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Ambrosia maritima L., Molluscicide végétal prometteur !  

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Full Text Available Ambrosia maritima L., a promising molluscicide of plant origin !. Masses of granivorous birds destroy about 5-10 % of the rice crop produced in the central Niger delta. To the local species (ducks, ploceid birds and the quelea, which is the most abundant and noxious pest with numbers ranging from 18 million in January to 10 million in May-June add palearctic migratory birds, which are mainly ducks and stilt-birds. Bird control is necessarily undertaken but is inefficient due to the vastness of the region, difficult access to the sites, the number of birds and insufficient financial means.

Sidhom, MZ.

1983-01-01

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Ambrosia maritima L., Molluscicide végétal prometteur !  

OpenAIRE

Ambrosia maritima L., a promising molluscicide of plant origin !. Masses of granivorous birds destroy about 5-10 % of the rice crop produced in the central Niger delta. To the local species (ducks, ploceid birds and the quelea, which is the most abundant and noxious pest with numbers ranging from 18 million in January to 10 million in May-June) add palearctic migratory birds, which are mainly ducks and stilt-birds. Bird control is necessarily undertaken but is inefficient due to the vastness ...

Sidhom, Mz; Geerts, S.

1983-01-01

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Purification and characterization of recombinant Thermotoga maritima dihydrofolate reductase.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have overexpressed the gene for dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Thermotoga maritima in Escherichia coli and characterized the biochemical properties of the recombinant protein. This enzyme is involved in the de novo synthesis of deoxythymidine 5'-phosphate and is critical for cell growth. High levels of T. maritima DHFR in the new expression system conferred resistance to high levels of DHFR inhibitors which inhibit the growth of non-recombinant cells. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity in the following two steps: heat treatment followed by affinity chromatography or cation-exchange chromatography. Most of the biochemical properties of T. maritima DHFR resemble those of other bacterial or eukaryotic DHFRs, however, some are unique to T. maritima DHFR. The pH optima for activity, Km for substrates, and polypeptide chain length of T. maritima DHFR are similar to those of other DHFRs. In addition, the secondary structure of T. maritima DHFR, as measured by circular dichroism, is similar to that of other DHFRs. Interestingly, T. maritima DHFR exhibits some characteristics of eukaryotic DHFRs, such as a basic pI, an excess of positively charged residues in the polypeptide chain and activation of the enzyme by inorganic salts and urea. Unlike most other DHFRs which are monomeric or part of a bifunctional DHFR-thymidylate synthase (TS) enzyme, T. maritima DHFR seems to generally form a dimer in solution and is also much more thermostable than other DHFRs. It may be that dimer formation is a key factor in determining the stability of T. maritima DHFR. PMID:9738902

Wilquet, V; Gaspar, J A; van de Lande, M; Van de Casteele, M; Legrain, C; Meiering, E M; Glansdorff, N

1998-08-01

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Abiotic modulation of Spartina maritima photobiology in different latitudinal populations  

Science.gov (United States)

Spartina maritima has a very wide distribution in the northern hemisphere salt marshes crossing a wide variety of climatic environments. Therefore, it is not strange that some differences arise when observing the photosynthetic mechanisms of different populations inhabiting different latitudes. During this study it could be observed that climate is the most important factor controlling the photosynthetic traits of different populations distributed along a climatic gradient, namely the air temperature, humidity and light environment. Also some sediment physicochemical parameters such as pH and pore water salinity showed important influences driving the photosynthetic mechanisms in S. maritima. Furthermore S. maritima is one of the most abundant halophytes colonizing the Portuguese salt marshes. These facts have greater importance if one considers the large abundance of this halophytic species and how climate change will affect their metabolism and thus the ecosystem services provided by this species to the estuarine system.

Duarte, B.; Couto, T.; Freitas, J.; Valentim, J.; Silva, H.; Marques, J. C.; Dias, J. M.; Caçador, I.

2013-09-01

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Números cromosómicos de Cryptantha diffusa y C.maritima (Boraginaceae) Chromosome numbers of Cryptantha diffusa and C. maritima (Boraginaceae)  

OpenAIRE

Se estudiaron por primera vez los cromosomas mitóticos de dos especies argentinas de Cryptantha. Para C. diffusa (Phil.) I. M. Johnst. se halló 2n=56 y para C. maritima Greene var. pilosa Johnst. 2n=20, sugiriéndose que sus números básicos son x=7 y x=10, respectivamente.Mitotic chromosome counts are given, for the first time for two species of Cryptantha from Argentina. C. diffusa (Phil.) I. M. Johnst. (2n=56) and C. maritima Greene var. pilosa Johnst. (2n=20). The basic numbers x=7...

Maria Laura Las Peñas

2005-01-01

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Pterocarpin and isoflavan derivatives from Canavalia maritima (Aubl. Thou.  

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Full Text Available P terocarpin and isoflavan derivatives were isolated from ethanol extract of Canavalia maritima (Aubl. Thou on column chromatography. By analyzing spectral data, the structures were elucidated as 2-hydroxy-3, 9-dimethoxypterocarpin (1, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-8,9-methylenedioxypterocarpan (2, medicarpin (3, 7-hydroxy-2',4'-dimethoxy isoflavan (4, 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyisofalvone (5 5,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (6, 3,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxylflavone (7 and quercetin (8. This paper firstly reports the compounds of pterocarpan and isoflavan from C . maritima, which would help understand the pharmaceutical mechanisms of these bioactive substances for wide medical applications. T he 1 3C-NMR spectr al data of Compound 1 was reported for the first time.

Xinping Huang

2012-01-01

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Micropropagation of Urginea maritima (L. Baker s. str.  

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Full Text Available A method of micropropagation of Urginea maritima (L. Baker s.str. (Liliaceae by adventitious shoot formation was developed. Bulb scales and leaf fragments were used as primary and secondary explants, respectively. The most favourable for shoot regeneration were media: MS supplemented with BAP or kinetin (bulb scales and medium C containing NAA along with BAP (leaf explants. No difficulties in rooting and adapting of plants to greenhouse conditions were observed.

Anna Stojakowska

1993-06-01

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The Genome Organization of Thermotoga maritima Reflects Its Lifestyle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent studies have revealed that microbial genomes have many more organizational features than previously thought. Here, an integrated approach utilizing multiple ‘omics’ datasets and bioinformatics tools is established that elucidates genomic features spanning various levels of cellular organization. This methodology produces gene annotation improvements and includes the definition of transcription units. These enhancements to the annotation enable identification of a set of genetic elements instrumental to gene expression and regulation including promoters, ribosome binding sites (RBSs) and untranslated regions (UTRs). This was applied to characterize the genome organization of Thermotoga maritima—a phylogenetically deep-branching, hyperthermophilic bacterium with a small 1.86 Mb genome. Analysis derived from this multiomics approach in combination with bioinformatics tools demonstrate that the genome organization of T. maritima reflects its lifestyle, both with respect to its extreme growth temperature and compact genome. Comparative analysis of genome features suggests that thermodynamic limitations on binding kinetics for RNA polymerase and the ribosome necessitate increased sequence conservation of promoters and RBSs. Thus, restricting the sequences capable of initiating transcription and translation. Furthermore, this organism has uncharacteristically short 5’UTRs (11-17 nucleotides), which reduce the potential for 5’UTR regulatory interactions. The short intergenic distances in the T. maritima genome (5 bp on average) leave little space for regulation through transcription factor binding. The net effect of these constraints, temperature and genomic space, is a reduced ability to tune gene expression. This effect is readily apparent in global gene expression patterns, which show a high fraction of genes expressed independent of growth state with a tight, linear mRNA/protein correlation (Pearson r = 0.62, p < 2.2 x 10-16 t-test). This methodology for characterizing the genome organization is applicable to any culturable bacteria, and as similar studies are completed in diverse taxa, comparative analysis of genome features may provide insights into microbial evolution.

Latif, Haythem; Lerman, Joshua A.; Portnoy, Vasiliy A.; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Nagarajan, Harish; Rutledge, Alexandra C.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lee, Dae-Hee; Qiu, Yu; Zengler, Karsten

2013-04-25

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Chemical Constituents from the Stems of Diospyros maritima  

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Full Text Available A new phenolic, bis(6-hydroxy-2,3,4-trimethoxylphen-1-ylmethane (1 and a new butanedioate, butylmethyl succinate (2, along with twenty-nine known compounds including one naphthoquinone derivative, two chromanones, eight benzenoids, one lignan, one tocopherol, and sixteen triterpenoids were isolated from the stems of Diospyros maritima. epi-Isoshinanolone (3 was isolated in pure form for the first time. In addition, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchomanone (4 was isolated from a natural source for the first time. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data as well as direct comparison with authentic samples.

Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

2009-12-01

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Diterpene and other constituents from Stemodia maritima (Scrophulariaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um novo diterpeno, (5S*,8S*,9R*,10S*)-11?,12?-epoxi-9?-hidróxi-19(4?3) abeo-abieta-3,13-dieno-19,18-olideo, e as substâncias conhecidas estemodina, D-manitol, ácido betulínico, uma mistura de 3?-O-?-D-glicopiranosil-?-sitosterol e 3?-O-?-D-glicopiranosilestigmasterol, e 5,7,4'-triidróxi-3,8,3'-trime [...] toxiflavona, foram isolados das folhas e talos de Stemodia maritima. A elucidação estrutural de todas as substâncias baseou-se na interpretação de dados espectrais, principalmente RMN (1D e 2D) e espectrometria de massa (EM), envolvendo comparação com valores descritos na literatura. Abstract in english A new diterpene, (5S*,8S*,9R*,10S*)-11?,12?-epoxy-9?-hydroxy-19(4?3) abeo-abieta-3,13-diene-19,18-olide, together with the known compounds stemodin, D-mannitol, betulinic acid, a mixture of 3?-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-sitosterol and 3?-O-?-D-glucopyranosylstigmasterol and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,8,3'-trim [...] ethoxyflavone were isolated from the leaves and stems of Stemodia maritima. Structural elucidation of all compounds was based on interpretation of spectral data, mainly NMR (1D and 2D) and MS, including comparison with values described in the literature.

Francisco E. A., Rodrigues; Jefferson Q., Lima; Maria da Conceição F. de, Oliveira; Jackson N., Vasconcelos; Gilvandete M. P., Santiago; Jair, Mafezoli; Raimundo, Braz-Filho; Angela M. C., Arriaga.

1581-15-01

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Colocation of Genes Encoding a tRNA-mRNA Hybrid and a Putative Signaling Peptide on Complementary Strands in the Genome of the Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga maritima  

OpenAIRE

In the genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima, TM0504 encodes a putative signaling peptide implicated in population density-dependent exopolysaccharide formation. Although not noted in the original genome annotation, TM0504 was found to colocate, on the opposite strand, with the gene encoding ssrA, a hybrid of tRNA and mRNA (tmRNA), which is involved in a trans-translation process related to ribosome rescue and is ubiquitous in bacteria. Specific DNA probes were designe...

Montero, Clemente I.; Lewis, Derrick L.; Johnson, Matthew R.; Conners, Shannon B.; Nance, Elizabeth A.; Nichols, Jason D.; Kelly, Robert M.

2006-01-01

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Clinicopathological Effects of Various Levels of Dietary Ambrosia maritima on Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study deals with the clinicopathological and biochemical effect of A. maritima on male Wistar rats. Ambrosia maritime is claimed to have several medicinal properties and used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various disorders. The plant was fed to rats at 2 and 10% of the standard diet for 4 weeks. A 2% A. maritima was not toxic to rats during the experiment. However, mild increase in body weight, fatty cytoplasmic vacuolation, centrolobular individual cell necrosis and mild enteritis were observed in rats fed a diet containing 10% A. maritima. These findings were accompanied by alteration of serum Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and no changes were observed in the activities of ALP, concentrations of total protein, urea, total bilirubin, HDL and LDL. The concentrations of cholesterol and glucose were significantly decreased in the serum of rats fed 2 and 10% A. maritima.

F.A. Al-Hizab

2012-01-01

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ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF SUAEDA MARITIMA (L. DUMORTIER STEM IN TRITON INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIC RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic effect of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier stem extracts in triton induced hyperlipidemia. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier were administered at dose 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg/day orally, respectively. Simultaneous administrations of stem extracts of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier significantly prevent the rise in serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL whereas significant increases in the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL in both secretary and excretory phase. The Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier methanol extract of stem at dose 300mg/kg body weight orally showed significant antihyperlipidemic activity which may be due to the presence of triterpenoids and sterols found in the preliminary phytochemical screening.

Rajinder mann

2013-04-01

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HISTOANATOMICAL AND ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON SOME HALOPHYTES FROM ROMANIA - PLANTAGO MARITIMA  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an histoanatomical and ecophysiological study of Plantago maritima. Studies were conducted to assess the diversity of anatomical adaptations of vegetative organs (roots, aerial stems, rhizomes and leaves) in this taxa. Results are presented with original photographs. The analysis of leaf anatomy in P. maritima showed that the leaves contained xeromorphic traits (high development of palisade and water storage parenchyma). Stomatal density is high for both epidermis and cuti...

Ianovici, Nicoleta

2011-01-01

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Diterpene and other constituents from Stemodia maritima (Scrophulariaceae)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new diterpene, (5S{sup *},8S{sup *},9R{sup *},10S{sup *})-11{beta},12{beta}-epoxy-9{alpha}-hydroxy-19(4 -> 3)abeo-abieta-3,13-diene-19,18-olide, together with the known compounds stemodin, D-mannitol, betulinic acid, a mixture of 3{beta}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl-{beta}-sitosterol and 3{beta}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosylstigmasterol and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,8,3'-trimethoxyflavone were isolated from the leaves and stems of Stemodia maritima. Structural elucidation of all compounds was based on interpretation of spectral data, mainly NMR (1D and 2D) and MS, including comparison with values described in the literature. (author)

Rodrigues, Francisco E.A.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Vasconcelos, Jackson N.; Mafezoli, Jair; Arriaga, Angela M.C., E-mail: angelamcarriaga@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DQOI/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Curso de Pos-Graducao em Quimica; Lima, Jefferson Q. [Instituto Federal do Ceara, Juazeiro do Norte, CE (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia Ambiental; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DQOI/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (CCT/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias

2010-07-01

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The flowering pattern of the perennial herb Lobularia maritima: an unusual case in the Mediterranean basin  

Science.gov (United States)

In plant communities of the Mediterranean Basin most plant species reach their blooming peak in spring and have characteristically short flowering periods of two-three months. The perennial herb Lobularia maritima represents an exception to these characteristics, because it flowers for almost 10 months, and has its flowering peak in autumn. In this five-year study, we describe the flowering pattern of L. maritima at the population and community levels. Despite the unusually extended flowering period of L. maritima, the species showed characteristic low among-year variability in the length of the flowering period but large interannual variation in the distribution of flowers throughout the flowering period. The flowering pattern (unimodal or bimodal) of L. maritima individuals differed among the five years, suggesting that L. maritima plants are plastic enough to tailor their flowering to variable environmental conditions. We conclude that flowering phenology of L. maritima represents a very particular case in the plant community studied, and the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on the phenology of this species is discussed.

Xavier Picó, F.; Retana, Javier

2001-08-01

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GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CRAMBE MARITIMA L. (FAM. BRASSICACEAE) IN INTRODUCTION CONDITIONS OF THE BOTA-NICAL GARDEN OF SFEDU  

OpenAIRE

Study results of Crambe maritima L. growth and development at introduction in Botanical garden of SFU are presented in article. It was revealed that the life cycle of majority specimens lasts three years. Results the ontogenetic and phenologic studies testify about success of primary introduction of Crambe maritima

Shmaraeva A. N.; Shishkin A. S.; Fedyaeva V. V.

2014-01-01

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GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CRAMBE MARITIMA L. (FAM. BRASSICACEAE IN INTRODUCTION CONDITIONS OF THE BOTA-NICAL GARDEN OF SFEDU  

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Full Text Available Study results of Crambe maritima L. growth and development at introduction in Botanical garden of SFU are presented in article. It was revealed that the life cycle of majority specimens lasts three years. Results the ontogenetic and phenologic studies testify about success of primary introduction of Crambe maritima

Shmaraeva A. N.

2014-02-01

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The embryonic development of the centipede Strigamia maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

The geophilomorph centipede Strigamia maritima is an emerging model for studies of development and evolution among the myriapods. A draft genome sequence has recently been completed, making it also an important reference for comparative genomics, and for studies of myriapod physiology more generally. Here we present the first detailed description of myriapod development using modern techniques. We describe a timeline for embryonic development, with a detailed staging system based on photographs of live eggs and fixed embryos. We show that the early, cleavage and nuclear migration, stages of development are remarkably prolonged, accounting for nearly half of the total developmental period (approx 22 of 48 days at 13 °C). Towards the end of this period, cleavage cells migrate to the egg periphery to generate a uniform blastoderm. Asymmetry quickly becomes apparent as cells in the anterior half of the egg condense ventrally to form the presumptive head. Five anterior segments, the mandibular to the first leg-bearing segment (1st LBS) become clearly visible through the chorion almost simultaneously. Then, after a short pause, the next 35 leg-bearing segments appear at a uniform rate of 1 segment every 3.2 h (at 13 °C). Segment addition then slows to a halt with 40-45 LBS, shortly before the dramatic movements of germ band flexure, when the left and right halves of the embryo separate and the embryo folds deeply into the yolk. After flexure, segment morphogenesis and organogenesis proceed for a further 10 days, before the egg hatches. The last few leg-bearing segments are added during this period, much more slowly, at a rate of 1-2 segments/day. The last leg-bearing segment is fully defined only after apolysis of the embryonic cuticle, so that at hatching the embryo displays the final adult number of leg-bearing segments (typically 47-49 in our population). PMID:22138381

Brena, Carlo; Akam, Michael

2012-03-01

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Complexes of Thermotoga maritima S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase provide insights into substrate specificity  

OpenAIRE

The crystal structures of activated S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) from T. maritima and of its complexes with S-adenosylmethionine methyl ester and 5?-deoxy-5?-dimethylthioadenosine have been obtained. Comparison of the structures with that of human AdoMetDC provides insights into the substrate specificity, binding mode, autoprocessing and evolution of the enzyme.

Bale, Shridhar; Baba, Kavita; Mccloskey, Diane E.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E.

2010-01-01

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Characterization of a tetrameric inositol monophosphatase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inositol monophosphatase (I-1-Pase) catalyzes the dephosphorylation step in the de novo biosynthetic pathway of inositol and is crucial for all inositol-dependent processes. An extremely heat-stable tetrameric form of I-1-Pase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In addition to its different quaternary structure, this enzyme displayed a 20-fold higher rate of hydrolysis of D-inositol 1-phosphate than of the L isomer. The homogeneous recombinant T. maritima I-1-Pase possessed an unusually high V{sub max} that was much higher than the V{sub max} of the same enzyme from another hyperthermophile, Methanococcus jannaschii. Although T. maritima is a eubacterium, its I-1-Pase is more similar to archaeal I-1-Pases than to the other known bacterial or mammalian I-1-Pases with respect to substrate specificity, Li{sup +} inhibition, inhibition by high Mg{sup 2+} concentrations, metal ion activation, heat stability, and activation energy. Possible reasons for the observed kinetic differences are discussed based on an active site sequence alignment of the human and T. maritima I-1-Pases.

Chen, L.; Roberts, M.F.

1999-10-01

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Structure of an essential GTPase, YsxC, from Thermotoga maritima  

OpenAIRE

Apo and GDP-bound crystal structures of an essential GTPase, YsxC, from T. maritima were determined to maximal resolutions of 2.3 and 1.9?Å, respectively. Switch I in GDP–YsxC can adopt both an ‘open’ and ‘closed’ conformation, suggesting a mechanism for diffusion of GDP out of the nucleotide-binding pocket.

Chan, Kwok-ho; Wong, Kam-bo

2011-01-01

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Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plants of western Himalaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica and Artemisia maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/FID were camphor and 1,8-cineole from A. maritima, and camphor and artemisia ketone from A. nilagirica. Additionally, the oils were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, mosquito biting deterrent, and larvicidal activities. A. nilagirica essential oil demonstrated nonselective antifungal activity against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. maritima did not show antifungal activity. Both Artemisia spp. exhibited considerable mosquito biting deterrence, whereas only A. nilagirica showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Antibacterial effects assessed by an agar dilution assay demonstrated greater activity of A. maritima essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to A. nilagirica. PMID:25127023

Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tania; Stoyanova, Albena; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

2014-08-01

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Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of an esterase with a novel domain from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima  

OpenAIRE

A thermostable esterase (EstA) from Thermotoga maritima was cloned and purified. Crystals of EstA and its selenomethionine derivative were grown and diffract to beyond 2.6?Å resolution at 100?K using synchrotron radiation.

Sun, Lei; Levisson, Mark; Hendriks, Sjon; Akveld, Twan; Kengen, Serve? W. M.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Oost, John

2007-01-01

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Arginine Biosynthesis in Thermotoga maritima: Characterization of the Arginine-Sensitive N-Acetyl-l-Glutamate Kinase  

OpenAIRE

To help clarify the control of arginine synthesis in Thermotoga maritima, the putative gene (argB) for N-acetyl-l-glutamate kinase (NAGK) from this microorganism was cloned and overexpressed, and the resulting protein was purified and shown to be a highly thermostable and specific NAGK that is potently and selectively inhibited by arginine. Therefore, NAGK is in T. maritima the feedback control point of arginine synthesis, a process that in this organism involves acetyl group recycling and ap...

Ferna?ndez-murga, M. Leonor; Gil-ortiz, Fernando; Lla?cer, Jose? L.; Rubio, Vicente

2004-01-01

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Effets de dix traitements sur la germination des akènes d'Ambrosia maritima L  

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Full Text Available Effects of ten treatments on the germination of Ambrosia maritima L. seeds. Stratification of Ambrosia maritima seeds at + 10°C for 7 days appeared to be the best practical method to break their embryonic dormancy with 80 % germination occuring 18 days following the treatment, compared to 17 % for the control. This experiment confirms the susceptibility of embryonic dormancy to low temperatures. Treatments with waterat + 80°C or concentrated H2S04 for 15 mn and mechanical treatments eliminating the inhibition effect of seed integuments also gave higher results (43 to 53 % germination rate. However, germination in the control group was significantly higher than in the group of seeds subjected to dry heat. Although the first results obtained on the field from these trials were satisfactory, further research is needed to confirm them.

Schafer, JL.

1989-01-01

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HISTOANATOMICAL AND ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON SOME HALOPHYTES FROM ROMANIA - PLANTAGO MARITIMA  

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Full Text Available This paper presents an histoanatomical and ecophysiological study of Plantago maritima. Studies were conducted to assess the diversity of anatomical adaptations of vegetative organs (roots, aerial stems, rhizomes and leaves in this taxa. Results are presented with original photographs. The analysis of leaf anatomy in P. maritima showed that the leaves contained xeromorphic traits (high development of palisade and water storage parenchyma. Stomatal density is high for both epidermis and cuticle is very thick. Analyses made in the scope of the present study indicated that total ash content of the dry leaf matter is 11.98%. Rhizome is strong and shows aeriferous tissue. Leaf relative water content (LRWC values indicates that juvenile leaves harvested from eroded and nude soil, exposed to salt stress and heat can accumulate more water.

Nicoleta IANOVICI

2011-01-01

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Structural analysis of DNA sequence: evidence for lateral gene transfer in Thermotoga maritima  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The recently published complete DNA sequence of the bacterium Thermotoga maritima provides evidence, based on protein sequence conservation, for lateral gene transfer between Archaea and Bacteria. We introduce a new method of periodicity analysis of DNA sequences, based on structural parameters, which brings independent evidence for the lateral gene transfer in the genome of T.maritima, The structural analysis relates the Archaea-like DNA sequences to the genome of Pyrococcus horikoshii. Analysis of 24 complete genomic DNA sequences shows different periodicity patterns for organisms of different origin, The typical genomic periodicity for Bacteria is 11 bp whilst it is 10 bp for Archaea, Eukaryotes have more complex spectra but the dominant period in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is 10.2 bp. These periodicities are most likely reflective of differences in chromatin structure.

Worning, Peder; Jensen, Lars Juhl

2000-01-01

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Using a toxicity test with Ruppia maritima (Linnaeus) to assess the effects of Roundup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Monsanto's broad-spectrum herbicide Roundup, consists of one of the most used pesticides worldwide, but its effects on the marine flora are still not well understood. Were examined Roundup toxic effects on Ruppia maritima specimens collected from Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, MA, Brazil) and acclimatized under laboratory conditions. The numbers of new and dead leaves, the root and leaf length, the chlorophyll a content, and the weight of R. maritima branches were determined before and after exposure to different Roundup concentrations for seven days. High concentrations caused a significant lethal effect. In addition, significant changes were observed in the wet and dry weights, the number and length of the leaves, and the chlorophyll a content. Leaf elongation was observed in the branches exposed to low concentrations, and this change was likely activated as a compensatory mechanism. The results indicate that high concentrations of this herbicide may compromise estuarine flora. PMID:25455815

Castro, Aline de Jesus Veloso; Colares, Ioni Gonçalves; Franco, Teresa Cristina Rodrigues Dos Santos; Cutrim, Marco Valerio Jansen; Luvizotto-Santos, Ricardo

2014-10-25

30

Characterization of a Tetrameric Inositol Monophosphatase from the Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga maritima  

OpenAIRE

Inositol monophosphatase (I-1-Pase) catalyzes the dephosphorylation step in the de novo biosynthetic pathway of inositol and is crucial for all inositol-dependent processes. An extremely heat-stable tetrameric form of I-1-Pase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In addition to its different quaternary structure (all other known I-1-Pases are dimers), this enzyme displayed a 20-fold higher rate of hydrolysis of d-inositol 1-phosphate ...

Chen, Liangjing; Roberts, Mary F.

1999-01-01

31

Breeding System Evolution and Pollination Success in the Wind-Pollinated Herb Plantago maritima  

OpenAIRE

In this thesis, I examined variation in sex expression and mating patterns in the sexually polymorphic, wind-pollinated herb Plantago maritima. With a combination of field studies, greenhouse experiments, and genetic analyses, I (a) examined factors influencing sex ratio variation in gynodioecious plants (in which hermaphrodites and females coexist), (b) discovered variation in breeding system, (c) investigated density-dependence of seed production, and (d) documented genetic variation within...

Nilsson, Emil

2005-01-01

32

An alternate conformation of the hyperthermostable HU protein from Thermotoga maritima has unexpectedly high flexibility  

OpenAIRE

The homodimeric HU protein from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima (HUTmar) is a model system which can yield insights into the molecular determinants of thermostability in proteins. Unusually for a thermostable protein, HUTmar exists in a structurally heterogeneous state as evidenced by the assignment of two distinct and approximately equally populated forms in solution. Relaxation measurements combined with chemical shift, hydrogen exchange, and nuclear Overhauser enhancement data con...

Durney, M. A.; Wechselberger, R. W.; Kalodimos, Ch; Kaptein, R.; Vorgias, C. E.; Boelens, R.

2004-01-01

33

Characterization and structural modeling of a new type of thermostable esterase from Thermotoga maritima  

OpenAIRE

A bioinformatic screening of the genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima for ester-hydrolyzing enzymes revealed a protein with typical esterase motifs, though annotated as a hypothetical protein. To confirm its putative esterase function the gene (estD) was cloned, functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Recombinant EstD was found to exhibit significant esterase activity with a preference for short acyl chain esters (C4¿C8). The monomeric...

Levisson, M.; Oost, J.; Kengen, S. W. M.

2007-01-01

34

Complexes of Thermotoga maritima S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase provide insights into substrate specificity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous aliphatic cations and are essential for cellular growth and differentiation. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is a critical pyruvoyl-dependent enzyme in the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway. The crystal structures of AdoMetDC from humans and plants and of the AdoMetDC proenzyme from Thermotoga maritima have been obtained previously. Here, the crystal structures of activated T. maritima AdoMetDC (TmAdoMetDC) and of its complexes with S-adenosylmethionine methyl ester and 5{prime}-deoxy-5{prime}-dimethylthioadenosine are reported. The results demonstrate for the first time that TmAdoMetDC autoprocesses without the need for additional factors and that the enzyme contains two complete active sites, both of which use residues from both chains of the homodimer. The complexes provide insights into the substrate specificity and ligand binding of AdoMetDC in prokaryotes. The conservation of the ligand-binding mode and the active-site residues between human and T. maritima AdoMetDC provides insight into the evolution of AdoMetDC.

Bale, Shridhar; Baba, Kavita; McCloskey, Diane E.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E.

2010-06-25

35

Biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides in Triglochin maritima and the involvement of cytochrome P450 enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biosynthesis of the two cyanogenic glucosides, taxiphyllin and triglochinin, in Triglochin maritima (seaside arrow grass) has been studied using undialyzed microsomal preparations from flowers and fruits. Tyrosine was converted to p-hydroxymandelonitrile with V(max) and K(m) values of 36 nmol mg(-1) g(-1) fresh weight and 0.14 mM, respectively. p-Hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime and p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile accumulated as intermediates in the reaction mixtures. Using radiolabeled tyrosine as substrate, the radiolabel was easily trapped in p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime and p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile when these were added as unlabeled compounds. p-Hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime was the only product obtained using microsomes prepared from green leaves or dialyzed microsomes prepared from flowers and fruits. These data contrast earlier reports (Hösel and Nahrstedt, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 203, 753-757, 1980; and Cutler et al., J. Biol. Chem. 256, 4253-4258, 1981) where p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime was found not to accumulate. All steps in the conversion of tyrosine to p-hydroxymandelonitrile were found to be catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes as documented by photoreversible carbon monoxide inhibition, inhibition by antibodies toward NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, and by cytochrome P450 inhibitors. We hypothesize that cyanogenic glucoside synthesis in T. maritima is catalyzed by multifunctional cytochrome P450 enzymes similar to CYP79A1 and CYP71E1 in Sorghum bicolor except that the homolog to CYP71E1 in T. maritima exhibits a less tight binding of p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, thus permitting the release of this intermediate and its conversion into triglochinin. PMID:10415119

Nielsen, J S; Moller, B L

1999-08-01

36

Rhizosphere O2 dynamics in young Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima often share the same habitat, but R. maritima appears more resistant to environmental stress. We investigated the impact of light intensity and water column O2 concentrations on radial oxygen loss (ROL), in young specimens of Z. marina and R. maritima. Planar optode imaging revealed that ROL of Z. marina was localized to the root tip, while R. maritima showed ROL along extensive root sections. The total root biomass of the 2 species was similar, but, while R. maritima had only 1 root, of which 33% of its length showed ROL, Z. marina had 2 to 5 individual roots, where only 2 to 3 exhibited O2 leakage, but then only at root tips. ROL resulted in an oxic volume of 4.26 ± 0.51 mm3 plant?1 for Z. marina and 5.39 ± 0.47 mm3 plant?1 for R. maritima (n = 3). ROL per plant at light saturation was 2.32 ± 0.30 and 2.89 ± 0.38 nmol h?1 for Z. marina and R. maritima, respectively. These values declined by 71 and 60% in darkness. However, both species were able to maintain ROL as long as ambient O2 levels remained >50% air saturation. The calculated ROL integrated over a 24 h cycle was 48.8 ± 10.6 nmol O2 plant?1 d?1 (n = 3) for R. maritima and 30% less for Z. marina. The ability of R. maritima to maintain higher ROL than Z. marina could be an important feature defining its potential for colonizing and maintaining growth in eutrophic sediments.

Jovanovic, Zeljko; Pedersen, Mia Østergaard

2015-01-01

37

The protective role of damsissa (Ambroosia Maritima) against gamma irradiation in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work was directed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with damsissa (Ambrosia maritima) for thirty consecutive days pre- irradiation exposure in controlling the post-irradiation hazards in irradiated rats. Male albino rats (Spraue Dowley strain) weighing about 120+- 10 g were used and blood samples were collected from tails of animals thirty days after treatment with damsissa and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysis such as liver functions, kidney function and lipid profile. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant decrease in the contents of total proteins accompanied by significant increase of urea level as recorded on the 7th days post irradiation. Data obtained in this study revealed that whole body gamma irradiation induced significant elevation in all tested blood lipid functions. There was significant increase of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) whole alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed statistical significant decrease as compared with the control group. Damisissa (Ambrosia maritima) treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of damsissa may be due to its anti-inflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

38

Anthemis maritima L. in different coastal habitats: A tool to explore plant plasticity  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthemis maritima, a plant which has the ability to colonise different stressful coastal environments, sand dunes and rocky cliff ecosystems, exhibits a high degree of leaf trait plasticity. The key parameters are the regulation of stomatal density and size, the succulence index and the specific antioxidant response. With the aim to explore plant plasticity, we analysed various morphological and physiological traits of the leaves of A. maritima populations dwelling in three different coastal areas of Italy. The highest values of stomatal density, leaf thickness, and succulence index were found in plants living in a sub-arid climate, on rocky cliffs, with the highest soil pH and salinity. Although this population exhibited the highest concentration of oxygen reactive species (hydrogen peroxide), it also had the lowest value of lipid peroxidation, an indicator of oxidative stress. Ascorbate was the main protective molecule in this population, while phenols appeared to carry out this role in plants living on soils with the lowest salinity and highest annual rainfall.

Spanò, Carmelina; Balestri, Mirko; Bottega, Stefania; Grilli, Isa; Forino, Laura Maria Costantina; Ciccarelli, Daniela

2013-09-01

39

Biophysical probing of Spartina maritima photo-system II changes during prolonged tidal submersion periods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Submergence is one of the major constrains affecting wetland plants, with inevitable impacts on their physiology and productivity. Global warming as a driving force of sea level rise, tend to increase the submersion periods duration. Photosynthesis biophysical probing arise as an important tool to understand the energetics underlying plant feedback to these constrains. As in previous studies with Spartina maritima, there was no inhibition of photosynthetic activity in submerged individuals. Comparing both donor and acceptor sides of the PSII, the first was more severely affected during submersion, driven by the inactivation of the OEC with consequent impairment of the ETC. Although this apparent damage in the PSII donor side, the electron transport per active reaction centre was not substantially affected, indicating that this reduction in the electron flow is accompanied by a proportional increase in the number of active reaction centres. These conditions lead to the accumulation of excessive reducing power, source of damaging ROS, counteracted by efficient energy dissipation processes and anti-oxidant enzymatic defences. This way, S. maritima appears as a well-adapted species with an evident photochemical plasticity towards submersion, allowing it to maintain its photosynthetic activity even during prolonged submersion periods. PMID:24630362

Duarte, B; Santos, D; Marques, J C; Caçador, I

2014-04-01

40

The in vitro biosynthesis of taxiphyllin and the channeling of intermediates in Triglochin maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

The in vitro biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside taxiphyllin has recently been demonstrated in Triglochin maritima (Hösel, W., and Nahrstedt, A. (1980) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 203, 753-757). We have now studied in more detail the multistep conversion of tyrosine into p-hydroxymandelonitrile, the immediate precursor of taxiphyllin, catalyzed by microsomes isolated from dark-grown seedlings. The biosynthetic pathway involves N-hydroxytyrosine, p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime, and p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. In marked contrast to an analogous pathway in Sorghum bicolor, p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile is the best substrate for cyanide production (Vmax = 224 nmol/h/g, fresh wt) and the physiological substrate tyrosine is the poorest (Vmax = 18.8 nmol/h/g, fresh wt). The substrates exhibit alkaline pH optima between 7.5 and 9, and all except tyrosine show pronounced substrate inhibition. We have found that p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile generated in situ from tyrosine is free to equilibrate by diffusion with exogenous material. On the other hand, neither N-hydroxytyrosine nor p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime will readily exchange with exogenous intermediates. We consider both N-hydroxytyrosine and p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime to be channeled in T. maritima, whereas in S. bicolor N-hydroxytyrosine and p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile are channeled and the aldoxime is freely exchangeable. PMID:7012151

Cutler, A J; Hösel, W; Sternberg, M; Conn, E E

1981-05-10

41

Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plant of Western Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of A. nilagirica and A. maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/...

42

Regulation of Endo-Acting Glycosyl Hydrolases in the Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga maritima Grown on Glucan- and Mannan-Based Polysaccharides  

OpenAIRE

The genome sequence of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima encodes a number of glycosyl hydrolases. Many of these enzymes have been shown in vitro to degrade specific glycosides that presumably serve as carbon and energy sources for the organism. However, because of the broad substrate specificity of many glycosyl hydrolases, it is difficult to determine the physiological substrate preferences for specific enzymes from biochemical information. In this study, T. maritima was gr...

Chhabra, Swapnil R.; Shockley, Keith R.; Ward, Donald E.; Kelly, Robert M.

2002-01-01

43

Is Seedling Establishment Very Rare in the Oklahoma Seaside Alder, Alnus maritima ssp. oklahomensis?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Oklahoma seaside alder (Alnus maritima ssp. oklahomensis is a shrub that grows almost exclusively in Johnston County. While individuals resprout vigorously from rootstocks, few seedlings have been observed in the wild. We surveyed 1,848 one-meter-square plots of suitable microhabitat at two locations on the Blue River and a location on Pennington Creek. We found only 20 alder seedlings, all of them in their first year, and most of them in unsuitable, shaded conditions. These observations are consistent with the interpretation that, despite its abundant production of viable seeds, the Oklahoma seaside alder has effectively no long-term successful seedling establishment. These observations serve as a basis for seedling establishment experiments planned for the near future.

J. Phil Gibson

2009-12-01

44

Structure of an essential GTPase, YsxC, from Thermotoga maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

YsxC belongs to the YihA family of TRAFAC class GTPases. The protein is involved in the biogenesis of ribosomes and is essential for the survival of a wide range of bacteria. Here, crystal structures of YsxC from Thermotoga maritima and its complex with GDP were determined at maximal resolutions of 2.3 and 1.9?Å, respectively. Major structural differences are observed in the switch I region, which is disordered in the apo form but exists in both an `open' and a `closed' conformation in the GDP-bound state. A comparison with the structure of the GMPPNP-YsxC complex from Bacillus subtilis provides insights into the mechanism of conformational change in the switch I and II regions upon hydrolysis of GTP. PMID:21636901

Chan, Kwok-Ho; Wong, Kam-Bo

2011-06-01

45

Comparative study of antibacterial and antifugal activity of callus culture and adult plants extracts from Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae) Estudo comparativo da atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos obtidos da cultura de calos e da planta adulta de Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae)  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of callus culture (two different hormonal combination culture medium) and adult plants (two collect) extracts from Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae) investigating the maintenance of antimicrobial activity in vivo and in vitro. The antibacterial and antifungal activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method against thirty strains of microorganisms including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, y...

Salvador, Marcos J.; Pereira, Paulo S.; Franc?a, Suzelei C.; Candido, Regina C.; Ito, Izabel Y.; Dias, Diones A.

2004-01-01

46

Field trials to control schistosome intermediate hosts by the plant molluscicide Ambrosia maritima L. in the Senegal River Basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several field experiments were carried out in Senegal to evaluate the molluscicidal activity of Ambrosia maritima L. Applications of 400 mg L-1 of dry leaves of the plant in creeks of the Lampsar river did result in a reduction of Bulinus spp of 54-56% 2 weeks after treatment. Treatment of a closed irrigation canal caused a reduction of the density of Biomphalaria pfeifferi up to 77% 2 weeks after the application of 150 mg L-1 and 300 mg L-1. In both trials, however, a quick increase in the snail density was observed after treatment. It is concluded that the large amounts of crude plant material required to achieve snail reductions of less than 80% compromise the use of A. maritima in schistosomiasis control programmes. PMID:8094589

Belot, J; Geerts, S; Sarr, S; Polderman, A M

1993-01-01

47

Differential transcript regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana and the halotolerant Lobularia maritima indicates genes with potential function in plant salt adaptation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salt stress is an environmental factor that severely impairs plant growth and productivity. Salinity-induced transcript accumulation was monitored in the salt-sensitive Arabidopsis thaliana and the related salt-tolerant Lobularia maritima using cDNA-arrays with expressed sequence tags derived from a cDNA subtraction library of salt-stressed L. maritima. The expression profiles revealed differences of the steady state transcript regulation in A. thaliana and L. maritima in response to salt stress. The differentially expressed transcripts include those involved in the control of gene expression as a transcription factor II homologue as well as signal transduction elements such as a serine/threonine protein kinase, a SNF1-related protein kinase AKIN10 homologue, and protein phosphatase 2C. Other ESTs with differential regulation patterns included transcripts encoding proteins with function in general stress responses and defense and included a peroxidase, dehydrins, enzymes of lipid and nitrogen metabolism, and functionally unclassified proteins. In a more detailed analysis the basic leucine zipper transcription factor AtbZIP24 showed differential transcript abundance in A. thaliana and L. maritima in response to salt stress. Transgenic AtbZIP24-RNAi lines showed improved growth and development under salt stress that was correlated with changed Cl(-) accumulation. The data indicate that AtbZIP24 functions as a transcriptional repressor in salt-stressed A. thaliana that negatively regulates growth and development under salinity in context of controlling Cl(-) homeostasis. Monitoring the differential and tissue specific global regulation of gene expression during adaptation to salinity in salt-sensitive and halotolerant plants is a promising and powerful approach to identify novel elements of plant salt stress adaptation. PMID:18703123

Popova, Olga V; Yang, Oksoon; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Golldack, Dortje

2008-11-01

48

Genome-Wide Transcriptional Variation within and between Steady States for Continuous Growth of the Hyperthermophile Thermotoga Maritima  

OpenAIRE

Maltose-limited, continuous growth of the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima at different temperatures and dilution rates (80°C/0.25 h?1, 80°C/0.17 h?1, and 85°C/0.25 h?1) showed that transcriptome-wide variation in gene expression within mechanical steady states was minimal compared to that between steady states, supporting the efficacy of chemostat-based approaches for functional genomics studies.

Shockley, Keith R.; Scott, Kevin L.; Pysz, Marybeth A.; Conners, Shannon B.; Johnson, Matthew R.; Montero, Clemente I.; Wolfinger, Russell D.; Kelly, Robert M.

2005-01-01

49

Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima - ancestor of all beet crops - and modern sugar beets  

OpenAIRE

The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar be...

ChristinZachow; RalfTilcher

2014-01-01

50

Ribosomes of the extremely thermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga maritima are uniquely insensitive to the miscoding-inducing action of aminoglycoside antibiotics.  

OpenAIRE

Poly(U)- and poly(UG)-programmed cell-free systems were developed from the extreme thermophilic, anaerobic eubacterium Thermotoga maritima, and their susceptibility to aminoglycoside and other antibiotics was assayed at a temperature (75 degrees C) close to the physiological optimum (80 degrees C) for cell growth and in vitro polypeptide synthesis, using a Bacillus stearothermophilus system as the reference. The synthetic capacity of the Thermotoga assay mixture was abolished by the eubacteri...

Londei, P.; Altamura, S.; Huber, R.; Stetter, K. O.; Cammarano, P.

1988-01-01

51

Emergence of gynodioecy in wild beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima L.): a genealogical approach using chloroplastic nucleotide sequences  

OpenAIRE

Gynodioecy is a breeding system where both hermaphroditic and female individuals coexist within plant populations. This dimorphism is the result of a genomic interaction between maternally inherited cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes and bi-parentally inherited nuclear male fertility restorers. As opposed to other gynodioecious species, where every cytoplasm seems to be associated with male sterility, wild beet Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima exhibits a minority of sterilizing cytoplasms amon...

Fe?nart, Ste?phane; Touzet, Pascal; Arnaud, Jean-franc?ois; Cuguen, Joe?l

2006-01-01

52

Water Stress in Beta vulgaris: Osmotic Adjustment Response and Gene Expression Analysis in ssp. vulgaris and maritima  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Beta vulgaris genus comprises wild and cultivated subspecies. The “maritima” subspecies is formed by wild or weedy accessions, well adapted to low-water potential environments; it was previously shown that B. vulgaris ssp. maritima has mechanisms of osmotic adjustment more effective than the cultivated B. vulgaris ssp. vulgaris. The response to a progressive lowering of soil potential was compared in two Beta accessions, a cultivated and a wild one. Throughout the 4-months experiment under rain shelters, osmotic potential and relative water content were measured and total RNA was extracted to test the expression of six target genes known in sugar beet or in other plants to be modulated by water shortage. The mild occurrence of drought was paralleled by slow increase in transcription for sucrose synthase 1 and choline monoxygenase, in a way that was in some cases accession-dependent, e.g. the gene for choline monoxygenase was found to be up-regulated at the later stages of growth in stressed plants compared to control ones, and showed a higher constitutive transcription in sea beet compared to sugar beet. Transcription factor DREB2Aalso was slowly induced during the growth season and upon onset of water shortage, and this induction was stronger in sea beet than in sugar beet. In control plants, the transcription of all genes tested except DREB2Awere significantly higher in maritima accession compared to vulgaris one.

Paola Vastarelli

2013-01-01

53

Cloning and expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyzing the conversion of tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime in the biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides in Triglochin maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two cDNA clones encoding cytochrome P450 enzymes belonging to the CYP79 family have been isolated from Triglochin maritima. The two proteins show 94% sequence identity and have been designated CYP79E1 and CYP79E2. Heterologous expression of the native and the truncated forms of the two clones in Escherichia coli demonstrated that both encode multifunctional N-hydroxylases catalyzing the conversion of tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime in the biosynthesis of the two cyanogenic glucosides taxiphyllin and triglochinin in T. maritima. This renders CYP79E functionally identical to CYP79A1 from Sorghum bicolor, and unambiguously demonstrates that cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in T. maritima and S. bicolor is catalyzed by analogous enzyme systems with p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime as a free intermediate. This is in contrast to earlier reports stipulating p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile as the only free intermediate in T. maritima. L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl[3-(14)C]Ala (DOPA) was not metabolized by CYP79E1, indicating that hydroxylation of the phenol ring at the meta position, as required for triglochinin formation, takes place at a later stage. In S. bicolor, CYP71E1 catalyzes the subsequent conversion of p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime to p-hydroxymandelonitrile. When CYP79E1 from T. maritima was reconstituted with CYP71E1 and NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase from S. bicolor, efficient conversion of tyrosine to p-hydroxymandelonitrile was observed. PMID:10759528

Nielsen, J S; Møller, B L

2000-04-01

54

Cloning and Expression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Catalyzing the Conversion of Tyrosine to p-Hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime in the Biosynthesis of Cyanogenic Glucosides in Triglochin maritima1  

Science.gov (United States)

Two cDNA clones encoding cytochrome P450 enzymes belonging to the CYP79 family have been isolated from Triglochin maritima. The two proteins show 94% sequence identity and have been designated CYP79E1 and CYP79E2. Heterologous expression of the native and the truncated forms of the two clones in Escherichia coli demonstrated that both encode multifunctional N-hydroxylases catalyzing the conversion of tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime in the biosynthesis of the two cyanogenic glucosides taxiphyllin and triglochinin in T. maritima. This renders CYP79E functionally identical to CYP79A1 from Sorghum bicolor, and unambiguously demonstrates that cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in T. maritima and S. bicolor is catalyzed by analogous enzyme systems with p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime as a free intermediate. This is in contrast to earlier reports stipulating p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile as the only free intermediate in T. maritima. l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl[3-14C]Ala (DOPA) was not metabolized by CYP79E1, indicating that hydroxylation of the phenol ring at the meta position, as required for triglochinin formation, takes place at a later stage. In S. bicolor, CYP71E1 catalyzes the subsequent conversion of p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime to p-hydroxymandelonitrile. When CYP79E1 from T. maritima was reconstituted with CYP71E1 and NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase from S. bicolor, efficient conversion of tyrosine to p-hydroxymandelonitrile was observed. PMID:10759528

Nielsen, John Strikart; Møller, Birger Lindberg

2000-01-01

55

Kaempferol glycosides from Lobularia maritima and their potential role in plant interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six kaempferol glycosides, four of them characterized for the first time, were isolated from the leaf extract of Lobularia maritima. The structural elucidation was performed by a combined approach using Electrospray-Ionization Triple-Quadrupole Mass-Spectrometric (ESI/TQ/MS) techniques, and 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments (1H, 13C, DEPT, DQ-COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, NOESY, HSQC, HMBC, and HSQC-TOCSY). The isolated kaempferol derivatives have different disaccharide substituents at C(3) and four of them have a rhamnose unit at C(7). To evaluate their potential allelopathic role within the herbaceous plant community, the compounds, as well as the aglycone obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis, have been tested in vitro on three coexisting plant species, Dactylis hispanica, Petrorhagia velutina, and Phleum subulatum. The results obtained allow us to hypothesize that the type of the sugar modulates the biological response. The bioassay data, analyzed by a multivariate approach, and grouping the compounds on the basis of the number of sugar units and the nature of carbohydrates present in the disaccharide moiety, indicate a structure-activity relationship. PMID:19235162

Fiorentino, Antonio; Ricci, Andreina; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Golino, Annunziata; Izzo, Angelina; Pascarella, Maria Teresa; Piccolella, Simona; Esposito, Assunta

2009-02-01

56

Effect of Gamma Rays and Salinity on Growth and Chemical Composition of Ambrosia maritima L. Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work was achieved in pots at the wire house of the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) during the two successive seasons of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of gamma irradiation doses (0, 20, 40 and 80 Gy) on damssisa plants (Ambrosia maritima L.) under salt stress after sowing in (3:2, sand: loamy) soils with mixture of salts. The mixture of salts was sodium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium sulfate at the ratio of 2:2:1. Three concentrations of the used mixture were prepared; 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm. It was observed that irradiation of damsissa seeds with 40 or 80 Gy increased plant tolerance to salinity comparing to control, concerning plant height, fresh and dry weights and photosynthetic pigments. This increase was often significant with low concentration of salinity. On the other hand, sowing seeds in 6000 ppm concentration decreased all the previous measurements. Also, it was noticed that radiation alleviates the adverse effect of salinity by increasing total sugar and total soluble phenols in shoots of damsissa plants.

57

Amorphus suaedae sp. nov., isolated from the root of a tidal flat plant, Suaeda maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel bacterial strain, YC6899(T), was isolated from the root of Suaedae maritima growing on a tidal flat of Namhae Island, Korea. Cells were Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, slightly halophilic and heterotrophic. Strain YC6899(T) grew optimally at a salinity of 2-4?%, at 25-37 °C and at pH 6.5-8.0. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that strain YC6899(T) was closely related to Amorphus orientalis YIM D10(T) (96.1?% similarity) and Amorphus coralli RS.Sph.026(T) (95.9?%). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids, an unknown aminophospholipid, an unknown aminoglycolipid, unknown glycolipids and unknown lipids. The major fatty acids of strain YC6899(T) were C19?:?0 cyclo ?8c and C18?:?1?7c. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.3 mol%. Strain YC6899(T) contained ubiquinone-10 (Q-10) as the major respiratory quinone system. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain YC6899(T) represents a novel species within the genus Amorphus, for which the name Amorphus suaedae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6899(T) (?=?KACC 14912(T)?=?NBRC 107845(T)). PMID:23687061

Hwang, Jung Moon; Chung, Eu Jin; Park, Jeong Ae; Jeong, Jae Heon; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

2013-10-01

58

Gynodioecy in structured populations: understanding fine-scale sex ratio variation in Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural selection, random processes and gene flow are known to generate sex ratio variations among sexually polymorphic plant populations. In gynodioecious species, in which hermaphrodites and females coexist, the relative effect of these processes on the maintenance of sex polymorphism is still up for debate. The aim of this study was to document sex ratio and cytonuclear genetic variation at a very local scale in wind-pollinated gynodioecious Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima and attempt to elucidate which processes explained the observed variation. The study sites were characterized by geographically distinct patches of individuals and appeared to be dynamic entities, with recurrent establishment of distinct haplotypes through independent founder events. Along with substantial variation in sex ratio and unexpectedly low gene flow within study sites, our results showed a high genetic differentiation among a mosaic of genetically distinct demes, with isolation by distance or abrupt genetic discontinuities taking place within a few tens of metres. Overall, random founder events with restricted gene flow could be primary determinants of sex structure, by promoting the clumping of sex-determining genes. Such high levels of sex structure provide a landscape for differential selection acting on sex-determining genes, which could modify the conditions of maintenance of gynodioecy in structured populations. PMID:22211480

De Cauwer, Isabelle; Dufay, M; Hornoy, B; Courseaux, A; Arnaud, J-F

2012-02-01

59

The carbohydrate-binding specificity and molecular modelling of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora lectins  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The carbohydrate-binding specificity of lectins from the seeds of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora was studied by hapten-inhibition of haemagglutination using various sugars and sugar derivatives as inhibitors, including N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid. Despite some discre [...] pancies, both lectins exhibited a very similar carbohydrate-binding specificity as previously reported for other lectins from Diocleinae (tribe Phaseoleae, sub-tribe Diocleinae). Accordingly, both lectins exhibited almost identical hydropathic profiles and their three-dimensional models built up from the atomic coordinates of ConA looked very similar. However, docking experiments of glucose and mannose in their monosaccharide-binding sites, by comparison with the ConA-mannose complex used as a model, revealed conformational changes in side chains of the amino acid residues involved in the binding of monosaccharides. These results fully agree with crystallographic data showing that binding of specific ligands to ConA requires conformational chances of its monosaccharide-binding site.

Márcio Viana, Ramos; Renato de Azevedo, Moreira; José Tadeu Abreu, Oliveira; Benildo Sousa, Cavada; Pierre, Rougé.

1996-12-01

60

Temperature-dependent plasticity of segment number in an arthropod species: the centipede Strigamia maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of arthropod segment number provides us with a paradox, because, whereas there is more than 20-fold variation in this character overall, most classes and orders of arthropods are composed of species that lack any variation in the number of segments. So, what is the origin of the higher-level variation? The centipede order Geophilomorpha is unusual because, with the exception of one of its families, all species exhibit intraspecific variation in segment number. Hence it provides an opportunity to investigate how segment number may change in a microevolutionary context. Here, we show that segment number can be directly altered by an environmental factor (temperature)-this is the first such demonstration for any arthropod. The direction of the effect is such that higher temperature during embryogenesis produces more segments. This potentially explains an intraspecific cline in the species concerned, Strigamia maritima, but it does not explain how such a cline is translated into the parallel interspecific pattern of lower-latitude species having more segments. Given the plastic nature of the intraspecific variation, its link with interspecific differences may lie in selection acting on developmental reaction norms. PMID:18638325

Vedel, Vincent; Chipman, Ariel D; Akam, Michael; Arthur, Wallace

2008-01-01

61

Germ cells of the centipede Strigamia maritima are specified early in embryonic development.  

Science.gov (United States)

We provide the first systematic description of germ cell development with molecular markers in a myriapod, the centipede Strigamia maritima. By examining the expression of Strigamia vasa and nanos orthologues, we find that the primordial germ cells are specified from at least the blastoderm stage. This is a much earlier embryonic stage than previously described for centipedes, or any other member of the Myriapoda. Using these genes as markers, and taking advantage of the developmental synchrony of Strigamia embryos within single clutches, we are able to track the development of the germ cells throughout embryogenesis. We find that the germ cells accumulate at the blastopore; that the cells do not internalize through the hindgut, but rather through the closing blastopore; and that the cells undergo a long-range migration to the embryonic gonad. This is the first evidence for primordial germ cells displaying these behaviours in any myriapod. The myriapods are a phylogenetically important group in the arthropod radiation for which relatively little developmental data is currently available. Our study provides valuable comparative data that complements the growing number of studies in insects, crustaceans and chelicerates, and is important for the correct reconstruction of ancestral states and a fuller understanding of how germ cell development has evolved in different arthropod lineages. PMID:24930702

Green, Jack E; Akam, Michael

2014-08-15

62

Bioconversion of Stemodia maritima diterpenes and derivatives by Cunninghamella echinulata var. elegans and Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stemodane and stemarane diterpenes isolated from the plant Stemodia maritima and their dimethylcarbamate derivatives were fed to growing cultures of the fungi Cunninghamella echinulata var. elegans ATCC 8688a and Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 24725. C. echinulata transformed stemodin (1) to its 7alpha-hydroxy- (2), 7beta-hydroxy- (3) and 3beta-hydroxy- (4) analogues. 2alpha-(N,N-Dimethylcarbamoxy)-13-hydroxystemodane (6) gave 2alpha-(N,N-dimethylcarbamoxy)-6alpha,13-dihydroxystemodane (7) and 2alpha-(N,N-dimethylcarbamoxy)-7alpha,13-dihydroxystemodane (8). Stemodinone (9) yielded 14-hydroxy-(10) and 7beta-hydroxy- (11) congeners along with 1, 2 and 3. Stemarin (13) was converted to the hitherto unreported 6alpha,13-dihydroxystemaran-19-oic acid (18). 19-(N,N-Dimethylcarbamoxy)-13-hydroxystemarane (14) yielded 13-hydroxystemaran-19-oic acid (17) along with the two metabolites: 19-(N,N-dimethylcarbamoxy)-2beta,13-dihydroxystemarane (15) and 19-(N,N-dimethylcarbamoxy)-2beta,8,13-trihydroxystemarane (16). P. chrysosporium converted 1 into 3, 4 and 2alpha,11beta,13-trihydroxystemodane (5). The dimethylcarbamate (6) was not transformed by this microorganism. Stemodinone (9) was hydroxylated at C-19 to give 12. Both stemarin (13) and its dimethylcarbamate (14) were recovered unchanged after incubation with Phanerochaete. PMID:16725164

Lamm, Andrew S; Reynolds, William F; Reese, Paul B

2006-06-01

63

Elementary analysis of Alternanthera Maritima and Blutaparon Portulacoides (Gomphreneae, Amaranthacear) by X-ray fluorescence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phytochemical study and the evaluation of biological activities of plants species have been intensified in the last years. The modernization of analytical equipment allowed significant progress in the natural products chemistry. Most of the plants researches emphasize the isolation of secondary metabolites and the metal analysis is neglected. In this study, aqueous and ethanolic extracts and the intact plant of Alternanthera maritima (aerial parts and roots) and Blutaparon portulacoides (aerial parts and roots), species commonly found on the beaches of eastern coast of Brazil (Restinga de Marica, RJ), were selected for analysis by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). With the standard sample aid, the correlation between the elementary sensitivity and the atomic numbers of the elements was determined. The elements P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, As, Zn, Br, Sr, Sn and Sb, supported in membranes, were detected in the two analyzed plants, but only the elements in the interval 26 (Fe) ? Z ? 30 (Zn) were quantified with elementary concentration between 8,7 and 895,0 ?g.g-1. (author)

64

In the halotolerant Lobularia maritima (Brassicaceae) salt adaptation correlates with activation of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase and the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lobularia maritima (Brassicaceae) is a facultative halophyte related to Arabidopsis thaliana and may be a suitable model to identify molecular mechanisms that regulate tolerance to salt stress in plants. Under the same salt stress conditions, the accumulation of sodium was similar in shoots and roots of Lobularia maritima and Arabidopsis thaliana, whereas the sodium to potassium ratio was less in Lobularia maritima. Aquaporins, the NHX-type Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, and the vacuolar ATPase are well established targets of regulation under salt stress that have a central role in the control of water status and cytoplasmic sodium homeostasis. Therefore, salt-dependent expression of transcripts encoding a PIP2;1 aquaporin, the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter NHX, and V-ATPase subunit E (VHA-E) was characterized in Lobularia maritima. Transcription of LmPIP2;1 was repressed in leaves and roots by treatment with 500mM NaCl. In contrast, salt stress stimulated the expression of LmNHX1 and LmVHA-E. Cell-specificity of the transcription of LmNHX1 was analyzed by fluorescence in situ PCR in leaf cross sections of Lobularia maritima. Expression of the gene was localized to the phloem and to mesophyll cells. In plants treated with 500 mM NaCl, transcription of LmNHX1 was stimulated in the mesophyll. The findings indicate divergent transcriptional responses of key mechanisms of salt adaptation in Lobularia maritima and suggest distinct regulation of sodium homeostasis and water flux under salt stress. PMID:17166622

Popova, Olga V; Golldack, Dortje

2007-10-01

65

The first myriapod genome sequence reveals conservative arthropod gene content and genome organisation in the centipede Strigamia maritima  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologues of genes conserved from the bilaterian ancestor that have been lost in insects. Our analysis locates many genes in conserved macro-synteny contexts, and many small-scale examples of gene clustering. We describe several examples where S. maritima shows different solutions from insects to similar problems. The insect olfactory receptor gene family is absent from S. maritima, and olfaction in air is likely effected by expansion of other receptor gene families. For some genes S. maritima has evolved paralogues to generate coding sequence diversity, where insects use alternate splicing. This is most striking for the Dscam gene, which in Drosophila generates more than 100,000 alternate splice forms, but in S. maritima is encoded by over 100 paralogues. We see an intriguing linkage between the absence of any known photosensory proteins in a blind organism and the additional absence of canonical circadian clock genes. The phylogenetic position of myriapods allows us to identify where in arthropod phylogeny several particular molecular mechanisms and traits emerged. For example, we conclude that juvenile hormone signalling evolved with the emergence of the exoskeleton in the arthropods and that RR-1 containing cuticle proteins evolved in the lineage leading to Mandibulata. We also identify when various gene expansions and losses occurred. The genome of S. maritima offers us a unique glimpse into the ancestral arthropod genome, while also displaying many adaptations to its specific life history.

Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E.K.

2014-01-01

66

Purification and characterization of a novel thermostable 4-alpha-glucanotransferase of Thermotoga maritima cloned in Escherichia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maltodextrin glycosyltransferase (4-alpha-glucanotransferase) of the extremely thermophilic ancestral bacterium Thermotoga maritima has been purified from an Escherichia coli clone expressing the corresponding T. maritima MSB8 chromosomal gene. T. maritima 4-alpha-glucanotransferase, an approximately 53-kDa monomeric enzyme, is the most thermophilic glycosyltransferase described to date. It retained more than 90% of its maximum activity at temperatures from 55 degrees C up to 80 degrees C. The proposed action modus is the transfer of 1,4-alpha-glucanosyl chains, thus resulting in the disproportionation of 1,4-alpha-glucans. It converted soluble starch, amylopectin, and amylose, thereby changing the iodine staining properties of these substrates. The addition of low-molecular-mass malto-oligosaccharides, which act as glucanosyl acceptor molecules, enhanced the reaction and resulted in the formation of a series of linear maltohomologues from two to more than nine glucose units in size. Use of either of the malto-oligosaccharides maltotetraose, maltopentaose, maltohexaose, or maltoheptaose as sole substrate also yielded linear maltohomologues. On the other hand, maltose and maltotriose were not disproportionated by 4-alpha-glucanotransferase, although both were good acceptors for glucanosyl transfer. Glucose did not function as an acceptor in transfer reactions. Glucose also never appeared as a reaction product. The chain length of glucanosyl segments transferred ranged from two to probably far more than six glucose residues. Comparison of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of 4-alpha-glucanotransferase with other published protein sequences revealed significant similarity to sequences near the N-termini of various eucaryotic maltases and bacterial cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases, suggesting its relatedness on the molecular level with other starch- and maltodextrin-converting enzymes. PMID:1628664

Liebl, W; Feil, R; Gabelsberger, J; Kellermann, J; Schleifer, K H

1992-07-01

67

A Unique ?-1,2-Mannosyltransferase of Thermotoga maritima That Uses Di-myo-Inositol Phosphate as the Mannosyl Acceptor?  

OpenAIRE

In addition to di-myo-inositol-1,3?-phosphate (DIP), a compatible solute widespread in hyperthermophiles, the organic solute pool of Thermotoga maritima comprises 2-(O-?-d-mannosyl)-di-myo-inositol-1,3?-phosphate (MDIP) and 2-(O-?-d-mannosyl-1,2-O-?-d-mannosyl)-di-myo-inositol-1,3?-phosphate (MMDIP), two newly identified ?-1,2-mannosides. In cells grown under heat stress, MDIP was the major solute, accounting for 43% of the total pool; MMDIP and DIP accumulated to similar levels, ea...

Rodrigues, Marta V.; Borges, Nuno; Almeida, Carla P.; Lamosa, Pedro; Santos, Helena

2009-01-01

68

The interaction of ammonia and xenon with the imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase from Thermotoga maritima as detected by NMR spectroscopy  

OpenAIRE

The imidazole glycerol phosphate (ImGP) synthase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima is a 1:1 complex of the glutaminase subunit HisH and the cyclase subunit HisF. It has been proposed that ammonia generated by HisH is transported through a channel to the active site of HisF, which generates intermediates of histidine (ImGP) and de novo biosynthesis of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamideribotide. Solution NMR spectroscopy of ammonium chloride-titrated samples was used to study...

Liebold, Christoph; List, Felix; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert; Sterner, Reinhard; Brunner, Eike

2010-01-01

69

Structure-based design of robust glucose biosensors using a Thermotoga maritima periplasmic glucose-binding protein  

OpenAIRE

We report the design and engineering of a robust, reagentless fluorescent glucose biosensor based on the periplasmic glucose-binding protein obtained from Thermotoga maritima (tmGBP). The gene for this protein was cloned from genomic DNA and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, the identity of its cognate sugar was confirmed, ligand binding was studied, and the structure of its glucose complex was solved to 1.7 Å resolution by X-ray crystallography. TmGBP is specific for glucose and exhibits h...

Tian, Yaji; Cuneo, Matthew J.; Changela, Anita; Ho?cker, Birte; Beese, Lorena S.; Hellinga, Homme W.

2007-01-01

70

An early temperature-sensitive period for the plasticity of segment number in the centipede Strigamia maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Geophilomorph centipedes show variation in segment number (a) between closely related species and (b) within and between populations of the same species. We have previously shown for a Scottish population of the coastal centipede Strigamia maritima that the temperature of embryonic development is one of the factors that affects the segment number of hatchlings, and hence of adults, as these animals grow epimorphically--that is, without postembryonic addition of segments. Here, we show, using temperature-shift experiments, that the main developmental period during which embryos are sensitive to environmental temperature is surprisingly early, during blastoderm formation and before, or very shortly after, the onset of segmentation. PMID:20618430

Vedel, Vincent; Apostolou, Zivkos; Arthur, Wallace; Akam, Michael; Brena, Carlo

2010-01-01

71

Hoeflea suaedae sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from the root of the halophyte Suaeda maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Gram-negative, aerobic, short rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain YC6898(T), was isolated from the surface-sterilized root of a halophyte (Suaeda maritima) inhabiting tidal flat of Namhae Island, Korea. Strain YC6898(T) grew optimally at 30-37 °C and pH 6.5-7.5. The strain inhibited mycelial growth of Pythium ultimum and Phytophthora capsici. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YC6898(T) belongs to the genus Hoeflea in the family Phyllobacteriaceae. Its closest relatives were Hoeflea alexandrii AM1V30(T) (96.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Hoeflea anabaenae WH2K(T) (95.7%), Hoeflea phototrophica DFL-43(T) (95.5%) and Hoeflea marina LMG 128(T) (94.8%). Strain YC6898(T) contained Q-10 as the major ubiquinone. The major fatty acids of strain YC6898(T) were C18:1?7c (61.1%), C16:0 (11.9%), 11-methyl C18:1?7c (9.6%) and C19:0 cyclo ?8c (8.0%). The polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, unknown lipids and an unknown glycolipid. The total genomic DNA G+C content was 53.7 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analysis, strain YC6898(T) represents a novel species of the genus Hoeflea, for which the name Hoeflea suaedae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6898(T) (=KACC 14911(T)=NBRC 107700(T)). PMID:23159752

Chung, Eu Jin; Park, Jeong Ae; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bibi, Fehmida; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

2013-06-01

72

Early development and segment formation in the centipede, Strigamia maritima (Geophilomorpha).  

Science.gov (United States)

Geophilomorph centipedes exhibit a number of unique characteristics that make them of particular developmental and evolutionary interest. Segment numbers in geophilomorphs are higher than in any other centipedes, ranging from 27 to 191. They may be constant within a species, presenting in extreme form the "counting" problem in development, or they may vary--a situation that provides us with the opportunity to study naturally occurring variation in segment numbers. All their segments are generated during embryogenesis, a situation unlike that in the more basal centipede orders, which generate only a fraction of their 15 trunk segments in the embryo and develop the rest postembryonically. Here we provide a foundation for further developmental studies of the Geophilomorpha, building on the one study that has been conducted to date, on the coastal species Strigamia maritima. Development begins with the migration of nuclei to the surface of the egg, which then condense to form an embryonic rudiment of more than 20,000 cells, covering an entire hemisphere. During early development, the embryo can be divided into two distinct areas: a large terminal disc of apparently undifferentiated tissue and the germ-band, which has a clear anteroposterior axis and differentiated segments. The germ-band forms from the anterior of the terminal disc and extends anteriorly as the disc contracts. New segments are formed at the posterior margin of the germ-band. Once the process of segmentation ends, the germ-band folds and sinks into the yolk. We note that the classic description of centipede development, by Heymons more than a century ago, contains a fundamental error in the identification of the axes and hence in the interpretation of early segmentation. PMID:15009120

Chipman, Ariel D; Arthur, Wallace; Akam, Michael

2004-01-01

73

Expression of trunk Hox genes in the centipede Strigamia maritima: sense and anti-sense transcripts.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the coding sequence and embryonic expression of the four trunk Hox genes Antennapedia (Antp), Ultrabithorax (Ubx), abdominal-A (abd-A), and Abdominal-B (Abd-B) in the geophilomorph centipede Strigamia maritima. In geophilomorph centipedes, all leg-bearing segments (LBS) are generated during embryogenesis, allowing us to define expression in relation to the full extent of the forming trunk. Persistent Antp expression characterizes the maxillipedal (poison claw) segment, whereas all LBS express the three Hox genes Antp, Ubx, and abd-A. Abd-B is never detectably expressed in segmented tissue, but is restricted to a zone around the proctodaeum that contributes to the hindgut. Expression of all these Hox genes initiates in the unsegmented tissue of the blastodisc, with expression of Antp respecting a sharply defined anterior border before the appearance of morphological segmentation in the trunk. The accumulation of Hox gene transcripts is strongly modulated by the maturing segment pattern, suggesting regulatory interactions with multiple levels of the segment patterning machinery. For one of these genes, Ubx, we detect both sense and anti-sense transcripts. The anti-sense transcripts originate 3' to the Ubx coding sequence and overlap the homeobox exon; they are expressed earlier than the Ubx coding transcripts and persistently, in an axially restricted pattern comparable to but distinct from those of the Hox coding transcripts. The pattern of accumulation of Ubx sense and anti-sense transcripts is strikingly complementary, suggesting the possibility of anti-sense regulation of Ubx expression. PMID:16686636

Brena, Carlo; Chipman, Ariel D; Minelli, Alessandro; Akam, Michael

2006-01-01

74

Characterization of Thermotoga maritima glycerol dehydrogenase for the enzymatic production of dihydroxyacetone.  

Science.gov (United States)

NAD-dependent Thermotoga maritima glycerol dehydrogenase (TmGlyDH) converts glycerol into dihydroxyacetone (DHA), a valuable synthetic precursor and sunless tanning agent. In this work, recombinant TmGlyDH was characterized to determine if it can be used to catalyze DHA production. The pH optima for glycerol oxidation and DHA reduction at 50 °C were 7.9 and 6.0, respectively. Under the conditions tested, TmGlyDH had a linear Arrhenius plot up to 80 °C. TmGlyDH was more thermostable than other glycerol dehydrogenases, remaining over 50 % active after 7 h at 50 °C. TmGlyDH was active on racemic 1,2-propanediol and produced (R)-1,2-propanediol from hydroxyacetone with an enantiomeric excess above 99 %, suggesting that TmGlyDH can also be used for chiral synthesis. (R)-1,2-propanediol production from hydroxyacetone was demonstrated for the first time in a one-enzyme cycling reaction using glycerol as the second substrate. Negative cooperativity was observed with glycerol and DHA, but not with the cofactor. Apparent kinetic parameters for glycerol, DHA, and NAD(H) were determined over a broad pH range. TmGlyDH showed little activity with N(6)-carboxymethyl-NAD(+) (N(6)-CM-NAD), an NAD(+) analog modified for easy immobilization to amino groups, but the double mutation V44A/K157G increased catalytic efficiency with N(6)-CM-NAD(+) ten-fold. Finally, we showed for the first time that a GlyDH is active with immobilized N(6)-CM-NAD(+), suggesting that N(6)-CM-NAD(+) can be immobilized on an electrode to allow TmGlyDH activity in a system that reoxidizes the cofactor electrocatalytically. PMID:24664447

Beauchamp, Justin; Gross, Phillip G; Vieille, Claire

2014-08-01

75

?-Galactobiosyl units: thermodynamics and kinetics of their formation by transglycosylations catalysed by the GH36 ?-galactosidase from Thermotoga maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Broad regioselectivity of ?-galactosidase from Thermotoga maritima (TmGal36A) is a limiting factor for application of the enzyme in the directed synthesis of oligogalactosides. However, this property can be used as a convenient tool in studies of thermodynamics of a glycosidic bond. Here, a novel approach to energy difference estimation is suggested. Both transglycosylation and hydrolysis of three types of galactosidic linkages were investigated using total kinetics of formation and hydrolysis of pNP-galactobiosides catalysed by monomeric glycoside hydrolase family 36 ?-galactosidase from T. maritima, a retaining exo-acting glycoside hydrolase. We have estimated transition state free energy differences between the 1,2- and 1,3-linkage (??G(‡)0 values were equal 5.34±0.85kJ/mol) and between 1,6-linkage and 1,3-linkage (??G(‡)0=1.46±0.23kJ/mol) in pNP-galactobiosides over the course of the reaction catalysed by TmGal36A. Using the free energy difference for formation and hydrolysis of glycosidic linkages (??G(‡)F-??G(‡)H), we found that the 1,2-linkage was 2.93±0.47kJ/mol higher in free energy than the 1,3-linkage, and the 1,6-linkage 4.44±0.71kJ/mol lower. PMID:25486100

Borisova, Anna S; Ivanen, Dina R; Bobrov, Kirill S; Eneyskaya, Elena V; Rychkov, Georgy N; Sandgren, Mats; Kulminskaya, Anna A; Sinnott, Michael L; Shabalin, Konstantin A

2015-01-12

76

A ocorrência do mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren, Nasutitermitinae, em afloramentos rochosos no Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A presença de colônias de C. silvestrii é comum nos lajeados existentes em Itapuã. Na estação Morro da Grota1, 92,0 % dos termiteiros situados na rocha exposta e em ilhas de vegetação estão associados a D. maritima. Esta convivência ocorre em 31,2 % das ilhas na qual esta bromélia se faz presente. Nas ilhas, a comparação entre os substratos aonde D. maritima vegeta, o solo litólico húmico existente sob o manto do musgo Campylopus spp. e o substrato constituído pelo cupinzeiro indica que este último possui os teores mais elevados dos nutrientes P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn e Mn, maior CTC e maiores teores de partículas finas, principalmente o silte. O estabelecimento de D. maritima sobre os termiteiros de grande porte aumenta o seu valor de cobertura em ilhas de vegetação quando comparado com ilhas sem termiteiros ou com termiteiros de pequeno porte em áreas entre 2,7 a 8,0 m². Este fato é atribuído à melhoria físico-química do substrato e ao aumento de superfície e volume aptos a serem colonizados pela bromélia e proporciona maior competitividade em relação a outras espécies vegetais. As características apresentadas pela interação entre este cupim e D. maritima, pela primeira vez descrita na literatura, permitem indicar esta relação ecológica como mutualismo facultativo. Inferimos que o conjunto de observações apresentado constitui um modelo temporal de crescimento deste mutualismo, cujas fases inicial e tardia estão descritas neste trabalho.

Waldemar Celso Copstein

2003-01-01

77

Characterization of glycosyl hydrolase family 3 beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga neapolitana.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genes encoding beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (nagA and cbsA) from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga neapolitana were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli in order to investigate whether Thermotoga sp. is capable of utilizing chitin as a carbon source. NagA and CbsA were purified to homogeneity by HiTrap Q HP and Sephacryl S-200 HR column chromatography. Both enzymes were homodimers containing a family 3 glycoside hydrolase (GH3) catalytic domain, with a monomer molecular mass of 54 kDa. The optimal temperatures and pHs for the activities of the beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases were found to be 65-75 degrees C and 7.0-8.0, respectively. Both enzymes hydrolyzed chitooligomers such as di-N-acetylchitobiose and tri-N-acetylchitotriose, and synthetic substrates such as p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucose (pNPGlc), p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl beta-D-glucosamine (pNPGlcNAc), p-nitrophenyl di-N-acetyl beta-D-chitobiose (pNPGlcNAc(2)) and p-nitrophenyl tri-N-acetyl beta-D-chitotriose (pNPGlcNAc(3)). However, the enzymes had no activity against p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactose (pNPGal) and p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl beta-D-galactosamine (pNPGalNAc) or highly polymerized chitin. The k(cat) and K(m) values were determined for pNPGlcNAc, pNPGlcNAc(2) and pNPGlcNAc(3). The k(cat)/K(m) value for pNPGlcNAc was the highest among three synthetic substrates. NagA and CbsA initially hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl substrates to give GlcNAc, suggesting that the enzymes have exo-activity with chitin oligosaccharides from the non-reducing ends, like other beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases. However, NagA and CbsA can be distinguished from other GH3-type beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases in that they are highly active against di-N-acetylchitobiose. Thus, the present results suggest that the physiological role of both enzymes is to degrade the chitooligosaccharides transported through membrane following hydrolysis of chitin into beta-N-acetylglucosamine to be further metabolized in Thermotoga sp. PMID:19914575

Choi, Kyoung-Hwa; Seo, Ja Yeong; Park, Kyung-Min; Park, Cheon-Seok; Cha, Jaeho

2009-12-01

78

Comparative study of antibacterial and antifugal activity of callus culture and adult plants extracts from Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae) / Estudo comparativo da atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos obtidos da cultura de calos e da planta adulta de Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo procedeu-se a avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica dos extratos brutos de Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae) planta in natura de duas coletas distintas e obtidos por cultura de células buscando-se averiguar a manutenção da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos obtidos [...] da planta in vivo e in vitro. A ação antibacteriana e antifúngica foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar (técnica do poço) utilizando-se trinta cepas de microrganismos indicadores (bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas, leveduras e dermatófitos). Todos os extratos obtidos com solventes orgânicos avaliados apresentaram-se bioativos com halos de inibição de 6 a 20 mm. Os extratos da planta in natura das duas coletas (Restinga de Marica (RJ), verão de 1995 e 1998) inibiram o desenvolvimento de diferentes microrganismos (bactérias, leveduras e dermatófitos). Os extratos obtidos da cultura de calos desenvolvidos em duas condições de cultivo diferentes, também se mantiveram bioativos. Assim, os resultados obtidos encorajam a realização de novos estudos com esta espécie vegetal para se determinar quais as substâncias presentes nos extratos e que contribuem para a atividade biológica, como também para entender seu mecanismo de ação e avaliar sua toxicidade, visando uma possível aplicação farmacêutica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of callus culture (two different hormonal combination culture medium) and adult plants (two collect) extracts from Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae) investigating the maintenance of antimicrobial activity in vivo an [...] d in vitro. The antibacterial and antifungal activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method against thirty strains of microorganisms including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes. All the organic crude extracts studied were bioactive. Extracts of aerial parts and roots of adult plants collected during the same period of years of 1995 and 1998 (Restinga de Maricá (RJ), collect 1 and 2) inhibited the growth of several microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes) with inhibition halo between 6 and 20 mm. Plant cell callus culture extracts obtained from two culture conditions were also bioactive. Thus, the positive results suggest that the A. maritima extracts should be further studied to determine the bioactive chemical compounds as well as to understand the possible mechanisms of action and evaluate their toxicity looking toward a pharmaceutical employment.

Marcos J., Salvador; Paulo S., Pereira; Suzelei C., França; Regina C., Candido; Izabel Y., Ito; Diones A., Dias.

2004-06-01

79

The effect of macrofauna, meiofauna and microfauna on the degradation of Spartina maritima detritus from a salt marsh area  

Science.gov (United States)

Decomposition of salt marsh plants results from physical, chemical and biological processes including abiotic and biotic fragmentation, microbial decay and chemical transformation. According to literature data, only a few species have the ability to feed directly on living plant material, so fungi and bacteria seem to be the principal competitors for the organic substrates. Nevertheless, by consuming bacteria, protists and fungi associated to the detritus, macrofauna and meiofauna recycle the incorporated nutrients. Moreover, this nutrient regeneration may be seen as an effective factor in maintaining and stimulating bacterial production. In fact, it is well known that many detritus feeding species have very low assimilation efficiencies. The objective of the present study was to compare the nutrient mass balance of carbon; nitrogen and phosphorus in Spartina maritima covered areas and bare bottom sediment, with and without contribution of macrofauna, meiofauna and microbial populations. Nutrients mass balance was studied taking into account the initial and final nutrient concentrations in the sediment, water and plant material. Faunal activity was measured as a function of remineralised carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. The experimental set-up included sixteen sub-experiments, which varied with respect to type of fauna, plant biomass and oxic status. Each sub-experiment was performed in small glass containers (3 L) containing about 900 g wwt sediment and 2.5 L estuarine water. Plant material, cut from intact plants, sediment cores and estuarine water were brought from the southern arm of the Mondego estuary (Portugal). The results showed that although the bacterial activity was responsible for the Spartina maritima degradation, the presence of meiofauna and macrofauna significantly enhanced the process. Moreover, the presence of Spartina maritima positively affected the mineralisation of the sediment carbon and nitrogen, especially when the three faunal components were present, and denitrification rates were highest in the presence of the macrofauna and meiofauna. The present study suggests that macrofauna and meiofauna have an important role on the ecosystem nutrient flux and that fauna might function as a sink for excess nutrients, that otherwise could be exported to the coastal waters.

Lillebø, Ana Isabel; Flindt, Mogens R.; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Marques, João Carlos

1999-07-01

80

Emergence of gynodioecy in wild beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima L.): a genealogical approach using chloroplastic nucleotide sequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gynodioecy is a breeding system where both hermaphroditic and female individuals coexist within plant populations. This dimorphism is the result of a genomic interaction between maternally inherited cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes and bi-parentally inherited nuclear male fertility restorers. As opposed to other gynodioecious species, where every cytoplasm seems to be associated with male sterility, wild beet Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima exhibits a minority of sterilizing cytoplasms among numerous non-sterilizing ones. Many studies on population genetics have explored the molecular diversity of different CMS cytoplasms, but questions remain concerning their evolutionary dynamics. In this paper we report one of the first investigations on phylogenetic relationships between CMS and non-CMS lineages. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships between 35 individuals exhibiting different mitochondrial haplotypes. Relying on the high linkage disequilibrium between chloroplastic and mitochondrial genomes, we chose to analyse the nucleotide sequence diversity of three chloroplastic fragments (trnK intron, trnD-trnT and trnL-trnF intergenic spacers). Nucleotide diversity appeared to be low, suggesting a recent bottleneck during the evolutionary history of B. vulgaris ssp. maritima. Statistical parsimony analyses revealed a star-like genealogy and showed that sterilizing haplotypes all belong to different lineages derived from an ancestral non-sterilizing cytoplasm. These results suggest a rapid evolution of male sterility in this taxon. The emergence of gynodioecy in wild beet is confronted with theoretical expectations, describing either gynodioecy dynamics as the maintenance of CMS factors through balancing selection or as a constant turnover of new CMSs. PMID:16777728

Fénart, Stéphane; Touzet, Pascal; Arnaud, Jean-François; Cuguen, Joël

2006-06-01

81

Characterization of a [2Fe-2S] protein encoded in the iron-hydrogenase operon of Thermotoga maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermotoga maritima grows optimally at 80 degrees C by fermenting carbohydrates to organic acids, CO(2), and H(2). The production of H(2) is catalyzed by a cytoplasmic, heterotrimeric (alphabetagamma) Fe-hydrogenase. This is encoded by three genes, hydC (gamma), hydB (beta) and hydA (alpha), organized within a single operon that contains five additional open reading frames (ORFs). The recombinant form of the first ORF of the operon, TM1420, was produced in Escherichia coli. It has a molecular mass of 8537+/-3 Da as determined by mass spectrometry, in agreement with the predicted amino acid sequence. Purified TM1420 is red in color, has a basic p I (8.8), and contains 1.9 Fe atoms/mol that are present as a single [2Fe-2S] cluster, as determined by UV-visible absorption and EPR spectroscopy. The protein contains five cysteine residues, but their arrangement is characteristic of a subunit or domain rather than of a ferredoxin-type protein. The reduction potential of the [2Fe-2S] cluster (-233 mV at pH 6.5 and 25 degrees C) is pH independent but decreases linearly with temperature to -296 mV (-1.15 mV/ degrees C) at 80 degrees C. TM1420 is not reduced, in vitro, by the Fe-hydrogenase nor by a pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase. The protein was unstable at 70 degrees C under anaerobic conditions with a half-life of approximately 30 min. The basic nature of TM1420, its instability at the growth temperature of T. maritima, and the unusual spacing of its cysteine residues suggest that this protein does not function as a ferredoxin-type electron carrier for the Fe-hydrogenase. Instead, TM1420 is more likely part of a thermostable multi-protein complex that is involved in metal cluster assembly of the hydrogenase holoenzyme. PMID:12605255

Pan, Guangliang; Menon, Angeli Lal; Adams, Michael W W

2003-04-01

82

On the use of DXMS to produce more crystallizable proteins: Structures of the T. maritima proteins TM0160 and TM1171  

OpenAIRE

The structure of two Thermotoga maritima proteins, a conserved hypothetical protein (TM0160) and a transcriptional regulator (TM1171), have now been determined at 1.9 Å and 2.3 Å resolution, respectively, as part of a large-scale structural genomics project. Our first efforts to crystallize full-length versions of these targets were unsuccessful. However, analysis of the recombinant purified proteins using the technique of enhanced amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectroscopy (DXMS) ...

Spraggon, Glen; Pantazatos, Dennis; Klock, Heath E.; Wilson, Ian A.; Woods, Virgil L.; Lesley, Scott A.

2004-01-01

83

Protein Electrophoresis and DNA in Herbs Produced from Irradiated Ambrosia maritima Seeds Grown under Soil Salinity and Their Resistance to Insect  

OpenAIRE

Damsisa (Ambrosia maritima L.) is one of the wild plants present in Egypt and different African countries of the Nile Valley. It considered as potential source of molluscicides for treatment of infected sites. In this study, DNA amplifications technique and protein electrophoresis were used for the evaluation of response of Damsisa herbs to gamma rays (?-rays), soil salinity and their interaction on alleviation of salt stress. This study also examined the effect of herb as bio-r...

Hussein, O. S.

2012-01-01

84

Genetic modification of resistance against nematodes (Heterodera schachtii) and its potential impact on plant genetic resources of wild beet populations (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima)  

OpenAIRE

Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Erhebung von Daten zur Beurteilung der biologischen Sicherheit von Zuckerrüben (Beta vulgaris) die mit Hilfe der Gentechnik resistent gegen Nematoden gezüchtet werden könnten. Im Vordergrund steht der Schutz der Verbreitung und genetischen Diversität von Wildrüben (Beta vulgaris ssp maritima), da sie als pflanzengenetische Ressource ein besonderes Schutzgut sind. Ausgewählt für die Untersuchungen dieser Arbeit wurden Wildrüben aus dem Po-Delta der norditalie...

Wehres, Ute

2007-01-01

85

The structure and dynamic properties of the complete histidine phosphotransfer domain of the chemotaxis specific histidine autokinase CheA from Thermotoga maritima  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bacterial histidine autokinase CheA contains a histidine phosphotransfer (Hpt) domain that accepts a phosphate from the catalytic domain and donates the phosphate to either target response regulator protein, CheY or CheB. The Hpt domain forms a helix-bundle structure with a conserved four-helix bundle motif and a variable fifth helix. Observation of two nearly equally populated conformations in the crystal structure of a Hpt domain fragment of CheA from Thermotoga maritima containing only the first four helices suggests more mobility in a tightly packed helix bundle structure than previously thought. In order to examine how the structures of Hpt domain homologs may differ from each other particularly in the conformation of the last helix, and whether an alternative conformation exists in the intact Hpt domain in solution, we have solved a high-resolution, solution structure of the CheA Hpt from T. maritima and characterized the backbone dynamics of this protein. The structure contains a four-helix bundle characteristic of histidine phosphotransfer domains. The position and orientation of the fifth helix resembles those in known Hpt domain crystal and solution structures in other histidine kinases. The alternative conformation that was reported in the crystal structure of the CheA Hpt from T. maritima missing the fifth helix is not detected in the solution structure, suggesting a role for the fifth helix in providing stabilizing forces to the overall structure.

Vu, Anh; Hamel, Damon J.; Zhou Hongjun; Dahlquist, Frederick W., E-mail: dahlquist@chem.ucsb.edu [University of California Santa Barbara, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States)

2011-09-15

86

The structure and dynamic properties of the complete histidine phosphotransfer domain of the chemotaxis specific histidine autokinase CheA from Thermotoga maritima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bacterial histidine autokinase CheA contains a histidine phosphotransfer (Hpt) domain that accepts a phosphate from the catalytic domain and donates the phosphate to either target response regulator protein, CheY or CheB. The Hpt domain forms a helix-bundle structure with a conserved four-helix bundle motif and a variable fifth helix. Observation of two nearly equally populated conformations in the crystal structure of a Hpt domain fragment of CheA from Thermotoga maritima containing only the first four helices suggests more mobility in a tightly packed helix bundle structure than previously thought. In order to examine how the structures of Hpt domain homologs may differ from each other particularly in the conformation of the last helix, and whether an alternative conformation exists in the intact Hpt domain in solution, we have solved a high-resolution, solution structure of the CheA Hpt from T. maritima and characterized the backbone dynamics of this protein. The structure contains a four-helix bundle characteristic of histidine phosphotransfer domains. The position and orientation of the fifth helix resembles those in known Hpt domain crystal and solution structures in other histidine kinases. The alternative conformation that was reported in the crystal structure of the CheA Hpt from T. maritima missing the fifth helix is not detected in the solution structure, suggesting a role for the fifth helix in providing stabilizing forces to the overall structure.izing forces to the overall structure.

87

Characterization of two genes encoding metal tolerance proteins from Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima that confers manganese tolerance in yeast  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient in plants. However increased Mn levels are toxic to plant cells. Metal tolerance proteins (MTPs), member of cation diffusion facilitator protein (CDF) family, have important roles in metal homeostatis in different plant species and catalyse efflux of excess metal ions. In this study, we identified and characterized two MTP genes from Beta vulgaris spp. maritima (B. v. ssp. maritima). Overexpression of these two genes provided Mn tolerance in yeast cells. Sequence analyses displayed BmMTP10 and BmMTP11as members of the Mn-CDF family. Functional analyses of these proteins indicated that they are specific to Mn with a role in reducing excess cellular Mn levels when expressed in yeast. GFP-fusion constructs of both proteins localized to the Golgi apparatus as a punctuated pattern. Finally, Q-RT-PCR results showed that BmMTP10 expression was induced threefold in response to the excess Mn treatment. On the other hand BmMTP11 expression was not affected in response to excess Mn levels. Thus, our results suggest that the BmMTP10 and BmMTP11 proteins from B. v. ssp. maritima have non-redundant functions in terms of Mn detoxification with a similar in planta localization and function as the Arabidopsis Mn-CDF homolog AtMTP11 and this conservation shows the evolutionary importance of these vesicular proteins in heavy metal homeostatis among plant species. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Erbasol, Isil; Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan

2013-01-01

88

A ocorrência do mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae) e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren), Nasutitermitinae, em afloramentos rochosos no Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS / The occurrence of facultative mutualism between Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae) and the termite Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren), Nasutitermitinae, on rock outcrops in Itapuã State Park, Viamão, RS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A presença de colônias de C. silvestrii é comum nos lajeados existentes em Itapuã. Na estação Morro da Grota1, 92,0 % dos termiteiros situados na rocha exposta e em ilhas de vegetação estão associados a D. maritima. Esta convivência ocorre em 31,2 % das ilhas na qual esta bromélia se faz presente. N [...] as ilhas, a comparação entre os substratos aonde D. maritima vegeta, o solo litólico húmico existente sob o manto do musgo Campylopus spp. e o substrato constituído pelo cupinzeiro indica que este último possui os teores mais elevados dos nutrientes P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn e Mn, maior CTC e maiores teores de partículas finas, principalmente o silte. O estabelecimento de D. maritima sobre os termiteiros de grande porte aumenta o seu valor de cobertura em ilhas de vegetação quando comparado com ilhas sem termiteiros ou com termiteiros de pequeno porte em áreas entre 2,7 a 8,0 m². Este fato é atribuído à melhoria físico-química do substrato e ao aumento de superfície e volume aptos a serem colonizados pela bromélia e proporciona maior competitividade em relação a outras espécies vegetais. As características apresentadas pela interação entre este cupim e D. maritima, pela primeira vez descrita na literatura, permitem indicar esta relação ecológica como mutualismo facultativo. Inferimos que o conjunto de observações apresentado constitui um modelo temporal de crescimento deste mutualismo, cujas fases inicial e tardia estão descritas neste trabalho. Abstract in english The presence of colonies of C. silvestrii is common, both on the rock surface and at islands of vegetation. At Morro da Grota1 station, 92,0 % of the termite nests on rocky outcrops and at island of vegetation are associated with this bromeliad. These nests are associated with D. maritima, in 31,2 % [...] of the islands where this bromeliad occurs. At these island communities, the comparison between the substrata where D. maritima occurs, the litolic Waldemar & Irgang: Mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii humic soil existing under the mantle of the moss Campylopus spp. and the substratum produced by termites indicates that this possesses higher levels of the nutrients P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Mn, CEC and higher fine particles content, mainly silt. The establishment of D. maritima rosettes on great termite nests increase their value of relative coverage at islands inside areas between 2,7 to 8,0 m². This fact is attributed to the improvement physical-chemistry of the substratum and the increase of surface and volume to be colonized for the Bromeliad. It provides for greater competitiveness at this species in relation to other vegetal species. The features presented for the interaction between this termite and D. maritima, for the first time described in literature, lead to the classification of this ecological relationship as facultative mutualism. The set of observations constitute a temporal model of development of this mutualism at island's vegetation, whose phases, initial and advanced are described.

Celso Copstein, Waldemar; Bruno Edgar, Irgang.

2003-03-01

89

Structure of a D-tagatose 3-epimerase-related protein from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

The crystal structure of a D-tagatose 3-epimerase-related protein (TM0416p) encoded by the hypothetical open reading frame TM0416 in the genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima was determined at a resolution of 2.2 A. The asymmetric unit contained two homologous subunits and a dimer was generated by twofold symmetry. The main-chain coordinates of the enzyme monomer proved to be similar to those of D-tagatose 3-epimerase from Pseudomonas cichorii and D-psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens; however, TM0416p exhibited a unique solvent-accessible substrate-binding pocket that reflected the absence of an alpha-helix that covers the active-site cleft in the two aforementioned ketohexose 3-epimerases. In addition, the residues responsible for creating a hydrophobic environment around the substrate in TM0416p differ entirely from those in the other two enzymes. Collectively, these findings suggest that the substrate specificity of TM0416p is likely to differ substantially from those of other D-tagatose 3-epimerase family enzymes. PMID:19255464

Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Yoneda, Kazunari; Satomura, Takenori; Kawakami, Ryushi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

2009-03-01

90

Accuracy of replication in the polymerase chain reaction. Comparison between Thermotoga maritima DNA polymerase and Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For certain applications of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR, it may be necessary to consider the accuracy of replication. The breakthrough that made PCR user friendly was the commercialization of Thermus aquaticus (Taq DNA polymerase, an enzyme that would survive the high temperatures needed for DNA denaturation. The development of enzymes with an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease proofreading activity, lacking in Taq polymerase, would be an improvement when higher fidelity is needed. We used the forward mutation assay to compare the fidelity of Taq polymerase and Thermotoga maritima (ULTMA™ DNA polymerase, an enzyme that does have proofreading activity. We did not find significant differences in the fidelity of either enzyme, even when using optimal buffer conditions, thermal cycling parameters, and number of cycles (0.2% and 0.13% error rates for ULTMA™ and Taq, respectively, after reading about 3,000 bases each. We conclude that for sequencing purposes there is no difference in using a DNA polymerase that contains an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease activity for DNA amplification. Perhaps the specificity and fidelity of PCR are complex issues influenced by the nature of the target sequence, as well as by each PCR component.

R.S. Diaz

1998-10-01

91

Accuracy of replication in the polymerase chain reaction. Comparison between Thermotoga maritima DNA polymerase and Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english For certain applications of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), it may be necessary to consider the accuracy of replication. The breakthrough that made PCR user friendly was the commercialization of Thermus aquaticus (Taq) DNA polymerase, an enzyme that would survive the high temperatures needed fo [...] r DNA denaturation. The development of enzymes with an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease proofreading activity, lacking in Taq polymerase, would be an improvement when higher fidelity is needed. We used the forward mutation assay to compare the fidelity of Taq polymerase and Thermotoga maritima (ULTMA™) DNA polymerase, an enzyme that does have proofreading activity. We did not find significant differences in the fidelity of either enzyme, even when using optimal buffer conditions, thermal cycling parameters, and number of cycles (0.2% and 0.13% error rates for ULTMA™ and Taq, respectively, after reading about 3,000 bases each). We conclude that for sequencing purposes there is no difference in using a DNA polymerase that contains an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease activity for DNA amplification. Perhaps the specificity and fidelity of PCR are complex issues influenced by the nature of the target sequence, as well as by each PCR component.

R.S., Diaz; E.C., Sabino.

1998-10-01

92

Cytotoxic and antimicrobial constituents of the bark of Diospyros maritima collected in two geographical locations in Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioactivity-directed fractionation of extracts of two Diospyros maritima bark samples from Indonesia,one collected at sea level in a beach forest in Java and the other collected at a slight elevation away from the sea shore on the island of Lombok, yielded a diverse set of secondary metabolites. The naphthoquinone plumbagin (1), although found in extracts of both specimens, constituted a much larger percentage of the former sample, which also yielded a series of plumbagin dimers, maritinone (2), chitranone (3), and zeylanone (4). The latter sample yielded a new naphthoquinone derivative, (4S)-shinanolone (5), and a new natural product coumarin, 7,8-dimethoxy-6-hydroxycoumarin (6), along with three other analogues of plumbagin, 2-methoxy-7-methyljuglone (7), 3-methoxy-7-methyljuglone (8), and 7-methyljuglone (9). The structures of compounds 5 and 6 were elaborated by physical, spectral, and chemical methods. All of the isolates were evaluated in both cytotoxicity and antimicrobial assays, and structure-activity relationships of these naphthoquinones are proposed. Plumbagin (1) and maritinone (2) were evaluated also for in vivo antitumor activity in the hollow fiber assay, but both were found to be inactive. PMID:15270571

Gu, Jian-Qiao; Graf, Tyler N; Lee, Dongho; Chai, Hee-Byung; Mi, Qiuwen; Kardono, Leonardus B S; Setyowati, Fransisca M; Ismail, Rachman; Riswan, Soedarsono; Farnsworth, Norman R; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Pezzuto, John M; Swanson, Steven M; Kroll, David J; Falkinham, Joseph O; Wall, Monroe E; Wani, Mansukh C; Kinghorn, A Douglas; Oberlies, Nicholas H

2004-07-01

93

Proteomic and physiological responses of the halophyte Cakile maritima to moderate salinity at the germinative and vegetative stages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Responses of the halophyte Cakile maritima to moderate salinity were addressed at germination and vegetative stages by bringing together proteomics and eco-physiological approaches. 75 mM NaCl-salinity delayed significantly the germination process and decreased slightly the seed germination percentage compared to salt-free conditions. Monitoring the proteome profile between 0 h and 120 h after seed sowing revealed a delay in the degradation of seed storage proteins when germination took place under salinity, which may explain the slower germination rate observed. Of the sixty-seven proteins identified by mass spectrometry, several proteins involved in glycolysis, amino acid metabolism, photosynthesis, and protein folding showed significantly increased abundance during germination. This pattern was less pronounced under salinity. At the vegetative stage, 100mM NaCl-salinity stimulated significantly the plant growth, which was sustained by enhanced leaf expansion, water content, and photosynthetic activity. Comparative proteome analyses of leaf tissue revealed 44 proteins with different abundance changes, most of which being involved in energy metabolism. A specific set of proteins predominantly involved in photosynthesis and respiration showed significantly higher abundance in salt-treated plants. Altogether, combining proteomics with eco-physiological tools provides valuable information, which contributes to improve our understanding in the salt-response of this halophyte during its life cycle. PMID:22940175

Debez, Ahmed; Braun, Hans-Peter; Pich, Andreas; Taamalli, Wael; Koyro, Hans-Werner; Abdelly, Chedly; Huchzermeyer, Bernhard

2012-10-22

94

The segmentation cascade in the centipede Strigamia maritima: involvement of the Notch pathway and pair-rule gene homologues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The centipede Strigamia maritima forms all of its segments during embryogenesis. Trunk segments form sequentially from an apparently undifferentiated disk of cells at the posterior of the germ band. We have previously described periodic patterns of gene expression in this posterior disc that precede overt differentiation of segments, and suggested that a segmentation oscillator may be operating in the posterior disc. We now show that genes of the Notch signalling pathway, including the ligand Delta, and homologues of the Drosophila pair-rule genes even-skipped and hairy, show periodic expression in the posterior disc, consistent with their involvement in, or regulation by, such an oscillator. These genes are expressed in a pattern of apparently expanding concentric rings around the proctodeum, which become stripes at the base of the germ band where segments are emerging. In this transition zone, these primary stripes define a double segment periodicity: segmental stripes of engrailed expression, which mark the posterior of each segment, arise at two different phases of the primary pattern. Delta and even-skipped are also activated in secondary stripes that intercalate between primary stripes in this region, further defining the single segment repeat. These data, together with observations that Notch mediated signalling is required for segment pattern formation in other arthropods, suggest that the ancestral arthropod segmentation cascade may have involved a segmentation oscillator that utilised Notch signalling. PMID:18455712

Chipman, Ariel D; Akam, Michael

2008-07-01

95

Hyperthermophilic alpha-L: -arabinofuranosidase from Thermotoga maritima MSB8: molecular cloning, gene expression, and characterization of the recombinant protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

A putative alpha-L: -arabinofuranosidase (AFase) gene belonging to family 51 of glycosyl hydrolases of a hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima MSB8 was cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein (Tm-AFase) was purified to apparent homogeneity by heat treatment (80 degrees C, 30 min), followed by hydrophobic interaction, anion-exchange, and gel permeation column chromatography. Tm-AFase had a molecular mass of 55,284 Da on matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and approximately 332 kDa on gel permeation column chromatography. Therefore, Tm-AFase comprised six identical subunits as in the case of homologous AFase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. Regarding substrate specificity, Tm-AFase was active with p-nitrophenyl alpha-L: -arabinofuranoside but not with p-nitrophenyl alpha-L: -arabinopyranoside. Regarding polysaccharides, Tm-AFase hydrolyzed arabinan and debranched arabinan but not arabinoxylan, arabinogalactan, and carboxymethyl cellulose. Tm-AFase was extremely thermophilic, displaying an optimal reaction temperature of 90 degrees C in a 10 min assay. When Tm-AFase was heated at 90 degrees C, no loss of activity was observed for at least 24 h. At 100 degrees C, the activity dropped to approximately 50% in 20 min; thereafter, inactivation occurred very slowly exhibiting a half-life of approximately 2.7 h, characterizing the enzyme to be the most thermophilic AFase reported thus far. PMID:15965714

Miyazaki, Kentaro

2005-10-01

96

The Effect of Zostera noltii, Spartina maritima and Scirpus maritimus on Sediment Pore-water Profiles in a Temperate Intertidal Estuary  

OpenAIRE

The objective of the present work was to study the effect of plants common in temperate latitudes (Zostera noltii, Spartina maritima and Scirpus maritimus) on sediment nutrient profiles, and to compare it to sand- and mud-flats without vegetation. The study focused on the organic matter contents, the concentration of dissolved inorganic nutrients (PO4–P, NH3–N, NO3–N), an on the estimation of the total amount of these nutrients during day and night conditions and their potential net-flu...

Lillebø, A.; Flindt, M.; Pardal, M.; Marques, J.

2006-01-01

97

Directed evolution of the alpha-L-fucosidase from Thermotoga maritima into an alpha-L-transfucosidase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The alpha-L-fucosidase from Thermotoga maritima (Tm alpha fuc) was converted into alpha-L-transfucosidase variants by directed evolution. The wild-type enzyme catalyzes oligosaccharide synthesis by transfer of a fucosyl residue from a pNP-fucoside donor to pNP-fucoside (self-condensation) with alpha-(1-->3) regioselectivity or pNP-galactoside (transglycosylation) with alpha-(1-->2) regioselectivity at low yields (7%). The wild-type enzyme was submitted to one cycle of mutagenesis, followed by rational recombination of the selected mutations, which allowed identification of variants with improved transferase activity. The transferase and hydrolytic kinetics of all the mutants were assessed by NMR methods and capillary electrophoresis. It was shown that the best mutant exhibited a dramatic 32-fold increase in the transferase/hydrolytic kinetic ratio, while keeping 60% of the overall wild-type enzyme activity. Accordingly, the maximum yield of a specific transglycosylation product [pNP-Gal-alpha-(1-->2)-Fuc] reached more than 60% compared to 7% with WT enzyme at equimolar and low concentrations of donor and acceptor (10 mM). Such an improvement was obtained with only three mutations (T264A, Y267F, L322P), which were all located in the second amino acid shell of the fucosidase active site. Molecular modeling suggested that some of these mutations (T264A, Y267F) cause a reorientation of the amino acids that are in direct contact with the substrates, resulting in a better docking energy. Such mutants with high transglycosidase activity may constitute novel enzymatic tools for the synthesis of fucooligosaccharides. PMID:17240986

Osanjo, George; Dion, Michel; Drone, Jullien; Solleux, Claude; Tran, Vinh; Rabiller, Claude; Tellier, Charles

2007-01-30

98

The interaction of ammonia and xenon with the imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase from Thermotoga maritima as detected by NMR spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The imidazole glycerol phosphate (ImGP) synthase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima is a 1:1 complex of the glutaminase subunit HisH and the cyclase subunit HisF. It has been proposed that ammonia generated by HisH is transported through a channel to the active site of HisF, which generates intermediates of histidine (ImGP) and de novo biosynthesis of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamideribotide. Solution NMR spectroscopy of ammonium chloride-titrated samples was used to study the interaction of NH(3) with amino acids inside this channel. Although numerous residues showed (15)N chemical shift changes, most of these changes were caused by nonspecific ionic strength effects. However, several interactions appeared to be specific. Remarkably, the amino acid residue Thr 78-which is located in the central channel-shows a large chemical shift change upon titration with ammonium chloride. This result and the reduced catalytic activity of the Thr78Met mutant indicate a special role of this residue in ammonia channeling. To detect and further characterize internal cavities in HisF, which might for example contribute to ammonia channeling, the interaction of HisF with the noble gas xenon was analyzed by solution NMR spectroscopy using (1)H-(15)N HSQC experiments. The results indicate that HisF contains three distinct internal cavities, which could be identified by xenon-induced chemical shift changes of the neighboring amino acid residues. Two of these cavities are located at the active site at opposite ends of the substrate N'-[(5'-phosphoribulosyl)formimino]-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribonucleotide (PRFAR) binding groove. The third cavity is located in the interior of the central ?-barrel of HisF and overlaps with the putative ammonia transport channel. PMID:20665694

Liebold, Christoph; List, Felix; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert; Sterner, Reinhard; Brunner, Eike

2010-09-01

99

Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima - ancestor of all beet crops - and modern sugar beets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 47.4% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (?45.8% than for sugar beet (?57.5%. Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes.

ChristinZachow

2014-08-01

100

Crystal Structure of Butyrate Kinase 2 from Thermotoga maritima, a Member of the ASKHA Superfamily of Phosphotransferases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The enzymatic transfer of phosphoryl groups is central to the control of many cellular processes. One of the phosphoryl transfer mechanisms, that of acetate kinase, is not completely understood. Besides better understanding of the mechanism of acetate kinase, knowledge of the structure of butyrate kinase 2 (Buk2) will aid in the interpretation of active-site structure and provide information on the structural basis of substrate specificity. The gene buk2 from Thermotoga maritima encodes a member of the ASKHA (acetate and sugar kinases/heat shock cognate/actin) superfamily of phosphotransferases. The encoded protein Buk2 catalyzes the phosphorylation of butyrate and isobutyrate. We have determined the 2.5-{angstrom} crystal structure of Buk2 complexed with ({beta},{gamma}-methylene) adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Buk2 folds like an open-shelled clam, with each of the two domains representing one of the two shells. In the open active-site cleft between the N- and C-terminal domains, the active-site residues consist of two histidines, two arginines, and a cluster of hydrophobic residues. The ATP binding region of Buk2 in the C-terminal domain consists of abundant glycines for nucleotide binding, and the ATP binding motif is similar to those of other members of the ASKHA superfamily. The enzyme exists as an octamer, in which four disulfide bonds form between intermolecular cysteines. Sequence alignment and structure superposition identify the simplicity of the monomeric Buk2 structure, a probable substrate binding site, the key residues in catalyzing phosphoryl transfer, and the substrate specificity differences among Buk2, acetate, and propionate kinases. The possible enzyme mechanisms are discussed.

Diao, Jiasheng; Hasson, Miriam S.; (Purdue)

2009-04-01

101

Seed characteristics and dispersal of dimorphic fruit segments of Cakile maritima Scopoli (Brassicaceae) population of southern Brazilian coastal dunes / Características das sementes e dispersão dos segmentos de frutos dimórficos de uma população de Cakile maritima Scopoli (Brassicaceae) nas dunas costeiras do Sul do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Cakile maritima ocorre esporadicamente ao longo da costa Sul do Brasil, onde é encontrada restrita aos locais mais protegidos na base das dunas frontais. O dimorfismo somático é manifestado como segmentos de frutos (silículas) superior e inferior, morfologicamente distintos. As sementes dos dois tip [...] os de segmentos foram avaliadas quanto ao tamanho, número, capacidade de dispersão e estabelecimento em condições naturais. Na população de C. maritima no Sul do Brasil as silículas inferiores apresentaram maior número de sementes do que as siliculas superiores, e as sementes das silículas inferiores foram mais abortadas que as das superiores. As sementes dos segmentos superiores foram significativamente maiores do que aquelas dos segmentos inferiores; entretanto ocorreu uma sobreposição nos pesos entre elas. O peso médio das silículas dos dois segmentos não difere significativamente, mas a razão peso das silículas / peso das sementes foi significativamente diferente para os segmentos superior e inferior. Ambos segmentos apresentaram grande habilidade de flutuar em água salgada, superior a 50% após 70 dias. Todavia, a dispersão dos segmentos dos frutos ocorre principalmente em direção ao continente através da ação do vento. A maioria das plântulas encontradas no ambiente natural se encontrava restrita num raio de um metro da planta-mãe, e era originada principalmente de sementes dos segmentos inferiores dos frutos. Abstract in english Cakile maritima occurs sporadically along the southern Brazilian coast, where it is restricted to more protected sites at the base of foredunes. Somatic dimorphism in C. maritima is manifested as morphologically distinct upper and lower fruit segments (silicules). The two morphs were tested for diff [...] erences in size, number of seeds, dispersal ability and natural establishment. In the C. maritima population of southern Brazil, the lower silicule has more seeds than upper silicule, and lower seeds are more likely to abort than the upper ones. Seeds from upper segments were significantly larger than those from lower ones; however, their mass ranges overlap. The mean silicule mass was not significantly different from both segments, but the silicule/seed mass ratio from upper and lower segments was significantly different. Both segments had high ability to float in sea water, more than 50% were still afloat after 70 days. Nevertheless, dispersal occurs mainly to landward due to dominant wind action. Most of the seedlings were restricted to within a one-metre radius of the mother plant, and were principally derived from lower fruit segments.

César Vieira, Cordazzo.

2006-06-01

102

Fungal decontamination and enhancement of shelf life of edible split beans of wild legume Canavalia maritima by the electron beam irradiation  

Science.gov (United States)

Ripened split beans of the coastal sand dune wild legume Canavalia maritima serve as one of the traditional nutritional sources of the coastal dwellers in Southwest coast of India. Nine fungi were isolated from the unirradiated dry beans by plating on the potato dextrose agar medium. Toxigenic fungus Aspergillus niger showed the highest incidence (33-50%) followed by Aspergillus flavus (14-20%) and Penicillium chrysogenum (7-13%). Unirradiated dry beans and irradiated dry beans with electron beam doses 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 kGy were monitored for occurrence of fungal species and their incidence during 0, 3 and 6 months storage period under laboratory conditions. Irradiation resulted in dose-dependent decrease in fungal species (5-7, 4-6, 3-6 and 0 on irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 or 15 kGy, respectively) as well as incidence (80-99, 19-46, 13-21 and 0%, respectively). Although aflatoxins (B1 and B2) were found below detectable level (Aspergillus ochraceus in unirradiated and irradiated beans (2.5 and 5 kGy) stored for 3 and 6 months, the beans were devoid of ochratoxin-A. Electron beam irradiation dose 10 kGy could be recommended for fungal decontamination and improvement of shelf life of C. maritima ripened dry split beans.

Supriya, P.; Sridhar, K. R.; Ganesh, S.

2014-03-01

103

Interaction indole-3-acetic acid IAA with lectin Canavalia maritima seeds reveal new function of lectins in plant physiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Lectins are a class of proteins of non-immune origin characterized by its capability in interacts specifically and reversibly to mono and oligosaccharides. In plant several possible roles have been suggested including their function in seed maturation, cell wall assembly, defense mechanisms, or rhizobial nodulation of legume roots. Nearly all application and proposed of the plant lectins are based on their specific carbohydrate binding. However, it has been reported that lectins from legumes, might interact with other molecules, such as non proteic amino acids and hydrophobic compounds. This study show the first the crystal structure based on molecular replacement of the Canavalia maritima (CML) complexed with IAA correlated with possible role in plant development. Purified CML was dissolved in 20 mMTrisHCl pH 7.6 containing 5 mM IAA, the suitable co-crystals from CML-IAA complex grew in condition 4 of screen I (0.1 M TrisHCl pH 8.5 and 2.0 M ammonium sulfate). This crystal belong to the orthorhombic space group I222 with unit-cell parameters a = 67.1 ; b = 70.7 , c = 97.7 , The structure was refined at 2.1 of resolution to a final R factor of 20.63 % and an R free of 22.54 %. To check the relative position of the IAA molecule in relation to the biological assemble of the CML, the tetrameric structure was generate by crystallographic symmetry. IAA molecules are positioned in the central cavity. The IAA is stabilized by interacting through hydrogen bounds and Van der Waals forces with the amino acids residues Ser 108 and Asn131, and two water molecules. The hydrophilic interactions occur between IAA and side chains of Ser 108, Asn131 and water molecules 26 and 31 by H-bonds. The OG oxygen from Ser108 display H-bonds with O2 and O3 oxygen atoms from IAA, 3.1 and 2.8 respectively. The tetrameric structure of CML complexed with IAA revels which this protein can act during the seedling in plant development. (author)

104

Interaction indole-3-acetic acid IAA with lectin Canavalia maritima seeds reveal new function of lectins in plant physiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: Lectins are a class of proteins of non-immune origin characterized by its capability in interacts specifically and reversibly to mono and oligosaccharides. In plant several possible roles have been suggested including their function in seed maturation, cell wall assembly, defense mechanisms, or rhizobial nodulation of legume roots. Nearly all application and proposed of the plant lectins are based on their specific carbohydrate binding. However, it has been reported that lectins from legumes, might interact with other molecules, such as non proteic amino acids and hydrophobic compounds. This study show the first the crystal structure based on molecular replacement of the Canavalia maritima (CML) complexed with IAA correlated with possible role in plant development. Purified CML was dissolved in 20 mMTrisHCl pH 7.6 containing 5 mM IAA, the suitable co-crystals from CML-IAA complex grew in condition 4 of screen I (0.1 M TrisHCl pH 8.5 and 2.0 M ammonium sulfate). This crystal belong to the orthorhombic space group I222 with unit-cell parameters a = 67.1 ; b = 70.7 , c = 97.7 , The structure was refined at 2.1 of resolution to a final R factor of 20.63 % and an R free of 22.54 %. To check the relative position of the IAA molecule in relation to the biological assemble of the CML, the tetrameric structure was generate by crystallographic symmetry. IAA molecules are positioned in the central cavity. The IAA is stabilized by interacting through hydrogen bounds and Van der Waals forces with the amino acids residues Ser 108 and Asn131, and two water molecules. The hydrophilic interactions occur between IAA and side chains of Ser 108, Asn131 and water molecules 26 and 31 by H-bonds. The OG oxygen from Ser108 display H-bonds with O2 and O3 oxygen atoms from IAA, 3.1 and 2.8 respectively. The tetrameric structure of CML complexed with IAA revels which this protein can act during the seedling in plant development. (author)

Silva Filho, J.C.; Santi-Gadelha, T.; Gadelha, C.A.A.; Delatorre, P. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Teixeira, C.S.; Rocha, B.A.M.; Nobrega, R.B.; Alencar, K.L.L.; Cavada, B.S. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

2012-07-01

105

A unique beta-1,2-mannosyltransferase of Thermotoga maritima that uses di-myo-inositol phosphate as the mannosyl acceptor.  

Science.gov (United States)

In addition to di-myo-inositol-1,3'-phosphate (DIP), a compatible solute widespread in hyperthermophiles, the organic solute pool of Thermotoga maritima comprises 2-(O-beta-D-mannosyl)-di-myo-inositol-1,3'-phosphate (MDIP) and 2-(O-beta-D-mannosyl-1,2-O-beta-D-mannosyl)-di-myo-inositol-1,3'-phosphate (MMDIP), two newly identified beta-1,2-mannosides. In cells grown under heat stress, MDIP was the major solute, accounting for 43% of the total pool; MMDIP and DIP accumulated to similar levels, each corresponding to 11.5% of the total pool. The synthesis of MDIP involved the transfer of the mannosyl group from GDP-mannose to DIP in a single-step reaction catalyzed by MDIP synthase. This enzyme used MDIP as an acceptor of a second mannose residue, yielding the di-mannosylated compound. Minor amounts of the tri-mannosylated form were also detected. With a genomic approach, putative genes for MDIP synthase were identified in the genome of T. maritima, and the assignment was confirmed by functional expression in Escherichia coli. Genes with significant sequence identity were found only in the genomes of Thermotoga spp., Aquifex aeolicus, and Archaeoglobus profundus. MDIP synthase of T. maritima had maximal activity at 95 degrees C and apparent K(m) values of 16 mM and 0.7 mM for DIP and GDP-mannose, respectively. The stereochemistry of MDIP was characterized by isotopic labeling and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR): DIP selectively labeled with carbon 13 at position C1 of the l-inositol moiety was synthesized and used as a substrate for MDIP synthase. This beta-1,2-mannosyltransferase is unrelated to known glycosyltransferases, and within the domain Bacteria, it is restricted to members of the two deepest lineages, i.e., the Thermotogales and the Aquificales. To our knowledge, this is the first beta-1,2-mannosyltransferase characterized thus far. PMID:19648237

Rodrigues, Marta V; Borges, Nuno; Almeida, Carla P; Lamosa, Pedro; Santos, Helena

2009-10-01

106

Structural Analysis of Semi-specific Oligosaccharide Recognition by a Cellulose-binding Protein of Thermotoga maritima Reveals Adaptations for Functional Diversification of the Oligopeptide Periplasmic Binding Protein Fold  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) constitute a protein superfamily that binds a wide variety of ligands. In prokaryotes, PBPs function as receptors for ATP-binding cassette or tripartite ATP-independent transporters and chemotaxis systems. In many instances, PBPs bind their cognate ligands with exquisite specificity, distinguishing, for example, between sugar epimers or structurally similar anions. By contrast, oligopeptide-binding proteins bind their ligands through interactions with the peptide backbone but do not distinguish between different side chains. The extremophile Thermotoga maritima possesses a remarkable array of carbohydrate-processing metabolic systems, including the hydrolysis of cellulosic polymers. Here, we present the crystal structure of a T. maritima cellobiose-binding protein (tm0031) that is homologous to oligopeptide-binding proteins. T. maritima cellobiose-binding protein binds a variety of lengths of {beta}(1 {yields} 4)-linked glucose oligomers, ranging from two rings (cellobiose) to five (cellopentaose). The structure reveals that binding is semi-specific. The disaccharide at the nonreducing end binds specifically; the other rings are located in a large solvent-filled groove, where the reducing end makes several contacts with the protein, thereby imposing an upper limit of the oligosaccharides that are recognized. Semi-specific recognition, in which a molecular class rather than individual species is selected, provides an efficient solution for the uptake of complex mixtures.

Cuneo, Matthew J.; Beese, Lorena S.; Hellinga, Homme W.; (Duke)

2010-05-25

107

A ConA-like lectin isolated from Canavalia maritima seeds alters the expression of genes related to virulence and biofilm formation in Streptococcus mutans  

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Full Text Available Bacteria form biofilms as an adaptive mechanism in response to environmental changes. Streptococcus mutans is the biofilm-forming bacterium that is primarily associated with dental caries. The expression of important genes by bacteria in biofilms is different from that of planktonic cells. Lectins are proteins that bind specifically to carbohydrates and may have important biological activities on bacterial cells, acting as antibacterial and anti-biofilm agents. ConM (Canavalia maritima lectin is a protein that is able to inhibit the planktonic growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of ConM and concanavalin A (ConA on the expression of genes related to virulence and biofilm formation in S. mutans. The results showed that ConM significantly reduced the expression of genes encoding enzymes related to adhesion, formation and regulation of biofilms. On the contrary, ConA did not alter the expression of the genes studied. Because the two lectins have a high degree of similarity, the differences in the actions of ConM and ConA may be explained by the small structural differences in the carbohydrate recognition domain of the lectins.

Theodora Thays Arruda Cavalcante

2013-12-01

108

Protein Electrophoresis and DNA in Herbs Produced from Irradiated Ambrosia maritima Seeds Grown under Soil Salinity and Their Resistance to Insect  

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Full Text Available Damsisa (Ambrosia maritima L. is one of the wild plants present in Egypt and different African countries of the Nile Valley. It considered as potential source of molluscicides for treatment of infected sites. In this study, DNA amplifications technique and protein electrophoresis were used for the evaluation of response of Damsisa herbs to gamma rays (?-rays, soil salinity and their interaction on alleviation of salt stress. This study also examined the effect of herb as bio-resistant for insect infestation in Phaseolus beans. Protein electrophoresis revealed that the number of protein bands separated from plants grown in saline soil not changed either grown from irradiated or un-irradiated seeds except 40 Gray (Gy dose. Meanwhile, it was observed that mixing Damsisa herb with infested Phaseolus beans reduced insect ability to lays eggs or complete life cycle. Also, it was found that herbs produced from irradiated seeds and grown in normal or in saline soil were more effective in destruction of Callosobruchus maculatus insect and decreased the loss from infested beans.

O.S. Hussein

2012-01-01

109

Some Active Ingredients, Total Protein and Amino Acids in Plants Produced from Irradiated Ambrosia maritima Seeds Growing under Different Soil Salinity Levels  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out at the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology during two successive seasons, of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009, respectively in pots 30 cm in diameter. The aim of this experiment was to study the response of damsisa (Ambrosia maritima L. seeds that exposed to different doses of radiation (0, 20, 40, 80 Gy after planting in soils contain mixtures of salts. The dose rate was 0.89 and 0.87 rad sec-1. The salts used were NaCl, CaCl2 and MgSO4 in ratio 2:2:1 with concentrations 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm. Irradiated and un- irradiated seeds were sown in, sand-loamy, soil with mixture of salts. Also, a group of irradiated and un-irradiated seeds were sown in normal soils without salt and serve as a control, all pots irrigated with tap water until field capacity. It was observed that saline condition decreased ambrosin, protein and amino acids trend, in damsisa shoots. While, the results obtained refer to increasing proline concentration separated as a result of uses ?-rays and salinity treatments. The extreme sensitivity of the metabolic processes of proline synthesis and degradation themselves may be of benefit by regulating metabolic processes which adversely affected by stress. So, it was concluded that ?-rays improve plant growth and increase its chemical components under saline stress condition.

A.R. Ghalab

2012-01-01

110

Fungal decontamination and enhancement of shelf life of edible split beans of wild legume Canavalia maritima by the electron beam irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ripened split beans of the coastal sand dune wild legume Canavalia maritima serve as one of the traditional nutritional sources of the coastal dwellers in Southwest coast of India. Nine fungi were isolated from the unirradiated dry beans by plating on the potato dextrose agar medium. Toxigenic fungus Aspergillus niger showed the highest incidence (33–50%) followed by Aspergillus flavus (14–20%) and Penicillium chrysogenum (7–13%). Unirradiated dry beans and irradiated dry beans with electron beam doses 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 kGy were monitored for occurrence of fungal species and their incidence during 0, 3 and 6 months storage period under laboratory conditions. Irradiation resulted in dose-dependent decrease in fungal species (5–7, 4–6, 3–6 and 0 on irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 or 15 kGy, respectively) as well as incidence (80–99, 19–46, 13–21 and 0%, respectively). Although aflatoxins (B1 and B2) were found below detectable level (1 and B2). • Irradiated split beans (10 kGy) showed improved shelf life up to six months without deterioration under normal laboratory conditions

111

Exploring the structure and function of Thermotoga maritima CorA reveals the mechanism of gating and ion selectivity in Co2+/Mg2+ transport.  

Science.gov (United States)

The CorA family of divalent cation transporters utilizes Mg2+ and Co2+ as primary substrates. The molecular mechanism of its function, including ion selectivity and gating, has not been fully characterized. Recently we reported a new structure of a CorA homologue from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, which provided novel structural details that offered the conception of a unique gating mechanism involving conversion of an open hydrophilic gate into a closed hydrophobic one. In the present study we report functional evidence for this novel gating mechanism in the Thermotoga maritima CorA together with an improved crystal structure of this CorA to 2.7 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution. The latter reveals the organization of the selectivity filter to be similar to that of M. jannaschii CorA and also the previously unknown organization of the second signature motif of the CorA family. The proposed gating is achieved by a helical rotation upon the binding of a metal ion substrate to the regulatory binding sites. Additionally, our data suggest that the preference of this CorA for Co2+ over Mg2+ is controlled by the presence of threonine side chains in the channel. Finally, the roles of the intracellular metal-binding sites have been assigned to increased thermostability and regulation of the gating. These mechanisms most likely apply to the entire CorA family as they are regulated by the highly conserved amino acids. PMID:23425532

Nordin, Nurhuda; Guskov, Albert; Phua, Terri; Sahaf, Newsha; Xia, Yu; Lu, Siyan; Eshaghi, Hojjat; Eshaghi, Said

2013-05-01

112

Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima—ancestor of all beet crops—and modern sugar beets  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (?45.8%) than for sugar beet (?57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes. PMID:25206350

Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

2014-01-01

113

Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima-ancestor of all beet crops-and modern sugar beets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (?45.8%) than for sugar beet (?57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes. PMID:25206350

Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

2014-01-01

114

Structural and biochemical characterization of the ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Thermotoga maritima: Toward rationalization of mechanistic knowledge in the GH73 family.  

Science.gov (United States)

Members of the GH73 glycosidase family cleave the ?-1,4-glycosidic bond between the N-acetylglucosaminyl (GlcNAc) and N-acetylmuramyl (MurNAc) moieties in bacterial peptidoglycan. A catalytic mechanism has been proposed for members FlgJ, Auto, AcmA and Atl(WM) and the structural analysis of FlgJ and Auto revealed a conserved ?/? fold reminiscent of the distantly related GH23 lysozyme. Comparison of the active site residues reveals variability in the nature of the catalytic general base suggesting two distinct catalytic mechanisms: an inverting mechanism involving two distant glutamate residues and a substrate-assisted mechanism involving anchimeric assistance by the C2-acetamido group of the GlcNAc moiety. Herein, we present the biochemical characterization and crystal structure of TM0633 from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. TM0633 adopts the ?/? fold of the family and displays ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity on intact peptidoglycan sacculi. Site-directed mutagenesis identifies Glu34, Glu65 and Tyr118 as important residues for catalysis. A thorough bioinformatic analysis of the GH73 sequences identified five phylogenetic clusters. TM0633, FlgJ and Auto belong to a group of three clusters that conserve two carboxylate residues involved in a classical inverting acid-base mechanism. Members of the other two clusters lack a conserved catalytic general base supporting a substrate-assisted mechanism. Molecular modeling of representative members from each cluster suggests that variability in length of the ?-hairpin region above the active site confers ligand-binding specificity and modulates the catalytic mechanisms within the GH73 family. PMID:25344445

Lipski, Alexandra; Hervé, Mireille; Lombard, Vincent; Nurizzo, Didier; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Bourne, Yves; Vincent, Florence

2015-03-01

115

Post-translational Modification of Ribosomal Proteins - Structural and Functional Characterization of RimO from Thermotoga Maritima, A Radiacal S-Adenosylmethionine Methylthiotransferase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Post-translational modifications of ribosomal proteins are important for the accuracy of the decoding machinery. A recent in vivo study has shown that the rimO gene is involved in generation of the 3-methylthio derivative of residue Asp-89 in ribosomal protein S12 (Anton, B. P., Saleh, L., Benner, J. S., Raleigh, E. A., Kasif, S., and Roberts, R. J. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105, 1826-1831). This reaction is formally identical to that catalyzed by MiaB on the C2 of adenosine 37 near the anticodon of several tRNAs. We present spectroscopic evidence that Thermotoga maritima RimO, like MiaB, contains two [4Fe-4S] centers, one presumably bound to three invariant cysteines in the central radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) domain and the other to three invariant cysteines in the N-terminal UPF0004 domain. We demonstrate that holo-RimO can specifically methylthiolate the aspartate residue of a 20-mer peptide derived from S12, yielding a mixture of mono- and bismethylthio derivatives. Finally, we present the 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the central radical AdoMet and the C-terminal TRAM (tRNA methyltransferase 2 and MiaB) domains in apo-RimO. Although the core of the open triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel of the radical AdoMet domain was conserved, RimO showed differences in domain organization compared with other radical AdoMet enzymes. The unusually acidic TRAM domain, likely to bind the basic S12 protein, is located at the distal edge of the radical AdoMet domain. The basic S12 protein substrate is likely to bind RimO through interactions with both the TRAM domain and the concave surface of the incomplete TIM barrel. These biophysical results provide a foundation for understanding the mechanism of methylthioation by radical AdoMet enzymes in the MiaB/RimO family.

Arragain, S.; Garcia-Serres, R; Blondin, G; Douki, T; Clemancey, M; Latour, J; Forouhar, F; Neely, H; Montelione, G; et. al.

2010-01-01

116

Post-translational Modification of Ribosomal Proteins: Structural and Functional Characterization of RimO from Thermotoga maritima, a Radical S-adenosylmethionine methylthiotransferase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Post-translational modifications of ribosomal proteins are important for the accuracy of the decoding machinery. A recent in vivo study has shown that the rimO gene is involved in generation of the 3-methylthio derivative of residue Asp-89 in ribosomal protein S12 (Anton, B. P., Saleh, L., Benner, J. S., Raleigh, E. A., Kasif, S., and Roberts, R. J. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105, 1826-1831). This reaction is formally identical to that catalyzed by MiaB on the C2 of adenosine 37 near the anticodon of several tRNAs. We present spectroscopic evidence that Thermotoga maritima RimO, like MiaB, contains two [4Fe-4S] centers, one presumably bound to three invariant cysteines in the central radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) domain and the other to three invariant cysteines in the N-terminal UPF0004 domain. We demonstrate that holo-RimO can specifically methylthiolate the aspartate residue of a 20-mer peptide derived from S12, yielding a mixture of mono- and bismethylthio derivatives. Finally, we present the 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the central radical AdoMet and the C-terminal TRAM (tRNA methyltransferase 2 and MiaB) domains in apo-RimO. Although the core of the open triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel of the radical AdoMet domain was conserved, RimO showed differences in domain organization compared with other radical AdoMet enzymes. The unusually acidic TRAM domain, likely to bind the basic S12 protein, is located at the distal edge of the radical AdoMet domain. The basic S12 protein substrate is likely to bind RimO through interactions with both the TRAM domain and the concave surface of the incomplete TIM barrel. These biophysical results provide a foundation for understanding the mechanism of methylthioation by radical AdoMet enzymes in the MiaB/RimO family.

Arragain, S.; Latour, J; Forouhar, F; Neely, H; Montelione, G; Hunt, J; Mulliez, E; Fontecave, M; Atta, M; et al.

2010-01-01

117

Il nuovo diritto comunitario della sicurezza maritima  

OpenAIRE

Il diritto comunitario della sicurezza marittima é strettamente legato da un rapporto causale e diretto con gli ultimi naufragi, trattandosi quindi di un diritto di recente creazione1. La creazione di questo nuovo ordinamento determina la volontà politica comunitaria di richiedere una struttura legale più rigorosa delle esigenze internazionali dell’Organizzazione Marittima Internazionale (OMI).

Rodrigo Larrucea, Jaime

2004-01-01

118

Multicultural Implications for Teachers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes several differences between Anglo American children and their Hispanic and American Indian counterparts. The growth of the U.S. ethnic population is described, along with some implications for policymakers and educators in Montana and other affected states. According to census figures, the population of American Indians…

Dodd, John M.; Ostwald, Steven W.

119

Advances in fuzzy implication functions  

CERN Document Server

Fuzzy implication functions are one of the main operations in fuzzy logic. They generalize the classical implication, which takes values in the set {0,1}, to fuzzy logic, where the truth values belong to the unit interval [0,1]. These functions are not only fundamental for fuzzy logic systems, fuzzy control, approximate reasoning and expert systems, but they also play a significant role in mathematical fuzzy logic, in fuzzy mathematical morphology and image processing, in defining fuzzy subsethood measures and in solving fuzzy relational equations. This volume collects 8 research papers on fuzzy implication functions. Three articles focus on the construction methods, on different ways of generating new classes and on the common properties of implications and their dependencies. Two articles discuss implications defined on lattices, in particular implication functions in interval-valued fuzzy set theories. One paper summarizes the sufficient and necessary conditions of solutions for one distributivity equation...

Beliakov, Gleb; Sola, Humberto; Pradera, Ana

2013-01-01

120

Implications of recent MINER$\  

CERN Document Server

Among the most important tasks of neutrino oscillation experiments is correctly estimating the parent neutrino energy from the by-products of their interactions. Large uncertainties in our current understanding of such processes can significantly hamper this effort. We explore several recent measurements made using the \\mnv{} detector in the few-GeV NuMI muon neutrino beam at Fermilab: the differential cross-section vs. $Q^2$ for charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, the differential cross-sections vs. pion angle and pion kinetic energy for resonant single charged pion production, and the differential cross-sections vs. pion angle and kinetic energy for coherent pion production. We furthermore discuss their implications for energy reconstruction in oscillation measurements.

Wolcott, Jeremy

2015-01-01

121

The privacy implications of Bluetooth  

CERN Document Server

A substantial amount of research, as well as media hype, has surrounded RFID technology and its privacy implications. Currently, researchers and the media focus on the privacy threats posed by RFID, while consumer groups choose to boycott products bearing RFID tags. At the same, however, a very similar technology has quietly become part of our everyday lives: Bluetooth. In this paper we highlight the fact that Bluetooth is a widespread technology that has real privacy implications. Furthermore, we explore the applicability of RFID-based solutions to address these privacy implications.

Kostakos, Vassilis

2008-01-01

122

Neutrino Experiments and Their Implications  

OpenAIRE

Recent developments in solar, reactor, and accelerator neutrino physics are reviewed. Implications for neutrino physics, solar physics, nuclear two-body physics, and r-process nucleosynthesis are briefly discussed.

Balantekin, A. B.

2004-01-01

123

Implications of antisocial parents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antisocial behavior is a socially maladaptive and harmful trait to possess. This can be especially injurious for a child who is raised by a parent with this personality structure. The pathology of antisocial behavior implies traits such as deceitfulness, irresponsibility, unreliability, and an incapability to feel guilt, remorse, or even love. This is damaging to a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parents with this personality makeup can leave a child traumatized, empty, and incapable of forming meaningful personal relationships. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of antisocial behavior. Moreover, the child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial behavior who is raised with a parental style that triggers the genetic liability is at high risk for developing the same personality structure. Antisocial individuals are impulsive, irritable, and often have no concerns over their purported responsibilities. As a parent, this can lead to erratic discipline, neglectful parenting, and can undermine effective care giving. This paper will focus on the implications of parents with antisocial behavior and the impact that this behavior has on attachment as well as on the development of antisocial traits in children. PMID:21293928

Torry, Zachary D; Billick, Stephen B

2011-12-01

124

Galicia, ¿En la Ora maritima de R.F. Avieno?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The classical sources have been some times studied in order to identify names and places with the present Geograghy. This position can produce mistaken interpretations, as in the case of the Ora maritime, a complicated and dark work attributed to Rufus Festus Avienus. We propose here an interpretation of the verses that have been related to the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula.

En ocasiones, las fuentes antiguas han sido abordadas con el afán de identificar los lugares y accidentes geográficos que mencionan con los que conocemos en la actualidad. Ello puede conducir a interpretaciones erróneas, como en el caso de la Ora marítima, un texto complejo y lleno de incógnitas atribuido a Rufo Festo Avieno. A continuación planteamos una propuesta de interpretación de los versos que tradicionalmente se vinculan con el territorio del Noroeste peninsular (vv. 90-200

Suárez Piñeiro, Ana M.

2002-12-01

125

Astrosociological Implications of Astrobiology (Revisited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Supporters of astrobiology continue to organize the field around formalized associations and organizations under the guise of the so-called ``hard'' sciences (e.g., biology and the related physical/natural sciences). The so-called ``soft'' sciences-including sociology and the other social sciences, the behavioral sciences, and the humanities-remain largely separated from this dynamically growing field. However, as argued in this paper, space exploration involving the search for extraterrestrial life should be viewed as consisting of two interrelated parts (i.e., two sides of the same coin): astrobiology and astrosociology. Together, these two fields broadly combine the two major branches of science as they relate to the relationship between human life and alien life, as appropriate. Moreover, with a formalized system of collaboration, these two complimentary fields would also focus on the implications of their research to human beings as well as their cultures and social structures. By placing the astrosociological implications of astrobiology at a high enough priority, scientists interested in the search for alien life can augment their focus to include the social, cultural, and behavioral implications that were always associated with their work (yet previously overlooked or understated, and too often misunderstood). Recognition of the astrosociological implications expands our perception about alien life by creating a new emphasis on their ramifications to human life on Earth.

Pass, Jim

2010-01-01

126

A Bayesian Model for Discovering Typological Implications  

CERN Document Server

A standard form of analysis for linguistic typology is the universal implication. These implications state facts about the range of extant languages, such as ``if objects come after verbs, then adjectives come after nouns.'' Such implications are typically discovered by painstaking hand analysis over a small sample of languages. We propose a computational model for assisting at this process. Our model is able to discover both well-known implications as well as some novel implications that deserve further study. Moreover, through a careful application of hierarchical analysis, we are able to cope with the well-known sampling problem: languages are not independent.

Daumé, Hal

2009-01-01

127

Numerical Uncertainty and Its Implications  

OpenAIRE

A scrutiny of the contributions of key mathematicians and scientists shows that there has been much controversy (throughout the development of mathematics and science) concerning the use of mathematics and the nature of mathematics too. In this work, we try to show that arithmetical operations of approximation lead to the existence of a numerical uncertainty, which is quantic, path dependent and also dependent on the number system used, with mathematical and physical implications. When we exp...

Rodrigues, Anto?nio F.; Martins, Nuno O.

2014-01-01

128

Accelerating Boolean implications with FPGAs  

OpenAIRE

We present the FPGA implementation of an algorithm [4] that computes implications between signal values in a boolean network. The research was performed as a masterrsquos thesis [5] at the University of Frankfurt. The recursive algorithm is rather complex for a hardware realization and therefore the FPGA implementation is an interesting example for the potential of reconfigurable computing beyond systolic algorithms. A circuit generator was written that transforms a boolean network into a net...

Sulimma, Kolja; Stoffel, Dominik; Kunz, Wolfgang

2006-01-01

129

Pharmacogenomics and migraine: possible implications  

OpenAIRE

Pharmacogenomics is the science about how inherited factors influence the effects of drugs. Drug response is always a result of mutually interacting genes with important modifications from environmental and constitutional factors. Based on the genetic variability of pharmacokinetic and in some cases pharmacodynamic variability we mention possible implications for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. Pharmacogenomics will most likely in the future be one part of our therapeutic arma...

Tfelt-hansen, Peer; Brøsen, Kim

2008-01-01

130

Economic implications from deficit finance  

OpenAIRE

The paper enlightens popular part of the budget policy - deficit finance. In the process of securing economic conditions to surpass the current economic crises, the governments all over the world incline towards debt deficit finance. The intention is to describe the implications such as multiplier effect, crowding out effect, correlation between budget and trade deficit. One of them are positive, they increase the aggregate demand and national income, other negative in term that they crowd ou...

Gaber, Stevan

2010-01-01

131

Female genital cutting: nursing implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female genital cutting (FGC) is a practice that affects millions of girls and women worldwide. This deeply rooted practice has cultural, religious, and psychosexual meaning to its practitioners, but it also carries long-term physical and mental complications. Decried as a human rights violation, nonetheless this practice is still carried out today. Nurses are in a unique position to contact and educate women who have been cut or are at risk for mutilation. To advocate for these women, a thorough understanding of the practice of FGC, its cultural overtones, religious implications, and psychosexual effects is needed. PMID:23835896

Goldenstein, Rachel A

2014-01-01

132

Pharmacogenomics and migraine: possible implications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pharmacogenomics is the science about how inherited factors influence the effects of drugs. Drug response is always a result of mutually interacting genes with important modifications from environmental and constitutional factors. Based on the genetic variability of pharmacokinetic and in some cases pharmacodynamic variability we mention possible implications for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. Pharmacogenomics will most likely in the future be one part of our therapeutic armamentarium and will provide a stronger scientific basis for optimizing drug therapy on the basis of each patient's genetic constitution Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2

Tfelt-Hansen, P.; Brosen, K.

2008-01-01

133

Networking activism: implications for Greece  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The outbreak of December 2008 against police brutality through a wave of demonstrations and street protests in Athens, which was strongly advocated by protest activities and practices across the world, addresses several issues in relation to the transformative potentials of mediated collective action. The paper critically evaluates different accounts of December events, probing then into thevery networking of that movement. From this perspective, it points out another aspect of the local-global interplay in protest culture along new mediating practices (beyond the creation of transnational publics, that of the implications of transnational networking for local social activism and identi?cation, addressing relevant questions in the Greek context.

Pantelis Vatikiotis

2011-12-01

134

Inflationary implications of supersymmetry breaking  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll parameters and the geometry of the Kähler manifold of the chiral scalars. We analyse the inflationary implications of this bound, and in particular discuss to what extent the requirements of single field and slow-roll can both be met in F-term inflation.

Borghese, Andrea; Roest, Diederik; Zavala, Ivonne [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

2013-07-23

135

Ophthalmic implications of seasonal affective disorder  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is presented with a discussion of its standard treatment of phototherapy. A number of ophthalmic implications related to SAD are proposed. These implications relate to both the condition and the phototherapy used in its treatment, especially the use of full spectrum light which contains ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation. 12 references.

Paramore, J.E.; King, V.M. (Ferris State Univ., Big Rapids, MI (USA))

1989-07-01

136

Ophthalmic implications of seasonal affective disorder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is presented with a discussion of its standard treatment of phototherapy. A number of ophthalmic implications related to SAD are proposed. These implications relate to both the condition and the phototherapy used in its treatment, especially the use of full spectrum light which contains ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation. 12 references

137

Cosmological implications of unimodular gravity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider a model of gravity and matter fields which is invariant only under unimodular general coordinate transformations (GCT). The determinant of the metric is treated as a separate field which transforms as a scalar under unimodular GCT. Furthermore we also demand that the theory is invariant under a new global symmetry which we call generalized conformal invariance. We study the cosmological implications of the resulting theory. We show that this theory gives a fit to the high-z supernova data which is identical to the standard Big Bang model. Hence we require some other cosmological observations to test the validity of this model. We also consider some models which do not obey the generalized conformal invariance. In these models we can fit the supernova data without introducing the standard cosmological constant term. Furthermore these models introduce only one dark component and hence solve the coincidence problem of dark matter and dark energy

138

Safety implications of control systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Safety Implications of Control Systems (SIOC) Program has three interrelated objectives: (1) to investigate failure modes and effects in non-safety control systems, including single failures and common cause, common mode, cascade, and other credible multiple failures, (2) to assess the impact upon safety of control system designs and their dynamic behavior, using methods that include computer modeling and analysis of system dynamics under stress, and (3) to develop criteria for determining the relative importance of control system influences upon safety, and with these as a basis to recommend design and operational standards for the systems involved. In support of these goals, the SIOC Program consists of three principal activities: (1) an augmented failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) of the overall plant; (2) specific analysis of the plant electrical system; and (3) a hybrid computer model to augment the FMEA. This paper will discuss the status of each of these activities

139

Mobile IPTV: Implications for Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile IPTV (Internet Protocol Television provides digital content which users watch as a television broadcast via the Internet on a mobile device. This paper presents the development of IPTV, Suan Dusit Internet Broadcasting, (SDIB to mobile IPTV and discusses the implications for education. Mobile IPTV was developed as a prototype and designed to support users via wireless and mobile networks regardless of the mobile device. The system can be broadcasted through both live and video on demand (VOD utilizing a mobile browser (smart phones, smart TVs, and tablets and web browsers (Windows, Mac, and UNIX. The mobile IPTV prototype has been used and evaluated in this study. The results of student’s behavior when using mobile phones in their learning found that the highest mobile use was for Facebook and Line to communicate and share information with their classmates. The results of student’s attitudes towards using mobile phones in their learning found that the highest mobile use was for sharing information with classmates, sharing learning experiences on social networks, and using mobile phones to support their studies. The result of the IPTV and mobile IPTV system evaluation found that overall mobile IPTV had a higher user satisfaction than IPTV. Furthermore, mobile IPTV creates a good learning experience for the users. This paper provides guidelines in technical issues for helping educational institutions to develop mobile IPTV for education.

Pannee Suanpang

2013-10-01

140

National and international social implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Every new technology since slash-and-burn has required new social institutions to go along with it, and nuclear technology is no exception. There is, therefore, a need to go beyond decisionmaking among alternative peaceful proliferation schemes. There is a need also to look at the needs for new national and/or transnational institutions that will have to accompany any proliferations in area. There are five social implications that bear on the need to develop new social institutions. First is the issue of Great Power relations, in an era of nuclear proliferation. Second is the conflict between nationalism and internationalism. The third is the issue of the military and diplomatic strategies of small nations, particularly small nations on the threshold of nuclear capacity, and the question of military versus civilian rule in those nations. Fourth, and possibly the most important is the role of multinational corporations in nuclear regulation, and fifth, the question of secrecy and how that bears on power values of primacy in democratic states

141

Implications of increased ethanol production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implications of increased ethanol production in Canada, assuming a 10% market penetration of a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend, are evaluated. Issues considered in the analysis include the provision of new markets for agricultural products, environmental sustainability, energy security, contribution to global warming, potential government cost (subsidies), alternative options to ethanol, energy efficiency, impacts on soil and water of ethanol crop production, and acceptance by fuel marketers. An economic analysis confirms that ethanol production from a stand-alone plant is not economic at current energy values. However, integration of ethanol production with a feedlot lowers the break-even price of ethanol by about 35 cents/l, and even further reductions could be achieved as technology to utilize lignocellulosic feedstock is commercialized. Ethanol production could have a positive impact on farm income, increasing cash receipts to grain farmers up to $53 million. The environmental impact of ethanol production from grain would be similar to that from crop production in general. Some concerns about ethanol/gasoline blends from the fuel industry have been reduced as those blends are now becoming recommended in some automotive warranties. However, the concerns of the larger fuel distributors are a serious constraint on an expansion of ethanol use. The economics of ethanol use could be improved by extending the federal excise tax exemption now available for pure alcohol fueemption now available for pure alcohol fuels to the alcohol portion of alcohol/gasoline blends. 9 refs., 10 tabs

142

Implications of zero economic growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The consequences of a zero economic growth (ZEG) policy are examined to see what limits to growth, some of which already exist, are desirable and what changes in our institutions are required to impose a no-growth policy. Past periods of zero or negative growth have increased unemployment, raised employability standards, and increased income-distribution inequalities with a subsequent lowering of the living standard. Zero population growth would offset this somewhat by freeing the capital now spent on education and career training and using it to raise per capita living standards if a work-sharing and unemployment-payment system were devised. Undesirable social implications would be felt both if a lack of employment opportunities reduced competition and consumption habits or if it led to intensive competition. Advocates of ZEG propose to restrain only those areas using nonrenewable resources and causing pollution of the environment, while expanding the service areas. The service sector (e.g., transportation and utilities) is also polluting and uses nonrenewable resources, however, pointing up their failure to account for indirect consumption. Many undeveloped countries already have ZEG but would not be content for the U.S. to halt growth opportunities. ZEG would be difficult to enforce and would do nothing to promote pollution control. (DCK)

Thurow, L.C.

1977-01-01

143

Pathological Implications in the Neuroendocrine Gastrointestinal System  

OpenAIRE

The neuroendocrine system is made of endocrine cells disseminated in various organs. In this article, we will focus on the implication of the neuroendocrine system in digestive pathology. First of all, we will review the neuroendocrine tumors in every location and then describe their classification, epidemiology, symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment. Finally, we will consider the implications of the neuroendocrine system in the inflammatory and functional pathology of the digestive tract.

Piette, Caroline; Polus, Marc; Louis, Edouard

2002-01-01

144

The phenomenological movement: implications for nursing research.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a comparison of the phenomenologies of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger with the aim of highlighting some of the critical distinctions between these two 'schools' of phenomenology concerning the methodological implications of each approach for nursing research. Specifically, the paper examines: the implications of epistemology versus ontology; issues relating to validity; the involvement of the researcher, and aspects relating to interpretation. PMID:8708201

Walters, A J

1995-10-01

145

Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

2010-03-01

146

Possible implications of exponential decay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Semiclassical concepts are developed which could make the appearance of a logarithmic nonlinearity in a Schroedinger-type equation plausible. This approach is based on the introduction of a novel wave function describing the center of mass (CM) motion of unstable particles or composite systems subject to statistical changes of their internal quantum state. The element of statistical randomness associated with a purely exponential decay law suggests the use of thermodynamic concepts like entropy and free energy. These concepts are applied only to a domain open-quotes blurredclose quotes by the quantum uncertainty principle where the problematic definition of a time and entropy operator might be possible. The paper consists of three main parts. Section 1 develops an extended nonrelativistic equation of motion. The proposed equation contains yet reinterprets the BBM equation, and for stable systems is reduced to the Schroedinger equation. Definite predictions are made for observable quantities. In Section 2, the family of localized, nonspreading ground-state solutions to the BBM equation is extended, in two and three spatial dimensions, to states classified by finite quantized angular momenta and definite values of entropy. The statistical behavior of CM systems and their electromagnetic interaction are investigated. In Section 3, implications of these concepts are outlined with emphasis on possible experimental manifestations. Suggested laboratory tests include high-preuggested laboratory tests include high-precision measurements of unstable particle diffraction on linear gratings as well as neutron interferometer experiments of the type previously attempted to test the BBM equation. A further testing possibility is the investigation of particle resonances. An important feature of the present model is a subtle combination of quantum and classical aspects, achieved without compromising fundamental principles, while reinterpreting microreversibility. 46 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

147

Health implications of hydropower development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower development had been neglected in many countries during the past few decades, but the situation dramatically changed during the 1970s owing to the constantly increasing costs of electricity generation by fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. Currently, hydroelectric generation accounts for approximately 23% of total global electricity supply. Much of the hydropower potential in developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America still remains to be exploited. Like any other source of energy, hydropower development has several health impacts. Conceptually, health implications of hydropower development can be divided into two broad categories: short-term and long-term problems. Short-term health impacts occur during the planning, construction and immediate post-construction phases, whereas long-term impacts stem from the presence of large man-made lakes, development of extensive canal systems, alteration of the ecosystem of the area, and changing socio-economic conditions. Longer-term impacts are further classified into two categories: introduction of new diseases and/or intensification of existing ones due to the improvements of the habitats of disease-carrying vectors, and health problems arising from resettlement of the people whose homes and land-holdings are inundated by the reservoirs. All these impacts are discussed in detail. Health impacts of hydropower developments have not yet been studied extensively. It is often implicitly assumed that health t is often implicitly assumed that health impacts of major dams are minor compared with other social and environmental impacts. Future studies could possibly reverse this assumption. (author)

148

Venous chest anatomy: clinical implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article provides a practical approach to the clinical implications and importance of understanding the collateral venous anatomy of the thorax. Routine radiography, conventional venography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies provide correlative anatomic models for the demonstration of how interconnecting collateral vascular networks within the thorax maintain venous stability at all times. Five major systems comprise the collateral venous network of the thorax ( Fig. 1 ). These include the paravertebral, azygos-hemiazygos, internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and anterior jugular venous systems (AJVS). The five systems are presented in the following sequence: (a) a brief introduction to the importance of catheter position and malposition in understanding access to the thoracic venous system, (b) the anatomy of the azygos-hemiazygos systems and their relationship with the paravertebral plexus, (c) the importance of the AJVS, (d) 'loop' concepts interconnecting the internal mammary and azygos-hemiazygos systems by means of the lateral thoracic and intercostal veins, and (e) the interconnecting venous networks on the thoracic side of the thoracoabdominal junction. Certain aspects of the venous anatomy of the thorax will not be discussed in this chapter and include (a) the intra-abdominal anastomoses between the superior and inferior vena cavae (IVC) via the internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and azygos-hemiazygos systems (beyond th, and azygos-hemiazygos systems (beyond the scope of this article), (b) potential collateral vessels involving vertebral, parascapular, thyroidal, thymic, and other smaller veins that might anastomose with the major systems, and (c) anatomic variants and pitfalls that may mimic pathologic conditions (space limitations). (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

149

Network Promises and Their Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false CA X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The new learning environment characterized by P2P networking allows for new forms of learning and new ways of knowledge production. One must be careful, however, not to confuse the more mature concepts of fluid and relative knowledge, which learners gradually develop through dialog and exchange, with some kind of epistemological revolution mandated by the new networked environment itself. Interactive networks have been represented as somewhat "ideal" environments where nodes are equally dispersed and connected in an environment devoid of the constraints of space or time. While it is certainly true that P2P interactivity offers immense new possibilities for learners, we must strive to understand the dialectical nature of the new environment. What appears to be an ideally democratic social space can in fact be subjected to hidden power distribution and arcane control. Learner control is one important dimension of networked communications, with implications reaching all the way to questioning the nature of learning and knowing. While network enthusiasts are prone to proclaim the new age of the "creative commons", some very real steps are being taken to upset this trend, and we should caution that copyright issues are far from being resolved in this environment.

Paul Bouchard

2011-01-01

150

Impacts of oil sands process water on fen plants: Implications for plant selection in required reclamation projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fen plant growth in peat contaminated with groundwater discharges of oil sands process water (OSPW) was assessed in a greenhouse over two growing seasons. Three treatments (non-diluted OSPW, diluted OSPW and rainwater) were tested on five vascular plants and four mosses. All vascular plants tested can grow in salinity and naphthenic acids levels currently produced by oil sands activity in northwestern Canada. No stress sign was observed after both seasons. Because of plant characteristics, Carex species (C. atherodes and C. utriculata) and Triglochin maritima would be more useful for rapidly restoring vegetation and creating a new peat-accumulating system. Groundwater discharge of OSPW proved detrimental to mosses under dry conditions and ensuring adequate water levels would be crucial in fen creation following oil sands exploitation. Campylium stellatum would be the best choice to grow in contaminated areas and Bryum pseudotriquetrum might be interesting as it has spontaneously regenerated in all treatments. - Highlights: ? Fen plant growth was assessed under groundwater discharges of oil sands process water. ? Sedge and grass species were not stressed after two growing seasons in greenhouse. ? Carex species and Triglochin maritima would be helpful in created contaminated fens. ? In dry conditions, contaminated groundwater discharge was detrimental for mosses. ? Campylium stellatum would be the best choice in created fens with contaminated water. - Sedges ah contaminated water. - Sedges and grasses tolerated the contact with oil sands process water and could probably grow well in contaminated created fens, but mosses were particularly affected under dry conditions.

151

The economic implications of carbon cycle uncertainty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the implications of uncertainty in the carbon cycle for the cost of stabilizing carbon dioxide concentrations. Using a state of the art integrated assessment model, we find that uncertainty in our understanding of the carbon cycle has significant implications for the costs of a climate stabilization policy, with cost differences denominated in trillions of dollars. Uncertainty in the carbon cycle is equivalent to a change in concentration target of up to 100 ppmv. The impact of carbon cycle uncertainties are smaller than those for climate sensitivity, and broadly comparable to the effect of uncertainty in technology availability

152

The CH/? hydrogen bond: Implication in chemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

The CH/? hydrogen bond is the weakest extreme of hydrogen bonds that occurs between a soft acid CH and a soft base ?-system. Implication in chemistry of the CH/? hydrogen bond includes issues of conformation, crystal packing, and specificity in host/guest complexes. The result obtained by analyzing the Cambridge Structural Database is reviewed. The peculiar axial preference of isopropyl group in ?-phellandrene and folded conformation of levopimaric acid have been explained in terms of the CH/? hydrogen bond, by high-level ab initio MO calculations. Implication of the CH/? hydrogen bond in structural biology is also discussed, briefly.

Nishio, M.

2012-06-01

153

Implications of wealth heterogeneity for macroeconomics  

OpenAIRE

Today's dominant strain of macroeconomic models supposes that aggregate consumption can be understood by assuming the existence of a 'representative agent' whose behavior rationalizes observed outcomes. But representative agent models yield embarrassingly implausible (and empirically inaccurate) descriptions of consumption behavior. When push comes to shove, real-world forecasters (including those at the Fed) properly disregard these implications. As a result, consumption forecasting remains ...

Carroll, Christopher D.

2012-01-01

154

Structure functions: Their status and implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I discuss the current status of structure functions. Attention is given to the uncertainties in them and the implications of these uncertainties for experimental predictions. I indicate which experiments are capable of removing these uncertainties. 17 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab

155

Cultural Differences and Their Implications for Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

Narrates experiences concerning the differences between black cultural norms related to maintaining eye contact during conversations and white majority norms. Discusses several psychological studies of norms regulating the use of eyes during communication. The educational implications for differences in communication norms are discussed,…

Payne, Charles

1977-01-01

156

Self-Directed Learning: Implications for Museums  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-directed learning (SDL) has numerous implications for understanding adult learners and for improving their museum experiences. Through a review of the conceptual and empirical literature, the relationship between SDL and education within a museum setting is explored in this article. Discussion includes an overview of SDL, inquiry into two…

Banz, Richard

2008-01-01

157

Ethical Implications of Digital Imaging in Photojournalism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arguing that the news media are about to adopt digital imaging systems that will have far-reaching implications for the practice of journalism, this paper discusses how the news media is expected to adopt the new technology and explains why the marriage of journalism and digital imaging will create ethical issues with respect to photo manipulation…

Terry, Danal; Lasorsa, Dominic L.

158

Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology—An Update  

OpenAIRE

Some engineers and scientists are either directly or indirectly involved with nanotechnology issues. Nanotechnology concerns dealing with environmental implications and regulatory compliance encompass practicing areas for these technical individuals. Areas of particular concern include current/proposed environmental regulations and procedures for quantifying both health risks and hazard risks. This article addresses both of these issues.

Louis Theodore; Leo Stander

2011-01-01

159

Applications of robust control theory - Educational implications  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey is made of applications of robust control theory to problems of flight control, control of flexible space structures, and engine control which have appeared in recent conferences and journals. An analysis is made of which theoretical techniques are most commonly used and what implications this has for graduate and undergraduate education in aerospace engineering.

Dorato, P.; Yedavalli, R. K.

1992-01-01

160

Commentary: Pedagogical Implications of Experimental SNS Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This special issue of the "Heritage Language Journal", guest edited by Silvina Montrul, unites four papers on different aspects of heritage Spanish speakers' linguistic abilities. In this commentary, we reexamine these important contributions with an eye toward implications for instruction and toward general trends for the field. In particular, we…

Carreira, Maria; Potowski, Kim

2011-01-01

161

Organizational Structure: Dimensions, Determinants and Managerial Implication  

OpenAIRE

The study examined the meaning, nature, forms, dimensions, determinants and managerial implication of organizational structure and its impacts on the organisation. The review revealed that the dimension of organisation structure generally consists of complexity, formalization and centralization, and that strategy, size, culture, technology, environment, people and the like determine the organisation’s structure. work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, ce...

Ugbomhe, O. U.; Dirisu, A. B.

2011-01-01

162

Resource implications of demographic change for education  

OpenAIRE

The aims of the paper are as follows: to establish how much has been spent in real terms on cere education activities at each level over the last fifteen years; to derive projections of future resource requirements of the Department of Education in the light of recent and projected demographic change; and to assess the likely implications of such change.

Mccullagh, John

1995-01-01

163

Implications of a European radiocarbon calibration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the work is to produce a radiocarbon calibration, using low altitude trees from a European context, and to establish the calibration relationship with greater accuracy than has hitherto been possible. The paper gives a brief summary of the methods, and results obtained so far, and indicates the implications of these results for the archaeologist. (U.K.)

164

Peptides Targeting Protein Kinases: Strategies and Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein kinases are important key regulators in most, if not all, biological processes and are linked with many human diseases. Protein kinases thus became attractive targets for drug design. Intracellularly active peptides that selectively interfere with kinase function and or kinase-mediated signaling pathways are potential drug compounds with therapeutic implications.

2006-12-01

165

Corporal Punishment: Legalities, Realities, and Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a quiz that will help readers determine the reliability of their own perceptions relating to corporal punishment in schools. Discusses U.S. Courts and corporal punishment, worldwide and nationwide legality, and the realities of corporal punishment in the United States. Discusses implications for what teachers can do to address corporal…

Hinchey, Patricia H.

2003-01-01

166

Genetic Counseling: Implications for Community Counselors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Special issue of the "Journal of Health Psychology" (Vol. 7, No. 2, 2002) was reviewed. Articles covered a variety of qualitative studies conducted using an interpretive phenomenological analysis method to examine the interviews with people who had received genetic testing and counseling. Implications for the broader counseling field were also…

Bodenhorn, Nancy; Lawson, Gerard

2003-01-01

167

Genetic Counseling: Ethical and Professional Role Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic counseling assists people in identifying potential or manifest genetic problems, understanding their implications, making decisions about what course to follow, and working through psychological and social aspects as they affect individuals or couples. Four ethical principles and related ethical issues pertaining to autonomy, beneficence…

Witmer, J. Melvin; And Others

1986-01-01

168

Constructivism and Education: Misunderstandings and Pedagogical Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Constructivism is a popular concept in contemporary teacher education programs. However, a genuine concern arises with the concept's application because many teachers and teacher educators claim that knowledge is constructed, without appreciating the epistemological and pedagogical implications such a claim entails. This article employs Phillips'…

Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Strobel, Johannes

2008-01-01

169

Mirror neurons: their implications for group psychotherapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently discovered mirror neurons in the motor cortex of the brain register the actions and intentions of both the organism and others in the environment. As such, they may play a significant role in social behavior and groups. This paper considers the potential implications of mirror neurons and related neural networks for group therapists, proposing that mirror neurons and mirror systems provide "hard-wired" support for the group therapist's belief in the centrality of relationships in the treatment process and exploring their value in accounting for group-as-a-whole phenomena. Mirror neurons further confirm the holistic, social nature of perception, action, and intention as distinct from a stimulus-response behaviorism. The implications of mirror neurons and mirroring processes for the group therapist role, interventions, and training are also discussed. PMID:21028974

Schermer, Victor L

2010-10-01

170

Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are perceived, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise. Keywords: ERP, Chinese Cultural Implications, Societal Culture, Strategy

Mukesh Srivastava

2009-05-01

171

The environmental implications of landfill gas control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper reviews the implications for landfill gas control of the Environmental Protection Bill in relation to proposed, existing and closed sites. If the Bill is enacted in its present form these changes will have far reaching implications on the waste management industry and especially those involved in landfill gas monitoring and control. The paper describes the requirements for the management of landfill gas both on and around landfill sites before, during and after the cessation of waste disposal operations. It describes the duties of Waste Regulation Authorities (WRAs) under the Bill in relation to landfill gas including their duties in relation to closed sites. The paper concludes that when the WRAs fulfill these duties the risk of further incidents occurring with landfill gas will be significantly reduced. (author)

172

Cosmological implications of grand unified theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These lectures, mainly devoted to the cosmological implications of GUTs, also include the essential ingredients of GUTs and some of their important applications to particle physics. Section 1 contains some basic points concerning the structure of the standard strong and electroweak interactions prior to grand unification. A detailed expose of GUTs is attempted in sect. 2, including their basci principles and their consequences for particle physics. The minimal, simplest GUT, SU5 is analysed in some detail and it will be used throughout these lectures as the GUT prototype. Finally, sect. 3 contains the most important cosmological implications of GUTs, including baryon number generation in the early Universe (in rather lengthy detail), dissipative processes in the very early Universe, grand unified monopoles, etc. (orig./HSI)

173

Banking across Borders: Evidence and implications  

OpenAIRE

This thesis sheds light on the motives, the nature and the implications of banking across borders. In Chapter 1, co-authored with Tim Schmidt-Eisenlohr, I examine the challenges that increased financial integration presents for policy cooperation as financial crises and government intervention have stronger effects beyond borders. We provide a model of international contagion allowing for bank bailouts. While a social planner trades off tax distortions, liquidation losses and intra- and inte...

Niepmann, Friederike

2012-01-01

174

Cosmological Implications of Large-Scale Flows  

OpenAIRE

Cosmological implications of the observed large-scale peculiar velocities are reviewed, alone or combined with redshift surveys and CMB data. The latest version of the POTENT method for reconstructing the underlying three-dimensional velocity and mass-density fields is described. The initial fluctuations and the nature of the dark matter are addressed via statistics such as bulk flow and mass power spectrum. The focus is on constraining the mass density parameter $\\Omega$, d...

Dekel, Avishai

1997-01-01

175

Economic Implications of Deeper Asian Integration  

OpenAIRE

The Asian countries are once again focused on options for large, comprehensive regional integration schemes. In this paper we explore the implications of such broad-based regional trade initiatives in Asia, highlighting the bridging of the East and South Asian economies. We place emphasis on the alternative prospects for insider and outsider countries. We work with a global general equilibrium model of the world economy, benchmarked to a projected 2017 sets of trade and production patterns. W...

Francois, Joseph Francis; Wignaraja, Ganeshan

2008-01-01

176

DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY AND JOURNALISM: implications for Democracy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital technology has brought sweeping changes to journalism  and the social institutions it serves. Journalism has historically played a central role in the U.S. and other democracies, serving as a primary source of news and information for citizens on matters of public importance. This paper examines the implications of these changes for democracy. It explores the question of whether a more interactive form of journalism will produce a more engaged and informed electorate.

John V. Pavlik

2011-12-01

177

DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY AND JOURNALISM: implications for Democracy  

OpenAIRE

Digital technology has brought sweeping changes to journalism  and the social institutions it serves. Journalism has historically played a central role in the U.S. and other democracies, serving as a primary source of news and information for citizens on matters of public importance. This paper examines the implications of these changes for democracy. It explores the question of whether a more interactive form of journalism will produce a more engaged and informed electorate.

Pavlik, John V.

2011-01-01

178

Cancer heterogeneity: implications for targeted therapeutics  

OpenAIRE

Developments in genomic techniques have provided insight into the remarkable genetic complexity of malignant tumours. There is increasing evidence that solid tumours may comprise of subpopulations of cells with distinct genomic alterations within the same tumour, a phenomenon termed intra-tumour heterogeneity. Intra-tumour heterogeneity is likely to have implications for cancer therapeutics and biomarker discovery, particularly in the era of targeted treatment, and evidence for a relationship...

Fisher, R.; Pusztai, L.; Swanton, C.

2013-01-01

179

The Spiral Curriculum: implications for online learning  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background There is an apparent disjuncture between the requirements of the medical spiral curriculum and the practice of replacing previous online material in undergraduate courses. This paper investigates the extent to which students revisit previous online material for the purposes of building the educational spiral, and the implications for the implementation of a Faculty's Learning Management System implementation. Methods At the University of Cape...

Gibbs Trevor; Masters Kenneth

2007-01-01

180

Colon cancer stem cells: implications in carcinogenesis  

OpenAIRE

The cancer stem cell model was described for hematologic malignancies in 1997 and since then evidence has emerged to support it for many solid tumors as well, including colon cancer. This model proposes that certain cells within the tumor mass are pluripotent and capable of self-renewal and have an enhanced ability to initiate distant metastasis. The cancer stem cell model has important implications for cancer treatment, since most current therapies target actively proliferating cells and may...

Sanders, Matthew A.; Majumdar, Adhip P. N.

2011-01-01

181

Therapeutic implications of iodine-125 cytotoxicity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biological consequences of differential subcellular radionuclide accumulation within nuclear structures have important implications for the design and development of new therapeutic agents for cancer management. A growing body of experimental data demonstrates that localization of 125I within the genome results in marked cytotoxicity. Investigations of iodine-125 labeled iododeoxyuridine, DNA intercalators and tamoxifen are reviewed as representative of this new group of potential radiotherapeutic agents

182

The power of Boolean implication networks  

OpenAIRE

Human diseases have been investigated in the context of single genes as well as complex networks of genes. Though single gene approaches have been extremely successful in the past, most human diseases are complex and better characterized by multiple interacting genes commonly known as networks or pathways. With the advent of high-throughput technologies, a recent trend has been to apply network-based analysis to the huge amount of biological data. Analysis on Boolean implication network is on...

DebashisSahoo

2012-01-01

183

Inferring Genetic Ancestry: Opportunities, Challenges, and Implications  

OpenAIRE

Increasing public interest in direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic ancestry testing has been accompanied by growing concern about issues ranging from the personal and societal implications of the testing to the scientific validity of ancestry inference. The very concept of “ancestry” is subject to misunderstanding in both the general and scientific communities. What do we mean by ancestry? How exactly is ancestry measured? How far back can such ancestry be defined and by which genetic tools? ...

Royal, Charmaine D.; Novembre, John; Fullerton, Stephanie M.; Goldstein, David B.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Clark, Andrew G.

2010-01-01

184

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE: IMPLICATIONS FROM A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE  

OpenAIRE

This article aims to research the ample cultural implications behind the expansion and adoption of corporate governance principles and practices and on the cultural differences inherent in the process of translation/localization of American, English or transnational practices towards continental Europe. More precisely, in the last part of this article, we shall compare the Olivencia rapport from Spain and the Code Corporate Governance Code of the Bucharest Stock Exchange, with a view to analy...

Chiper, Sorina

2010-01-01

185

Implications of a Stochastic Microscopic Finsler Cosmology  

OpenAIRE

Within the context of supersymmetric space-time (D-particle) foam in string/brane-theory, we discuss a Finsler-induced Cosmology and its implications for (thermal) Dark Matter abundances. This constitutes a truly microscopic model of dynamical space-time, where Finsler geometries arise naturally. The D-particle foam model involves point-like brane defects (D-particles), which provide the topologically non-trivial foamy structures of space-time. The D-particles can capture an...

Mavromatos, Nick E.; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Sarkar, Sarben; Vergou, Ariadne

2010-01-01

186

CURRENCY SUBSTITUTION and ITS IMPLICATIONS: A SURVEY  

OpenAIRE

Monetary theory traditionally assumes that economic agents hold the domestic currency for transactions and speculative purposes. However the widespread financial innovations has made themovements of funds and transfer of information across markets more rapid and less costly, leading to an increased degree of currency substitution. Currency substitution has important implications for the conduct of monetary policy, exchange rate determination and stability of demand for money functions. This ...

Yildirim, Ju?lide

2001-01-01

187

Implications of global warming for African climate  

OpenAIRE

A 2°C increase in global mean temperature (?Tg) has been widely adopted as a benchmark for dangerous climate change. However, there has been a lack of research into the implications of 2°C, or any other degree of warming, for Africa. In this thesis changes in African temperature and precipitation associated with 1°C, 2°C, 3°C, 4°C, and beyond are investigated for the first time, using output from 350 climate model experiments: a collection of simulations from international ...

James, Rachel Anne; Washington, Richard

2014-01-01

188

Geometric Implications of the Naive Bayes Assumption  

OpenAIRE

A naive (or Idiot) Bayes network is a network with a single hypothesis node and several observations that are conditionally independent given the hypothesis. We recently surveyed a number of members of the UAI community and discovered a general lack of understanding of the implications of the Naive Bayes assumption on the kinds of problems that can be solved by these networks. It has long been recognized [Minsky 61] that if observations are binary, the decision surfaces in t...

Peot, Mark Alan

2013-01-01

189

Inventing or spying ? implications for growth.  

OpenAIRE

An engineer graduates if shederives the obvious implications of her instructor's hints. Butthe patent system rewards only the first to present nonobviousadvancements—ideas similarly skilled engineers are notexpected to invent. If a fraction of the newly invented hintsspill over before the technological advances they entail arecompleted and granted legal protection, the R&D workerswill find it convenient to spend some time searching for eachother's hints instead of creating their own. A simp...

Cozzi, G.

2001-01-01

190

PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF LOCATION-BASED SCHEDULING  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The traditional method for planning, scheduling and controlling activities and resources in construction projects is the CPM-scheduling, which has been the predominant scheduling method since its introduction in the late 1950s. Over the years, CPM has proven to be a very powerful technique for planning, scheduling and controlling projects. However, criticism has been raised on the CPM method, specifically in the case of construction projects, for deficient management of construction work and discontinuous flow of resources. Alternative scheduling techniques, often called repetitive or linear scheduling methods, have proven to be well suited for projects of a repetitive nature, such as building projects. As the repetitive or linear scheduling methods may include locations or places, they are also referred to by the comprehensive term of location-based scheduling (LBS), which is the concept that will be used in this study. LBS is a scheduling method that rests upon the theories of line-of-balance and which usesthe graphic representation of a flowline chart. As such, LBS is adapted for planning and management of workflows and, thus, may provide a solution to the identified shortcomings of CPM. Even though LBS has a long history and is well grounded theoretically, it has gained generally little attention in the construction industry. Besides the theoretical research available on LBS, some studies report on the application of LBS, but empirical data on the practical implications of LBS is limited. This study rests upon three case studies of residential projects carried out in Denmark in 2006. The purpose is to test and evaluate the practical implications of LBS when applied on site. The study concludes, with emphasis from the site management involved, that improved schedule overview, establishment of workflows and improved project control constitute the three most important implications of LBS.

Andersson, Niclas; Christensen, Knud

2007-01-01

191

Implications of mineralogy on uranium ore processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The single most striking feature of uranium process metallurgy is the diversity of minerals present and therefore the flow sheets adopted. As an interesting sideline, this diversity issue will limit the possibilities of toll milling to decrease CAPEX requirements and create viable projects - a common approach in gold and nickel. By their very nature, the numerous uranium and associated minerals in a deposit are exotic and complex. This creates a considerable challenge for metallurgists and process engineers as not only can the multiple uranium minerals behave very differently, but their associated minerals can also pose considerable challenges to process design. The implications of mineral composition dictates how the ore will process.

192

Implications of Ultraviolet Halos in Spiral Galaxies  

Science.gov (United States)

We have detected ultraviolet halos out to about 10-20 kpc around numerous galaxies by measuring light scattered by dust in the halo. The properties of these halos may give insight into the properties of halo gas (such as mass or metal content) and help explain why galaxies are missing most of their baryonic matter. We will present correlations between the halo luminosity and a several galaxy properties for several sub-samples of spiral galaxies, and discuss the implications for galaxy growth.

Cafmeyer, Julian; Hodges-Kluck, Edmund J.; Bregman, Joel N.

2014-08-01

193

Arab Spring: Geopolitical Implications for Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article sets out to examine the geopolitical implications of the Arab Spring for Iran. It hypothesizes that in spite of the initial short-term benefits of the Arab Spring, in the long-term it has transformed into an acute challenge for Iran. Developments in Bahrain, Egypt, and Syria-- thanks to their prominent positions in Iran’s foreign policy apparatus-- have contributed to serious friction between Iran and other regional rivals, namely Saudi Arabia, Israel and Turkey. The Arab Spring seems to have given rise to an Iranian Autumn.

Reza Ekhtiari Amiri

2012-09-01

194

Cosmological Implications of the String Theory Landscape  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress in string theory has resulted in a whole landscape of vacua solutions.In this talk I explore the cosmological implications of the landscape, based on the dynamics of the wavefunction of the universe propagating on it. The landscape is taken as the phase space of the initial conditions since every of its vacua can potentially give rise to a universe. A superselection rule on the landscape phase space emerges when we include the backreaction of massive long wavelengths and the quantum dynamics of gravitational and matter degrees of freedom. This rule selects only high energy patches which survive the collapse induced by the gravitational instability of massive perturbations

195

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE: IMPLICATIONS FROM A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to research the ample cultural implications behind the expansion and adoption of corporate governance principles and practices and on the cultural differences inherent in the process of translation/localization of American, English or transnational practices towards continental Europe. More precisely, in the last part of this article, we shall compare the Olivencia rapport from Spain and the Code Corporate Governance Code of the Bucharest Stock Exchange, with a view to analyzing how elements of national culture influence the transfer of corporate governance principles.

Sorina CHIPER

2010-01-01

196

GLOBAL WARMING: IMPLICATIONS AND ANTICIPATORY ADAPTIVE MEASURES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our earth is warming up. There is no denying to this fact that the gradual heating up of our globe has a tremendous effect on the climate. It in turn has affected the biotic factors that make up our biosphere, eventually directing the course of our socio-economic development. Some workers are, however, optimistic about this natural phenomenon. Various ways have been suggested to mitigate the effects of global warming, but the damage already done cannot be revoked. Hence, the thing that we are left with is to go for anticipatory adaptive measures so as to tone down the intensity of future implications of global warming.

MUNESH KUMAR

2011-12-01

197

Implications of Delgamuukw on treaty areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implications of the Delgamuukw decision rendered by the Supreme Court of Canada in December 1997 were discussed. The decision obligates regulatory authorities to consult with First Nations prior to issuing any permits for exploration or extraction of natural resources where such proposed projects might infringe on treaty and Aboriginal rights. The case arose out of an urgent need for First Nations to gain control over their land which was being devastated by the forest industry in British Columbia. The paper also discusses previous court decisions, such as the Lubicon example and the Treaty 8 Tribal Association examples as landmark decisions leading inevitably to the Delgamuukw decision. 11 refs

198

Implications of Delgamuukw on treaty areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The implications of the Delgamuukw decision rendered by the Supreme Court of Canada in December 1997 were discussed. The decision obligates regulatory authorities to consult with First Nations prior to issuing any permits for exploration or extraction of natural resources where such proposed projects might infringe on treaty and Aboriginal rights. The case arose out of an urgent need for First Nations to gain control over their land which was being devastated by the forest industry in British Columbia. The paper also discusses previous court decisions, such as the Lubicon example and the Treaty 8 Tribal Association examples as landmark decisions leading inevitably to the Delgamuukw decision. 11 refs.

Favelle, G. [Eagle Feather Consulting Group Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

1998-12-31

199

Implications of the Foucauldian decentralization of economics  

OpenAIRE

This essay aims to explore Foucault’s project of decentralizing economics and to hint on some implications. It also makes a comparative analysis between Foucault’s project and the projects similar to his design and aim. I argue that Foucault’s critique of the idea of economics as a science is stronger than that of the critiques which challenge the status of economics as a science by exposing its deep fictional, literary or narrative content and style. I argue that the strength of Foucau...

Zulfiqar Ali

2011-01-01

200

Theoretical Implications of the Higgs Data  

Science.gov (United States)

As of July 4 2012 all models of new physics should be compatible with the existence of a 125 GeV Higgs boson. I will discuss some implications of the Higgs mass measurement for supersymmetric models. Secondly, any new physics must be consistent with the rate measurements in different Higgs production and decay channels, which are mostly compatible with the Standard Model but not yet measured with great precision. I will review the theoretical possibilities for enhancing the Higgs decay rate into photons over the Standard Model prediction, should the current hints in the data receive confirmation in the future.

Draper, Patrick

2013-04-01

201

Some Implications of Human-Structure Interaction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

On structures, humans may be active which may cause structural vibrations as human activity can excite structural vibration modes. However, humans may also be passive (sitting or standing on the structure). The paper addresses this subject and explores the implications of having passive humans present on the structure. It is not conventional to model the presence of passive humans when predicting structural response, but nevertheless it is instructive to investigate which effect they do in fact have on structural behavior and modal characteristics of structures. Such investigations are made in the present paper.

Pedersen, Lars

2013-01-01

202

Impacts of oil sands process water on fen plants: implications for plant selection in required reclamation projects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fen plant growth in peat contaminated with groundwater discharges of oil sands process water (OSPW) was assessed in a greenhouse over two growing seasons. Three treatments (non-diluted OSPW, diluted OSPW and rainwater) were tested on five vascular plants and four mosses. All vascular plants tested can grow in salinity and naphthenic acids levels currently produced by oil sands activity in northwestern Canada. No stress sign was observed after both seasons. Because of plant characteristics, Carex species (C. atherodes and C. utriculata) and Triglochin maritima would be more useful for rapidly restoring vegetation and creating a new peat-accumulating system. Groundwater discharge of OSPW proved detrimental to mosses under dry conditions and ensuring adequate water levels would be crucial in fen creation following oil sands exploitation. Campylium stellatum would be the best choice to grow in contaminated areas and Bryum pseudotriquetrum might be interesting as it has spontaneously regenerated in all treatments. PMID:22575093

Pouliot, Rémy; Rochefort, Line; Graf, Martha D

2012-08-01

203

Surface morphology implications on Langmuir probe measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Langmuir probes are extensively employed to study the plasmas in space and laboratory environments. Successful measurements require a comprehensive modeling of both the plasma environment and the probe conditions in the form of current collection models. In this thesis, the surface morphology implications on the probe current collection are investigated. This problem is applied and solved in the context of a CubeSat regime. The first problem that is investigated is the consequence of surface structural variability on the current measurements. A new model for dealing with non-uniformity of the probe surface structure is developed in this paper. This model is applied to analyze the Langmuir probe data from a sounding rocket mission that was subjected to surface structural non-homogeneities. This model would be particularly useful for CubeSat platforms where elaborate probe design procedures are not feasible. The second problem that is investigated is the surface area implications on Langmuir probe measurements. It has been established that surface area ratio of the spacecraft to that of the probe needs to be sufficiently large to make successful plasma measurements. CubeSats would therefore pose a challenge for employing Langmuir-type instruments to study the space plasma. We inspect the feasibility of making plasma measurements using Langmuir probes subjected to CubeSat area constraints. This analysis is done for a forthcoming Utah State University (USU)/Space Dynamics Lab (SDL) CubeSat mission.

Suresh, Padmashri

2011-12-01

204

Forensic implications: adolescent sexting and cyberbullying.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adolescence is marked by establishing a sense of identity, core values, a sense of one's relationship to the outside world and heightened peer relationships. In addition, there is also risk taking, impulsivity, self exploration and dramatic increase in sexuality. The dramatic increase in the use of cell phones and the Internet has additional social implications of sexting and cyberbullying. Sexting refers to the practice of sending sexually explicit material including language or images to another person's cell phone. Cyberbullying refers to the use of this technology to socially exclude, threaten, insult or shame another person. Studies of cell phone use in the 21st century report well over 50% of adolescents use them and that text messaging is the communication mode of choice. Studies also show a significant percentage of adolescents send and receive sex messaging, both text and images. This paper will review this expanding literature. Various motivations for sexting will also be reviewed. This new technology presents many dangers for adolescents. The legal implications are extensive and psychiatrists may play an important role in evaluation of some of these adolescents in the legal context. This paper will also make suggestions on future remedies and preventative actions. PMID:24129662

Korenis, Panagiota; Billick, Stephen Bates

2014-03-01

205

Public health implications of altered puberty timing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Changes in puberty timing have implications for the treatment of individual children, for the risk of later adult disease, and for chemical testing and risk assessment for the population. Children with early puberty are at a risk for accelerated skeletal maturation and short adult height, early sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated with an increased risk for testicular cancer according to several, but not all, epidemiologic studies. Girls and, possibly, boys who exhibit premature adrenarche are at a higher risk for developing features of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in adulthood. Altered timing of puberty also has implications for behavioral disorders. For example, an early maturation is associated witha greater incidence of conduct and behavior disorders during adolescence. Finally, altered puberty timing is considered an adverse effect in reproductive toxicity risk assessment for chemicals. Recent US legislation has mandated improved chemical testing approaches for protecting children's health and screening for endocrine-disrupting agents, which has led to changes in the US Environmental Protection Agency's risk assessment and toxicity testing guidelines to include puberty-related assessments and to the validation of pubertal male and female rat assays for endocrine screening Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2

Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.

2008-01-01

206

Global implications of China's healthcare reform.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ongoing healthcare reform in China has a powerful spillover effect beyond the health sector and the borders of China. A successful completion of the Chinese reform will offer a new model for social justice development, shift the global economy toward sustainability and create a new hub for science and technology in medical and health science. However, reforming the healthcare system in the most populated country is a daunting task. China will not live up to its promise, and all the potentials may end with hype not hope if coherent national strategies are not constructed and state-of-the-art navigation is not achieved with staggering domestic and global challenges. The cost of failure will be immensely high, socioeconomic costs for Chinese and an opportunity cost for the world as a whole. A full appreciation of the global implications of China's healthcare reform is crucial in keeping China receptive toward good practices evidence-approved elsewhere and open minded to fulfill its international obligations. More critically, the appreciation yields constructive engagements from global community toward a joint development and global prosperity. The current report provides a multiple disciplinary assessment on the global implications of the healthcare reform in China. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24890392

Yan, Fei; Tang, Shenglan; Zhang, Jian

2014-05-29

207

Abiding IPRs in Technological Implications for Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focal objective of this article is to analyze the role of intellectual property rights in technological implications within a general context. The performance of the IPRs system and its interaction with national innovation system with some degrees of success has also been highlighted. Major encounter over subsequently decade will be to identify policies and solutions that would permit marketplace economy to flourish in the framework of this intellectual property insurrection. There has been a lot of dispute on the role of intellectual property protection regime specially in fostering innovation, technology development of a country. IPRs are expected to emboli the innovation, by rewarding inventor with a grant of domination rights over the mercantile exploitation for a specified time period. This article tries to attempts to review the role of the IPR regime in technological development and also have suggested some policy implications for country like Pakistan and some reflecting lessons for other developing countries with similar settings and common characteristics. Keywords -

Murtaza Hussain Shaikh A

2014-03-01

208

Motivation and Gifted Students: Implications of Theory and Research  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis of contemporary motivation theories reveals implications for gifted and talented students. The expectancy-value framework, intrinsic-extrinsic motivation theories, goal orientations, self-efficacy and other self-perceptions, and attribution theory are described and discussed with respect to implications for the psychology and education…

Clinkenbeard, Pamela R.

2012-01-01

209

Education System Reform in China after 1978: Some Practical Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of education system reform in China since 1978, and its practical implications. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from literature review and interview. An overview of education system reform and its practical implications was found through data analysis. Findings: There has been two…

Sun, Miantao

2010-01-01

210

Public health implications of emerging zoonoses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many new, emerging and re-emerging diseases of humans are caused by pathogens which originate from animals or products of animal origin. A wide variety of animal species, both domestic and wild, act as reservoirs for these pathogens, which may be viruses, bacteria or parasites. Given the extensive distribution of the animal species affected, the effective surveillance, prevention and control of zoonotic diseases pose a significant challenge. The authors describe the direct and indirect implications for public health of emerging zoonoses. Direct implications are defined as the consequences for human health in terms of morbidity and mortality. Indirect implications are defined as the effect of the influence of emerging zoonotic disease on two groups of people, namely: health professionals and the general public. Professional assessment of the importance of these diseases influences public health practices and structures, the identification of themes for research and allocation of resources at both national and international levels. The perception of the general public regarding the risks involved considerably influences policy-making in the health field. Extensive outbreaks of zoonotic disease are not uncommon, especially as the disease is often not recognised as zoonotic at the outset and may spread undetected for some time. However, in many instances, the direct impact on health of these new, emerging or re-emerging zoonoses has been small compared to that of other infectious diseases affecting humans. To illustrate the tremendous indirect impact of emerging zoonotic diseases on public health policy and structures and on public perception of health risks, the authors provide a number of examples, including that of the Ebola virus, avian influenza, monkeypox and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Recent epidemics of these diseases have served as a reminder of the existence of infectious diseases and of the capacity of these diseases to occur unexpectedly in new locations and animal species. The need for greater international co-operation, better local, regional and global networks for communicable disease surveillance and pandemic planning is also illustrated by these examples. These diseases have contributed to the definition of new paradigms, especially relating to food safety policies and more generally to the protection of public health. Finally, the examples described emphasise the importance of intersectorial collaboration for disease containment, and of independence of sectorial interests and transparency when managing certain health risks. PMID:11189723

Meslin, F X; Stöhr, K; Heymann, D

2000-04-01

211

The Implications of Information Technology for Scientific Journal Publishing: A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

... The Implications of Information Technology for Scientific Journal Publishing: A Literature Review ... Hypertext Format The Implications of Information Technology for Scientific Journal Publishing: A ...

212

Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are percei [...] ved, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise.

Mukesh, Srivastava; Betsy J, Gips.

2009-05-01

213

Frequency and implications of HIV superinfection.  

Science.gov (United States)

HIV superinfection occurs when an individual with HIV is infected with a new distinct HIV viral strain. Superinfection has been reported throughout the world, and studies have recorded incidence rates of 0-7·7% per year. Use of next-generation sequencing has improved detection of superinfection, which can be transmitted by injecting drug use and sexual intercourse. Superinfection might have incidence rates comparable to those of initial HIV infection. Clinicians should encourage safe sexual and injecting drug use practices for HIV-infected patients because superinfection has detrimental effects on clinical outcomes and could pose a concern for large-scale antiretroviral treatment plans. The occurrence of superinfection has implications for vaccine research, since it seems initial HIV infection is not fully protective against a subsequent infection. Additional collaborative research could benefit care of patients and inform future vaccine design. PMID:23726798

Redd, Andrew D; Quinn, Thomas C; Tobian, Aaron A R

2013-07-01

214

Air transportation energy efficiency - Alternatives and implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Results from recent studies of air transportation energy efficiency alternatives are discussed, along with some of the implications of these alternatives. The fuel-saving alternatives considered include aircraft operation, aircraft modification, derivative aircraft, and new aircraft. In the near-term, energy efficiency improvements should be possible through small improvements in fuel-saving flight procedures, higher density seating, and higher load factors. Additional small near-term improvements could be obtained through aircraft modifications, such as the relatively inexpensive drag reduction modifications. Derivatives of existing aircraft could meet the requirements for new aircraft and provide energy improvements until advanced technology is available to justify the cost of a completely new design. In order to obtain significant improvements in energy efficiency, new aircraft must truly exploit advanced technology in such areas as aerodynamics, composite structures, active controls, and advanced propulsion.

Williams, L. J.

1976-01-01

215

Inflammation is genetically implicated in Parkinson's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammation has long been associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) but the extent to which it is a cause or consequence is sill debated. Over the past decade a number of genes have been implicated in PD. Relatively rare missense mutations in genes such as LRRK2, Parkin, SNCA and PINK1 are causative for familial PD whereas more common variation in genes, including LRRK2, SNCA and GBA, comprise risk factors for sporadic PD. Determining how the function of these genes and the proteins they encode are altered in PD has become a priority, as results will likely provide much needed insights into contributing causes. Accumulating evidence indicates that many of these genes function in pathways that regulate aspects of immunity, particularly inflammation, suggesting close associations between PD and immune homeostasis. PMID:25450953

Dzamko, N; Geczy, C L; Halliday, G M

2014-10-22

216

IRON-TOLERANT CYANOBACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROBIOLOGY  

Science.gov (United States)

The review is dedicated to the new group of extremophiles - iron tolerant cyanobacteria. The authors have analyzed earlier published articles about the ecology of iron tolerant cyanobacteria and their diversity. It was concluded that contemporary iron depositing hot springs might be considered as relative analogs of Precambrian environment. The authors have concluded that the diversity of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria is understudied. The authors also analyzed published data about the physiological peculiarities of iron tolerant cyanobacteria. They made the conclusion that iron tolerant cyanobacteria may oxidize reduced iron through the photosystem of cyanobacteria. The involvement of both Reaction Centers 1 and 2 is also discussed. The conclusion that iron tolerant protocyanobacteria could be involved in banded iron formations generation is also proposed. The possible mechanism of the transition from an oxygenic photosynthesis to an oxygenic one is also discussed. In the final part of the review the authors consider the possible implications of iron tolerant cyanobacteria for astrobiology.

Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Mummey, Daniel L.; Sarkisova, Svetlana A.; McKay, David S.

2006-01-01

217

Waste management implications of concentrating slimes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The anticipated increase in demand for sand-size tailings from the uranium industry suggests that the fine-grained or 'slime' fraction will require special attention for disposal. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) required information on the behaviour and environmental significance of the fine-grained tailings fraction in disposal facilities. Beak Consultants and Golder Associates were contracted to review the significant characteristics of slimes disposal and prepare a report on the physical and chemical characteristics of fine-grained tailings (Phase 1). This report (Phase 2) presents a summary of disposal and management practices for slimes and outlines potential concerns related to these practices. The report also presents an approach to disposal planning and the implications of available and potential management techniques. Experience with the disposal of uranium slimes is scarce and, therefore, relevant information was borrowed from the other mining sectors to predict the consequences of various disposal scenarios

218

Low energy implications of minimal superstring unification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the phenomenological implications of effective supergravities based on string vacua with spontaneously broken N =1 supersymmetry by dilation and moduli F-terms. We further require Minimal String Unification, namely that large string threshold corrections ensure the correct unification of the gauge couplings at the grand unification scale. The whole supersymmetric mass spectrum turns out to be determined in terms of only two independent parameters, the dilaton-moduli mixing angle and the gravitino mass. In particular we discuss the region of the parameter space where at least one superpartner is ''visible'' at LEPII. We find that the most likely candidates are the scalar partner of the right-handed electron and the lightest chargino, with interesting correlations between their masses and with the mass of the lightest higgs. We show how discovering SUSY particles at LEPII might rather sharply discriminate between scenarios with pure dilaton SUSY breaking and mixed dilaton-moduli breaking. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs

219

Implications of international protocols on energy markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will have significant medium and long term implications for the economies of Annex B and non-Annex B countries. It is shown that the adoption of a system of internationally tradable emission quotas would result in three 'dividends' compared with an outcome where Article 17 trading - relating to emissions trading - is prohibited. First, trading would improve the environmental effectiveness of the protocol because the extent of carbon dioxide equivalent leakage would be reduced. Second, the overall cost of meeting the agreed Annex B targets would be reduced thus leading to greater certainty that the protocol will be implemented in full. Third, a disparity in the differential impacts of Annex B abatement policies on different developing countries would be reduced under emissions trading, leading to a more equitable outcome for these countries

220

Gaming Goes Mobile: Issues and Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A recent report by the telecommunications research firm Analysys predicts that mobile games will replace ringtones, logos and other personalisation services as one of the key drivers of the mobile market. Despite the rapid growth of the mobile gaming market, there appears to have been little critical analysis of this phenomenon. The paper aims to investigate the industrial and social implications of mobile gaming, by bringing together some of the current research on both mobile communications and computer games. Beginning with a broad overview of the major stakeholders in the market, the paper examines how mobile gaming functions as a vehicle for convergence, bringing together previously disparate industries around a common form of content. It also examines the regulatory complexities that arise when gaming becomes mobile, and in particular how the rise of technologies like location-based services might impact on issues such as privacy.

Finn, Mark

2005-10-01

221

Implications of laboratory diagnosis on brucellosis therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis with a huge economic impact on animal husbandry and public health. The diagnosis of human brucellosis can be protracted because the disease primarily presents as fever of unknown origin with unspecific clinical signs and symptoms. The isolation rate of the fastidious etiologic agent from blood cultures is low, and therefore laboratory diagnosis is mainly based on serologic and molecular testing. However, seronegative brucellosis patients have been described, and antibody titers of diagnostic significance are difficult to define. Whether the molecular detection of Brucella DNA in clinical samples should be followed by long-term antibiotic treatment or not is also a matter of debate. The aim of this article is to review and discuss the implications of laboratory test results in the diagnosis of human brucellosis on disease therapy. PMID:21810055

Al Dahouk, Sascha; Nöckler, Karsten

2011-07-01

222

Dialectics of mindfulness: implications for western medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Mindfulness as a clinical and nonclinical intervention for a variety of symptoms has recently received a substantial amount of interest. Although the application of mindfulness appears straightforward and its effectiveness is well supported, the concept may easily be misunderstood. This misunderstanding may severely limit the benefit of mindfulness-based interventions. It is therefore necessary to understand that the characteristics of mindfulness are based on a set of seemingly paradoxical structures. This article discusses the underlying paradox by disentangling it into five dialectical positions - activity vs. passivity, wanting vs. non-wanting, changing vs. non-changing, non-judging vs. non-reacting, and active acceptance vs. passive acceptance, respectively. Finally, the practical implications for the medical professional as well as potential caveats are discussed.

Lynch Siobhan

2011-05-01

223

Interstellar Turbulence II: Implications and Effects  

CERN Document Server

Interstellar turbulence has implications for the dispersal and mixing of the elements, cloud chemistry, cosmic ray scattering, and radio wave propagation through the ionized medium. This review discusses the observations and theory of these effects. Metallicity fluctuations are summarized, and the theory of turbulent transport of passive tracers is reviewed. Modeling methods, turbulent concentration of dust grains, and the turbulent washout of radial abundance gradients are discussed. Interstellar chemistry is affected by turbulent transport of various species between environments with different physical properties and by turbulent heating in shocks, vortical dissipation regions, and local regions of enhanced ambipolar diffusion. Cosmic rays are scattered and accelerated in turbulent magnetic waves and shocks, and they generate turbulence on the scale of their gyroradii. Radio wave scintillation is an important diagnostic for small scale turbulence in the ionized medium, giving information about the power spe...

Scalo, J

2004-01-01

224

Rumen bypass nutrients: Manipulation and implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feeds available for ruminants in developing countries are either agro-industrial by-products or specially grown forage crops. Many of these feeds are low in protein and require supplementation with non-protein N (NPN) to maintain efficient rumen function and digestibility. The principles for utilizing high energy, low protein feeds by ruminants are discussed in relation to the supply of NPN, the establishment of efficient rumen function, maximizing feed intake by means of supplements, and increasing total energy and protein intake by using supplements which bypass the rumen. To illustrate it the application of these principles to feeding systems based on molasses, chopped whole sugar cane and derinded sugar cane is discussed. The implications of the principles in increasing the feeding value of straw are also discussed. (author)

225

Environmental implications of China's WTO accession  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China's accession to the WTO in 2001 completed the country's entry into the global economy. We investigate environmental implications of WTO-accession. There are several hypotheses in this area: The scale hypothesis says that production is scaled up and in turn, pollution increases. The composition hypothesis says that composition of industries changes and pollution reflects the new composition. The technique hypothesis says that production methods become cleaner and pollution decreases. We analyze the relative strength of the hypotheses by means of an environmental CGE-model, and in the case of air pollution find support for a composition effect in favor of clean industries. Thanks to the composition effect, emissions to air of greenhouse gases fall. Emissions of particles and SO2 also fall, but emissions of NOx and VOC rise. Since particle and SO2-emissions fall we estimate that public health improves (author)

226

Risk Implications of Energy Policy Instruments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In many countries in Europe and the rest of the world, electricity systems are on the verge of a new era: they are transforming from begin CO2-intensive and centralised towards becoming sustainable and more integrated. The role of policy makers in this transition is evident: ambitious targets of abandoning the use of fossil fuels and increasing the use of renewable energy sources (RES) need to become reality through respective investments in new technologies. Understanding the effects of energy policy and support instruments on investments, especially in terms of risks, is crucial for developing an adequate policy framework in energy systems with high shares of renewable energies. This dissertation contributes to the research area of RES policy support. With a special focus on risk implications of policy, the economic consequences of different RES support instruments are investigated, both from an investor's perspective and from a societal point of view. This dissertation assesses energy policy and especially renewable support instruments with regard to their differences in investment incentives, effectiveness of deploying renewable technologies, cost-efficiency (in terms of required support levels) and welfare economic effects. Focus lies on policy incentives for electricity generation from renewable energies that have significant influence on the risk profile of investments (such as renewable quota systems and fixed feed-in tariffs). The consequences of different policy portfolios are evaluated. We show, both qualitatively and quantitatively, that policy makers cannot neglect risk implications when designing RES support instruments without compromising either on effectiveness or cost-efficiency of energy policy. The central research questions are: how can risk implications of RES policy instruments be integrated into policy design, so that the policies provide adequate investment incentives? And can the consideration of such risk implications in policy design make overall energy policy more successful? These questions are answered in seven research papers (four journal papers, two conference papers and a working paper), based on a combination of micro-economic and policy analysis. Financial theory is used for the quantitative analysis of investment problems under uncertainty, including mean-variance portfolio theory, real option analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and time series analysis of the underlying data. Modelling of stochastic price processes plays an important role in the analysis. Using concrete cases for offshore wind in Denmark and Germany, we show that feed-in premiums structurally require higher support levels than feed-in tariffs due to the higher risk exposure. We quantify this effect for several cases, and obtain differences of 4.3-10 EUR/MWh, corresponding to up to 40% of the support payments in particular cases. Lower risk exposure under feed-in tariffs also leads to faster deployment and in some situations smaller project sizes. The results for tradable green certificate schemes are more ambiguous, depending on the characteristics of the underlying stochastic processes. We also show that policies that reduce risk for investors can trigger more successful energy transitions, if certain conditions are fulfilled and policy safeguards are put in place for later phases of the development. Overall, this dissertation contributes with model development in the area of support scheme analysis, using several innovative approaches for partial models that produce easily and quickly applicable results. Thus, tools are provided that help in the design of RES support policies, e.g. when deciding between support instruments and when determining adequate support levels.

Kitzing, Lena

2014-01-01

227

The clinical implications of placental diagnoses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical utility of placental pathology is both overestimated and underestimated, and the overall quality of placental pathology reporting, even at major medical centers, is highly variable. Clear benefits of examining placentas include the immediate diagnosis of treatable conditions in both the mother and the infant, clarification of the underlying etiology of adverse pregnancy outcomes, estimation of recurrence risk, and guidance for the management of future pregnancies. In order to realize these benefits and get the most out of their pathology departments, it is critical for clinicians to understand the range and implications of placental lesions. This article will review the nomenclature, diagnostic criteria and pitfalls, and clinical significance of seven common placental disease processes and a handful of other lesions. PMID:25455619

Redline, Raymond W

2015-02-01

228

Destination image: Origins, Developments and Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the last few decades, tourism has become one of the main sectors of the global economy, not only because of its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP of different countries, but also because of the employment it generates. Since 2009, however, the results of tourism have been severely affected by the economic and financial crisis and it is now essential to analyze the key elements of tourist consumer behavior. In this context, the image that a destination transmits to the market becomes one of the elements which influence tourists the most when choosing a tourist destination. The authors therefore aim to identify the main elements that characterize the image of a tourist destination, as well as their implications for the management of tourist destinations.

Sérgio Dominique Ferreira Lopes

2011-04-01

229

The Cosmic Infrared Background Measurements and Implications  

CERN Document Server

The cosmic infrared background records much of the radiant energy released by processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In the past few years, data from the Cosmic Background Explorer mission provided the first measurements of this background, with additional constraints coming from studies of the attenuation of TeV gamma-rays. At the same time there has been rapid progress in resolving a significant fraction of this background with the deep galaxy counts at infrared wavelengths from the Infrared Space Observatory instruments and at submillimeter wavelengths from the Submillimeter Common User Bolometer Array instrument. This article reviews the measurements of the infrared background and sources contributing to it, and discusses the implications for past and present cosmic processes.

Hauser, M G; Hauser, Michael G.; Dwek, Eli

2001-01-01

230

Multidimensional cosmological models: cosmological and astrophysical implications  

CERN Document Server

We investigate 4-dimensional effective theories which are obtained by dimensional reduction of multidimensional cosmological models with factorizable geometry and consider the interaction between conformal excitations of the internal space (geometrical moduli excitations) and Abelian gauge fields. It is assumed that the internal space background can be stabilized by minima of an effective potential. The conformal excitations over such a background have the form of massive scalar fields (gravitational excitons) propagating in the external spacetime. We discuss cosmological and astrophysical implications of the interaction between gravexcitons and 4-dimensional photons. In particular, we show that due to the experimental bounds on the variation of the fine structure constant, gravexcitons should decay before nucleosynthesis starts. For a successful nucleosynthesis the masses of the decaying gravexcitons should be m>10^4 GeV. Furthermore, we discuss the possible contribution of gravexcitons to UHECR. It is shown...

Günther, U; Zhuk, A

2004-01-01

231

Implications of the Human Genome Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Human Genome Project (HGP), launched in 1991, aims to map and sequence the human genome by 2006. During the fifteen-year life of the project, it is projected that $3 billion in federal funds will be allocated to it. The ultimate aims of spending this money are to analyze the structure of human DNA, to identify all human genes, to recognize the functions of those genes, and to prepare for the biology and medicine of the twenty-first century. The following summary examines some of the implications of the program, concentrating on its scientific import and on the ethical and social problems that it raises. Its aim is to expose principles that might be used in applying the information which the HGP will generate. There is no attempt here to translate the principles into detailed proposals for legislation. Arguments and discussion can be found in the full report, but, like this summary, that report does not contain any legislative proposals.

Kitcher, P.

1998-11-01

232

Motherhood in adolescents’ lives: Implications for action  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the findings from two qualitative studies, this article analyzes motherhood’s mean­ings for those young women living in poverty. One study explored motherhood’s meanings attributed by 25 mothers from 18 to 20 years old who had a pregnancy during adolescence. The other study examined social representations about the characteristics of early mother­hood in 24 non-parents men and women teenagers, in order to understand the culture in which the young mothers live. Results suggest that motherhood represents a positive change for most young women and it structures their identity. The implications of these findings for primary and secondary prevention in this field are discussed.

Magaly Nóblega Mayorga

2009-06-01

233

Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, EVA, TCS Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Many options for exploration of space have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was announced in 2004. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed in the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to and then inhabit and explore the moon. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration and identified many options for how to conduct human spaceflight in the future. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of space for the implications of architectures on the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS), ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) and Thermal Control System (TCS) Systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each architecture and options are presented.

Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don; Lawrence, Carl

2010-01-01

234

Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, TCS, EVA Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Many options for exploration of space have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was announced in 2004. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration then the Human Exploration Framework Teams (HEFT and HEFT2) evaluated potential exploration missions and the infrastructure and technology needs for those missions. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed by the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to, and then inhabit and explore, the moon. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of space for the implications of architectures on the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS), Thermal Control (TCS), and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems.

Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don

2011-01-01

235

Fixing the "broken heart": pharmacologic implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Broken-heart syndrome also known as Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome or Stress-induced cardiomyopathy or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is an important clinical entity, which presents clinically, similar to acute coronary syndrome with an acute onset of chest pain, ST-T changes in electrocardiogram, and moderate cardiac enzyme elevation. Recent studies have shown that it accounts for 1%-2% of cases of ST-elevation infarction. An episode of intense emotional or physiologic stress has been reported before its presentation and is presumed to be the triggering factor in the pathogenesis. The pathophysiology of this syndrome still remains unclear, and management is mostly empiric and supportive. In this review, we have discussed various pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this cardiomyopathy and their pharmacological implications and role of medications such as aspirin, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and statins for patients presenting with this syndrome in treatment and prevention. PMID:21150771

Shah, Rachit M; Kodumuri, Vamsi K; Bhuriya, Rohit; Singh, Param P; Adigopula, Sashikanth; Khosla, Sandeep; Arora, Rohit R

2012-05-01

236

Persuasive Recommender Systems Conceptual Background and Implications  

CERN Document Server

Whether users are likely to accept the recommendations provided by a recommender system is of utmost importance to system designers and the marketers who implement them. By conceptualizing the advice seeking and giving relationship as a fundamentally social process, important avenues for understanding the persuasiveness of recommender systems open up. Specifically, research regarding influential factors in advice seeking relationships, which is abundant in the context of human-human relationships, can provide an important framework for identifying potential influence factors in recommender system context. This book reviews the existing literature on the factors in advice seeking relationships in the context of human-human, human-computer, and human-recommender system interactions. It concludes that many social cues that have been identified as influential in other contexts have yet to be implemented and tested with respect to recommender systems. Implications for recommender system research and design are dis...

Yoo, Kyung-Hyan; Zanker, Markus

2013-01-01

237

The role of Spartina maritima and Sarcocornia fruticosa on trace metals retention in Ria Formosa, Portugal  

OpenAIRE

Over the last years, phytoremediation has become an increasingly recognized pathway for contaminant removal from water and shallow soils. Assessing the phytoremediation potential of wetlands is complex due to variable conditions of hydrology, soil/sediment types, plant species diversity, growing season and water chemistry. Physico-chemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating contaminants. Saltmarsh plants can sequestrate and inherently tolerate high metal c...

Moreira Da Silva, M.; Duarte, Duarte; Isidoro, Jorge; Chi?charo, Lui?s

2013-01-01

238

Structural Insights into the Mechanism of the PLP Synthase Holoenzyme from Thermotoga maritima†,‡  

OpenAIRE

Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is the biologically active form of vitamin B6 and is an important cofactor for several of the enzymes involved in the metabolism of amine-containing natural products such as amino acids and amino-sugars. The PLP synthase holoenzyme consists of two subunits: YaaD catalyzes the condensation of ribulose 5-phosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and ammonia and YaaE catalyzes the production of ammonia from glutamine. Here we describe the structure of the PLP synthase co...

Zein, Fairuz; Zhang, Yan; Kang, You-na; Burns, Kristin; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E.

2006-01-01

239

Millisecond dynamics in the allosteric enzyme imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) from Thermotoga maritima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IGPS is a 51 kDa heterodimeric enzyme comprised of two proteins, HisH and HisF, that catalyze the hydrolysis of glutamine to produce NH3 in the HisH active site and the cyclization of ammonia with N'- [(5'-phosphoribulosyl)formimino] -5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribonucleotide (PRFAR) in HisF to produce imidazole glycerol phosphate (IGP) and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide (AICAR). Binding of PRFAR and IGP stimulates glutaminase activity in the HisH enzyme over 5,000 and 100-fold, respectively, despite the active sites being >25 A apart. The details of this long-range protein communication process were investigated by solution NMR spectroscopy and CPMG relaxation dispersion experiments. Formation of the heterodimer enzyme results in a reduction in millisecond motions in HisF that extend throughout the protein. Binding of lGP results in an increase in protein-wide millisecond dynamics evidenced as severe NMR line broadening and elevated Rex values. Together, these data demonstrate a grouping of flexible residues that link the HisF active site with the protein interface to which HisH binds and provide a model for the path of communication between the IGPS active sites

240

Efficiently applying uncertain implication rules to the transferable belief model  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses the use of implication rules (with uncertainty) within the Transferable Belief Model (TBM) where the rules convey knowledge about relationships between two frames of discernment. Technical challenges include: a) computational scalability of belief propagation, b) logical consistency of the rules, and c) uncertainty of the rules. This paper presents a simplification of the formalism developed by Ristic and Smets for incorporating uncertain implication rules into the TBM. By imposing two constraints on the form of implication rules, and restricting results to singletons of the frame of discernment, we derive a belief function that can be evaluated in polynomial time.

Farrell, William J.; Knapp, Andrew M.

2013-05-01

241

David Harvey: The political implications of population-resources theory  

SCPinfonet

...dominated by an elite, then the non-elite invariably experience some form of political, economic, and social repression.' David Harvey: The ... political implications of population-resources theory Climate & Capitalism An ecosocialist journal Home About Ecosocialist Notebook Book Reviews Archives Articles By Subject Articles by ...Press MRzine Economist’s Travelogue You are here: Home / 2010 / May / 23 / David Harvey: The political implications of population-resources theory Posted on May 23, 2010 David ...Harvey: The political implications of population-resources theory Introduction. David Harvey is one of the world’s most influential geographers, and a highly-respected Marxist ...

242

Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED) achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific treatment. Further investigations are needed to overcome the methodological limitations of previous studies, to understand the actual impact of alexithymia on ED outcome, and to allow more precise implications for treatment to be drawn. Additional research should also be undertaken to specify which of the alexithymic dimensions are specifically relevant to the course and outcome of ED, and to identify treatment protocols producing a significantly greater efficacy in ED patients with relevant alexithymic traits.

Pinna, Federica; Sanna, Lucia; Carpiniello, Bernardo

2015-01-01

243

Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Federica Pinna, Lucia Sanna, Bernardo Carpiniello Department of Public Health, Clinical and Molecular Medicine - Unit of Psychiatry, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy Abstract: A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific treatment. Further investigations are needed to overcome the methodological limitations of previous studies, to understand the actual impact of alexithymia on ED outcome, and to allow more precise implications for treatment to be drawn. Additional research should also be undertaken to specify which of the alexithymic dimensions are specifically relevant to the course and outcome of ED, and to identify treatment protocols producing a significantly greater efficacy in ED patients with relevant alexithymic traits. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, treatment

Pinna F

2014-12-01

244

Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED) achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific treatment. Further investigations are needed to overcome the methodological limitations of previous studies, to understand the actual impact of alexithymia on ED outcome, and to allow more precise implications for treatment to be drawn. Additional research should also be undertaken to specify which of the alexithymic dimensions are specifically relevant to the course and outcome of ED, and to identify treatment protocols producing a significantly greater efficacy in ED patients with relevant alexithymic traits. PMID:25565909

Pinna, Federica; Sanna, Lucia; Carpiniello, Bernardo

2015-01-01

245

Environmental implications and applications of nanomaterials  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in material science and nanotechnology have given rise to a myriad of developments, while in the meantime call for research into the impacts of nanomaterials on the environment and human health. Although considerable progress has been made in the past decade concerning the behavior of nanomaterials in biological systems, such understanding is critically lacking with respect to the fate of nanomaterials in ecosystems. Accordingly, this dissertation addresses the interactions between nanomaterials and algae---the major constituent of the aquatic food chain (Part I, Chapter two), and exploits the physicochemistry of nanoscaled synthetic dendritic polymers for environmental applications, especially for water purification that is a focused theme of the entire dossier (Part II, Chapters two--five). This dissertation is organized as follows. Chapter one presents a general review of the physical/physicochemical properties, characterizations, implications---especially ecological implication, and applications of a host of most produced and studied nanomaterials. In addition, advances in environmental applications of nanomaterials are discussed. Chapter two examines algal responses to two major types of engineered nanomaterials---quantum dots and polystyrene. Inhibited photosynthetic activities of green algae are observed as a result of the physical adsorption of the nanomaterials. Chapter three elucidates the physicochemical properties of poly(amidoamine)-tris(hydroxymethyl)amidomethane- and amine-terminated dendrimers towards their applications in water remediation. Here, the capacities and mechanisms of the dendrimers in hosting cationic copper, anionic nitrate, polyaromatic phenanthrene, and the more heterogeneous humic acids are discussed. Based on the results of Chapter three, Chapter four presents a dendrimer-based novel optical scheme for improving the detection sensitivity and selectivity of environmental pollutants. Specifically, the surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanowire and the high hosting capacity of dendrimers are utilized for enhancing the detection limit of copper down to the nanomolar level. Chapter five exploits a promising use of dendrimers for the removal of potentially harmful discharged nanoparticles. Here fullerenols are used as a model nanomaterial, and their interactions with dendrimers of two different generations are studied using spectrophotometry and thermodynamics methods. Chapter six summarizes the key findings in this dissertation and presents future work that is stimulated by this PhD research.

Bhattacharya, Priyanka

246

Implications of CP-violation in charmed hadrons  

Science.gov (United States)

I discuss theoretical implications of recent experimental progress in understanding CP-violation in charmed mesons. I review recent standard model predictions and attempts to constrain beyond the standard model scenarios using observations of charm hadron transitions.

Petrov, Alexey A.

2014-11-01

247

El Nino - La Nina Implications on Flood Hazard Mitigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of El Nino and La Nina periods on the maximum daily winter period depths of precipitation are examined using records from five precipitation gages on the Nevada Test Site. The potential implications of these effects are discussed.

R. French; J. Miller

2006-03-31

248

Ethical, Legal, and Social Implication of Cancer Research | Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The ethical, legal, and social implications of cancer research (ELSI) are increasingly complex and of paramount concern in the genomic era. Protecting the rights and welfare of human research participants involves moral considerations as well as regulatory compliance.

249

Sources of Magnetic Anomalies on Mars and Their Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The sources of intense magnetic anomalies on Mars are investigated with models including constraints from geology, gravity and topography. Implications of the derived sources for the early evolution of Mars are examined.

Raymond, C. A.; Smrekar, S. E.; Stofan, E. R.

2000-01-01

250

Facilitating Organisational Commitment to Evaluation: Implications from Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research conducted among trainers in Nigeria explores key issues inhibiting organizational commitment to training evaluation. Inferences are drawn to arrive at strategies for facilitating organizational commitment. Implications for trainer role and effectiveness are given. (JOW)

Akin-Ogundeji, Oladele

1988-01-01

251

A Palestinian state : implications for security and American policy  

OpenAIRE

This important collection of essays, with contributions by scholars and Middle East Security and policy experts, explores the effects of a Palestinian State on regional security and its implications for American interests.

Colbert, Jim

2004-01-01

252

Alterations in polyadenylation and its implications for endocrine disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

This review gives a detailed description of alterations in polyadenylation in endocrine disease, an overview of the current literature on polyadenylation and summarizes the clinical implications of the current state of research in this field.

LennartFriis-Hansen

2013-05-01

253

Surprises from Saturn: Implications for Other Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

The exploration of Saturn by Cassini has provided many surprises regarding: Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere, interactions with its diverse moons, and interactions with the solar wind. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 Saturn radii (RS), was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' observed. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field-aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, unexpected heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, which provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission and a return will be made in 2017. In addition, highly accelerated electrons are seen at Saturn's high Mach number (MA˜100) quasi-parallel bow shock. Here we review some of these key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system objects.

Coates, A. J.

2014-05-01

254

Pedagogical Implications to Teaching English Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available English, as an international language, takes such a position in foreign language teaching and learning in China. As we all know that the ultimate purpose of language teaching is to cultivate students’ communicative ability including not only the oral ability, but also the writing ability. However, teaching of English writing is far from satisfactory, and many students still have a great difficulty in writing English composition. They find it hard to express their ideas and feeling freely and fluently, also they make many mistakes in vocabulary and grammar. Even though there are few grammar mistakes in the composition, it still seems more or less odd when read by native speakers. Teachers should make corresponding changes of the emphasis and pedagogy in their teaching and thus provide the most effective way to ease the students in the writing process and motivate them to write. The aim of this paper is to provide pedagogical implications to help the students to improve their English writing competence.

Fushan Sun

2010-11-01

255

Epigenetics: origins and implications for cancer epidemiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides information on the evolution of the 'epigenetics' concept since Aristotle and draws attention to the importance of epigenetic implications for cancer epidemiology in the years to come. Clearly, to understand origins of the concept of epigenetics, it is worthwhile to consider historical arguments associated with evolution. Equally clearly, in the last half of the 20th century, great advances in the understanding of epigenetics and, more specifically, great advances in the understanding of epigenetics in cancer have been made. However, reaping the full benefits of epigenetics lies beyond the predominant experimental studies of today. In general, epigenetics opens many doors in the field of cancer, but it also adds another level of complex, inter-related, and multi-dimensional information to research, and to its interpretation. Overall, future cancer studies should consider, or at least be sensitive to, epigenetic effects and mechanisms. Moving the focus beyond 'pristine' inheritance via DNA alone, cancer epidemiology investigating epigenetic exposures such as environmental factors (exposure to heavy metals, air pollution, arsenic and other toxins), dietary patterns (starvation, famine, contamination), and lifestyle habits (smoking, level of physical activity, and BMI) in populations has the prospect to significantly benefit future cancer prevention and treatment schemes. PMID:19818564

Nise, Melissa S; Falaturi, Puran; Erren, Thomas C

2010-02-01

256

Practical implications of the new risk perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years several authors have argued for the adoption of certain new types of risk perspectives which highlight uncertainties rather than probabilities in the way risk is understood and measured. The theoretical rationale for these new perspectives is well established, but the practical implications have not been so clearly demonstrated. There is a need to show how the new perspectives change the way risk is described and communicated in real-life situations and in its turn the effects on risk management and decision making. The present paper aims at contributing to this end by considering two cases, related to a national risk level, and a specific analysis concerning an LNG plant. The paper concludes that the new risk perspectives influence the current regime in many ways, in particular the manner in which the knowledge dimension is described and dealt with. Two methods for characterising the strength of knowledge are presented, one of them based on a new concept, the “assumption deviation risk”, reflecting risks related to the deviations from the conditions/states defined by the assumption made

257

The Greek crisis: Causes and implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents and critically discusses the origins and causes of the Greek fiscal crisis and its implications for the euro currency as well as the SEE economies. In the aftermath of the 2007-2009 financial crisis the enormous increase in sovereign debt has emerged as an important negative outcome, since public debt was dramatically increased in an effort by the US and the European governments to reduce the accumulated growth of private debt in the years preceding the recent financial turmoil. Although Greece is the country member of the eurozone that has been in the middle of this ongoing debt crisis, since November 2009 when it was made clear that its budget deficit and mainly its public debt were not sustainable, Greece’s fiscal crisis is not directly linked to the 2007 US subprime mortgage loan market crisis. As a result of this negative downturn the Greek government happily accepted a rescue plan of 110 billion euros designed and financed by the European Union and the IMF. A lengthy austerity programme and a fiscal consolidation plan have been put forward and are to be implemented in the next three years.

Vlamis Prodromos

2010-01-01

258

Microbiological implications of the food irradiation process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the wholesomeness of irradiated food which met in 1976 concluded after a detailed and critical review of the available information, that the microbiological aspects of food irradiation were fully comparable to those of conventional processes used in modern food technology. Processing of food by irradiation may be considered from the microbiological point of view as separate procedures: high dose treatment (> 10 kGy), for sterilisation (radappertization) and low dose treatment (< 10 kGy) for pasteurisation (radicidation, radurization), (for definitions see p. 43), disinfestation, or inhibition of sprouting. No public health hazards related to micro-organisms arise from high dose irradiation because this process results in commercially sterile products. On the other hand, it is important to consider the possible microbiological hazards when food is irradiated with a low dose. The microbiological implications relate to the natural radiation resistance of bacteria, yeasts, fungi and viruses or to the mutagenic effects of ionising radiation in micro-organisms. Both areas of concern were reviewed in detail by Ingram and Ingram and Farkas. (orig.)

259

Cloud Computing : Research Issues and Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cloud computing is a rapidly developing and excellent promising technology. It has aroused the concern of the computer society of whole world. Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared information, resources, and software, are provided to terminals and portable devices on-demand, like the energy grid. Cloud computing is the product of the combination of grid computing, distributed computing, parallel computing, and ubiquitous computing. It aims to build and forecast sophisticated service environment with powerful computing capabilities through an array of relatively low-cost computing entity, and using the advanced deployment models like SaaS (Software as a Service, PaaS (Platform as a Service, IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service,HaaS (Hardware as a Service to distribute the powerful computing capacity to end-users. This paper will explore the background and service models and also presents the existing research issues and implications in cloud computing such as security, reliability, privacy, and so on.

Marupaka Rajenda Prasad

2013-01-01

260

Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

1992-03-01

261

Framework and implications of virtual neurorobotics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite decades of societal investment in artificial learning systems, truly “intelligent” systems have yet to be realized. These traditional models are based on input-output pattern optimization and/or cognitive production rule modeling. One response has been social robotics, using the interaction of human and robot to capture important cognitive dynamics such as cooperation and emotion; to date, these systems still incorporate traditional learning algorithms. More recently, investigators are focusing on the core assumptions of the brain “algorithm” itself—trying to replicate uniquely “neuromorphic” dynamics such as action potential spiking and synaptic learning. Only now are large-scale neuromorphic models becoming feasible, due to the availability of powerful supercomputers and an expanding supply of parameters derived from research into the brain’s interdependent electrophysiological, metabolomic and genomic networks. Personal computer technology has also led to the acceptance of computer-generated humanoid images, or “avatars”, to represent intelligent actors in virtual realities. In a recent paper, we proposed a method of virtual neurorobotics (VNR in which the approaches above (social-emotional robotics, neuromorphic brain architectures, and virtual reality projection are hybridized to rapidly forward-engineer and develop increasingly complex, intrinsically intelligent systems. In this paper, we synthesize our research and related work in the field and provide a framework for VNR, with wider implications for research and practical applications.

2008-07-01

262

Effects of Odor on Emotion, with Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sense of smell is found widely in the animal kingdom. Human and animal studies show that odor perception is modulated by experience and/or physiological state (such as hunger, and that some odors can arouse emotion, and can lead to the recall of emotional memories. Further, odors can influence psychological and physiological states. Individual odorants are mapped via gene-specified receptors to corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, which directly projects to the piriform cortex and the amygdala without a thalamic relay. The odors to which a glomerulus responds reflect the chemical structure of the odorant. The piriform cortex and the amygdala both project to the orbitofrontal cortex which with the amygdala is involved in emotion and associative learning, and to the entorhinal/hippocampal system which is involved in long-term memory including episodic memory. Evidence that some odors can modulate emotion and cognition is described, and the possible implications for the treatment of psychological problems, for example in reducing the effects of stress, are considered.

MikikoKadohisa

2013-10-01

263

Interlimb neural coupling: Implications for poststroke hemiparesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interlimb coordination is essential to perform goal-directed daily tasks and purposeful locomotion. The coordination occurs due to spatiotemporal coupling of movements, which also comprises interactions in segmental kinematics, joint dynamics, and muscle activity. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological linkages at the spinal and brain level are responsible for the coordination. The linkage is termed "neural coupling". According to the task demand, the coupling may occur between two upper limbs or two lower limbs or all four limbs. Central pattern generators play a key role in interlimb coordination by regulating the rhythmic upper and lower limb movements. Neuroanatomically, multiple areas of both cerebral hemispheres via the corpus callosum interact and control the bimanual upper limb movements. There is an interhemispheric synchronization and disinhibition to control the coupled bimanual upper and lower limb movements. Movement of the upper limb also enhances neuromuscular recruitment of the lower limb. In stroke, bimanual motor impairments exist in the form of asymmetry and reduced coordination, which may be related to weakness of the ipsilateral body side lesser than the contralateral side. The aim of the present review was to understand the interlimb coordination and neural coupling and its implication in stroke rehabilitation. The review suggests incorporating the movements of bilateral upper and lower limbs either simultaneously or consecutively for hemiparetic subjects. Further, the conventional and contemporary rehabilitation methods need to be reconsidered while utilizing the coupling concept. PMID:25262645

Arya, K N; Pandian, S

2014-12-01

264

Inferring genetic ancestry: opportunities, challenges, and implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing public interest in direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic ancestry testing has been accompanied by growing concern about issues ranging from the personal and societal implications of the testing to the scientific validity of ancestry inference. The very concept of "ancestry" is subject to misunderstanding in both the general and scientific communities. What do we mean by ancestry? How exactly is ancestry measured? How far back can such ancestry be defined and by which genetic tools? How do we validate inferences about ancestry in genetic research? What are the data that demonstrate our ability to do this correctly? What can we say and what can we not say from our research findings and the test results that we generate? This white paper from the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) Ancestry and Ancestry Testing Task Force builds upon the 2008 ASHG Ancestry Testing Summary Statement in providing a more in-depth analysis of key scientific and non-scientific aspects of genetic ancestry inference in academia and industry. It culminates with recommendations for advancing the current debate and facilitating the development of scientifically based, ethically sound, and socially attentive guidelines concerning the use of these continually evolving technologies. PMID:20466090

Royal, Charmaine D; Novembre, John; Fullerton, Stephanie M; Goldstein, David B; Long, Jeffrey C; Bamshad, Michael J; Clark, Andrew G

2010-05-14

265

Application and implication of horizontal well geochemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the application of horizontal well geochemistry for the first time. Closely spaced samples, taken along a horizontal or deviated well path, allow the identification of reservoir compartments. Significant variations in geochemical parameters are related to the field filling and, if they persist over geological time and over tens of metres, should reflect barriers to diffusion and, by inference, possibly also to fluid flow. Two different approaches have been chosen: (a) closely spaced head space gas samples; (b) wet cuttings-based techniques. Case studies are presented documenting the detection of sealing faults between different reservoir compartments at the time of sampling. This novel approach has several advantages: (i) the need for costly pressure measurements is reduced; (ii) high sample density allows better spacial definition of barriers compared to both seismic and pressure measurements; (iii) detection of sub-seismic barriers; (iv) it allows detection of compartments even in cases where no pressure differences exist; (v) the technique works in wells drilled with oil-based mud systems. The strong variations in the geochemical signal over short distances has implications for the filling of reservoirs. The data suggest that reservoir filling is far more complex than previously envisaged. (author)

Wilhelms, A.; Rein, E.; Zwach, C.; Steen, A.S. [Norsk Hydro ASA, Bergen (Norway). E and P Research Centre

2001-02-01

266

Practical implications of nanodosimetry in medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The grandiose promises made decades ago of cost reduction, miracle cures for cancers and universal availability of nanomedicine are still a far cry. Even we do not have any viable model to exploit nanotechnology in medicine. The most important arena of the nanotechnology is the development of nanoscale drugs for routine clinical practice. The current chemo protocols are based on maximum tolerable dose philosophy. Such a dose, when translated into active nanoscale clusters, quantitatively outnumbers the cells in an average human body. These nanoscale drug issues are discussed in this paper. A theoretical framework for commonly used drug aspirin has been considered as an example. The possible quantum physical effects have also been theoretically evaluated. Further, the amount of drug molecules in a standardized aspirin dose of 100 milligram has been computed into nanoclusters. The calculations show that the processing of nanoscale drug is a monumental task which requires new types of manufacturing facilities. Also there is a need to develop new protocols which will help realize the practical implementation of nanodosimetry in day to day drug administrations. These protocols will need to examine the implications of dose-responses such as necrosis, apoptosis and hormesis in medicine for routine clinical practice. PMID:22942869

Satti, Jahangir A

2012-01-01

267

Implications of conformal invariance in momentum space  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a comprehensive analysis of the implications of conformal invariance for 3-point functions of the stress-energy tensor, conserved currents and scalar operators in general dimension and in momentum space. Our starting point is a novel and very effective decomposition of tensor correlators which reduces their computation to that of a number of scalar form factors. For example, the most general 3-point function of a conserved and traceless stress-energy tensor is determined by only five form factors. Dilatations and special conformal Ward identities then impose additional conditions on these form factors. The special conformal Ward identities become a set of first and second order differential equations, whose general solution is given in terms of integrals involving a product of three Bessel functions (`triple- K integrals'). All in all, the correlators are completely determined up to a number of constants, in agreement with well-known position space results. In odd dimensions 3-point functions are finite without renormalisation while in even dimensions non-trivial renormalisation in required. In this paper we restrict ourselves to odd dimensions. A comprehensive analysis of renormalisation will be discussed elsewhere. This paper contains two parts that can be read independently of each other. In the first part, we explain the method that leads to the solution for the correlators in terms of triple- K integrals while the second part contains a self-contained presentation of all results. Readers interested only in results may directly consult the second part of the paper.

Bzowski, Adam; McFadden, Paul; Skenderis, Kostas

2014-03-01

268

Clinical implications of the solitary functioning kidney.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract are the major cause of ESRD in childhood. Children with a solitary functioning kidney form an important subgroup of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract patients, and a significant fraction of these children is at risk for progression to CKD. However, challenges remain in distinguishing patients with a high risk for disease progression from those patients without a high risk of disease progression. Although it is hypothesized that glomerular hyperfiltration in the lowered number of nephrons underlies the impaired renal prognosis in the solitary functioning kidney, the high proportion of ipsilateral congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in these patients may further influence clinical outcome. Pathogenic genetic and environmental factors in renal development have increasingly been identified and may play a crucial role in establishing a correct diagnosis and prognosis for these patients. With fetal ultrasound now enabling prenatal identification of individuals with a solitary functioning kidney, an early evaluation of risk factors for renal injury would allow for differentiation between patients with and without an increased risk for CKD. This review describes the underlying causes and consequences of the solitary functioning kidney from childhood together with its clinical implications. Finally, guidelines for follow-up of solitary functioning kidney patients are recommended. PMID:24370773

Westland, Rik; Schreuder, Michiel F; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; van Wijk, Joanna A E

2014-05-01

269

Biological behaviour and clinical implications of micrometastases.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: The most important prognostic determinant in cancer is the identification of disseminated tumour burden (metastases). Micrometastases are microscopic (smaller than 2 mm) deposits of malignant cells that are segregated spatially from the primary tumour and depend on neovascular formation (angiogenesis) to propagate. METHODS: The electronic literature (1966 to present) on micrometastases and their implications in malignant melanoma and epithelial cancers was reviewed. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical techniques combined with serial sectioning offer the best accuracy for detection of nodal micrometastases. Molecular techniques should be reserved for blood samples or bone marrow aspirates. Detection of micrometastases in regional lymph nodes and\\/or bone marrow confers a poor prognosis in epithelial cancers. The concept of sentinel node biopsy combined with serial sectioning and dedicated screening for micrometastases may improve staging procedures. Strategies against angiogenesis may provide novel therapies to induce and maintain micrometastatic dormancy. CONCLUSION: The concept of micrometastases has resulted in a paradigm shift in the staging of epithelial tumours and our overall understanding of malignant processes.

Kell, M R

2012-02-03

270

Implications of terrain movements in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to study the causes of localized terrain movements in Egypt. The motivation behind this research has been the vast progress in constructing huge engineering structures (dams, bridge,, tall buildings, etc.) as well as extending the urban activities in many new cities. These must be properly studied to ensure their safety versus their cost and other economic factors. In addition, the recent tendency is towards building nuclear power stations whose locations must be carefully investigated against the hazard and danger of inevitable atomic leakage, especially in the case of seismically active regions. Also the discovery of new oil wells and mines and the effects of future depletion require considerable attention from qualified investigators. The relative tectonic movements of North Africa and Southern Europe, the seismic activities around the Alexandria region, the presence of faults related to the region of the High Dam and its reservoir in Aswan, the erosion of the banks of the River Nile and its islands as well as coastal lines along the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, and the deformation and damage to large buildings in the Cairo area are examined here as a few examples of the implications of the earth's deformations within Egyptian territory. Strong recommendations are made concerning the necessity of studying and monitoring the terrain movements in the areas where new cities, large engineering constructions and power plants are planned to be erected.

Nassar, Mohamed M.

1988-10-01

271

Some practical implications of source term reassessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides a brief summary of the current knowledge of severe accident source terms and suggests how this knowledge might be applied to a number of specific aspects of reactor safety. In preparing the report, consideration has been restricted to source term issues relating to light water reactors (LWRs). Consideration has also generally been restricted to the consequences of hypothetical severe accidents rather than their probability of occurrence, although it is recognized that, in the practical application of source term research, it is necessary to take account of probability as well as consequences. The specific areas identified were as follows: Exploration of the new insights that are available into the management of severe accidents; Investigating the impact of source term research on emergency planning and response; Assessing the possibilities which exist in present reactor designs for preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents and how these might be used effectively; Exploring the need for backfitting and assessing the implications of source term research for future designs; and Improving the quantification of the radiological consequences of hypothetical severe accidents for probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) and informing the public about the realistic risks associated with nuclear power plants. 7 refs

272

[Hepatitis E virus: Blood transfusion implications].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped RNA virus transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Autochthonous hepatitis E occurring in developed countries is caused by genotypes 3 and 4 and is a zoonotic infection. Humans are infected mostly after ingestion of undercooked meat from infected animals. Most HEV 3 and 4 infections are clinically inapparent. However, genotype 3 (HEV 3) can lead to chronic hepatitis in immuno-compromised patients such as organ-transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. In Europe, HEV 3 is implicated in transfusion-transmitted HEV infection. In France, as observed in several European countries, prevalence of HEV RNA and specific IgG antibodies are high indicating that viral circulation is important. The systematic HEV NAT screening of blood donations used for preparation of solvent detergent plasma indicate that 1 to 2218 donation is infected by HEV RNA. The need or implementation's impacts of safety measures to prevent HEV transmission by blood transfusion are under reflexion by French's health authorities. The HEV NAT screening is the only available tool of prevention. Alternative strategies are under investigation including individual or mini pool NAT testing all or part of blood donations. PMID:25267201

Gallian, P; Piquet, Y; Assal, A; Djoudi, R; Chiaroni, J; Izopet, J; Tiberghien, P

2014-11-01

273

Aquaglyceroporins: implications in adipose biology and obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane water/glycerol channels that are involved in many physiological processes. Their primary function is to facilitate the bidirectional transfer of water and small solutes across biological membranes in response to osmotic gradients. Aquaglyceroporins, a subset of the AQP family, are the only mammalian proteins with the ability to permeate glycerol. For a long time, AQP7 has been the only aquaglyceroporin associated with the adipose tissue, which is the major source of circulating glycerol in response to the energy demand. AQP7 dysregulation was positively correlated with obesity onset and adipocyte glycerol permeation through AQP7 was appointed as a novel regulator of adipocyte metabolism and whole-body fat mass. Recently, AQP3, AQP9, AQP10 and AQP11 were additionally identified in human adipocytes and proposed as additional glycerol pathways in these cells. This review contextualizes the importance of aquaglyceroporins in adipose tissue biology and highlights aquaglyceroporins' unique structural features which are relevant for the design of effective therapeutic compounds. We also refer to the latest advances in the identification and characterization of novel aquaporin isoforms in adipose tissue. Finally, considerations on the actual progress of aquaporin research and its implications on obesity therapy are suggested. PMID:25359234

Madeira, Ana; Moura, Teresa F; Soveral, Graça

2014-10-31

274

Science and religion: implications for science educators  

Science.gov (United States)

A religious perspective on life shapes how and what those with such a perspective learn in science; for some students a religious perspective can hinder learning in science. For such reasons Staver's article is to be welcomed as it proposes a new way of resolving the widely perceived discord between science and religion. Staver notes that Western thinking has traditionally postulated the existence and comprehensibility of a world that is external to and independent of human consciousness. This has led to a conception of truth, truth as correspondence, in which our knowledge corresponds to the facts in this external world. Staver rejects such a conception, preferring the conception of truth as coherence in which the links are between and among independent knowledge claims themselves rather than between a knowledge claim and reality. Staver then proposes constructivism as a vehicle potentially capable of resolving the tension between religion and science. My contention is that the resolution between science and religion that Staver proposes comes at too great a cost—both to science and to religion. Instead I defend a different version of constructivism where humans are seen as capable of generating models of reality that do provide richer and more meaningful understandings of reality, over time and with respect both to science and to religion. I argue that scientific knowledge is a subset of religious knowledge and explore the implications of this for science education in general and when teaching about evolution in particular.

Reiss, Michael J.

2010-03-01

275

Knowledge Management: Implications on Business Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every organization or individual has been traditionally managing the knowledge unconsciously. Now, the time has changed, as a result, a need is felt to manage knowledge consciously. Over the past one decade there has been an increasing recognition to knowledge management. More conscious and active management of knowledge can bring significant contribution and benefits to the organizations. Knowledge is an asset, which helps in achieving individual or organizational goal. The speed of changes generated by human knowledge is moving at a quantum leap, most of them are unexpected and some of them are uncontrolled, simply cannot turn back. We are living in an age of science and technology, knowledge and its varied application. The varied applications of knowledge will inevitably determine our future. In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight the knowledge, its source and forms, flow of knowledge management, knowledge creativity, functions of knowledge management and emergence of knowledge societies in general and its implications on business education in particular.

Nisar Ahmed I. Mulla

2009-12-01

276

FDI in Indian retail – and its implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The health of a nation is gauged not only by the quantum of FDI it attracts but also the trend it follows. In turn this is dependent on the economic policies formulated and practiced and the willingness of all concerned to engage with global economic practices. Since the early 1990’s when the government embarked on a policy of liberalization it has been observed that FDI inflows showed a steady increase until the last couple of years when in fact there has been a de-growth particularly 2010 over 2009 by almost 30%. On the other hand China has attracted FDI more than 4 times the quantum of India during the same period. Investors will look to invest in ‘opportunities’ as they see bearing the most attractive returns within a given frame work considering both the ‘home’ as well as ‘host’ country. Facts and figures very clearly indicate the positive impact even in India for certain sectors when FDI has been embraced. On the other hand, India most urgently requires gathering as much as investment as is possible to keep the momentum of growth going and one such opportunity is the organizing of our retail segment which would support development endeavor in a big way. The issue of embracing partial FDI in retail has seen some level of procrastination which requires more urgent and serious attention. Can India afford to lose this opportunity? This paper attempts to study the implications for this investment as also providing some suggestions.

Natarajan Chandrasekhar

2013-05-01

277

[Burnout : concepts and implications affecting public health].  

Science.gov (United States)

Burnout was originally described as a mental condition characterized by reduced work performance, impotence, frustration and lack of capability to reach objectives or goals while performing a job. For some authors, burnout is a poorly defined mixture of symptoms and signs, while other professionals think of it as a disease and a potential threat to public health. Worldwide, it has been observed that the most afflicted professionals and technicians are those who work providing services or assistance to other people, especially those dedicated to health care. This paper focuses on the idea that burnout should be considered a disease more than a syndrome. On the other hand, definitions of health and disease have changed with time, as well as theoretical and methodological references about burnout. In addition, burnout remains a condition that is being discussed in various scientific areas, with radically opposing positions; these approaches are discussed in this article. After presenting different conceptions regarding burnout, the essay concludes with an exploration of its implications and the identification of possible treatments, especially for health workers, among whom it is more common depending on their predisposing conditions and environments. PMID:25504242

Segura, Omar

2014-12-01

278

Environmental health implications of global climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the background that has led to the now almost-universally held opinion in the scientific community that global climate change is occurring and is inescapably linked with anthropogenic activity. The potential implications to human health are considerable and very diverse. These include, for example, the increased direct impacts of heat and of rises in sea level, exacerbated air and water-borne harmful agents, and - associated with all the preceding - the emergence of environmental refugees. Vector-borne diseases, in particular those associated with blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes, may be significantly impacted, including redistribution of some of those diseases to areas not previously affected. Responses to possible impending environmental and public health crises must involve political and socio-economic considerations, adding even greater complexity to what is already a difficult challenge. In some areas, adjustments to national and international public health practices and policies may be effective, at least in the short and medium terms. But in others, more drastic measures will be required. Environmental monitoring, in its widest sense, will play a significant role in the future management of the problem. (Author)

Watson, Robert T.; Patz, Jonathan; Gubler, Duane J.; Parson, Edward A.; Vincent, James H.

2005-07-01

279

Cosmological and Astrophysical Implications of Sterile Neutrinos  

CERN Document Server

The discovery of neutrino masses implies the existence of new particles, the sterile neutrinos. These particles can have important implications for cosmology and astrophysics. A sterile neutrino with mass of a few keV can account for the dark matter of the universe. Its relic abundance can be produced via different mechanisms. A minimal extension of the Higgs sector of the Standard Model, with a gauge-singlet boson coupled to sterile neutrinos, can provide a consistent framework for the theory of neutrino masses, and can produce relic keV sterile neutrinos via decays of the singlet Higgs. This mechanism operates around the electroweak scale, and has interesting consequences for the electroweak phase transition. The resulting dark matter is "colder" than the one produced via oscillations. This property changes the small-scale structure formation limits. Heavier sterile neutrinos can be produced in supernova cores and affect the thermal evolution of the star. Being short-lived, they decay inside the envelope an...

Petraki, Kalliopi

2009-01-01

280

Relativistic implications of the quantum phase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quantum phase leads to projective representations of symmetry groups in quantum mechanics. The projective representations are equivalent to the unitary representations of the central extension of the group. A celebrated example is Wigner's formulation of special relativistic quantum mechanics as the projective representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group. However, Wigner's formulation makes no mention of the Weyl-Heisenberg group and the hermitian representation of its algebra that are the Heisenberg commutation relations fundamental to quantum physics. We put aside the relativistic symmetry and show that the maximal quantum symmetry that leaves the Heisenberg commutation relations invariant is the projective representations of the conformally scaled inhomogeneous symplectic group. The Weyl-Heisenberg group and noncommutative structure arises directly because the quantum phase requires projective representations. We then consider the relativistic implications of the quantum phase that lead to the Born line element and the projective representations of an inhomogeneous unitary group that defines a noninertial quantum theory. (Understanding noninertial quantum mechanics is a prelude to understanding quantum gravity.) The remarkable properties of this symmetry and its limits are studied.

281

Humanistic Education: Concerns, Implications and Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Humanistic approach introduced by the ideas of Scholars like Erickson, Roger, and Maslow began to permeate the field of second language teaching and learning towards the end of 1970. According to Lei (2007 humanistic approach emphasizes the importance of the inner world of the learner and places the individual’s thought, emotions and feelings at the forefront of all human development. Due to this new shift of focus, language education and pedagogy moved away from the previous behavioristic and mentalistic approaches, and as a result, a new kind of education known as humanistic education emerged. Consequently, significant changes occurred in all aspects of language education, that is, the traditional roles of teachers and learners were redefined and the previously authoritarian teaching practices were replaced by learner-centered classrooms. This paper is of two-fold. First, it is going to take a detailed look at the main principles and features of humanistic education, and second, it is aimed at discussing the implications and applications of humanistic education. Finally, it tries to clarify the new roles and responsibilities considered for language teachers to be able to fully engage the students in the learning process.

Mohammad Khatib

2013-01-01

282

Implications of observations of international oil spills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intentional releases of crude oil on the open ocean were carried out in the Norwegian Sea in 1989 and 1991. The releases were used to evaluate selected satellite-tracked surface drifting buoys for their ability to simulate the movement of oil on the sea surface, and to improve our understanding of the behavior and fate of oil at sea. The crude oil used in 1989 rapidly formed a stable, highly viscous emulsion with water; the crude oil used in 1991 formed a very unstable emulsion, and spread rapidly to a relatively uniform, thin sheen. Both the surface drifters and a simple drift model simulated slick drift relatively well in 1989, but were significantly in error two out of three times in 1991. A physical explanation and numerical model have been constructed to explain the data. Implications of these and other observations, both for surface drifters and models of oil spills, are discussed. The model hypothesized incorporates the physics of oil entrainment, resurfacing, and transport in a framework that appears to explain all 4 experimental oil spills. The data implies that oils that form stable, viscous emulsions will drift quite differently from those that do not. For oils that emulsify, the key piece of environmental information necessary to compute a trajectory is the wind; for nonemulsifying oils and petroleum products, currents dominate the trajectory

283

India-Pakistan Relations: International Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India’s independence in 1947 from the British colonial rule and its subsequent division into two nations – India and Pakistan - has sowed the seeds of continuing conflict between the two countries since their independence. The partition of India was primarily based on the religious divide between the two communities – the Hindus and the Muslims. After India’s partition, the major issue of conflict between the two countries has been the Muslim dominated northern state of Jammu and Kashmir, currently a part of India. This bilateral conflict has had international implications over the years. Decades of conflict, which includes three major wars, has contributed to a nuclear race between the two countries and growth of terrorism in the region. These two regional outcomes of the conflict have assumed global significance with the growing international threat of nuclear proliferation and terrorism.The paper analyzes the bilateral conflict between India and Pakistan and the subsequent emergence of the global threats. The paper also emphasizes normalization of the bilateral relations as the key prerequisite to ensure peace and security for the region and also for relieving the global society from the perils of a growing nuclear threat and expanding forces of terrorism.

Alka Jauhari

2012-12-01

284

NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF LEGUMES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Legumes are plants in the family Fabaceae characterized by seeds in pods that are often edible though sometimes poisonous. The nutrient content (protein, carbohydrate and micronutrients of legumes contribute to address under-nutrition, especially protein-calorie malnutrition among children and nursing mothers in developing countries where supplementing cereal-based diets with legumes is suggested as one of the best solutions to protein calorie malnutrition. Anti-nutritional factors, in legumes, may limit their biological value and acceptance as a regular food item, yet they are readily removable and recent research has shown potential health benefits of some of these compounds; and hence, manipulation of processing conditions may be required to remove or reduce only those unwanted components. Moreover, legumes play a role in prevention, improvement and/or treatment of disease conditions such as, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer diseases (e.g breast and prostate cancers and lowers blood cholesterol level. Most of these disease conditions are associated with over-nutrition and obesity and are considered as diseases of the rich. It is, therefore, claimed that including legumes in a health-promoting diet is important in meeting the major dietary recommendations to improve the nutritional status of undernourished as well as over-nourished individuals, and to reduce risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and cancer. In this review, some of the scientific viewpoints that attempt to justify the nutritional contributions, anti-nutritional considerations and health implications of legumes are discussed.

Mebrahtom Gebrelibanos*, Dinka Tesfaye, Y. Raghavendra and Biruk Sintayeyu

2013-04-01

285

Handling Qualities Implications for Crewed Spacecraft Operations  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Handling qualities embody those qualities or characteristics of an aircraft that govern the ease and precision with which a pilot is able to perform the tasks required in support of an aircraft role. These same qualities are as critical, if not more so, in the operation of spacecraft. A research, development, test, and evaluation process was put into effect to identify, understand, and interpret the engineering and human factors principles which govern the pilot-vehicle dynamic system as they pertain to space exploration missions and tasks. Toward this objective, piloted simulations were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center and Ames Research Center for earth-orbit proximity operations and docking and lunar landing. These works provide broad guidelines for the design of spacecraft to exhibit excellent handling characteristics. In particular, this work demonstrates how handling qualities include much more than just stability and control characteristics of a spacecraft or aircraft. Handling qualities are affected by all aspects of the pilot-vehicle dynamic system, including the motion, visual and aural cues of the vehicle response as the pilot performs the required operation or task. A holistic approach to spacecraft design, including the use of manual control, automatic control, and pilot intervention/supervision is described. The handling qualities implications of design decisions are demonstrated using these pilot-in-the-loop evaluations of docking operations and lunar landings.

Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Arthur, J. J.

2012-01-01

286

Implications of the Higgs discovery for the MSSM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implications of the discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC with a mass of approximately 125 GeV are summarised in the context of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, the MSSM. Discussed are the implications from the measured mass and production/decay rates of the observed particle and from the constraints in the search for the heavier Higgs states at the LHC. (orig.)

287

Implications of computer science principles for quantum physics  

OpenAIRE

The Church-Turing thesis is one of the pillars of computer science; it postulates that every classical system has equivalent computability power to the so-called Turing machine. While this thesis is crucial for our understanding of computing devices, its implications in other scientific fields have hardly been explored. Here we start this research programme in the context of quantum physics and show that computer science laws have profound implications for some of the most f...

Bendersky, Ariel; La Torre, Gonzalo; Senno, Gabriel; Figueira, Santiago; Acin, Antonio

2014-01-01

288

Co-benefits of CDM projects and policy implications  

OpenAIRE

This paper aims to study the co-benefits of clean development mechanism (CDM) projects, and further to discuss the policy of its implications. It has been found that many energy-related climate change mitigation (CCM) activities, including CDM projects, are able to produce a significant amount of co-benefits, while the policy implications have been limited. Through co-benefits assessment of Chinese CDM projects, it can be concluded that: (1) there are uncertainties relating to co-benefits ass...

Sun, Qie; Xu, Bo; Wennersten, Ronald; Brandt, Nils

2010-01-01

289

Implications of the Higgs discovery for the MSSM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The implications of the discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC with a mass of approximately 125 GeV are summarised in the context of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, the MSSM. Discussed are the implications from the measured mass and production/decay rates of the observed particle and from the constraints in the search for the heavier Higgs states at the LHC. (orig.)

Djouadi, Abdelhak [Paris-Sud Univ. et CNRS, Lab. de Physique Theorique, Orsay (France); TH Unit, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

2014-05-15

290

Shopper marketing implications on communication strategies and actions  

OpenAIRE

Shopper marketing is an international recent concept and approach to marketing. Since shopper marketing is in the early stages of development, it is also an emerging research field, and consequently questions and challenges acrossall the marketing-mix variables are emerging. This paper addressesshopper marketing implications on one of those variables – communication.Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to study the implications of the shopper marketing approach on marketing/brand comm...

Silveira, Paulo Duarte; Marreiros, Cristina

2013-01-01

291

Agricultural productivity: Measurement, forecasting and implications for trade  

OpenAIRE

This dissertation studies agricultural productivity growth in developing countries and its implications for world trade. It begins by examining one of the most controversial aspects in the empirical literature: the evidence of negative agricultural productivity growth in developing countries. It then narrows in on livestock productivity, potential convergence, and the implications for international trade. ^ The first part of this dissertation examines measurement problems of total factor pr...

Nin Pratt, Alejandro

2001-01-01

292

Definitions of fuel poverty: Implications for policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines why the definition of fuel poverty is important in policy formulation and describes how the Government's current definitions evolved from the original concept. It discusses the determination of income and fuel costs and the possibilities for a relative and common European measure. It examines problems inherent in assessing fuel costs as a percentage of income and puts forward the arguments for a ‘budget standard’ approach. The paper illustrates how the size of the problem depends on the definition and chosen threshold and suggests advantages for a rating scale. It illustrates how the income composition and thresholds also govern the distribution of the target populations and the relative importance of the main causal factors, and examines the consequent policy implications. It explores the definition of vulnerable households and the importance of severity and questions whether the UK fuel poverty strategy is targeted at households least able to afford their fuel costs (as the name implies) or primarily those at risk from excess winter and summer mortality and morbidity. Finally, after examining the role of supplementary indicators, it looks at the opportunities for changing the definition and comments on the Government review of the definition and targets. - Highlights: ? There are major failings in the existing official definitions of fuel poverty. ? expressing fuel costs as a percentage of income is a poor indicator of fuel poverty. ? Ar indicator of fuel poverty. ? A budget standard approach provides a more consistent, meaningful and fairer measure. ? The scale and nature of the problem changes dramatically with different definitions. ? The definition is crucial to the mix of policies and allocation of resources required.

293

Siderophilic Cyanobacteria: Implications for Early Earth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of all extant environs, iron-depositing hot springs (IDHS) may exhibit the greatest similarity to late Precambrian shallow warm oceans in regards to temperature, O2 gradients and dissolved iron and H2S concentrations. Despite the insights into the ecology, evolutionary biology, paleogeobiochemistry, and astrobiology examination of IDHS could potentially provide, very few studies dedicated to the physiology and diversity of cyanobacteria (CB) inhabiting IDHS have been conducted. Results. Here we describe the phylogeny, physiology, ultrastructure and biogeochemical activity of several recent CB isolates from two different greater Yellowstone area IDHS, LaDuke and Chocolate Pots. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated that 6 of 12 new isolates examined couldn't be placed within established CB genera. Some of the isolates exhibited pronounced requirements for elevated iron concentrations, with maximum growth rates observed when 0.4-1 mM Fe(3+) was present in the media. In light of "typical" CB iron requirements, our results indicate that elevated iron likely represents a salient factor selecting for "siderophilicM CB species in IDHS. A universal feature of our new isolates is their ability to produce thick EPS layers in which iron accumulates resulting in the generation of well preserved signatures. In parallel, siderophilic CB show enhanced ability to etch the analogs of iron-rich lunar regolith minerals and impact glasses. Despite that iron deposition by CB is not well understood mechanistically, we recently obtained evidence that the PS I:PS II ratio is higher in one of our isolates than for other CB. Although still preliminary, this finding is in direct support of the Y. Cohen hypothesis that PSI can directly oxidize Fe(2+). Conclusion. Our results may have implications for factors driving CB evolutionary relationships and biogeochemical processes on early Earth and probably Mars.

Brown, I. I.; Mummey, D.; Sarkisova, S.; Shen, G.; Bryant, D. A.; Lindsay, J.; Garrison, D.; McKay, D. S.

2006-01-01

294

Implications of climate change for potamodromous fishes.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is little understanding of how climate change will impact potamodromous freshwater fishes. Since the mid 1970s, a decline in annual rainfall in south-western Australia (a globally recognized biodiversity hotspot) has resulted in the rivers of the region undergoing severe reductions in surface flows (ca. 50%). There is universal agreement amongst Global Climate Models that rainfall will continue to decline in this region. Limited data are available on the movement patterns of the endemic freshwater fishes of south-western Australia or on the relationship between their life histories and hydrology. We used this region as a model to determine how dramatic hydrological change may impact potamodromous freshwater fishes. Migration patterns of fishes in the largest river in south-western Australia were quantified over a 4 year period and were related to a number of key environmental variables including discharge, temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen. Most of the endemic freshwater fishes were potamodromous, displaying lateral seasonal spawning migrations from the main channel into tributaries, and there were significant temporal differences in movement patterns between species. Using a model averaging approach, amount of discharge was clearly the best predictor of upstream and downstream movement for most species. Given past and projected reductions in surface flow and groundwater, the findings have major implications for future recruitment rates and population viabilities of potamodromous fishes. Freshwater ecosystems in drying climatic regions can only be managed effectively if such hydro-ecological relationships are considered. Proactive management and addressing existing anthropogenic stressors on aquatic ecosystems associated with the development of surface and groundwater resources and land use is required to increase the resistance and resilience of potamodromous fishes to ongoing flow reductions. PMID:24307662

Beatty, Stephen J; Morgan, David L; Lymbery, Alan J

2014-06-01

295

BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

SERGHEI MARGULESCU

2012-05-01

296

BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level.. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

Serghei M RGULESCU

2012-06-01

297

CHO Quasispecies—Implications for Manufacturing Processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells are a source of multi-ton quantities of protein pharmaceuticals. They are, however, immortalized cells, characterized by a high degree of genetic and phenotypic diversity. As is known for any biological system, this diversity is enhanced by selective forces when laboratories (no sharing of gene pools grow cells under (diverse conditions that are practical and useful. CHO cells have been used in culture for more than 50 years, and various lines of cells are available and have been used in manufacturing. This article tries to represent, in a cursory way, the history of CHO cells, particularly the origin and subsequent fate of key cell lines. It is proposed that the name CHO represents many different cell types, based on their inherent genetic diversity and their dynamic rate of genetic change. The continuing remodeling of genomic structure in clonal or non-clonal cell populations, particularly due to the non-standardized culture conditions in hundreds of different labs renders CHO cells a typical case for “quasispecies”. This term was coined for families of related (genomic sequences exposed to high mutation rate environments where a large fraction of offspring is expected to carry one or more mutations. The implications of the quasispecies concept for CHO cells used in protein manufacturing processes are significant. CHO genomics/transcriptomics may provide only limited insights when done on one or two “old” and poorly characterized CHO strains. In contrast, screening of clonal cell lines, derived from a well-defined starting material, possibly within a given academic or industrial environment, may reveal a more narrow diversity of phenotypes with respect to physiological/metabolic activities and, thus, allow more precise and reliable predictions of the potential of a clone for high-yielding manufacturing processes.

Florian M. Wurm

2013-10-01

298

Implications of a stochastic microscopic Finsler cosmology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the context of supersymmetric space-time (D-particle) foam in string/brane-theory, we discuss a Finsler-induced cosmology and its implications for (thermal) dark matter abundances. This constitutes a truly microscopic model of dynamical space-time, where Finsler geometries arise naturally. The D-particle foam model involves point-like brane defects (D-particles), which provide the topologically non-trivial foamy structures of space-time. The D-particles can capture and emit stringy matter and this leads to a recoil of D-particles. It is indicated how one effect of such a recoil of D-particles is a back-reaction on the space-time metric of Finsler type which is stochastic. We show that such a type of stochastic space-time foam can lead to acceptable cosmologies at late epochs of the Universe, due to the non-trivial properties of the supersymmetric (BPS like) D-particle defects, which are such so as not to affect significantly the Hubble expansion. The restrictions placed on the free parameters of the Finsler type metric are obtained from solving the Boltzmann equation in this background for relic abundances of a Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP) dark matter candidate. It is demonstrated that the D-foam acts as a source for particle production in the Boltzmann equation, thereby leading to enhanced thermal LSP relic abundances relative to those in the Standard {lambda}CDM cosmology. For D-particle masses of order TeV, such effects may be relevant for dark matter searches at colliders. The latter constraints complement those coming from high-energy gamma-ray astronomy on the induced vacuum refractive index that D-foam models entail. We also comment briefly on the production mechanisms of such TeV-mass stringy defects at colliders, which, in view of the current LHC experimental searches, will impose further constraints on their couplings. (orig.)

Mavromatos, Nick E. [University of London, Department of Physics, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mitsou, Vasiliki A. [CSIC - Universitat de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Valencia (Spain); Sarkar, Sarben; Vergou, Ariadne [University of London, Department of Physics, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom)

2012-03-15

299

Profiling of genetic switches using boolean implications in expression data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Correlation analysis assuming coexpression of the genes is a widely used method for gene expression analysis in molecular biology. Yet growing extent, quality and dimensionality of the molecular biological data permits emerging, more sophisticated approaches like Boolean implications. We present an approach which is a combination of the SOM (self organizing maps) machine learning method and Boolean implication analysis to identify relations between genes, metagenes and similarly behaving metagene groups (spots). Our method provides a way to assign Boolean states to genes/metagenes/spots and offers a functional view over significantly variant elements of gene expression data on these three different levels. While being able to cover relations between weakly correlated entities Boolean implication method also decomposes these relations into six implication classes. Our method allows one to validate or identify potential relationships between genes and functional modules of interest and to assess their switching behaviour. Furthermore the output of the method renders it possible to construct and study the network of genes. By providing logical implications as updating rules for the network it can also serve to aid modelling approaches. PMID:25318120

Çak?r, Mehmet Volkan; Binder, Hans; Wirth, Henry

2014-01-01

300

Habit formation: implications for alcoholism research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Characteristics of individuals with severe alcohol use disorders include heightened cue sensitivity, compulsive seeking, craving, and continued alcohol use in the face of negative consequences. Animal models are useful for understanding behavioral and neurological mechanisms underlying problematic alcohol use. Seeking of operant reinforcers including alcohol is processed by two mechanisms, commonly referred to as "goal-directed" (action-outcome) and "habitual" (stimulus-response). As substance use disorders are characterized by continued use regardless of unfavorable outcomes, it is plausible that drug use causes an unnatural disruption of these mechanisms. We present a critical analysis of literature pertaining to behavioral neuroscience alcoholism research involving habit formation. Traditionally, when operant behavior is unaffected by a loss of subjective value of a reinforcer (devaluation), the behavior is considered habitual. Acquisition of instrumental behavior requires corticostriatal mechanisms that depend heavily on the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, whereas practiced behavior is more predominantly controlled by the dorsal striatum. Dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the neurological adaptations involved in stimulus-response action, and drugs of abuse appear to facilitate habitual behavior through high levels of dopamine release. Evidence suggests that the use of alcohol as a reinforcer expedites habit formation, and that a history of alcohol use produces alterations in striatal morphology, aids habit learning for non-psychoactive reinforcers, and promotes alcohol drinking despite aversive adulterants. In this review, we suggest directions for future alcoholism research that seeks to measure action made despite a devalued outcome, including procedural modifications and genotypic, pharmacological, or neurological manipulations. Most alcoholism models currently in use fail to reach substantial blood ethanol concentrations, a shortcoming that may be alleviated through the use of high-drinking rodent lines. Additionally, satiety, one common mechanism of devaluing reinforcers, is not recommended for alcohol research because the psychoactive effects of alcohol depress response rates, mimicking devaluation effects. Overall, further research of habit formation and potentially related perseverative behaviors could be invaluable in discovering genetic variance, traits that correlate with persistent alcohol seeking, implicated neural structures and processes of alcohol use, and eventually novel pharmacological treatment for alcoholism. PMID:24835007

O'Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas

2014-06-01

301

GEMAS - Soil geochemistry and health implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The GEMAS Project resulted in a large coherent data set displaying baseline levels of elements in agricultural and grazing land soil, which has a wide variety of applications. Medical geology is an emerging new discipline providing a link between geoscience and medicine by interpreting natural geological factors in relation to human and animal health and their geographical distribution. Medical geology shows not only problems related to harmful health effects of natural geological materials and processes, but also deals with their beneficial aspects. Since the GEMAS project demonstrates the importance of geological factors in geochemical patterns in European soil, this data set can be used in improving our understanding of how the geological processes may affect human health in Europe. The main potential health problems are related to deficiency of nutrients in soil and toxic effects of potentially harmful elements. Deficiency in macro- (e.g., K, Fe, Mg, P) and micro-nutrients (e.g., Se, Zn, Cl) can be responsible for a reduction in crop productivity and certain health issues for livestock and humans. On the other hand, bioavailability of crucial elements depends on soil parameters, e.g., pH; namely, low pH in soil (in northern Europe) makes more micronutrients bioavailable, with the exception of Mo, P and Ca. Rocks underlying the soil layer have a major impact on soil composition, and soil parent material can be a main source of toxic metals, for instance, soil developed on black shale (e.g., Oslo region) shows potentially toxic levels of metals, such as As, Cd, U, Zn and Pb. High content of organic matter is another factor amplifying the toxic levels of metals in soil. Several important topics with health implications can be then addressed using the GEMAS data set, namely, soil properties and element bioavailability, arsenic toxicity, selenium deficiency, potential health effects of liming, uranium in European soil, influence of recent and historical volcanic activity on soil composition and its health consequences. References Reimann, C., Birke, M., Demetriades, A., Filzmoser, P. & O'Connor, P. (Editors), 2014. Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils - Part A: Methodology and interpretation of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B), Schweizerbarth, Hannover, 528 pp. Reimann, C., Birke, M., Demetriades, A., Filzmoser, P. & O'Connor, P. (Editors), 2014. Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils - Part B: General background information and further analysis of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B), Schweizerbarth, Hannover, 352 pp.

Ernstsen, Vibeke; Ladenberger, Anna; Wragg, Joanna; Gulan, Aleksandra

2014-05-01

302

Thermoluminescence of ice and its implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A set of six glow curves of hexagonal ice irradiated at 77 K with various doses of ?-rays have been subjected to rigorous analysis. It shows the presence of as many as 11 thermoluminescence (TL) peaks at 108.2 ± 1.7 K, 115.5 ± 1.4 K, 123.4 ± 3.6 K, 131.8 ± 2.5 K, 138.9 ± 2.2 K, 149.8 ± 1.2 K, 161.3 ± 0.9 K, 168.4 ± 0.8 K, 178.0 ± 0.8 K, 194.1 ± 0.8 K and 203.8 ± 3.9 K (for a heating rate of 0.05 K/s) with thermal activation energies of 0.29 ± 0.01 eV, 0.31 ± 0.01 eV, 0.34 ± 0.01 eV, 0.40 ± 0.00 eV, 0.40 ± 0.01 eV, 0.41 ± 0.01 eV, 0.69 ± 0.01 eV, 0.70 ± 0.00 eV, 0.70 ± 0.01 eV, 0.70 ± 0.01 eV and 0.70 ± 0.01 eV, respectively. The lifetime of electrons in the trap giving rise to the most intense TL peak of ice (161.3 ± 0.9 K) estimated from TL data at 273 K is ?55 ns, while that at 77 K is ?2.0 x 10+18 years i.e. ice can be used for TL dating of icy bodies in the solar system. The physical basis of these findings have been provided keeping in mind the formation of H0, O-, OH-, HO2- and trapped electrons that are known to be produced by irradiation of ice. The implications of these findings have been discussed.

303

Thermoluminescence of ice and its implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A set of six glow curves of hexagonal ice irradiated at 77 K with various doses of gamma-rays have been subjected to rigorous analysis. It shows the presence of as many as 11 thermoluminescence (TL) peaks at 108.2 +- 1.7 K, 115.5 +- 1.4 K, 123.4 +- 3.6 K, 131.8 +- 2.5 K, 138.9 +- 2.2 K, 149.8 +- 1.2 K, 161.3 +- 0.9 K, 168.4 +- 0.8 K, 178.0 +- 0.8 K, 194.1 +- 0.8 K and 203.8 +- 3.9 K (for a heating rate of 0.05 K/s) with thermal activation energies of 0.29 +- 0.01 eV, 0.31 +- 0.01 eV, 0.34 +- 0.01 eV, 0.40 +- 0.00 eV, 0.40 +- 0.01 eV, 0.41 +- 0.01 eV, 0.69 +- 0.01 eV, 0.70 +- 0.00 eV, 0.70 +- 0.01 eV, 0.70 +- 0.01 eV and 0.70 +- 0.01 eV, respectively. The lifetime of electrons in the trap giving rise to the most intense TL peak of ice (161.3 +- 0.9 K) estimated from TL data at 273 K is approx55 ns, while that at 77 K is approx2.0 x 10{sup +18} years i.e. ice can be used for TL dating of icy bodies in the solar system. The physical basis of these findings have been provided keeping in mind the formation of H{sup 0}, O{sup -}, OH{sup -}, HO{sub 2}{sup -} and trapped electrons that are known to be produced by irradiation of ice. The implications of these findings have been discussed.

Rey, L., E-mail: louis.rey@bluewin.c [Chemin de Verdonnet, 2 CH-1010 Lausanne (Switzerland); Aerial-CRT-Parc d' Innovation, B.P. 40443, F 67412 Illkirch Cedex (France); Gartia, R.K., E-mail: rkgartia02@yahoo.i [Physics Department, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India); Bishal Singh, K. [Physics Department, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India); Basanta Singh, Th. [Luminescence Dating Laboratory, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India)

2009-12-15

304

Researching Lean: Methodological implications of loose definitions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – Lean Production has in Sweden become the dominating ideal for ‘best practice’ in rationalization, organizational development and how to organize the work system. However, research into the effects of Lean for different stakeholders has produced ambiguous results. Furthermore, Lean practices seem to overlap with other popular management concepts, such as High Performance Work Systems, World Class Manufacturing and Total Quality Management. This confusion, combined with different methodological and theoretical traditions, has led to much debate and contradictory conclusions regarding Lean. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate some key methodological issues that need to be considered in future Lean research to allow increased understanding of Lean effects for different stakeholders, primarily meaning the customer, employer and employees. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a multiple comparative case study, in which five Lean case studies are presented. All of the studies are of recent origin, and based in Sweden. The cases have been compared and contrasted based on the approaches to Lean, in terms of local ideals, operationalization and implementation. Findings – The findings from the case studies are in line with the existing literature, indicating that Lean has changed over time and that operationalization of the concept varies considerably between work life sectors. The findings demonstrate that approaches related to Lean differ significantly between the studied organizations and stakeholders. This applies to both the interpretations of the Lean concept itself, but also of the operationalization of Lean and implementation design. Although the cases show great similarities in the Lean ideals, the concept takes on many different forms when operationalized, which makes it very difficult to study through a priori definitions. Practical implications/recommendations – The large variation in interpretations of Lean complicates metaanalyses regarding potential impact of Lean on the primary stakeholders of an organization, i.e. the customer, employees and employer. Based on the case studies, we suggest that future investigations describe the Lean interventions in more detail. General descriptions or analogies, e.g. ‘learning organizations’, presumably increase the present confusion regarding Lean impact on different stakeholders. The case studies also illustrate the importance of describing factors that may mediate the effects of Lean, e.g. the local context of the investigated organizations, implementation design. More research is needed to identify these factors, how, and to what degree they mediate the consequences from Lean. Originality/value – The multidisciplinary approach of the included case studies provides an empirical richness that allows us to address the specific issues that need to be focused in the various disciplines investigating the impact of Lean on different organizational stakeholders.

Brännmark, Mikael; Langstrand, Jostein

2012-01-01

305

Generic implications of ATWS events at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant: generic implications. Vol. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is the first of two volumes. It documents the work of an interoffice, interdisciplinary NRC Task Force established to determine the generic implications of two anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 on February 22 and 25, 1983. A second report will document the NRC actions to be taken based on the work of the Task Force. The Task Force was established to address three questions: (1) Is there a need for prompt action for similar equipment in other facilities. (2) Are NRC and its licensees learning the sefety-management lessons, and, (3) How should the priority and content of the ATWS rule be adjusted. A number of short-term actions were taken through Bulletins and an Information Notice. Intermediate-term actions to address the generic issues will be addressed in the separate report and implemented through appropriate regulatory mechanisms

306

[Prescribing information for drugs--legal and regulatory implications].  

Science.gov (United States)

The regulation of pharmaceuticals is becoming more complex in recent years. Current regulation is no longer limited to deciding whether a specific drug would be allowed to be placed on the market. Today, a significant part of the regulatory process is focused on setting the terms for utilization of each drug, regarding the target population, dosages, mode of administration, etc. These terms have enormous implications on both pharmaceutical companies and caregivers. In Israel, the only publicly available source of information on terms of registration is the prescribing information ("physician leaflet"). The prescribing information contains instructions for use, as well as a Lot of safety information regarding the product. Therefore, the wording of the prescribing information may have serious regulatory and legal implications on caregivers. The objective of this article is to describe the relevant laws and regulations requiring its publication, while discussing the practical issues and implications of the use of prescribing information by physicians in Israel. PMID:25563030

Yahalom, Zohar; Shani, Segev

2014-11-01

307

What Are the New Implications of Chaos for Unpredictability?  

CERN Document Server

From the beginning of chaos research until today, the unpredictability of chaos has been a central theme. It is widely believed and claimed by philosophers, mathematicians and physicists alike that chaos has a new implication for unpredictability, meaning that chaotic systems are unpredictable in a way that other deterministic systems are not. Hence one might expect that the question 'What are the new implications of chaos for unpredictability?' has already been answered in a satisfactory way. However, this is not the case. I will critically evaluate the existing answers and argue that they do not fit the bill. Then I will approach this question by showing that chaos can be defined via mixing, which has not been explicitly argued for. Based on this insight, I will propose that the sought-after new implication of chaos for unpredictability is the following: for predicting any event all sufficiently past events are approximately probabilistically irrelevant.

Werndl, Charlotte

2013-01-01

308

Welfare Implication of Foreign Aid and Domestically Funded Microfinance Programs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microfinance as well as women’s economic participation has welfare implications in developing countries. A two-sector model has been developed to analyze these implications. The findings suggest that the welfare cost of microfinance depends on the country’s overall level of development and society’s attitude towards women’s economic participation. The difference in the welfare cost of government funded microfinance and donor funded microfinance programs can be minimized by increasing the administrative efficiency of public spending on microfinance.

Md. Abul Basher

2012-02-01

309

The Political Implications of Violence Against Women in Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Using the primary and secondary tools of analysis, this paper brings out in succinct details, the diverse forms of violence that affect Africa women with greater emphasis, the implications of the phenomenon of violence against women’s political participation is discussed. We thus, canvass the elimination of all forms of violence against women through a new continental gender reawakening process. We reasoned that only this would enable women contribute their quota to the socio-economic and political development of Africa.

Key words: Violence; Africa women; Political participation; Implication

Adebukola Foluke Osunyikanmi

2011-12-01

310

The rationalisation movement in perspective and some ergonomic implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper gives an overview of the Rationalisation Movement from Taylor to the most recent organisation models such as 'Business Process Reengineering'. Special emphasis is put on the estimated implications of the different rationalisation strategies in terms of ergonomics/work physiology. In addition, basic terms and concepts are defined. According to the author, Taylorism, Fordism and Lean Production seem to offer an insufficient potential for good ergonomics. However, more recent organisational models such as 'Time Based Management' and 'Business Process Reengineering', may appear more promising but unfortunately almost no research has been conducted to describe the ergonomics implications of these models. PMID:15677050

Björkman, T

1996-04-01

311

Fragmentation of structural energetic materials: implications for performance  

Science.gov (United States)

Fragmentation results for structural energetic materials based on intermetallic forming mixtures are reviewed and the implications of the fragment populations are discussed. Cold sprayed Ni+Al and explosively compacted mixtures of Ni+Al+W and Ni+Al+W+Zr powders were fabricated into ring shaped samples and explosively fragmented. Ring velocity was monitored and fragments were soft captured in order to study the fragmentation process. It was determined that the fragments produced by these structural energetic materials are much smaller than those typically produced by ductile metals such as steel or aluminum. This has implications for combustion processes that may occur subsequent to the fragmentation process.

Aydelotte, B.; Braithwaite, C. H.; Thadhani, N. N.

2014-05-01

312

Insulin, Aging, and the Brain: Mechanisms and Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

There is now an impressive body of literature implicating insulin and insulin signaling in successful aging and longevity. New information from in vivo and in vitro studies concerning insulin and insulin receptors has extended our understanding of the physiological role of insulin in the brain. However, the relevance of these to aging and longevity remains to be elucidated. Here, we review advances in our understanding of the physiological role of insulin in the brain, how insulin gets into the brain, and its relevance to aging and longevity. Furthermore, we examine possible future therapeutic applications and implications of insulin in the context of available models of delayed and accelerated aging.

Akintola, Abimbola A.; van Heemst, Diana

2015-01-01

313

The Risk Premium for Equity: Explanations and Implications  

OpenAIRE

The equity premium puzzle shows that using standard parameters and setup, the Consumption-based Capital Asset Pricing Model's (CCAPM's) prediction of the premium associated with systematic risk is out by an order of magnitude.The object of this paper is to consider the implications of each of the broad classes of explanations of the equity premium puzzle for resource allocation, welfare and policy.We argue that the most robust implications are those that flow directly from the high price of s...

Grant, S.; Quiggin, J.

2001-01-01

314

eBay Law: The Legal Implications of the C2C Electronic Commerce Model  

OpenAIRE

This paper attempts to address some of the legal implications of the popular Consumer-to-Consumer electronic commerce model, in particular the implications of the successful and popular auctions site eBay.

Guadamuz, Andres

2003-01-01

315

Student Work Issues: Implications for College Transition and Retention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studied job stress of employed college students and considered the implications of this stress for college life and student retention. Findings for 275 college students at 2 universities show that for some students having a job adds more stress to their lives, increases exhaustion levels, and interferes with school responsibilities. (SLD)

Hey, William; Calderon, Kristine S.; Seabert, Denise

2003-01-01

316

A Gaming Frame of Mind: Digital Contexts and Academic Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

When considering the interdisciplinary nature of education, researchers need to acknowledge students' traditional and multimodal literacies and learning environments. Technological changes have brought about new learning spaces and what students learn through their video gaming experiences seems to have important academic implications and…

Abrams, Sandra S.

2009-01-01

317

The Phenomenological Diversity of Hallucinations: Some theoretical and clinical implications  

OpenAIRE

Hallucinations are complex psychopathological phenomena. Nevertheless, this has not always been clear in the scientific literature, until recently. In the following paper, the phenomenology of hallucinations will be (briefly) described. Then, ways in which examining phenomenological characteristics of hallucinations may have theoretical and clinical implications, will be presented. Assessment tools that examine phenomenological aspects of hallucinations will also briefly be presented. In part...

Frank Larøi

2006-01-01

318

File-Sharing among College Students: Moral and Legal Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to explore the phenomenon of college students who illegally file-share. The main research question was, "What are the experiences of college students who file-share and what are their perspectives on the moral and legal implications for doing so?" Data were collected from six students using interviews, focus groups, and…

Cockrum, Colton Dwayne

2010-01-01

319

Does Styles Research Have Useful Implications for Educational Practice?  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews eight articles on the implications of styles research contained in this special issue of "Learning and Individual Differences". Three of the papers present original research on topics such as the nature of visualizer cognitive style and intuitive cognitive style. Five of the papers offer reviews or analyses of styles research,…

Mayer, Richard E.

2011-01-01

320

Financial Implications of Implementing an E-Learning Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This paper aims to outline the financial implications, while deploying information and communication technologies for implementing e-learning, and to elucidate them, while implementing an e-learning project in a conventional university environment. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a descriptive account of the various cost factors…

Sharma, Kunal

2011-01-01

321

Islam and Citizenship Education in Singapore: Challenges and Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The religious diversity of Singapore, coupled with the current phenomenon of Islamic revivalism, makes the management of religion a paramount concern for the Singapore government. By examining the developments of Islam in Singapore, this article explores the challenges and implications these developments have on citizenship education in the…

Tan, Charlene

2007-01-01

322

Considering Shame and Its Implications for Student Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Research evidence is accumulating to suggest that shame can be implicated in important ways in student adjustment to the learning environment. Student survey data spring-fall 2010 suggest that shame is associated with variables thought to be closely related to student learning--sense of community, burnout and achievement goals--and underline the…

Johnson, Diane Elizabeth

2012-01-01

323

Counselors' Values Profile: Implications for Counseling Ethnic Minority Clients  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors review the empirical literature on counselors' values, describe values salient to the 4 largest ethnic minority groups in the United States, identify similarities and differences between counselors' values and those of the minority groups, and discuss implications for counseling ethnically different clients. Understanding counselors'…

Consoli, Andres J.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Meyer, Dinorah M.

2008-01-01

324

Sexual Objectification of Women: Clinical Implications and Training Considerations  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the implications of theory and empirical research on the sexual objectification of women. Drawing largely from the American Psychological Association's 2007 "Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Girls and Women," the 2007 "Report of the American Psychological Association's Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls,"…

Szymanski, Dawn M.; Carr, Erika R.; Moffitt, Lauren B.

2011-01-01

325

Spirituality of South Asian Women: Implications for Adult Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The implications of the spirituality of South Asian women for adult learning were examined through semistructured interviews of five South Asian women who resided in Canada. The women, who included students, working professionals, mothers, and single women, originated from Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka and were from Hindu, Moslem, and…

Marshall, Jody L.

326

Women's Spirituality across the Life Span: Implications for Counseling  

Science.gov (United States)

Women's spirituality has unique characteristics that are often ignored within the spirituality literature. The authors review the literature on women's spirituality to reveal the major themes women have identified as relevant to their spiritual journeys across the life span. Implications for counseling and ideas for practice are included after…

Briggs, Michele Kielty; Dixon, Andrea L.

2013-01-01

327

The Bologna Process: Perspectives and Implications for the Russian University  

Science.gov (United States)

This article draws on the discourses of educational policy in Europe to focus on the implications of the Bologna Process for higher education in Russia. The Bologna Process, as a multi-dimensional discourse involving a variety of social actors, reflects some of the complexities and contradictions of globalisation, in many local cases evoking…

Telegina, Galina; Schwengel, Hermann

2012-01-01

328

Implications of Transnational Adoption Status for Adult Korean Adoptees  

Science.gov (United States)

This study used a consensual qualitative research method to explore the implications of transnational adoption in the lives of 12 adult Korean adoptees. From the analysis, 6 domains emerged: (a) adoption history and preadoptive memories, (b) meaning of adoption, (c) adoptive family dynamics, (d) racism, (e) identity formation, and (f) counseling…

Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Yoon, Eunju; Hacker, Jason; Caudill, Kathy

2015-01-01

329

Implications of What Children Know about Computer Passwords  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to present several implications and recommendations regarding what elementary school children, aged 9-12 years, know about computer passwords and what they know about why computer passwords are important. Student knowledge can then be used to make relevant curriculum decisions based in conjunction with applicable…

Coggins, Porter E.

2013-01-01

330

Oracle. Three Histories of the 1980's: Implications for Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three hypothetical scenarios for the 1980's are presented as tools for exploring the future of the Des Moines, Iowa, Independent Community School District. Each is written in the past tense as a "history" and is followed by a set of implications for education. The first scenario conveys an optimistic view of current trends, suggesting that the…

Graeber, James J.; And Others

331

Sound efficacy of prophylactic HPV vaccination: Basics and implications  

OpenAIRE

Prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccine efficacy is almost too good to be true. The benefits of herd immunity will, however, not be gained without high vaccine coverage. Here the authors of two recent papers on HPV16/18 vaccine efficacy elaborate on the basics and implications of this approach for infection and cancer prevention.

Lehtinen, Matti; Paavonen, Jorma

2012-01-01

332

Implications of the first observation of B?K1?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Implications of the recent new measurements of B?K1? by Belle are examined. It is shown that the new branching ratio B[B?K1(1270)?] requires very large form factor compared to the theoretically predicted one. This is an opposite case to B?K*? where theory expected larger branching ratio. Possible origins of the discrepancy are discussed

333

Relic neutrino clustering and implications for their detection  

OpenAIRE

We study the gravitational clustering of big bang relic neutrinos onto existing cold dark matter and baryonic structures within the flat $\\Lambda$CDM model. We then discuss the implications of clustering for scattering-based relic neutrino detection methods, ranging from flux detection via Cavendish-type torsion balances, to target detection using accelerator beams and cosmic rays.

Ringwald, Andreas; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

2004-01-01

334

Forgiveness: Theory, Research, and Clinical Implications for Adolescent Offenders.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the literature on the subject of forgiveness and suggests clinical implications for the treatment of adolescent offenders. Although research has been done in the areas of forgiveness, no studies have been conducted with adolescent offenders. This dearth of information points to a gap in understanding the role of forgiveness in…

Pelayo, Stephanie L.

335

Florence Nightingale, Statistician: Implications for Teachers of Educational Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an overview of Florence Nightingale's statistical background and accomplishments; discusses Victorian statistics, Nightingale's education and statistical contributions; and concludes with implications for professors and students of educational research. Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), the first woman elected as a fellow of…

Rice, Marti H.; Stallings, William M.

336

Clinical review: Imaging in ischaemic stroke – implications for acute management  

OpenAIRE

Imaging has become a cornerstone of stroke management, translating pathophysiological knowledge to everyday decision-making. Plain computed tomography is widely available and remains the standard for initial assessment: the technique rules out haemorrhage, visualizes the occluding thrombus and identifies early tissue hypodensity and swelling, which have different implications for thrombolysis. Based on evidence from positron emission tomography (PET), however, multimodal imaging is increasing...

Moustafa, Ramez Reda; Baron, Jean-claude

2007-01-01

337

Sexual Addiction and the Internet: Implications for Gay Men  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present an overview of sexual addiction and explore the relationship between Internet use and sexual compulsivity. The role of Internet use in gay men's sexual behavior is described. Implications for the counseling profession are discussed, and a clinical case study is presented.

Dew, Brian J.; Chaney, Michael P.

2004-01-01

338

Instructional Computing Patterns in Texas Schools: Implications for Teacher Training.  

Science.gov (United States)

Summarizes findings from a 1983 survey on instructional computing patterns in Texas school districts that have implications for teacher training. Patterns under investigation were concerned with hardware, courseware, student populations and curriculum areas using computers, computer literacy skills for students, and teacher training efforts. (MBR)

Anderson, Cheryl A.; Smith, Richard L.

1984-01-01

339

Pumps vs. airlifts: Theoretical and practical energy implications  

Science.gov (United States)

In the design of a recirculating aquaculture system five life-supporting issues should be considered which include aeration, degasification, circulation, biofiltration, and clarification. The implications associated with choosing a pumped system versus an airlift system to address these issues was e...

340

The nucleon spin decomposition: news and experimental implications  

CERN Document Server

Recently, many nucleon spin decompositions have been proposed in the literature, creating a lot of confusion. This revived in particular old controversies regarding the measurability of theoretically defined quantities. We propose a brief overview of the different decompositions, discuss the sufficient requirements for measurability and stress the experimental implications.

Lorcé, Cédric

2014-01-01

341

The nucleon spin decomposition: News and experimental implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, many nucleon spin decompositions have been proposed in the literature, creating a lot of confusion. This revived in particular old controversies regarding the measurability of theoretically defined quantities. We propose a brief overview of the different decompositions, discuss the sufficient requirements for measurability and stress the experimental implications.

Lorcé Cédric

2014-06-01

342

Electronically Distributed Work Communities: Implications for Research on Telework.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the concept of telework, or telecommuting, and its influence on the electronic community and organizational structures. The electronically distributed organization is discussed, and implications for research on telework are suggested in the areas of privacy regulation, self-efficacy, temporal aspects of employee behavior, communication…

Hesse, Bradford W.; Grantham, Charles E.

1991-01-01

343

Experimental implications of mirror matter-type dark matter  

OpenAIRE

Mirror matter-type dark matter is one dark matter candidate which is particularly well motivated from high energy physics. The theoretical motivation and experimental evidence are pedagogically reviewed, with emphasis on the implications of recent orthopositronium experiments, the DAMA/NaI dark matter search, anomalous meteorite events etc.

Foot, R.

2003-01-01

344

Marital Conflict Behaviors and Implications for Divorce over 16 Years  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined self-reported marital conflict behaviors and their implications for divorce. Husbands and wives (N = 373 couples; 47% White American, 53% Black American) reported conflict behaviors in Years 1, 3, 7, and 16 of their marriages. Individual behaviors (e.g., destructive behaviors) and patterns of behaviors between partners (e.g.,…

Birditt, Kira S.; Brown, Edna; Orbuch, Terri L.; McIlvane, Jessica M.

2010-01-01

345

Safeguarding and Protecting Children in Maternity Services: Implications for Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

This article debates the issues involved in safeguarding and protecting children in maternity services and offers implications for professional practice. Midwives and other staff who work as members of the maternity team have a safeguarding role to play in the identification of babies and children who have been abused, or are at risk of abuse, and…

Lazenbatt, Anne; Greer, Jean

2009-01-01

346

Development of Proverb Comprehension in Adolescents: Implications for Instruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparison of the comprehension of proverbs of 200 students (50 each in Grades 6, 8, 10, and 12) found growth in proverb comprehension was most pronounced at two transitional points in development: when students move from late childhood into early adolescence, and again when they move from late adolescence into adulthood. Implications for…

Nippold, Marilyn A.; Hegel, Susan L.; Uhden, Linda D.; Bustamante, Silvia

1998-01-01

347

The Influences and Implications of PISA: An Australian Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is a commentary on Australia's involvement in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) tests. It provides a rationale for Australia's participation in the PISA programme, the influences of PISA involvement on education policies and practices, and considerations and implications for school leaders and…

Starr, Karen

2014-01-01

348

Local Citation Analysis of Graduate Biology Theses: Collection Development Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper will focus on the citation analysis of graduate masters theses from Carleton University's Biology Department with implications for library collection management decisions. Twenty-five masters theses were studied to determine citation types and percentages, ranking of journals by frequency of citation and by number of authors citing, and…

Miller, Laura Newton

2011-01-01

349

Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

1998-01-01

350

Computational Implications of Cooperative Plasticity Induction at Nearby Dendritic Sites  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have revealed that plasticity is not regulated independently at individual synapses but rather that there is cooperativity or associativity between nearby synapses in the dendritic tree of individual cortical pyramidal cells. Here, I summarize experimental results regarding such cooperative plasticity and its underlying mechanisms and consider their computational implications.

Kenji Morita (Japan; RIKEN Brain Science Institute REV)

2009-01-06

351

Traditional Healing in Africa: Implications for Cross-Cultural Counseling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines role of traditional healers in African society. Indicates who the indigenous doctors are, role family plays in health maintenance, nature of the healing relationship, what diagnostic techniques are used, specific healing methods used, how music is used as therapeutic accompaniment, how healers are selected and prepared, and implications

Vontress, Clemmont E.

1991-01-01

352

The Skills Implications of Electronic Retailing. IES Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The skills and education/training implications of the development of electronic commerce in the United Kingdom's retail industry and its associated supply chain were examined. The major data collection activities were as follows: a literature review; consultation with leading academics and advisers; an e-mail-based call for information from…

Tackey, Nii Djan; Hillage, Jim; Jagger, Nick; Bates, Peter

353

Does Test Preparation Work? Implications for Score Validity  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports an empirical study that examined the pattern of test preparation for College English Test Band 4 (CET4) and the differential effects of test preparation practices on its scores, thereby drawing implications for CET4 score validity. Data collection involved 1,003 test takers of CET4. A pretest was administered at the beginning…

Xie, Qin

2013-01-01

354

Implications of dynamical symmetry breaking for high energy experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scenario of dynamical symmetry breaking as an alternative to the canonical Higgs mechanism with elementary spin-O fields is described, and its implications for high energy experiments contrasted with those of the canonical theory. The potential role of e+e- annihilation physics in unravelling the nature of spontaneous symmetry breaking is emphasized. (orig.)

355

Constructivism: Its Theoretical Underpinnings, Variations, and Implications for Classroom Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of constructivism and its implications for classroom practices. To that end, it first describes the basic features of constructivism along with its major forms or variations. It then elucidates the constructivist view of knowledge, learning, teaching, and the relationship among these constructs. More specifically,…

Yilmaz, Kaya

2008-01-01

356

Affirmative Action: Its Legal Mandate and Organizational Implications. No. 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the dimensions of a law, Affirmative Action, and its impact on a university. Section 1 concerns legal aspects with emphasis on historical and legal perspectives of affirmative action; a summary of the guidelines and compliance procedures for administrators; and the legal implications of Affirmative Action as they may affect…

Catlin, Jamie Beth; And Others

357

Using Cultural Diversity in Teaching Economics: Global Business Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Globalization and increasing cross-cultural interactivity have implications for education in general and may also present valuable pedagogical opportunities in the practice of teaching economics for business students. Therefore, the author investigated this proposition and offers some empirical observations from research and teaching experiments.…

Mitry, Darryl J.

2008-01-01

358

Assets for Children: Experiences in Asia and Implications for China  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing number of national and local governments view child development accounts (CDAs) as an innovative policy tool for social and economic development. This article reviews the global landscape of CDAs, presents three CDA policy cases from Asia, analyzes main themes and discusses potential implications for China. (Contains 1 table.)

Zou, Li; Sherraden, Michael

2010-01-01

359

Ordered direct implicational basis of a finite closure system  

CERN Document Server

Closure system on a finite set is a unifying concept in logic programming, relational data bases and knowledge systems. It can also be presented in the terms of finite lattices, and the tools of economic description of a finite lattice have long existed in lattice theory. We present this approach by describing the so-called $D$-basis and introducing the concept of ordered direct basis of an implicational system. A direct basis of a closure operator, or an implicational system, is a set of implications that allows one to compute the closure of an arbitrary set by a single iteration. This property is preserved by the D-basis at the cost of following a prescribed order in which implications will be attended. In particular, using an ordered direct basis allows to optimize the forward chaining procedure in logic programming that uses the Horn fragment of propositional logic. One can extract the D-basis from any direct unit basis S in time polynomial in the size of S, and it takes only linear time of the cardinalit...

Adaricheva, Kira; Rand, Robert

2011-01-01

360

Core Strength: Implications for Fitness and Low Back Pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents information to promote understanding of the concept of core strength and stability, explain why this concept is important to spine health, and evaluate trunk training activities with respect to their contribution to core strength and stability, noting implications for physical fitness and low back pain. The paper reviews the anatomy and…

Liemohn, Wendell; Pariser, Gina

2002-01-01

361

Implicit versus Explicit Learning: Some Implications for L2 Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent psychological evidence about "implicit" learning has strong implications for the educational arena. First, it contributes to counterbalance the predominance of "explicit" educational models, based on the transmission of formal rules, by considering informal active/manipulative behavior as the foundation of learning and knowledge-building.…

Gasparini, Silvia

2004-01-01

362

Atrial Arrhythmias and Their Implications for Space Flight - Introduction  

Science.gov (United States)

This panel will discuss the implications of atrial arrhythmias in astronauts from a variety of perspectives; including historical data, current practices, and future challenges for exploration class missions. The panelists will present case histories, outline the evolution of current NASA medical standards for atrial arrhythmias, discuss the use of predictive tools, and consider potential challenges for current and future missions.

Polk, J. D.; Barr, Y. R.; Bauer, P.; Hamilton, D. R.; Kerstman, E.; Tarver, B.

2010-01-01

363

Physical Education and Implications for Students with Asperger's Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, James Williams, a young man with Asperger's syndrome (AS) shares his experiences taking physical education in a generalized education setting and discusses the implications for students with AS. He was diagnosed with AS when he was 9 years old. School was tough at times, especially when social interactions came into play. One of…

Simpson, Cynthia G.; Gaus, Mark D.; Biggs, Mary Jo Garcia; Williams, James, Jr.

2010-01-01

364

Narratives from Popular Culture: Critical Implications for Adult Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter critically examines six political television narratives: The Weather Channel, The Fox News Channel, "24," "The Rachel Maddow Show," "The Daily Show," and "Torchwood." The implications of those television narratives, their impact on adult learners, and suggestions for classroom practice are discussed.

Wright, Robin Redmon

2010-01-01

365

Business development - the function, research propositions, and managerial implications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  The management literature reflects remarkable little effort to investigate the nature and consequences of firms' business development activities. This exploratory research aims at synthesizing the scholarly knowledge on the subject with field interviews with senior business developers and executives from high-tech firms and venture capitalists in North America, Asia, and Europe to provide a foundation for future research. Business development is an emerging staff function providing an added level of sophistication to the firms' overall strategic management with interesting performance implications. The business development function is typically found in progressive firms especially within high-tech industries, but is argued to become critical for all types of firms across industries wishing to grow and accumulate wealth. Research propositions and managerial implications are discussed.

SØrensen, Hans Eibe

366

Pathological and Evolutionary Implications of Retroviruses as Mobile Genetic Elements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Retroviruses, a form of mobile genetic elements, have important roles in disease and primate evolution. Exogenous retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, have significant pathological implications that have created a massive public health challenge in recent years. Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs, which are the primary focus of this review, can also be pathogenic, as well as being beneficial to a host in some cases. Furthermore, retroviruses may have played a key role in primate evolution that resulted in the incorporation of these elements into the human genome. Retroviruses are mobile genetic elements that have important roles in disease and primate evolution. We will further discuss the pathogenic potential of retroviruses, including their role in cancer biology, and will briefly summarize their evolutionary implications.

Mark A. Brown

2013-10-01

367

Climate change and energy: The implications for the Spanish case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the mutual implications between the climate change problem and the actual energy-at-a-crossroads situation of the unsustainable world energy model. The implications for the Spanish case are studied as a case example. The paper provides a brief review of the scientific evidence on climate change, analyzes the causes of the present energy dilemma and characterizes the problem to be addressed. The principal challenge for the future climate regime is to identify the nature and level of commitment that will provide sufficient incentives for all countries, with such a diversity of interests. The paper also exposes the most plausible framework for the future climate regime, the basic components of such a regime, the role to be played by the major stake holders and some guidelines for future negotiations. (Author)

368

Non-nuclear mining with radiological implications in Araxa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are now over twnety years since the radiological characteristics of the Brazilian regions of Araxa, Tapira and Barreiros, three locations adjacent to each other, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, started being surveyed. The radioactivity of the Araxa region is associated with mineral deposits of niobium rich pyrochlore and phosphate rich apatite. The biological availability of natural radium isotops in some segments of the Araxa soil allows a large variation in the 228Ra, 224Ra and 226Ra concentrations in vegetables and edible roots. This fact makes quite difficult a quantitative local assessment of the radiological implications of mining the Araxa mineral deposits of pyrochlore and apatite for production of niobium and phosphate fertilizers, respectively; since one cannot easily separate the naturally occurring from the technologically enhanced radionuclide contents of foods. This paper deals tentatively with the radiological implications of the industrial operations taking place in the Araxa region for the exploration of the pyrochlore and apatite deposits

369

Globalization and Science Education: The Implications for Indigenous Knowledge Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Much of the current diversity literature in science education does not address the complexity of the issues of indigenous learners in their postcolonial environments and calls for a “one size fits all” instructional approach (Lee, 2001.  Indigenous knowledge needs to be promoted and supported. There is currently a global initiative of maintaining worldviews, languages, and environments of which science education can be a part (McKinley, 2007. This paper is organized around five main topics that further guide the theoretical framework for this important area: a describing postcolonialism and indigeneity related to science education, b defining the terms indigenous knowledge, traditional ecological knowledge, c western modern science and the effects of globalization on these terms d examining the research on learning implications of IK and/or TEK in classrooms with a focus on the research into student learning in indigenous language, e connecting place-based education to curricular implications for indigenous knowledge systems.

Cassie Quigley

2009-02-01

370

Sequencing approach evaluates all 24 genes implicated in breast cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1994, many thousands of women with breast cancer from families severely affected with the disease have been tested for inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. The vast majority of those patients were told that their gene sequences were normal. With the development of modern genomics sequencing tools, the discovery of additional genes implicated in breast cancer and the change in the legal status of genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2, it is now possible to determine how often families in these circumstances actually do carry cancer-predisposing mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, or another gene implicated in breast cancer, despite the results of their previous genetic tests. The results were presented Oct. 24, by researchers from the University of Washington (which is affiliated with the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center) at the American Society of Human Genetics 2013 meeting in Boston.

371

Ecological and evolutive implications of bacterial defences against predators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial communities are often heavily consumed by microfaunal predators, such as protozoa and nematodes. Predation is an important cause of mortality and determines the structure and activity of microbial communities in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and bacteria evolved various defence mechanisms helping them to resist predation. In this review, I summarize known antipredator defence strategies and their regulation, and explore their importance for bacterial fitness in various environmental conditions, and their implications for bacterial evolution and diversification under predation pressure. I discuss how defence mechanisms affect competition and cooperation within bacterial communities. Finally I present some implications of bacterial defence mechanisms for ecosystem services provided by microbial communities, such as nutrient cycling, virulence and the biological control of plant diseases. PMID:22040156

Jousset, Alexandre

2012-08-01

372

Europa: Prospects for an ocean and exobiological implications  

Science.gov (United States)

As far as we know, Earth is the only planet in our solar system that supports life. It is natural, therefore, that our understanding of life as a planetary phenomenon is based upon Earth-like planets. There are environments in the solar system where liquid water, commonly believed to be a prerequisite for biological activity, may exist in a distinctly non-Earth-like environment. One such location is Europa, one of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. The possibility that liquid water exists on Europa presents us with some interesting exobiological implications concerning the potential of the satellite to support life. Topics include the following: an ocean on Europa; thermal evolution of Europa; Europa's three models; exobiological implications; early conditions of Europa; low-temperature abiotic chemistry; possibility of the emergence of life on Europa; prerequisites for the habitability of Europa; energy sources for biosynthesis and metabolic activity; habitability of Europa by anaerobic life; and habitability by aerobic life.

Oro, John; Squyres, Steven W.; Reynolds, Ray T.; Mills, Thomas M.

1992-01-01

373

Large fluctuations of disentaglement force and implications for polymer dynamics  

CERN Document Server

This paper examines the effect of cooling on disentanglement forces in polymers and the implications for both single chain pullout and polymer dynamics. I derive the explicit dependence of the distribution of these forces on temperature, which is found to exhibit a rich behaviour. Most significantly, it is shown to be dominated by large fluctuations up to a certain temperature $T_0$ that can be determined from molecular parameters. The effects of these fluctuations on chain friction are analysed and they are argued to undermine the traditional melt-based models that rely on a typical chain friction coefficient. A direct implication for first principles calculation of viscosity is discussed. This quantifies the limit of validity of such descriptions, such as Rouse dynamics and the Tube model, and pave the way to model polymer dynamics around the glass transition temperature.

Blumenfeld, R

2001-01-01

374

Clinical Implications of Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in Colorectal Cancer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Colorectal cancer (CRC) still has one of the highest incidence and mortality rate among cancers. Therefore, improved differential diagnostics and personalized treatment are still needed. Several intestinal stem cell markers have been found to be associated with CRC and might have a prognostic and predictive significance in CRC patients. This review provides an overview of the intestinal stem cell markers leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), B cell–specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 (BMI1), Musashi1 (MSI1), and sex-determining region y-box 9 (SOX9) and their implications in human CRC. The exact roles of the intestinal stem cell markers in CRC development and progression remain unclear; however, high expression of these stem cell markers have a potential prognostic significance and might be implicated in chemotherapy resistance.

Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Olsen, Jesper

2015-01-01

375

Working-week flexibility: Implications for employment and productivity  

OpenAIRE

This paper evaluates the implications for employment, productivity and wages of allowing for more flexibility in weekly hours worked introduced in the recent Spanish labour market reform (the 2012 reform). A crucial aspect of the model will be the extent to which firms will be able to choose the workweek when subject to demand shocks. The model is calibrated so that it reproduces the cross-sectional distribution of workweeks across plants and households and some features of the Spanish econom...

Osune, Victoria

2014-01-01

376

Implications of 3+1 Short-Baseline Neutrino Oscillations  

OpenAIRE

We present an upgrade of the 3+1 global fit of short-baseline neutrino oscillation data obtained with the addition of KARMEN and LSND nu_e-Carbon scattering data. We discuss the implications for the measurements of the effective neutrino mass in beta-decay and neutrinoless double-beta-decay experiments. We find respective predicted ranges of about 0.1-0.7 eV and 0.01-0.1 eV.

Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

2011-01-01

377

Implications of Philosophy for Engineering and Engineering Technology Bachelors Programs  

OpenAIRE

This paper raises the question: What is philosophy and then, after describing its branches and school, it extends the definitions to implications for the practice of engineering and engineering technology education. It folds the definitions against the work of engineering faculty. The latter was described as including curriculum development, teaching, mentoring/advising, research/scholarship, and engagement. Sample codes of ethics are shared for engineering technology students and professionals.

Dyrenfurth, Michael; Murphy, Mike; Grimson, William

2009-01-01

378

Regulation of TNF-alpha : Implications for health and disease  

OpenAIRE

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine, which is implicated in some metabolic disorders and may play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease. When healthy 50-year-old men were studied, the plasma TNF-alpha concentration was associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, degree of alimentary lipaemia, plasma VLDL triglyceride and LDL cholesterol concentrations, peak LDL particle size and all measured cell adhesion molecul...

Skoog, Tiina

2003-01-01

379

Projecting the future of Canada's population: assumptions, implications, and policy  

OpenAIRE

After considering the assumptions for fertility, mortality and international migration, this paper looks at implications of the evolving demographics for population growth, labour force, retirement, and population distribution. With the help of policies favouring gender equity and supporting families of various types, fertility in Canada could avoid the particularly low levels seen in some countries, and remain at levels closer to 1.6 births per woman. The prognosis in terms of both risk fact...

Beaujot, Roderic

2003-01-01

380

Ore concentrate line efficient operation: some energy saving implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among the outstanding attributes slurry pipelines must have is the need to optimize production efficiency and, in particular, minimize energy consumption. In the present paper, the energy saving implications of three different factors, namely process variable uncertainties, transport control variables and pipeline availability are referred to and exemplified using an idealized Bingham-type slurry pipeline. Present examples suggest that important energy savings can be achieved with proper designs, equipment and operations scheduling. (author)

Ihle, Christian F. [BRASS Engineering Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

2009-07-01

381

China in Africa. Implications for Norwegian Foreign and Development Policies  

OpenAIRE

China’s development will affect the history of the twenty-first century, and perhaps nowhere more importantly than in Africa. The emergence of China introduces new opportunities for Africa, new challenges and new imponderables as well. Observers are watching China’s Africa policy with a mixture of fascination and fright. The new Chinese Africa policy has major implications for development on the continent. The purpose of this report commissioned by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affair...

Tjønneland, Elling N.; Brandtzæg, Bjørn; Kola?s, A?shild; Le Pere, Garth

2006-01-01

382

Climate change: Implications for water and ecological resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A conference was held to discuss the implications of climate change on water and ecological resources. The meeting consisted of a number of plenary sessions, luncheon speeches, an open forum, and five workshops. Presentations concerned regional and global issues, climate modelling, international aspects of climate change, water resources supply and demand, wetlands, wildlife and fisheries, agriculture and forests, and conservation strategies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 32 presentations from the conference

383

Legal implications of single-use medical device reprocessing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over 10 years ago, the Public Health Agency of Canada released the results of a nation-wide survey of hospitals that demonstrated that the reuse of single-use medical devices was widespread in Canadian healthcare institutions. In this article, the author discusses the reuse and reprocessing of these devices, as well as the risks this practice presents. She then goes on to outline the legal implications of reusing single-use devices. PMID:24034777

Larose, Emily

2013-01-01

384

The Political Implications of Violence Against Women in Africa  

OpenAIRE

Using the primary and secondary tools of analysis, this paper brings out in succinct details, the diverse forms of violence that affect Africa women with greater emphasis, the implications of the phenomenon of violence against women’s political participation is discussed. We thus, canvass the elimination of all forms of violence against women through a new continental gender reawakening process. We reasoned that only this would enable women contribute their quota to the socio-econo...

Adebukola Foluke Osunyikanmi

2011-01-01

385

Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Public Health Implications  

OpenAIRE

This review summarizes studies on the epidemiology and public health implications of Helicobacter pylori published in peer-reviewed journals from April 2010 through March 2011. Prevalence rates vary widely between different geographical regions and ethnic groups. An interesting study from the USA identified the degree of African ancestry as an independent predictor of H. pylori infection. Two studies have demonstrated early childhood as the period of transmission of infection and identified a...

Goh, Khean-lee; Chan, Wah-kheong; Shiota, Seiji; Yamaoka, Yoshio

2011-01-01

386

Women's body image: implications for mental health nursing interventions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this concept analysis is to define women's body image in the context of mental health and to describe its antecedents and consequences. The analysis is grounded in a selective review delimited to literature about women's self-perceived body image. The psychological, social, and spiritual effects of a negative body image will be explored. Implications for mental health clinicians and researchers will be presented. PMID:22849783

Walters-Brown, Bobbie; M Hall, Joanne

2012-08-01

387

Conjecture on the physical implications of the scale anomaly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Murray Gell-Mann, after co-inventing QCD, recognized the interplay of the scale anomaly, the renormalization group, and the origin of the strong scale, {Lambda}{sub QCD}. I tell a story, then elaborate this concept, and for the sake of discussion, propose a conjecture that the physical world is scale invariant in the classical, {h_bar}, limit. This principle has implications for the dimensionality of space-time, the cosmological constant, the weak scale, and Planck scale.

Hill, Christopher T.; /Fermilab

2005-10-01

388

Workplace bullying after whistleblowing:Future research and implications  

OpenAIRE

Findings: Empirical research has documented the link between whistleblowing and workplace bullying and the devastating effects on health that may follow (e.g. depression and symptoms analogous to post traumatic stress). Implications for practice are as follows: first, to provide clear examples of unwanted workplace behavior; and second, to help clinicians to gain a balance between the client's need to re-tell and the need for psychological treatment.

Bjørkelo, Brita

2013-01-01

389

Some didactical implications of Heritage in the Social Education Degree  

OpenAIRE

Artistic manifestations represent a significant impulse to education and development, being the study of Heritage and its didactic implications a unique and very valuable resource for teaching and learning; this reason prompted the University of Granada to include this topic in the “Social Education” curriculum. Therefore, through the Teaching of Social Sciences, a channel was established for implementing the initial formation in this grade, taking advantage of the Spanish Historical Heri...

Palma Valenzuela, Andre?s

2010-01-01

390

The Finnish Team Academy model: implications for management education  

OpenAIRE

This article explores an innovative model of management education, the Team Academy based in Finland, in which teams of learners create and operate real enterprises, supported by coaches. The contributions of the article are to provide insights into how the Team Academy works, and to review its implications for theories of management learning and educational design. Based on a case study of the Team Academy model we argue that management education programmes need to be construed as artificial...

Tosey, Pc; Dhaliwal, S.; Hassinen, J.

2013-01-01

391

Instructional Computer Technology: Implications for Gender Achievement in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This study examined the instructional computer technology with its implications for gender achievement in Nigeria. The setting was in Graphcom Independent Educational Computer Laboratory, Ilorin in Nigeria. The participants were randomly selected Junior Secondary School (JSS) III students in Ilorin West local government area of Kwara State for a holiday computer technology instruction. A total of 30 students (15 boys and 15 girls), aged 15 and 16 years old, participated in this study. Scores ...

Onasanya, S. A.; Olumorin, C. O.; Asuquo, E. N.; Ogunojemite, G. B.

2007-01-01

392

Part 4. Safety implications of alternative fuel types  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides an assessment of safety implications associated with alternatives relative to the reference (U,Pu) oxide fuel in fast breeder reactors. The alternatives considered include thorium- and uranium-based oxide, carbide and metal fuel types for the LMFBR and oxide fuel types for the GCFR. Major emphasis is put on low probability, but potentially large-consequence accidents, e.g., core-disruptive accidents

393

The nano-plasma interface: Implications of the protein corona.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interactions between nanoparticles and macromolecules in the blood plasma dictate the biocompatibility and efficacy of nanotherapeutics. Accordingly, the properties of nanoparticles and endogenous biomolecules change at the nano-plasma interface. Here, we review the implications of such changes including toxicity, immunological recognition, molecular targeting, biodistribution, intracellular uptake, and drug release. Although this interface poses several challenges for nanomedicine, it also presents opportunities for exploiting nanoparticle-protein interactions. PMID:24656615

Wolfram, Joy; Yang, Yong; Shen, Jianliang; Moten, Asad; Chen, Chunying; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro; Zhao, Yuliang

2014-12-01

394

Phosphoproteomics by Mass Spectrometry: insights, implications, applications, and limitations  

OpenAIRE

Phosphorylation of proteins is a predominant reversible post-translational modification. It is central to a wide variety of physiological responses and signaling mechanisms. Recent advances have allowed the global scope of phosphorylation to be addressed by mass spectrometry using phosphoproteomic approaches. In this perspective we discuss four aspects of phosphoproteomics; namely insights and implications from recently published phosphoproteomic studies, and applications and limitations of c...

Mayya, Viveka; Han, David K.

2009-01-01

395

Implications of Mirror Dark Matter on Neutron Stars  

OpenAIRE

We study the implications of asymmetric dark matter on neutron stars. we construct a "mixed neutron star" model composed of ordinary baryons and of asymmetric dark matter baryons. We derive the general relativistic structure equations for each specie, the equation for the mass within a given radius, and the redshift as function of radius. We present one specific numerical model as an illustrative example. In this example, the mass of the dark neutron equals half that of the ...

Goldman, Itzhak

2011-01-01

396

Systematic Implications of Seed Coat Morphology in Malvaceae  

OpenAIRE

Seed morphological characters and seed coat sculpture of 14 species of Malvaceae were examined to assess systematic implications of seed coat sculpture. These taxa are Malva aegyptia L., M. parviflora L., M. neglecta Wallr., M. nicaeensis All., M. sylvestris L., Lavatera cretica L., Alcea rosea All., Sida alba L., Abutilon theophrasti Medicus, A. pannosum (G. Forster) Schlecht., Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., H. trionum L., and Gossypium barbadens...

El Naggar, Salah M. I.

2001-01-01

397

Applications and implications of nanotechnologies for the food sector  

OpenAIRE

Abstract A review of the current and projected nanotechnology derived food ingredients, food additives, and food contact materials is presented in relation to potential implications for consumer safety and regulatory controls. Nanotechnology applications are expected to bring a range of benefits to the food sector, including new tastes, textures and sensations, less use of fat, enhanced absorption of nutrients, improved packaging, traceability and security of food products. The rev...

Chaudhry, Qasim; Scotter, Michael; Blackburn, James; Ross, Bryony; Boxall, Alistair; Castle, Laurence; Watkins, Richard; Aitken, Robert

2008-01-01

398

Economic Implications of International Tourism on Turkish Economy  

OpenAIRE

This study outlines, with a review of earlier studies, the effects of international tourism by showing developments in tourism-related economic parameters and discusses the implications of such tourism on the economy of Turkey. It asks how far international tourism contributes to the economic growth and development of Turkey; how far the country fully values its tourism potential by varying the focus of tourism facilities beyond the sun-sea-sand type of tourism, in order to lead to developmen...

Mustafa Akal

2009-01-01

399

Water implications of large-scale land acquisitions in Ghana  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the water dimensions of recent large-scale land acquisitions for biofuel production in the Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo and Northern regions of Ghana. Using secondary sources of data complemented by individual and group interviews, the paper reveals an almost universal lack of consideration of the implications of large-scale land deals for crop water requirements, the ecological functions of freshwater ecosystems and water rights of local smallholder farmers and other users. It do...

Timothy Olalekan Williams; Benjamin Gyampoh; Fred Kizito; Regassa Namara

2012-01-01

400

Olfactory Examination in Korsakoff's Syndrome: Implications for Early Diagnosis  

OpenAIRE

Whilst olfactory dysfunction has been reported in Korsakoff's Syndrome (KS) patients, the diagnostic implications of this have not been fully explored. KS can be difficult to diagnose because cognitive symptoms are similar to other diagnoses. For instance, patients with Frontal Lobe (FL) Syndrome may present with memory impairments that are similar to KS. Participants were given the Benton Visual Retention Test-Fifth Edition (BVRT-V), to identify working memory dysfunction, and a Brief Smell ...

Jones, Dawn E.; Marie Rowland; Martyn Bracewell, R.

2011-01-01

401

Dynamic geometry, implication and abduction: a case study  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we illustrate the role of dynamic geometry as an environment that propitiates the use of empirical explorations to favor learning to prove. This is possible thanks to abductive processes, related to the establishment of implications that university students of a plane geometry course carry out when, supported by a dynamic geometry program, they solve a problem in which they must discover a geometric fact, formulate a conjecture and prove it.

Samper, Carmen; Camargo, Leonor; Perry, Patricia; Molina, O?scar

2012-01-01

402

Implications of Patent Pools on Innovation Regarding Antiretrovirals§  

OpenAIRE

Patent pools have been promoted as an innovative means of promoting the production of fixed-dose combination antiretroviral medicines (ARVs), which can be particularly appropriate for resource-poor settings. An important question, however, is what are the implications of patent pools on innovation for creating new and improved antiretrovirals. Indeed, given the continuing mutation of HIV and growing resistance to existing treatments, continued innovation in ARV development is vital for addres...

Noehrenberg, Eric

2010-01-01

403

PXR: a xenobiotic receptor of diverse function implicated in pharmacogenetics  

OpenAIRE

The pregnane X receptor (PXR; NR1I2), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, regulates the expression of drug-metabolic enzymes and transporters involved in the responses of mammals to their chemical environment. The same enzyme and transporter systems are also involved in the homeostasis of numerous endogenous chemicals. The regulatory function of PXR is implicated in normal physiology and diseases, such as drug–drug interactions, hepatic steatosis, vitamin D homeostasis, bile acids...

Zhang, Bin; Xie, Wen; Krasowski, Mathew D.

2008-01-01

404

US acid rain legislation: implications for the steaming coal trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent acid rain legislation passed by the US Congress aims to drastically reduce sulphur dioxide emissions from coal fired power stations. Compliance with this legislation is expected to impinge on industries involved in steaming coal production, consumption and exports. Australia is a major producer of low sulphur coal, therefore it is assumed that this legislation could have positive implications for the Australian steaming coal industry. 13 refs., tabs., figs

405

Fraud and Its Implications for Bank Performance in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

In recent years, the volume and frequency of fraudulent practices in Nigerian banks have been on the increase with obvious implications on bank performance. The performance of Nigerian banking industry is a product of its returns and services rendered to the public as a whole. However, the occurrence and frequency of fraud in the banking sector over the years has negatively affected the performance of these banks in Nigeria. It is on this note that this paper examines the problem of fraud and...

Abdul Raheem Abdul Rasheed; Isiaka Sulu Babaita; Muhammed Abubakar Yinusa

2012-01-01

406

An implication of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem  

OpenAIRE

A proof of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem is given. With this new proof a transfinite extension of G\\"odel's theorem is considered. It is shown that if one assumes the set theory ZFC on the meta level as well as on the object level, a contradiction arises. The cause is shown to be the implicit identification of the meta level and the object level hidden behind the G\\"odel numbering. An implication of these considerations is stated.

Kitada, Hitoshi

2009-01-01

407

Coronary heart disease in Indians: Implications of the INTERHEART study  

OpenAIRE

Coronary heart diseases (CHD) have reached epidemic proportions among Indians. The recently concluded INTWERHEART study emphasizes the role of behavioural and conventional risk factors in the prediction of CHD risk among Indians. These findings have implication for the health care providers and policy makers in the country due to the fact that all these conventional risk factors are potentially modifiable and are good starting points for prevention. The policy measures by means of legislation...

Ajay, Vamadevan S.; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

2010-01-01

408

Advances in Seabed Liquefaction and its Implications for Marine Structures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A review is presented of recent advances in seabed liquefaction and its implications for marine structures. The review is organized in seven sections: Residual liquefaction, including the sequence of liquefaction, mathematical modelling, centrifuge modelling and comparison with standard wave-flume results; Momentary liquefaction; Floatation of buried pipelines; Sinking of pipelines and marine objects; Liquefaction at gravity structures; Stability of rock berms in liquefied soils; and Impact of seismic-induced liquefaction.

Sumer, B. Mutlu

2013-01-01

409

Evaluating the social and cultural implications of the internet  

OpenAIRE

Since the Internet's breakthrough as a mass medium, it has become a topic of discussion because of its implications for society. At one extreme, one finds those who only see great benefits and consider the Internet a tool for freedom, commerce, connectivity, and other societal benefits. At the other extreme, one finds those who lament the harms and disadvantages of the Internet, and who consider it a grave danger to existing social structures and institutions, to culture, morality and human r...

Brey, Philip

2006-01-01

410

Software Development Methodologies, Trends and Implications: A Testing Centric View  

OpenAIRE

The practice of software development has evolved steadily over the decades. Numerous methods and models (e.g., life cycle models and agile methods) have been proposed to enhance its efficiency and effectiveness. This study provides a testing centric view of software development practices. Specifically, it reviews software development methodologies (i.e., methods and models), identifies the latest trends in the industry and discusses their implications. The review of methodologies, the identif...

Xihui Zhang; Tao Hu; Hua Dai; Xiang Li

2010-01-01

411

Total imprecision of exposure biomarkers: implications for calculating exposure limits  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Assessment of the imprecision of exposure biomarkers usually focuses on laboratory performance only. Unrecognized imprecision leads to underestimation of the true toxicity of the exposure. We have assessed the total imprecision of exposure biomarkers and the implications for calculation of exposure limits. METHODS: In a birth cohort study, mercury concentrations in cord blood, cord tissue, and maternal hair were used as biomarkers of prenatal methylmercury exposure. We determined ...

Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-jørgensen, Esben

2008-01-01

412

Akt inhibitors: mechanism of action and implications for anticancer therapeutics  

OpenAIRE

Akt, better known as protein kinase B (PKB), is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase which acts as mediator via PI3K/Akt pathway in many biological processes like glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell differentiation and transcription. Akt1 gene amplification has been implicated in gastric carcinoma while Akt2 amplification has been linked with ovarian, pancreas, breast and stomach tumors. The use of Akt inhibitors as monotherapy or in combination with other anticancer drugs could be usef...

Bhutani, Jaikrit; Sheikh, Asfandyar; Niazi, Asfandyar Khan

2013-01-01

413

Psammoma bodies in endometriosis: clinical, cytological, and physiopathological implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

This, to the best of our knowledge, is the first report of the cytological observation of psammoma bodies in an endometrioma. Psammoma bodies are laminated, calcified spherites, commonly associated with meningiomas, ovarian serous cystadenocarcinomas, and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Many other pathologic processes can produce dystrophic calcification in the form of psammoma bodies. The physiopathological theories of the origin of dystrophic calcification and psammoma bodies will be discussed. The most promising theory implicates matrix vesicles as the nidus for calcification. PMID:8725135

Minkowitz, G

1996-06-01

414

Topological implications of negative curvature for biological and social networks  

OpenAIRE

Network measures that reflect the most salient properties of complex large-scale networks are in high demand in the network research community. In this paper we adapt a combinatorial measure of negative curvature (also called hyperbolicity) to parameterized finite networks, and show that a variety of biological and social networks are hyperbolic. This hyperbolicity property has strong implications on the higher-order connectivity and other topological properties of these net...

Albert, Reka; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Mobasheri, Nasim

2014-01-01

415

An n??* Interaction in Aspirin: Implications for Structure and Reactivity  

OpenAIRE

Stereoelectronic effects modulate molecular structure, reactivity, and conformation. We find that the interaction between the ester and carboxyl moieties of aspirin has a previously unappreciated quantum mechanical character that arises from the delocalization of an electron pair (n) of a donor group into the antibonding orbital (?*) of an acceptor group. This interaction affects the physicochemical attributes of aspirin, and could have implications for its pharmacology.

Choudhary, Amit; Kamer, Kimberli J.; Raines, Ronald T.

2011-01-01

416

An n??* interaction in aspirin: implications for structure and reactivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stereoelectronic effects modulate molecular structure, reactivity, and conformation. We find that the interaction between the ester and carboxyl moieties of aspirin has a previously unappreciated quantum mechanical character that arises from the delocalization of an electron pair (n) of a donor group into the antibonding orbital (?*) of an acceptor group. This interaction affects the physicochemical attributes of aspirin and could have implications for its pharmacology. PMID:21842865

Choudhary, Amit; Kamer, Kimberli J; Raines, Ronald T

2011-10-01

417

Implications of unitarity for low-energy WL±, ZL scattering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate the partial-wave scattering of longitudinally polarized W± and Z bosons for energies MW much-lt ?s much-lt MH using an Argand-diagram analysis. We find that, for large Higgs-boson masses MH, partial-wave unitarity is badly violated at one loop at energies ?s much-lt MH, and the standard model of the electroweak interactions becomes effectively strongly interacting in this sector. The implications of this and other similar results are summarized

418

Implications of radiation-compensation criteria for the nuclear industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of attributable risk and probability of causation concepts for assessing workmen's compensation are reviewed and applied to radiation workers in nuclear power plants. Estimations of cancer incidence for certain primary cancer sites for the period 1980 to 2045 are used to derive possible compensation costs, ranging from about 30 to 400 million dollars. The probability of causation method is shown to be quite sensitive to input parameter selection. Implications for the nuclear industry are reviewed. 18 references, 44 figures, 30 tables

419

Non-coding RNAs enter mitosis: functions, conservation and implications  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Nuage (or commonly known as chromatoid body in mammals) is a conserved germline-specific organelle that has been linked to the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway. piRNAs are a class of gonadal-specific RNAs that are ~23-29 nucleotides in length and protect genome stability by repressing the expression of deleterious retrotransposons. More recent studies in Drosophila have implicated the piRNA pathway in other functions including canalization of embryonic developm...

Kai Toshie; Pek Jun

2011-01-01

420

Targeting in Advertising Markets: Implications for Offline Versus Online Media  

OpenAIRE

We develop a model with many advertisers (products) and many advertising markets (media). Each advertiser sells to a different segment of consumers, and each medium is targeting a different audience. We characterize the competitive equilibrium in the advertising markets and evaluate the implications of targeting. An increase in targeting leads to an increase in the total number of consumer-product matches, and hence in the social value of advertising. Yet, targeting also increases the concent...

Bergemann, Dirk; Bonatti, Alessandro

2011-01-01

421

Aggregate implications of defined benefit and defined contribution systems  

OpenAIRE

We use a general equilibrium life-cycle model with incomplete markets and heterogeneous agents to evaluate the macroeconomic and welfare implications of Defined Benefit (DB) versus Defined Contribution (DC) systems, and to investigate the effects of incremental reform within a particular system. Extensive calibrations illustrate the trade-off between efficiency and redistribution that a tax-financed, DB social security system generates. We find that social welfare is maximized for small but p...

Gomes, Francisco; Michaelides, Alexander

2003-01-01

422

Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications  

OpenAIRE

Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 ...

Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S.

2014-01-01

423

Evolution in invasive plants: implications for biological control  

OpenAIRE

Evidence is increasing that invasive plants can undergo rapid adaptive evolution during the process of range expansion. Here, we argue that evolutionary change during invasions will also affect plant–antagonist inter-actions and, thus, will have important implications for biological control programmes targeted at invasive plants. We explore how altered selection in the new range might influence the evolution of plant defence (resistance and tolerance) and life history. The degree to which s...

Mu?ller-scha?rer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs; Steinger, Thomas

2005-01-01

424

CANCEROUS IMMUNOGLOBULINS AND CA215: IMPLICATIONS IN CANCER IMMUNOLOGY  

OpenAIRE

Immunoglobulins are typically expressed by B cells in our normal immune system. However, certain normal human tissues, such as hyperplastic epithelial cells, cells of the immunologically privileged sites and the majority of cancer cells, have also been found to be sites of immunoglobulin production. Current research is lacking in regards to the differential immunoglobulin expression, the underling mechanisms of action and the biological implications of these cancerous immunoglobulins in cance...

Gregory Lee

2012-01-01

425

Conjecture on the Physical Implications of the Scale Anomaly  

OpenAIRE

Murray Gell-Mann, after co-inventing QCD, recognized the interplay of the scale anomaly, the renormalization group, and the origin of the strong scale, Lambda_{QCD}. I tell a story, then elaborate this concept, and for the sake of discussion, propose a conjecture that the physical world is scale invariant in the classical, \\hbar -> 0, limit. This principle has implications for the dimensionality of space-time, the cosmological constant, the weak scale, and Planck scale.

Hill, Christopher T.

2005-01-01

426

Longevity: Trends, uncertainty and the implications for pension systems  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents historical trends in life expectancy in the United Kingdom and other countries and discusses how these trends might evolve over the coming decades. The paper argues that the expected increases in longevity are likely to have significant implications for the structure of pension systems in the future. Individuals, businesses and governments have already responded to these expected increases – for example by working longer, closing defined-benefit pension schemes or introd...

Eich, Frank; Swarup, Amarendra

2009-01-01

427

Calcium-related fungal genes implicated in arbuscular mycorrhiza  

OpenAIRE

Fluctuations in intracellular (Ca2+) calcium levels generate signaling events and regulate different cellular processes. Whilst the implication of Ca2+ in plant cell responses during arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) interactions is well documented, nothing is known about the regulation or role of this secondary meesenger in the fungal symbiont. The molecular basis of fungal calcium homeostasis in the AM symbiosis was analyzed by investigating the expression of Ca2+-related fungal genes. In a first ...

Liu, Yi

2012-01-01

428

Marriage as 'ordained by God' (with implications for gay marriages)  

OpenAIRE

This article focuses on marriage. It appears that marriage is in the first place a social cultural institution with legal implications, and not religious by nature. Concepts and practices regarding marriage change along with social and cultural movements. Regarding the twenty first century, a marked shift from patriarchy towards equality has been observed. Marriage practices have changed: the man is no longer sole breadwinner and head of the household, the woman no longer only the pleasing wi...

Villiers, Gerda

2007-01-01

429

Gender implications of biofuels expansion: A CGE analysis for Mozambique  

OpenAIRE

We use a gendered computable general equilibrium model to assess the implications of biofuels expansion in Mozambique. We compare scenarios with different gender employment intensities in producing jatropha for biodiesel. Under all scenarios, biofuels accelerate GDP growth and reduce poverty. However, a stronger tradeoff between biofuels and food availability emerges when female labour is used intensively, as women are drawn away from food production. A skills-shortage amongst female workers ...

Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Thurlow, James

2010-01-01

430

Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis induced by rarely implicated drugs  

OpenAIRE

Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) and Steven-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) are serious disorders commonly caused as idiosyncratic reactions to drugs, the most common ones being oxicams, anticonvulsants, allopurinol, and sulfonamides. We present a case of TEN in a patient who developed the lesions after ingesting multiple drugs including paracetamol, metoclopramide, antihistamines, and multivitamins. These drugs have rarely been implicated in this disorder. The suspected drugs in this case were parace...

Rajagopalan, Sujit; Kaur, Sharonjeet; Dogra, Sunil; Shafiq, Nusrat; Bhalla, Ashish; Pandhi, Promila; Malhotra, Samir

2012-01-01

431

Psychiatry in Former Socialist Countries: Implications for North Korean Psychiatry  

OpenAIRE

Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist ...

Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong; Kim, Seog Ju

2014-01-01

432

Global climate change: Two views on policy implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These two subarticles provide a look at the national and international policy implications of global climate change as the Kyoto summit draws near. One article addresses climate change and the air conditioning industry sees the summit in a positive light while the other predicts a rough road for these climate change negotiations because of the intense pressure to come up with something even if its practical applications is suspect

433

Social cognition and the superior temporal sulcus: implications in autism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most common clinical sign of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is social interaction impairment, which is associated with communication deficits and stereotyped behaviors. Based on brain-imaging results, our hypothesis is that abnormalities in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) are highly implicated in ASD. These abnormalities are characterized by decreased grey matter concentration, rest hypoperfusion and abnormal activation during social tasks. STS anatomofunctional anomalies occurring early across brain development could constitute the first step in the cascade of neural dysfunctions underlying autism. It is known that STS is highly implicated on social perception processing, from perception of biological movements, such as body movements or eye gaze, to more complex social cognition processes. Among the impairments that can be described in social perception processing, eye gaze perception is particularly relevant in autism. Gaze abnormalities can now be objectively measured using eye-tracking methodology. In the present work, we will review recent data on STS contributions to normal social cognition and its implication in autism, with particular focus on eye gaze perception. PMID:22981269

Saitovitch, A; Bargiacchi, A; Chabane, N; Brunelle, F; Samson, Y; Boddaert, N; Zilbovicius, M

2012-10-01

434

The Family Medicine Curriculum Resource Project: implications for faculty development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Faculty development implications related to implementing the Family Medicine Curriculum Resource (FMCR) Project provide an opportunity to look at the recommendations of the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine's federally funded Faculty Futures Initiative (FFI) and the recent Future of Family Medicine (FFM) project. Implications for faculty development include the importance of the clerkship setting, originally defined in 1991, with new features added in today's practice environment as outlined by the FFM and the changing assumptions in approaching faculty development. Previously, faculty development focused on teaching learners to master current knowledge. Now, faculty must teach learners how to master new competencies throughout their lives; learners need to learn how they and others learn now. Teaching must focus on how to learn in the future as well as what to learn for the present. Competence ("what individuals know or are able to do in terms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes") has become the focus of curriculum development efforts over the last few years and most appropriately serves as the focus of curriculum development in the FMCR Project. Implications for developing teachers and preceptors focus on the skills and circumstances required to teach and evaluate all types (cognitive, metacognitive, and affective) of competence. In the new culture, novel teaching methods will serve as the focus of faculty development in teaching and of educational ("best practices") research. PMID:17186448

Sheets, Kent J; Quirk, Mark E; Davis, Ardis K

2007-01-01

435

Progressive Climate Change on Titan: Implications for Habitability  

Science.gov (United States)

Titan's landscape is profoundly shaped by its atmosphere and comparable in magnitude perhaps with only the Earth and Mars amongst the worlds of the Solar System. Like the Earth, climate dictates the intensity and relative roles of fluvial and aeolian activity from place to place and over geologic time. Thus Titan's landscape is the record of climate change. We have investigated three broad classes of Titan climate evolution hypotheses (Steady State, Progressive, and Cyclic), regulated by the role, sources, and availability of methane. We favor the Progressive hypotheses, which we will outline here, then discuss their implication for habitability.

Moore, J. M.; A. D. Howard

2014-01-01

436

Socio-Cultural and Political Implications of Environmental Damage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to analyze the socio-cultural and political implications of environmental damage. The methodology used in the study is qualitative approach, which is a research process to understand and investigate the social or human problem based on the traditions of a particular research methodology. The conclusion from this study, in terms of socio-political aspect, the government should develop the implementation of biocracy/ bio-democracy, which treats nature as a citizen who has the rights to be protected and developed according to its function.

Bambang Yuniarto

2012-10-01

437

Scaffold protein Homer 1: implications for neurological diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Homer proteins are commonly known as scaffold proteins at postsynaptic density. Homer 1 is a widely studied member of the Homer protein family, comprising both synaptic structure and mediating postsynaptic signaling transduction. Both an immediate-early gene encoding a Homer 1 variant and a constitutively expressed Homer 1 variant regulate receptor clustering and trafficking, intracellular calcium homeostasis, and intracellular molecule complex formation. Substantial preclinical investigations have implicated that each of these Homer 1 variants are associated with the etiology of many neurological diseases, such as pain, mental retardation syndromes, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, drug-induced addiction, and traumatic brain injury. PMID:22749857

Luo, Peng; Li, Xia; Fei, Zhou; Poon, Waisang

2012-10-01

438

Subjective knowledge and fear appeal effectiveness: implications for message design.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research investigates the role of perceived health knowledge on the effectiveness of fear-based persuasive appeals. Undergraduates (N = 263) read a strong fear, weak fear, or efficacy-only message encouraging breast or testicular self-examination. As expected, results indicated that men high in subjective knowledge were less reactant and more persuaded by the efficacy-only message whereas those low in subjective knowledge did not evidence this pattern. Contrary to expectation, women high in subjective knowledge had comparable reactions to each of the 3 messages. Implications for fear appeal theory and message design are discussed. PMID:18444005

Nabi, Robin L; Roskos-Ewoldsen, David; Carpentier, Francesca Dillman

2008-01-01

439

Tourist activated networks: Implications for dynamic packaging systems in tourism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses tourist activated networks as a concept to inform technological applications supporting dynamic bundling and en-route recommendations. Empirical data was collected from travellers who visited a regional destination in the US and then analyzed with respect to its network structure. The results indicate that the tourist activated network for the destination is rather sparse and that there are clearly differences in core and peripheral nodes. The findings illustrate the structure of a tourist activated network and provide implications for technology design and tourism marketing.

Zach, Florian; Gretzel, Ulrike

2008-01-01

440

Incidence and implications of natural deaths of road users.  

OpenAIRE

A prospective study was carried out over the 10 years 1978-87 to determine the incidence and implications of sudden death in road users--that is, drivers, pedestrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists. During the study period 30,000 patients were seen in the same accident and emergency departments of East Berkshire after road traffic incidents or accidents, of whom 267 either were brought in dead or died within two hours after arrival. Of these patients, 64 (24%) were found to have died of natural...

Christian, M. S.

1988-01-01

441

Implications of agricultural transitions and urbanization for ecosystem services.  

Science.gov (United States)

Historically, farmers and hunter-gatherers relied directly on ecosystem services, which they both exploited and enjoyed. Urban populations still rely on ecosystems, but prioritize non-ecosystem services (socioeconomic). Population growth and densification increase the scale and change the nature of both ecosystem- and non-ecosystem-service supply and demand, weakening direct feedbacks between ecosystems and societies and potentially pushing social-ecological systems into traps that can lead to collapse. The interacting and mutually reinforcing processes of technological change, population growth and urbanization contribute to over-exploitation of ecosystems through complex feedbacks that have important implications for sustainable resource use. PMID:25373674

Cumming, Graeme S; Buerkert, Andreas; Hoffmann, Ellen M; Schlecht, Eva; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Tscharntke, Teja

2014-11-01

442

Current trends in thrombolysis: implications for diagnostic and interventional radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current trends in thrombolysis are of relevance to both diagnostic and interventional radiologists. In addition to the traditional use of thrombolytic therapy in conditions such as peripheral arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolic disease, more recent interest has focused on the potential use of thrombolysis in acute stroke. There will be significant implications for the provision of radiological services if current trials show a favourable outcome for thrombolysis in stroke. This article looks at a range of conditions in which thrombolysis may be useful, on the strength of currently available evidence. Future trends will depend on the outcomes of the current trials

443

Current trends in thrombolysis: implications for diagnostic and interventional radiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current trends in thrombolysis are of relevance to both diagnostic and interventional radiologists. In addition to the traditional use of thrombolytic therapy in conditions such as peripheral arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolic disease, more recent interest has focused on the potential use of thrombolysis in acute stroke. There will be significant implications for the provision of radiological services if current trials show a favourable outcome for thrombolysis in stroke. This article looks at a range of conditions in which thrombolysis may be useful, on the strength of currently available evidence. Future trends will depend on the outcomes of the current trials.

Kessel, D.O. [Department of Radiology, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Patel, J.V. [Department of Radiology, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jai.patel@leedsth.nhs.uk

2005-04-01

444

Kupalov's concept of shortened conditional reflexes: psychophysiological and psychopharmacological implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the regulation of cortical excitability tonus, Kupalov described a particular acquired, learned mechanism, the shortened conditional Reflex (SCR). SCR is an essential mechanism by which an adequate cortical tonus is established by environmental cues as an anticipatory set-up preparing the individual qualitatively and quantitatively for expected forthcoming events. An original physiological example is given, the conditional "transfer" of motor behavior at cortical electrical stimulation. Three psychopharmacological implications are presented, namely environmental-dependent, stress-related events, environmental-dependent drug conditioning, and drug-tolerance experiments. Future eventual psychophysiological and psychopharmacological lines of research related to the shortened conditional reflex concept are discussed. PMID:2570395

Giurgea, C E

1989-01-01

445

Breast density legislation. Implications for patients and primary care providers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Minnesota recently became the 16th state to require facilities that perform mammograms to notify patients if they are found to have dense or extremely dense breasts, as this may make it more difficult to detect a cancer or put them at increased risk for cancer. This article outlines the new law and describes the classification system for breast density, the implications for breast density on screening mammography, and the relationship between breast density and cancer. It also provides guidance for patients who have dense breast tissue regarding supplementary screening. PMID:25158436

Rhodes, Deborah J; Conners, Amy Lynn

2014-07-01

446

Determinants of Actor Rationality : – Implications for Supplier Relationship Management  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer-supplier relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse and understand actor rationalities. Finally managerial implications are discussed.

Ellegaard, Chris

2003-01-01

447

Surgical implications of an unusual anomaly of the infraorbital nerve.  

Science.gov (United States)

The infraorbital nerve is a direct extension of the maxillary division of the Vth cranial nerve. It typically courses anteriorly through a canal within the bone of the orbital floor. We describe an unusual anatomic variation of this canal that to our knowledge has not been previously described in the literature. This anomaly may have significant implications during surgery on the paranasal sinuses and maxillofacial skeleton. Careful preoperative assessment of the course of the infraorbital nerve is necessary to prevent iatrogenic hypoesthesia, paresthesia, or neuralgia. PMID:15628633

Chandra, Rakesh K; Kennedy, David W

2004-11-01

448

New Types of Fuzzy Filter on Lattice Implication Algebras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Extending the {\\it belongs} to ($\\in$ relation and {\\itquasi-coincidence with}($q$ relation between fuzzy points and a fuzzy subsets, the concept of $(\\alpha, \\beta$-fuzzy filters and $(\\overline{\\alpha}, \\overline{\\beta}$-fuzzy filters of lattice implication algebras are introduced, where$\\alpha,\\beta\\in\\{\\in_{h},q_{\\delta},\\in_{h}\\veeq_{\\delta},\\in_{h}\\wedge q_{\\delta}\\}$,$\\overline{\\alpha},\\overline{\\beta}\\in\\{\\overline{\\in_{h}},\\overline{q_{\\delta}},\\overline{\\in_{h}}\\vee\\overline{q_{\\delta}},\\overline{\\in_{h}}\\wedge\\overline{q_{\\delta}}\\}$ but $\\alpha\

Yi Liu

2011-01-01

449

Diabetes mellitus, advances and their implications for aerospace medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors describe a case of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (insulin dependent) in a 34-year-old fighter pilot, which included a 15-month remission ("honeymoon period"). The pathogenesis, characteristics, diagnosis, evaluation, and the aeromedical implications of Type 1 diabetes are discussed. The use of C-peptide values in accessing beta cell function is also discussed. The risk of poorly controlled diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, and visual acuity fluctuations were major reasons to disqualify this individual when in remission. The importance of determining the type of diabetes for prognosis and aeromedical disposition is stressed. PMID:7872918

Cayce, W R; Osswald, S S; Thomas, R A; Drew, W E; Williams, C S

1994-12-01

450

A q-deformed logistic map and its implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new q-deformed logistic map is proposed and it is found to have concavity in parts of the x-space. Its one-cycle and two-cycle non-trivial fixed points are obtained which are found to be qualitatively and quantitatively different from those of the usual logistic map. The stability of the proposed q-logistic map is studied using the Lyapunov exponent, and with a change in the value of the deformation parameter q, one is able to go from the chaotic to regular dynamical regime. The implications of this q-logistic map on Parrondo's paradox are examined.

451

Implications of a framework for student reasoning in an interview  

Science.gov (United States)

We discuss the implications of a framework to characterize student reasoning in an interview and its underpinnings in cognitive psychology. Our framework, described in a previous paper in these Proceedings, enables a researcher to identify various cognitive elements used by a student during an interview. Our thesis is that this framework can help identify reasoning paths used by the students. We discuss how this framework can be applied to both a coarse and fine grained analysis of reasoning and how it can be used to infer a student's implicit reasoning processes.

Gray, Kara E.; Hrepic, Zdeslav; Itza-Ortiz, Salomon F.; Allbaugh, Alicia R.; Engelhardt, Paula V.; Rebello, N. S.

2005-10-21

452

The Effects of Affective Factors in SLA and Pedagogical Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Affective factors are the most important factors in SLA and English teaching. These factors include emotion, feeling, mood, manner, attitude and so on. All these factors, especially, motivation, self-confidence and anxiety, decide the input and output of the second language. Under the guidance of the Affective Filter Hypothesis proposed by Krashen, the present paper makes a survey on advanced English majors. By collecting and analyzing research data, some useful results and implications have been found and can be used in future teaching. The affective factors will surely help the teachers to improve their teaching quality and students to cultivate an all-round development.

Hui Ni

2012-07-01

453

Skills for the 21st century : implications for education  

OpenAIRE

The world is changing rapidly in a lot of ways, but the dominant change is in ICT. Changing technology has far-reaching implications for how we act and interact at work, in education, in civic life and at home. Furthermore, this change is in large part the driving force behind many of the other major changes, such as globalization and flexibilization These changes have led many scholars to point to a new set of skills – the so-called 21st century skills – that are thought to be essential ...

Allen, Jim; Velden, Rolf

2012-01-01

454

Improving statistical reasoning theoretical models and practical implications  

CERN Document Server

This book focuses on how statistical reasoning works and on training programs that can exploit people''s natural cognitive capabilities to improve their statistical reasoning. Training programs that take into account findings from evolutionary psychology and instructional theory are shown to have substantially larger effects that are more stable over time than previous training regimens. The theoretical implications are traced in a neural network model of human performance on statistical reasoning problems. This book apppeals to judgment and decision making researchers and other cognitive scientists, as well as to teachers of statistics and probabilistic reasoning.

Sedlmeier, Peter

1999-01-01

455

Elders' end-of-life decisions: implications for hospice care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elders' views on various end-of-life decision options were studied to determine each option's acceptability if they were faced with the need for such decisions. 388 black and white elders aged 60 to 100 responded to 17 decision scenarios depicting situations with a low quality of life, rating acceptability of each of 7 options for each scenario. Based on factor analysis of responses over scenarios, three scores were computed: maintaining life, ending life, and letting others decide. Profile types were identified and related to demographic background and personality variables. Implications for hospice care are drawn. PMID:9248407

Cicirelli, V G

1997-01-01

456

Climate Change Technology Scenarios: Energy, Emissions, and Economic Implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes three advanced technology scenarios and various illustrative cases developed by staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program. These scenarios and illustrative cases explore the energy, emissions and economic implications of using advanced energy technologies and other climate change related technologies to reduce future emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The cases were modeled using the Mini Climate Assessment Model (MiniCAM) developed by PNNL. The report describes the scenarios, the specifications for the cases, and the results. The report also provides background information on current emissions of GHGs and issues associated with stabilizing GHG concentrations.

Placet, Marylynn; Humphreys, Kenneth K.; Mahasenan, N Maha

2004-08-15

457

Nanoparticles and nanomaterials: chemistry, interactions, environmental and biomedical implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanoscience involves the study of materials on the nanoscale level between approximately 1 and 100 nm and involves study of how to control the formation of two- and three-dimensional assemblies of molecular scale building blocks into well-defined nanostructures or nanomaterials. Among novel nanomaterials, nanoparticles (NPs, with all three dimensions between 1 and 100 nm) play an important role in nanotechnology advances in the production of nanoscale materials and the rapid increase of their applications in many areas. Key words: nanoparticles, nanomaterials, implications

458

The nuclear fuel cycle and its implications for Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear energy is an essential source of electrical energy in many countries, with 212 nuclear power stations currently in operation, 209 under construction, and 102 on order. The nuclear fuel cycle comprises all of the operations from mining and milling, through conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication to spent fuel storage and ultimate disposal, or reprocessing and recycle of valuable materials and disposal of the radioactive wastes. This article considers the status of the nuclear fuel cycle in the world today and its implications for Australia with particular reference to the stages of mining and milling, and conversion and enrichment

459

Barriers to Research and Implications for Training Counselors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research is an important part of quality clinical practice in the field of counseling. This study addresses the constraints that produce a gap in master’s level practitioner research among counselors in Illinois. Ninety-nine master’s level clinicians responded to surveys and answered a series of questions regarding what constrains them from being more involved in research. These respondents provided valuable feedback regarding possible recommendations for training that might encourage increased research activity for future master’s level counselors. Training improvements such as mentored research activity and training in less complex research methods were indicated. Keywords: Clinical practice, Implications, Barriers to research, less complex research

James R Ruby

2013-03-01

460

Considerations on the criteria, parameters and tax implications of depreciation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The literature presents several methods of depreciation. In Romania, not all depreciation methods are recommended by existing legislation. In this paper we propose to address through the income tax three methods of depreciation of assets, which are recommended by our country's legislation, and to highlight the tax benefits of their application within the entities. In the first part we propose to define what are the criteria for evaluating of a assets depreciation and accounting parameters of the assets depreciation. In the second part of the paper will be presented depreciation methods as linear, diminishing and accelerating with the tax implications.

Dorel Mate?

2012-01-01

461

Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis induced by rarely implicated drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) and Steven-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) are serious disorders commonly caused as idiosyncratic reactions to drugs, the most common ones being oxicams, anticonvulsants, allopurinol, and sulfonamides. We present a case of TEN in a patient who developed the lesions after ingesting multiple drugs including paracetamol, metoclopramide, antihistamines, and multivitamins. These drugs have rarely been implicated in this disorder. The suspected drugs in this case were paracetamol and metoclopramide. However, the role of other drugs could not be ruled out definitely. The patient was managed with antibiotics, corticosteroids, and parenteral fluids and recovered well. PMID:22529493

Rajagopalan, Sujit; Kaur, Sharonjeet; Dogra, Sunil; Shafiq, Nusrat; Bhalla, Ashish; Pandhi, Promila; Malhotra, Samir

2012-03-01

462

The flavour of supersymmetry: Phenomenological implications of sfermion mixing  

OpenAIRE

We study the phenomenological implications of sfermion flavour mixing in supersymmetry in the context of Non-Minimal Flavour Violation (NMFV). We study the general flavour mixing hypothesis, parametrizing the squark and slepton mass matrices by a complete set of delta^XY_ij (X,Y=L,R; i,j= t,c,u or b,s,d for squarks/1,2,3 for sleptons). With respect to the squark sector, we study the behaviour of the B-physics observables BR(B -> Xs gamma), BR(Bs -> mu+ mu-) and delta M_B_s a...

Arana-catania, M.

2013-01-01

463

Unit roots in macroeconomic time series: theory, implications, and evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The theme of unit roots in macroeconomic time series has received a great amount of theoretical and applied research in the last two decades. This paper presents some of the main issues regarding unit root tests, explores some of the implications for macroeconomic theory and policy, and reviews the recent evidence on the presence of unit roots in GDP series for Latin American countries. We conclude that a consensual view on many of the aspects involved has not emerged from this literature.

Gilberto Libanio

2005-12-01

464

Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person’s specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient’s coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery. PMID:25426088

Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S.

2014-01-01

465

Advances in information technology. Implications for medical education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few kinds of technology have had as broad an impact on the recent affairs of humanity as have information technologies. The appearance and rapid spread in the past several years of innovations such as the Internet's World Wide Web and the emergence of computer networks connecting tens to hundreds of millions of people worldwide have occurred with startling rapidity. These global events portend substantial changes in the delivery of health care, the conduct of biomedical research, and the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education of health professionals. This report will attempt to succinctly review the following: (1) the characteristics of modern information technologies and recent trends that are most relevant to medical education and to the world in which future practitioners, researchers, and educators will live and work; (2) the implications of these technologies for the development of educational goals (in other words, the specific information technology skills that future health professionals will need); (3) the issues associated with the use of these technologies in the process of education; and (4) implications for near-term action by University of California medical schools and academic medical centers. PMID:9614791

Masys, D R

1998-05-01

466

Measuring research excellence in the EU : Rationale, components, and implications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In 2013, the European Union unveiled its new ‘Composite Indicator for Scientific and Technological Research Excellence’, marking a turning point in how excellence is understood and used in European policy. This is not an isolated occurrence; policy-based interest in excellence is growing all over the world. The heightened focus on excellence and in particular, attempts to define it through quantitative indicators can have important implications for research policy and for the conduct of research itself. This paper examines how the European Union’s understanding of excellence has evolved in recent years, from the presentation of the Lisbon strategy in 2000 to the current Europe 2020 strategy. We find a distinct shift in the understanding of excellence and how success in the knowledge-based economy should be achieved: in the early period, excellence is a fuzzy concept, intrinsically embedded in research and researchers and revealed by peer review. In the later period, excellence is more sharply defined and connected with a particular sort of knowledge, that which produces breakthroughs; the result is that policymakers have turned their focus towards directly steering and controlling what is increasingly considered to be the key element for success in the knowledge-based economy. This change is evidenced by the ‘Composite Indicator for Scientific and Technological Research Excellence’, its rationale and its components, and also provides an entry point into viewing the implications of what happens to excellence when we start to measure it this way.

SØrensen, Mads P.; Bloch, Carter Walter

467

Environmental and economic implications of second generation biofuels for transportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The key objective of the project is to assess greenhouse gas and other environmental impacts of producing and using second generation biofuels. In addition, economic implications for Finland taking into account availability and competition of raw materials are analysed in three technology and target scenarios aiming to reach the EU's 10% target proposed for the biofuels in road transportation in 2020. Technologies for which environmental impact analysis are carried out are F-T diesel, NExBTL diesel, second generation ethanol and Brazilian ethanol. Raw materials considered include forest residues, peat, reed canary grass, straw, palm oil, rapeseed oil, waste fats and sugar cane. Economic implications for Finland by 2020 are studied in different scenarios with various assumptions as regards e.g. to self-sufficiency. Sustainability criteria for biofuels proposed by various organisations or institutions are critically analysed. The project is carried out by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA) and The Government Institute for Economic Research (VATT). The current knowledge and ongoing national and international projects are exploited to produce transparent and reliable data on environmental and economic impacts of considered biofuels. The final report of the project is scheduled to he published at the end of this year. (orig.)

Soimakallio, S. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Pasanen, K. (Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu (Finland)); Seppaelae, J. (Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Helsinki (Finland)); Honkatukia, J. (Government Institute for Economic Research, Helsinki (Finland)), Thun, R. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland))

2008-07-01

468

Metabolic fuel and clinical implications for female reproduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reproduction is a physiologically costly process that consumes significant amounts of energy. The physiological mechanisms controlling energy balance are closely linked to fertility. This close relationship ensures that pregnancy and lactation occur only in favourable conditions with respect to energy. The primary metabolic cue that modulates reproduction is the availability of oxidizable fuel. An organism's metabolic status is transmitted to the brain through metabolic fuel detectors. There are many of these detectors at both the peripheral (e.g., leptin, insulin, ghrelin) and central (e.g., neuropeptide Y, melanocortin, orexins) levels. When oxidizable fuel is scarce, the detectors function to inhibit the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone, thereby altering steroidogenesis, reproductive cyclicity, and sexual behaviour. Infertility can also result when resources are abundant but food intake fails to compensate for increased energy demands. Examples of these conditions in women include anorexia nervosa and exercise-induced amenorrhea. Infertility associated with obesity appears to be less related to an effect of oxidizable fuel on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Impaired insulin sensitivity may play a role in the etiology of these conditions, but their specific etiology remains unresolved. Research into the metabolic regulation of reproductive function has implications for elucidating mechanisms of impaired pubertal development, nutritional amenorrhea, and obesity-related infertility. A better understanding of these etiologies has far-reaching implications for the prevention and management of reproductive dysfunction and its associated comorbidities. PMID:17977492

Mircea, Carmen N; Lujan, Marla E; Pierson, Roger A

2007-11-01

469

Sounding the Solar Cycle with Helioseismology: Implications for Asteroseismology  

CERN Document Server

My brief for the IAC Winter School was to cover observational results on helioseismology, flagging where possible implications of those results for the asteroseismic study of solar-type stars. My desire to make such links meant that I concentrated largely upon results for low angular-degree (low-l) solar p modes, in particular results derived from "Sun-as-a-star" observations (which are of course most instructive for the transfer of experience from helioseismology to asteroseismology). The lectures covered many aspects of helioseismology - modern helioseismology is a diverse field. In these notes, rather than discuss each aspect to a moderate level of detail, I have instead made the decision to concentrate upon one theme, that of "sounding" the solar activity cycle with helioseismology. I cover the topics from the lectures and I also include some new material, relating both to the lecture topics and other aspects I did not have time to cover. Implications for asteroseismology are developed and discussed throu...

Chaplin, W J

2011-01-01

470

Citrullination of autoantigens implicates NETosis in the induction of autoimmunity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tolerance blocks the expression of autoantibodies, whereas autoimmunity promotes it. How tolerance breaks and autoantibody production begins thus are crucial questions for understanding and treatment of autoimmune diseases. Evidence implicates cell death and autoantigen modifications in the initiation of autoimmune reactions. One form of neutrophil cell death called NETosis deserves attention because it requires the post-translational modification of histones and results in the extracellular release of chromatin. NETosis received its name from NET, the acronym given to Neutrophil Extracellular Trap. The extracellular chromatin incorporates histones in which arginines have been converted to citrullines by peptidylarginine deiminase IV (PAD4). The deiminated chromatin may function to capture or 'trap' bacterial pathogens, thus generating an extracellular complex of deiminated histones and bacterial cell adjuvants. The complex of bacterial antigens and deiminated chromatin may be internalised by host phagocytes during acute inflammatory conditions, as arise during bacterial infections or chronic autoinflammatory disorders. The uptake and processing of deiminated chromatin together with bacterial adjuvants by phagocytes may induce the presentation of modified histone epitopes and co-stimulation, thus yielding a powerful stimulus to break tolerance. Autoantibodies to deiminated histones are prevalent in Felty's syndrome patients and are present in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). These observations clearly implicate histone deimination as an epigenetic mark that can act as an autoantibody stimulant. PMID:24291655

Dwivedi, Nishant; Radic, Marko

2014-03-01

471

Gender Differences in Website Design: Implications for Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the implications of a gendered website production and preference aesthetic for the teaching of computer studies. Where the website production aesthetic is concerned, it finds evidence of statistically significant differences on 13 of the 23 factors against which sixty student websites were rated. These results were suggestive of a website aesthetic continuum with male and female production aesthetic tendencies at either end. The preference tests, conducted with 67 subjects, revealed preferences to be in tune with production aesthetics such that men had a statistically significant tendency to prefer home pages produced by men, and women those produced by women. This latter tendency was higher than the former. The finding of gendered differences in website production and preference aesthetics has important implications for teaching and assessment. Teachers selecting or assessing websites, whether commercial or produced by pupils and students, need to be mindful of the aesthetic employed in those websites. When selecting websites for educational purposes, a match should be made between the website and end-user preferences. Assessment of students' work should ideally be mindful of the potential for positive bias on the part of the assessor in the direction of work displaying their own favoured aesthetic.

Gloria Moss

2007-12-01

472

Protein carbamylation in kidney disease: pathogenesis and clinical implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbamylation describes a nonenzymatic posttranslational protein modification mediated by cyanate, a dissociation product of urea. When kidney function declines and urea accumulates, the burden of carbamylation naturally increases. Free amino acids may protect proteins from carbamylation, and protein carbamylation has been shown to increase in uremic patients with amino acid deficiencies. Carbamylation reactions are capable of altering the structure and functional properties of certain proteins and have been implicated directly in the underlying mechanisms of various disease conditions. A broad range of studies has demonstrated how the irreversible binding of urea-derived cyanate to proteins in the human body causes inappropriate cellular responses leading to adverse outcomes such as accelerated atherosclerosis and inflammation. Given carbamylation's relationship to urea and the evidence that it contributes to disease pathogenesis, measurements of carbamylated proteins may serve as useful quantitative biomarkers of time-averaged urea concentrations while also offering risk assessment in patients with kidney disease. Moreover, the link between carbamylated proteins and disease pathophysiology creates an enticing therapeutic target for reducing the rate of carbamylation. This article reviews the biochemistry of the carbamylation reaction, its role in specific diseases, and the potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these findings based on recent advances. PMID:25037561

Kalim, Sahir; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Thadhani, Ravi I; Berg, Anders H

2014-11-01

473

Fraud and Its Implications for Bank Performance in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, the volume and frequency of fraudulent practices in Nigerian banks have been on the increase with obvious implications on bank performance. The performance of Nigerian banking industry is a product of its returns and services rendered to the public as a whole. However, the occurrence and frequency of fraud in the banking sector over the years has negatively affected the performance of these banks in Nigeria. It is on this note that this paper examines the problem of fraud and its implications for bank performance in Nigeria through empirical analysis. The sources of data used for the paper were extracted from the Nigerian Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC Annual Report from 2004 to 2009. Statistical methods such as parametric table and Pearson correlation were employed in the evaluation of the data. The study revealed that Nigerian banks recorded the highest fraud cases in 2008. The result of the hypothesis shows that, there is a significant relationship between total amount involved in fraud cases and bank’s profit. On this note, it was recommended that fraud can be reduced by complying effectively with the policy measures which the government, monetary and supervisory authorities designed to curb the menace of bank fraud in Nigeria.

Abdul Raheem Abdul Rasheed

2012-04-01