosphotransfer (Hpt) domain that accepts a phosphate from the catalytic domain and donates the phosphate to either target response regulator protein, CheY or CheB. The Hpt domain forms a helix-bundle structure with a conserved four-helix bundle motif and a variable fifth helix. Observation of two nearly equally populated conformations in the crystal structure of a Hpt domain fragment of CheA from Thermotoga maritima containing only the first four helices suggests more mobility in a tightly packed helix bundle structure than previously thought. In order to examine how the structures of Hpt domain homologs may differ from each other particularly in the conformation of the last helix, and whether an alternative conformation exists in the intact Hpt domain in solution, we have solved a high-resolution, solution structure of the CheA Hpt from T. maritima and characterized the backbone dynamics of this protein. The structure contains a four-helix bundle characteristic of histidine phosphotransfer domains. The position and orientation of the fifth helix resembles those in known Hpt domain crystal and solution structures in other histidine kinases. The alternative conformation that was reported in the crystal structure of the CheA Hpt from T. maritima missing the fifth helix is not detected in the solution structure, suggesting a role for the fifth helix in providing stabilizing forces to the overall structure.izing forces to the overall structure.


Characterization of two genes encoding metal tolerance proteins from Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima that confers manganese tolerance in yeast  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient in plants. However increased Mn levels are toxic to plant cells. Metal tolerance proteins (MTPs), member of cation diffusion facilitator protein (CDF) family, have important roles in metal homeostatis in different plant species and catalyse efflux of excess metal ions. In this study, we identified and characterized two MTP genes from Beta vulgaris spp. maritima (B. v. ssp. maritima). Overexpression of these two genes provided Mn tolerance in yeast cells. Sequence analyses displayed BmMTP10 and BmMTP11as members of the Mn-CDF family. Functional analyses of these proteins indicated that they are specific to Mn with a role in reducing excess cellular Mn levels when expressed in yeast. GFP-fusion constructs of both proteins localized to the Golgi apparatus as a punctuated pattern. Finally, Q-RT-PCR results showed that BmMTP10 expression was induced threefold in response to the excess Mn treatment. On the other hand BmMTP11 expression was not affected in response to excess Mn levels. Thus, our results suggest that the BmMTP10 and BmMTP11 proteins from B. v. ssp. maritima have non-redundant functions in terms of Mn detoxification with a similar in planta localization and function as the Arabidopsis Mn-CDF homolog AtMTP11 and this conservation shows the evolutionary importance of these vesicular proteins in heavy metal homeostatis among plant species. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Erbasol, Isil; Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan



A ocorrência do mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae) e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren), Nasutitermitinae, em afloramentos rochosos no Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS / The occurrence of facultative mutualism between Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae) and the termite Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren), Nasutitermitinae, on rock outcrops in Itapuã State Park, Viamão, RS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A presença de colônias de C. silvestrii é comum nos lajeados existentes em Itapuã. Na estação Morro da Grota1, 92,0 % dos termiteiros situados na rocha exposta e em ilhas de vegetação estão associados a D. maritima. Esta convivência ocorre em 31,2 % das ilhas na qual esta bromélia se faz presente. N [...] as ilhas, a comparação entre os substratos aonde D. maritima vegeta, o solo litólico húmico existente sob o manto do musgo Campylopus spp. e o substrato constituído pelo cupinzeiro indica que este último possui os teores mais elevados dos nutrientes P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn e Mn, maior CTC e maiores teores de partículas finas, principalmente o silte. O estabelecimento de D. maritima sobre os termiteiros de grande porte aumenta o seu valor de cobertura em ilhas de vegetação quando comparado com ilhas sem termiteiros ou com termiteiros de pequeno porte em áreas entre 2,7 a 8,0 m². Este fato é atribuído à melhoria físico-química do substrato e ao aumento de superfície e volume aptos a serem colonizados pela bromélia e proporciona maior competitividade em relação a outras espécies vegetais. As características apresentadas pela interação entre este cupim e D. maritima, pela primeira vez descrita na literatura, permitem indicar esta relação ecológica como mutualismo facultativo. Inferimos que o conjunto de observações apresentado constitui um modelo temporal de crescimento deste mutualismo, cujas fases inicial e tardia estão descritas neste trabalho. Abstract in english The presence of colonies of C. silvestrii is common, both on the rock surface and at islands of vegetation. At Morro da Grota1 station, 92,0 % of the termite nests on rocky outcrops and at island of vegetation are associated with this bromeliad. These nests are associated with D. maritima, in 31,2 % [...] of the islands where this bromeliad occurs. At these island communities, the comparison between the substrata where D. maritima occurs, the litolic Waldemar & Irgang: Mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii humic soil existing under the mantle of the moss Campylopus spp. and the substratum produced by termites indicates that this possesses higher levels of the nutrients P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Mn, CEC and higher fine particles content, mainly silt. The establishment of D. maritima rosettes on great termite nests increase their value of relative coverage at islands inside areas between 2,7 to 8,0 m². This fact is attributed to the improvement physical-chemistry of the substratum and the increase of surface and volume to be colonized for the Bromeliad. It provides for greater competitiveness at this species in relation to other vegetal species. The features presented for the interaction between this termite and D. maritima, for the first time described in literature, lead to the classification of this ecological relationship as facultative mutualism. The set of observations constitute a temporal model of development of this mutualism at island's vegetation, whose phases, initial and advanced are described.

Celso Copstein, Waldemar; Bruno Edgar, Irgang.



A ocorrência do mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren, Nasutitermitinae, em afloramentos rochosos no Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS The occurrence of facultative mutualism between Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae and the termite Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren, Nasutitermitinae, on rock outcrops in Itapuã State Park, Viamão, RS  

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Full Text Available A presença de colônias de C. silvestrii é comum nos lajeados existentes em Itapuã. Na estação Morro da Grota1, 92,0 % dos termiteiros situados na rocha exposta e em ilhas de vegetação estão associados a D. maritima. Esta convivência ocorre em 31,2 % das ilhas na qual esta bromélia se faz presente. Nas ilhas, a comparação entre os substratos aonde D. maritima vegeta, o solo litólico húmico existente sob o manto do musgo Campylopus spp. e o substrato constituído pelo cupinzeiro indica que este último possui os teores mais elevados dos nutrientes P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn e Mn, maior CTC e maiores teores de partículas finas, principalmente o silte. O estabelecimento de D. maritima sobre os termiteiros de grande porte aumenta o seu valor de cobertura em ilhas de vegetação quando comparado com ilhas sem termiteiros ou com termiteiros de pequeno porte em áreas entre 2,7 a 8,0 m². Este fato é atribuído à melhoria físico-química do substrato e ao aumento de superfície e volume aptos a serem colonizados pela bromélia e proporciona maior competitividade em relação a outras espécies vegetais. As características apresentadas pela interação entre este cupim e D. maritima, pela primeira vez descrita na literatura, permitem indicar esta relação ecológica como mutualismo facultativo. Inferimos que o conjunto de observações apresentado constitui um modelo temporal de crescimento deste mutualismo, cujas fases inicial e tardia estão descritas neste trabalho.The presence of colonies of C. silvestrii is common, both on the rock surface and at islands of vegetation. At Morro da Grota1 station, 92,0 % of the termite nests on rocky outcrops and at island of vegetation are associated with this bromeliad. These nests are associated with D. maritima, in 31,2 % of the islands where this bromeliad occurs. At these island communities, the comparison between the substrata where D. maritima occurs, the litolic Waldemar & Irgang: Mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii humic soil existing under the mantle of the moss Campylopus spp. and the substratum produced by termites indicates that this possesses higher levels of the nutrients P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Mn, CEC and higher fine particles content, mainly silt. The establishment of D. maritima rosettes on great termite nests increase their value of relative coverage at islands inside areas between 2,7 to 8,0 m². This fact is attributed to the improvement physical-chemistry of the substratum and the increase of surface and volume to be colonized for the Bromeliad. It provides for greater competitiveness at this species in relation to other vegetal species. The features presented for the interaction between this termite and D. maritima, for the first time described in literature, lead to the classification of this ecological relationship as facultative mutualism. The set of observations constitute a temporal model of development of this mutualism at island's vegetation, whose phases, initial and advanced are described.

Celso Copstein Waldemar



Evolutionary optimization of life-history traits in the sea beet Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima: Comparing model to data (United States)

At evolutionary equilibrium, ecological factors will determine the optimal combination of life-history trait values of an organism. This optimum can be assessed by assuming that the species maximizes some criterion of fitness such as the Malthusian coefficient or lifetime reproductive success depending on the degree of density-dependence. We investigated the impact of the amount of resources and habitat stability on a plant's age at maturity and life span by using an evolutionary optimization model in combination with empirical data. We conducted this study on sea beet, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, because of its large variation in life span and age at first reproduction along a latitudinal gradient including considerable ecological variation. We also compared the consequence in our evolutionary model of maximizing either the Malthusian coefficient or the lifetime reproductive success. Both the data analysis and the results of evolutionary modeling pointed to habitat disturbance and resources like length of the growing season as factors negatively related to life span and age at maturity in sea beet. Resource availability had a negative theoretical influence with the Malthusian coefficient as the chosen optimality criterion, while there was no influence in the case of lifetime reproductive success. As suggested by previous theoretical work the final conclusion on what criterion is more adequate depends on the assumptions of how in reality density-dependence restrains population growth. In our case of sea beet data R0 seems to be less appropriate than ?.

Hautekèete, N.-C.; Van Dijk, H.; Piquot, Y.; Teriokhin, A.



The seasonal dormancy pattern and germination of Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora (L. Dostal seeds in hydrotime model terms  

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Full Text Available Changes in hydrotime model parameters were determined in Matricaria maritima L. subsp. inodora seeds during burial in a field in order to describe the seasonal dormancy pattern. Seeds were exhumed at regular intervals over a year and incubated at different water potentials at 19°C. Germination time courses were analyzed to determine hydrotime population parameters. Values of ?b(50, ?H and ??b varied each month. Mean base water potential values in seeds exhumed each month were related to precipitation over 20 days before their exhumation. Soil temperature could be a trend-controlling factor of this relationship. The seeds were in deep dormancy after remaining 80-90 days in soil below or above limit temperature 15°C. The application of the hydrotime model to describe and predict seasonal dormancy patterns of weed seed is promising, especially for species with a considerable diversification of life strategies and ecophysiological flexibility of diaspores. It could also suggest mechanisms of seasonal dormancy changes of seeds in natural conditions and provide a basis for their examination. One of advantages of the dormancy pattern description of weed seeds remaining in a soil bank by means of threshold models is its simplicity.

Anna Bochenek



Metabolic fate of cardiac glycosides and flavonoids upon fermentation of aqueous sea squill (Drimia maritima L.) extracts. (United States)

Sea squill (Drimia maritima L.) extracts have been used for centuries for the medical treatment of heart diseases. A procedure for the preparation of Drimia extracts applied for such purposes comprising a fermentation step is described in the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (GHP). However, little is known about the secondary metabolite profile of such extracts and the fate of these components upon processing and storage. Thus, in the present study sea squill extracts were monitored during fermentation and storage by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) and GC-MS to characterise and quantitate individual cardiac glycosides and phenolic compounds. For this purpose, a previously established HPLC method for the separation and quantitation of pharmacologically relevant cardiac glycosides (bufadienolides) was validated. Within 12 months of storage, total bufadienolide contents decreased by about 50%, which was attributed to microbial and plant enzyme activities. The metabolisation and degradation rates of individual bufadienolide glycosides significantly differed, which was attributed to differing structures of the aglycones. Further degradation of bufadienolide aglycones was also observed. Besides reactions well known from human metabolism studies, dehydration of individual compounds was monitored. Quantitatively predominating flavonoids were also metabolised throughout the fermentation process. The present study provides valuable information about the profile and stability of individual cardiac glycosides and phenolic compounds in fermented Drimia extracts prepared for medical applications, and expands the knowledge of cardiac glycoside conversion upon microbial fermentation. PMID:25841205

Knittel, Diana N; Stintzing, Florian C; Kammerer, Dietmar R



Structure of a D-tagatose 3-epimerase-related protein from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. (United States)

The crystal structure of a D-tagatose 3-epimerase-related protein (TM0416p) encoded by the hypothetical open reading frame TM0416 in the genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima was determined at a resolution of 2.2 A. The asymmetric unit contained two homologous subunits and a dimer was generated by twofold symmetry. The main-chain coordinates of the enzyme monomer proved to be similar to those of D-tagatose 3-epimerase from Pseudomonas cichorii and D-psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens; however, TM0416p exhibited a unique solvent-accessible substrate-binding pocket that reflected the absence of an alpha-helix that covers the active-site cleft in the two aforementioned ketohexose 3-epimerases. In addition, the residues responsible for creating a hydrophobic environment around the substrate in TM0416p differ entirely from those in the other two enzymes. Collectively, these findings suggest that the substrate specificity of TM0416p is likely to differ substantially from those of other D-tagatose 3-epimerase family enzymes. PMID:19255464

Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Yoneda, Kazunari; Satomura, Takenori; Kawakami, Ryushi; Ohshima, Toshihisa



Thermotoga maritima-Escherichia coli chimeric topoisomerases. Answers about involvement of the carboxyl-terminal domain in DNA topoisomerase I-mediated catalysis. (United States)

Bacterial topoisomerases I are generally composed of two domains as follows: a core domain, which contains all the conserved motifs involved in the trans-esterification reactions, and a carboxyl-terminal domain, highly variable in size and sequence. In the present work, we have addressed the question of the respective roles of the two domains in the different steps of the topoisomerization cycle. For this purpose, we prepared various recombinant topoisomerases from two model enzymes: topoisomerase I from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima and topoisomerase I from Escherichia coli. We compared the properties of the two core domains to that of the topoisomerases formed by combining the core domain of one enzyme to the carboxyl-terminal domain of the other. We found that, contrary to E. coli (Lima, C. D., Wang, J. C., and Mondragon, A. (1993) J. Mol. Biol. 232, 1213-1216), the core domain from T. maritima (TmTop65) is able to sustain by itself a complete topoisomerization cycle, although with low efficiency. Fusion of TmTop65 to the entire carboxyl-terminal domain from E. coli considerably increases binding efficiency, thermal stability, and DNA relaxation activity. Moreover, the chimera predominantly acquires the cleavage specificity of E. coli full-length topoisomerase. For the chimera obtained by fusion of the T. maritima carboxyl-terminal domain to the core EcTop67, very low DNA relaxation activity and binding are recovered, but formation of a covalent DNA adduct is impaired. Taken together, our results show that the presence and the nature of the carboxyl-terminal domain of bacterial topoisomerases I strongly determine their DNA binding efficiency and cleavage specificity but is not strictly required for strand passage. PMID:15140883

Viard, Thierry; Cossard, Raynald; Duguet, Michel; de La Tour, Claire Bouthier



Properties and gene structure of the Thermotoga maritima alpha-amylase AmyA, a putative lipoprotein of a hyperthermophilic bacterium.  


Thermotoga maritima MSB8 has a chromosomal alpha-amylase gene, designated amyA, that is predicted to code for a 553-amino-acid preprotein with significant amino acid sequence similarity to the 4-alpha-glucanotransferase of the same strain and to alpha-amylase primary structures of other organisms. Upstream of the amylase gene, a divergently oriented open reading frame which can be translated into a polypeptide with similarity to the maltose-binding protein MalE of Escherichia coli was found. ...

Liebl, W.; Stemplinger, I.; Ruile, P.



The Effect of Zostera noltii, Spartina maritima and Scirpus maritimus on Sediment Pore-water Profiles in a Temperate Intertidal Estuary  


The objective of the present work was to study the effect of plants common in temperate latitudes (Zostera noltii, Spartina maritima and Scirpus maritimus) on sediment nutrient profiles, and to compare it to sand- and mud-flats without vegetation. The study focused on the organic matter contents, the concentration of dissolved inorganic nutrients (PO4–P, NH3–N, NO3–N), an on the estimation of the total amount of these nutrients during day and night conditions and their potential net-flu...

Lillebø, A.; Flindt, M.; Pardal, M.; Marques, J.



Characterization of exceptionally thermostable single-stranded DNA-binding proteins from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga neapolitana  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in SSBs because they find numerous applications in diverse molecular biology and analytical methods. Results We report the characterization of single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSBs from the thermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima (TmaSSB and Thermotoga neapolitana (TneSSB. They are the smallest known bacterial SSB proteins, consisting of 141 and 142 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 16.30 and 16.58 kDa, respectively. The similarity between amino acid sequences of these proteins is very high: 90% identity and 95% similarity. Surprisingly, both TmaSSB and TneSSB possess a quite low sequence similarity to Escherichia coli SSB (36 and 35% identity, 55 and 56% similarity, respectively. They are functional as homotetramers containing one single-stranded DNA binding domain (OB-fold in each monomer. Agarose mobility assays indicated that the ssDNA-binding site for both proteins is salt independent, and fluorescence spectroscopy resulted in a size of 68 ± 2 nucleotides. The half-lives of TmaSSB and TneSSB were 10 h and 12 h at 100°C, respectively. When analysed by differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSC the melting temperature (Tm was 109.3°C and 112.5°C for TmaSSB and TneSSB, respectively. Conclusion The results showed that TmaSSB and TneSSB are the most thermostable SSB proteins identified to date, offering an attractive alternative to TaqSSB and TthSSB in molecular biology applications, especially with using high temperature e. g. polymerase chain reaction (PCR.

Mickiewicz Ma?gorzata



Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima - ancestor of all beet crops - and modern sugar beets  

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Full Text Available The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 47.4% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (?45.8% than for sugar beet (?57.5%. Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes.




The interaction of ammonia and xenon with the imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase from Thermotoga maritima as detected by NMR spectroscopy. (United States)

The imidazole glycerol phosphate (ImGP) synthase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima is a 1:1 complex of the glutaminase subunit HisH and the cyclase subunit HisF. It has been proposed that ammonia generated by HisH is transported through a channel to the active site of HisF, which generates intermediates of histidine (ImGP) and de novo biosynthesis of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamideribotide. Solution NMR spectroscopy of ammonium chloride-titrated samples was used to study the interaction of NH(3) with amino acids inside this channel. Although numerous residues showed (15)N chemical shift changes, most of these changes were caused by nonspecific ionic strength effects. However, several interactions appeared to be specific. Remarkably, the amino acid residue Thr 78-which is located in the central channel-shows a large chemical shift change upon titration with ammonium chloride. This result and the reduced catalytic activity of the Thr78Met mutant indicate a special role of this residue in ammonia channeling. To detect and further characterize internal cavities in HisF, which might for example contribute to ammonia channeling, the interaction of HisF with the noble gas xenon was analyzed by solution NMR spectroscopy using (1)H-(15)N HSQC experiments. The results indicate that HisF contains three distinct internal cavities, which could be identified by xenon-induced chemical shift changes of the neighboring amino acid residues. Two of these cavities are located at the active site at opposite ends of the substrate N'-[(5'-phosphoribulosyl)formimino]-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribonucleotide (PRFAR) binding groove. The third cavity is located in the interior of the central ?-barrel of HisF and overlaps with the putative ammonia transport channel. PMID:20665694

Liebold, Christoph; List, Felix; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert; Sterner, Reinhard; Brunner, Eike



Seed characteristics and dispersal of dimorphic fruit segments of Cakile maritima Scopoli (Brassicaceae) population of southern Brazilian coastal dunes / Características das sementes e dispersão dos segmentos de frutos dimórficos de uma população de Cakile maritima Scopoli (Brassicaceae) nas dunas costeiras do Sul do Brasil  

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Full Text Available Cakile maritima ocorre esporadicamente ao longo da costa Sul do Brasil, onde é encontrada restrita aos locais mais protegidos na base das dunas frontais. O dimorfismo somático é manifestado como segmentos de frutos (silículas) superior e inferior, morfologicamente distintos. As sementes dos dois tip [...] os de segmentos foram avaliadas quanto ao tamanho, número, capacidade de dispersão e estabelecimento em condições naturais. Na população de C. maritima no Sul do Brasil as silículas inferiores apresentaram maior número de sementes do que as siliculas superiores, e as sementes das silículas inferiores foram mais abortadas que as das superiores. As sementes dos segmentos superiores foram significativamente maiores do que aquelas dos segmentos inferiores; entretanto ocorreu uma sobreposição nos pesos entre elas. O peso médio das silículas dos dois segmentos não difere significativamente, mas a razão peso das silículas / peso das sementes foi significativamente diferente para os segmentos superior e inferior. Ambos segmentos apresentaram grande habilidade de flutuar em água salgada, superior a 50% após 70 dias. Todavia, a dispersão dos segmentos dos frutos ocorre principalmente em direção ao continente através da ação do vento. A maioria das plântulas encontradas no ambiente natural se encontrava restrita num raio de um metro da planta-mãe, e era originada principalmente de sementes dos segmentos inferiores dos frutos. Abstract in english Cakile maritima occurs sporadically along the southern Brazilian coast, where it is restricted to more protected sites at the base of foredunes. Somatic dimorphism in C. maritima is manifested as morphologically distinct upper and lower fruit segments (silicules). The two morphs were tested for diff [...] erences in size, number of seeds, dispersal ability and natural establishment. In the C. maritima population of southern Brazil, the lower silicule has more seeds than upper silicule, and lower seeds are more likely to abort than the upper ones. Seeds from upper segments were significantly larger than those from lower ones; however, their mass ranges overlap. The mean silicule mass was not significantly different from both segments, but the silicule/seed mass ratio from upper and lower segments was significantly different. Both segments had high ability to float in sea water, more than 50% were still afloat after 70 days. Nevertheless, dispersal occurs mainly to landward due to dominant wind action. Most of the seedlings were restricted to within a one-metre radius of the mother plant, and were principally derived from lower fruit segments.

César Vieira, Cordazzo.



Kinetics of ATP and TNP-ATP binding to the active site of CheA from Thermotoga maritima. (United States)

The mechanism of nucleotide binding to the active site of Thermotoga maritima CheA was investigated using stopped-flow fluorescence experiments that monitored binding of ATP and TNP-ATP to the catalytic domain (P4) of CheA that had been engineered to include a tryptophan residue as a fluorescent reporter group at the active site (P4(F487W)). Rapid decreases in protein intrinsic fluorescence and increases in TNP-ATP fluorescence were observed during binding reactions, and time courses were analyzed to define the kinetic mechanisms for ATP and TNP-ATP binding. This analysis indicated that binding of ATP(Mg(2+)) to P4(F487W) involves a single reversible step with a k(on) of 0.92 +/- 0.09 microM(-1) s(-1), a k(off) of 1.9 +/- 0.4 s(-1), and a K(d) of 1.5-2.1 microM (all values determined at 4 degrees C). Binding of TNP-ATP(Mg(2+)) to P4(F487W) involves a more complicated mechanism, requiring at least three sequential steps. Computer simulations and nonlinear regression analysis were used to estimate the rate constants of the forward and reverse reactions for each of the three steps in the reaction scheme [Formula: see text] Similar analysis indicated that an alternative reaction scheme, involving a rate-limiting conformational change in P4 prior to TNP-ATP binding, did an equally good job of accounting for all of the kinetics results:[Formula: see text] In both models, steps 2 and 3 have slow reversal rates that contribute to the high affinity of the active site for TNP-ATP (K(d) = 0.015 microM). These results highlight the dramatic effect of the TNP moieties on CheA-nucleotide interactions, and they provide the first detailed information about the kinetic mechanism underlying interaction of a protein histidine kinase with this tight-binding inhibitor. PMID:20565117

Eaton, Anna K; Stewart, Richard C



Interaction indole-3-acetic acid IAA with lectin Canavalia maritima seeds reveal new function of lectins in plant physiology  

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Full text: Lectins are a class of proteins of non-immune origin characterized by its capability in interacts specifically and reversibly to mono and oligosaccharides. In plant several possible roles have been suggested including their function in seed maturation, cell wall assembly, defense mechanisms, or rhizobial nodulation of legume roots. Nearly all application and proposed of the plant lectins are based on their specific carbohydrate binding. However, it has been reported that lectins from legumes, might interact with other molecules, such as non proteic amino acids and hydrophobic compounds. This study show the first the crystal structure based on molecular replacement of the Canavalia maritima (CML) complexed with IAA correlated with possible role in plant development. Purified CML was dissolved in 20 mMTrisHCl pH 7.6 containing 5 mM IAA, the suitable co-crystals from CML-IAA complex grew in condition 4 of screen I (0.1 M TrisHCl pH 8.5 and 2.0 M ammonium sulfate). This crystal belong to the orthorhombic space group I222 with unit-cell parameters a = 67.1 ; b = 70.7 , c = 97.7 , The structure was refined at 2.1 of resolution to a final R factor of 20.63 % and an R free of 22.54 %. To check the relative position of the IAA molecule in relation to the biological assemble of the CML, the tetrameric structure was generate by crystallographic symmetry. IAA molecules are positioned in the central cavity. The IAA is stabilized by interacting through hydrogen bounds and Van der Waals forces with the amino acids residues Ser 108 and Asn131, and two water molecules. The hydrophilic interactions occur between IAA and side chains of Ser 108, Asn131 and water molecules 26 and 31 by H-bonds. The OG oxygen from Ser108 display H-bonds with O2 and O3 oxygen atoms from IAA, 3.1 and 2.8 respectively. The tetrameric structure of CML complexed with IAA revels which this protein can act during the seedling in plant development. (author)

Silva Filho, J.C.; Santi-Gadelha, T.; Gadelha, C.A.A.; Delatorre, P. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Teixeira, C.S.; Rocha, B.A.M.; Nobrega, R.B.; Alencar, K.L.L.; Cavada, B.S. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)



Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Thermotoga maritima CheA P3-P4-P5 domains in complex with CheW. (United States)

The CheA-CheW complex plays a key role in bacterial chemotaxis signal transduction by initiating phosphotransfer to response regulators via coupling to the chemoreceptors. CheA (P3-P4-P5 domains) and CheW from Thermotoga maritima were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized as a complex at 298 K using ammonium dihydrogen phosphate as a precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to ~8 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belonged to space group I222 or I2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 184.2, b = 286.4, c = 327.7 Å. The asymmetric unit may contain six to ten CheA-CheW molecules. PMID:22684078

Park, Sangyoun; Kim, Keon Young; Kim, Sunmin; Crane, Brian R



Structural Analysis of Semi-specific Oligosaccharide Recognition by a Cellulose-binding Protein of Thermotoga maritima Reveals Adaptations for Functional Diversification of the Oligopeptide Periplasmic Binding Protein Fold  

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Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) constitute a protein superfamily that binds a wide variety of ligands. In prokaryotes, PBPs function as receptors for ATP-binding cassette or tripartite ATP-independent transporters and chemotaxis systems. In many instances, PBPs bind their cognate ligands with exquisite specificity, distinguishing, for example, between sugar epimers or structurally similar anions. By contrast, oligopeptide-binding proteins bind their ligands through interactions with the peptide backbone but do not distinguish between different side chains. The extremophile Thermotoga maritima possesses a remarkable array of carbohydrate-processing metabolic systems, including the hydrolysis of cellulosic polymers. Here, we present the crystal structure of a T. maritima cellobiose-binding protein (tm0031) that is homologous to oligopeptide-binding proteins. T. maritima cellobiose-binding protein binds a variety of lengths of {beta}(1 {yields} 4)-linked glucose oligomers, ranging from two rings (cellobiose) to five (cellopentaose). The structure reveals that binding is semi-specific. The disaccharide at the nonreducing end binds specifically; the other rings are located in a large solvent-filled groove, where the reducing end makes several contacts with the protein, thereby imposing an upper limit of the oligosaccharides that are recognized. Semi-specific recognition, in which a molecular class rather than individual species is selected, provides an efficient solution for the uptake of complex mixtures.

Cuneo, Matthew J.; Beese, Lorena S.; Hellinga, Homme W.; (Duke)



Structural Analysis of Semi-specific Oligosaccharide Recognition by a Cellulose-binding Protein of Thermotoga maritima Reveals Adaptations for Functional Diversification of the Oligopeptide Periplasmic Binding Protein Fold* (United States)

Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) constitute a protein superfamily that binds a wide variety of ligands. In prokaryotes, PBPs function as receptors for ATP-binding cassette or tripartite ATP-independent transporters and chemotaxis systems. In many instances, PBPs bind their cognate ligands with exquisite specificity, distinguishing, for example, between sugar epimers or structurally similar anions. By contrast, oligopeptide-binding proteins bind their ligands through interactions with the peptide backbone but do not distinguish between different side chains. The extremophile Thermotoga maritima possesses a remarkable array of carbohydrate-processing metabolic systems, including the hydrolysis of cellulosic polymers. Here, we present the crystal structure of a T. maritima cellobiose-binding protein (tm0031) that is homologous to oligopeptide-binding proteins. T. maritima cellobiose-binding protein binds a variety of lengths of ?(1?4)-linked glucose oligomers, ranging from two rings (cellobiose) to five (cellopentaose). The structure reveals that binding is semi-specific. The disaccharide at the nonreducing end binds specifically; the other rings are located in a large solvent-filled groove, where the reducing end makes several contacts with the protein, thereby imposing an upper limit of the oligosaccharides that are recognized. Semi-specific recognition, in which a molecular class rather than individual species is selected, provides an efficient solution for the uptake of complex mixtures. PMID:19801540

Cuneo, Matthew J.; Beese, Lorena S.; Hellinga, Homme W.



Isolation, identification and expression analysis of salt-induced genes in Suaeda maritima, a natural halophyte, using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite wealth of information generated on salt tolerance mechanism, its basics still remain elusive. Thus, there is a need of continued effort to understand the salt tolerance mechanism using suitable biotechnological techniques and test plants (species to enable development of salt tolerant cultivars of interest. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to generate information on salt stress responsive genes in a natural halophyte, Suaeda maritima, using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization (PCR-SSH technique. Results Forward and reverse SSH cDNA libraries were constructed after exposing the young plants to 425 mM NaCl for 24 h. From the forward SSH cDNA library, 429 high quality ESTs were obtained. BLASTX search and TIGR assembler programme revealed overexpression of 167 unigenes comprising 89 singletons and 78 contigs with ESTs redundancy of 81.8%. Among the unigenes, 32.5% were found to be of special interest, indicating novel function of these genes with regard to salt tolerance. Literature search for the known unigenes revealed that only 17 of them were salt-inducible. A comparative analysis of the existing SSH cDNA libraries for NaCl stress in plants showed that only a few overexpressing unigenes were common in them. Moreover, the present study also showed increased expression of phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene, indicating the possible accumulation of a much studied osmoticum, glycinebetaine, in halophyte under salt stress. Functional categorization of the proteins as per the Munich database in general revealed that salt tolerance could be largely determined by the proteins involved in transcription, signal transduction, protein activity regulation and cell differentiation and organogenesis. Conclusion The study provided a clear indication of possible vital role of glycinebetaine in the salt tolerance process in S. maritima. However, the salt-induced expression of a large number of genes involved in a wide range of cellular functions was indicative of highly complex nature of the process as such. Most of the salt inducible genes, nonetheless, appeared to be species-specific. In light of the observations made, it is reasonable to emphasize that a comparative analysis of ESTs from SSH cDNA libraries generated systematically for a few halophytes with varying salt exposure time may clearly identify the key salt tolerance determinant genes to a minimum number, highly desirable for any genetic manipulation adventure.

Sahu Binod B



Some Active Ingredients, Total Protein and Amino Acids in Plants Produced from Irradiated Ambrosia maritima Seeds Growing under Different Soil Salinity Levels  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out at the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology during two successive seasons, of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009, respectively in pots 30 cm in diameter. The aim of this experiment was to study the response of damsisa (Ambrosia maritima L. seeds that exposed to different doses of radiation (0, 20, 40, 80 Gy after planting in soils contain mixtures of salts. The dose rate was 0.89 and 0.87 rad sec-1. The salts used were NaCl, CaCl2 and MgSO4 in ratio 2:2:1 with concentrations 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm. Irradiated and un- irradiated seeds were sown in, sand-loamy, soil with mixture of salts. Also, a group of irradiated and un-irradiated seeds were sown in normal soils without salt and serve as a control, all pots irrigated with tap water until field capacity. It was observed that saline condition decreased ambrosin, protein and amino acids trend, in damsisa shoots. While, the results obtained refer to increasing proline concentration separated as a result of uses ?-rays and salinity treatments. The extreme sensitivity of the metabolic processes of proline synthesis and degradation themselves may be of benefit by regulating metabolic processes which adversely affected by stress. So, it was concluded that ?-rays improve plant growth and increase its chemical components under saline stress condition.

A.R. Ghalab



A ConA-like lectin isolated from Canavalia maritima seeds alters the expression of genes related to virulence and biofilm formation in Streptococcus mutans  

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Full Text Available Bacteria form biofilms as an adaptive mechanism in response to environmental changes. Streptococcus mutans is the biofilm-forming bacterium that is primarily associated with dental caries. The expression of important genes by bacteria in biofilms is different from that of planktonic cells. Lectins are proteins that bind specifically to carbohydrates and may have important biological activities on bacterial cells, acting as antibacterial and anti-biofilm agents. ConM (Canavalia maritima lectin is a protein that is able to inhibit the planktonic growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of ConM and concanavalin A (ConA on the expression of genes related to virulence and biofilm formation in S. mutans. The results showed that ConM significantly reduced the expression of genes encoding enzymes related to adhesion, formation and regulation of biofilms. On the contrary, ConA did not alter the expression of the genes studied. Because the two lectins have a high degree of similarity, the differences in the actions of ConM and ConA may be explained by the small structural differences in the carbohydrate recognition domain of the lectins.

Theodora Thays Arruda Cavalcante



Protein Electrophoresis and DNA in Herbs Produced from Irradiated Ambrosia maritima Seeds Grown under Soil Salinity and Their Resistance to Insect  

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Full Text Available Damsisa (Ambrosia maritima L. is one of the wild plants present in Egypt and different African countries of the Nile Valley. It considered as potential source of molluscicides for treatment of infected sites. In this study, DNA amplifications technique and protein electrophoresis were used for the evaluation of response of Damsisa herbs to gamma rays (?-rays, soil salinity and their interaction on alleviation of salt stress. This study also examined the effect of herb as bio-resistant for insect infestation in Phaseolus beans. Protein electrophoresis revealed that the number of protein bands separated from plants grown in saline soil not changed either grown from irradiated or un-irradiated seeds except 40 Gray (Gy dose. Meanwhile, it was observed that mixing Damsisa herb with infested Phaseolus beans reduced insect ability to lays eggs or complete life cycle. Also, it was found that herbs produced from irradiated seeds and grown in normal or in saline soil were more effective in destruction of Callosobruchus maculatus insect and decreased the loss from infested beans.

O.S. Hussein



Fungal decontamination and enhancement of shelf life of edible split beans of wild legume Canavalia maritima by the electron beam irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ripened split beans of the coastal sand dune wild legume Canavalia maritima serve as one of the traditional nutritional sources of the coastal dwellers in Southwest coast of India. Nine fungi were isolated from the unirradiated dry beans by plating on the potato dextrose agar medium. Toxigenic fungus Aspergillus niger showed the highest incidence (33–50%) followed by Aspergillus flavus (14–20%) and Penicillium chrysogenum (7–13%). Unirradiated dry beans and irradiated dry beans with electron beam doses 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 kGy were monitored for occurrence of fungal species and their incidence during 0, 3 and 6 months storage period under laboratory conditions. Irradiation resulted in dose-dependent decrease in fungal species (5–7, 4–6, 3–6 and 0 on irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 or 15 kGy, respectively) as well as incidence (80–99, 19–46, 13–21 and 0%, respectively). Although aflatoxins (B1 and B2) were found below detectable level (1 and B2). • Irradiated split beans (10 kGy) showed improved shelf life up to six months without deterioration under normal laboratory conditions


Structural and biochemical characterization of the ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Thermotoga maritima: Toward rationalization of mechanistic knowledge in the GH73 family. (United States)

Members of the GH73 glycosidase family cleave the ?-1,4-glycosidic bond between the N-acetylglucosaminyl (GlcNAc) and N-acetylmuramyl (MurNAc) moieties in bacterial peptidoglycan. A catalytic mechanism has been proposed for members FlgJ, Auto, AcmA and Atl(WM) and the structural analysis of FlgJ and Auto revealed a conserved ?/? fold reminiscent of the distantly related GH23 lysozyme. Comparison of the active site residues reveals variability in the nature of the catalytic general base suggesting two distinct catalytic mechanisms: an inverting mechanism involving two distant glutamate residues and a substrate-assisted mechanism involving anchimeric assistance by the C2-acetamido group of the GlcNAc moiety. Herein, we present the biochemical characterization and crystal structure of TM0633 from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. TM0633 adopts the ?/? fold of the family and displays ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity on intact peptidoglycan sacculi. Site-directed mutagenesis identifies Glu34, Glu65 and Tyr118 as important residues for catalysis. A thorough bioinformatic analysis of the GH73 sequences identified five phylogenetic clusters. TM0633, FlgJ and Auto belong to a group of three clusters that conserve two carboxylate residues involved in a classical inverting acid-base mechanism. Members of the other two clusters lack a conserved catalytic general base supporting a substrate-assisted mechanism. Molecular modeling of representative members from each cluster suggests that variability in length of the ?-hairpin region above the active site confers ligand-binding specificity and modulates the catalytic mechanisms within the GH73 family. PMID:25344445

Lipski, Alexandra; Hervé, Mireille; Lombard, Vincent; Nurizzo, Didier; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Bourne, Yves; Vincent, Florence



Studies of conformational changes of an arginine-binding protein from Thermotoga maritima in the presence and absence of ligand via molecular dynamics simulations with the coarse-grained UNRES force field. (United States)

The arginine-binding protein (ArgBP) from the hyperthermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga maritima (TmArgBP) is responsible for arginine transport through the bacterial cell membrane. The protein binds a single molecule of L-arginine, which results in conformational changes due to hinge bending. Thereby, TmArgBP acquires one of two possible conformations: open (without the presence of the arginine ligand) and closed (in the presence of the arginine ligand). Here we report a molecular dynamics study of the influence of the presence or absence of the ligand on the dynamics of TmArgBP, using the coarse-grained UNRES force field. The results of our studies indicate that binding of the arginine ligand promotes a closed conformation, which agrees with experimental data. However, the sensitivity of the TmArgBP conformation to the presence of arginine decreases and the protein becomes more flexible with increasing temperature, which might be related to the functionality of this protein in the thermophilic organism T. maritima. PMID:25731877

Lipska, Agnieszka G; Sieradzan, Adam K; Krupa, Pawe?; Mozolewska, Magdalena A; D'Auria, Sabato; Liwo, Adam



Logic of implications  


A sound and complete logic for implications (or quasi-equations) is presented, extending naturally Birkhoff’s equational logic. This is based on a general logic for injectivity, following an idea of G. Ro¸su.

Ada?mek, Jiri?; Sobral, Manuela; Sousa, Lurdes



Advances in fuzzy implication functions  

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Fuzzy implication functions are one of the main operations in fuzzy logic. They generalize the classical implication, which takes values in the set {0,1}, to fuzzy logic, where the truth values belong to the unit interval [0,1]. These functions are not only fundamental for fuzzy logic systems, fuzzy control, approximate reasoning and expert systems, but they also play a significant role in mathematical fuzzy logic, in fuzzy mathematical morphology and image processing, in defining fuzzy subsethood measures and in solving fuzzy relational equations. This volume collects 8 research papers on fuzzy implication functions. Three articles focus on the construction methods, on different ways of generating new classes and on the common properties of implications and their dependencies. Two articles discuss implications defined on lattices, in particular implication functions in interval-valued fuzzy set theories. One paper summarizes the sufficient and necessary conditions of solutions for one distributivity equation...

Beliakov, Gleb; Sola, Humberto; Pradera, Ana



Implicação, sobreimplicação e implicação profissional / Implication, over implication and professional implication  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo busca discutir um dos conceitos básicos da Análise Institucional, a implicação. Para tanto, traz também outros conceitos que dela derivam e/ou modulam: sobreimplicação e implicação profissional. Trazendo exemplos presentes em diferentes espaços, na escola, na universidade, no hospital anali [...] sa a tendência da "universitarização" das profissões, onde os profissionais são convocados a trabalhar suas dificuldades práticas pelo discurso, ao modo do fazer universitário, como se a análise discursiva da prática permitisse fazer evoluir a própria prática. Abstract in english This article debates one of the basic concepts of Institutional Analysis: implication. For that purpose, brings two other concepts that stem from it: over implication and professional implication. Both rather important for the implications analyses process. Pointing out that implication analyses is [...] a collective work, the text board the devices that those analyses can construct. Bringing examples of different spaces, in the school, in the university, in the hospital, it is analysed the tendency to give a universitarian form to the professions, when professionals are called to work their practical difficulties, doing it through the discourse, as used in the universities, as if the discursive analyses of the practice allowed the evolution of their practice.

Gilles, Monceau.




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Full Text Available The authors have started from the idea that inflationary phenomenon is a companion, the cause and the effect of the globalization of poverty in the broader context of world economy globalization. Therefore, starting from a common definition of inflation, the first objective was to identify causal relationships that singularize contemporary inflationary process. After that, attention was focused on the implications of inflation in the current stage, bearing in mind that monetary financial theory and practice are operating with perfectly anticipated inflation or imperfectly anticipated inflation. Inflation has great implications on the long-term contracts and wage contracts.

Mur?ri?a Ilie



Strong Boethius' thesis and consequential implication  


The paper studies the relation between systems of modal logic and systems of consequential implication, a non-material form of implication satisfying "Aristotle's Thesis" (p does not imply not p) and "Weak Boethius' Thesis" (if p implies q, then p does not imply not q). Definitions are given of consequential implication in terms of modal operators and of modal operators in terms of consequential implication. The modal equivalent of "Strong Boethius' Thesis" (that p implies q implies that q do...

Pizzi, Claudio; Williamson, Timothy



Astrosociological Implications of Astrobiology (Revisited) (United States)

Supporters of astrobiology continue to organize the field around formalized associations and organizations under the guise of the so-called ``hard'' sciences (e.g., biology and the related physical/natural sciences). The so-called ``soft'' sciences-including sociology and the other social sciences, the behavioral sciences, and the humanities-remain largely separated from this dynamically growing field. However, as argued in this paper, space exploration involving the search for extraterrestrial life should be viewed as consisting of two interrelated parts (i.e., two sides of the same coin): astrobiology and astrosociology. Together, these two fields broadly combine the two major branches of science as they relate to the relationship between human life and alien life, as appropriate. Moreover, with a formalized system of collaboration, these two complimentary fields would also focus on the implications of their research to human beings as well as their cultures and social structures. By placing the astrosociological implications of astrobiology at a high enough priority, scientists interested in the search for alien life can augment their focus to include the social, cultural, and behavioral implications that were always associated with their work (yet previously overlooked or understated, and too often misunderstood). Recognition of the astrosociological implications expands our perception about alien life by creating a new emphasis on their ramifications to human life on Earth.

Pass, Jim



Cardiovascular Implications of Erectile Dysfunction (United States)

Cardiovascular Implications of Erectile Dysfunction Bryan G. Schwartz , MD ; Robert A. Kloner , MD, PhD From the Heart Institute, Good Samaritan Hospital, Los Angeles, ... have ED. Previous Section Next Section What Is Erectile Dysfunction? Erectile dysfunction means that a man is ...


Testable implications of forecast optimality  


Evaluation of forecast optimality in economics and finance has almost exclusively been conducted on the assumption of mean squared error loss under which forecasts should be unbiased and forecast errors serially uncorrelated at the single period horizon with increasing variance as the forecast horizon grows. This paper considers properties of optimal forecasts under general loss functions and establishes new testable implications of forecast optimality. These hold when the forecaster’s loss...

Patton, Andrew J.; Timmermann, Allan



The Implications of Financial Distress  


PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This thesis aims to be the first paper to study comprehensively the full implications of financial distress and its indirect costs. Specifically, I investigate whether financially distressed companies operationally underperform their more conservatively financed counterparts and whether the distressed companies engage in inefficient asset sales. This is the first paper to study the effects of financial distress as the earlier literature concentrates purely on the e...

Nevalainen, Riku



Numerical Uncertainty and Its Implications  


A scrutiny of the contributions of key mathematicians and scientists shows that there has been much controversy (throughout the development of mathematics and science) concerning the use of mathematics and the nature of mathematics too. In this work, we try to show that arithmetical operations of approximation lead to the existence of a numerical uncertainty, which is quantic, path dependent and also dependent on the number system used, with mathematical and physical implications. When we exp...

Rodrigues, Anto?nio F.; Martins, Nuno O.



Pharmacogenomics and migraine: possible implications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pharmacogenomics is the science about how inherited factors influence the effects of drugs. Drug response is always a result of mutually interacting genes with important modifications from environmental and constitutional factors. Based on the genetic variability of pharmacokinetic and in some cases pharmacodynamic variability we mention possible implications for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. Pharmacogenomics will most likely in the future be one part of our therapeutic armamentarium and will provide a stronger scientific basis for optimizing drug therapy on the basis of each patient's genetic constitution Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2

Tfelt-Hansen, P.; Brosen, K.



Phosphorylation of calmodulin: Functional implications  


Calmodulin (CaM) is phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo by multiple protein-serine/threonine and protein-tyrosine kinases. Casein kinase II and myosin light-chain kinase are two of the well established protein-serine/threonine kinases implicated in this process. On the other hand, within the protein-tyrosine kinases involved in the phosphorylation of CaM are receptors with tyrosine kinase activity, such as the insulin receptor and the epidermal growth factor receptor, and nonreceptor protein-...

Benaim, Gustavo; Villalobo, Antonio



Lateral Thoracic Maningocele : Anaesthetic Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Meningomyelocele is a broad term representing herniation of extracranial contents through a congenital defect in the vertebral column. If only cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and meninges herniate, it is termed as a meningocele. A meningoencephalocele is herniation of neural elements along with meninges. Anaesthetic challenges in management of thoracic meningomyelocele include securing the airway with intubation in lateral or supine position, intraoperative prone position with its associated complications and accurate assessment of blood loss and prevention of hypothermia. We report a case of a thoracic meningocele posted for resection and discuss its anaesthetic implications

Nazeer Ahmed K



New Scalar Politics: Implications for Education Policy (United States)

This paper argues that globalisation has implications for research and theory in the social sciences, demanding that the social no longer be seen as homologous with nation, but also linked to postnational or global fields. This situation has theoretical and methodological implications for comparative education specifically focused on education…

Lingard, Bob; Rawolle, Shaun



Ophthalmic implications of seasonal affective disorder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is presented with a discussion of its standard treatment of phototherapy. A number of ophthalmic implications related to SAD are proposed. These implications relate to both the condition and the phototherapy used in its treatment, especially the use of full spectrum light which contains ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation. 12 references


A logic of implications in algebra and coalgebra  


Implications in a category can be presented as epimorphisms: an ob- ject satis¯es the implication i® it is injective w.r.t. that epimorphism. G. Ro»cu formulated a logic for deriving an implication from other implications. We present two versions of implicational logics: a general one and a ¯nitary one (for epimor- phisms with ¯nitely presentable domains and codomains). In categories Alg § of algebras on a given signature our logic specializes to the implicational logic o...

Ada?mek, Jiri?; Sobral, Manuela; Sousa, Lurdes



Cosmological implications of unimodular gravity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We consider a model of gravity and matter fields which is invariant only under unimodular general coordinate transformations (GCT). The determinant of the metric is treated as a separate field which transforms as a scalar under unimodular GCT. Furthermore we also demand that the theory is invariant under a new global symmetry which we call generalized conformal invariance. We study the cosmological implications of the resulting theory. We show that this theory gives a fit to the high-z supernova data which is identical to the standard Big Bang model. Hence we require some other cosmological observations to test the validity of this model. We also consider some models which do not obey the generalized conformal invariance. In these models we can fit the supernova data without introducing the standard cosmological constant term. Furthermore these models introduce only one dark component and hence solve the coincidence problem of dark matter and dark energy.

Jain, Pankaj; Jaiswal, Atul; Karmakar, Purnendu; Kashyap, Gopal [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Singh, Naveen K., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India)



Environmental Implications of the Tourism Industry (United States)

This Discussion Paper was posted at the Resources for the future (RFF) Website during March 2000. Terry Davies and Sarah Cahill wrote "Environmental Implications of the Tourism Industry," which elaborates on the impacts of tourism on the environment.

Cahill, Sarah.



Information Dissemination by Mail. Implications for CME. (United States)

Two evaluation approaches were used to assess the impact of a continuing medical education manual that was distributed by mail. Implications for development of materials and for information dissemination strategies in continuing medical education are discussed. (Author/CT)

Scott, Craig S.; And Others



Implications of Connectionism for Thinking about Rules. (United States)

Connectionist models view knowledge as a network of interconnected elements. Explains connectionism and proposes it as an alternative to the classical view of rule-based cognition. Educational and theoretical implications are discussed. (CJS)

Bereiter, Carl



Imaging implications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on laparoscopic cholecystectomy that has rapidly become the preferred technique for elective surgical removal of the gallbladder. The authors sought to ascertain the implications of this new technique for radiological imaging by performing a survey questionnaire of the membership of the International Society of Biliary Radiology (ISBR). Detailed questionnaires were sent to 145 members representing 12 countries. Because data were sought from consulting radiologists rather than responsible surgeons, results were primarily qualitative in nature. Inquiries were made as to current pre-, intra-, and postoperative imaging strategies. Preoperatively we inquired whether specific radiological findings influence the decision to use or not use the laparoscopic method versus open surgery (ie, stone size, thick gallbladder wall on US, porcelain gallbladder, bile duct dilatation). Is preoperative imaging performed of the common bile duct either routinely or for specific indications, and which imaging method is preferred (ie, US, intravenous cholangiography, or ERCP)? Is intraoperative cholangiography performed routinely, never, or for indications only? Are there specific cholangiographic techniques used during laparoscopic cholangiography that differ from standard operative cholangiographic methods?


Implications of human tissue studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through radiochemical analysis of voluntary tissue donations, the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries are gaining improved understanding of the distribution and biokinetics of actinide elements in occupationally exposed persons. Evaluation of the first two whole body contributions to the Transuranium Registry revealed an inverse proportionality between actinide concentration and bone ash fraction. The analysis of a whole body with a documented 241Am deposition indicated a significantly shorter half-time in liver and a greater fraction resident in the skeleton than predicted by existing models. Other studies of the Registries are designed to evaluate in vivo estimates of actinide deposition with those derived from postmortem tissue analysis, compare results of animal experiments with human data, and reviw histopathologic slides for tissue toxicity that might be attributable to exposure to uranium and the transuranic elements. The implications of these recent findings and other work of the Registries are discussed from the standpoint of their potential impact on biokinetic modeling, internal dose assessment, safety standards, and operational health physics practices


Mobile IPTV: Implications for Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile IPTV (Internet Protocol Television provides digital content which users watch as a television broadcast via the Internet on a mobile device. This paper presents the development of IPTV, Suan Dusit Internet Broadcasting, (SDIB to mobile IPTV and discusses the implications for education. Mobile IPTV was developed as a prototype and designed to support users via wireless and mobile networks regardless of the mobile device. The system can be broadcasted through both live and video on demand (VOD utilizing a mobile browser (smart phones, smart TVs, and tablets and web browsers (Windows, Mac, and UNIX. The mobile IPTV prototype has been used and evaluated in this study. The results of student’s behavior when using mobile phones in their learning found that the highest mobile use was for Facebook and Line to communicate and share information with their classmates. The results of student’s attitudes towards using mobile phones in their learning found that the highest mobile use was for sharing information with classmates, sharing learning experiences on social networks, and using mobile phones to support their studies. The result of the IPTV and mobile IPTV system evaluation found that overall mobile IPTV had a higher user satisfaction than IPTV. Furthermore, mobile IPTV creates a good learning experience for the users. This paper provides guidelines in technical issues for helping educational institutions to develop mobile IPTV for education.

Pannee Suanpang



Climatic implications of ice microphysics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on aircraft measurements of mid-latitude cirrus clouds, ice crystal size distribution and ice water content (IWC) are shown to be dependent on temperature. This dependence is also evident from the theoretical consideration of ice crystal growth. Using simple models of the diffusion and accretion growth of ice particles, the computed mean ice crystal size and IWC compare reasonably well with the measured mean values. The temperature dependence of ice crystal size and IWC has important climatic implications in that the temperature field perturbed by external radiative forcings, such as greenhouse warming, can alter the composition of ice crystal clouds. Through radiative transfer, ice microphysics can in turn affect the temperature field. Higher IWC would increase cloud solar albedo and infrared emissivity, while for a given IWC, larger crystals would reduce cloud albedo and emissivity. The competing effects produced by greenhouse temperature perturbations via ice micro-physics and radiation interactions and feedbacks are assessed by a one-dimensional radiative-convective climate model that includes an advanced radiation parameterization program. 3 figs.

Liou, K.N. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)



Implications of Donald Macdonald's report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chairman of the session debating the implications of the Macdonald report identified three important aspects of utility restructuring: equity, efficiency and sustainability. Dr. Jan Carr, a member of the Macdonald Committee, predicted that the continental energy market will likely demand a much larger number of smaller energy transactions, and the value in having inherently low-cost generation located close to load centres, and/or close to the US border. Douglas Hall, Vice President of RBC Dominion Securities criticized the Macdonald Committee for leaving 70 per cent of Hydro's generating capacity in public hands. He favored transferring all assets to the private sector, and questioned the Committee's assumption that the utility could be broken down into four components that would share overhead and still compete against each other. John Murphy, President of the Power Workers Union stated that the Union was not ideologically opposed to competition in the electricity industry, but he questioned the Committee's assumption that competition would promote efficient supply of power at the least cost to the economy. Tony Jennings, Chief Executive of the Municipal Electric Association tackled a series of myths about municipal electric utilities, and IPPSO Counsel Jay Sheppard emphasized the need for making sure that the entity buying the power in the short term is truly independent and is not doing incestuous deals with its friends at Ontario Hydro Generation (one of the s at Ontario Hydro Generation (one of the four components of the proposed, restructured Corporation) , because otherwise competition will not work


Implications of increased ethanol production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implications of increased ethanol production in Canada, assuming a 10% market penetration of a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend, are evaluated. Issues considered in the analysis include the provision of new markets for agricultural products, environmental sustainability, energy security, contribution to global warming, potential government cost (subsidies), alternative options to ethanol, energy efficiency, impacts on soil and water of ethanol crop production, and acceptance by fuel marketers. An economic analysis confirms that ethanol production from a stand-alone plant is not economic at current energy values. However, integration of ethanol production with a feedlot lowers the break-even price of ethanol by about 35 cents/l, and even further reductions could be achieved as technology to utilize lignocellulosic feedstock is commercialized. Ethanol production could have a positive impact on farm income, increasing cash receipts to grain farmers up to $53 million. The environmental impact of ethanol production from grain would be similar to that from crop production in general. Some concerns about ethanol/gasoline blends from the fuel industry have been reduced as those blends are now becoming recommended in some automotive warranties. However, the concerns of the larger fuel distributors are a serious constraint on an expansion of ethanol use. The economics of ethanol use could be improved by extending the federal excise tax exemption now available for pure alcohol fueemption now available for pure alcohol fuels to the alcohol portion of alcohol/gasoline blends. 9 refs., 10 tabs


Learning and reconsolidation implicate different synaptic mechanisms  


Synaptic mechanisms underlying memory reconsolidation after retrieval are largely unknown. Here we report that synapses in projections to the lateral nucleus of the amygdala implicated in auditory fear conditioning, which are potentiated by learning, enter a labile state after memory reactivation, and must be restabilized through a postsynaptic mechanism implicating the mammalian target of rapamycin kinase-dependent signaling. Fear-conditioning–induced synaptic enhancements were primarily p...

Li, Yan; Meloni, Edward G.; Carlezon, William A.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Pitman, Roger K.; Nader, Karim; Bolshakov, Vadim Y.



Globalization of Information: Intellectual Property Law Implications  


The globalization of information, facilitated by the Internet, has significant implications for intellectual property regimes domestically and internationally. Assessment of these implications and their probable outcomes is unavoidably value-driven. Many commentators foresee harmonization of intellectual property laws but some predict disparity in political economy outcomes. Some also see profound effects on sovereignty. A critical review of recent literature on these topics discloses a preva...

Nayyer, Kim



Implications of U.S. electricity deregulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article is a concise summary of the potential impacts of electric utility deregulation, including the resolution of stranded costs, impact on electricity rates, reformation of utilities, and reshuffling of the nation's fuel portfolio. The national and state implications of the deregulation of the electricity industry are monumental and overwhelming. The implications occur on many fronts, including monetary, quality, reliability, and environmental issues. Many significant changes will occur as a result--some will be positive and others may be more disturbing


Implicational (Semilinear) Logics I: A New Hierarchy.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 49, ?. 4 (2010), s. 417-446. ISSN 1432-0665 R&D Projects: GA ?R GEICC/08/E018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * hierarchy of implicational logics * implicative logics * Leibniz hierarchy * linearly ordered logical matrices * mathematical fuzzy logic * non-classical logics * semilinear logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.414, year: 2010

Cintula, Petr; Noguera, C.



Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.



Impacts of oil sands process water on fen plants: Implications for plant selection in required reclamation projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fen plant growth in peat contaminated with groundwater discharges of oil sands process water (OSPW) was assessed in a greenhouse over two growing seasons. Three treatments (non-diluted OSPW, diluted OSPW and rainwater) were tested on five vascular plants and four mosses. All vascular plants tested can grow in salinity and naphthenic acids levels currently produced by oil sands activity in northwestern Canada. No stress sign was observed after both seasons. Because of plant characteristics, Carex species (C. atherodes and C. utriculata) and Triglochin maritima would be more useful for rapidly restoring vegetation and creating a new peat-accumulating system. Groundwater discharge of OSPW proved detrimental to mosses under dry conditions and ensuring adequate water levels would be crucial in fen creation following oil sands exploitation. Campylium stellatum would be the best choice to grow in contaminated areas and Bryum pseudotriquetrum might be interesting as it has spontaneously regenerated in all treatments. - Highlights: ? Fen plant growth was assessed under groundwater discharges of oil sands process water. ? Sedge and grass species were not stressed after two growing seasons in greenhouse. ? Carex species and Triglochin maritima would be helpful in created contaminated fens. ? In dry conditions, contaminated groundwater discharge was detrimental for mosses. ? Campylium stellatum would be the best choice in created fens with contaminated water. - Sedges ah contaminated water. - Sedges and grasses tolerated the contact with oil sands process water and could probably grow well in contaminated created fens, but mosses were particularly affected under dry conditions.


Venous chest anatomy: clinical implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article provides a practical approach to the clinical implications and importance of understanding the collateral venous anatomy of the thorax. Routine radiography, conventional venography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies provide correlative anatomic models for the demonstration of how interconnecting collateral vascular networks within the thorax maintain venous stability at all times. Five major systems comprise the collateral venous network of the thorax ( Fig. 1 ). These include the paravertebral, azygos-hemiazygos, internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and anterior jugular venous systems (AJVS). The five systems are presented in the following sequence: (a) a brief introduction to the importance of catheter position and malposition in understanding access to the thoracic venous system, (b) the anatomy of the azygos-hemiazygos systems and their relationship with the paravertebral plexus, (c) the importance of the AJVS, (d) 'loop' concepts interconnecting the internal mammary and azygos-hemiazygos systems by means of the lateral thoracic and intercostal veins, and (e) the interconnecting venous networks on the thoracic side of the thoracoabdominal junction. Certain aspects of the venous anatomy of the thorax will not be discussed in this chapter and include (a) the intra-abdominal anastomoses between the superior and inferior vena cavae (IVC) via the internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and azygos-hemiazygos systems (beyond th, and azygos-hemiazygos systems (beyond the scope of this article), (b) potential collateral vessels involving vertebral, parascapular, thyroidal, thymic, and other smaller veins that might anastomose with the major systems, and (c) anatomic variants and pitfalls that may mimic pathologic conditions (space limitations). (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)


Energy implications of bottled water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs-for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration-are far smaller than those for the production of the bott than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.


Quasi-implicative lattices and the logic of quantum mechanics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper seeks to provide a number of reformulations of the quasi-implicative conditions which are more intuitively plausible. Three sets of conditions are examined, and it is shown that each set of conditions is both necessary and sufficient to ensure that an ortholattice is orthomodular, and each set of conditions uniquely specifies the implication operation to be Mittelstaedt's quasi-implication. Various properties of the quasi-implication are then investigated. In particular, it is shown that the quasi-implication fails to satisfy a number of laws associated with the classical material conditional. Various weakenings of these laws, satisfied by the quasi-implication, are also discussed. (orig./BJ)


[Interleukin-6 implication in prostate cancer]. (United States)

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is secreted in great quantity in prostatic tumoral glandular tissue with a significant higher rate in hormono-refractory phase. Importance of IL-6 dependent mechanism in prostate cancer progression is well argued. IL-6 seems to be implicated in androgen receptor activation in lack of steroid ligand, apoptosis decrease and increase of invasive capacity and angiogenesis via three major signaling pathways: MAPK, STAT3 and PI3K-Akt. As AR is a key factor of prostate cancer progression, IL-6 implication in this activation underlines IL-6 importance in prostate cancer. IL-6 also induces neuroendocrine differentiation. This phenomenon received a detailed attention because it would take part in pathogenicity and progression of prostate cancer. Although complementary studies seem necessary, taking into account its strong implication in prostate cancer progression, IL-6 seems to be a new potential therapeutic target of prostate cancer. PMID:17845991

Cabrespine, Aurélie; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Verrelle, Pierre; Morel, Laurent



Early Adolescent Childbearing: Some Social Implications. (United States)

This paper reviews some of the current research findings on fertility among adolescents which indicate that illegitimacy may be becoming increasingly concentrated in the teenage years, and considers the implications of this phenomenon for mothers, children and society. The relationship of the changing sexual activity of American teenagers, the…

Hoeppner, Marie


Coherence of Radial Implicative Fuzzy Systems.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Madison : Omnipress, 2006, s. 903-910. ISBN 0-7803-9489-5. [2006 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems. Vancouver (CA), 16.07.2006-21.07.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0545 Keywords : implicative fuzzy systems * coherence * radial function Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

Coufal, David


[Physiological and clinical implications of gastric pepsinogens]. (United States)

This review deals with pepsinogen metabolism, physiological role, and clinical implications. Effects of various factors, e.g H. pylori, on pepsinogen levels are considered. It is concluded that non-invasive screening of gastric precancer conditions provides a cost-effective and efficacious approach to the prevention of this pathology. PMID:25269191

Reshetnikov, O V; Kurilovih, S A; Krotov, S A; Belkovets, A V



Implicational Logics vs. Order Algebraizable Logics.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Prague : ITI Charles University, 2010 - (Chvalovský, K.; Cintula, P.; Noguera, C.). s. 72-73 [Logic, Algebra and Truth Degrees 2010. 07.09.2010-11.09.2010, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP202/10/1826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : implicational logics * order algebraizable logics * abstract algebraic logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

Cintula, Petr; Noguera, C.


Television and Values: Implications for Education. (United States)

Contains a summary of the prevailing concerns about the impact of television on the formation of values in youth and some resultant implications for curriculum and instruction. The article examines preemption of active daily play, spectatorship, deemphasis of the complexity of life, lack of creativity, speedy conflict resolution, and violence. (CT)

Raffa, Jean Benedict



Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology—An Update  


Some engineers and scientists are either directly or indirectly involved with nanotechnology issues. Nanotechnology concerns dealing with environmental implications and regulatory compliance encompass practicing areas for these technical individuals. Areas of particular concern include current/proposed environmental regulations and procedures for quantifying both health risks and hazard risks. This article addresses both of these issues.

Louis Theodore; Leo Stander



Corporal Punishment: Legalities, Realities, and Implications. (United States)

Presents a quiz that will help readers determine the reliability of their own perceptions relating to corporal punishment in schools. Discusses U.S. Courts and corporal punishment, worldwide and nationwide legality, and the realities of corporal punishment in the United States. Discusses implications for what teachers can do to address corporal…

Hinchey, Patricia H.



People and Technology Today: Some Educational Implications (United States)

The present article approaches some of the educational implications borne by humanity with technological progress. We begin by pointing out significant data that classify what is considered relevant. Then, confronting the future is discussed by analyzing the attitudes necessary to promote the goals. Confronted with these challenges, three possible…

Rodriguez-Sedano, Alfredo; Paris, Ana Costa; Mut, Maite Dassoy



Creative Thought: Structure, Components, and Educational Implications. (United States)

Reviews studies on the cognitive mechanisms underlying creative thought and proposes a general model. This model holds that creative thought involves interactions among a number of distinct cognitive components. Some of the implications of this model for the design of effective educational programs are discussed. (Author/CR)

Mumford, Michael D.



Bare ?-? potential and implications on ?-matter properties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Double folding ? – ? potentials based on the density dependent n – n Gogny interactions are constrained to reproduce the l = 0 resonance in 8Be. Shallow potentials are obtained by successive supersymmetric transformations which eliminate the l = 0 Pauli forbidden states. Implication for the EOS of cold ?-matter are discussed. (author)


Neurotoxin Exposure and MMPI Forensic Implications. (United States)

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) has been widely used as an objective personality test, in addition to being used in forensic assessments, especially involving claims of physical or emotional damage. It now appears that questions must be raised concerning the MMPI's forensic implications given the advent of new disease…

Storm, Heidi A.


Implications of tritium in neutral beam injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neutral injectors for heating plasmas of D-T burning fusion reactors are subject to tritium contamination. This paper discusses relevant questions and problem areas pertinent to tritium environment, including calculations of tritium contaminations in different neutral injectors, gas handling and pumping systems, and implications on beam line components.

Kim, J; Stewart, L D



Cultural Implications of Human Resource Development. (United States)

A discussion of the cultural effects of economic and, by extension, human resource development in Southeast Asia looks at short- and long-term implications. It is suggested that in the short term, increased competition will affect distribution of wealth, which can promote materialism and corruption. The introduction of labor-saving technology may…

Hiranpruk, Chaiskran


Supervision and Motivational Theory: Some Implications. (United States)

Suggests useful implications for supervisors offered by motivational theories, including the importance of serving as a source of reinforcement for teachers and the necessity of helping the teacher make appropriate instructional choices and gather evidence on the effectiveness of those choices. (Author/JM)

Reyes, Donald J.



Pedagogical Implications of Concept of Word Research. (United States)

Three recent studies have focused upon prereading children's concepts of written language, what they think words are, and how they understand the concept of a word. These explorations of young children's early attempts to understand and produce writing have important implications for the preschool and primary classroom. R. D. Morris found that…

Gillet, Jean Wallace


Ethical Implications of Digital Imaging in Photojournalism. (United States)

Arguing that the news media are about to adopt digital imaging systems that will have far-reaching implications for the practice of journalism, this paper discusses how the news media is expected to adopt the new technology and explains why the marriage of journalism and digital imaging will create ethical issues with respect to photo manipulation…

Terry, Danal; Lasorsa, Dominic L.


Educational Implications of Microelectronics and Microprocessors. (United States)

This conference report explores microelectronic technology, its effect on educational methods and objectives, and its implications for educator responsibilities. Two main areas were considered: the significance of the likely impact of the large scale introduction of microprocessors and microelectronics on commercial and industrial processes, the…

Harris, N. D. C., Ed.


Psychological Issues Concerning Implication: Comments on "Psychology of Pragmatic Implication: Information Processing Between the Lines" by Harris and Monaco (United States)

Argues that certain distinctions drawn by philosophers and linguists concerning implication do not have behavioral consequences and, thus, are not appropriate constructs in a theory of the psychology of implication. The distinctions discussed are directly asserted versus implied meanings and logical versus pragmatic implications. (Editor)

Keenan, Janice M.



Learning and reconsolidation implicate different synaptic mechanisms. (United States)

Synaptic mechanisms underlying memory reconsolidation after retrieval are largely unknown. Here we report that synapses in projections to the lateral nucleus of the amygdala implicated in auditory fear conditioning, which are potentiated by learning, enter a labile state after memory reactivation, and must be restabilized through a postsynaptic mechanism implicating the mammalian target of rapamycin kinase-dependent signaling. Fear-conditioning-induced synaptic enhancements were primarily presynaptic in origin. Reconsolidation blockade with rapamycin, inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin kinase activity, suppressed synaptic potentiation in slices from fear-conditioned rats. Surprisingly, this reduction of synaptic efficacy was mediated by post- but not presynaptic mechanisms. These findings suggest that different plasticity rules may apply to the processes underlying the acquisition of original fear memory and postreactivational stabilization of fear-conditioning-induced synaptic enhancements mediating fear memory reconsolidation. PMID:23487762

Li, Yan; Meloni, Edward G; Carlezon, William A; Milad, Mohammed R; Pitman, Roger K; Nader, Karim; Bolshakov, Vadim Y



Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are perceived, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise. Keywords: ERP, Chinese Cultural Implications, Societal Culture, Strategy

Mukesh Srivastava



Organizational Structure: Dimensions, Determinants and Managerial Implication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examined the meaning, nature, forms, dimensions, determinants and managerial implication of organizational structure and its impacts on the organisation. The review revealed that the dimension of organisation structure generally consists of complexity, formalization and centralization, and that strategy, size, culture, technology, environment, people and the like determine the organisation’s structure. work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, centralization, decentralization and formalization are key elements to be considered in designing an effective organizational structure. In conclusion, the structure of an organisation has far-reaching implication on the organisation and its workforce. therefore, it was recommended among others that organisation should adopt a structure that enables it to maintain a competitive advantage in the industry it operates.

Ugbomhe, O. U.



The environmental implications of landfill gas control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper reviews the implications for landfill gas control of the Environmental Protection Bill in relation to proposed, existing and closed sites. If the Bill is enacted in its present form these changes will have far reaching implications on the waste management industry and especially those involved in landfill gas monitoring and control. The paper describes the requirements for the management of landfill gas both on and around landfill sites before, during and after the cessation of waste disposal operations. It describes the duties of Waste Regulation Authorities (WRAs) under the Bill in relation to landfill gas including their duties in relation to closed sites. The paper concludes that when the WRAs fulfill these duties the risk of further incidents occurring with landfill gas will be significantly reduced. (author)


Cosmological implications of grand unified theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These lectures, mainly devoted to the cosmological implications of GUTs, also include the essential ingredients of GUTs and some of their important applications to particle physics. Section 1 contains some basic points concerning the structure of the standard strong and electroweak interactions prior to grand unification. A detailed expose of GUTs is attempted in sect. 2, including their basci principles and their consequences for particle physics. The minimal, simplest GUT, SU5 is analysed in some detail and it will be used throughout these lectures as the GUT prototype. Finally, sect. 3 contains the most important cosmological implications of GUTs, including baryon number generation in the early Universe (in rather lengthy detail), dissipative processes in the very early Universe, grand unified monopoles, etc. (orig./HSI)


Mirror neurons: their implications for group psychotherapy. (United States)

Recently discovered mirror neurons in the motor cortex of the brain register the actions and intentions of both the organism and others in the environment. As such, they may play a significant role in social behavior and groups. This paper considers the potential implications of mirror neurons and related neural networks for group therapists, proposing that mirror neurons and mirror systems provide "hard-wired" support for the group therapist's belief in the centrality of relationships in the treatment process and exploring their value in accounting for group-as-a-whole phenomena. Mirror neurons further confirm the holistic, social nature of perception, action, and intention as distinct from a stimulus-response behaviorism. The implications of mirror neurons and mirroring processes for the group therapist role, interventions, and training are also discussed. PMID:21028974

Schermer, Victor L



Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study


Ambiguity and Volatility: Asset Pricing Implications  


Using a simple dynamic consumption-based asset pricing model, this paper explores the implications of a representative investor with smooth ambiguity averse preferences [Klibano¤, Marinacci and Mukerji, Econometrica (2005)] and provides a comparative analysis of risk aversion and ambiguity aversion. The perception of ambiguity is described by a hidden Markovian consumption growth process. The hidden states di¤er both for the mean and the volatility. We show that the ambiguity-averse investo...

Pataracchia, B.



Geometric Implications of the Naive Bayes Assumption  


A naive (or Idiot) Bayes network is a network with a single hypothesis node and several observations that are conditionally independent given the hypothesis. We recently surveyed a number of members of the UAI community and discovered a general lack of understanding of the implications of the Naive Bayes assumption on the kinds of problems that can be solved by these networks. It has long been recognized [Minsky 61] that if observations are binary, the decision surfaces in t...

Peot, Mark Alan



The Greek crisis: Causes and implications  


This paper presents and critically discusses the origins and causes of the Greek fiscal crisis and its implications for the euro currency as well as the SEE economies. In the aftermath of the 2007-2009 financial crisis the enormous increase in sovereign debt has emerged as an important negative outcome, since public debt was dramatically increased in an effort by the US and the European governments to reduce the accumulated growth of private debt in the years preceding the recent financ...

Vlamis Prodromos; Kouretas Georgios P.



Implications of Repo Markets for Central Banks (United States)

A report by the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) (reviewed in the March 7, 1997 Scout Report), Implications of Repo Markets for Central Banks, seeks to "enhance central banks' understanding of the economic and monetary policy role of repo markets." Three chapters examine how private market participants use repos for hedging and leverage purposes and focus on the use of repos by central banks as an information source and policy instrument.


Cosmological implications of Grand Unified Theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Having considered some basic points concerning the structure of the standard strong and electroweak interactions prior to grand unification, the basic principles and the consequences for particle physics of Grand Unified Theories (GUTS) are examined. The minimal, simplest GUT, SU(5), is analysed. Cosmological implications including, baryon number generation in the early Universe, dissipative processes in the early Universe, and grand unified monopoles are discussed. (U.K.)


Phenomenological Implications of the Topflavor Model  

CERN Document Server

We explore phenomenologies of the topflavour model for the LEP experiment at $m_{_Z}$ scale and the atomic parity violation (APV) experiment in the $C_s$ atoms at low energies. Implications of the model on the $Z$ peak data are studied in terms of the precision variables $\\epsilon_i$'s. We find that the LEP data give more stringent constraints on the model parameters than the APV data.

Lee, J C; Kim, J K; Lee, Jong Chul; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Jae Kwan



Endocannabinoids and Their Implications for Epilepsy  


This review covers the main features of a newly discovered intercellular signaling system in which endogenous ligands of the brain's cannabinoid receptors, or endocannabinoids, serve as retrograde messengers that enable a cell to control the strength of its own synaptic inputs. Endocannabinoids are released by bursts of action potentials, including events resembling interictal spikes, and probably by seizures as well. Activation of cannabinoid receptors has been implicated in neuroprotection ...

Alger, Bradley E.



Slim Disk: Viscosity Prescriptions and Observational Implications  


We examine the effects of the different viscosity prescriptions and the magnitude of the viscosity parameter, $\\alpha$, on the structure of the slim disk, and discuss the observational implications on accretion-flow into a stellar-mass black hole. For the range of $\\alpha = 10^{-2} \\sim 10^{0}$ we calculate the disk spectra and from spectral fitting we derive $\\Tin$, maximum temperature of the disk, $\\Rin$, the size of the region emitting blackbody radiation with $\\Tin$, and...

Watarai, Ken-ya; Mineshige, Shin



Civil implications of commercial nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following aspects are discussed; spent fuel transport by rail, routes and possible accidents; reactors, possible accidents and effects of radioactive releases to the environment; possible effects of sabotage and terrorist attacks; possible hazards from fuel reprocessing plants; radioactive wastes, inventories and possible effects of escape to environment; biological radiation effects; civil war effects and democratic freedoms; the miners' strike and its implications. (U.K.)


Handicaps associated with incontinence: implications for management.  


STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to explore the relationship between dementia, impairment of mobility, and incontinence and the implications for management. DESIGN--The study was a survey of a sample population drawn from a general practice register. SETTING--A large general practice serving the entire population of Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire, UK. PARTICIPANTS--Of 1329 persons aged 75 or over, 1203 (90%) took part in the survey. Of non-responders, refusers accounted for 5%, deaths 4%, and fai...

Mcgrother, C. W.; Jagger, C.; Clarke, M.; Castleden, C. M.



Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory



Epigenetics: molecular mechanisms and implications for disease.  


Epigenetics is rising to prominence in biology as a mechanism by which environmental factors have intermediate-term effects on gene expression without changing the underlying genetic sequence. This can occur through the selective methylation of DNA bases and modification of histones. There are wide-ranging implications for the gene-environment debate and epigenetic mechanisms are causing a reevaluation of many traditional concepts such as heritability. The reversible nature of epigenetics als...

Handel, Ae; Ebers, Gc; Ramagopalan, Sv



Implicative analysis of strategies in solving proportional and nonproportional problems  


The purpose of this study is to examine the implicative relationship among students’ strategies while solving proportional and nonproportional problems. We used the computer software CHIC to carry out an implicative statistical analysis of the strategies used in different types of problems. Our analysis showed that the use of some strategies was linked to characteristics of the problem, as the context and the type of relationship between numbers in the situation. The implicative analysis ge...

Ferna?ndez Verdu?, Ceneida; Llinares Ciscar, Salvador; Valls Gonza?lez, Julia



Transformation of University Organizations:Leadership and Managerial Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transformation of University Organizations:Leadership and Managerial Implications Cemil ULUKAN, Ph.D Anadolu UniversityOpen Education Faculty Eskisehir-TURKEYABSTRACT Technology and globalization are forcing higher education institutions to transform themselves. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding the leadership and managerial implications of recent developments for higher education. Reviewing unique characteristics and the fundamental changes shaping higher education, the paper examines the need for organizational transformation and the major managerial implications.




The Risk Implications of Multinational Enterprise  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – Multinational structure has been linked to operational flexibilities that can improve corporate adaptability and a knowledge-based view suggests that multinational resource diversity can facilitate responsive opportunities. The enhanced maneuverability from this can reduce earnings volatility and hence the corporate performance risk. But, the internationalization process may also require irreversible investments that increase corporate exposures and leave the risk implications of multinational enterprize somewhat ambiguous. Hence, the purpose of the paper is to present an empirical study of the implied relationships between the degree of multinationality and various risk measures including downside risk, upside potential, and performance risk. Design/methodology/approach – The paper provides a brief literature review, develops hypotheses, and tests them in two-stage least square regressions on archival data to control for pre-selection biases. Findings – The analyses indicate that multinationality is associated with lower downside risk as well as higher upside potential and leads to reduced performance risk. The study finds no trace of diminishing effects from higher degrees of multinationality. Research limitations/implications – The empirical study uses a sample of large US-based corporations, which could affect the generalizability of results. However, this is consistent with other studies and eases comparability of findings. Practical implications – The findings add to the ongoing debate about the risk effects of a multinational corporate structure and confirms that a diverse multinational presence is associated with positive risk outcomes. Originality/value – The paper complements a limited number of studies with equivocal results and adopts alternative risk outcome measures. The study extends the industry scope by introducing a comprehensive sample of firms operating in different manufacturing and service businesses.

Andersen, Torben Juul



Fundamental environmental balance and its implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the article there are described basic relations and balances between the economics and environment as well as implications resulting from the basic laws of thermodynamics. The first one is the famous law about conversation of matter and second one is popularly known as the entropy law. From viewpoint of the next development of global society the laws obtain a great importance. They show that reduction of overall volume of waste and emissions is the most straight and best way to the environment protection and the sustainable development. (authors)


Modeling Thermal Dust Emission and Implications (United States)

An accurate model of thermal dust emission at the far-infrared and millimeter wavelengths is important for studying the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and for understanding the cycling of matter and energy between stars and the interstellar medium. I will present results of fitting all-sky one-component dust models with fixed or variable emissivity spectral index to the 210-channel dust spectra from the COBE-FIRAS, the 100 - 240 ?m maps from the COBE-DIRBE, and the 94 GHz dust map from the WMAP. I will also discuss the implications of the analysis on understanding astrophysical processes and the physical properties of dust grains.

Liang, Zhuohan



Implications of global warming for African climate  


A 2°C increase in global mean temperature (?Tg) has been widely adopted as a benchmark for dangerous climate change. However, there has been a lack of research into the implications of 2°C, or any other degree of warming, for Africa. In this thesis changes in African temperature and precipitation associated with 1°C, 2°C, 3°C, 4°C, and beyond are investigated for the first time, using output from 350 climate model experiments: a collection of simulations from international modelling ce...

James, Rachel Anne; Washington, Richard



Some Implications of Human-Structure Interaction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

On structures, humans may be active which may cause structural vibrations as human activity can excite structural vibration modes. However, humans may also be passive (sitting or standing on the structure). The paper addresses this subject and explores the implications of having passive humans present on the structure. It is not conventional to model the presence of passive humans when predicting structural response, but nevertheless it is instructive to investigate which effect they do in fact have on structural behavior and modal characteristics of structures. Such investigations are made in the present paper.

Pedersen, Lars



Corporate Language and Implications for Organizational Learning  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper explores empirically implications of language use for MNCs’ learning from subsidiaries. Drawing on sociolinguistic literature, the article argues that while employing a single corporate language facilitates quick and direct communication of explicit knowledge, such a language design is insufficient to leverage contextually specific and culturally embedded knowledge. This indicates the need for disentangling language and culture. The paper further argues for the need to go beyond national language to consider how prevailing kinds of corporate talk may curb headquarters potential for learning from cultural and contextual diversity.

ZØlner, Mette



Implications of LHCb measurements and future prospects  


During 2011 the LHCb experiment at CERN collected 1.0 fb-1 of sqrt{s} = 7 TeV pp collisions. Due to the large heavy quark production cross-sections, these data provide unprecedented samples of heavy flavoured hadrons. The first results from LHCb have made a significant impact on the flavour physics landscape and have definitively proved the concept of a dedicated experiment in the forward region at a hadron collider. This document discusses the implications of these first me...

Collaboration, L.; Bharucha, A.; Bigi, Ii; Bobeth, C.; Bobrowski, M.; Brod, J.; Buras, Aj; Davies, Cth; Datta, A.; Delaunay, C.; Descotes-genon, S.; Ellis, J.; Feldmann, T.; Fleischer, R.; Gedalia, O.



Ionization potentials some variations, implications and applications  

CERN Document Server

Ionization Potentials: Some Variations, Implications and Applications covers several aspects of ionization potential that is a highly significant parameter in controlling the properties of electric discharge. Comprised of 17 chapters, the book covers topic relevant to ionization potentials, such as properties, concepts, and applications, in order to understand and fully comprehend all aspects of ionization potential. The opening chapter is a review of ionization potentials and a discussion of trends and features. The succeeding chapters then tackle complex topics such as the s and p electrons;

Ahrens, L H



Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications. (United States)

Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed. PMID:20971410

Hornor, Gail



Preeclampsia: pathophysiology and implications for care. (United States)

Nurses are increasingly encountering pregnant/postpartum women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, of which preeclampsia is one of the most common. The Joint Commission published a Sentinel Event Alert in 2010 on prevention of maternal death. This report notes that one of the 5 leading causes of pregnancy-related mortality between 1991 and 1997 was "hypertensive disorder." Preeclampsia presents significant risk to the health of the mother and the fetus. Clearly, nurses must understand the pathophysiology, assessment, management, recurrence risk, and long-term implications of preeclampsia to participate fully in a management plan that promotes safe patient care. PMID:21825914

Townsend, Nancy S; Drummond, Susan B



Micro CHP - implications - for energy companies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deregulation and private ownership is having a marked effect on the energy industry in the UK: many companies will have to make radical changes if they are to survive. Since cost-cutting cannot go on indefinitely, it will be technology to which companies must turn if they are to hold a competitive position and here it is suggested that micro-CHP may be the answer. A comparison of costs and technical implications for various types of generating plant is given. The paper is presented under the sub-headings of (i) business opportunity; (ii) business threat; and (iii) commercial viability of micro-CHP


Surface morphology implications on Langmuir probe measurements (United States)

Langmuir probes are extensively employed to study the plasmas in space and laboratory environments. Successful measurements require a comprehensive modeling of both the plasma environment and the probe conditions in the form of current collection models. In this thesis, the surface morphology implications on the probe current collection are investigated. This problem is applied and solved in the context of a CubeSat regime. The first problem that is investigated is the consequence of surface structural variability on the current measurements. A new model for dealing with non-uniformity of the probe surface structure is developed in this paper. This model is applied to analyze the Langmuir probe data from a sounding rocket mission that was subjected to surface structural non-homogeneities. This model would be particularly useful for CubeSat platforms where elaborate probe design procedures are not feasible. The second problem that is investigated is the surface area implications on Langmuir probe measurements. It has been established that surface area ratio of the spacecraft to that of the probe needs to be sufficiently large to make successful plasma measurements. CubeSats would therefore pose a challenge for employing Langmuir-type instruments to study the space plasma. We inspect the feasibility of making plasma measurements using Langmuir probes subjected to CubeSat area constraints. This analysis is done for a forthcoming Utah State University (USU)/Space Dynamics Lab (SDL) CubeSat mission.

Suresh, Padmashri



Forensic implications: adolescent sexting and cyberbullying. (United States)

Adolescence is marked by establishing a sense of identity, core values, a sense of one's relationship to the outside world and heightened peer relationships. In addition, there is also risk taking, impulsivity, self exploration and dramatic increase in sexuality. The dramatic increase in the use of cell phones and the Internet has additional social implications of sexting and cyberbullying. Sexting refers to the practice of sending sexually explicit material including language or images to another person's cell phone. Cyberbullying refers to the use of this technology to socially exclude, threaten, insult or shame another person. Studies of cell phone use in the 21st century report well over 50% of adolescents use them and that text messaging is the communication mode of choice. Studies also show a significant percentage of adolescents send and receive sex messaging, both text and images. This paper will review this expanding literature. Various motivations for sexting will also be reviewed. This new technology presents many dangers for adolescents. The legal implications are extensive and psychiatrists may play an important role in evaluation of some of these adolescents in the legal context. This paper will also make suggestions on future remedies and preventative actions. PMID:24129662

Korenis, Panagiota; Billick, Stephen Bates



Neuroscience, “Giftedness” and Implications for Curriculum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article briefly reviews a group of disciplines belonging to neuroscience and discusses potential educational implications for children and adolescents labeled as gifted. A short structural and functional introduction highlights the main points of the human nervous system which works as a background to bridge the gap between neuroscience, “giftedness” and creativity. Some basic evolutionary and biological characteristics findings are speculated to be in the origin of neural circuits underlying innate capacities related to learning and memory. It is discussed how information is codified in brain regions and the possible ways gifted students make cognitive links and analogies particularly on mathematical reasoning. Developmental stages and neural plasticity are analyzed and which is the role played by genetics connected to environmental experiences which may be on the gist of “giftedness”. Identification methods are listed to evaluate presumed gifted children and adolescents. A chart compares characteristics peculiar to prodigies and savant children. A list of suggested questions are presented for further research which may bring insights how the brain process information having in mind educational implications with examples for biology teaching.

Amauri Betini Bartoszeck



Public health implications of altered puberty timing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Changes in puberty timing have implications for the treatment of individual children, for the risk of later adult disease, and for chemical testing and risk assessment for the population. Children with early puberty are at a risk for accelerated skeletal maturation and short adult height, early sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated with an increased risk for testicular cancer according to several, but not all, epidemiologic studies. Girls and, possibly, boys who exhibit premature adrenarche are at a higher risk for developing features of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in adulthood. Altered timing of puberty also has implications for behavioral disorders. For example, an early maturation is associated witha greater incidence of conduct and behavior disorders during adolescence. Finally, altered puberty timing is considered an adverse effect in reproductive toxicity risk assessment for chemicals. Recent US legislation has mandated improved chemical testing approaches for protecting children's health and screening for endocrine-disrupting agents, which has led to changes in the US Environmental Protection Agency's risk assessment and toxicity testing guidelines to include puberty-related assessments and to the validation of pubertal male and female rat assays for endocrine screening Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2

Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.



Abiding IPRs in Technological Implications for Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focal objective of this article is to analyze the role of intellectual property rights in technological implications within a general context. The performance of the IPRs system and its interaction with national innovation system with some degrees of success has also been highlighted. Major encounter over subsequently decade will be to identify policies and solutions that would permit marketplace economy to flourish in the framework of this intellectual property insurrection. There has been a lot of dispute on the role of intellectual property protection regime specially in fostering innovation, technology development of a country. IPRs are expected to emboli the innovation, by rewarding inventor with a grant of domination rights over the mercantile exploitation for a specified time period. This article tries to attempts to review the role of the IPR regime in technological development and also have suggested some policy implications for country like Pakistan and some reflecting lessons for other developing countries with similar settings and common characteristics. Keywords -

Murtaza Hussain Shaikh A



Millisecond dynamics in the allosteric enzyme imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) from Thermotoga maritima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IGPS is a 51 kDa heterodimeric enzyme comprised of two proteins, HisH and HisF, that catalyze the hydrolysis of glutamine to produce NH3 in the HisH active site and the cyclization of ammonia with N'- [(5'-phosphoribulosyl)formimino] -5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribonucleotide (PRFAR) in HisF to produce imidazole glycerol phosphate (IGP) and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide (AICAR). Binding of PRFAR and IGP stimulates glutaminase activity in the HisH enzyme over 5,000 and 100-fold, respectively, despite the active sites being >25 A apart. The details of this long-range protein communication process were investigated by solution NMR spectroscopy and CPMG relaxation dispersion experiments. Formation of the heterodimer enzyme results in a reduction in millisecond motions in HisF that extend throughout the protein. Binding of lGP results in an increase in protein-wide millisecond dynamics evidenced as severe NMR line broadening and elevated Rex values. Together, these data demonstrate a grouping of flexible residues that link the HisF active site with the protein interface to which HisH binds and provide a model for the path of communication between the IGPS active sites


Millisecond dynamics in the allosteric enzyme imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) from Thermotoga maritima  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IGPS is a 51 kDa heterodimeric enzyme comprised of two proteins, HisH and HisF, that catalyze the hydrolysis of glutamine to produce NH{sub 3} in the HisH active site and the cyclization of ammonia with N'- [(5'-phosphoribulosyl)formimino] -5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribonucleotide (PRFAR) in HisF to produce imidazole glycerol phosphate (IGP) and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide (AICAR). Binding of PRFAR and IGP stimulates glutaminase activity in the HisH enzyme over 5,000 and 100-fold, respectively, despite the active sites being >25 A apart. The details of this long-range protein communication process were investigated by solution NMR spectroscopy and CPMG relaxation dispersion experiments. Formation of the heterodimer enzyme results in a reduction in millisecond motions in HisF that extend throughout the protein. Binding of lGP results in an increase in protein-wide millisecond dynamics evidenced as severe NMR line broadening and elevated R{sub ex} values. Together, these data demonstrate a grouping of flexible residues that link the HisF active site with the protein interface to which HisH binds and provide a model for the path of communication between the IGPS active sites.

Lipchock, James; Loria, J. Patrick [Yale University, Department of Chemistry (United States)], E-mail:



The role of Spartina maritima and Sarcocornia fruticosa on trace metals retention in Ria Formosa, Portugal  


Over the last years, phytoremediation has become an increasingly recognized pathway for contaminant removal from water and shallow soils. Assessing the phytoremediation potential of wetlands is complex due to variable conditions of hydrology, soil/sediment types, plant species diversity, growing season and water chemistry. Physico-chemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating contaminants. Saltmarsh plants can sequestrate and inherently tolerate high metal c...

Moreira Da Silva, M.; Duarte, Duarte; Isidoro, Jorge; Chi?charo, Lui?s



Structural Insights into the Mechanism of the PLP Synthase Holoenzyme from Thermotoga maritima†,‡  


Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is the biologically active form of vitamin B6 and is an important cofactor for several of the enzymes involved in the metabolism of amine-containing natural products such as amino acids and amino-sugars. The PLP synthase holoenzyme consists of two subunits: YaaD catalyzes the condensation of ribulose 5-phosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and ammonia and YaaE catalyzes the production of ammonia from glutamine. Here we describe the structure of the PLP synthase co...

Zein, Fairuz; Zhang, Yan; Kang, You-na; Burns, Kristin; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E.



Education System Reform in China after 1978: Some Practical Implications (United States)

Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of education system reform in China since 1978, and its practical implications. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from literature review and interview. An overview of education system reform and its practical implications was found through data analysis. Findings: There has been two…

Sun, Miantao



False or Recovered Memories?: Legal and Ethical Implications for Therapists. (United States)

Places the development of the debate over false or recovered memories in its social and historical context. Identifies some of the ethical and legal implications of this area of work for therapists by using the Drama Triangle. Outlines ethical dilemmas for therapists and some of the implications for therapeutic practice. (RJM)

Jenkins, Peter



Waste management implications of concentrating slimes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The anticipated increase in demand for sand-size tailings from the uranium industry suggests that the fine-grained or 'slime' fraction will require special attention for disposal. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) required information on the behaviour and environmental significance of the fine-grained tailings fraction in disposal facilities. Beak Consultants and Golder Associates were contracted to review the significant characteristics of slimes disposal and prepare a report on the physical and chemical characteristics of fine-grained tailings (Phase 1). This report (Phase 2) presents a summary of disposal and management practices for slimes and outlines potential concerns related to these practices. The report also presents an approach to disposal planning and the implications of available and potential management techniques. Experience with the disposal of uranium slimes is scarce and, therefore, relevant information was borrowed from the other mining sectors to predict the consequences of various disposal scenarios


Implications of international protocols on energy markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will have significant medium and long term implications for the economies of Annex B and non-Annex B countries. It is shown that the adoption of a system of internationally tradable emission quotas would result in three 'dividends' compared with an outcome where Article 17 trading - relating to emissions trading - is prohibited. First, trading would improve the environmental effectiveness of the protocol because the extent of carbon dioxide equivalent leakage would be reduced. Second, the overall cost of meeting the agreed Annex B targets would be reduced thus leading to greater certainty that the protocol will be implemented in full. Third, a disparity in the differential impacts of Annex B abatement policies on different developing countries would be reduced under emissions trading, leading to a more equitable outcome for these countries


Exploring Forensic Implications of the Fusion Drive  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores the forensic implications of Apple's Fusion Drive. The Fusion Drive is an example of auto-tiered storage. It uses a combination of a flash drive and a magnetic drive. Data is moved between the drives automatically to maximize system performance. This is different from traditional caches because data is moved and not simply copied. The research included understanding the drive structure, populating the drive, and then accessing data in a controlled setting to observe data migration strategies. It was observed that all the data is first written to the flash drive with 4 GB of free space always maintained. If data on the magnetic drive is frequently accessed, it is promoted to the flash drive while demoting other information. Data is moved at a block-level and not a file-level. The Fusion Drive didn't alter the timestamps of files with data migration.

Shruti Gupta



Glycosylation of uroplakins. Implications for bladder physiopathology. (United States)

Urothelium, a specialized epithelium, covers the urinary tract and act not only as a barrier separating its light from the surrounding tissues, but fulfills an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of the urothelial tract and well-being of the whole organism. Proper function of urothelium is dependent on the precise assemble of highly specialized glycoproteins called uroplakins, the end products and differentiation markers of the urothelial cells. Glycosylation changes in uroplakins correlate with and might reflect progressive stages of pathological conditions of the urothelium such as cancer, urinary tract infections, interstitial cystitis and others. In this review we focus on sugar components of uroplakins, their emerging role in urothelial biology and disease implications. The advances in our understanding of uroplakins changes in glycan moieties composition, structure, assembly and expression of their glycovariants could potentially lead to the development of targeted therapies and discoveries of novel urine and plasma markers for the benefit of patients with urinary tract diseases. PMID:25394961

K?tnik-Prastowska, Iwona; Lis, Jolanta; Matejuk, Agata



Environmental implications of China's WTO accession  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China's accession to the WTO in 2001 completed the country's entry into the global economy. We investigate environmental implications of WTO-accession. There are several hypotheses in this area: The scale hypothesis says that production is scaled up and in turn, pollution increases. The composition hypothesis says that composition of industries changes and pollution reflects the new composition. The technique hypothesis says that production methods become cleaner and pollution decreases. We analyze the relative strength of the hypotheses by means of an environmental CGE-model, and in the case of air pollution find support for a composition effect in favor of clean industries. Thanks to the composition effect, emissions to air of greenhouse gases fall. Emissions of particles and SO2 also fall, but emissions of NOx and VOC rise. Since particle and SO2-emissions fall we estimate that public health improves (author)


Implications of LHCb measurements and future prospects (United States)

During 2011 the LHCb experiment at CERN collected 1.0 fb-1 of ?{s} = 7 TeV pp collisions. Due to the large heavy quark production cross-sections, these data provide unprecedented samples of heavy flavoured hadrons. The first results from LHCb have made a significant impact on the flavour physics landscape and have definitively proved the concept of a dedicated experiment in the forward region at a hadron collider. This document discusses the implications of these first measurements on classes of extensions to the Standard Model, bearing in mind the interplay with the results of searches for on-shell production of new particles at ATLAS and CMS. The physics potential of an upgrade to the LHCb detector, which would allow an order of magnitude more data to be collected, is emphasised.

Bharucha, A.; Bigi, I. I.; Bobeth, C.; Bobrowski, M.; Brod, J.; Buras, A. J.; Davies, C. T. H.; Datta, A.; Delaunay, C.; Descotes-Genon, S.; Ellis, J.; Feldmann, T.; Fleischer, R.; Gedalia, O.; Girrbach, J.; Guadagnoli, D.; Hiller, G.; Hochberg, Y.; Hurth, T.; Isidori, G.; Jäger, S.; Jung, M.; Kagan, A.; Kamenik, J. F.; Lenz, A.; Ligeti, Z.; London, D.; Mahmoudi, F.; Matias, J.; Nandi, S.; Nir, Y.; Paradisi, P.; Perez, G.; Petrov, A. A.; Rattazzi, R.; Sharpe, S. R.; Silvestrini, L.; Soni, A.; Straub, D. M.; van Dyk, D.; Virto, J.; Wang, Y.-M.; Weiler, A.; Zupan, J.; Aaij, R.; Abellan Beteta, C.; Adametz, A.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Anelli, M.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Band, H.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Bates, A.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bediaga, I.; Beigbeder-Beau, C.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benayoun, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernard, F.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; van Beveren, V.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blanks, C.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bobrov, A.; Bocci, V.; Bochin, B.; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Bogdanova, G.; Bonaccorsi, E.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Brarda, L.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Büchler-Germann, A.; Burducea, I.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cacérès, T.; Cachemiche, J.-P.; Cadeddu, S.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casajus Ramo, A.; Casse, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Ceelie, L.; Chadaj, B.; Chanal, H.; Charles, M.; Charlet, D.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chebbi, M.; Chen, P.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciambrone, P.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Corajod, B.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; D'Antone, I.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Groen, P.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Decreuse, G.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Buono, L.; Deplano, C.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dickens, J.; Dijkstra, H.; Diniz Batista, P.; Dogaru, M.; Domingo Bonal, F.; Domke, M.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Drancourt, C.; Duarte, O.; Dumps, R.; Dupertuis, F.; Duval, P.-Y.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Elsby, D.; Evangelisti, F.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Fave, V.; Felici, G.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Föhr, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Fournier, C.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frei, R.; Frosini, M.; Fuchs, H.; Furcas, S.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Gets, S.; Ghez, Ph.; Giachero, A.; Gibson, V.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golovtsov, V.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gong, G.; Gong, H.; Gordon, H.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Gromov, V.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Guzik, Z.; Gys, T.; Hachon, F.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; van der Heijden, B.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hicks, E.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hofmann, W.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Ilten, P.; Imong, J.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jamet, O.; Jans, E.



Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter (United States)

We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has shown that the application of shear not only accelerates the transitions to more stable polymorphs, but also causes orientation of the crystallites[1]. The implications of orientation on the structures formed under conditions of shear and cooling will be described using x-ray diffraction and mechanical measurements. 1 G. Mazzanti, S. E. Guthrie, E. B. Sirota et al., Crystal Growth & Design 3 (5), 721 (2003).

Guthrie, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro; Idziak, Stefan H. J.



Implications of the Human Genome Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Human Genome Project (HGP), launched in 1991, aims to map and sequence the human genome by 2006. During the fifteen-year life of the project, it is projected that $3 billion in federal funds will be allocated to it. The ultimate aims of spending this money are to analyze the structure of human DNA, to identify all human genes, to recognize the functions of those genes, and to prepare for the biology and medicine of the twenty-first century. The following summary examines some of the implications of the program, concentrating on its scientific import and on the ethical and social problems that it raises. Its aim is to expose principles that might be used in applying the information which the HGP will generate. There is no attempt here to translate the principles into detailed proposals for legislation. Arguments and discussion can be found in the full report, but, like this summary, that report does not contain any legislative proposals.

Kitcher, P.



Implications of inherent safe nuclear power system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The safety of present day nuclear power reactors and research reactors depends on a combination of design features of passive and active systems, and the alert judgement of their operators. A few inherently safe designs of nuclear reactors for power plants are currently under development. In these designs, the passive systems are emphasized, and the active systems are minimized. Also efforts are made to eliminate the potential for human failures that initiate the series of accidents. If a major system fails in these designs, the core is flooded automatically with coolants that flow by gravity, not by mechanical pumps or electromagnetic actuators. Depending on the choice of the coolants--water, liquid metal and helium gas--there are three principal types of inherently safe reactors. In this paper, these inherently safe reactor designs are reviewed and their implications are discussed. Further, future perspectives of their acceptance by nuclear industries are discussed. (author)


Rumen bypass nutrients: Manipulation and implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feeds available for ruminants in developing countries are either agro-industrial by-products or specially grown forage crops. Many of these feeds are low in protein and require supplementation with non-protein N (NPN) to maintain efficient rumen function and digestibility. The principles for utilizing high energy, low protein feeds by ruminants are discussed in relation to the supply of NPN, the establishment of efficient rumen function, maximizing feed intake by means of supplements, and increasing total energy and protein intake by using supplements which bypass the rumen. To illustrate it the application of these principles to feeding systems based on molasses, chopped whole sugar cane and derinded sugar cane is discussed. The implications of the principles in increasing the feeding value of straw are also discussed. (author)


Theoretical implications of wide binary observations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The theoretical implications of the recent Latham, et al. (1984) data on wide binaries are examined. Using a technique for comparing wide binary observations with theoretical semimajor axis distributions, it is concluded that power-law models for the underlying distribution are consistent with observations, implying no sharp cutoffs in the semimajor axis distribution. Repeating the analysis for simple evolutionary models, it is found that the available data do not yet significantly limit the mass of dark matter particles. The detection of six wide binaries by Latham et al. (1984) would require an uncomfortably large local density of wide binaries (semimajor axes of at least about 0.001 pc) for a broad range of theoretical models. The data suggest that wide binaries are predominantly made of F5-K5 stars and that a major fraction of all F5-K5 stars are in wide binaries. 16 references


Implications of conformal invariance in momentum space  

CERN Document Server

We present a comprehensive analysis of the implications of conformal invariance for 3-point functions of the stress-energy tensor, conserved currents and scalar operators in general dimension and in momentum space. Our starting point is a novel and very effective decomposition of tensor correlators which reduces their computation to that of a number of scalar form factors. For example, the most general 3-point function of a conserved and traceless stress-energy tensor is determined by only five form factors. Dilatations and special conformal Ward identities then impose additional conditions on these form factors. The special conformal Ward identities become a set of first and second order differential equations, whose general solution is given in terms of integrals involving a product of three Bessel functions (`triple-K integrals'). All in all, the correlators are completely determined up to a number of constants, in agreement with well-known position space results. We develop systematic methods for explicit...

Bzowski, Adam; Skenderis, Kostas



Projections of energy requirements and their implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject is covered in sections, entitled as shown. Numerical data are indicated in parenthesis. The record of nuclear power forecasting (estimates of the growth of world nuclear power, penetration of the electric power market by nuclear power); brief review of energy forecasting techniques and problems; some views of future world energy demand (estimates of world primary energy requirements); possible allocations of energy resources to needs (allocation of resources (oil, oil from tar sands, shale, natural gas, coal, coal to gasification, hydroelectricity, renewable resources, nuclear) to the world's primary energy needs in the year 2000); observations on the adequacy of energy resources; implications for nuclear energy (postulated growth of world nuclear power, annual fuel cycle requirements of the world, annual uranium requirements of the world). (U.K.)


Persuasive Recommender Systems Conceptual Background and Implications  

CERN Document Server

Whether users are likely to accept the recommendations provided by a recommender system is of utmost importance to system designers and the marketers who implement them. By conceptualizing the advice seeking and giving relationship as a fundamentally social process, important avenues for understanding the persuasiveness of recommender systems open up. Specifically, research regarding influential factors in advice seeking relationships, which is abundant in the context of human-human relationships, can provide an important framework for identifying potential influence factors in recommender system context. This book reviews the existing literature on the factors in advice seeking relationships in the context of human-human, human-computer, and human-recommender system interactions. It concludes that many social cues that have been identified as influential in other contexts have yet to be implemented and tested with respect to recommender systems. Implications for recommender system research and design are dis...

Yoo, Kyung-Hyan; Zanker, Markus



Risk Implications of Energy Policy Instruments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In many countries in Europe and the rest of the world, electricity systems are on the verge of a new era: they are transforming from begin CO2-intensive and centralised towards becoming sustainable and more integrated. The role of policy makers in this transition is evident: ambitious targets of abandoning the use of fossil fuels and increasing the use of renewable energy sources (RES) need to become reality through respective investments in new technologies. Understanding the effects of energy policy and support instruments on investments, especially in terms of risks, is crucial for developing an adequate policy framework in energy systems with high shares of renewable energies. This dissertation contributes to the research area of RES policy support. With a special focus on risk implications of policy, the economic consequences of different RES support instruments are investigated, both from an investor's perspective and from a societal point of view. This dissertation assesses energy policy and especially renewable support instruments with regard to their differences in investment incentives, effectiveness of deploying renewable technologies, cost-efficiency (in terms of required support levels) and welfare economic effects. Focus lies on policy incentives for electricity generation from renewable energies that have significant influence on the risk profile of investments (such as renewable quota systems and fixed feed-in tariffs). The consequences of different policy portfolios are evaluated. We show, both qualitatively and quantitatively, that policy makers cannot neglect risk implications when designing RES support instruments without compromising either on effectiveness or cost-efficiency of energy policy. The central research questions are: how can risk implications of RES policy instruments be integrated into policy design, so that the policies provide adequate investment incentives? And can the consideration of such risk implications in policy design make overall energy policy more successful? These questions are answered in seven research papers (four journal papers, two conference papers and a working paper), based on a combination of micro-economic and policy analysis. Financial theory is used for the quantitative analysis of investment problems under uncertainty, including mean-variance portfolio theory, real option analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and time series analysis of the underlying data. Modelling of stochastic price processes plays an important role in the analysis. Using concrete cases for offshore wind in Denmark and Germany, we show that feed-in premiums structurally require higher support levels than feed-in tariffs due to the higher risk exposure. We quantify this effect for several cases, and obtain differences of 4.3-10 EUR/MWh, corresponding to up to 40% of the support payments in particular cases. Lower risk exposure under feed-in tariffs also leads to faster deployment and in some situations smaller project sizes. The results for tradable green certificate schemes are more ambiguous, depending on the characteristics of the underlying stochastic processes. We also show that policies that reduce risk for investors can trigger more successful energy transitions, if certain conditions are fulfilled and policy safeguards are put in place for later phases of the development. Overall, this dissertation contributes with model development in the area of support scheme analysis, using several innovative approaches for partial models that produce easily and quickly applicable results. Thus, tools are provided that help in the design of RES support policies, e.g. when deciding between support instruments and when determining adequate support levels.

Kitzing, Lena



Uranium ore processing and environmental implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) was established in 1967 for mining and processing of uranium ores. UCIL started operation with mine and mill at Jaduguda and subsequently opened two more mines and expanded mill for processing additional ore. As uranium is radioactive material, control and impact of radioactivity need special attention apart from other aspects to protect the environment. This paper gives a brief description of processing of uranium ore at Jaduguda employing acid leaching for production of uranium concentrate as magnesium diuranate (Yellow Cake) and environmental implications due to the operations. The paper deals with treatment and disposal of waste, surveillance of different streams, areas and environment, radiological hazards because of radon and radioactivity. The result of measurements of aquatic system and environment has been discussed which shows that even after more than 25 years of operation, the impact on environment is near negligible. No adverse effect has been found on the health of employees, their family and local inhabitants. (author)


Destination image: Origins, Developments and Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the last few decades, tourism has become one of the main sectors of the global economy, not only because of its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP of different countries, but also because of the employment it generates. Since 2009, however, the results of tourism have been severely affected by the economic and financial crisis and it is now essential to analyze the key elements of tourist consumer behavior. In this context, the image that a destination transmits to the market becomes one of the elements which influence tourists the most when choosing a tourist destination. The authors therefore aim to identify the main elements that characterize the image of a tourist destination, as well as their implications for the management of tourist destinations.

Sérgio Dominique Ferreira Lopes



Gaming Goes Mobile: Issues and Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A recent report by the telecommunications research firm Analysys predicts that mobile games will replace ringtones, logos and other personalisation services as one of the key drivers of the mobile market. Despite the rapid growth of the mobile gaming market, there appears to have been little critical analysis of this phenomenon. The paper aims to investigate the industrial and social implications of mobile gaming, by bringing together some of the current research on both mobile communications and computer games. Beginning with a broad overview of the major stakeholders in the market, the paper examines how mobile gaming functions as a vehicle for convergence, bringing together previously disparate industries around a common form of content. It also examines the regulatory complexities that arise when gaming becomes mobile, and in particular how the rise of technologies like location-based services might impact on issues such as privacy.

Finn, Mark



Nursing implications for Hepatic arterial perfusion scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nurses working in Nuclear Medicine assist in Hepatic Artery Catheter (HAC) perfusion studies. This scan is not widely performed in Australia, the St George hospital for example performs approximately five per year. The purpose of this article is firstly to review the indications and rationale of HAC patency studies. Secondly, this article will stress the clinical implications for the Nuclear Medicine Nurse during this study. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of patient education during the procedure. A brief overview of hepatic anatomy and the radiopharmaceuticals administered during the scan is discussed. Finally, a step by step protocol is presented to show how the perfusion/ shunt study is performed. Copyright (1999) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc


Hyperspectral forest monitoring and imaging implications (United States)

The forest biome is vital to the health of the earth. Canada and the United States have a combined forest area of 4.68 Mkm2. The monitoring of these forest resources has become increasingly complex. Hyperspectral remote sensing can provide a wealth of improved information products to land managers to make more informed decisions. Research in this area has demonstrated that hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to create more accurate products for forest inventory (major forest species), forest health, foliar biochemistry, biomass, and aboveground carbon. Operationally there is a requirement for a mix of airborne and satellite approaches. This paper surveys some methods and results in hyperspectral sensing of forests and discusses the implications for space initiatives with hyperspectral sensing

Goodenough, David G.; Bannon, David



Interstellar Turbulence II: Implications and Effects  

CERN Document Server

Interstellar turbulence has implications for the dispersal and mixing of the elements, cloud chemistry, cosmic ray scattering, and radio wave propagation through the ionized medium. This review discusses the observations and theory of these effects. Metallicity fluctuations are summarized, and the theory of turbulent transport of passive tracers is reviewed. Modeling methods, turbulent concentration of dust grains, and the turbulent washout of radial abundance gradients are discussed. Interstellar chemistry is affected by turbulent transport of various species between environments with different physical properties and by turbulent heating in shocks, vortical dissipation regions, and local regions of enhanced ambipolar diffusion. Cosmic rays are scattered and accelerated in turbulent magnetic waves and shocks, and they generate turbulence on the scale of their gyroradii. Radio wave scintillation is an important diagnostic for small scale turbulence in the ionized medium, giving information about the power spe...

Scalo, J



Heat Shock Proteins and their clinical Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge of the physiological role of heat shock proteins is currently limited; however better understanding of their function and thereby the acquisition of the capacity to harness their power might lead to their use as therapeutic agents and revolutionize clinical practice in a number of areas. Future work is needed to translate the experimental data on the capacity of heat shock proteins to induce tumor protection and immunity to infectious agents into the clinical environment. Approach to cancer vaccine is based on the role of HSP in the presentation of antigens. In several infections and especially autoimmune diseases, the implications of immune responses against HSP are still not properly or fully understood. HSP have clinical significance in conditions such as cardiac hypertrophy, vascular wall injury, cardiac surgery, ischemic preconditioning and ageing. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000: 558-560

M. M. Pathan


Implications of new generations on neutrino masses  

CERN Document Server

We explore the possible implications that new families, that are being searched for at the LHC, would have on neutrino masses. In particular, we have explored the possibility that the smallness of the observed neutrino masses is naturally understood in a modified version of the Standard Model (SM) with complete extra generations of fermions, i.e., that have right-handed neutrinos, in which neutrino masses are generated at two loops. With one extra family it is not possible to fit the observed spectrum of masses and mixings. However, the radiative mass generated provides an important constraint in these kind of models, so the neutrino masses do not exceed their cosmological bound. Within the context of two extra families, we analyse the allowed parameter space and the possible phenomenological signals. Contribution to NUFACT 11, XIIIth International Workshop on Neutrino Factories, Super beams and Beta beams, 1-6 August 2011, CERN and University of Geneva (Submitted to IOP conference series).

Aparici, A; Rius, N; Santamaria, A



Dialectics of mindfulness: implications for western medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Mindfulness as a clinical and nonclinical intervention for a variety of symptoms has recently received a substantial amount of interest. Although the application of mindfulness appears straightforward and its effectiveness is well supported, the concept may easily be misunderstood. This misunderstanding may severely limit the benefit of mindfulness-based interventions. It is therefore necessary to understand that the characteristics of mindfulness are based on a set of seemingly paradoxical structures. This article discusses the underlying paradox by disentangling it into five dialectical positions - activity vs. passivity, wanting vs. non-wanting, changing vs. non-changing, non-judging vs. non-reacting, and active acceptance vs. passive acceptance, respectively. Finally, the practical implications for the medical professional as well as potential caveats are discussed.

Lynch Siobhan



Wheelchair propulsion biomechanics: implications for wheelchair sports. (United States)

The aim of this article is to provide the reader with a state-of-the-art review on biomechanics in hand rim wheelchair propulsion, with special attention to sport-specific implications. Biomechanical studies in wheelchair sports mainly aim at optimising sport performance or preventing sport injuries. The sports performance optimisation question has been approached from an ergonomic, as well as a skill proficiency perspective. Sports medical issues have been addressed in wheelchair sports mainly because of the extremely high prevalence of repetitive strain injuries such as shoulder impingement and carpal tunnel syndrome. Sports performance as well as sports medical reflections are made throughout the review. Insight in the underlying musculoskeletal mechanisms of hand rim wheelchair propulsion has been achieved through a combination of experimental data collection under realistic conditions, with a more fundamental mathematical modelling approach. Through a synchronised analysis of the movement pattern, force generation pattern and muscular activity pattern, insight has been gained in the hand rim wheelchair propulsion dynamics of people with a disability, varying in level of physical activity and functional potential. The limiting environment of a laboratory, however, has hampered the drawing of sound conclusions. Through mathematical modelling, simulation and optimisation (minimising injury and maximising performance), insight in the underlying musculoskeletal mechanisms during wheelchair propulsion is sought. The surplus value of inverse and forward dynamic simulation of hand rim stroke dynamics is addressed. Implications for hand rim wheelchair sports are discussed. Wheelchair racing, basketball and rugby were chosen because of the significance and differences in sport-specific movement dynamics. Conclusions can easily be transferred to other wheelchair sports where movement dynamics are fundamental. PMID:11347685

Vanlandewijck, Y; Theisen, D; Daly, D



Cosmological implications of the Machian principle. (United States)

The famous idea of Ernst Mach concerning the non-absolute but relational character of particle inertia is taken up in this paper and is reinvestigated with respect to its cosmological implications. From Thirring's general relativistic study of the old Newtonian problem of the relativity of rotations in different reference systems, it appears that the equivalence principle with respect to rotating reference systems, if at all, can only be extended to the system of the whole universe, if the mass of the universe scales with the effective radius or extent of the universe. A reanalysis of Thirring's derivations still reveals this astonishing result, and thus the general question must be posed: how serious this result has to be taken with respect to cosmological implications. As we will show, the equivalence principle is, in fact, fulfilled by a universe with vanishing curvature, i.e. with a curvature parameter k = 0, which just has the critical density rho (crit) = (3H)(2)/8piG, where H is the Hubble constant. It turns out, however, that this principle can only permanently be fulfilled in an evolving cosmos, if the cosmic mass density, different from its conventional behaviour, varies with the reciprocal of the squared cosmic scale. This, in fact, would automatically be realized, if the mass of each cosmic particle scales with the scale of the universe. The latter fact, on one hand, is a field-theoretical request from a general relativistic field theory which fulfills H. Weyl's requirement of a conformal scale invariance. On the other hand, it can perhaps also be concluded on purely physical grounds, when taking into account that as source of the cosmic metrics only an effective mass density can be taken. This mass density represents the bare mass density reduced by its mass equivalent of gravitational self-binding energy. Some interesting cosmological conclusions connected with this fact are pointed out in this paper. PMID:16944092

Fahr, Hans J; Zoennchen, Jochen H



Dark matter: Origin, detection, and collider implications (United States)

Cosmological observations have precisely measured the amount of cold dark matter (CDM) in the Universe. The best fit value corresponds to around 23% of the Universe being composed of CDM. Nothing in the Standard Model (SM) is able to account for this cold dark matter. This provides unambiguous evidence for physics beyond the SM. From particle physics, the hierarchy between the electroweak and Planck scales within the SM provides motivation to consider new physics beyond the SM. In this thesis, I investigated the origin of CDM, analyzed various prospects for indirect detection, and studied its collider implications. We focused on two such models: the Left Right Twin Higgs (LRTH) model and the Inert Doublet model (IDM). Both of these models contain a neutral scalar that is stable and a good CDM candidate. We performed a CDM analysis, and identified regions of parameter space that can account for all of the CDM in the Universe. CDM can become trapped around massive objects such as the Sun, Earth, and galactic center. Over time, these CDM particles can annihilate to produce neutrinos and photons. Within the IDM framework, we analyzed the neutrino signal from the Sun and Earth and the photon signal from the galactic center. Due to the nature of new particles within the IDM, there are implications for signals at high energy colliders, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These particles are produced and can subsequently decay to CDM, jets, and leptons. Within the framework of the IDM, we performed a dilepton signal analysis at the LHC. There exists a synergy between particle physics and cosmology. The study of the interplay between these two fields could provide valuable insights and bring a better understanding of Nature within our grasp. It is an exciting time for physics.

Dolle, Ethan Michael



Efficiently applying uncertain implication rules to the transferable belief model (United States)

This paper addresses the use of implication rules (with uncertainty) within the Transferable Belief Model (TBM) where the rules convey knowledge about relationships between two frames of discernment. Technical challenges include: a) computational scalability of belief propagation, b) logical consistency of the rules, and c) uncertainty of the rules. This paper presents a simplification of the formalism developed by Ristic and Smets for incorporating uncertain implication rules into the TBM. By imposing two constraints on the form of implication rules, and restricting results to singletons of the frame of discernment, we derive a belief function that can be evaluated in polynomial time.

Farrell, William J.; Knapp, Andrew M.



Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Federica Pinna, Lucia Sanna, Bernardo Carpiniello Department of Public Health, Clinical and Molecular Medicine - Unit of Psychiatry, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy Abstract: A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific treatment. Further investigations are needed to overcome the methodological limitations of previous studies, to understand the actual impact of alexithymia on ED outcome, and to allow more precise implications for treatment to be drawn. Additional research should also be undertaken to specify which of the alexithymic dimensions are specifically relevant to the course and outcome of ED, and to identify treatment protocols producing a significantly greater efficacy in ED patients with relevant alexithymic traits. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, treatment

Pinna F



Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications (United States)

A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED) achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific treatment. Further investigations are needed to overcome the methodological limitations of previous studies, to understand the actual impact of alexithymia on ED outcome, and to allow more precise implications for treatment to be drawn. Additional research should also be undertaken to specify which of the alexithymic dimensions are specifically relevant to the course and outcome of ED, and to identify treatment protocols producing a significantly greater efficacy in ED patients with relevant alexithymic traits. PMID:25565909

Pinna, Federica; Sanna, Lucia; Carpiniello, Bernardo



Environmental implications and applications of nanomaterials (United States)

Recent advances in material science and nanotechnology have given rise to a myriad of developments, while in the meantime call for research into the impacts of nanomaterials on the environment and human health. Although considerable progress has been made in the past decade concerning the behavior of nanomaterials in biological systems, such understanding is critically lacking with respect to the fate of nanomaterials in ecosystems. Accordingly, this dissertation addresses the interactions between nanomaterials and algae---the major constituent of the aquatic food chain (Part I, Chapter two), and exploits the physicochemistry of nanoscaled synthetic dendritic polymers for environmental applications, especially for water purification that is a focused theme of the entire dossier (Part II, Chapters two--five). This dissertation is organized as follows. Chapter one presents a general review of the physical/physicochemical properties, characterizations, implications---especially ecological implication, and applications of a host of most produced and studied nanomaterials. In addition, advances in environmental applications of nanomaterials are discussed. Chapter two examines algal responses to two major types of engineered nanomaterials---quantum dots and polystyrene. Inhibited photosynthetic activities of green algae are observed as a result of the physical adsorption of the nanomaterials. Chapter three elucidates the physicochemical properties of poly(amidoamine)-tris(hydroxymethyl)amidomethane- and amine-terminated dendrimers towards their applications in water remediation. Here, the capacities and mechanisms of the dendrimers in hosting cationic copper, anionic nitrate, polyaromatic phenanthrene, and the more heterogeneous humic acids are discussed. Based on the results of Chapter three, Chapter four presents a dendrimer-based novel optical scheme for improving the detection sensitivity and selectivity of environmental pollutants. Specifically, the surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanowire and the high hosting capacity of dendrimers are utilized for enhancing the detection limit of copper down to the nanomolar level. Chapter five exploits a promising use of dendrimers for the removal of potentially harmful discharged nanoparticles. Here fullerenols are used as a model nanomaterial, and their interactions with dendrimers of two different generations are studied using spectrophotometry and thermodynamics methods. Chapter six summarizes the key findings in this dissertation and presents future work that is stimulated by this PhD research.

Bhattacharya, Priyanka


Further Implications of the Bessis-Moussa-Villani Conjecture (United States)

We find further implications of the BMV conjecture, which states that for hermitian matrices B?0 and A, the function ?mapsto operatorname {Tr}exp({A}-{? }{B}) is the Laplace transform of a positive measure supported on [0,?].

Lieb, Elliott H.; Seiringer, Robert




Conservation tillage is projected to be the major soil protection method and candidate best management practice for improving surface water quality. Environmental and health implications as well as the agronomic virtues of conservation tillage must be identified and evaluated. A ...


Alterations in polyadenylation and its implications for endocrine disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

This review gives a detailed description of alterations in polyadenylation in endocrine disease, an overview of the current literature on polyadenylation and summarizes the clinical implications of the current state of research in this field.




Theory of Multiple Intelligences: Implications for Higher Education. (United States)

Reviews implications of Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences for higher education: responding to increased access, the necessity of meeting the needs of diverse users, and the accountability movement. (EV)

Kezar, Adrianna



Ethical, Legal, and Social Implication of Cancer Research | Resources (United States)

The ethical, legal, and social implications of cancer research (ELSI) are increasingly complex and of paramount concern in the genomic era. Protecting the rights and welfare of human research participants involves moral considerations as well as regulatory compliance.


Phenomenological Implications of a Class of Lepton Mass Matrices  

CERN Document Server

Phenomenological implications of a class of lepton mass matrices with parallel texture structure have been examined and phenomenologically interesting constraints on charged lepton and neutrino mass matrix parameters have been obtained.

Dev, S; Verma, Surender; Gupta, Shivani



Cloud Computing : Research Issues and Implications  

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Full Text Available Cloud computing is a rapidly developing and excellent promising technology. It has aroused the concern of the computer society of whole world. Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared information, resources, and software, are provided to terminals and portable devices on-demand, like the energy grid. Cloud computing is the product of the combination of grid computing, distributed computing, parallel computing, and ubiquitous computing. It aims to build and forecast sophisticated service environment with powerful computing capabilities through an array of relatively low-cost computing entity, and using the advanced deployment models like SaaS (Software as a Service, PaaS (Platform as a Service, IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service,HaaS (Hardware as a Service to distribute the powerful computing capacity to end-users. This paper will explore the background and service models and also presents the existing research issues and implications in cloud computing such as security, reliability, privacy, and so on.

Marupaka Rajenda Prasad



The coevolutionary implications of host tolerance. (United States)

Host tolerance to infectious disease, whereby hosts do not directly "fight" parasites but instead ameliorate the damage caused, is an important defense mechanism in both plants and animals. Because tolerance to parasite virulence may lead to higher prevalence of disease in a population, evolutionary theory tells us that while the spread of resistance genes will result in negative frequency dependence and the potential for diversification, the evolution of tolerance is instead likely to result in fixation. However, our understanding of the broader implications of tolerance is limited by a lack of fully coevolutionary theory. Here we examine the coevolution of tolerance across a comprehensive range of classic coevolutionary host-parasite frameworks, including equivalents of gene-for-gene and matching allele and evolutionary invasion models. Our models show that the coevolution of host tolerance and parasite virulence does not lead to the generation and maintenance of diversity through either static polymorphisms or through "Red-queen" cycles. Coevolution of tolerance may however lead to multiple stable states leading to sudden shifts in parasite impacts on host health. More broadly, we emphasize that tolerance may change host-parasite interactions from antagonistic to a form of "apparent commensalism," but may also lead to the evolution of parasites that are highly virulent in nontolerant hosts. PMID:24475902

Best, Alex; White, Andy; Boots, Mike



Effects of Odor on Emotion, with Implications  

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Full Text Available The sense of smell is found widely in the animal kingdom. Human and animal studies show that odor perception is modulated by experience and/or physiological state (such as hunger, and that some odors can arouse emotion, and can lead to the recall of emotional memories. Further, odors can influence psychological and physiological states. Individual odorants are mapped via gene-specified receptors to corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, which directly projects to the piriform cortex and the amygdala without a thalamic relay. The odors to which a glomerulus responds reflect the chemical structure of the odorant. The piriform cortex and the amygdala both project to the orbitofrontal cortex which with the amygdala is involved in emotion and associative learning, and to the entorhinal/hippocampal system which is involved in long-term memory including episodic memory. Evidence that some odors can modulate emotion and cognition is described, and the possible implications for the treatment of psychological problems, for example in reducing the effects of stress, are considered.




Xeroderma pigmentosum and its dental implications. (United States)

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by defective DNA repair leading to clinical and cellular hypersensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and carcinogenic agents. Important clinical features are: Intense cutaneous photosensitivity, xerosis, poikiloderma, actinic keratosis, acute burning under minimal sun exposure, erythemas, hyperpigmented lentiginous macules, and malignant lesions in sun-exposed areas, including basocellular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. There is a great involvement of many parts of the body, especially head and neck. Oral implications such as severe oral pain and mouth opening limitation were present due to perioral scars. The disorder is associated more commonly in populations where marriage of close blood relatives is common. Treatment of the disorder includes avoidance of UV radiation, topical application of 5-fluorouracil to treat actinic keratoses, and regular evaluation by an ophthalmologist, dermatologist, and neurologist. Genetic counseling is important aspects as an increased incidence of consanguineous marriages have been reported with this disorder. In addition, this paper discuss some important aspects concerning the role of the dental professional management of this entity, since XP patients require constant dental care and follow-up in order to control the occurrence of new lesions on the lips or inside oral cavity. PMID:25713498

Wayli, Hessa Al



Microbiological implications of the food irradiation process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the wholesomeness of irradiated food which met in 1976 concluded after a detailed and critical review of the available information, that the microbiological aspects of food irradiation were fully comparable to those of conventional processes used in modern food technology. Processing of food by irradiation may be considered from the microbiological point of view as separate procedures: high dose treatment (> 10 kGy), for sterilisation (radappertization) and low dose treatment (< 10 kGy) for pasteurisation (radicidation, radurization), (for definitions see p. 43), disinfestation, or inhibition of sprouting. No public health hazards related to micro-organisms arise from high dose irradiation because this process results in commercially sterile products. On the other hand, it is important to consider the possible microbiological hazards when food is irradiated with a low dose. The microbiological implications relate to the natural radiation resistance of bacteria, yeasts, fungi and viruses or to the mutagenic effects of ionising radiation in micro-organisms. Both areas of concern were reviewed in detail by Ingram and Ingram and Farkas. (orig.)


Breast density: clinical implications and assessment methods. (United States)

Breast density assessment is an important component of the screening mammography report and conveys information to referring clinicians about mammographic sensitivity and the relative risk for developing breast cancer. These topics have gained substantial attention because of recent legislation in several states that requires patients to be informed of dense breast tissue and the potential for associated breast cancer risk and decreased mammographic sensitivity. Because of the considerable implications of diagnosing a woman with dense breast tissue, radiologists should strive to be as consistent as possible when assessing breast density. Commonly used methods of breast density assessment range from subjective visual estimation to quantitative calculations of area and volume density percentages made with complex computer algorithms. The basic principles of currently available commercial methods of calculating fibroglandular density are described and illustrated. There is no criterion standard for determining breast density, but understanding the pros and cons of the various assessment methods will allow radiologists to make informed decisions. Radiologists should understand the basic factors involved in breast density assessment, the changes related to density assessment described in the fifth edition of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon, and the capabilities of currently available software. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2015. PMID:25763719

Winkler, Nicole S; Raza, Sughra; Mackesy, Meaghan; Birdwell, Robyn L



The public health implications of melioidosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Melioidosis, which is caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a potentially fatal tropical infection, little known outside its main endemic zone of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Though it has received more attention in recent years on account of its claimed suitability as a bi [...] ological weapon agent, the principal threat from melioidosis is a result of naturally occurring events. Occasional case clusters, sporadic cases outside the known endemic zone and infections in unusual demographic groups highlight a changing epidemiology. As melioidosis is the result of an environmental encounter and not person-to-person transmission, subtle changes in its epidemiology indicate a role environmental factors, such as man-made disturbances of soil and surface water. These have implications for travel, occupational and tropical medicine and in particular for risk assessment and prevention. Practical problems with definitive laboratory diagnosis, antibiotic treatment and the current lack of a vaccine underline the need for prevention through exposure avoidance and other environmental health measures. It is likely that the increasing population burden of the tropical zone and extraction of resources from the humid tropics will increase the prevalence of melioidosis. Climate change-driven extreme weather events will both increase the prevalence of infection and gradually extend its main endemic zone.

Timothy J.J., Inglis; Anastácio Q., Sousa.



FDI in Indian retail – and its implications  

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Full Text Available The health of a nation is gauged not only by the quantum of FDI it attracts but also the trend it follows. In turn this is dependent on the economic policies formulated and practiced and the willingness of all concerned to engage with global economic practices. Since the early 1990’s when the government embarked on a policy of liberalization it has been observed that FDI inflows showed a steady increase until the last couple of years when in fact there has been a de-growth particularly 2010 over 2009 by almost 30%. On the other hand China has attracted FDI more than 4 times the quantum of India during the same period. Investors will look to invest in ‘opportunities’ as they see bearing the most attractive returns within a given frame work considering both the ‘home’ as well as ‘host’ country. Facts and figures very clearly indicate the positive impact even in India for certain sectors when FDI has been embraced. On the other hand, India most urgently requires gathering as much as investment as is possible to keep the momentum of growth going and one such opportunity is the organizing of our retail segment which would support development endeavor in a big way. The issue of embracing partial FDI in retail has seen some level of procrastination which requires more urgent and serious attention. Can India afford to lose this opportunity? This paper attempts to study the implications for this investment as also providing some suggestions.

Natarajan Chandrasekhar



Epigenetics: mechanisms and implications for diabetic complications. (United States)

Epigenetic modifications regulate critical functions that underlie chromosome metabolism. Understanding the molecular changes to chromatin structure and the functional relationship with altered signaling pathways is now considered to represent an important conceptual challenge to explain diabetes and the phenomenon of metabolic or hyperglycemic memory. Although it remains unknown as to the specific molecular mechanisms whereby hyperglycemic memory leads to the development of diabetic vascular complications, emerging evidence now indicates that critical gene-activating epigenetic changes may confer future cell memories. Chemical modification of the H3 histone tail of lysine 4 and 9 has recently been identified with gene expression conferred by hyperglycemia. The persistence of these key epigenetic determinants in models of glycemic variability and the development of diabetic complications has been associated with these primary findings. Transient hyperglycemia promotes gene-activating epigenetic changes and signaling events critical in the development and progression of vascular complications. As for the role of specific epigenomic changes, it is postulated that further understanding enzymes involved in writing and erasing chemical changes could transform our understanding of the pathways implicated in diabetic vascular injury providing new therapeutic strategies. PMID:21148447

Cooper, Mark E; El-Osta, Assam



Knowledge Management: Implications on Business Education  

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Full Text Available Every organization or individual has been traditionally managing the knowledge unconsciously. Now, the time has changed, as a result, a need is felt to manage knowledge consciously. Over the past one decade there has been an increasing recognition to knowledge management. More conscious and active management of knowledge can bring significant contribution and benefits to the organizations. Knowledge is an asset, which helps in achieving individual or organizational goal. The speed of changes generated by human knowledge is moving at a quantum leap, most of them are unexpected and some of them are uncontrolled, simply cannot turn back. We are living in an age of science and technology, knowledge and its varied application. The varied applications of knowledge will inevitably determine our future. In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight the knowledge, its source and forms, flow of knowledge management, knowledge creativity, functions of knowledge management and emergence of knowledge societies in general and its implications on business education in particular.

Nisar Ahmed I. Mulla



The Greek crisis: Causes and implications  

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Full Text Available This paper presents and critically discusses the origins and causes of the Greek fiscal crisis and its implications for the euro currency as well as the SEE economies. In the aftermath of the 2007-2009 financial crisis the enormous increase in sovereign debt has emerged as an important negative outcome, since public debt was dramatically increased in an effort by the US and the European governments to reduce the accumulated growth of private debt in the years preceding the recent financial turmoil. Although Greece is the country member of the eurozone that has been in the middle of this ongoing debt crisis, since November 2009 when it was made clear that its budget deficit and mainly its public debt were not sustainable, Greece’s fiscal crisis is not directly linked to the 2007 US subprime mortgage loan market crisis. As a result of this negative downturn the Greek government happily accepted a rescue plan of 110 billion euros designed and financed by the European Union and the IMF. A lengthy austerity programme and a fiscal consolidation plan have been put forward and are to be implemented in the next three years.

Vlamis Prodromos



Biological behaviour and clinical implications of micrometastases.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: The most important prognostic determinant in cancer is the identification of disseminated tumour burden (metastases). Micrometastases are microscopic (smaller than 2 mm) deposits of malignant cells that are segregated spatially from the primary tumour and depend on neovascular formation (angiogenesis) to propagate. METHODS: The electronic literature (1966 to present) on micrometastases and their implications in malignant melanoma and epithelial cancers was reviewed. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical techniques combined with serial sectioning offer the best accuracy for detection of nodal micrometastases. Molecular techniques should be reserved for blood samples or bone marrow aspirates. Detection of micrometastases in regional lymph nodes and\\/or bone marrow confers a poor prognosis in epithelial cancers. The concept of sentinel node biopsy combined with serial sectioning and dedicated screening for micrometastases may improve staging procedures. Strategies against angiogenesis may provide novel therapies to induce and maintain micrometastatic dormancy. CONCLUSION: The concept of micrometastases has resulted in a paradigm shift in the staging of epithelial tumours and our overall understanding of malignant processes.

Kell, M R



The public health implications of melioidosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melioidosis, which is caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a potentially fatal tropical infection, little known outside its main endemic zone of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Though it has received more attention in recent years on account of its claimed suitability as a biological weapon agent, the principal threat from melioidosis is a result of naturally occurring events. Occasional case clusters, sporadic cases outside the known endemic zone and infections in unusual demographic groups highlight a changing epidemiology. As melioidosis is the result of an environmental encounter and not person-to-person transmission, subtle changes in its epidemiology indicate a role environmental factors, such as man-made disturbances of soil and surface water. These have implications for travel, occupational and tropical medicine and in particular for risk assessment and prevention. Practical problems with definitive laboratory diagnosis, antibiotic treatment and the current lack of a vaccine underline the need for prevention through exposure avoidance and other environmental health measures. It is likely that the increasing population burden of the tropical zone and extraction of resources from the humid tropics will increase the prevalence of melioidosis. Climate change-driven extreme weather events will both increase the prevalence of infection and gradually extend its main endemic zone.

Timothy J.J. Inglis



Aquaglyceroporins: implications in adipose biology and obesity. (United States)

Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane water/glycerol channels that are involved in many physiological processes. Their primary function is to facilitate the bidirectional transfer of water and small solutes across biological membranes in response to osmotic gradients. Aquaglyceroporins, a subset of the AQP family, are the only mammalian proteins with the ability to permeate glycerol. For a long time, AQP7 has been the only aquaglyceroporin associated with the adipose tissue, which is the major source of circulating glycerol in response to the energy demand. AQP7 dysregulation was positively correlated with obesity onset and adipocyte glycerol permeation through AQP7 was appointed as a novel regulator of adipocyte metabolism and whole-body fat mass. Recently, AQP3, AQP9, AQP10 and AQP11 were additionally identified in human adipocytes and proposed as additional glycerol pathways in these cells. This review contextualizes the importance of aquaglyceroporins in adipose tissue biology and highlights aquaglyceroporins' unique structural features which are relevant for the design of effective therapeutic compounds. We also refer to the latest advances in the identification and characterization of novel aquaporin isoforms in adipose tissue. Finally, considerations on the actual progress of aquaporin research and its implications on obesity therapy are suggested. PMID:25359234

Madeira, Ana; Moura, Teresa F; Soveral, Graça



Extremophile Diatoms: Implications to the Drake Equation (United States)

Diatoms are unicellular Eukaryotes that (as a group and phylogenetically) are not strictly regarded as extremophiles , since the vast majority of diatoms are mesophilic photoautotrophs. However, among the terrestrial Eukaryotes, diatoms are by far the single group of organisms with the ability to inhabit the greatest range of hostile environments on Earth. They are the dominant eukaryotes in the polar regions; in fumaroles, hot springs and geysers; and in hypersaline and hyperalkaline lakes and pools. Cryophilic species such as Fragilaria sublinearis and Chaetoceras fragilis are able to carry out respiration at extremely low rates at low temperatures in darkness. The Drake Equation refers to the likelihood of there being intelligent life at the technological level of electromagnetic communication. However, consideration of the range of conditions suitable for the habitability of eukaryotic diatoms and prokaryotic extremophiles, the likelihood that life exists elsewhere in the cosmos becomes many orders of magnitude greater than that predicted by the classical Drake Equation. In this paper we review the characteristics of diatoms as eukaryotic extremophiles and consider the implications to adjustments needed to the Drake Equation to assess the possibility that life exists elsewhere in the Universe.

Sterrenburg, Frithjof A. S.; Hoover, Richard B.



Implications of white dwarf galactic halos  

CERN Document Server

Motivated by recent measurements which suggest that roughly half the mass of the galactic halo may be in the form of white dwarfs, we study the implications of such a halo. We first use current limits on the infrared background light and the galactic metallicity to constrain the allowed initial mass function (IMF) of the stellar population that produced the white dwarfs. The IMF must be sharply peaked about a characteristic mass scale M_C \\approx 2.3 M_\\odot. Since only a fraction of the initial mass of a star is incorporated into the remnant white dwarf, we argue that the mass fraction of white dwarfs in the halo is likely to be 25\\% or less, and that 50\\% is an extreme upper limit. We use the IMF results to place corresponding constraints on the primordial initial conditions for star formation. The initial conditions must be much more homogeneous and skewed toward higher temperatures (T_{\\rm gas} \\sim 200 K) than the conditions which lead to the present day IMF. Next we determine the luminosity function of ...

Adams, F C; Adams, Fred C; Laughlin, Greg



Risk implication of severe accident management strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) is in the process of conducting independent Probabilistic Safety Analyses (PSAs) of all swiss nuclear power plants, in support of the ongoing periodic safety reviews, and other regulatory requirements. These studies are full scope level 1 / level 2 PSAs, including external events and uncertainties. The uncertainty analyses address both the so-called lack of knowledge uncertainties as well as stochastic uncertainties. These studies are being maintained as living PSA for use in regulatory decision making. An example level 2 study for a PWR type reactor, with large, dry containment is used for the present accident management study. In the analysis, the evaluation of accident progression does not credit automatic systemic recoveries (due to recovery of AC power, for instance), for lack of plant-specific data, and severe accident management strategies (SAMs), which are not yet implemented. The risk implications of SAMs are discussed in the present article. For all SAM strategies, with the exception of accident management involving SGTRs, all of the level 2 analyses are repeated


India-Pakistan Relations: International Implications  

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Full Text Available India’s independence in 1947 from the British colonial rule and its subsequent division into two nations – India and Pakistan - has sowed the seeds of continuing conflict between the two countries since their independence. The partition of India was primarily based on the religious divide between the two communities – the Hindus and the Muslims. After India’s partition, the major issue of conflict between the two countries has been the Muslim dominated northern state of Jammu and Kashmir, currently a part of India. This bilateral conflict has had international implications over the years. Decades of conflict, which includes three major wars, has contributed to a nuclear race between the two countries and growth of terrorism in the region. These two regional outcomes of the conflict have assumed global significance with the growing international threat of nuclear proliferation and terrorism.The paper analyzes the bilateral conflict between India and Pakistan and the subsequent emergence of the global threats. The paper also emphasizes normalization of the bilateral relations as the key prerequisite to ensure peace and security for the region and also for relieving the global society from the perils of a growing nuclear threat and expanding forces of terrorism.

Alka Jauhari



Some practical implications of source term reassessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides a brief summary of the current knowledge of severe accident source terms and suggests how this knowledge might be applied to a number of specific aspects of reactor safety. In preparing the report, consideration has been restricted to source term issues relating to light water reactors (LWRs). Consideration has also generally been restricted to the consequences of hypothetical severe accidents rather than their probability of occurrence, although it is recognized that, in the practical application of source term research, it is necessary to take account of probability as well as consequences. The specific areas identified were as follows: Exploration of the new insights that are available into the management of severe accidents; Investigating the impact of source term research on emergency planning and response; Assessing the possibilities which exist in present reactor designs for preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents and how these might be used effectively; Exploring the need for backfitting and assessing the implications of source term research for future designs; and Improving the quantification of the radiological consequences of hypothetical severe accidents for probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) and informing the public about the realistic risks associated with nuclear power plants. 7 refs


Humanistic Education: Concerns, Implications and Applications  

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Full Text Available Humanistic approach introduced by the ideas of Scholars like Erickson, Roger, and Maslow began to permeate the field of second language teaching and learning towards the end of 1970. According to Lei (2007 humanistic approach emphasizes the importance of the inner world of the learner and places the individual’s thought, emotions and feelings at the forefront of all human development. Due to this new shift of focus, language education and pedagogy moved away from the previous behavioristic and mentalistic approaches, and as a result, a new kind of education known as humanistic education emerged. Consequently, significant changes occurred in all aspects of language education, that is, the traditional roles of teachers and learners were redefined and the previously authoritarian teaching practices were replaced by learner-centered classrooms. This paper is of two-fold. First, it is going to take a detailed look at the main principles and features of humanistic education, and second, it is aimed at discussing the implications and applications of humanistic education. Finally, it tries to clarify the new roles and responsibilities considered for language teachers to be able to fully engage the students in the learning process.

Mohammad Khatib



Implications of observations of international oil spills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intentional releases of crude oil on the open ocean were carried out in the Norwegian Sea in 1989 and 1991. The releases were used to evaluate selected satellite-tracked surface drifting buoys for their ability to simulate the movement of oil on the sea surface, and to improve our understanding of the behavior and fate of oil at sea. The crude oil used in 1989 rapidly formed a stable, highly viscous emulsion with water; the crude oil used in 1991 formed a very unstable emulsion, and spread rapidly to a relatively uniform, thin sheen. Both the surface drifters and a simple drift model simulated slick drift relatively well in 1989, but were significantly in error two out of three times in 1991. A physical explanation and numerical model have been constructed to explain the data. Implications of these and other observations, both for surface drifters and models of oil spills, are discussed. The model hypothesized incorporates the physics of oil entrainment, resurfacing, and transport in a framework that appears to explain all 4 experimental oil spills. The data implies that oils that form stable, viscous emulsions will drift quite differently from those that do not. For oils that emulsify, the key piece of environmental information necessary to compute a trajectory is the wind; for nonemulsifying oils and petroleum products, currents dominate the trajectory


Language Learning Strategies: Classification and Pedagogical Implication  

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Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to explore language learning strategies (Rubin, 1975, Naiman et . al ., 1978; Fillmore, 1979; O'Malley et . al ., 1985 and 1990; Politzer and Groarty, 1985; Prokop, 1989; Oxford, 1990; and Wenden, 1991. In the current study a total of 79 university students participating in a 3 month English course participated. This study attempted to explore what language learning strategies successful learners used and to what extent the strategies contributed to success in learning English in Indonesia . Factor analyses, accounting for 62.1 %, 56.0 %, 41.1 %, and 43.5 % of the varience of speaking, listening, reading and writing measures in the language learning strategy questionnaire, suggested that the questionnaire constituted three constructs. The three constructs were named metacognitive strategies, deep level cognitive and surface level cognitive strategies. Regression analyses, performed using scales based on these factors revealed significant main effects for the use of the language learning strategies in learning English, constituting 43 % of the varience in the posttest English achievement scores. An analysis of varience of the gain scores of the highest, middle, and the lowest groups of performers suggested a greater use of metacognitive strategies among successful learners and a greater use of surface level cognitive strategies among unsuccessful learners. Implications for the classroom and future research are also discussed.

Ag. Bambang Setiyadi




Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Legumes are plants in the family Fabaceae characterized by seeds in pods that are often edible though sometimes poisonous. The nutrient content (protein, carbohydrate and micronutrients of legumes contribute to address under-nutrition, especially protein-calorie malnutrition among children and nursing mothers in developing countries where supplementing cereal-based diets with legumes is suggested as one of the best solutions to protein calorie malnutrition. Anti-nutritional factors, in legumes, may limit their biological value and acceptance as a regular food item, yet they are readily removable and recent research has shown potential health benefits of some of these compounds; and hence, manipulation of processing conditions may be required to remove or reduce only those unwanted components. Moreover, legumes play a role in prevention, improvement and/or treatment of disease conditions such as, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer diseases (e.g breast and prostate cancers and lowers blood cholesterol level. Most of these disease conditions are associated with over-nutrition and obesity and are considered as diseases of the rich. It is, therefore, claimed that including legumes in a health-promoting diet is important in meeting the major dietary recommendations to improve the nutritional status of undernourished as well as over-nourished individuals, and to reduce risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and cancer. In this review, some of the scientific viewpoints that attempt to justify the nutritional contributions, anti-nutritional considerations and health implications of legumes are discussed.

Mebrahtom Gebrelibanos*, Dinka Tesfaye, Y. Raghavendra and Biruk Sintayeyu



Managed care implications in managing rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory form of arthritis characterized by joint inflammation, pain, swelling, and stiffness. While contemporary treatment strategies based on early diagnosis, aggressive treatment, and regular monitoring have helped a significant number of patients achieve evidence-based treatment goals, RA still presents substantial management challenges to both clinicians and patients, and has the potential to lead to severe disability over time. In addition to its significant clinical consequences, RA has important economic implications. Both direct and indirect medical costs associated with RA are significant, including costs of medications, ambulatory and office-based care, and quality-of-life and productivity costs. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with prevalent RA have associated cardiovascular disease and other comorbidities, further compounding healthcare costs and complicating management of this disorder. Clinically favorable and cost-effective management must focus on prevention of disease progression and the improved patient health status and productivity than can result from optimal disease control. With the myriad of treatment options both available and emerging, managed care organizations are faced with difficult decisions surrounding the most clinically and cost-effective allocation of treatments designed to improve disease outcomes for patients with RA. It is vital that managed care clinicians and providers analyze both the overall burden and the specific costs of RA. This will allow a better understanding of how costs and issues relating to healthcare utilization affect the treatment of patients with RA and impact individualized therapy, care coordination, and outcomes. PMID:25180623

Owens, Gary M



[Hepatitis E virus: Blood transfusion implications]. (United States)

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped RNA virus transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Autochthonous hepatitis E occurring in developed countries is caused by genotypes 3 and 4 and is a zoonotic infection. Humans are infected mostly after ingestion of undercooked meat from infected animals. Most HEV 3 and 4 infections are clinically inapparent. However, genotype 3 (HEV 3) can lead to chronic hepatitis in immuno-compromised patients such as organ-transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. In Europe, HEV 3 is implicated in transfusion-transmitted HEV infection. In France, as observed in several European countries, prevalence of HEV RNA and specific IgG antibodies are high indicating that viral circulation is important. The systematic HEV NAT screening of blood donations used for preparation of solvent detergent plasma indicate that 1 to 2218 donation is infected by HEV RNA. The need or implementation's impacts of safety measures to prevent HEV transmission by blood transfusion are under reflexion by French's health authorities. The HEV NAT screening is the only available tool of prevention. Alternative strategies are under investigation including individual or mini pool NAT testing all or part of blood donations. PMID:25267201

Gallian, P; Piquet, Y; Assal, A; Djoudi, R; Chiaroni, J; Izopet, J; Tiberghien, P



Business Implications of Integrated Product and Service Offerings  


This paper explores the business implications of Integrated Product and Service Offerings (IPSOs). The objective is to show examples of the business implications of IPSOs from a supplier’s perspective, and to suggest specifications for supporting methods needed for such an industrial company. The paper is largely based on empirical case studies of 120 Swedish manufacturing companies of all sizes. Results from the case studies show that both small and large companies that conduct the transit...

Lindahl, Mattias; Sakao, Tomohiko; O?hrwall Ro?nnba?ck, Anna



Shopper marketing implications on communication strategies and actions  


Shopper marketing is an international recent concept and approach to marketing. Since shopper marketing is in the early stages of development, it is also an emerging research field, and consequently questions and challenges acrossall the marketing-mix variables are emerging. This paper addressesshopper marketing implications on one of those variables – communication.Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to study the implications of the shopper marketing approach on marketing/brand comm...

Silveira, Paulo Duarte; Marreiros, Cristina



[The implications of various scientific-philosophical models on nursing]. (United States)

This article focuses on the implications for nursing of philosophy of science. The relation between the dimensions of research in nursing, paradigms in nursing and the philosophy of science are explained as background. Models of philosophies of science are described, namely positivism, critical rationalism, Kuhn's historical approach, the phenomenological approach, hermeneutics, critical theory, scientific realism and post-modernism. The implications of each of these models are described within nursing as a science. PMID:9257575

Botes, A



Revenue implications of trade liberalization in South Africa  


This paper explores the implications of trade liberalization on international trade tax revenue and the macroeconomic implications thereof in the context of the South African economy. The main focus of the paper is on quantitative restrictions in the form of tariffs. In theory the direction of change of revenue as a result of trade reform is ambiguous, depending among other factors on the productivity of trade tax revenue. With these in mind, the paper first establishes the pro...

Matlanyane, Adelaide; Harmse, Chris



Implications of the Higgs discovery for the MSSM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implications of the discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC with a mass of approximately 125 GeV are summarised in the context of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, the MSSM. Discussed are the implications from the measured mass and production/decay rates of the observed particle and from the constraints in the search for the heavier Higgs states at the LHC. (orig.)


Implications of the Higgs discovery for the MSSM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The implications of the discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC with a mass of approximately 125 GeV are summarised in the context of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, the MSSM. Discussed are the implications from the measured mass and production/decay rates of the observed particle and from the constraints in the search for the heavier Higgs states at the LHC. (orig.)

Djouadi, Abdelhak [Paris-Sud Univ. et CNRS, Lab. de Physique Theorique, Orsay (France); TH Unit, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)



Discovering indigenous science: Implications for science education (United States)

Indigenous science relates to both the science knowledge of long-resident, usually oral culture peoples, as well as the science knowledge of all peoples who as participants in culture are affected by the worldview and relativist interests of their home communities. This article explores aspects of multicultural science and pedagogy and describes a rich and well-documented branch of indigenous science known to biologists and ecologists as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Although TEK has been generally inaccessible, educators can now use a burgeoning science-based TEK literature that documents numerous examples of time-proven, ecologically relevant, and cost effective indigenous science. Disputes regarding the universality of the standard scientific account are of critical importance for science educators because the definition of science is a de facto gatekeeping device for determining what can be included in a school science curriculum and what cannot. When Western modern science (WMS) is defined as universal it does displace revelation-based knowledge (i.e., creation science); however, it also displaces pragmatic local indigenous knowledge that does not conform with formal aspects of the standard account. Thus, in most science classrooms around the globe, Western modern science has been taught at the expense of indigenous knowledge. However, because WMS has been implicated in many of the world's ecological disasters, and because the traditional wisdom component of TEK is particularly rich in time-tested approaches that foster sustainability and environmental integrity, it is possible that the universalist gatekeeper can be seen as increasingly problematic and even counter productive. This paper describes many examples from Canada and around the world of indigenous people's contributions to science, environmental understanding, and sustainability. The authors argue the view that Western or modern science is just one of many sciences that need to be addressed in the science classroom. We conclude by presenting instructional strategies that can help all science learners negotiate border crossings between Western modern science and indigenous science.

Snively, Gloria; Corsiglia, John



Widening economic & social disparities: implications for India. (United States)

India is often characterized as an emerging economic super power. The huge demographic dividend, the high quality engineering and management talent, the powerful Indian diaspora and the emerging Indian transnational--kneeling the optimism. In contrast, there is another profile of India which is rather gloomy. This is the country with the largest number of the poor, illiterates and unemployed in the world. High infant mortality, morbidity and widespread anaemia among women and children continue. India suffers from acute economic and social disparities. This article addresses four dimensions of such disparities, viz. regional, rural-urban, social, and gender. There is empirical evidence to indicate that during the last two decades all these disparities have been increasing. As a result of economic reforms, the southern and western States experienced accelerated economic and social development as compared to northern and eastern States. This has led to widening gap in income, poverty and other indicators of development between the two regions. Rural-urban divide also widened in the wake of reforms. While large and medium cities experience unprecedented economic prosperity, the rural areas experience economic stagnation. As a result, there is widespread agrarian distress which results in farmers' suicide and rural unrest. Socially backward sections, especially scheduled castes and tribes (SCs and STs) have gained little from the new prosperity which rewards disproportionately those with assets, skills and higher education. STs have often been victims of development as a result of displacement. The gender gap in social and economic status, traditionally more in India as compared to other societies; has further widened by the economic reforms and globalization. The approach paper to the Eleventh Plan stresses the importance of more inclusive economic growth. It emphasizes the need for bridging the divides discussed in this article. Unless these are achieved in a time-bound manner, there could be serious adverse implications for the Indian economy, society and politics. PMID:18032812

Kurian, N J



Oceanic implications for climate change policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the United Nations convention on the law of the sea (1982), each participating country maintains exclusive economic and environmental rights within the oceanic region extending 200 nm from its territorial sea, known as the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Although the ocean within each EEZ is undoubtedly an anthropogenic CO2 sink, it has been over-looked within international climate policy. In this paper I use an area-weighted scaling argument to show that the inclusion of the EEZ CO2 sink within national carbon accounts would have significant implications in tracking national greenhouse commitments to any future climate change policy initiative. The advantages and disadvantages for inclusion of the EEZ CO2 sink into global climate change policy are also explored. The most compelling argument for including the EEZ CO2 sink is that it would enhance the equity and resources among coastal nations to combat and adapt against future climate change that will inherently impact coastal nations more so than land locked nations. If included, the funds raised could be used for either monitoring or adaptive coastal infrastructure among the most vulnerable nations. On the other hand, the EEZ anthropogenic CO2 sink cannot be directly controlled by human activities and could be used as a disincentive for some developed nations to reduce fossil-fuel related greenhouse gas emissions. This may therefore dampen efforts to ultimahis may therefore dampen efforts to ultimately reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. In consideration of these arguments it is therefore suggested that an 'EEZ clause' be added to Kyoto and any future international climate policy that explicitly excludes its use within national carbon accounts under these international climate frameworks


Sonographic findings of ischemic colitis: Clinical implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To find out clinical implications of sonographic findings in cases of ischemic colitis. Sonographic images were retrospectively reviewed in 39 patients who were diagnosed of ischemic colitis either by endoscopic biopsy (n=36) or by surgery (n=3). Each patients, were described in one of the three segments (ascending colon, transverse colon, or descending including sigmoid colon) were involved. Morphologic patterns in cross section images were described in terms of which layer in the bowel wall was thickened and whether there was a distinction among layers. Degree of wall thickening and presence or absence of ascites were described in each patient and were correlated with longevity of hospitalization. Follow-up sonography was performed in six patients. Most commonly involved segment was descending including sigmoid colon (n=24), followed by the entire colon (n=6),ascending plus transvers colon (n=6), and in ascending colon (n=3). The most common morphologic pattern was thickening of echogenic middle layer (n=25), followed by thickening of echolucent inner layer (n=12), panmural thickening with loss of distinction among layers (n=2). Nine patients with ascites were hospitalized for average period 13.3 days whereas 30 other patients without ascites were hospitalized for average 9.5 days. Nine patients with ascites showed more severe wall thickening (mean 15.3 mm) than patients without ascites (mean 10.3 mm). When follow-up sonography was done, wall thickening was not seenphy was done, wall thickening was not seen in any of six patients, and their symptoms had been improved as well. In cases of ischemic colitis, severe wall thickening and/or presence of ascites are associated with longer hospitalization (or necessary of surgery).


Definitions of fuel poverty: Implications for policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines why the definition of fuel poverty is important in policy formulation and describes how the Government's current definitions evolved from the original concept. It discusses the determination of income and fuel costs and the possibilities for a relative and common European measure. It examines problems inherent in assessing fuel costs as a percentage of income and puts forward the arguments for a ‘budget standard’ approach. The paper illustrates how the size of the problem depends on the definition and chosen threshold and suggests advantages for a rating scale. It illustrates how the income composition and thresholds also govern the distribution of the target populations and the relative importance of the main causal factors, and examines the consequent policy implications. It explores the definition of vulnerable households and the importance of severity and questions whether the UK fuel poverty strategy is targeted at households least able to afford their fuel costs (as the name implies) or primarily those at risk from excess winter and summer mortality and morbidity. Finally, after examining the role of supplementary indicators, it looks at the opportunities for changing the definition and comments on the Government review of the definition and targets. - Highlights: ? There are major failings in the existing official definitions of fuel poverty. ? expressing fuel costs as a percentage of income is a poor indicator of fuel poverty. ? Ar indicator of fuel poverty. ? A budget standard approach provides a more consistent, meaningful and fairer measure. ? The scale and nature of the problem changes dramatically with different definitions. ? The definition is crucial to the mix of policies and allocation of resources required.


Siderophilic Cyanobacteria: Implications for Early Earth. (United States)

Of all extant environs, iron-depositing hot springs (IDHS) may exhibit the greatest similarity to late Precambrian shallow warm oceans in regards to temperature, O2 gradients and dissolved iron and H2S concentrations. Despite the insights into the ecology, evolutionary biology, paleogeobiochemistry, and astrobiology examination of IDHS could potentially provide, very few studies dedicated to the physiology and diversity of cyanobacteria (CB) inhabiting IDHS have been conducted. Results. Here we describe the phylogeny, physiology, ultrastructure and biogeochemical activity of several recent CB isolates from two different greater Yellowstone area IDHS, LaDuke and Chocolate Pots. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated that 6 of 12 new isolates examined couldn't be placed within established CB genera. Some of the isolates exhibited pronounced requirements for elevated iron concentrations, with maximum growth rates observed when 0.4-1 mM Fe(3+) was present in the media. In light of "typical" CB iron requirements, our results indicate that elevated iron likely represents a salient factor selecting for "siderophilicM CB species in IDHS. A universal feature of our new isolates is their ability to produce thick EPS layers in which iron accumulates resulting in the generation of well preserved signatures. In parallel, siderophilic CB show enhanced ability to etch the analogs of iron-rich lunar regolith minerals and impact glasses. Despite that iron deposition by CB is not well understood mechanistically, we recently obtained evidence that the PS I:PS II ratio is higher in one of our isolates than for other CB. Although still preliminary, this finding is in direct support of the Y. Cohen hypothesis that PSI can directly oxidize Fe(2+). Conclusion. Our results may have implications for factors driving CB evolutionary relationships and biogeochemical processes on early Earth and probably Mars.

Brown, I. I.; Mummey, D.; Sarkisova, S.; Shen, G.; Bryant, D. A.; Lindsay, J.; Garrison, D.; McKay, D. S.



CHO Quasispecies—Implications for Manufacturing Processes  

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Full Text Available Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells are a source of multi-ton quantities of protein pharmaceuticals. They are, however, immortalized cells, characterized by a high degree of genetic and phenotypic diversity. As is known for any biological system, this diversity is enhanced by selective forces when laboratories (no sharing of gene pools grow cells under (diverse conditions that are practical and useful. CHO cells have been used in culture for more than 50 years, and various lines of cells are available and have been used in manufacturing. This article tries to represent, in a cursory way, the history of CHO cells, particularly the origin and subsequent fate of key cell lines. It is proposed that the name CHO represents many different cell types, based on their inherent genetic diversity and their dynamic rate of genetic change. The continuing remodeling of genomic structure in clonal or non-clonal cell populations, particularly due to the non-standardized culture conditions in hundreds of different labs renders CHO cells a typical case for “quasispecies”. This term was coined for families of related (genomic sequences exposed to high mutation rate environments where a large fraction of offspring is expected to carry one or more mutations. The implications of the quasispecies concept for CHO cells used in protein manufacturing processes are significant. CHO genomics/transcriptomics may provide only limited insights when done on one or two “old” and poorly characterized CHO strains. In contrast, screening of clonal cell lines, derived from a well-defined starting material, possibly within a given academic or industrial environment, may reveal a more narrow diversity of phenotypes with respect to physiological/metabolic activities and, thus, allow more precise and reliable predictions of the potential of a clone for high-yielding manufacturing processes.

Florian M. Wurm



Practical implications of tidal flat shape (United States)

Arising from high precision empirical measurements of whole shore shape involving determination of incremental areas in narrow height bands undertaken during the 1980s, now confirmed by physical and mathematical models and theoretical studies, it has been established that accretion-dominated mudshores tend to be high and convex in cross-sectional shape, whereas their erosion-dominated counterparts tend to be low and concave. High and convex mudshores are preferable in coastal defence, port engineering and conservation terms to low and concave ones. In this paper the practical implications of these contrasted shapes are drawn out. The natural shapes of mudshores contrast with what might be anticipated from the well-established Bruun Rule for sandy shores. Accordingly, a new mudshore conceptual model, the Mehby Rule, is proposed which embraces all aspects of mudshore behaviour and will stand alongside the Bruun Rule. A new mudshore management tool, a top-down model, called S-factor analysis, is proposed and developed to a semi-quantitative state by way of a demonstration of its possibilities. It can be applied to quantifying the stability of mudshores. Mudshores with an S close to zero are stable in shape and approaching one type of equilibrium condition. As S departs progressively from zero in the negative direction shores become more accretion-dominated and, similarly, as they depart from zero in the positive direction they become more erosion dominated. A new mudshore management technology, tidal flat regeneration, is also proposed. The Mehby Rule shows that, to be stable and self-sustaining, whole shore profile manipulation is required, whilst S-factor analysis indicates these will have an S close to zero. By simultaneously placing a minimal wave attenuator and feeding with dense muddy dredge material, a low and concave mudshore can be converted into a more desirable high and convex one. The technology is proved from physical model tests and by analogy with the natural response of low and concave mudshores to a sudden change in the degree of wave protection. Thus, the new method seeks deliberately to copy accidentally induced shape change. The next stage will be to undertake full-scale field trials.

Kirby, R.



Soils: their implications to human health. (United States)

This paper reviews how the health of humans is affected by the world's soils, an association that to date has been under appreciated and under reported. Soils significantly influence a variety of functions (e.g. as a plant growth medium; its importance on the cycling of water; as a foundation for buildings) that sustains the human population. Through ingestion (either deliberate or involuntary), inhalation and dermal absorption, the mineral, chemical and biological components of soils can either be directly beneficial or detrimental to human health. Specific examples include: geohelminth infection and the supply of mineral nutrients and potentially harmful elements (PHEs) via soil ingestion; cancers caused by the inhalation of fibrous minerals or Rn gas derived from the radioactive decay of U and Th in soil minerals; and tetanus, hookworm disease and podoconiosis caused by skin contact and dermal absorption of appropriate soil constituents. Human health can also be influenced in more indirect ways as soils interact with the atmosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere. Examples include: the volatilisation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soils and their subsequent global redistribution that has health implications to the Aboriginal people of the Arctic; the frequent detrimental chemical and biological quality of drinking and recreational waters that are influenced by processes of soil erosion, surface runoff, interflow and leaching; and the transfer of mineral nutrients and PHEs from soils into the plants and animals that constitute the human food chain. The scale and magnitude of soil/health interactions are variable, but at times a considerable number of people can be affected as demonstrated by the extent of hookworm infection or the number of people at risk because they live in an I-deficient environment. Nevertheless, it can often be difficult to establish definite links between soils and human health. This, together with the emergence of new risks, knowledge, or discoveries, means that there is considerable scope for research in the future. Such investigations should involve a multidisciplinary approach that both acquires knowledge and ensures its dissemination to people in an understandable way. This requires an infrastructure and finance that governments need to be responsive to. PMID:12150429

Abrahams, P W



Implications of a stochastic microscopic Finsler cosmology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the context of supersymmetric space-time (D-particle) foam in string/brane-theory, we discuss a Finsler-induced cosmology and its implications for (thermal) dark matter abundances. This constitutes a truly microscopic model of dynamical space-time, where Finsler geometries arise naturally. The D-particle foam model involves point-like brane defects (D-particles), which provide the topologically non-trivial foamy structures of space-time. The D-particles can capture and emit stringy matter and this leads to a recoil of D-particles. It is indicated how one effect of such a recoil of D-particles is a back-reaction on the space-time metric of Finsler type which is stochastic. We show that such a type of stochastic space-time foam can lead to acceptable cosmologies at late epochs of the Universe, due to the non-trivial properties of the supersymmetric (BPS like) D-particle defects, which are such so as not to affect significantly the Hubble expansion. The restrictions placed on the free parameters of the Finsler type metric are obtained from solving the Boltzmann equation in this background for relic abundances of a Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP) dark matter candidate. It is demonstrated that the D-foam acts as a source for particle production in the Boltzmann equation, thereby leading to enhanced thermal LSP relic abundances relative to those in the Standard ?CDM cosmology. For D-particle masses of order TeV, such effects may be relevant for dark matter seffects may be relevant for dark matter searches at colliders. The latter constraints complement those coming from high-energy gamma-ray astronomy on the induced vacuum refractive index that D-foam models entail. We also comment briefly on the production mechanisms of such TeV-mass stringy defects at colliders, which, in view of the current LHC experimental searches, will impose further constraints on their couplings. (orig.)


Researching Lean: Methodological implications of loose definitions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – Lean Production has in Sweden become the dominating ideal for ‘best practice’ in rationalization, organizational development and how to organize the work system. However, research into the effects of Lean for different stakeholders has produced ambiguous results. Furthermore, Lean practices seem to overlap with other popular management concepts, such as High Performance Work Systems, World Class Manufacturing and Total Quality Management. This confusion, combined with different methodological and theoretical traditions, has led to much debate and contradictory conclusions regarding Lean. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate some key methodological issues that need to be considered in future Lean research to allow increased understanding of Lean effects for different stakeholders, primarily meaning the customer, employer and employees. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a multiple comparative case study, in which five Lean case studies are presented. All of the studies are of recent origin, and based in Sweden. The cases have been compared and contrasted based on the approaches to Lean, in terms of local ideals, operationalization and implementation. Findings – The findings from the case studies are in line with the existing literature, indicating that Lean has changed over time and that operationalization of the concept varies considerably between work life sectors. The findings demonstrate that approaches related to Lean differ significantly between the studied organizations and stakeholders. This applies to both the interpretations of the Lean concept itself, but also of the operationalization of Lean and implementation design. Although the cases show great similarities in the Lean ideals, the concept takes on many different forms when operationalized, which makes it very difficult to study through a priori definitions. Practical implications/recommendations – The large variation in interpretations of Lean complicates metaanalyses regarding potential impact of Lean on the primary stakeholders of an organization, i.e. the customer, employees and employer. Based on the case studies, we suggest that future investigations describe the Lean interventions in more detail. General descriptions or analogies, e.g. ‘learning organizations’, presumably increase the present confusion regarding Lean impact on different stakeholders. The case studies also illustrate the importance of describing factors that may mediate the effects of Lean, e.g. the local context of the investigated organizations, implementation design. More research is needed to identify these factors, how, and to what degree they mediate the consequences from Lean. Originality/value – The multidisciplinary approach of the included case studies provides an empirical richness that allows us to address the specific issues that need to be focused in the various disciplines investigating the impact of Lean on different organizational stakeholders.

Brännmark, Mikael; Langstrand, Jostein



GEMAS - Soil geochemistry and health implications (United States)

The GEMAS Project resulted in a large coherent data set displaying baseline levels of elements in agricultural and grazing land soil, which has a wide variety of applications. Medical geology is an emerging new discipline providing a link between geoscience and medicine by interpreting natural geological factors in relation to human and animal health and their geographical distribution. Medical geology shows not only problems related to harmful health effects of natural geological materials and processes, but also deals with their beneficial aspects. Since the GEMAS project demonstrates the importance of geological factors in geochemical patterns in European soil, this data set can be used in improving our understanding of how the geological processes may affect human health in Europe. The main potential health problems are related to deficiency of nutrients in soil and toxic effects of potentially harmful elements. Deficiency in macro- (e.g., K, Fe, Mg, P) and micro-nutrients (e.g., Se, Zn, Cl) can be responsible for a reduction in crop productivity and certain health issues for livestock and humans. On the other hand, bioavailability of crucial elements depends on soil parameters, e.g., pH; namely, low pH in soil (in northern Europe) makes more micronutrients bioavailable, with the exception of Mo, P and Ca. Rocks underlying the soil layer have a major impact on soil composition, and soil parent material can be a main source of toxic metals, for instance, soil developed on black shale (e.g., Oslo region) shows potentially toxic levels of metals, such as As, Cd, U, Zn and Pb. High content of organic matter is another factor amplifying the toxic levels of metals in soil. Several important topics with health implications can be then addressed using the GEMAS data set, namely, soil properties and element bioavailability, arsenic toxicity, selenium deficiency, potential health effects of liming, uranium in European soil, influence of recent and historical volcanic activity on soil composition and its health consequences. References Reimann, C., Birke, M., Demetriades, A., Filzmoser, P. & O'Connor, P. (Editors), 2014. Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils - Part A: Methodology and interpretation of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B), Schweizerbarth, Hannover, 528 pp. Reimann, C., Birke, M., Demetriades, A., Filzmoser, P. & O'Connor, P. (Editors), 2014. Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils - Part B: General background information and further analysis of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B), Schweizerbarth, Hannover, 352 pp.

Ernstsen, Vibeke; Ladenberger, Anna; Wragg, Joanna; Gulan, Aleksandra



Implications of Water Development for Food Security (United States)

Water development for agriculture-the major water user worldwide-is one of the most critical factors for food security in many regions of the world. The role of water withdrawals in irrigated agriculture and food security has been receiving substantial attention in recent years. This paper will address key questions regarding implications of water development for food security at both regional and global scale, including what is the current status of water availability for agriculture? How will water availability and water demand evolve over the next three decades, taking into account availability and variability in water resources, the water supply infrastructure, and irrigation and nonagricultural water demands? What is the role of irrigation in food production now and in the future? What risk will be put on regional and global food production, demand and trade if municipal and industrial water demand is high, environmental water requirement is increasing, or groundwater overdraft is phased off? What is the contribution of infrastructure investment in enhancing irrigation water supply capacity, improving water use efficiency, and increasing rainfall harvesting particularly in arid and semi-arid regions and countries? These questions are explored through a global modeling framework, IMPACT-Water, developed in the International Food Policy Research Institute. In general, the results show that, under plausible assumptions on developments in irrigation and water investment, the rapid growth in water demand, particularly for domestic and industrial purposes, coupled with the a continued slowdown in investments, could be a serious threat to future growth in food production, causing negative impacts on low-income developing countries and the poor consumers in these countries. Food production, demand and trade and food prices will be increasingly affected by declining water availibility for irrigation. Developing countries, especially those with arid climates, poor infrastructure development, and rapidly increasing populations are substantially more negatively affected by future climate variability and declining water availability for irrigation and other uses. As a result, both investments in the water sector and net cereal imports will need to be increased considerably in these countries.

Cai, X.; Rosegrant, M. W.



Hypercoagulation and thrombophilia in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: mechanisms, human evidence, therapeutic implications, and preventive implications. (United States)

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of disorders with a high prevalence in the industrialized world. Despite the high prevalence, the etiology and fundamental pathophysiology for the disease process is poorly understood. There is now a growing fund of knowledge suggesting that the ongoing inflammatory state associated with NAFLD leads to a low-level activation of the coagulation system. Although the data supporting this activation of the coagulation system are significant, the link with end-organ disease, mainly cardiovascular disease, is less firm and mostly epidemiological. In this review, we will explore the evidence for and against a hypercoagulable or thrombophilic state in NAFLD. We will examine possible pathophysiologic explanations and mechanisms, human epidemiologic and population-based data, and the possible therapeutic and preventative implications for treatment of thrombophilia in patients with this disease process. PMID:22418887

Northup, Patrick G; Argo, Curtis K; Shah, Neeral; Caldwell, Stephen H



Generic implications of ATWS events at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant: generic implications. Vol. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is the first of two volumes. It documents the work of an interoffice, interdisciplinary NRC Task Force established to determine the generic implications of two anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 on February 22 and 25, 1983. A second report will document the NRC actions to be taken based on the work of the Task Force. The Task Force was established to address three questions: (1) Is there a need for prompt action for similar equipment in other facilities. (2) Are NRC and its licensees learning the sefety-management lessons, and, (3) How should the priority and content of the ATWS rule be adjusted. A number of short-term actions were taken through Bulletins and an Information Notice. Intermediate-term actions to address the generic issues will be addressed in the separate report and implemented through appropriate regulatory mechanisms


What Are the New Implications of Chaos for Unpredictability?  

CERN Document Server

From the beginning of chaos research until today, the unpredictability of chaos has been a central theme. It is widely believed and claimed by philosophers, mathematicians and physicists alike that chaos has a new implication for unpredictability, meaning that chaotic systems are unpredictable in a way that other deterministic systems are not. Hence one might expect that the question 'What are the new implications of chaos for unpredictability?' has already been answered in a satisfactory way. However, this is not the case. I will critically evaluate the existing answers and argue that they do not fit the bill. Then I will approach this question by showing that chaos can be defined via mixing, which has not been explicitly argued for. Based on this insight, I will propose that the sought-after new implication of chaos for unpredictability is the following: for predicting any event all sufficiently past events are approximately probabilistically irrelevant.

Werndl, Charlotte



Software Development Methodologies, Trends and Implications: A Testing Centric View  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The practice of software development has evolved steadily over the decades. Numerous methods and models (e.g., life cycle models and agile methods have been proposed to enhance its efficiency and effectiveness. This study provides a testing centric view of software development practices. Specifically, it reviews software development methodologies (i.e., methods and models, identifies the latest trends in the industry and discusses their implications. The review of methodologies, the identification of these trends and the discussion of their implications will be useful to software development educators, students, practitioners and researchers.

Xihui Zhang



Fragmentation of structural energetic materials: implications for performance (United States)

Fragmentation results for structural energetic materials based on intermetallic forming mixtures are reviewed and the implications of the fragment populations are discussed. Cold sprayed Ni+Al and explosively compacted mixtures of Ni+Al+W and Ni+Al+W+Zr powders were fabricated into ring shaped samples and explosively fragmented. Ring velocity was monitored and fragments were soft captured in order to study the fragmentation process. It was determined that the fragments produced by these structural energetic materials are much smaller than those typically produced by ductile metals such as steel or aluminum. This has implications for combustion processes that may occur subsequent to the fragmentation process.

Aydelotte, B.; Braithwaite, C. H.; Thadhani, N. N.



Welfare Implication of Foreign Aid and Domestically Funded Microfinance Programs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microfinance as well as women’s economic participation has welfare implications in developing countries. A two-sector model has been developed to analyze these implications. The findings suggest that the welfare cost of microfinance depends on the country’s overall level of development and society’s attitude towards women’s economic participation. The difference in the welfare cost of government funded microfinance and donor funded microfinance programs can be minimized by increasing the administrative efficiency of public spending on microfinance.

Md. Abul Basher



The rationalisation movement in perspective and some ergonomic implications. (United States)

The paper gives an overview of the Rationalisation Movement from Taylor to the most recent organisation models such as 'Business Process Reengineering'. Special emphasis is put on the estimated implications of the different rationalisation strategies in terms of ergonomics/work physiology. In addition, basic terms and concepts are defined. According to the author, Taylorism, Fordism and Lean Production seem to offer an insufficient potential for good ergonomics. However, more recent organisational models such as 'Time Based Management' and 'Business Process Reengineering', may appear more promising but unfortunately almost no research has been conducted to describe the ergonomics implications of these models. PMID:15677050

Björkman, T



eBay Law: The Legal Implications of the C2C Electronic Commerce Model  


This paper attempts to address some of the legal implications of the popular Consumer-to-Consumer electronic commerce model, in particular the implications of the successful and popular auctions site eBay.

Guadamuz, Andres



Behavioral Momentum: Implications and Development from Reinforcement Theories. (United States)

Analyzes historical and contemporary theories of reinforcement and clinical application of reinforcement principles to behavior and modification therapy. Presents a behavioral momentum model that studies the allocation of behavior under changed environmental constraints and discusses the implications of this model on behavior modification and…

Plaud, Joseph J.; Gaither, George A.



Student Work Issues: Implications for College Transition and Retention. (United States)

Studied job stress of employed college students and considered the implications of this stress for college life and student retention. Findings for 275 college students at 2 universities show that for some students having a job adds more stress to their lives, increases exhaustion levels, and interferes with school responsibilities. (SLD)

Hey, William; Calderon, Kristine S.; Seabert, Denise



Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions. (United States)

Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

Makita-Discekici, Yasuko



Managerialism and Higher Education Governance: Implications for South African Universities? (United States)

This article identifies some of the implications of corporate forms of higher education governance for the management of South African universities. It explores corporate higher educational governance with reference to institutional autonomy incorporating academic freedom. It is the contention of this article that the primary driver of higher…

Adams, F.



Stella, A Simulation Construction Kit: Cognitive Process and Educational Implications. (United States)

This document describes the construction/simulation software called Stella which can be used in the investigation of dynamic causal models. Topics considered are its built-in perspective of system dynamics and capabilities, its potential drawbacks, and its cognitive implications for educational applications. (JJK)

Steed, Marlo



Innovation in Higher Education: Implications for the Future (United States)

This chapter, drawing from the previous chapters, synthesizes potential directions and implications of future innovation in higher education. The focus is on innovation to address critical issues that administrators face today: the adaptability, maturity, cost structure, and efficiency of the institution.

White, Susan C.; Glickman, Theodore S.



Rethinking the Concept of Acculturation: Implications for Theory and Research (United States)

This article presents an expanded model of acculturation among international migrants and their immediate descendants. Acculturation is proposed as a multidimensional process consisting of the confluence among heritage-cultural and receiving-cultural practices, values, and identifications. The implications of this reconceptualization for the…

Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Szapocznik, Jose



Some Instructional Implications from a Mathematical Model of Cognitive Development. (United States)

Cognitive development and various educational implications are discussed in terms of Donald Saari's model of the interaction of a learner and the enviroment and the constraints imposed by the inefficiency of the learner's cognitive system. Saari proposed a hierarchical system of cognitive structures such that the relationships between structures…

Mierkiewicz, Diane B.


Educational Psychologists' Constructions of Sexuality and the Implications for Practice (United States)

Despite an underlying inclusion agenda, sexuality equality remains a low priority in education. Review of literature suggests the marginalization of sexual minority young people (SMYP) in schools. This study explores educational psychologists' (EPs') constructions of sexuality and the implications for practice. Discursive psychology was used to…

Marks, Chloe



Understanding Homophobic Behavior and Its Implications for Policy and Practice (United States)

In this article, we consider recent advances in scholarship on homophobic bullying, and implications for policy and practice. We first consider toward whom homophobic behavior is directed, drawing attention to the nuances among LGBT youth, and the realities of homophobic bullying for heterosexual or straight youth. We review the correlates or…

Poteat, V. Paul; Russell, Stephen T.



A Gaming Frame of Mind: Digital Contexts and Academic Implications (United States)

When considering the interdisciplinary nature of education, researchers need to acknowledge students' traditional and multimodal literacies and learning environments. Technological changes have brought about new learning spaces and what students learn through their video gaming experiences seems to have important academic implications and…

Abrams, Sandra S.



Early Language Learning and Literacy: Neuroscience Implications for Education (United States)

The last decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children's early processing of language that has implications for education. Noninvasive, safe functional brain measurements have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. In the arena of language, the neural signatures of learning can be…

Kuhl, Patricia K.



Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications (United States)

Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

Soderstrom, Irina R.



K-12 Implications Seen in Some Cases before High Court (United States)

Arizona's variation on government vouchers for religious schools and California's prohibition on the sale of violent video games to minors present the top two cases with implications for education in the U.S. Supreme Court term that formally begins Oct. 4. New Justice Elena Kagan brings to the court extensive education policy experience as a…

Walsh, Mark



Sexual Addiction and the Internet: Implications for Gay Men (United States)

The authors present an overview of sexual addiction and explore the relationship between Internet use and sexual compulsivity. The role of Internet use in gay men's sexual behavior is described. Implications for the counseling profession are discussed, and a clinical case study is presented.

Dew, Brian J.; Chaney, Michael P.



Marital Conflict Behaviors and Implications for Divorce over 16 Years (United States)

This study examined self-reported marital conflict behaviors and their implications for divorce. Husbands and wives (N = 373 couples; 47% White American, 53% Black American) reported conflict behaviors in Years 1, 3, 7, and 16 of their marriages. Individual behaviors (e.g., destructive behaviors) and patterns of behaviors between partners (e.g.,…

Birditt, Kira S.; Brown, Edna; Orbuch, Terri L.; McIlvane, Jessica M.




Factors adversely affecting amphibian populations in the US were evaluated using information from species accounts written in a standardized format by multiple authors (Volume 2 of this book). For each species, factors implicated by the authors (i.e., known or suspected) as affec...


Bimetric gravity doubly coupled to matter: theory and cosmological implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A ghost-free theory of gravity with two dynamical metrics both coupled to matter is shown to be consistent and viable. Its cosmological implications are studied, and the models, in particular in the context of partially massless gravity, are found to explain the cosmic acceleration without resorting to dark energy


Elder Maltreatment Items, Subgroups, and Types: Policy and Practice Implications. (United States)

Examined 288 validated instances of elder maltreatment. Findings suggest that these phenomena pose questions as diverse as those faced in identifying child and spouse maltreatment. A partial typology is offered to guide further investigations. Implications for policy and practice suggest a cautious approach to value-laden issues while recognizing…

Hall, Philip A.



Implications of Transnational Adoption Status for Adult Korean Adoptees (United States)

This study used a consensual qualitative research method to explore the implications of transnational adoption in the lives of 12 adult Korean adoptees. From the analysis, 6 domains emerged: (a) adoption history and preadoptive memories, (b) meaning of adoption, (c) adoptive family dynamics, (d) racism, (e) identity formation, and (f) counseling…

Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Yoon, Eunju; Hacker, Jason; Caudill, Kathy



Environmental factors implicated in the causation of adverse pregnancy outcome  


Adverse pregnancy outcome from environmental factors may include congenital anomalies, increased risk for miscarriage, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction and still birth. Apart from adverse pregnancy outcome, there may be effects on the other reproductive functions like menstrual disorders and infertility. Environmental factors which have been implicated in adverse pregnancy outcome include smoking, video display terminals, anesthetic gases, antineoplastic drugs and exposure to...

Hossain, Nazli; Westerlund Triche, Elizabeth



Research on Music and Autism: Implications for Music Educators. (United States)

Provides information on the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 1990 (IDEA), the inclusion of autism in the law, and autism in general. Summarizes research on music and children with autism, addressing music as a means to improving communication skills and as a motivator. Considers the implications for music educators. (CMK)

Darrow, Alice-Ann; Armstrong, Tammy



Florence Nightingale, Statistician: Implications for Teachers of Educational Research. (United States)

This paper presents an overview of Florence Nightingale's statistical background and accomplishments; discusses Victorian statistics, Nightingale's education and statistical contributions; and concludes with implications for professors and students of educational research. Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), the first woman elected as a fellow of…

Rice, Marti H.; Stallings, William M.


Clinical Implications of Dynamic Systems Theory for Phonological Development (United States)

Purpose: To examine treatment outcomes in relation to the complexity of treatment goals for children with speech sound disorders. Method: The clinical implications of dynamic systems theory in contrast with learnability theory are discussed, especially in the context of target selection decisions for children with speech sound disorders. Detailed…

Rvachew, Susan; Bernhardt, Barbara May



Implications of LHC Higgs and SUSY searches for MSSM  

CERN Document Server

The implications of the LHC SUSY searches as well as the discovery of a new bosonic state compatible with the lightest Higgs boson will be discussed in the context of constrained and general MSSM scenarios. Exploring the MSSM through the Higgs sector is an alternative and complementary path to direct searches, and tight constraints on the MSSM parameter space can be obtained.

Mahmoudi, F; Battaglia, M; Djouadi, A



Winston Churchill's "Iron Curtain" Address: Implications for the Present. (United States)

Evaluates the "Iron Curtain" speech made by Winston Churchill in 1946, discussing its relevance and implications for the present. Examines Churchill's predictions for the future and his assessment of the USSR. Reviews world developments since the speech and proposes foreign policy goals for the next 40 years. (GEA)

Bush, George



Experimental implications of mirror matter-type dark matter  


Mirror matter-type dark matter is one dark matter candidate which is particularly well motivated from high energy physics. The theoretical motivation and experimental evidence are pedagogically reviewed, with emphasis on the implications of recent orthopositronium experiments, the DAMA/NaI dark matter search, anomalous meteorite events etc.

Foot, R.



Financial Implications of Implementing an E-Learning Project (United States)

Purpose: This paper aims to outline the financial implications, while deploying information and communication technologies for implementing e-learning, and to elucidate them, while implementing an e-learning project in a conventional university environment. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a descriptive account of the various cost factors…

Sharma, Kunal



Implications of dynamical symmetry breaking for high energy experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scenario of dynamical symmetry breaking as an alternative to the canonical Higgs mechanism with elementary spin-O fields is described, and its implications for high energy experiments contrasted with those of the canonical theory. The potential role of e+e- annihilation physics in unravelling the nature of spontaneous symmetry breaking is emphasized. (orig.)


English as a Lingua Franca: Concepts, Use, and Implications (United States)

Sowden's article raises a number of questions concerning English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) and criticizes it as a simplified and culturally neutral means of communication. In this response, I address the issues concerning the conceptualization and use of ELF as well as the implications for ELT. I provide up-to-date evidence of ELF research and show…

Cogo, Alessia



Considering Shame and Its Implications for Student Learning (United States)

Research evidence is accumulating to suggest that shame can be implicated in important ways in student adjustment to the learning environment. Student survey data spring-fall 2010 suggest that shame is associated with variables thought to be closely related to student learning--sense of community, burnout and achievement goals--and underline the…

Johnson, Diane Elizabeth



The Politics of Mourning in Cyprus and Israel: Educational Implications (United States)

This paper suggests the need for a critical analysis of the nationalization of mourning and its educational implications, especially in conflict-ridden areas. Our thoughts are grounded in a comparative study on mourning that has been conducted as part of our long-standing ethnographic research in schools in Cyprus and Israel during the last 10…

Zembylas, Michalinos; Bekerman, Zvi; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Schaade, Nader



The Automorphism Group of a Metropolis-Rota Implication Algebra  

CERN Document Server

We discuss the group of automorphisms of a general MR-algebra. We develop several functors between implication algebras and cubic algebras. These allow us to generalize the notion of inner automorphism. We then show that this group is always isomorphic to the group of inner automorphisms of a filter algebra.

Bailey, Colin



A Universal Axiomatization of Metropolis-Rota Implication Algebras  

CERN Document Server

We show that the class of Metropolis-Rota implication algebras can be given a universal axiomatization using an operation closely related to composition in oriented matroids. Lastly we describe the role of our new operation in the collapse of an MR-algebra.

Bailey, Colin



Fiscal implications of personal tax adjustments in the Czech republic  


Writers of the study investigate the fiscal implications of the changes in personal income tax implemented in the Czech Republic in January 2006. In addition to evaluating the direct effect of this tax reform, our analysis takes into account its employment effect on the government budget due to individuals entering or leaving employment.

Bic?a?kova?, Alena; Slac?a?lek, Jir?i?; Slavi?k, Michal



Islam and Citizenship Education in Singapore: Challenges and Implications (United States)

The religious diversity of Singapore, coupled with the current phenomenon of Islamic revivalism, makes the management of religion a paramount concern for the Singapore government. By examining the developments of Islam in Singapore, this article explores the challenges and implications these developments have on citizenship education in the…

Tan, Charlene



Training for Innovation in India: Cultural Considerations and Strategic Implications (United States)

Global organizations with personnel in India rank innovation as a primary workforce development objective to stay competitive in the global market (NASSCOM, [2007]). This analysis reviews relevant literature for evidence of cultural factors that stand in the way of innovative performance in Indian personnel and discusses implications for the…

Russell, L. Roxanne



Policy Implications from an Evaluation of Seat Belt Use Regulation. (United States)

Effects of Ohio's mandatory seat belt law on seat belt use, number of car accidents, and number of fatal and severe injuries were evaluated for January 1982 through March 1988. The monthly average number of accident victims was 2,002. Implications for public policy formulation and implementation are discussed. (SLD)

Desai, Anand; You, Min-Bong



The tomato genome: implications for plant breeding, genomics and evolution  


The genome sequence of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), one of the most important vegetable crops, has recently been decoded. We address implications of the tomato genome for plant breeding, genomics and evolutionary studies, and its potential to fuel future crop biology research.

Ranjan, Aashish; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Sinha, Neelima R.



Sheet fractures, other stress forms and some engineering implications (United States)

Field evidence shows that, contrary to common belief, sheet fractures and structures are due to compressive stress. A suite of minor forms including A-tents or pop-ups are of similar origin. This interpretation carries a range of implications for civil engineering and quarrying projects. The minor forms are also indicators of seismicity.

Vidal Romaní, J. R.; Twidale, C. R.



Therapeutic Implications of Modifying Endogenous Serotonergic Analgesic Systems  


Basic research strongly implicates the neurotransmitter serotonin as a modulator of endogenous analgesic systems. Recently, clinical strategies have been developed to activate endogenous serotonergic systems as a therapeutic approach to pain control. This paper reviews the biochemistry, anatomical distribution, and physiologic functions of serotonin. The evidence reviewed suggests that precursor loading to increase brain serotonin levels and administration of serotonin receptor inhibitors and...

Frier, James W.



Spirituality of South Asian Women: Implications for Adult Learning. (United States)

The implications of the spirituality of South Asian women for adult learning were examined through semistructured interviews of five South Asian women who resided in Canada. The women, who included students, working professionals, mothers, and single women, originated from Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka and were from Hindu, Moslem, and…

Marshall, Jody L.


Transformation of University Organizations: Leadership and Managerial Implications (United States)

Technology and globalization are forcing higher education institutions to transform themselves. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding the leadership and managerial implications of recent developments for higher education. Reviewing unique characteristics and the fundamental changes shaping higher education, the paper examines the…

Ulukan, Cemil



Intelligent Agents and Instructional Systems: Implications of a New Paradigm. (United States)

Examines the relationship between intelligent agents (i.e., computer programs that carry out tasks for users) and intelligent tutoring systems and suggests implications for instructional theory and practice. A new model for instruction based on the concept of shared abilities and cooperative learning between humans and computers is discussed.…

Kearsley, Greg







Does Styles Research Have Useful Implications for Educational Practice? (United States)

This paper reviews eight articles on the implications of styles research contained in this special issue of "Learning and Individual Differences". Three of the papers present original research on topics such as the nature of visualizer cognitive style and intuitive cognitive style. Five of the papers offer reviews or analyses of styles research,…

Mayer, Richard E.



Ethical Dimensions of Intergenerational Reciprocity: Implications for Practice. (United States)

Reviews moral and ethical context of family relationships and caregiver stress, with emphasis on implications for professional interventions. Presents three views of filial responsibility: parental reverence, debt of gratitude, and caregiving as expression of friendship and love. Presents case studies to illustrate how exploration of ethically…

Selig, Suzanne; And Others



Business development - the function, research propositions, and managerial implications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  The management literature reflects remarkable little effort to investigate the nature and consequences of firms' business development activities. This exploratory research aims at synthesizing the scholarly knowledge on the subject with field interviews with senior business developers and executives from high-tech firms and venture capitalists in North America, Asia, and Europe to provide a foundation for future research. Business development is an emerging staff function providing an added level of sophistication to the firms' overall strategic management with interesting performance implications. The business development function is typically found in progressive firms especially within high-tech industries, but is argued to become critical for all types of firms across industries wishing to grow and accumulate wealth. Research propositions and managerial implications are discussed.

SØrensen, Hans Eibe


Implications of the Sample Rate on Large Space Telescopes  

CERN Document Server

The frequency at which a large space telescope's (e.g. NGST's) detector chips are read, or the sample rate, is tightly coupled to many hardware and operational aspects of the telescope's instrument and data handling elements. In this paper we discuss many of the drivers and important implications fo the sample rate: the data rate to the ground; onboard computer storage, bandwidth, and speed; the number of A->D chips, and therefore the overall size and power requirements of the analog electronics; cryocabling requirements; and detector noise and power. We discuss and parametrize these and other elements related to sample rate. Finally, we discuss the implications of sample rate in the context of achieving the most important science goals under the constraint of fixed cost.

Fixsen, D J



Clinical Implications of Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in Colorectal Cancer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Colorectal cancer (CRC) still has one of the highest incidence and mortality rate among cancers. Therefore, improved differential diagnostics and personalized treatment are still needed. Several intestinal stem cell markers have been found to be associated with CRC and might have a prognostic and predictive significance in CRC patients. This review provides an overview of the intestinal stem cell markers leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), B cell–specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 (BMI1), Musashi1 (MSI1), and sex-determining region y-box 9 (SOX9) and their implications in human CRC. The exact roles of the intestinal stem cell markers in CRC development and progression remain unclear; however, high expression of these stem cell markers have a potential prognostic significance and might be implicated in chemotherapy resistance.

Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Olsen, Jesper



Pathological and Evolutionary Implications of Retroviruses as Mobile Genetic Elements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Retroviruses, a form of mobile genetic elements, have important roles in disease and primate evolution. Exogenous retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, have significant pathological implications that have created a massive public health challenge in recent years. Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs, which are the primary focus of this review, can also be pathogenic, as well as being beneficial to a host in some cases. Furthermore, retroviruses may have played a key role in primate evolution that resulted in the incorporation of these elements into the human genome. Retroviruses are mobile genetic elements that have important roles in disease and primate evolution. We will further discuss the pathogenic potential of retroviruses, including their role in cancer biology, and will briefly summarize their evolutionary implications.

Mark A. Brown



Misuse of "study drugs:" prevalence, consequences, and implications for policy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-medical/illegal use of prescription stimulants popularly have been referred to as "study drugs". This paper discusses the current prevalence and consequences of misuse of these drugs and implications of this information for drug policy. Results Study drugs are being misused annually by approximately 4% of older teens and emerging adults. Yet, there are numerous consequences of misuse of prescription stimulants including addiction, negative reactions to high dosages, and medical complications. Policy implications include continuing to limit access to study drugs, finding more safe prescription drug alternatives, interdiction, and public education. Conclusion Much more work is needed on prescription stimulant misuse assessment, identifying the extent of the social and economic costs of misuse, monitoring and reducing access, and developing prevention and cessation education efforts.

Spruijt-Metz Donna



The future of nursing: domestic agenda, global implications. (United States)

The 2010 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health, challenges the nursing profession to take a key role in redesigning the health care system. Intended to shape the future of nursing in the United States, the IOM report has implications for nursing worldwide. While individual states and nursing organizations are developing initiatives to implement the IOM recommendations in the United States, there must be a concomitant effort to examine the ripple effect on global health and the nursing community. This article addresses four IOM recommendations that are directly relevant to internationally educated nurses who practice across borders: nurse residency programs, lifelong learning, leading change to advance health, and interprofessional health care workforce data. The article discusses the IOM recommendations through a global perspective and offers policy implications for legislators, health care organizations and nurse educators, regulators and administrators. PMID:24595160

Shaffer, Franklin A; Davis, Catherine R; To Dutka, Julia; Richardson, Donna R



Implications of bilateral free trade agreements on access to medicines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The TRIPS Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO mandated the introduction of protection of intellectual property rights, notably patents, for pharmaceutical products. While the implications for the access to medicines contained in the terms of this Agreement raised significant concerns, a recent new wave of free trade agreements, negotiated outside the WTO, requires even higher levels of intellectual property protection for medicines than those mandated by that Agreement. The measures involved include the extension of the patent term beyond 20 years; prohibition of use of test data on drug efficacy and safety for certain periods for the approval of generic products; the linkage between drug registration and patent protection; in some cases, limitations to the grounds for granting compulsory licences. This article reviews some of these measures that further limit the competition of generic products and discusses their possible implication for access to medicines.

Correa Carlos María



Smartphone Applications - Idea sourcing and app development: Implications for firms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The smartphone has become the uniquely personal computing device choice for consumers. Applications (apps) for smartphones are set to reach revenues of £25 billion according to Gartner. This presents great opportunities for marketing as apps can provide great benefits for consumers and firms. Howeve [...] r it is Information Systems (IS) departments that have traditionally been tasked with the acquisition and/or development of such information technologies within organisations. With such strong implications for marketing, this exploratory research has focused on the sources of app ideas within firms, locations for app development and perceptions of app development success. Results indicate that while most ideas for apps currently come from IS and marketing departments within the organisation, and development of apps is also done mainly within the organisation, these development strategies are not necessarily the most effective. Managerial implications' regarding the role of IS, Marketing and the customer in app development, are discussed.

John, Bredican; Debbie, Vigar-Ellis.



Sequencing approach evaluates all 24 genes implicated in breast cancer (United States)

Since 1994, many thousands of women with breast cancer from families severely affected with the disease have been tested for inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. The vast majority of those patients were told that their gene sequences were normal. With the development of modern genomics sequencing tools, the discovery of additional genes implicated in breast cancer and the change in the legal status of genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2, it is now possible to determine how often families in these circumstances actually do carry cancer-predisposing mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, or another gene implicated in breast cancer, despite the results of their previous genetic tests. The results were presented Oct. 24, by researchers from the University of Washington (which is affiliated with the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center) at the American Society of Human Genetics 2013 meeting in Boston.


Climate Change and Extreme Events: An Assessment of Economic Implications  


We use a general equilibrium model of the world economy, and a regional economic growth model, to assess the economic implications of vulnerability from extreme meteorological events, induced by the climate change. In particular, we first consider the impact of climate change on ENSO and NAO oceanic oscillations and, subsequently, the implied variation on regional expected damages. We found that expected damages from extreme events are increasing in the United States, Europe and Russia, and R...

Roson, Roberto; Calzadilla, Alvaro; Pauli, Francesco



The SOLASE laser fusion reactor design and its technological implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A conceptual laser fusion reactor has been designed to elucidate the technological problems posed by inertial confinement fusion reactors. A general description of the reactor concept is presented and the major technological implications of the study are summarized. Results from experiments over the next five to seven years taken together with the findings of studies such as SOLASE will provide the basis for determining if an ambitious engineering-oriented program aimed at reactor development is warranted. (author)


Death of distance? Economic implications of infrastructure improvement in Russia  


We examine the economic implications of infrastructure investment policies that try to improve economic conditions in Russia's peripheral regions. Our analysis of firm-level industrial data for 1989 and 2004 highlights a 'death of distance' in industrial location, with increasing concentration of new firms in regions with good market access. We assess the geographic determinants of growth econometrically and identify market size and proximity to Moscow and regional infrastructure as important...

Brown, David; Fay, Marianne; Lall, Somik V.; Wang, Hyoung Gun; Felkner, John



Cooperativity of adaptive and innate immunity: implications for cancer therapy  


The dichotomy of immunology into innate and adaptive immunity has created conceptual barriers in appreciating the intrinsic two-way interaction between immune cells. An emerging body of evidence in various models of immune rejection, including cancer, indicates an indispensable regulation of innate effector functions by adaptive immune cells. This bidirectional cooperativity in innate and adaptive immune functions has broad implications for immune responses in general and for regulating the t...

Shanker, Anil; Marincola, Francesco M.



The Hydro-geomorphological Implications of Urbanisation in Bamenda, Cameroon  


Rapid urbanization and proper urban planning are two variables in the equation of environmental stability. In Bamenda municipality these have been moving in opposite directions. This indicates the lopsidedness in which the problems of urban planning and urban development, masterminded by urbanization have been handled over time. This paper therefore examines the pattern of urbanization and urban development in the Bamenda area, with respect to the implication on the hydrology, geomorphology a...

Sunday Shende Kometa; Ndi Roland Akoh



Advances in Seabed Liquefaction and its Implications for Marine Structures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A review is presented of recent advances in seabed liquefaction and its implications for marine structures. The review is organized in seven sections: Residual liquefaction, including the sequence of liquefaction, mathematical modelling, centrifuge modelling and comparison with standard wave-flume results; Momentary liquefaction; Floatation of buried pipelines; Sinking of pipelines and marine objects; Liquefaction at gravity structures; Stability of rock berms in liquefied soils; and Impact of seismic-induced liquefaction.

Sumer, B. Mutlu





The Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS; Gunderson et al., 2000) was developed to fill gaps in our understanding of the nature, course, and impact of personality disorders (PDs). Here, we review published findings to date, discuss their implications for current conceptualizations of PDs, and raise questions that warrant future consideration. We have found that PDs are more stable than major depressive disorder, but that meaningful improvements are possible and not unc...

Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Shea, M. Tracie; Mcglashan, Thomas H.; Morey, Leslie C.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Bender, Donna S.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Yen, Shirley; Pagano, Maria E.; Stout, Robert L.



Patents and plant breeding: Implications for food security  


This article examines the inter-relationship between plant variety protection (PVP) laws and patent laws and their implications for food security. PVP laws were developed to encourage and protect agricultural innovations by conferring exclusive rights upon the developers of new plant varieties, subject to exceptions for farmers to save seeds for future plantings and for plant breeders to develop new varieties. With the application of recombinant DNA technologies to agriculture and the possibi...

Michael Blakeney



The Condition of Hermeneutics: the Implicative Structure of Understanding  


In this paper the conditional – i.e. the implicative – form is shown as the very structure of understanding. The predominance of this structure, as structure of understanding, is intended as the mark which signals the passage from phenomenology to hermeneutics, that is, from the predominance of intuitive representation (it is day, there is light) to the predominance of the transitive representation (if it is day, there is light), or more concisely, from representationalism to inferentiali...

Chiurazzi, Gaetano



Learning Styles and Their Implications in Learning and Teaching  


Learning style in SLA is one of the individual factors in SLA. This paper starts by stating the importance of studying learning styles. Then it quotes several definitions of learning style. The main part of it sums up the types and models of learning styles. Learning style is mainly divided into three categories: perceptual learning style, cognitive learning style and personality learning style. In the end, it states the implications of learning style for language learning and language teaching.

Wen Xu



Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Public Health Implications  


This review summarizes studies on the epidemiology and public health implications of Helicobacter pylori published in peer-reviewed journals from April 2010 through March 2011. Prevalence rates vary widely between different geographical regions and ethnic groups. An interesting study from the USA identified the degree of African ancestry as an independent predictor of H. pylori infection. Two studies have demonstrated early childhood as the period of transmission of infection and identified a...

Goh, Khean-lee; Chan, Wah-kheong; Shiota, Seiji; Yamaoka, Yoshio



Systematic Implications of Seed Coat Morphology in Malvaceae  


Seed morphological characters and seed coat sculpture of 14 species of Malvaceae were examined to assess systematic implications of seed coat sculpture. These taxa are Malva aegyptia L., M. parviflora L., M. neglecta Wallr., M. nicaeensis All., M. sylvestris L., Lavatera cretica L., Alcea rosea All., Sida alba L., Abutilon theophrasti Medicus, A. pannosum (G. Forster) Schlecht., Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., H. trionum L., and Gossypium barbadense (L.). Seed shap...

El Naggar, Salah M. I.



Antiphospholipid syndrome; its implication in cardiovascular diseases: a review  


Abstract Antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) is a rare syndrome mainly characterized by several hyper-coagulable complications and therefore, implicated in the operated cardiac surgery patient. APLS comprises clinical features such as arterial or venous thromboses, valve disease, coronary artery disease, intracardiac thrombus formation, pulmonary hypertension and dilated cardiomyopathy. The most commonly affected valve is the mitral, followed by the aortic and tricuspid valve. For APLS diagnosis...

Goudevenos John; Papadopoulos Georgios; Baikoussis Nikolaos G; Siminelakis Stavros N; Koniari Ioanna; Apostolakis Efstratios



Practical Implications of Data Reliability and Treatment Integrity Monitoring  


Data reliability and treatment integrity have important implications for clinical practice because they can affect clinicians' abilities to accurately judge the efficacy of behavioral interventions. Reliability and integrity data also allow clinicians to provide feedback to caregivers and to adjust interventions as needed. We present reasons why reliability and integrity measures are paramount in clinical work, discuss events that may result in decreased reliability or integrity, and provide ...

Vollmer, Timothy R.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; St Peter Pipkin, Claire



An implication of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem  


A proof of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem is given. With this new proof a transfinite extension of G\\"odel's theorem is considered. It is shown that if one assumes the set theory ZFC on the meta level as well as on the object level, a contradiction arises. The cause is shown to be the implicit identification of the meta level and the object level hidden behind the G\\"odel numbering. An implication of these considerations is stated.

Kitada, Hitoshi



U.S. commercial space policies - Implications for developing countries (United States)

Recent U.S. policy developments on the commercial use of space are summarized and their international implications are considered. Attention is given to successful applications of technology developed in space, including an implantable cancer medication system, an implantable defibrillator, an ultrasonic residual stress monitor, and aquaculture treatment techniques. NASA projects involving bioengineering and rehabilitation applications are summarized, and plans to investigate high-temperature superconductors in space are addressed. Recent agreements entred into by NASA for space commercial studies are reviewed.

Gillam, Isaac T., IV; Stone, Barbara A.



US acid rain legislation: implications for the steaming coal trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent acid rain legislation passed by the US Congress aims to drastically reduce sulphur dioxide emissions from coal fired power stations. Compliance with this legislation is expected to impinge on industries involved in steaming coal production, consumption and exports. Australia is a major producer of low sulphur coal, therefore it is assumed that this legislation could have positive implications for the Australian steaming coal industry. 13 refs., tabs., figs


Rethinking the Concept of Acculturation: Implications for Theory and Research  


This article presents an expanded model of acculturation among international migrants and their immediate descendants. Acculturation is proposed as a multidimensional process consisting of the confluence among heritage-cultural and receiving-cultural practices, values, and identifications. The implications of this reconceptualization for the acculturation construct, as well as for its relationship to psychosocial and health outcomes, are discussed. In particular, an expanded operationalizatio...

Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Szapocznik, Jose?



The Finnish Team Academy model: implications for management education  


This article explores an innovative model of management education, the Team Academy based in Finland, in which teams of learners create and operate real enterprises, supported by coaches. The contributions of the article are to provide insights into how the Team Academy works, and to review its implications for theories of management learning and educational design. Based on a case study of the Team Academy model we argue that management education programmes need to be construed as artificial...

Tosey, Pc; Dhaliwal, S.; Hassinen, J.



Targeting in Advertising Markets: Implications for Offline Versus Online Media  


We develop a model with many advertisers (products) and many advertising markets (media). Each advertiser sells to a different segment of consumers, and each medium is targeting a different audience. We characterize the competitive equilibrium in the advertising markets and evaluate the implications of targeting. An increase in targeting leads to an increase in the total number of consumer-product matches, and hence in the social value of advertising. Yet, targeting also increases the concent...

Bergemann, Dirk; Bonatti, Alessandro



Implications of the Barents Sea Treaty for fisheries matters  


The Barents Sea Treaty was signed on 15 September 2010 in Murmansk, bringing almost forty years of negotiations between Norway and Russia to an end. This master thesis undertakes an assessment of its implications for fisheries management in the Barents Sea, including the Fisheries Protection Zone around Svalbard. The main research question is whether the provisions of the Barents Sea Treaty affect the cooperation and conservation obligations of Norway and Russia. Keywords: Barents Sea,...

Ermolina, Natalia Nikolaevna



From ‘Implications’ to ‘Dimensions’: Science, Medicine and Ethics in Society  


Much bioethical scholarship is concerned with the social, legal and philosophical implications of new and emerging science and medicine, as well as with the processes of research that under-gird these innovations. Science and technology studies (STS), and the related and interpenetrating disciplines of anthropology and sociology, have also explored what novel technoscience might imply for society, and how the social is constitutive of scientific knowledge and technological artefacts. More rec...

Pickersgill, Martyn D.



Computed tomographic practice and dosimetry: implications for nuclear medicine: editorial  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This editorial briefly discusses the results of an NRPB survey of x-ray computed tomography practice and dosimetry in the UK. A wide variation in practice and patient doses was revealed. The implications for nuclear medicine are considered. The NRPB is to issue formal guidance on protection of the patient undergoing a CT investigation with the aim of achieving a more systematic approach to the justification and optimization of such exposures. (UK)


Financial and Nonfinancial Information in Interim Reports. Determinants and Implications  


This study examines the determinants and implications of the information disclosed in interim reports submitted to the Helsinki Stock Exchange in the period 1985-93. The determinants part of the work is based primarily on prior literature, firm attributes, and the development of the institutional regime. Specifically, nine classes of determinants of disclosure are derived. These are: (1) governance structure, (2)business risk, (3) market risk, (4) capital structure, (5) stock valuation, (6) f...

Hannu, Schadewitz



Asset pricing implications of a New Keynesian model: A note  


De Paoli, Scott, and Weeken [2010, Asset pricing implications of a New Keynesian model. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control 34, 2056-73] study equity and bonds prices in a New Keynesian model with sticky nominal prices. This note argues that their model generates a behavior of the labor market variables that is contrary to empirical evidence and, as remedy for this deficiency, suggests a model with both sticky nominal wages and prices.

Heer, Burkhard; Klarl, Torben; Maußner, Alfred



Climate change negotiations and their implications for international development cooperation  


This report discusses possible implications of the international attempts to address climate change for the organization of development cooperation. It concentrates on questions related to institutions and resources and pays less attention to potential consequences for the objectives and contents of development cooperation. The institutional question is limited to the norms, practices and organizations that emerge primarily at the international level in response to climate change. The resourc...

Engberg-pedersen, Lars



Implications of a 125 GeV Higgs boson (United States)

The discovery of the Higgs boson has been one the most important results in the whole story of particle physics. A review of the aspects of the long path, starting from the speculative introduction of the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism, continuing with the long search to detect the Higgs particle, and arriving to the discovery is given. The first measurements of the properties are described, their implications are discussed and the future prospects are given.

Checchia, Paolo



Imaging of Brain Dopamine Pathways: Implications for Understanding Obesity  


Obesity is typically associated with abnormal eating behaviors. Brain imaging studies in humans implicate the involvement of dopamine (DA)-modulated circuits in pathologic eating behavior(s). Food cues increase striatal extracellular DA, providing evidence for the involvement of DA in the nonhedonic motivational properties of food. Food cues also increase metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex indicating the association of this region with the motivation for food consumption. Similar to drug-...

Wang, Gene-jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Fowler, Joanna S.



China in Africa. Implications for Norwegian Foreign and Development Policies  


China’s development will affect the history of the twenty-first century, and perhaps nowhere more importantly than in Africa. The emergence of China introduces new opportunities for Africa, new challenges and new imponderables as well. Observers are watching China’s Africa policy with a mixture of fascination and fright. The new Chinese Africa policy has major implications for development on the continent. The purpose of this report commissioned by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affair...

Tjønneland, Elling N.; Brandtzæg, Bjørn; Kola?s, A?shild; Le Pere, Garth



China and the globalization of ICTs: implications for international relations  


As the People’s Republic of China (PRC) accedes to the World TradeOrganization (WTO), much speculation has been generated about the political impact of the opening of its telecommunications market to foreign firms and investors. This article evaluates the assumptions behind competing views from the West and China, drawing out the implications for international politics. It argues that international economic, technological and security regimes fail to address human rights concerns that arise...

Hughes, Christopher R.



Pharmacometabolomics Reveals That Serotonin Is Implicated in Aspirin Response Variability  


While aspirin is generally effective for prevention of cardiovascular disease, considerable variation in drug response exists, resulting in some individuals displaying high on-treatment platelet reactivity. We used pharmacometabolomics to define pathways implicated in variation of response to treatment. We profiled serum samples from healthy subjects pre- and postaspirin (14 days, 81?mg/day) using mass spectrometry. We established a strong signature of aspirin exposure independent of respon...

Ellero-simatos, S.; Lewis, J. P.; Georgiades, A.; Yerges-armstrong, L. M.; Beitelshees, A. L.; Horenstein, R. B.; Dane, A.; Harms, A. C.; Ramaker, R.; Vreeken, R. J.; Perry, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Sa?nchez, C. L.; Kuhn, C.; Ortel, T. L.



On nonlinearity implications and wind forcing in Hasselmann equation  

CERN Document Server

We discuss several experimental and theoretical techniques historically used for Hasselmann equation wind input terms derivation. We show that recently developed ZRP technique in conjunction with high-frequency damping without spectral peak dissipation allows to reproduce more than a dozen of fetch-limited field experiments. Numerical simulation of the same Cauchy problem for different wind input terms has been performed to discuss nonlinearity implications as well as correspondence to theoretical predictions.

Andrei, Pushkarev



Assessing the interestingness of temporal rules with Sequential Implication Intensity  


In this article, we study the assessment of the interestingness of sequential rules (generally temporal rules). This is a crucial problem in sequence analysis since the frequent pattern mining algorithms are unsupervised and can produce huge amounts of rules. While association rule interestingness has been widely studied in the literature, there are few measures dedicated to sequential rules. Continuing with our work on the adaptation of implication intensity to sequential rules, we propose a...

Blanchard, Julien; Guillet, Fabrice; Gras, Re?gis



Conjecture on the physical implications of the scale anomaly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Murray Gell-Mann, after co-inventing QCD, recognized the interplay of the scale anomaly, the renormalization group, and the origin of the strong scale, {Lambda}{sub QCD}. I tell a story, then elaborate this concept, and for the sake of discussion, propose a conjecture that the physical world is scale invariant in the classical, {h_bar}, limit. This principle has implications for the dimensionality of space-time, the cosmological constant, the weak scale, and Planck scale.

Hill, Christopher T.; /Fermilab



The implications of migration theory for distributive justice  


This paper explores the implications of empirical theories of migration for normative accounts of migration and distributive justice. It examines neo-classical economics, world-systems theory, dual labor market theory, and feminist approaches to migration and contends that neo-classical economic theory in isolation provides an inadequate understanding of migration. Other theories provide a fuller account of how national and global economic, political, and social institutions cause and shape m...

Sager, Alex



Idiom Taxonomies and Idiom Comprehension: Implications for English Teachers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Idioms are an important part of a language, as they are used to express ideas in a more concise and effective way. Idioms have a considerable role in a foreign language as in the mother tongue. Therefore, their learning and teaching in L2 are worthy of attention and research. This paper intends to define idioms, introduce their different taxonomies, discuss L2 idiom processing and comprehension, and use the information to endow English teachers with some pedagogical implications.

Noorolhoda Saberian



Software Development Methodologies, Trends and Implications: A Testing Centric View  


The practice of software development has evolved steadily over the decades. Numerous methods and models (e.g., life cycle models and agile methods) have been proposed to enhance its efficiency and effectiveness. This study provides a testing centric view of software development practices. Specifically, it reviews software development methodologies (i.e., methods and models), identifies the latest trends in the industry and discusses their implications. The review of methodologies, the identif...

Xihui Zhang; Tao Hu; Hua Dai; Xiang Li



Blast TBI Models, Neuropathology, and Implications for Seizure Risk  


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast le...

Kovacs, S. Krisztian; Leonessa, Fabio; Ling, Geoffrey S. F.



Implications of LHC Data to New Physics (1/3)  

CERN Document Server

In these lectures I will discuss the implications of the latest LHC experimental data to physics beyond the Standard Model. I will start discussing how LHC has been able to test certain sectors of the Standard Model at an unprecedented level, with special attention to the Higgs sector. I will later move to discuss what we have learned on possible scenarios beyond the Standard Model, mainly concentrating in two, supersymmetry and composite Higgs models.

CERN. Geneva



Marital Conflict Behaviors and Implications for Divorce over 16 Years  


This study examined self-reported marital conflict behaviors and their implications for divorce. Husbands and wives (N = 373 couples; 47% White American, 53% Black American) reported conflict behaviors in years 1, 3, 7, and 16 of their marriages. Individual behaviors (e.g., destructive behaviors) and patterns of behaviors between partners (e.g., withdrawal-constructive) in Year 1 predicted higher divorce rates. Wives’ destructive and withdrawal behaviors decreased over time, whereas husband...

Birditt, Kira S.; Brown, Edna; Orbuch, Terri L.; Mcilvane, Jessica M.



Decomposing inequality in Greece: results and policy implications  


This paper investigates the extent to which certain social characteristics and personal attributes could help explain income inequality in Greece. This analysis is quite revealing for understanding and explaining income idfferences among certain population subgroups with apparent policy implications. The degree to which overall inequality is attributable to inequality between these sub groups or to inequality within them is investigated, employing a decomposition analysis by population subgro...

Papatheodorou, Christos



Critical surface albedo and its implications to aerosol remote sensing  


We analyse the critical surface albedo (CSA) and its implications to aerosol remote sensing. CSA is defined as the surface albedo where the reflectance at top-of-atmosphere (TOA) does not depend on aerosol optical depth (AOD). AOD retrievals are therefore inaccurate at the CSA. The CSA is obtained by derivatives of the TOA reflectance with respect to AOD using a radiative transfer code. We present the CSA and the effect of surface albedo uncertainties on AOD retrieval and atmospheric correcti...

Seidel, F. C.; Popp, C.



Hepatitis B virus genotypes: Epidemiology and therapeutic implications  


Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a global health problem. Effective and individualized treatment of chronic hepatitis B to prevent progression to end-stage liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma is thus needed. HBV has been designated eight genotypes (A-H) based on genome sequence divergence. Each genotype has its distinct geographic and ethnic distribution. The epidemiology of HBV genotypes and their implications on the responses to antiviral therapy have become increasingly recognized. Recen...

Liu Chun-Jen; Kao Jia-Horng



Applications and implications of nanotechnologies for the food sector  


Abstract A review of the current and projected nanotechnology derived food ingredients, food additives, and food contact materials is presented in relation to potential implications for consumer safety and regulatory controls. Nanotechnology applications are expected to bring a range of benefits to the food sector, including new tastes, textures and sensations, less use of fat, enhanced absorption of nutrients, improved packaging, traceability and security of food products. The rev...

Chaudhry, Qasim; Scotter, Michael; Blackburn, James; Ross, Bryony; Boxall, Alistair; Castle, Laurence; Watkins, Richard; Aitken, Robert



Ore concentrate line efficient operation: some energy saving implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among the outstanding attributes slurry pipelines must have is the need to optimize production efficiency and, in particular, minimize energy consumption. In the present paper, the energy saving implications of three different factors, namely process variable uncertainties, transport control variables and pipeline availability are referred to and exemplified using an idealized Bingham-type slurry pipeline. Present examples suggest that important energy savings can be achieved with proper designs, equipment and operations scheduling. (author)

Ihle, Christian F. [BRASS Engineering Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)



Implications of a Running Spectral Index for Slow Roll Inflation  


We analyze the weak (2 sigma) evidence for a running spectral index seen in the three-year WMAP dataset and its implications for single field, slow roll inflation. We assume that the running is comparable to the central value found from the WMAP data analysis, and use the Hubble Slow Roll formalism to follow the evolution of the slow roll parameters. For all parameter choices consistent with a large, negative running, single field, slow roll inflation lasts less than 30 efol...

Easther, Richard; Peiris, Hiranya



Social capital and health : implications for health promotion  


This article is a review of the PhD Thesis of Malin Eriksson, entitled 'Social capital, health and community action - implications for health promotion.' The article presents a theoretical overview of social capital and its relation to health, reviews empirical findings of the links between social capital and (self-rated) health, and discusses the usefulness of social capital in health promotion interventions at individual and community levels. Social capital, conceptualized as an individual ...

Eriksson, Malin



Epidemiological research commissioned by public administration: ethical implications  


Background Environmental epidemiology studies are increasingly funded by public bodies, the same that take decisions on prevention, reduction and remediation measures, only sometimes based on the results of studies. Sometimes they manage hazardous plants/technology. Objectives To present the core ethical implications to be assessed by researchers and Public Administration funders, and to identify the appropriate place for their management. Methods Three case-studies were examined: Sebiorec, a...

Cori, Liliana; Battaglia, Fiorella; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Terracini, Benedetto



Chronic Cigarette Smoking: Implications for Neurocognition and Brain Neurobiology  


Compared to the substantial volume of research on the general health consequences associated with chronic smoking, little research has been specifically devoted to the investigation of its effects on human neurobiology and neurocognition. This review summarizes the peer-reviewed literature on the neurocognitive and neurobiological implications of chronic cigarette smoking in cohorts that were not seeking treatment for substance use or psychiatric disorders. Studies that specifically assessed ...

Sara Jo Nixon; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.



Sepsis induced immunosuppression: Implications for secondary infections and complications  


Sepsis is the commonest cause of admission to medical ICUs across the world. Mortality from sepsis continues to be high. Besides shock and multi-organ dysfunction occurring following the intense inflammatory reaction to sepsis, complications arising from sepsis-related immunoparalysis contribute to the morbidity and mortality from sepsis. This review explores the basis for sepsis related immune dysfunction and discusses its clinical implications for the treating intensivist. Recent trends ind...

Sundar, Krishna M.; Sires, Mazen



Markov mortality models: implications of quasistationarity and varying initial distributions.  


This paper explains some implications of Markov-process theory for models of mortality. We show that an important qualitative feature common to empirical mortality data, and which has been found in certain models-the convergence to a "mortality plateau"-is, in fact, a generic consequence of the models' convergence to a "quasistationary distribution". This phenomenon has been explored extensively in the mathematical literature. Not only does this generalization free important results from spec...

Steinsaltz, D.; Evans, Sn



IEEE Std 929-2000 - Background, implications and requirements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The newly revised standard, IEEE Std 929-2000, has significant positive implications for those designing inverters for utility-interconnected PV systems and for designers and installers of such systems. A working group of roughly 20 people, including PV systems designers/installers, PV inverter manufacturers and utility engineers spent close to 3 years developing a standard that would be useful and beneficial to all.




The Political Implications of Violence Against Women in Africa  


Using the primary and secondary tools of analysis, this paper brings out in succinct details, the diverse forms of violence that affect Africa women with greater emphasis, the implications of the phenomenon of violence against women’s political participation is discussed. We thus, canvass the elimination of all forms of violence against women through a new continental gender reawakening process. We reasoned that only this would enable women contribute their quota to the socio-econo...

Adebukola Foluke Osunyikanmi



E-commerce Implications Potential Problems and Challenges in Malaysia  


E-commerce transaction has grown immensely. It has directly or indirectly imposed a number of challenges to the governmentadministration particularly to the tax system. There are mix views to the implication of e-commerce. Some opine that ecommerceimproves tax system, while others belief that tax system was designed in the era where e-commerce does not exist,thus, creating problems to the tax system. This study, therefore, investigates the tax problems posed by e-commerce andsolicit opinions ...

Hajah Mustafa Mohd Hanefah; Haslinda Hassan; Zaleha Othman



Gender implications of biofuels expansion: A CGE analysis for Mozambique  


We use a gendered computable general equilibrium model to assess the implications of biofuels expansion in Mozambique. We compare scenarios with different gender employment intensities in producing jatropha for biodiesel. Under all scenarios, biofuels accelerate GDP growth and reduce poverty. However, a stronger tradeoff between biofuels and food availability emerges when female labour is used intensively, as women are drawn away from food production. A skills-shortage amongst female workers ...

Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Thurlow, James



O-GlcNAc cycling: Implications for Neurodegenerative disorders  


The dynamic post-translational modification of proteins by O-linked N-Acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), termed O-GlcNAcylation, is an important mechanism for modulating cellular signaling pathways. O-GlcNAcylation impacts transcription, translation, organelle trafficking, proteasomal degradation and apoptosis. O-GlcNAcylation has been implicated in the etiology of several human diseases including type-2 diabetes and neurodegeneration. This review describes the pair of enzymes responsible for the ...

Lazarus, Brooke D.; Love, Dona C.; Hanover, John A.



Financial and economic crisis: implications for agricultural sector in India  


In the light of the fact that the financial meltdown of September 2008 led to sharp slowdown in economic activity in the US and Europe with a massive drop in demand for goods and services from major exporting nations like China, Japan, Germany and other Asian countries, including India, this paper attempts to evaluate the implications of global meltdown on agricultural sector of India, especially with respect to commodity price, investment in agriculture and in general food security of the co...

Deepak, Shah



Fly-in/Fly-out: Implications for Community Sustainability  


“Fly-in/fly-out” is a form of work organization that has become the standard model for new mining, petroleum and other types of resource development in remote areas. In many places this “no town” model has replaced that of the “new town.” The work system has both beneficial and adverse implications for the sustainability of both existing communities near new resource developments and for the more distant communities from which workers are drawn. This paper explores these outcomes ...

Keith Storey



Part 4. Safety implications of alternative fuel types  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides an assessment of safety implications associated with alternatives relative to the reference (U,Pu) oxide fuel in fast breeder reactors. The alternatives considered include thorium- and uranium-based oxide, carbide and metal fuel types for the LMFBR and oxide fuel types for the GCFR. Major emphasis is put on low probability, but potentially large-consequence accidents, e.g., core-disruptive accidents


Computer – Based Infrastructure Sector Interdependencies and Security Implications  


Traditionally, the analysis of sector interdependencies has involved the characterization of all infrastructure-to-infrastructure interconnections and some of the main infrastructure integrals that, once lost or be tampered with, will compromise the performance and security issues with the other interconnected infrastructures. Therefore, the paper dwells much on the security implications which may be associated with these infrastructure sector interdependencies. This paper also discusses some...

Aghware Fidelis Obukohwo



From doing to performing phenomenology: implications and possibilities  


This commentary focuses on the implications of staging phenomenological research. In my opinion the authors of ‘Performing phenomenology: negotiating presence in intermedial theatre’ missed an opportunity to stress more what W (Double U), a performance of CREW, has to offer postphenomenology and what it actually means to ‘perform’ phenomenology. I will not only argue that W (Double U) because of its performative nature offers a reflection on postphenomenology, but also that the perfor...

Merx, S.



Total imprecision of exposure biomarkers: implications for calculating exposure limits  


BACKGROUND: Assessment of the imprecision of exposure biomarkers usually focuses on laboratory performance only. Unrecognized imprecision leads to underestimation of the true toxicity of the exposure. We have assessed the total imprecision of exposure biomarkers and the implications for calculation of exposure limits. METHODS: In a birth cohort study, mercury concentrations in cord blood, cord tissue, and maternal hair were used as biomarkers of prenatal methylmercury exposure. We determined ...

Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-jørgensen, Esben



Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) contamination of the indoor environment: Health implications  


In 1998, widespread contamination of water-damaged school portables with the toxigenic mold Stachybotrys chartarum was detected in the province of Ontario. This mold may cause human disease through direct irritation, type 1 hypersensitivity or the production of toxins. A variety of respiratory, dermatological, eye and constitutional symptoms have been associated with heavy and prolonged exposure to S chartarum. S chartarum has also been potentially implicated as a rare cause of idiopathic pul...

Bitnun, Ari; Nosal, Robert M.



Warming Oceans, Phytoplankton, and River Discharge: Implications for Cholera Outbreaks  


Phytoplankton abundance is inversely related to sea surface temperature (SST). However, a positive relationship is observed between SST and phytoplankton abundance in coastal waters of Bay of Bengal. This has led to an assertion that in a warming climate, rise in SST may increase phytoplankton blooms and, therefore, cholera outbreaks. Here, we explain why a positive SST-phytoplankton relationship exists in the Bay of Bengal and the implications of such a relationship on cholera dynamics. We f...

Jutla, Antarpreet S.; Akanda, Ali S.; Griffiths, Jeffrey K.; Colwell, Rita; Islam, Shafiqul



Workplace bullying after whistleblowing:Future research and implications  


Findings: Empirical research has documented the link between whistleblowing and workplace bullying and the devastating effects on health that may follow (e.g. depression and symptoms analogous to post traumatic stress). Implications for practice are as follows: first, to provide clear examples of unwanted workplace behavior; and second, to help clinicians to gain a balance between the client's need to re-tell and the need for psychological treatment.

Bjørkelo, Brita



Implications of HIV PrEP Trials Results  


Six randomized clinical trials have been implemented to examine the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and/or TDF/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) as preexposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 infection (PrEP). Although largely complementary, the six trials have many similar features. As the earliest results become available, an urgent question may arise regarding whether changes should be made in the conduct of the other trials. To consider this in advance, a Consultation on the Implications of H...

Veronese, Fulvia; Anton, Peter; Fletcher, Courtney V.; Degruttola, Victor; Mcgowan, Ian; Becker, Stephen; Zwerski, Sheryl; Burns, David



Hypothetical Gravity Control and Implications for Spacecraft Propulsion  


A scientific analysis of the conditions under which gravity could be controlled and the implications that an hypothetical manipulation of gravity would have for known schemes of space propulsion have been the scope of a recent study carried out for the European Space Agency. The underlying fundamental physical principles of known theories of gravity were analysed and shown that even if gravity could be modified it would bring somewhat modest gains in terms of launching of sp...

Bertolami, O.; Tajmar, M.



Digital realm: Implications on urban development and planning  


The implications of ICT on urban planning and development is the topic of this paper. At the outset, the relationship between the 'intelligent environment', and planning and development is outlined, followed by the discussion on new perspectives in the planning value system, and creation of the value-chains. The ICT based planning products and processes are outlined and explored. The author argues that ICT not only affects the very understanding of planning, its role and its attributes, but a...

Brkovi?-Baji? Milica



Eating disordered patients: personality, alexithymia, and implications for primary care.  


BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are becoming more apparent in primary care. Descriptions of character traits related to people with eating disorders are rarely reported in the primary care literature and there is little awareness of the implications of alexithymia--a concept that defines the inability to identify or express emotion. We hypothesised that many individuals with active eating disorders have alexithymic traits and a tendency to somatize their distress. AIM: To analyse the character t...

Beales, D. L.; Dolton, R.



Structure and Mechanistic Implications of a Tryptophan Synthase Quinonoid Intermediate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quinonoid intermediates play a key role in the catalytic mechanism of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes. Whereas structures of other PLP-bound reaction intermediates have been determined, a high-quality structure of a quinonoid species has not been reported. We present the crystal structure of the indoline quinonoid intermediate of tryptophan synthase (see figure) and discuss its implications for the enzymatic mechanism and allosteric regulation.

Barends,T.; Domratcheva, T.; Kulik, V.; Blumenstein, L.; Niks, D.; Dunn, M.; Schlichting, I.



Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians, Metric, Other Observables and Physical Implications  


The metric associated with a quasi-Hermitian Hamiltonian and its physical implications are scrutinised. Consequences of the non-uniqueness such as the question of the probability interpretation and the possible and forbidden choices of additional observables are investigated and exemplified by specific illustrative examples. In particular it is argued that the improper identification of observables lies at the origin of the claimed violation of the brachistchrone transition ...

Geyer, H. B.; Heiss, W. D.; Scholtz, F. G.



Understanding Gender : Some Implications for Science and Technology  


Gender relations and gendered power relations are major defining features of science and technology. This article addresses the question of how to understand gender, and considers their various implications for science and technology. Gender and gender relations can be understood as operating and as relevant to science and technology at several levels: who does science and technology; how science and technology are organized; and the construction of knowledge in science and technology. We rev...

Hearn, Jeffery; Husu, Liisa



A glycobiology review: carbohydrates, lectins, and implications in cancer therapeutics  


This review is intended for general readers who would like a basic foundation in carbohydrate structure and function, lectin biology and the implications of glycobiology in human health and disease, particularly in cancer therapeutics. These topics are among the hundreds included in the field of glycobiology and are treated here because they form the cornerstone of glycobiology or the focus of many advances in this rapidly expanding field.

Ghazarian, Haike; Idoni, Brian; Oppenheimer, Steven B.



Diabetes and oral disease: implications for health professionals  


“Diabetes and Oral Disease: Implications for Health Professionals” was a one-day conference convened by the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine, the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, and the New York Academy of Sciences on May 4, 2011in New York City. The program included an examination of the bidirectional relationship between oral disease and diabetes and the inter-professional working relationships for the care of people who have diabetes. The overall g...

Albert, David A.; Ward, Angela; Allweiss, Pamela; Graves, Dana T.; Knowler, William C.; Kunzel, Carol; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Novak, Karen F.; Oates, Thomas W.; Papapanou, Panos N.; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Taylor, George W.; Lamster, Ira B.; Lalla, Evanthia



Weight loss at high altitude: pathophysiology and practical implications.  


Climbers at high altitude (>5000 m) lose weight. This impairs performance and safety, but the mechanisms are not entirely due to an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. There is some evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption, but there are also changes in fat metabolism and total body water. This paper considers the physiological control of weight and then discusses the changes in each parameter before addressing the practical implications.

Hamad, N.; Travis, Sp



Clinicopathological and prognostic implications of genetic alterations in oral cancers  


This study evaluated the clinicopathological and prognostic implications of genetic alterations characterizing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Comparative genomic hybridization was used to identify chromosomal alterations present in primary OSCCs obtained from 97 patients. In this population, tobacco use was a significant risk factor for OSCC. By contrast, the 97 samples were negative for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA integration, another known risk factor for OSCC in certain population...

Pathare, Swapnali M.; Gerstung, Moritz; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Scha?ffer, Alejandro A.; Kannan, Sadhana; Pai, Prathamesh; Pathak, K. Alok; Borges, Anita M.; Mahimkar, Manoj B.



Hydromorphological implications of local tributary widening for river rehabilitation  


The hydromorphological implications of the local widening of a tributary where it enters a confluence were investigated in a laboratory setting that is representative of the 20 major confluences on the channelized Upper Rhone River. Although local tributary widening reduces the confluence angle, it amplifies the hydromorphosedimentary processes in the confluence hydrodynamic zone (CHZ), because local widening reduces the effective flow area, causing increased tributary velocities and momentum...

Ribeiro, Marcelo Leite; Blanckaert, Koen; Roy, A. G.; Schleiss, Anton



The distributional implications of income underreporting in Hungary  


The paper estimates the distributional implications of income tax evasion in Hungary based on a random sample of administrative tax records of 230 thousand individuals. Gross incomes in the administrative tax records are compared with those in a nationally representative household budget survey, assuming that tax-evaders are more likely to report their true incomes in an anonymous interview. Our estimates show that the average rate of underreporting is 11%, which conceals large differences be...

Benedek, Dora; Lelkes, Orsolya



Implications of climate change for the UK aviation sector  


With demand for air travel continuing to rise, its climate impacts are expected to increase dramatically and will be of continuing concern to decision makers. There is also a need to better understand the ways a changing climate may impact on air transport, both operationally and economically. This will influence safety, efficiency and future environmental impacts and is important in the development of mitigation policies. This thesis investigates a new angle, the implications ...

Pejovic, Tamara



Eye mechanics and their implications for eye movement control  


The topic of this thesis is the investigation of the mechanical properties of the oculomotor system and the implications of these properties for eye movement control. The investigation was conducted by means of computer models and simulations. This allowed us to combine data from anatomy, physiology and psychophysics with basic principles of physics (mechanics) and mathematics (geometry). In chapter 2 we investigate the degree to which mechanical and neural non-linearities contribute to t...

Koene, Ansgar Roald



Therapy of Chagas Disease: Implications for Levels of Prevention  


This paper reviews the evidence supporting the use of etiological treatment for Chagas disease that has changed the standard of care for patients with Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the last decades. Implications of this evidence on different levels of prevention as well as gaps in current knowledge are also discussed. In this regard, etiological treatment has shown to be beneficial as an intervention for secondary prevention to successfully cure the infection or to delay, reduce, or prevent ...

Sergio Sosa-Estani; Lisandro Colantonio; Elsa Leonor Segura



Negative Pressure of Anisotropic Compressible Hall States : Implication to Metrology  


Pressure, compressibility, and Hall conductance of anisotropic states at higher Landau levels are computed. Pressure and compressibility become negative. Hall conductance is unquantized and varies with filling factor. These facts agree with the recent experimental observations of highly anisotropic compressible states at higher Landau levels. It is shown, as an implication of negative pressure, that the quantum Hall effect has extraordinary stability, that is, Hall resistanc...

Ishikawa, K.; Maeda, N.



Local organic food: The social implications of sustainable consumption  


In recent years organically-grown produce for local markets has become more popular with consumers, and re-localising food chains has been put forward as a strategy for sustainable consumption due to the apparent benefits to local economies, communities, and environments. Notions of 'sustainable consumption' are contested, however, and can represent competing ideologies and perspectives about the environment and society. In order to examine the social implications of sustainable consumption, ...

Seyfang, Gill



Climate change: Implications for water and ecological resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A conference was held to discuss the implications of climate change on water and ecological resources. The meeting consisted of a number of plenary sessions, luncheon speeches, an open forum, and five workshops. Presentations concerned regional and global issues, climate modelling, international aspects of climate change, water resources supply and demand, wetlands, wildlife and fisheries, agriculture and forests, and conservation strategies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 32 presentations from the conference


Conditional Excluded Middle in systems of consequential implication  


It is natural to ask under what conditions negating a conditional is equivalent to negating its consequent. Given a bivalent background logic, this is equivalent to asking about the conjunction of Conditional Excluded Middle (CEM, opposite conditionals are not both false) and Weak Boethius' Thesis (WBT, opposite conditionals are not both true). In the system CI.0 of consequential implication, which is intertranslatable with the modal logic KT, WBT is a theorem, so it is natural to ask which i...

Pizzi, C.; Williamson, T.



Technological Innovation: Concept, Process, Typology and Implications in the Economy  


Growing interest worldwide to boost innovation in business sector activities, especially the technology, is intended to maintain or increase national economic competitiveness, inclusively as an effect of awareness concerning the effects resulting from economic activity on consumption of resources and environment, which requires design of new patterns of production and consumption. In this paper we review the most important contributions in the literature in terms of the implications of techno...

Diaconu, Mihaela



Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications  


Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 ...

Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S.



Non-coding RNAs enter mitosis: functions, conservation and implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Nuage (or commonly known as chromatoid body in mammals is a conserved germline-specific organelle that has been linked to the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA pathway. piRNAs are a class of gonadal-specific RNAs that are ~23-29 nucleotides in length and protect genome stability by repressing the expression of deleterious retrotransposons. More recent studies in Drosophila have implicated the piRNA pathway in other functions including canalization of embryonic development, regulation of maternal gene expression and telomere protection. We have recently shown that Vasa (known as Mouse Vasa Homolog in mouse, a nuage component, plays a mitotic role in promoting chromosome condensation and segregation by facilitating robust chromosomal localization of condensin I in the Drosophila germline. Vasa functions together with Aubergine (a PIWI family protein and Spindle-E/mouse TDRD-9, two other nuage components that are involved in the piRNA pathway, therefore providing a link between the piRNA pathway and mitotic chromosome condensation. Here, we propose and discuss possible models for the role of Vasa and the piRNA pathway during mitosis. We also highlight relevant studies implicating mitotic roles for RNAs and/or nuage in other model systems and their implications for cancer development.

Kai Toshie



Social cognition and the superior temporal sulcus: implications in autism. (United States)

The most common clinical sign of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is social interaction impairment, which is associated with communication deficits and stereotyped behaviors. Based on brain-imaging results, our hypothesis is that abnormalities in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) are highly implicated in ASD. These abnormalities are characterized by decreased grey matter concentration, rest hypoperfusion and abnormal activation during social tasks. STS anatomofunctional anomalies occurring early across brain development could constitute the first step in the cascade of neural dysfunctions underlying autism. It is known that STS is highly implicated on social perception processing, from perception of biological movements, such as body movements or eye gaze, to more complex social cognition processes. Among the impairments that can be described in social perception processing, eye gaze perception is particularly relevant in autism. Gaze abnormalities can now be objectively measured using eye-tracking methodology. In the present work, we will review recent data on STS contributions to normal social cognition and its implication in autism, with particular focus on eye gaze perception. PMID:22981269

Saitovitch, A; Bargiacchi, A; Chabane, N; Brunelle, F; Samson, Y; Boddaert, N; Zilbovicius, M



Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of an esterese with a novel domein from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima  


Esterase A4 (EA4) is a timer protein found in diapause eggs of the silkworm Bombyx mori. The gene for this metalloglycoprotein was cloned from B. mori eggs and expressed using a baculovirus expression system in silkworm pupae. Crystals of the purified protein have been grown that diffract to beyond 2.1 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. The protein crystals belong to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.1, b = 73.9, c = 47.4 Å, ß = 104.1°. With one dimer pe...

Sun, L.; Levisson, M.; Hendriks, S. N. A.; Akveld, T.; Kengen, S. W. M.; Dijkstra, B. W.; Oost, J.



Thermotoga maritima sp. nov. represents a new genus of unique extremely thermophilic eubacteria growing up to 90°C  


A novel type of bacterium has been isolated from various geothermally heated locales on the sea floor. The organisms are strictly anaerobic, rod-shaped, fermentative, extremely thermophilic and grow between 55 and 90° C with an optimum of around 80° C. Cells show a unique sheathlike structure and monotrichous flagellation. By 16S rRNA sequencing they clearly belong to the eubacteria, although no close relationship to any known group could be detected. The majority of...

Huber, Robert; Langworthy, Thomas A.; Ko?nig, H.; Thomm, Michael; Woese, Carl R.; Sleytr, W.; Stetter, Karl Otto



Depositional History of a Saline Blue Hole on Eleuthera Island, Bahamas: Implications for Sea Level History and Climate Change (United States)

Physical, chemical and biological properties of Duck Pond Blue Hole (DPBH), located on the southern portion of Eleuthera Island, Bahamas, were examined to analyze its depositional history and the record of climate and anthropogenic changes on the island. DPBH is a small (.001 km2), circular inland blue hole with average salinity ranging from 20-28 ppt and a maximum depth of ~8 m. Sediment cores were recovered using standard piston coring techniques along a transect consisting of three sites yielding cores of varying lengths--170, 155 and 151 cm, respectively. Radiocarbon dating, x-ray fluorescence (XRF), grain size analysis, loss on ignition (LOI), smear slide and mollusk processing and identification were performed on the cores. The sediment recovered is dominated by brown, tan and white carbonate sand with varying amounts of organic matter. Sedimentation rates vary between 0.1-0.5 mm/year. Mollusks are found throughout the cores but gastropods dominate in the upper portions, which date from 2000 years BP to present day. Bivalves are abundant in intervals dating between 5000 and 2500 years BP. The most common bivalve species were Polymesoda maritima, Anomalocardis auberiana and Ervilia concentrica. The most common gastropods were Cerithidea costata and Cerithium lutosum. Drill holes made by predaceous gastropods occur on some of the gastropods, but on most of the bivalves. Drilling frequency is highest between 5000 and 2500 years BP even though gastropods are rarely preserved in that interval. Through smear slide analysis, diatoms, forams and ostracodes were also found to occur throughout the core record. Peaks in Fe and Sr from XRF scans at 0.5 cm intervals may represent records of high atmospheric dust concentrations and sea level fluctuations, respectively. Plotting mollusk bed depths versus calibrated age reveals a sea level rise over the last 6000 years that includes a rapid rise and subsequent fall at ~2500 year BP.

Brady, K.; Bernard, M.; Bender, S.; Roy, Z.; Boush, L. E.; Myrbo, A.; Brown, E. T.; Buynevich, I. V.; Berman, M.; Gnivecki, P.



Implications of Academic Medicine’s Failure to Recognize Clinical Excellence  


Objective: To better understand the implications of inadequately recognizing clinical excellence in academia by exploring the perspectives of clinically excellent faculty within prominent American departments of medicine.

Durso, Samuel C.; Christmas, Colleen; Kravet, Steven J.; Parsons, Gregory; Wright, Scott M.



The Usher's Syndrome Adolescent: Programming Implications for School Administrators, Teachers, and Residential Advisors. (United States)

The article examines educational programing implications for adolescents with Usher's syndrome, a condition of congenital deafness accompanied by progressive loss of vision through retinitis pigmentosa. (DB)

Hicks, Wanda M.; Hicks, Doin E.



[Demographic implications of alternative fertility patterns in Serbia]. (United States)

The population dynamics of the Serbian Republic of Yugoslavia are analyzed for the period 1950-1980. The analysis is presented separately for Serbia proper and the autonomous regions of Kosovo and Voivodina. The authors note that although fertility has been below replacement level in Serbia proper and Voivodina for over 25 years, it remains above the level of replacement in Kosovo. The implications of current fertility trends for future population perspectives are reviewed, and projections are made up to the year 2010. Alternative policies designed to affect those trends are examined PMID:12268417

Macura, M; Rasevic, M



Pain during mammography: Implications for breast screening programmes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pain experienced during mammography can deter women from attending for breast cancer screening. Review of the current literature on pain experienced during mammography reveals three main areas of interest: reports of the frequency of pain, identification of predictors of pain and strategies for responding to pain. Implications of this literature for breast screening programmes include the need for appropriate measurements of pain during mammography that are valid for screening populations, a further understanding of organizational factors involved in screening programmes that may be predictors of pain and for the development of valid strategies for responding to pain within breast screening programmes. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd


A q-deformed logistic map and its implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new q-deformed logistic map is proposed and it is found to have concavity in parts of the x-space. Its one-cycle and two-cycle non-trivial fixed points are obtained which are found to be qualitatively and quantitatively different from those of the usual logistic map. The stability of the proposed q-logistic map is studied using the Lyapunov exponent, and with a change in the value of the deformation parameter q, one is able to go from the chaotic to regular dynamical regime. The implications of this q-logistic map on Parrondo's paradox are examined.


Texture specific mass matrices with Dirac neutrinos and their implications  

CERN Document Server

Considering Dirac neutrinos and Fritzsch-like texture 6 zero and 5 zero mass matrices, detailed predictions for cases pertaining to normal/inverted hierarchy as well as degenerate scenario of neutrino masses have been carried out. All the cases considered here pertaining to inverted hierarchy and degenerate scenario of neutrino masses are ruled out by the existing data. For the normal hierarchy cases, the lower limit of m_nu_1 and of s_13 as well as the range of Dirac-like CP violating phase delta_l would have implications for the texture specific cases considered here.

Ahuja, Gulsheen; Randhawa, Monika; Verma, Rohit



Implications of precision measurements on texture specific fermion mass matrices  

CERN Document Server

Implications of texture specific mass matrices have been investigated for both quarks and neutrinos. Interestingly, for the case of quarks Fritzsch-like texture 4 zero mass matrices have been found to be compatible with the present precisely known sin2\\beta as well as other precise CKM matrix elements. In the case of leptonic mass matrices, for both Majorana and Dirac neutrinos we find that for texture 4, 5, 6 zero mass matrices the inverted hierarchy and degenerate scenarios of neutrino masses are ruled out by the present data.

Gupta, Manmohan; Verma, Rohit



Barriers to Research and Implications for Training Counselors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research is an important part of quality clinical practice in the field of counseling. This study addresses the constraints that produce a gap in master’s level practitioner research among counselors in Illinois. Ninety-nine master’s level clinicians responded to surveys and answered a series of questions regarding what constrains them from being more involved in research. These respondents provided valuable feedback regarding possible recommendations for training that might encourage increased research activity for future master’s level counselors. Training improvements such as mentored research activity and training in less complex research methods were indicated. Keywords: Clinical practice, Implications, Barriers to research, less complex research

James R Ruby



Current trends in thrombolysis: implications for diagnostic and interventional radiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current trends in thrombolysis are of relevance to both diagnostic and interventional radiologists. In addition to the traditional use of thrombolytic therapy in conditions such as peripheral arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolic disease, more recent interest has focused on the potential use of thrombolysis in acute stroke. There will be significant implications for the provision of radiological services if current trials show a favourable outcome for thrombolysis in stroke. This article looks at a range of conditions in which thrombolysis may be useful, on the strength of currently available evidence. Future trends will depend on the outcomes of the current trials.

Kessel, D.O. [Department of Radiology, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Patel, J.V. [Department of Radiology, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:



Implications of agricultural transitions and urbanization for ecosystem services. (United States)

Historically, farmers and hunter-gatherers relied directly on ecosystem services, which they both exploited and enjoyed. Urban populations still rely on ecosystems, but prioritize non-ecosystem services (socioeconomic). Population growth and densification increase the scale and change the nature of both ecosystem- and non-ecosystem-service supply and demand, weakening direct feedbacks between ecosystems and societies and potentially pushing social-ecological systems into traps that can lead to collapse. The interacting and mutually reinforcing processes of technological change, population growth and urbanization contribute to over-exploitation of ecosystems through complex feedbacks that have important implications for sustainable resource use. PMID:25373674

Cumming, Graeme S; Buerkert, Andreas; Hoffmann, Ellen M; Schlecht, Eva; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Tscharntke, Teja



Considerations on the criteria, parameters and tax implications of depreciation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The literature presents several methods of depreciation. In Romania, not all depreciation methods are recommended by existing legislation. In this paper we propose to address through the income tax three methods of depreciation of assets, which are recommended by our country's legislation, and to highlight the tax benefits of their application within the entities. In the first part we propose to define what are the criteria for evaluating of a assets depreciation and accounting parameters of the assets depreciation. In the second part of the paper will be presented depreciation methods as linear, diminishing and accelerating with the tax implications.

Dorel Mate?



Implications of 'postmodern biology' for pathology: the Cell Doctrine. (United States)

Recent insights regarding stem cells, repression and de-repression of gene expression, and the application of Complexity Theory to cell and molecular biology require a re-evaluation of many long-held dogmas regarding the nature of the human body in health and disease. Greater than expected cell plasticity, trafficking of cells between organs, 'cellular uncertainty', stochasticity of cell origins and fates, and a reconsideration of Cell Doctrine itself all logically follow from these observations and conceptual approaches. In this paper, these themes will be considered and some implications for the investigative pathologist will be explored. PMID:16482099

Theise, Neil D



Contesting conventional periodontal wisdom : implications for periodontal classifications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper examines the common approach used to classify periodontal diseases and how this obstructs our understanding of the disease process. We address the implications of including etiological and pathogenesis-related considerations in the classifications of complex diseases like periodontitis and argue that the number of periodontal entities in a classification system ought to be determined by well-documented differences in the management of each entity. We finally discuss how an ecosocial theory of disease distribution can be helpful to understand the determinants of the distribution of disease in the population.

Lopez, Rodrigo; Baelum, Vibeke



Gas Flaring and its Implication for Environmental Accounting in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examines the theoretical framework for gas flaring and its implication for environmental accounting in the Nigerian Petroleum Industry. Data were sourced from the annual reports of companies involved in gas flaring in the oil and gas industry and the result reveals that the issue plaguing environmental accounting disclosures relate to lack of a standardized requirement for disclosure, political will for legislation, enforcement and the allocation of environmental costs, therefore, the study recommends the development of an integrated corporate environmental policy with legal backing that will streamline environmental information disclosures in annual accounts

AYOOLA Tajudeen John



Nuclear power phaseout policy and the economic implications for Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Implementation of Germany's nuclear power phaseout policy and the expected consequences are discussed in this paper, referring to environmental aspects and Germany's international commitments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, implications for the national economy, the required structural transformation of the energy industry, and changes in the general legal setting for the energy sector. Proposals are discussed for modifying the planned nuclear power phaseout policy so as to make the process of winding down nuclear generation more compatible with economic, social, and environmental policy conditions. (orig./CB)


Memory skills of deaf learners: implications and applications. (United States)

The author reviews research on working memory and short-term memory abilities of deaf individuals, delineating strengths and weaknesses. Among the areas of weakness that are reviewed are sequential recall, processing speed, attention, and memory load. Areas of strengths include free recall, visuospatial recall, imagery, and dual encoding. Phonological encoding and rehearsal appear to be strengths when these strategies are employed. The implications of the strengths and weaknesses for language learning and educational achievement are discussed. Research questions are posed, and remedial and compensatory classroom applications are suggested. PMID:22256541

Hamilton, Harley



Pure versus hybrid: performance implications of Porter's generic strategies. (United States)

This article identifies the strategic types in the hospital industry based on the hospital's use of Porter's generic strategies in their pure and hybrid forms. The article also examines differences in performance of hospitals across strategic types. Results indicate that hospitals that follow a focussed cost leadership strategy, in general, have superior performance on a variety of performance measures, while hospitals that use a combination of cost leadership and differentiation perform the poorest. Implications of findings for hospital administrators are also discussed. PMID:9358260

Kumar, K; Subramanian, R; Yauger, C



Computer – Based Infrastructure Sector Interdependencies and Security Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditionally, the analysis of sector interdependencies has involved the characterization of all infrastructure-to-infrastructure interconnections and some of the main infrastructure integrals that, once lost or be tampered with, will compromise the performance and security issues with the other interconnected infrastructures. Therefore, the paper dwells much on the security implications which may be associated with these infrastructure sector interdependencies. This paper also discusses some of the major risk considerations, analytical approaches, researches and the necessary developments needed as well as the interdisciplinary ranges through which the necessary skills are required in the construction of comprehensive sector interdependencies.

Aghware Fidelis Obukohwo



Church-style type theories over finitary weakly implicative logics.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Vienna : Vienna University of Technology, 2014 - (Baaz, M.; Ciabattoni, A.; Hetzl, S.). s. 131-133 [LATD 2014. Logic, Algebra and Truth Degrees. 16.07.2014-19.07.2014, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0070; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0010 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : type theory * higher-order logic * weakly implicative logics * teorie typ? * logika vyššího ?ádu * slab? implika?ní logiky Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

B?hounek, Libor


Melody Retrieval using the Implication/Realization Model  


We present a method for melody retrieval using the Implication/ Realization (I/R) model, a model of melodic structure. As a preprocessing step to retrieval, all melodies to be compared are analysed using our I/R parser. The similarity ranking of melodies from data base melodies with respect to the query is determined by computing the edit distance between the I/R analysis of the query and those of the data base melodies. The parameters in the distance measure were opti...

Grachten, Maarten; Arcos, Josep Ll; Lopez Mantaras, Ramon



Congenital cytomegalovirus: implications for maternal-child nursing. (United States)

Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading infectious cause of neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Despite its prevalence and devastating consequences, there is limited public and professional awareness about it. This practice-focused article presents two stories describing the family experience of congenital CMV; a literature review describing incidence and epidemiology of congenital CMV; sequelae including infection; the extent of public awareness about congenital CMV; and risk reduction approaches. Implications for maternal-child nurses, whose work uniquely situates them with populations of childbearing women, are discussed. PMID:24201241

Alex, Marion Rita



Reduced Gas Cycling in Microbial Mats: Implications for Early Earth (United States)

For more than half the history of life on Earth, biological productivity was dominated by photosynthetic microbial mats. During this time, mats served as the preeminent biological influence on earth's surface and atmospheric chemistry and also as the primary crucible for microbial evolution. We find that modern analogs of these ancient mat communities generate substantial quantities of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane. Escape of these gases from the biosphere would contribute strongly to atmospheric evolution and potentially to the net oxidation of earth's surface; sequestration within the biosphere carries equally important implications for the structure, function, and evolution of anaerobic microbial communities within the context of mat biology.

Hoehler, Tori M.; Bebout, Brad M.; DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)



Density within the moon and implications for lunar composition (United States)

A number of simple density models for the moon are discussed. The considered models are consistent with the lunar mass and moment of inertia, the latest information on the seismic velocity of the lunar crust and mantle, and assorted estimates of temperature in the lunar interior. New material presented includes the implications for density models of recent seismic evidence for a thin, high velocity layer beneath the lunar crust and for a zone of partial melting below 1000 km depth. The consequences of a dense, iron-rich central core are also explored.

Solomon, S. C.



An Abstract Approach to Fuzzy Logics: Implicational Semilinear Logics.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Granada : EUSFLAT, 2009 - (Carvalho, J.; Dubois, D.; Kaymak, U.; Sousa, J.), s. 519-524 ISBN 978-989-95079-6-8. [IFSA - EUSFLAT 2009. International Fuzzy Systems Association World Congress 2009, European Society for Fuzzy Logic and Technology Conference 2009. Lisabon (PT), 20.07.2009-24.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA ?R GEICC/08/E018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * implicative logics * Leibnitz hierarchy * mathematical fuzzy logic * semilinear logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

Cintula, Petr; Noguera, C.


Outsourcing ship management: Implications for the logistics chain  


The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the probability that shipping companies outsource the management of vessels to ship management companies, a decision with many implications for the logistics chain. Data on 39,925 vessels are used to investigate to the extent to which 4,049 different ship-owners (each operating a fleet of at least two vessels) outsource to ship-management service providers. We rely on multinomial Logit random and fixed effects regressions...

Cariou, Pierre; Wolff, Franc?ois-charles



Nanoparticles and nanomaterials: chemistry, interactions, environmental and biomedical implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanoscience involves the study of materials on the nanoscale level between approximately 1 and 100 nm and involves study of how to control the formation of two- and three-dimensional assemblies of molecular scale building blocks into well-defined nanostructures or nanomaterials. Among novel nanomaterials, nanoparticles (NPs, with all three dimensions between 1 and 100 nm) play an important role in nanotechnology advances in the production of nanoscale materials and the rapid increase of their applications in many areas. Key words: nanoparticles, nanomaterials, implications


Protein carbamylation in kidney disease: pathogenesis and clinical implications. (United States)

Carbamylation describes a nonenzymatic posttranslational protein modification mediated by cyanate, a dissociation product of urea. When kidney function declines and urea accumulates, the burden of carbamylation naturally increases. Free amino acids may protect proteins from carbamylation, and protein carbamylation has been shown to increase in uremic patients with amino acid deficiencies. Carbamylation reactions are capable of altering the structure and functional properties of certain proteins and have been implicated directly in the underlying mechanisms of various disease conditions. A broad range of studies has demonstrated how the irreversible binding of urea-derived cyanate to proteins in the human body causes inappropriate cellular responses leading to adverse outcomes such as accelerated atherosclerosis and inflammation. Given carbamylation's relationship to urea and the evidence that it contributes to disease pathogenesis, measurements of carbamylated proteins may serve as useful quantitative biomarkers of time-averaged urea concentrations while also offering risk assessment in patients with kidney disease. Moreover, the link between carbamylated proteins and disease pathophysiology creates an enticing therapeutic target for reducing the rate of carbamylation. This article reviews the biochemistry of the carbamylation reaction, its role in specific diseases, and the potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these findings based on recent advances. PMID:25037561

Kalim, Sahir; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Thadhani, Ravi I; Berg, Anders H



Nucleation of earthquakes and its implication to precursors (United States)

The recent argument about nucleation phase of earthquakes reminds us to completely study the concept of earthquake nucleation. The original meaning of nucleation includes concentration, nucleation and initiation of the eruptive processes. Thus, it is needed to discuss how to exactly translate the word “nucleation” into Chinese in different fields. The basic concept of earthquake nucleation refers to microcrack concentration in rock. It causes local weakening and instability of the rock. The narrow sense of nucleation theory of friction constitutive is significant in friction of fault surfaces, but should not abuse everywhere unconditionally. In terms of thermodynamics, nucleation actually means the variety processes of multiple state parameters of rock. The nucleation is a project that covers multiple courses. In this paper, the studies of damage theory, fracture, earthquake rupture dynamics and constitutive of friction and their implication to earthquake nucleation are remarked. The recently developments are introduced, including the influence of tectonic on the earthquake nucleation process, the method of measuring medium anisotropy, especially shear wave splitting led by concentration and orientation of microcracks, and the experimental study of remote sensing of infrared and microwave radiation related to the nucleation, etc. This paper also discusses the characteristic of large earthquake nucleation, and the implication of above studies to precursors of strong earthquakes.

Li, Shi-Yu; Teng, Chun-Kai; Lu, Zhen-Ye; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Qi-Liang; He, Xue-Song



Sounding the Solar Cycle with Helioseismology: Implications for Asteroseismology  

CERN Document Server

My brief for the IAC Winter School was to cover observational results on helioseismology, flagging where possible implications of those results for the asteroseismic study of solar-type stars. My desire to make such links meant that I concentrated largely upon results for low angular-degree (low-l) solar p modes, in particular results derived from "Sun-as-a-star" observations (which are of course most instructive for the transfer of experience from helioseismology to asteroseismology). The lectures covered many aspects of helioseismology - modern helioseismology is a diverse field. In these notes, rather than discuss each aspect to a moderate level of detail, I have instead made the decision to concentrate upon one theme, that of "sounding" the solar activity cycle with helioseismology. I cover the topics from the lectures and I also include some new material, relating both to the lecture topics and other aspects I did not have time to cover. Implications for asteroseismology are developed and discussed throu...

Chaplin, W J



From 'implications' to 'dimensions': science, medicine and ethics in society. (United States)

Much bioethical scholarship is concerned with the social, legal and philosophical implications of new and emerging science and medicine, as well as with the processes of research that under-gird these innovations. Science and technology studies (STS), and the related and interpenetrating disciplines of anthropology and sociology, have also explored what novel technoscience might imply for society, and how the social is constitutive of scientific knowledge and technological artefacts. More recently, social scientists have interrogated the emergence of ethical issues: they have documented how particular matters come to be regarded as in some way to do with 'ethics', and how this in turn enjoins particular types of social action. In this paper, I will discuss some of this and other STS (and STS-inflected) literature and reflect on how it might complement more 'traditional' modes of bioethical enquiry. I argue that STS might (1) cast new light on current bioethical issues, (2) direct the gaze of bioethicists towards matters that may previously have escaped their attention, and (3) indicate the import not only of the ethical implications of biomedical innovation, but also how these innovative and other processes feature ethics as a dimension of everyday laboratory and clinical work. In sum, engagements between STS and bioethics are increasingly important in order to understand and manage the complex dynamics between science, medicine and ethics in society. PMID:22948440

Pickersgill, Martyn D



Molecular strategies for targeting antioxidants to mitochondria: therapeutic implications. (United States)

Mitochondrial function and specifically its implication in cellular redox/oxidative balance is fundamental in controlling the life and death of cells, and has been implicated in a wide range of human pathologies. In this context, mitochondrial therapeutics, particularly those involving mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, have attracted increasing interest as potentially effective therapies for several human diseases. For the past 10 years, great progress has been made in the development and functional testing of molecules that specifically target mitochondria, and there has been special focus on compounds with antioxidant properties. In this review, we will discuss several such strategies, including molecules conjugated with lipophilic cations (e.g., triphenylphosphonium) or rhodamine, conjugates of plant alkaloids, amino-acid- and peptide-based compounds, and liposomes. This area has several major challenges that need to be confronted. Apart from antioxidants and other redox active molecules, current research aims at developing compounds that are capable of modulating other mitochondria-controlled processes, such as apoptosis and autophagy. Multiple chemically different molecular strategies have been developed as delivery tools that offer broad opportunities for mitochondrial manipulation. Additional studies, and particularly in vivo approaches under physiologically relevant conditions, are necessary to confirm the clinical usefulness of these molecules. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 686-729. PMID:25546574

Apostolova, Nadezda; Victor, Victor M



Gender Differences in Website Design: Implications for Education  

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Full Text Available This study examines the implications of a gendered website production and preference aesthetic for the teaching of computer studies. Where the website production aesthetic is concerned, it finds evidence of statistically significant differences on 13 of the 23 factors against which sixty student websites were rated. These results were suggestive of a website aesthetic continuum with male and female production aesthetic tendencies at either end. The preference tests, conducted with 67 subjects, revealed preferences to be in tune with production aesthetics such that men had a statistically significant tendency to prefer home pages produced by men, and women those produced by women. This latter tendency was higher than the former. The finding of gendered differences in website production and preference aesthetics has important implications for teaching and assessment. Teachers selecting or assessing websites, whether commercial or produced by pupils and students, need to be mindful of the aesthetic employed in those websites. When selecting websites for educational purposes, a match should be made between the website and end-user preferences. Assessment of students' work should ideally be mindful of the potential for positive bias on the part of the assessor in the direction of work displaying their own favoured aesthetic.

Gloria Moss