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Sample records for maritima tm0439 implications

  1. Structure of Thermotoga maritima TM0439: implications for the mechanism of bacterial GntR transcription regulators with Zn2+-binding FCD domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, the crystal structure of TM0439, a GntR regulator with an FCD domain found in the Thermotoga maritima genome, is described. The GntR superfamily of dimeric transcription factors, with more than 6200 members encoded in bacterial genomes, are characterized by N-terminal winged-helix DNA-binding domains and diverse C-terminal regulatory domains which provide a basis for the classification of the constituent families. The largest of these families, FadR, contains nearly 3000 proteins with all-?-helical regulatory domains classified into two related Pfam families: FadR-C and FCD. Only two crystal structures of FadR-family members, those of Escherichia coli FadR protein and LldR from Corynebacterium glutamicum, have been described to date in the literature. Here, the crystal structure of TM0439, a GntR regulator with an FCD domain found in the Thermotoga maritima genome, is described. The FCD domain is similar to that of the LldR regulator and contains a buried metal-binding site. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy and Trp fluorescence, it is shown that the recombinant protein contains bound Ni2+ ions but that it is able to bind Zn2+ with Kd < 70 nM. It is concluded that Zn2+ is the likely physiological metal and that it may perform either structural or regulatory roles or both. Finally, the TM0439 structure is compared with two other FadR-family structures recently deposited by structural genomics consortia. The results call for a revision in the classification of the FadR family of transcription factors

  2. Crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima TM0439: implications for the mechanism of bacterial GntR transcription regulators with Zn2+-binding FCD domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Meiying; Cooper, David; Grossoehmerb, Nickolas; Yu, Minmin; Hung, Li-Wei; Cieslik, Murcin; Derewendaro, Urszula; Lesley, Scott; Wilson, Ian; Giedrocb, David; Derewenda, Zygmunt

    2009-06-06

    The GntR superfamily of dimeric transcription factors, with more than 6200 members encoded in bacterial genomes, are characterized by N-terminal winged helix (WH) DNA-binding domains and diverse C-terminal, regulatory domains, which provide a basis for the classification of the constituent families. The largest of these families, FadR, contains nearly 3000 proteins with all a-helical regulatory domains classified into two related Pfam families: FadR{_}C and FCD. Only two crystal structures of the FadR family members, i.e. the E. coli FadR protein and the LldR from C. glutamicum, have been described to date in literature. Here we describe the crystal structure of TM0439, a GntR regulator with an FCD domain, found in the Thermotoga maritima genome. The FCD domain is similar to that of the LldR regulator, and contains a buried metal binding site. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy and Trp fluorescence, we show that the recombinant protein contains bound Ni{sup 2+} ions, but it is able to bind Zn{sup 2+} with K{sub D} < 70 nM . We conclude that Zn{sup 2+} is the likely physiological metal, where it may perform either or both structural and regulatory roles. Finally, we compare the TM0439 structure to two other FadR family structures recently deposited by Structural Genomics consortia. The results call for a revision in the classification of the FadR family of transcription factors.

  3. Ambrosia maritima L., Molluscicide végétal prometteur !

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidhom, MZ.

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambrosia maritima L., a promising molluscicide of plant origin !. Masses of granivorous birds destroy about 5-10 % of the rice crop produced in the central Niger delta. To the local species (ducks, ploceid birds and the quelea, which is the most abundant and noxious pest with numbers ranging from 18 million in January to 10 million in May-June add palearctic migratory birds, which are mainly ducks and stilt-birds. Bird control is necessarily undertaken but is inefficient due to the vastness of the region, difficult access to the sites, the number of birds and insufficient financial means.

  4. Structure of a NAD kinase from Thermotoga maritima at 2.3?Å resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Oganesyan, Vaheh; Huang, Candice; Adams, Paul D.; Jancarik, Jaru; Yokota, Hisao A.; Kim, Rosalind; Kim, Sung-Hou

    2005-01-01

    The expression, purification, crystallization, and structure determination of NAD-kinase from T. maritima are reported. Similarity to other NAD-kinases as well as homo-oligomrization state of the enzyme from T. maritima are discussed.

  5. Abiotic modulation of Spartina maritima photobiology in different latitudinal populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, B.; Couto, T.; Freitas, J.; Valentim, J.; Silva, H.; Marques, J. C.; Dias, J. M.; Caçador, I.

    2013-09-01

    Spartina maritima has a very wide distribution in the northern hemisphere salt marshes crossing a wide variety of climatic environments. Therefore, it is not strange that some differences arise when observing the photosynthetic mechanisms of different populations inhabiting different latitudes. During this study it could be observed that climate is the most important factor controlling the photosynthetic traits of different populations distributed along a climatic gradient, namely the air temperature, humidity and light environment. Also some sediment physicochemical parameters such as pH and pore water salinity showed important influences driving the photosynthetic mechanisms in S. maritima. Furthermore S. maritima is one of the most abundant halophytes colonizing the Portuguese salt marshes. These facts have greater importance if one considers the large abundance of this halophytic species and how climate change will affect their metabolism and thus the ecosystem services provided by this species to the estuarine system.

  6. Transcriptional regulation of the carbohydrate utilization network in Thermotoga maritima

    OpenAIRE

    DmitryARodionov; YekaterinaTarasova

    2013-01-01

    Hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Thermotogales lineage can produce hydrogen by fermenting a wide range of carbohydrates. Previous experimental studies identified a large fraction of genes committed to carbohydrate degradation and utilization in the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Knowledge of these genes enabled comprehensive reconstruction of biochemical pathways comprising the carbohydrate utilization network. However, transcriptional factors (TFs) and regulatory mechanisms driving ...

  7. Expression of Batis maritima methyl chloride transferase in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Xinhai; Hager, Lowell P.

    1999-01-01

    Methyl chloride transferase, a novel enzyme found in several fungi, marine algae, and halophytic plants, is a biological catalyst responsible for the production of atmospheric methyl chloride. A previous paper reports the purification of this methylase from Batis maritima and the isolation of a cDNA clone of the gene for this enzyme. In this paper, we describe the isolation of a genomic clone of the methylase gene and the expression of recombinant methyl chloride transferase in Escherichia co...

  8. Transcriptional regulation of the carbohydrate utilization network in Thermotoga maritima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DmitryARodionov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Thermotogales lineage can produce hydrogen by fermenting a wide range of carbohydrates. Previous experimental studies identified a large fraction of genes committed to carbohydrate degradation and utilization in the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Knowledge of these genes enabled comprehensive reconstruction of biochemical pathways comprising the carbohydrate utilization network. However, transcriptional factors (TFs and regulatory mechanisms driving this network remained largely unknown. Here, we used an integrated approach based on comparative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data for the reconstruction of the carbohydrate utilization regulatory networks in 11 Thermotogales genomes. We identified DNA-binding motifs and regulons for 19 orthologous TFs in the Thermotogales. The inferred regulatory network in T. maritima contains 181 genes encoding TFs, sugar catabolic enzymes and ABC-family transporters. In contrast to many previously described bacteria, a transcriptional regulation strategy of Thermotoga does not employ global regulatory factors. The reconstructed regulatory network in T. maritima was validated by gene expression profiling on a panel of mono- and disaccharides and by in vitro DNA-binding assays. The observed upregulation of genes involved in catabolism of pectin, trehalose, cellobiose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, glucose, galactose, and ribose showed a strong correlation with the UxaR, TreR, BglR, CelR, AraR, RhaR, XylR, GluR, GalR, and RbsR regulons. Ultimately, this study elucidated the transcriptional regulatory network and mechanisms controlling expression of carbohydrate utilization genes in T. maritima. In addition to improving the functional annotations of associated transporters and catabolic enzymes, this research provides novel insights into the evolution of regulatory networks in Thermotogales.

  9. Phytochemical study, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Stemodia maritima

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisca R. L. da, Silva; Francisco E. A., Rodrigues; Aldenia R. S., Gomes; Angela M. C., Arriaga; Jair, Mafezoli; Telma L. G., Lemos; Macia C. S. de, Almeida; Gilvandete M. P., Santiago; Raimundo, Braz-Filho; José G. M. da, Costa; Fabiola F. G., Rodrigues; Henrique D. M., Coutinho.

    1474-14-01

    Full Text Available Stemodinol, a new natural compound, together with known compounds including jaceidin, stemodin, stemodinoside B, isocrenatoside, verbascoside, crenatoside, and isoverbascoside, were isolated from Stemodia maritima Linn. The antioxidant (DPPH method) and antimicrobial activities of stemodin, stemodin [...] oside B, and crenatoside were investigated. Among the components tested, only crenatoside isolated from the roots showed a high antioxidant power. Stemodin and stemodinoside B exhibited antibacterial activities.

  10. Influence of micronutrient availability on biomass production in Cineraria maritima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava N

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cineraria maritima is an annual exotic medicinal herb. Aerial parts of the plants are commercially utilized for the preparation of homeopathic eye drops. Therefore the whole biomass of the aerial part is in much demand, commercially. The raw materials are of limited availability, and the indigenous requirement is met mostly, by import of the prepared drug formulation at higher cost. Concerted efforts are being made for the cultivation of this exotic medicinal plant. The effect of low to high supplies of micronutrients-Fe, Mn, B, and Zn on shoot biomass production, have been studied in C. maritima grown in sand culture. Higher doses of boron (at 1.0 mg/l and zinc (at 0.1 mg/l are observed to be beneficial for shoot biomass production, as compared to Iron (at 11.2 mg/l and Manganese (at 1 mg/l. Low supplies of iron, manganese, zinc, and boron, however, uniformly decrease biomass production. This study shows that higher supplies of B and Zn are beneficial for higher biomass production in C. maritima .

  11. NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE SUBMERGED ANGIO-SPERM 'RUPPIA MARITIMA' IN ALGAE-FREE CULTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppia maritima has the potential to become a model laboratory organism for studies with submerged aquatic vascular plants. The present study demonstrated that algae-free R. maritima grew well in a defined medium without sediment. Growth was a linear response to photon flux densi...

  12. Chemical Constituents from the Stems of Diospyros maritima

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    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new phenolic, bis(6-hydroxy-2,3,4-trimethoxylphen-1-ylmethane (1 and a new butanedioate, butylmethyl succinate (2, along with twenty-nine known compounds including one naphthoquinone derivative, two chromanones, eight benzenoids, one lignan, one tocopherol, and sixteen triterpenoids were isolated from the stems of Diospyros maritima. epi-Isoshinanolone (3 was isolated in pure form for the first time. In addition, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchomanone (4 was isolated from a natural source for the first time. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data as well as direct comparison with authentic samples.

  13. Diterpene and other constituents from Stemodia maritima (Scrophulariaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco E. A., Rodrigues; Jefferson Q., Lima; Maria da Conceição F. de, Oliveira; Jackson N., Vasconcelos; Gilvandete M. P., Santiago; Jair, Mafezoli; Raimundo, Braz-Filho; Angela M. C., Arriaga.

    1581-15-01

    Full Text Available Um novo diterpeno, (5S*,8S*,9R*,10S*)-11?,12?-epoxi-9?-hidróxi-19(4?3) abeo-abieta-3,13-dieno-19,18-olideo, e as substâncias conhecidas estemodina, D-manitol, ácido betulínico, uma mistura de 3?-O-?-D-glicopiranosil-?-sitosterol e 3?-O-?-D-glicopiranosilestigmasterol, e 5,7,4'-triidróxi-3,8,3'-trime [...] toxiflavona, foram isolados das folhas e talos de Stemodia maritima. A elucidação estrutural de todas as substâncias baseou-se na interpretação de dados espectrais, principalmente RMN (1D e 2D) e espectrometria de massa (EM), envolvendo comparação com valores descritos na literatura. Abstract in english A new diterpene, (5S*,8S*,9R*,10S*)-11?,12?-epoxy-9?-hydroxy-19(4?3) abeo-abieta-3,13-diene-19,18-olide, together with the known compounds stemodin, D-mannitol, betulinic acid, a mixture of 3?-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-sitosterol and 3?-O-?-D-glucopyranosylstigmasterol and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,8,3'-trim [...] ethoxyflavone were isolated from the leaves and stems of Stemodia maritima. Structural elucidation of all compounds was based on interpretation of spectral data, mainly NMR (1D and 2D) and MS, including comparison with values described in the literature.

  14. ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF SUAEDA MARITIMA (L. DUMORTIER STEM IN TRITON INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIC RATS

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    Rajinder mann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic effect of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier stem extracts in triton induced hyperlipidemia. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier were administered at dose 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg/day orally, respectively. Simultaneous administrations of stem extracts of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier significantly prevent the rise in serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL whereas significant increases in the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL in both secretary and excretory phase. The Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier methanol extract of stem at dose 300mg/kg body weight orally showed significant antihyperlipidemic activity which may be due to the presence of triterpenoids and sterols found in the preliminary phytochemical screening.

  15. HISTOANATOMICAL AND ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON SOME HALOPHYTES FROM ROMANIA - PLANTAGO MARITIMA

    OpenAIRE

    Ianovici, Nicoleta

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an histoanatomical and ecophysiological study of Plantago maritima. Studies were conducted to assess the diversity of anatomical adaptations of vegetative organs (roots, aerial stems, rhizomes and leaves) in this taxa. Results are presented with original photographs. The analysis of leaf anatomy in P. maritima showed that the leaves contained xeromorphic traits (high development of palisade and water storage parenchyma). Stomatal density is high for both epidermis and cuti...

  16. Unusual fatty acid compositions of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus and the bacterium Thermotoga maritima.

    OpenAIRE

    Carballeira, N M; M. Reyes; Sostre, A; Huang, H.; Verhagen, M F; Adams, M. W.

    1997-01-01

    The fatty acid compositions of the hyperthermophilic microorganisms Thermotoga maritima and Pyrococcus furiosus were studied and compared. A total of 37 different fatty acids were identified in T. maritima, including the novel 13,14-dimethyloctacosanedioic acid. In contrast, a total of 18 different fatty acids were characterized, as minor components, in P. furiosus, and these included saturated, monounsaturated, and dicarboxylic acids. This is the first report of fatty acids from an archaeon.

  17. High-Resolution Structure of Shikimate Dehydrogenase from Thermotoga maritima Reveals a Tightly Closed Conformation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyung Ho

    2011-01-01

    Shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH), which catalyses the NADPH-dependent reduction of 3-dehydroshikimate to shikimate in the shikimate pathway, is an attractive target for the development of herbicides and antimicrobial agents. Structural analysis of a SDH from Thermotoga maritima encoded by the Tm0346 gene was performed to facilitate further structural comparisons between the various shikimate dehydrogenases. The crystal structure of SDH from T. maritima was determined at 1.45 Å by molecular repl...

  18. Glycerol fermentation to hydrogen by Thermotoga maritima: Proposed pathway and bioenergetic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Maru, B. T.; Bielen, A. A. M.; Constanti, M.; Medina, F.; Kengen, S. W. M.

    2013-01-01

    The production of biohydrogen from glycerol, by the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima DSM 3109, was investigated in batch and chemostat systems. T. maritima converted glycerol to mainly acetate, CO2 and H2. Maximal hydrogen yields of 2.84 and 2.41 hydrogen per glycerol were observed for batch and chemostat cultivations, respectively. For batch cultivations: i) hydrogen production rates decreased with increasing initial glycerol concentration, ii) growth and hydrogen production w...

  19. Reactivation of methionine synthase from Thermotoga maritima (TM0268) requires the downstream gene product TM0269

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Sha; Romanchuk, Gail; Pattridge, Katherine; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A.; Matthews, Rowena G; Ludwig, Martha

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima gene product TM0269, determined as part of genome-wide structural coverage of T. maritima by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics, revealed structural homology with the fourth module of the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli, despite the lack of significant sequence homology. The gene specifying TM0269 lies in close proximity to another gene, TM0268, which shows sequence homology with the first three module...

  20. Variability of volatile constituents in Artemisia maritima in western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaitak, Vikas; Singh, Bikram; Kaul, V K

    2008-05-10

    Chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia maritima, collected from three different high altitude locations in western Himalaya was studied by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry. Twenty-five constituents were identified in the oil distilled from the sample from Pooh, of which 1,8-cineole (23.8%) and chrysanthenone (17.54%) were the major constituents. Twenty volatile constituents were identified from the sample collected from Rhongtong pass, of which chrysanthenone (38.1%) and 1,8-cineole (37.3%) were the major constituents. In the oil distilled from the sample collected from Lahaul-Spiti 28 constituents were identified, of which 1,8-cineole (44.22%), camphor (9.16%) and borneol (10.94%) were the major constituents. In this sample chrysanthenone was present in very low percentage. PMID:18569692

  1. Morphological characterization of the antennal sensilla of t he earwig Anisolabis maritima (Dermaptera: Carcinophoridae) with reference to their probable functions

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dosary, Mona Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    The earwig, Anisolabis maritima (Dermaptera: Carcinophoridae), is one of the most significant insects in KSA because, it was recorded in Saudi Arabia as a beneficial predator on eggs and newly hatched larvae of the red palm weevil, Rhyncophorus ferrugineus. We examined the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of males and females of A. maritima using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The filiform antennae of A. maritima were of the conventional type comprising a basal scape, pedicle...

  2. Nonomuraea maritima sp. nov., isolated from coastal sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Lijun; Zhang, Limin; Ruan, Jisheng; Huang, Ying

    2011-11-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain FXJ7.203(T), was isolated from a coastal sediment sample collected in Bohai Bay, China. In 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, strain FXJ7.203(T) always formed a unique monophyletic line within the genus Nonomuraea and was most closely related to Nonomuraea turkmeniaca (97.9 %), Nonomuraea candida (97.8 %), Nonomuraea helvata (97.7 %) and Nonomuraea rubra (97.5 %). Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics supported the allocation of the strain to the genus Nonomuraea. The polar lipid profile showed that its phospholipid type was PIV. The major fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0), C(17 : 1)?6c, iso-C(16 : 1) G, 10-methyl C(17 : 0) and iso-C(15 : 0). The major menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)) with minor amounts of MK-9(H(2)), MK-9(H(0)) and MK-9(H(6)). The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed differentiation of strain FXJ7.203(T) from closely related species. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic data, strain FXJ7.203(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea maritima sp. nov. is proposed, with strain FXJ7.203(T) ( = CGMCC 4.5681(T) = NBRC 106687(T)) as the type strain. PMID:21186288

  3. Crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and structure analysis of Thermotoga maritima mannitol dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. maritima mannitol dehydrogenase has been crystallized in space group P212121 with a = 84.43, b = 120.61, c = 145.76 Å. The crystals diffracted to 3.3 Å resolution at the Canadian Light Source. Diffraction data have been collected from a crystal of Thermotoga maritima mannitol dehydrogenase at the Canadian Light Source. The crystal diffracted to 3.3 Å resolution and belongs to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 83.43, b = 120.61, c = 145.76 Å. The structure is likely to be solved by molecular replacement

  4. Structure of an essential GTPase, YsxC, from Thermotoga maritima

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kwok-Ho; Wong, Kam-Bo

    2011-01-01

    Apo and GDP-bound crystal structures of an essential GTPase, YsxC, from T. maritima were determined to maximal resolutions of 2.3 and 1.9?Å, respectively. Switch I in GDP–YsxC can adopt both an ‘open’ and ‘closed’ conformation, suggesting a mechanism for diffusion of GDP out of the nucleotide-binding pocket.

  5. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plants of western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tania; Stoyanova, Albena; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2014-08-01

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica and Artemisia maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/FID were camphor and 1,8-cineole from A. maritima, and camphor and artemisia ketone from A. nilagirica. Additionally, the oils were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, mosquito biting deterrent, and larvicidal activities. A. nilagirica essential oil demonstrated nonselective antifungal activity against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. maritima did not show antifungal activity. Both Artemisia spp. exhibited considerable mosquito biting deterrence, whereas only A. nilagirica showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Antibacterial effects assessed by an agar dilution assay demonstrated greater activity of A. maritima essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to A. nilagirica. PMID:25127023

  6. HISTOANATOMICAL AND ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON SOME HALOPHYTES FROM ROMANIA - PLANTAGO MARITIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an histoanatomical and ecophysiological study of Plantago maritima. Studies were conducted to assess the diversity of anatomical adaptations of vegetative organs (roots, aerial stems, rhizomes and leaves in this taxa. Results are presented with original photographs. The analysis of leaf anatomy in P. maritima showed that the leaves contained xeromorphic traits (high development of palisade and water storage parenchyma. Stomatal density is high for both epidermis and cuticle is very thick. Analyses made in the scope of the present study indicated that total ash content of the dry leaf matter is 11.98%. Rhizome is strong and shows aeriferous tissue. Leaf relative water content (LRWC values indicates that juvenile leaves harvested from eroded and nude soil, exposed to salt stress and heat can accumulate more water.

  7. Using a toxicity test with Ruppia maritima (Linnaeus) to assess the effects of Roundup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Aline de Jesus Veloso; Colares, Ioni Gonçalves; Franco, Teresa Cristina Rodrigues dos Santos; Cutrim, Marco Valerio Jansen; Luvizotto-Santos, Ricardo

    2015-02-28

    Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Monsanto's broad-spectrum herbicide Roundup, consists of one of the most used pesticides worldwide, but its effects on the marine flora are still not well understood. Were examined Roundup toxic effects on Ruppia maritima specimens collected from Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, MA, Brazil) and acclimatized under laboratory conditions. The numbers of new and dead leaves, the root and leaf length, the chlorophyll a content, and the weight of R. maritima branches were determined before and after exposure to different Roundup concentrations for seven days. High concentrations caused a significant lethal effect. In addition, significant changes were observed in the wet and dry weights, the number and length of the leaves, and the chlorophyll a content. Leaf elongation was observed in the branches exposed to low concentrations, and this change was likely activated as a compensatory mechanism. The results indicate that high concentrations of this herbicide may compromise estuarine flora. PMID:25455815

  8. cDNA cloning of Batis maritima methyl chloride transferase and purification of the enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Xinhai; Hager, Lowell P.

    1998-01-01

    Methyl chloride transferase catalyzes the synthesis of methyl chloride from S-adenosine-l-methionine and chloride ion. This enzyme has been purified 2,700-fold to homogeneity from Batis maritima, a halophytic plant that grows abundantly in salt marshes. The purification of the enzyme was accomplished by a combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation, column chromatography on Sephadex G100 and adenosine-agarose, and TSK-250 size-exclusion HPLC. The purified enzyme exhibits a single band on SD...

  9. Seablite (Suaeda maritima) Product for Cooking, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Ampornsri Pornpitakdamrong; Yuttana Sudjaroen

    2014-01-01

    Seablite (Suaeda maritima) is a salt marsh plant growing in mangrove forest. Local people in Samut Songkram, Thailand use seablite for different types of cooking such as traditional seablite salad, seablite curry with crabs, or scalded seablite with chili paste. The objectives of this research were: 1) to develop appropriate commercial seablite products of Samut Songkram province; 2) to evaluate the nutritional values of the seablite products; and 3) to investigate b...

  10. Reactivation of methionine synthase from Thermotoga maritima (TM0268) requires the downstream gene product TM0269.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sha; Romanchuk, Gail; Pattridge, Katherine; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A; Matthews, Rowena G; Ludwig, Martha

    2007-08-01

    The crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima gene product TM0269, determined as part of genome-wide structural coverage of T. maritima by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics, revealed structural homology with the fourth module of the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli, despite the lack of significant sequence homology. The gene specifying TM0269 lies in close proximity to another gene, TM0268, which shows sequence homology with the first three modules of E. coli MetH. The fourth module of E. coli MetH is required for reductive remethylation of the cob(II)alamin form of the cofactor and binds the methyl donor for this reactivation, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Measurements of the rates of methionine formation in the presence and absence of TM0269 and AdoMet demonstrate that both TM0269 and AdoMet are required for reactivation of the inactive cob(II)alamin form of TM0268. These activity measurements confirm the structure-based assignment of the function of the TM0269 gene product. In the presence of TM0269, AdoMet, and reductants, the measured activity of T. maritima MetH is maximal near 80 degrees C, where the specific activity of the purified protein is approximately 15% of that of E. coli methionine synthase (MetH) at 37 degrees C. Comparisons of the structures and sequences of TM0269 and the reactivation domain of E. coli MetH suggest that AdoMet may be bound somewhat differently by the homologous proteins. However, the conformation of a hairpin that is critical for cobalamin binding in E. coli MetH, which constitutes an essential structural element, is retained in the T. maritima reactivation protein despite striking divergence of the sequences. PMID:17656578

  11. Contribution of Spartina maritima to the reduction of eutrophication in estuarine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt marshes are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, performing important ecosystem functions, particularly nutrient recycling. In this study, a comparison is made between Mondego and Tagus estuaries in relation to the role of Spartina maritima in nitrogen retention capacity and cycling. Two mono-specific S. maritima stands per estuary were studied during 1 yr (biomass, nitrogen (N) pools, litter production, decomposition rates). Results showed that the oldest Tagus salt marsh population presented higher annual belowground biomass and N productions, and a slower decomposition rate for litter, contributing to the higher N accumulation in the sediment, whereas S. maritima younger marshes had higher aboveground biomass production. Detritus moved by tides represented a huge amount of aboveground production, probably significant when considering the N balance of these salt marshes. Results reinforce the functions of salt marshes as contributing to a reduction of eutrophication in transitional waters, namely through sedimentation processes. - The crucial capacity of salt marshes to retain nitrogen, thus reducing eutrophication, greatly depends on the salt marsh maturity, rather than the estuarine system

  12. Structure of a NAD kinase from Thermotoga maritima at 2.3 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expression, purification, crystallization, and structure determination of NAD-kinase from T. maritima are reported. Similarity to other NAD-kinases as well as homo-oligomrization state of the enzyme from T. maritima are discussed. NAD kinase is the only known enzyme that catalyzes the formation of NADP, a coenzyme involved in most anabolic reactions and in the antioxidant defense system. Despite its importance, very little is known regarding the mechanism of catalysis and only recently have several NAD kinase structures been deposited in the PDB. Here, an independent investigation of the crystal structure of inorganic polyphosphate/ATP-NAD kinase, PPNK-THEMA, a protein from Thermotoga maritima, is reported at a resolution of 2.3 Å. The crystal structure was solved using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) data collected at the Se absorption-peak wavelength in a state in which no cofactors or substrates were bound. It revealed that the 258-amino-acid protein is folded into two distinct domains, similar to recently reported NAD kinases. The N-terminal ?/?-domain spans the first 100 amino acids and the last 30 amino acids of the polypeptide and has several topological matches in the PDB, whereas the other domain, which spans the middle 130 residues, adopts a unique ?-sandwich architecture and only appreciably matches the recently deposited PDB structures of NAD kinases

  13. Morphological characterization of the antennal sensilla of t he earwig Anisolabis maritima (Dermaptera: Carcinophoridae) with reference to their probable functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dosary, Mona Mohammed

    2009-07-01

    The earwig, Anisolabis maritima (Dermaptera: Carcinophoridae), is one of the most significant insects in KSA because, it was recorded in Saudi Arabia as a beneficial predator on eggs and newly hatched larvae of the red palm weevil, Rhyncophorus ferrugineus. We examined the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of males and females of A. maritima using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The filiform antennae of A. maritima were of the conventional type comprising a basal scape, pedicle and a long, thread-like flagellum, which was composed of 12 flagellomeres of males and 16 flagellomeres of females. Six morphologically unique sensillar types were found and described on the antennae of males and females of A. maritima. Of those identified, there were three types of porous trichoid sensilla (long, curved and arcuate), and two types of basiconic sensilla (short and curved), and one type of aporous trichoid sensilla. The shape, external morphology and array of sensilla on the antennae of males and females of A. maritima were similar. PMID:23961038

  14. Scouting contaminated estuaries: heavy metal resistant and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in the native metal rhizoaccumulator Spartina maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, J; Mateos-Naranjo, E; Caviedes, M A; Redondo-Gómez, S; Pajuelo, E; Rodríguez-Llorente, I D

    2015-01-15

    Spartina maritima is a native endangered heavy metal rhizoaccumulator cordgrass naturally growing in southwest coasts of Spain, where is used as a biotool to rehabilitate degraded salt marshes. Fifteen bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of S. maritima growing in the estuary of the Tinto River, one of the most polluted areas in the world. A high proportion of bacteria were resistant towards several heavy metals. They also exhibited multiple plant growth promoting (PGP) properties, in the absence and the presence of Cu. Bacillus methylotrophicus SMT38, Bacillusaryabhattai SMT48, B. aryabhattai SMT50 and Bacilluslicheniformis SMT51 were selected as the best performing strains. In a gnobiotic assay, inoculation of Medicago sativa seeds with the selected isolates induced higher root elongation. The inoculation of S. maritima with these indigenous metal-resistant PGP rhizobacteria could be an efficient method to increase plant adaptation and growth in contaminated estuaries during restoration programs. PMID:25467875

  15. The First Myriapod Genome Sequence Reveals Conservative Arthropod Gene Content and Genome Organisation in the Centipede Strigamia maritima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E. K.; Brena, Carlo; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Schröder, Reinhard; Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C.; Alonso, Claudio R.; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C. J.; Blankenburg, Kerstin P.; Brites, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Coyle, Marcus; Dearden, Peter K.; Du Pasquier, Louis; Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Ebert, Dieter; Eibner, Cornelius; Erikson, Galina; Evans, Peter D.; Extavour, Cassandra G.; Francisco, Liezl; Gabaldón, Toni; Gillis, William J.; Goodwin-Horn, Elizabeth A.; Green, Jack E.; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P.; Gubbala, Sai; Guigó, Roderic; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Havlak, Paul; Hayden, Luke; Helbing, Sophie; Holder, Michael; Hui, Jerome H. L.; Hunn, Julia P.; Hunnekuhl, Vera S.; Jackson, LaRonda; Javaid, Mehwish; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Jiggins, Francis M.; Jones, Tamsin E.; Kaiser, Tobias S.; Kalra, Divya; Kenny, Nathan J.; Korchina, Viktoriya; Kovar, Christie L.; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Lapraz, François; Lee, Sandra L.; Lv, Jie; Mandapat, Christigale; Manning, Gerard; Mariotti, Marco; Mata, Robert; Mathew, Tittu; Neumann, Tobias; Newsham, Irene; Ngo, Dinh N.; Ninova, Maria; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Ongeri, Fiona; Palmer, William J.; Patil, Shobha; Patraquim, Pedro; Pham, Christopher; Pu, Ling-Ling; Putman, Nicholas H.; Rabouille, Catherine; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Rhodes, Adelaide C.; Robertson, Helen E.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Rozas, Julio; Saada, Nehad; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Scherer, Steven E.; Schurko, Andrew M.; Siggens, Kenneth W.; Simmons, DeNard; Stief, Anna; Stolle, Eckart; Telford, Maximilian J.; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Thornton, Rebecca; van der Zee, Maurijn; von Haeseler, Arndt; Williams, James M.; Willis, Judith H.; Wu, Yuanqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Lawson, Daniel; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Akam, Michael; Richards, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologues of genes conserved from the bilaterian ancestor that have been lost in insects. Our analysis locates many genes in conserved macro-synteny contexts, and many small-scale examples of gene clustering. We describe several examples where S. maritima shows different solutions from insects to similar problems. The insect olfactory receptor gene family is absent from S. maritima, and olfaction in air is likely effected by expansion of other receptor gene families. For some genes S. maritima has evolved paralogues to generate coding sequence diversity, where insects use alternate splicing. This is most striking for the Dscam gene, which in Drosophila generates more than 100,000 alternate splice forms, but in S. maritima is encoded by over 100 paralogues. We see an intriguing linkage between the absence of any known photosensory proteins in a blind organism and the additional absence of canonical circadian clock genes. The phylogenetic position of myriapods allows us to identify where in arthropod phylogeny several particular molecular mechanisms and traits emerged. For example, we conclude that juvenile hormone signalling evolved with the emergence of the exoskeleton in the arthropods and that RR-1 containing cuticle proteins evolved in the lineage leading to Mandibulata. We also identify when various gene expansions and losses occurred. The genome of S. maritima offers us a unique glimpse into the ancestral arthropod genome, while also displaying many adaptations to its specific life history. PMID:25423365

  16. Characterization of GTPase Activity of TrmE, a Member of a Novel GTPase Superfamily, from Thermotoga maritima

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanaka, Kunitoshi; Hwang, Jihwan; Inouye, Masayori

    2000-01-01

    A gene encoding a putative GTP-binding protein, a TrmE homologue that is highly conserved in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, was cloned from Thermotoga maritima, a hyperthermophilic bacterium. T. maritima TrmE was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. TrmE has a GTPase activity but no ATPase activity. The GTPase activity can be competed with GTP, GDP, and dGTP but not with GMP, ATP, CTP, or UTP. Km and kcat at 70°C were 833 ?M and 9.3 min?1, respectively. Our results indicate t...

  17. The role of Spartina maritima and Sarcocornia fruticosa on trace metals retention in Ria Formosa, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira da Silva, Manuela; Duarte, Duarte; Isidoro, Jorge; Chícharo, Luís

    2013-04-01

    Over the last years, phytoremediation has become an increasingly recognized pathway for contaminant removal from water and shallow soils. Assessing the phytoremediation potential of wetlands is complex due to variable conditions of hydrology, soil/sediment types, plant species diversity, growing season and water chemistry. Physico-chemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating contaminants. Saltmarsh plants can sequestrate and inherently tolerate high metal concentrations found in saltmarsh sediments. An increasing number of studies have been carried out to understand the role of halophyte vegetation on retention, biovailability and remediation of the pollutants in coastal areas (estuaries and lagoons). It is already known that the accumulation capacity and the pattern of metal distribution in the plant tissues vary among plant species, namely monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous, and with sediment characteristics. During the last decades, there has been a large increase in urbanization and industrialization of the area surrounding Ria Formosa. Due to this reality, anthropogenic contaminants, including trace metals, are transported via untreated sewage and agricultural effluents to several parts of the lagoon. The dominant producers are Spartina maritima (Poales: Poaceae) and Sarcocornia fruticosa (Caryophyllales: Chenopodiaceae), appearing in pure stands respectively in the lower and in the upper saltmarshes. The aim of this work was to survey, comparatively, the role of S. maritima and S. fruticosa on minor and trace element (Ag, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn), contents and distribution amongst sediment and plant tissues. Both S. maritima and S. fruticosa could fix metals from the surrounding belowground environment and accumulate metals, mainly in roots (also in rhizomes in the case of the former). Metal translocation to aerial parts of the plants was, in general, residual.

  18. ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF THE ENDENGERED PLANT CAKILE MARITIMA SCOP. SUBSP. EUXINA (POBED. NYÁR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreley Dana JIANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents anatomical featuress of the vegetative organs of an endengered plant Cakile maritima Scop.subsp. euxina (Pobed. Nyár. The root has a secondary structure, due to the phelogen and cambium activity, The stem has a one-layered epidermis, covered by thick cuticle, a differentiated cortex and a large number of collateral vascular bundles in its upper part. The leaf lobes have a homogenous mesophyll and is amphistomatic. The mechanical tissue is represented by sclerenchymatous fibers in the root and collenchyma tissue in the stem.

  19. Rhizosphere O2 dynamics in young Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Zeljko; Pedersen, Mia Østergaard

    2015-01-01

    Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima often share the same habitat, but R. maritima appears more resistant to environmental stress. We investigated the impact of light intensity and water column O2 concentrations on radial oxygen loss (ROL), in young specimens of Z. marina and R. maritima. Planar optode imaging revealed that ROL of Z. marina was localized to the root tip, while R. maritima showed ROL along extensive root sections. The total root biomass of the 2 species was similar, but, while R. maritima had only 1 root, of which 33% of its length showed ROL, Z. marina had 2 to 5 individual roots, where only 2 to 3 exhibited O2 leakage, but then only at root tips. ROL resulted in an oxic volume of 4.26 ± 0.51 mm3 plant?1 for Z. marina and 5.39 ± 0.47 mm3 plant?1 for R. maritima (n = 3). ROL per plant at light saturation was 2.32 ± 0.30 and 2.89 ± 0.38 nmol h?1 for Z. marina and R. maritima, respectively. These values declined by 71 and 60% in darkness. However, both species were able to maintain ROL as long as ambient O2 levels remained >50% air saturation. The calculated ROL integrated over a 24 h cycle was 48.8 ± 10.6 nmol O2 plant?1 d?1 (n = 3) for R. maritima and 30% less for Z. marina. The ability of R. maritima to maintain higher ROL than Z. marina could be an important feature defining its potential for colonizing and maintaining growth in eutrophic sediments.

  20. Anthemis maritima L. in different coastal habitats: A tool to explore plant plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, Carmelina; Balestri, Mirko; Bottega, Stefania; Grilli, Isa; Forino, Laura Maria Costantina; Ciccarelli, Daniela

    2013-09-01

    Anthemis maritima, a plant which has the ability to colonise different stressful coastal environments, sand dunes and rocky cliff ecosystems, exhibits a high degree of leaf trait plasticity. The key parameters are the regulation of stomatal density and size, the succulence index and the specific antioxidant response. With the aim to explore plant plasticity, we analysed various morphological and physiological traits of the leaves of A. maritima populations dwelling in three different coastal areas of Italy. The highest values of stomatal density, leaf thickness, and succulence index were found in plants living in a sub-arid climate, on rocky cliffs, with the highest soil pH and salinity. Although this population exhibited the highest concentration of oxygen reactive species (hydrogen peroxide), it also had the lowest value of lipid peroxidation, an indicator of oxidative stress. Ascorbate was the main protective molecule in this population, while phenols appeared to carry out this role in plants living on soils with the lowest salinity and highest annual rainfall.

  1. Allosteric inhibitor specificity of Thermotoga maritima 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Penelope J; Parker, Emily J

    2013-09-17

    3-Deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAH7PS) catalyses the first step of the shikimate pathway for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. Allosteric regulation of Thermotoga maritima DAH7PS is mediated by L-Tyr binding to a discrete ACT regulatory domain appended to a core catalytic (?/?)8 barrel. Variants of T. maritima DAH7PS (TmaDAH7PS) were created to probe the role of key residues in inhibitor selection. Substitution Ser31Gly severely reduced inhibition by L-Tyr. In contrast both L-Tyr and L-Phe inhibited the TmaHis29Ala variant, while the variant where Ser31 and His29 were interchanged (His29Ser/Ser31His), was inhibited to a greater extent by L-Phe than L-Tyr. These studies highlight the role and importance of His29 and Ser31 for determining both inhibitory ligand selectivity and the potency of allosteric response by TmaDAH7PS. PMID:23916814

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a lectin from Canavalia maritima seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lectin from C. maritima was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method and crystals diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution. A molecular-replacement search found a solution with a correlation coefficient of 69.2% and an R factor of 42.5%, refinement is in progress. A lectin from Canavalia maritima seeds (ConM) was purified and submitted to crystallization experiments. The best crystals were obtained using the vapour-diffusion method at a constant temperature of 293 K and grew in 7 d. A complete structural data set was collected to 2.1 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The ConM crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.15, b = 70.90, c = 97.37 Å. A molecular-replacement search found a solution with a correlation coefficient of 69.2% and an R factor of 42.5%. Crystallographic refinement is under way

  3. Effect of Gamma Rays and Salinity on Growth and Chemical Composition of Ambrosia maritima L. Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work achieved to study the effects of, mixture of salt 2:2:1 (Na Cl-CaCl2 and Mg SO4), concentration of (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). on growth characters, some chemical components and some active ingredients in shoots of Ambrosia maritima plants, at different stages of growth, during two seasons. Pots 30 cm in diameter were filled of sand-loamy soils in appropriate concentration, all pots were irrigated with tap water. The exposed damsisa seeds to gamma rays, doses (0, 20, 40, and 80 Gy) before sowing together with control non irradiated seeds were sown in saline soils (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). Soil salinity treatments caused a decrease in plant height, number of leaves, content of damsin, and an increase in fresh weigh, dry weight, total sugars, total chlorophyll, amino acids and ambrosine content. Also, Gamma rays caused an increase in most of growth parameters and most of chemical composition. It was observed that 40 or 80 Gy was more effective. We investigated the combined effect of levels of salinity and doses of radiation used, this interference improve growth parameters and chemical composition in ambrosia maritima plants and caused ascertain the role of gamma irradiation in plants tolerance to soil salinity and alleviation their harmful effect on plants.

  4. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plant of Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of A. nilagirica and A. maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/...

  5. Potential of Spartina maritima in restored salt marshes for phytoremediation of metals in a highly polluted estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curado, G; Rubio-Casal, A E; Figueroa, E; Castillo, J M

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentary abiotic environment, and concentration and stock of nine metals were analyzed in vegetation and sediments to evaluate the phytoremediation capacity of restored Spartina maritima prairies in the highly polluted Odiel Marshes (SW Iberian Peninsula). Samples were collected in two 10 -m long rows parallel to the tidal line at two sediments depths (0-2 cm and 2-20 cm). Metal concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. Iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc were the most concentrated metals. Every metal, except nickel, showed higher concentration in the root zone than at the sediment surface, with values as high as ca. 70 g Fe kg(-1). The highest metal concentrations in S. maritima tissues were recorded in its roots (maximum for iron in Spartina roots: 4160.2 +/- 945.3 mg kg(-1)). Concentrations of aluminum and iron in leaves and roots were higher than in superficial sediments. Rhizosediments showed higher concentrations of every metal than plant tissues, except for nickel. Sediment metal stock in the first 20 cm deep was ca. 170.89 t ha(-1). Restored S. maritima prairies, with relative cover of 62 +/- 6%, accumulated ca. 22 kg metals ha(-1). Our results show S. maritima to be an useful biotool for phytoremediation projects in European salt marshes. PMID:24933912

  6. Proteomic and metabolic profiles of Cakile maritima Scop. Sea Rocket grown in the presence of cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taamalli, Manel; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Marrocco, Cristina; Gevi, Federica; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello

    2015-04-01

    Recent physiological reports have documented how Cakile maritima Scop. Sea Rocket could accumulate high doses of Cd without altering its physiological parameters. In the present study, we performed an integrated proteomics (2DE) and metabolomics (HPLC-MS) investigation to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying cadmium (Cd) tolerance of this halophyte. Peculiar features were observed: (i) up-regulation of thiol compound anabolism, including glutathione and phytochelatin homeostasis, which allows an intracellular chelation of Cd and its compartmentalization into vacuole by a significant up-regulation of vacuolar transporters; (ii) up-regulation of the PPP and Calvin cycle (both at the enzyme and metabolite level), which utterly promoted the maintenance of NADPH/NADP(+) homeostasis, other than the accumulation of triose-phosphates (serving as anabolic intermediates for triacylglycerol biosynthesis) and the glyoxylate precursor phosphoglycolate, to promote photorespiration and consequently CO2 release. An up-regulation of carbonic anhydrase was also observed. This halophyte is also correlated with a highly efficient antioxidant system, especially a high up-regulation of SOD1, resulting more efficient in coping with heavy metals stress than common plants. Interestingly, exposure to high Cd concentrations partly affected photosystem integrity and metabolic activity, through the up-regulation of enzymes from the Calvin cycle and glutathione-ascorbate homeostasis and PAP3 which stabilizes thylakoid membrane structures. In addition, up-regulation of Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase CYP38 increases stability and biogenesis of PSII. Finally, metabolomics results confirmed proteomics and previous physiological evidence, also suggesting that osmoprotectants, betaine and proline, together with plant hormones, methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid, might be involved in mediating responses to Cd-induced stress. Taken together, these peculiar features confirm that Cakile maritima Scop. Sea Rocket seemed to be naturally equipped to withstand even high doses of Cd pollution. PMID:25639878

  7. The First Myriapod Genome Sequence Reveals Conservative Arthropod Gene Content and Genome Organisation in the Centipede Strigamia maritima

    OpenAIRE

    Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E. K.; Brena, Carlo; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Schro?der, Reinhard; Torres-oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C.; Alonso, Claudio R.; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologue...

  8. Characterization of exceptionally thermostable single-stranded DNA-binding proteins from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga neapolitana

    OpenAIRE

    Mickiewicz Ma?gorzata; Nowak Marta; Wojciechowski Marek; Grot Anna; Olszewski Marcin; Kur Józef

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in SSBs because they find numerous applications in diverse molecular biology and analytical methods. Results We report the characterization of single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSBs) from the thermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima (TmaSSB) and Thermotoga neapolitana (TneSSB). They are the smallest known bacterial SSB proteins, consisting of 141 and 142 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 16.3...

  9. Progressive Provisioning by the Females of the Earwig, Anisolabis maritima, Increases the Survival Rate of the Young

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Seizi

    2010-01-01

    Provisioning the young is an important form of insect parental care and is believed to improve the survival and growth of the young. Anisolabis maritima Bonelli (Dermaptera: Anisolabididae) is a cosmopolitan species of earwig that shows sub-social behavior in which the females tend clutches of eggs in soil burrows. The defensive and provisioning behaviors of these females were examined in this study. When disturbed, maternal individuals abandoned the nest less than non-maternal individuals. F...

  10. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima - ancestor of all beet crops - and modern sugar beets

    OpenAIRE

    ChristinZachow; RalfTilcher

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar be...

  11. Thermotoga maritima 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase: the ancestral eubacterial DAHP synthase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Howe, David L; Woodard, Ronald W

    2003-07-25

    The gene encoding the 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase from the thermophilic microorganism Thermotoga maritima was cloned, and the enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified DAHP synthase displays a homotetrameric structure and exhibits maximal activity at 90 degrees C. The enzyme is extremely thermostable, with 50% of its initial activity retained after incubation for approximately 5 h at 80 degrees C, 21 h at 70 degrees C, and 86 h at 60 degrees C. The enzyme appears to follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics with Km for phosphoenolpyruvate = 9.5-13 microm, Km for d-erythrose 4-phosphate = 57.3-350.1 microm, and kcat = 2.3-7.6 s-1 between 50 degrees C and 70 degrees C. Metal analysis indicates that DAHP synthase as isolated contains Zn2+, and the enzyme is inactivated by treatment with EDTA. The apo-enzyme is partially reactivated by a variety of divalent metals including Zn2+, Cd2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Co2+, and Ni2+. These observations suggest that T. maritima DAHP synthase is a metalloenzyme. The activity of T. maritima DAHP synthase is inhibited by two of the three aromatic amino acids (l-Phe and l-Tyr) formed in the Shikimate pathway. This report is the first description of a thermophilic eubacterial DAHP synthase. PMID:12743122

  12. The carbohydrate-binding specificity and molecular modelling of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viana Ramos

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbohydrate-binding specificity of lectins from the seeds of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora was studied by hapten-inhibition of haemagglutination using various sugars and sugar derivatives as inhibitors, including N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid. Despite some discrepancies, both lectins exhibited a very similar carbohydrate-binding specificity as previously reported for other lectins from Diocleinae (tribe Phaseoleae, sub-tribe Diocleinae. Accordingly, both lectins exhibited almost identical hydropathic profiles and their three-dimensional models built up from the atomic coordinates of ConA looked very similar. However, docking experiments of glucose and mannose in their monosaccharide-binding sites, by comparison with the ConA-mannose complex used as a model, revealed conformational changes in side chains of the amino acid residues involved in the binding of monosaccharides. These results fully agree with crystallographic data showing that binding of specific ligands to ConA requires conformational chances of its monosaccharide-binding site.

  13. Effect of Gamma Rays and Salinity on Growth and Chemical Composition of Ambrosia maritima L. Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was achieved in pots at the wire house of the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) during the two successive seasons of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of gamma irradiation doses (0, 20, 40 and 80 Gy) on damssisa plants (Ambrosia maritima L.) under salt stress after sowing in (3:2, sand: loamy) soils with mixture of salts. The mixture of salts was sodium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium sulfate at the ratio of 2:2:1. Three concentrations of the used mixture were prepared; 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm. It was observed that irradiation of damsissa seeds with 40 or 80 Gy increased plant tolerance to salinity comparing to control, concerning plant height, fresh and dry weights and photosynthetic pigments. This increase was often significant with low concentration of salinity. On the other hand, sowing seeds in 6000 ppm concentration decreased all the previous measurements. Also, it was noticed that radiation alleviates the adverse effect of salinity by increasing total sugar and total soluble phenols in shoots of damsissa plants.

  14. Improving thermal stability of thermophilic L-threonine aldolase from Thermotoga maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieteska, Lukasz; Ionov, Maksim; Szemraj, Janusz; Feller, Claudia; Kolinski, Andrzej; Gront, Dominik

    2015-04-10

    Threonine aldolase (TA) catalyzes a reversible reaction, in which threonine is decomposed into glycine and acetaldehyde. The same enzyme can be used to catalyze aldol reaction between glycine and a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, thus creating various alpha-amino-alcohols. Therefore, TA is a very promising enzyme that could be used to prepare biologically active compounds or building blocks for pharmaceutical industry. Rational design was applied to thermophilic TA from Thermotoga maritima to improve thermal stability by the incorporation of salt and disulfide bridges between subunits in the functional tetramer. An activity assay together with CD analysis and Western-blot detection was used to evaluate mutants. Except one, each of the designed mutants preserved activity toward the natural substrate. One of the 10 proposed single point mutants, P56C, displayed significantly enhanced stability compared to the wild type (WT). Its initial activity was not affected and persisted longer than WT, proportionally to increased stability. Additionally one of the mutants, W86E, displayed enhanced activity, with stability similar to WT. Higher activity may be explained by a subtle change in active site availability. Salt bridge formation between glutamic acid at position 86 and arginine at position 120 in the neighboring chain may be responsible for the slight shift of the chain fragment, thus creating wider access to the active site both for the substrate and PLP. PMID:25701680

  15. Crystal structures of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase from the thermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingying; Chen, Chun-Chi; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Xiao, Xiansha; Yang, Yunyun; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Qian, Guojun; Shao, Weilan; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2015-05-01

    S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) hydrolase catalyzes the reversible hydrolysis of SAH into adenosine and homocysteine by using NAD(+) as a cofactor. The enzyme from Thermotoga maritima (tmSAHH) has great potentials in industrial applications because of its hyperthermophilic properties. Here, two crystal structures of tmSAHH in complex with NAD(+) show both open and closed conformations despite the absence of bound substrate. Each subunit of the tetrameric enzyme is composed of three domains, namely the catalytic domain, the NAD(+)-binding domain and the C-terminal domain. The NAD(+) binding mode is clearly observed and a substrate analogue can also be modeled into the active site, where two cysteine residues in mesophilic enzymes are replaced by serine and threonine in tmSAHH. Notably, the C-terminal domain of tmSAHH lacks the second loop region of mesophilic SAHH, which is important in NAD(+) binding, and thus exposes the bound cofactor to the solvent. The difference explains the higher NAD(+) requirement of tmSAHH because of the reduced affinity. Furthermore, the feature of missing loop is consistently observed in thermophilic bacterial and archaeal SAHHs, and may be related to their thermostability. PMID:25791616

  16. Properties of recombinant Strep-tagged and untagged hyperthermophilic D-arabitol dehydrogenase from Thermotoga maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallnik, Verena; Schulz, Christian; Schultz, Christian; Schweiger, Paul; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2011-05-01

    The first hyperthermophilic D-arabitol dehydrogenase from Thermotoga maritima was heterologously purified from Escherichia coli. The protein was purified with and without a Strep-tag. The enzyme exclusively catalyzed the NAD(H)-dependent oxidoreduction of D-arabitol, D-xylitol, D-ribulose, or D-xylulose. A twofold increase of catalytic rates was observed upon addition of Mg(2+) or K(+). Interestingly, only the tag-less protein was thermostable, retaining 90% of its activity after 90 min at 85 °C. However, the tag-less form of D-arabitol dehydrogenase had similar kinetic parameters compared to the tagged enzyme, demonstrating that the Strep-tag was not deleterious to protein function but decreased protein stability. A single band at 27.6 kDa was observed on SDS-PAGE and native PAGE revealed that the protein formed a homohexamer and a homododecamer. The enzyme catalyzed oxidation of D-arabitol to D: -ribulose and therefore belongs to the class of D-arabitol 2-dehydrogenases, which are typically observed in yeast and not bacteria. The product D-ribulose is a rare ketopentose sugar that has numerous industrially applications. Given its thermostability and specificity, D-arabitol 2-dehydrogenase is a desirable biocatalyst for the production of rare sugar precursors. PMID:21347726

  17. The carbohydrate-binding specificity and molecular modelling of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora lectins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio Viana, Ramos; Renato de Azevedo, Moreira; José Tadeu Abreu, Oliveira; Benildo Sousa, Cavada; Pierre, Rougé.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbohydrate-binding specificity of lectins from the seeds of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora was studied by hapten-inhibition of haemagglutination using various sugars and sugar derivatives as inhibitors, including N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid. Despite some discre [...] pancies, both lectins exhibited a very similar carbohydrate-binding specificity as previously reported for other lectins from Diocleinae (tribe Phaseoleae, sub-tribe Diocleinae). Accordingly, both lectins exhibited almost identical hydropathic profiles and their three-dimensional models built up from the atomic coordinates of ConA looked very similar. However, docking experiments of glucose and mannose in their monosaccharide-binding sites, by comparison with the ConA-mannose complex used as a model, revealed conformational changes in side chains of the amino acid residues involved in the binding of monosaccharides. These results fully agree with crystallographic data showing that binding of specific ligands to ConA requires conformational chances of its monosaccharide-binding site.

  18. The first myriapod genome sequence reveals conservative arthropod gene content and genome organisation in the centipede Strigamia maritima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E.K.

    2014-01-01

    Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologues of genes conserved from the bilaterian ancestor that have been lost in insects. Our analysis locates many genes in conserved macro-synteny contexts, and many small-scale examples of gene clustering. We describe several examples where S. maritima shows different solutions from insects to similar problems. The insect olfactory receptor gene family is absent from S. maritima, and olfaction in air is likely effected by expansion of other receptor gene families. For some genes S. maritima has evolved paralogues to generate coding sequence diversity, where insects use alternate splicing. This is most striking for the Dscam gene, which in Drosophila generates more than 100,000 alternate splice forms, but in S. maritima is encoded by over 100 paralogues. We see an intriguing linkage between the absence of any known photosensory proteins in a blind organism and the additional absence of canonical circadian clock genes. The phylogenetic position of myriapods allows us to identify where in arthropod phylogeny several particular molecular mechanisms and traits emerged. For example, we conclude that juvenile hormone signalling evolved with the emergence of the exoskeleton in the arthropods and that RR-1 containing cuticle proteins evolved in the lineage leading to Mandibulata. We also identify when various gene expansions and losses occurred. The genome of S. maritima offers us a unique glimpse into the ancestral arthropod genome, while also displaying many adaptations to its specific life history.

  19. Characterization of Di-myo-Inositol-1,1(prm1)-Phosphate in the Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga maritima

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishnan, V.; Verhagen, M.; Adams, M.

    1997-01-01

    Di-myo-inositol-1,1(prm1)-phosphate (DIP) is present at a significant concentration ((symbl)160 nmol/mg of protein) in the cytoplasm of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. The concentration of DIP was independent of the pH of the growth medium or the cell growth phase but increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl in the growth medium, reaching a maximum ((symbl)450 nmol/mg of protein) at 0.4 to 0.6 M NaCl. A large-scale purification procedure for DIP which yields appro...

  20. Complexed Structures of Formylglycinamide Ribonucleotide Amidotransferase from Thermotoga maritima Describe a Novel ATP Binding Protein Superfamily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morar, Mariya; Anand, Ruchi; Hoskins, Aaron A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Ealick, Steven E. (MIT); (Cornell)

    2008-09-11

    Formylglycinamide ribonucleotide amidotransferase (FGAR-AT) catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of formylglycinamidine ribonucleotide (FGAM) from formylglycinamide ribonucleotide (FGAR) and glutamine in the fourth step of the purine biosynthetic pathway. FGAR-AT is encoded by the purL gene. Two types of PurL have been detected. The first type, found in eukaryotes and Gram-negative bacteria, consists of a single 140 kDa polypeptide chain and is designated large PurL (lgPurL). The second type, small PurL (smPurL), is found in archaea and Gram-positive bacteria and consists of an 80 kDa polypeptide chain. SmPurL requires two additional gene products, PurQ and PurS, for activity. PurL is a member of a protein superfamily that contains a novel ATP-binding domain. Structures of several members of this superfamily are available in the unliganded form. We determined five different structures of FGAR-AT from Thermotoga maritima in the presence of substrates, a substrate analogue, and a product. These complexes have allowed a detailed description of the novel ATP-binding motif. The availability of a ternary complex enabled mapping of the active site, thus identifying potential residues involved in catalysis. The complexes show a conformational change in the active site compared to the unliganded structure. Surprising discoveries, an ATP molecule in an auxiliary site of the protein and the conformational changes associated with its binding, provoke speculation about the regulatory role of the auxiliary site in formation of the PurLSQ complex as well as the evolutionary relationship of PurLs from different organisms.

  1. EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS ABSCISIC ACID ON GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE HALOPHYTE SUAEDA MARITIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbarasi G.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Different types of phytohormones are being extensively used to alleviate the adverse effect of salinity stress on plant growth. Among those, Abscisic acid (ABA is a plant stress hormone and one of the most important signaling molecules in plants. Drought and salinity activate De-novo abscisic acid synthesis prevent further water loss by evaporation through stomata, mediated by changes in the guard cell turgor pressure. Under osmotic stress abscisic acid induce the accumulation of protein involved in the biosynthesis of osmolites which increasing the stress tolerance of plant. In addition, exogenous application of ABA enhances the tolerance of plants or plant cells to cold, heat, drought, anoxia and heavy metal stresses. This study was carried out to study the exogenous abscisic (ABA acid induced regulatory role on the growth, water content, protein content, chlorophyll content, osmolyte accumulation and protein profiling through SDS PAGE in a halophyte, Suaeda maritima. The osmolyte accumulation of proline and glycine betaine was found to be more in 50 µM ABA concentrations. The protein profiling through SDS PAGE revealed that ? 66KDa proteins was not expressed in the control plant and in 10?M ABA treated plants. Interestingly, the ABA treatment induced a new protein of 14.2KDa in 10?M concentration. The ABA treated plants with concentrations 50?M, 100?M and 150?M showed changes in the expression of protein in abundance than the control and 10?M ABA treated plants. The findings in this study indicate that among all the concentrations, 50?M ABA concentration treated plants exhibited higher growth rate.

  2. Comparison of parasitic hymenoptera captured in malaise traps baited with two flowering plants Lobularia maritima (Brassicales:Brassicaceae) and Spermacoce verticillate (Gentianales:Rubiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many adult hymenopterous parasitoids feed on floral nectar, and occasionally pollen. However, flowers differ in both accessibility and attractiveness to these insects. Malaise traps, a type of “passive/interception” trap, were baited with potted flowering plants, Lobularia maritima L. (Brassicaceae)...

  3. A ocorrência do mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren, Nasutitermitinae, em afloramentos rochosos no Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Celso Copstein

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A presença de colônias de C. silvestrii é comum nos lajeados existentes em Itapuã. Na estação Morro da Grota1, 92,0 % dos termiteiros situados na rocha exposta e em ilhas de vegetação estão associados a D. maritima. Esta convivência ocorre em 31,2 % das ilhas na qual esta bromélia se faz presente. Nas ilhas, a comparação entre os substratos aonde D. maritima vegeta, o solo litólico húmico existente sob o manto do musgo Campylopus spp. e o substrato constituído pelo cupinzeiro indica que este último possui os teores mais elevados dos nutrientes P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn e Mn, maior CTC e maiores teores de partículas finas, principalmente o silte. O estabelecimento de D. maritima sobre os termiteiros de grande porte aumenta o seu valor de cobertura em ilhas de vegetação quando comparado com ilhas sem termiteiros ou com termiteiros de pequeno porte em áreas entre 2,7 a 8,0 m². Este fato é atribuído à melhoria físico-química do substrato e ao aumento de superfície e volume aptos a serem colonizados pela bromélia e proporciona maior competitividade em relação a outras espécies vegetais. As características apresentadas pela interação entre este cupim e D. maritima, pela primeira vez descrita na literatura, permitem indicar esta relação ecológica como mutualismo facultativo. Inferimos que o conjunto de observações apresentado constitui um modelo temporal de crescimento deste mutualismo, cujas fases inicial e tardia estão descritas neste trabalho.

  4. Comparative study of antibacterial and antifugal activity of callus culture and adult plants extracts from Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae Estudo comparativo da atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos obtidos da cultura de calos e da planta adulta de Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos J. Salvador

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of callus culture (two different hormonal combination culture medium and adult plants (two collect extracts from Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae investigating the maintenance of antimicrobial activity in vivo and in vitro. The antibacterial and antifungal activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method against thirty strains of microorganisms including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes. All the organic crude extracts studied were bioactive. Extracts of aerial parts and roots of adult plants collected during the same period of years of 1995 and 1998 (Restinga de Maricá (RJ, collect 1 and 2 inhibited the growth of several microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes with inhibition halo between 6 and 20 mm. Plant cell callus culture extracts obtained from two culture conditions were also bioactive. Thus, the positive results suggest that the A. maritima extracts should be further studied to determine the bioactive chemical compounds as well as to understand the possible mechanisms of action and evaluate their toxicity looking toward a pharmaceutical employment.Neste estudo procedeu-se a avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica dos extratos brutos de Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae planta in natura de duas coletas distintas e obtidos por cultura de células buscando-se averiguar a manutenção da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos obtidos da planta in vivo e in vitro. A ação antibacteriana e antifúngica foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar (técnica do poço utilizando-se trinta cepas de microrganismos indicadores (bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas, leveduras e dermatófitos. Todos os extratos obtidos com solventes orgânicos avaliados apresentaram-se bioativos com halos de inibição de 6 a 20 mm. Os extratos da planta in natura das duas coletas (Restinga de Marica (RJ, verão de 1995 e 1998 inibiram o desenvolvimento de diferentes microrganismos (bactérias, leveduras e dermatófitos. Os extratos obtidos da cultura de calos desenvolvidos em duas condições de cultivo diferentes, também se mantiveram bioativos. Assim, os resultados obtidos encorajam a realização de novos estudos com esta espécie vegetal para se determinar quais as substâncias presentes nos extratos e que contribuem para a atividade biológica, como também para entender seu mecanismo de ação e avaliar sua toxicidade, visando uma possível aplicação farmacêutica.

  5. Comparative study of antibacterial and antifugal activity of callus culture and adult plants extracts from Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae) / Estudo comparativo da atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos obtidos da cultura de calos e da planta adulta de Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos J., Salvador; Paulo S., Pereira; Suzelei C., França; Regina C., Candido; Izabel Y., Ito; Diones A., Dias.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo procedeu-se a avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica dos extratos brutos de Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae) planta in natura de duas coletas distintas e obtidos por cultura de células buscando-se averiguar a manutenção da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos obtidos [...] da planta in vivo e in vitro. A ação antibacteriana e antifúngica foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar (técnica do poço) utilizando-se trinta cepas de microrganismos indicadores (bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas, leveduras e dermatófitos). Todos os extratos obtidos com solventes orgânicos avaliados apresentaram-se bioativos com halos de inibição de 6 a 20 mm. Os extratos da planta in natura das duas coletas (Restinga de Marica (RJ), verão de 1995 e 1998) inibiram o desenvolvimento de diferentes microrganismos (bactérias, leveduras e dermatófitos). Os extratos obtidos da cultura de calos desenvolvidos em duas condições de cultivo diferentes, também se mantiveram bioativos. Assim, os resultados obtidos encorajam a realização de novos estudos com esta espécie vegetal para se determinar quais as substâncias presentes nos extratos e que contribuem para a atividade biológica, como também para entender seu mecanismo de ação e avaliar sua toxicidade, visando uma possível aplicação farmacêutica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of callus culture (two different hormonal combination culture medium) and adult plants (two collect) extracts from Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae) investigating the maintenance of antimicrobial activity in vivo an [...] d in vitro. The antibacterial and antifungal activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method against thirty strains of microorganisms including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes. All the organic crude extracts studied were bioactive. Extracts of aerial parts and roots of adult plants collected during the same period of years of 1995 and 1998 (Restinga de Maricá (RJ), collect 1 and 2) inhibited the growth of several microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes) with inhibition halo between 6 and 20 mm. Plant cell callus culture extracts obtained from two culture conditions were also bioactive. Thus, the positive results suggest that the A. maritima extracts should be further studied to determine the bioactive chemical compounds as well as to understand the possible mechanisms of action and evaluate their toxicity looking toward a pharmaceutical employment.

  6. A ocorrência do mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae) e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren), Nasutitermitinae, em afloramentos rochosos no Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS The occurrence of facultative mutualism between Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae) and the termite Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren), Nasutitermitinae, on rock outcrops in Itapuã State Park, Viamão, RS

    OpenAIRE

    Celso Copstein Waldemar; Bruno Edgar Irgang

    2003-01-01

    A presença de colônias de C. silvestrii é comum nos lajeados existentes em Itapuã. Na estação Morro da Grota1, 92,0 % dos termiteiros situados na rocha exposta e em ilhas de vegetação estão associados a D. maritima. Esta convivência ocorre em 31,2 % das ilhas na qual esta bromélia se faz presente. Nas ilhas, a comparação entre os substratos aonde D. maritima vegeta, o solo litólico húmico existente sob o manto do musgo Campylopus spp. e o substrato constituído pelo cupinzeiro ...

  7. Permeability and reactivity of Thermotoga maritima in latex bimodal blend coatings at 80 degrees C: a model high temperature biocatalytic coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngberg, Olav K; Solheid, Chris; Charaniya, Salim; Ma, Yue; Thiagarajan, Venkata; Scriven, L E; Flickinger, Michael C

    2005-06-01

    Thermostable polymers cast as thin, porous coatings or membranes may be useful for concentrating and stabilizing hyperthermophilic microorganisms as biocatalysts. Hydrogel matrices can be unstable above 65 degrees C. Therefore a 55-microm thick, two layer (cell coat + polymer top coat) bimodal, adhesive latex coating of partially coalesced polystyrene particles was investigated at 80 degrees C using Thermotoga maritima as a model hyperthermophile. Coating permeability (pore structure) was critical for maintaining T. maritima viability. The permeability of bimodal coatings generated from 0.8 v/v of a suspension of non-film-forming 800 nm polystyrene particles with high glass transition temperature (T(g) = 94 degrees C, 26.9% total solids) blended with 0.2 v/v of a suspension of film-forming 158 nm polyacrylate/styrene particles (T(g) approximately -5 degrees C, 40.9% total solids) with 0.3 g sucrose/g latex was measured in a KNO3 diffusion cell. Diffusivity ratio remained above 0.04 (D(eff)/D) when incubated at 80 degrees C in artificial seawater (ASW) for 5 days. KNO3 permeability was corroborated by cryogenic-SEM images of the pore structure. In contrast, the permeability of a mono-dispersed acrylate/vinyl acetate latex Rovace SF091 (T(g) approximately 10 degrees C) rapidly decreased and became impermeable after 2 days incubation in ASW at 80 degrees C. Thermotoga maritima were entrapped in these coatings at a cell density of 49 g cell wet weight/liter of coating volume, 25-fold higher than the density in liquid culture. Viable T. maritima were released from single-layer coatings at 80 degrees C but accurate measurement of the percentage of viable entrapped cells by plate counting was not successful. Metabolic activity could be measured in bilayer coatings by utilization of glucose and maltose, which was identical for latex-entrapped and suspended cells. Starch was hydrolyzed for 200 h by latex-entrapped cells due to the slow diffusion of starch through the polymer top coat compared to only 24 h by suspended T. maritima. The observed reactivity and stability of these coatings was surprising since cryo-SEM images suggested that the smaller low T(g) polyacrylate/styrene particles preferentially bound to the T. maritima toga-sheath during coat formation. This model system may be useful for concentrating, entrapment and stabilization of metabolically active hyperthermophiles at 80 degrees C. PMID:15778817

  8. Periplasmic Binding Proteins in Thermophiles: Characterization and Potential Application of an Arginine-Binding Protein from Thermotoga maritima: A Brief Thermo-Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabato D'Auria

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Arginine-binding protein from the extremophile Thermotoga maritima is a 27.7 kDa protein possessing the typical two-domain structure of the periplasmic binding proteins family. The protein is characterized by a very high specificity and affinity to bind to arginine, also at high temperatures. Due to its features, this protein could be taken into account as a potential candidate for the design of a biosensor for arginine. It is important to investigate the stability of proteins when they are used for biotechnological applications. In this article, we review the structural and functional features of an arginine-binding protein from the extremophile Thermotoga maritima with a particular eye on its potential biotechnological applications.

  9. Isolation, identification and expression analysis of salt-induced genes in Suaeda maritima, a natural halophyte, using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Sahu Binod B; Shaw Birendra P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite wealth of information generated on salt tolerance mechanism, its basics still remain elusive. Thus, there is a need of continued effort to understand the salt tolerance mechanism using suitable biotechnological techniques and test plants (species) to enable development of salt tolerant cultivars of interest. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to generate information on salt stress responsive genes in a natural halophyte, Suaeda maritima, using PCR-based su...

  10. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima—ancestor of all beet crops—and modern sugar beets

    OpenAIRE

    Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar be...

  11. Characterization of two genes encoding metal tolerance proteins from Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima that confers manganese tolerance in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbasol, Isil; Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan

    2013-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient in plants. However increased Mn levels are toxic to plant cells. Metal tolerance proteins (MTPs), member of cation diffusion facilitator protein (CDF) family, have important roles in metal homeostatis in different plant species and catalyse efflux of excess metal ions. In this study, we identified and characterized two MTP genes from Beta vulgaris spp. maritima (B. v. ssp. maritima). Overexpression of these two genes provided Mn tolerance in yeast cells. Sequence analyses displayed BmMTP10 and BmMTP11as members of the Mn-CDF family. Functional analyses of these proteins indicated that they are specific to Mn with a role in reducing excess cellular Mn levels when expressed in yeast. GFP-fusion constructs of both proteins localized to the Golgi apparatus as a punctuated pattern. Finally, Q-RT-PCR results showed that BmMTP10 expression was induced threefold in response to the excess Mn treatment. On the other hand BmMTP11 expression was not affected in response to excess Mn levels. Thus, our results suggest that the BmMTP10 and BmMTP11 proteins from B. v. ssp. maritima have non-redundant functions in terms of Mn detoxification with a similar in planta localization and function as the Arabidopsis Mn-CDF homolog AtMTP11 and this conservation shows the evolutionary importance of these vesicular proteins in heavy metal homeostatis among plant species. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  12. A ocorrência do mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae) e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren), Nasutitermitinae, em afloramentos rochosos no Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS / The occurrence of facultative mutualism between Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae) and the termite Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren), Nasutitermitinae, on rock outcrops in Itapuã State Park, Viamão, RS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Celso Copstein, Waldemar; Bruno Edgar, Irgang.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A presença de colônias de C. silvestrii é comum nos lajeados existentes em Itapuã. Na estação Morro da Grota1, 92,0 % dos termiteiros situados na rocha exposta e em ilhas de vegetação estão associados a D. maritima. Esta convivência ocorre em 31,2 % das ilhas na qual esta bromélia se faz presente. N [...] as ilhas, a comparação entre os substratos aonde D. maritima vegeta, o solo litólico húmico existente sob o manto do musgo Campylopus spp. e o substrato constituído pelo cupinzeiro indica que este último possui os teores mais elevados dos nutrientes P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn e Mn, maior CTC e maiores teores de partículas finas, principalmente o silte. O estabelecimento de D. maritima sobre os termiteiros de grande porte aumenta o seu valor de cobertura em ilhas de vegetação quando comparado com ilhas sem termiteiros ou com termiteiros de pequeno porte em áreas entre 2,7 a 8,0 m². Este fato é atribuído à melhoria físico-química do substrato e ao aumento de superfície e volume aptos a serem colonizados pela bromélia e proporciona maior competitividade em relação a outras espécies vegetais. As características apresentadas pela interação entre este cupim e D. maritima, pela primeira vez descrita na literatura, permitem indicar esta relação ecológica como mutualismo facultativo. Inferimos que o conjunto de observações apresentado constitui um modelo temporal de crescimento deste mutualismo, cujas fases inicial e tardia estão descritas neste trabalho. Abstract in english The presence of colonies of C. silvestrii is common, both on the rock surface and at islands of vegetation. At Morro da Grota1 station, 92,0 % of the termite nests on rocky outcrops and at island of vegetation are associated with this bromeliad. These nests are associated with D. maritima, in 31,2 % [...] of the islands where this bromeliad occurs. At these island communities, the comparison between the substrata where D. maritima occurs, the litolic Waldemar & Irgang: Mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii humic soil existing under the mantle of the moss Campylopus spp. and the substratum produced by termites indicates that this possesses higher levels of the nutrients P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Mn, CEC and higher fine particles content, mainly silt. The establishment of D. maritima rosettes on great termite nests increase their value of relative coverage at islands inside areas between 2,7 to 8,0 m². This fact is attributed to the improvement physical-chemistry of the substratum and the increase of surface and volume to be colonized for the Bromeliad. It provides for greater competitiveness at this species in relation to other vegetal species. The features presented for the interaction between this termite and D. maritima, for the first time described in literature, lead to the classification of this ecological relationship as facultative mutualism. The set of observations constitute a temporal model of development of this mutualism at island's vegetation, whose phases, initial and advanced are described.

  13. Structure of a d-tagatose 3-epimerase-related protein from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of a hyperthermophilic d-tagatose 3-epimerase-related protein with a unique active-site architecture was determined. The crystal structure of a d-tagatose 3-epimerase-related protein (TM0416p) encoded by the hypothetical open reading frame TM0416 in the genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima was determined at a resolution of 2.2 Å. The asymmetric unit contained two homologous subunits and a dimer was generated by twofold symmetry. The main-chain coordinates of the enzyme monomer proved to be similar to those of d-tagatose 3-epimerase from Pseudomonas cichorii and d-psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens; however, TM0416p exhibited a unique solvent-accessible substrate-binding pocket that reflected the absence of an ?-helix that covers the active-site cleft in the two aforementioned ketohexose 3-epimerases. In addition, the residues responsible for creating a hydrophobic environment around the substrate in TM0416p differ entirely from those in the other two enzymes. Collectively, these findings suggest that the substrate specificity of TM0416p is likely to differ substantially from those of other d-tagatose 3-epimerase family enzymes

  14. Metabolic fate of cardiac glycosides and flavonoids upon fermentation of aqueous sea squill (Drimia maritima L.) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittel, Diana N; Stintzing, Florian C; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2015-06-10

    Sea squill (Drimia maritima L.) extracts have been used for centuries for the medical treatment of heart diseases. A procedure for the preparation of Drimia extracts applied for such purposes comprising a fermentation step is described in the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (GHP). However, little is known about the secondary metabolite profile of such extracts and the fate of these components upon processing and storage. Thus, in the present study sea squill extracts were monitored during fermentation and storage by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) and GC-MS to characterise and quantitate individual cardiac glycosides and phenolic compounds. For this purpose, a previously established HPLC method for the separation and quantitation of pharmacologically relevant cardiac glycosides (bufadienolides) was validated. Within 12 months of storage, total bufadienolide contents decreased by about 50%, which was attributed to microbial and plant enzyme activities. The metabolisation and degradation rates of individual bufadienolide glycosides significantly differed, which was attributed to differing structures of the aglycones. Further degradation of bufadienolide aglycones was also observed. Besides reactions well known from human metabolism studies, dehydration of individual compounds was monitored. Quantitatively predominating flavonoids were also metabolised throughout the fermentation process. The present study provides valuable information about the profile and stability of individual cardiac glycosides and phenolic compounds in fermented Drimia extracts prepared for medical applications, and expands the knowledge of cardiac glycoside conversion upon microbial fermentation. PMID:25841205

  15. Structure of a D-tagatose 3-epimerase-related protein from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Yoneda, Kazunari; Satomura, Takenori; Kawakami, Ryushi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2009-03-01

    The crystal structure of a D-tagatose 3-epimerase-related protein (TM0416p) encoded by the hypothetical open reading frame TM0416 in the genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima was determined at a resolution of 2.2 A. The asymmetric unit contained two homologous subunits and a dimer was generated by twofold symmetry. The main-chain coordinates of the enzyme monomer proved to be similar to those of D-tagatose 3-epimerase from Pseudomonas cichorii and D-psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens; however, TM0416p exhibited a unique solvent-accessible substrate-binding pocket that reflected the absence of an alpha-helix that covers the active-site cleft in the two aforementioned ketohexose 3-epimerases. In addition, the residues responsible for creating a hydrophobic environment around the substrate in TM0416p differ entirely from those in the other two enzymes. Collectively, these findings suggest that the substrate specificity of TM0416p is likely to differ substantially from those of other D-tagatose 3-epimerase family enzymes. PMID:19255464

  16. The seasonal dormancy pattern and germination of Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora (L. Dostal seeds in hydrotime model terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bochenek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in hydrotime model parameters were determined in Matricaria maritima L. subsp. inodora seeds during burial in a field in order to describe the seasonal dormancy pattern. Seeds were exhumed at regular intervals over a year and incubated at different water potentials at 19°C. Germination time courses were analyzed to determine hydrotime population parameters. Values of ?b(50, ?H and ??b varied each month. Mean base water potential values in seeds exhumed each month were related to precipitation over 20 days before their exhumation. Soil temperature could be a trend-controlling factor of this relationship. The seeds were in deep dormancy after remaining 80-90 days in soil below or above limit temperature 15°C. The application of the hydrotime model to describe and predict seasonal dormancy patterns of weed seed is promising, especially for species with a considerable diversification of life strategies and ecophysiological flexibility of diaspores. It could also suggest mechanisms of seasonal dormancy changes of seeds in natural conditions and provide a basis for their examination. One of advantages of the dormancy pattern description of weed seeds remaining in a soil bank by means of threshold models is its simplicity.

  17. Accuracy of replication in the polymerase chain reaction. Comparison between Thermotoga maritima DNA polymerase and Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.S., Diaz; E.C., Sabino.

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available For certain applications of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), it may be necessary to consider the accuracy of replication. The breakthrough that made PCR user friendly was the commercialization of Thermus aquaticus (Taq) DNA polymerase, an enzyme that would survive the high temperatures needed fo [...] r DNA denaturation. The development of enzymes with an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease proofreading activity, lacking in Taq polymerase, would be an improvement when higher fidelity is needed. We used the forward mutation assay to compare the fidelity of Taq polymerase and Thermotoga maritima (ULTMA™) DNA polymerase, an enzyme that does have proofreading activity. We did not find significant differences in the fidelity of either enzyme, even when using optimal buffer conditions, thermal cycling parameters, and number of cycles (0.2% and 0.13% error rates for ULTMA™ and Taq, respectively, after reading about 3,000 bases each). We conclude that for sequencing purposes there is no difference in using a DNA polymerase that contains an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease activity for DNA amplification. Perhaps the specificity and fidelity of PCR are complex issues influenced by the nature of the target sequence, as well as by each PCR component.

  18. Extremely thermostable L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase from Thermotoga maritima: cloning, characterization, and crystallization of the recombinant enzyme in its tetrameric and octameric state.

    OpenAIRE

    Ostendorp, R.; Auerbach, G.; Jaenicke, R.

    1996-01-01

    L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; E.C.1.1.1.27) from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima has been shown to represent the most stable LDH isolated so far (Wrba A, Jaenicke R, Huber R, Stetter KO, 1990, Eur J Biochem 188:195-201). In order to obtain the enzyme in amounts sufficient for physical characterization, and to analyze the molecular basis of its intrinsic stability, the gene was cloned and expressed functionally in Escherichia coli. Growth of the cells and purification of...

  19. Periplasmic Binding Proteins in Thermophiles: Characterization and Potential Application of an Arginine-Binding Protein from Thermotoga maritima: A Brief Thermo-Story

    OpenAIRE

    Auria, Sabato D.; Antonio Varriale; Alessandro Capo; Maria Staiano; Jonathan Dattelbaum; Alessio Ausili

    2013-01-01

    Arginine-binding protein from the extremophile Thermotoga maritima is a 27.7 kDa protein possessing the typical two-domain structure of the periplasmic binding proteins family. The protein is characterized by a very high specificity and affinity to bind to arginine, also at high temperatures. Due to its features, this protein could be taken into account as a potential candidate for the design of a biosensor for arginine. It is important to investigate the stability of proteins when they are u...

  20. The [Fe-Fe]-hydrogenase maturation protein HydF from Thermotoga maritima is a GTPase with an iron-sulfur cluster.

    OpenAIRE

    Brazzolotto, Xavier; Ruback, Jon K.; Gaillard, Jacques; Gambarelli, Serge; Atta, Mohamed; Fontecave, Marc

    2006-01-01

    The active site of [Fe-Fe]-hydrogenases is composed of a di-iron complex, where the two metal atoms are bridged together by a putative di(thiomethyl)amine molecule and are also ligated by di-nuclear ligands, namely carbon monoxide and cyanide. Biosynthesis of this metal site is thought to require specific protein machinery coded by the hydE, hydF and hydG genes. The HydF protein has been cloned from the thermophilic organism Thermotoga maritima, purified and characterized. The enzyme possesse...

  1. Ferulic acid excretion as a marker of consumption of a French maritime pine (Pinus maritima) bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgili, F; Pagana, G; Bourne, L; Rimbach, G; Natella, F; Rice-Evans, C; Packer, L

    2000-04-15

    French maritime pine (Pinus maritima) bark extract (PBE) is a polyphenol-rich food supplement patented under the name of Pycnogenol and known to have strong antioxidant activity and different beneficial effects on human health. Although its biological properties have begun to be extensively studied both in vitro, in laboratory animals and more recently in humans, little is known about its bioavailability. The present study investigated the urinary excretion of free and conjugated ferulic acid, present in quantitatively detectable amounts in PBE, after oral PBE administration to human subjects. Eleven healthy adult subjects (4 women and 7men) consumed either a single dose (200 mg PBE) or two doses of PBE (100 and 200 mg, respectively) within a 48-h interval. Two days before the oral administration of PBE and during the urine sample collection period volunteers adhered to a diet low in polyphenols. Aliquots of all urine production were collected over 24 h. Free and conjugated ferulic acid was assessed in urine by HPLC using diode array detection. A close association between the dietary intake of PBE and the urinary excretion of ferulic acid was detected. Moreover, the results indicate that a considerable proportion of ferulic acid is excreted as glucuronide or sulfate after PBE consumption, varying over the range 2 to 20% between individuals. The kinetics of excretion associated with the administration of 100 mg PBE was quite similar to that obtained after 200 mg PBE. A a biphasic trend was evident in a number of subjects. All subjects studied here displayed a significant, although variable level of excretion of ferulic acid after supplementation with PBE, Thus, the data provide evidence that at least a part of the phenolic components of PBE are absorbed, metabolized, and eliminated by humans. PMID:10889455

  2. Characterization of exceptionally thermostable single-stranded DNA-binding proteins from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga neapolitana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickiewicz Ma?gorzata

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in SSBs because they find numerous applications in diverse molecular biology and analytical methods. Results We report the characterization of single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSBs from the thermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima (TmaSSB and Thermotoga neapolitana (TneSSB. They are the smallest known bacterial SSB proteins, consisting of 141 and 142 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 16.30 and 16.58 kDa, respectively. The similarity between amino acid sequences of these proteins is very high: 90% identity and 95% similarity. Surprisingly, both TmaSSB and TneSSB possess a quite low sequence similarity to Escherichia coli SSB (36 and 35% identity, 55 and 56% similarity, respectively. They are functional as homotetramers containing one single-stranded DNA binding domain (OB-fold in each monomer. Agarose mobility assays indicated that the ssDNA-binding site for both proteins is salt independent, and fluorescence spectroscopy resulted in a size of 68 ± 2 nucleotides. The half-lives of TmaSSB and TneSSB were 10 h and 12 h at 100°C, respectively. When analysed by differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSC the melting temperature (Tm was 109.3°C and 112.5°C for TmaSSB and TneSSB, respectively. Conclusion The results showed that TmaSSB and TneSSB are the most thermostable SSB proteins identified to date, offering an attractive alternative to TaqSSB and TthSSB in molecular biology applications, especially with using high temperature e. g. polymerase chain reaction (PCR.

  3. Constitutive high-level expression of a codon-optimized ?-fructosidase gene from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Carmen; Martínez, Duniesky; Trujillo, Luis E; Mazola, Yuliet; González, Ernesto; Pérez, Enrique R; Hernández, Lázaro

    2013-02-01

    Enzymes for use in the sugar industry are preferred to be thermotolerant. In this study, a synthetic codon-optimized gene encoding a highly thermostable ?-fructosidase (BfrA, EC 3.2.1.26) from the bacterium Thermotoga maritima was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The gradual increase of the transgene dosage from one to four copies under the control of the constitutive glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter had an additive effect on BfrA yield without causing cell toxicity. Maximal values of cell biomass (115 g/l, dry weight) and overall invertase activity (241 U/ml) were reached at 72 h in fed-batch fermentations using cane sugar as the main carbon source for growth. Secretion driven by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-factor signal peptide resulted in periplasmic retention (44 %) and extracellular release (56 %) of BfrA. The presence of N-linked oligosaccharides did not influence the optimal activity, thermal stability, kinetic properties, substrate specificity, and exo-type action mode of the yeast-secreted BfrA in comparison to the native unglycosylated enzyme. Complete inversion of cane sugar at initial concentration of 60 % (w/v) was achieved by periplasmic BfrA in undisrupted cells reacting at pH 5.5 and 70 °C, with average productivity of 4.4 g of substrate hydrolyzed per grams of biomass (wet weight) per hour. The high yield of fully active glycosylated BfrA here attained by recombinant P. pastoris in a low-cost fermentation process appears to be attractive for the large-scale production of this thermostable enzyme useful for the manufacture of inverted sugar syrup. PMID:22821437

  4. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima - ancestor of all beet crops - and modern sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChristinZachow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 47.4% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (?45.8% than for sugar beet (?57.5%. Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes.

  5. Seed characteristics and dispersal of dimorphic fruit segments of Cakile maritima Scopoli (Brassicaceae population of southern Brazilian coastal dunes Características das sementes e dispersão dos segmentos de frutos dimórficos de uma população de Cakile maritima Scopoli (Brassicaceae nas dunas costeiras do Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Vieira Cordazzo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Cakile maritima occurs sporadically along the southern Brazilian coast, where it is restricted to more protected sites at the base of foredunes. Somatic dimorphism in C. maritima is manifested as morphologically distinct upper and lower fruit segments (silicules. The two morphs were tested for differences in size, number of seeds, dispersal ability and natural establishment. In the C. maritima population of southern Brazil, the lower silicule has more seeds than upper silicule, and lower seeds are more likely to abort than the upper ones. Seeds from upper segments were significantly larger than those from lower ones; however, their mass ranges overlap. The mean silicule mass was not significantly different from both segments, but the silicule/seed mass ratio from upper and lower segments was significantly different. Both segments had high ability to float in sea water, more than 50% were still afloat after 70 days. Nevertheless, dispersal occurs mainly to landward due to dominant wind action. Most of the seedlings were restricted to within a one-metre radius of the mother plant, and were principally derived from lower fruit segments.Cakile maritima ocorre esporadicamente ao longo da costa Sul do Brasil, onde é encontrada restrita aos locais mais protegidos na base das dunas frontais. O dimorfismo somático é manifestado como segmentos de frutos (silículas superior e inferior, morfologicamente distintos. As sementes dos dois tipos de segmentos foram avaliadas quanto ao tamanho, número, capacidade de dispersão e estabelecimento em condições naturais. Na população de C. maritima no Sul do Brasil as silículas inferiores apresentaram maior número de sementes do que as siliculas superiores, e as sementes das silículas inferiores foram mais abortadas que as das superiores. As sementes dos segmentos superiores foram significativamente maiores do que aquelas dos segmentos inferiores; entretanto ocorreu uma sobreposição nos pesos entre elas. O peso médio das silículas dos dois segmentos não difere significativamente, mas a razão peso das silículas / peso das sementes foi significativamente diferente para os segmentos superior e inferior. Ambos segmentos apresentaram grande habilidade de flutuar em água salgada, superior a 50% após 70 dias. Todavia, a dispersão dos segmentos dos frutos ocorre principalmente em direção ao continente através da ação do vento. A maioria das plântulas encontradas no ambiente natural se encontrava restrita num raio de um metro da planta-mãe, e era originada principalmente de sementes dos segmentos inferiores dos frutos.

  6. Seed characteristics and dispersal of dimorphic fruit segments of Cakile maritima Scopoli (Brassicaceae) population of southern Brazilian coastal dunes / Características das sementes e dispersão dos segmentos de frutos dimórficos de uma população de Cakile maritima Scopoli (Brassicaceae) nas dunas costeiras do Sul do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    César Vieira, Cordazzo.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Cakile maritima ocorre esporadicamente ao longo da costa Sul do Brasil, onde é encontrada restrita aos locais mais protegidos na base das dunas frontais. O dimorfismo somático é manifestado como segmentos de frutos (silículas) superior e inferior, morfologicamente distintos. As sementes dos dois tip [...] os de segmentos foram avaliadas quanto ao tamanho, número, capacidade de dispersão e estabelecimento em condições naturais. Na população de C. maritima no Sul do Brasil as silículas inferiores apresentaram maior número de sementes do que as siliculas superiores, e as sementes das silículas inferiores foram mais abortadas que as das superiores. As sementes dos segmentos superiores foram significativamente maiores do que aquelas dos segmentos inferiores; entretanto ocorreu uma sobreposição nos pesos entre elas. O peso médio das silículas dos dois segmentos não difere significativamente, mas a razão peso das silículas / peso das sementes foi significativamente diferente para os segmentos superior e inferior. Ambos segmentos apresentaram grande habilidade de flutuar em água salgada, superior a 50% após 70 dias. Todavia, a dispersão dos segmentos dos frutos ocorre principalmente em direção ao continente através da ação do vento. A maioria das plântulas encontradas no ambiente natural se encontrava restrita num raio de um metro da planta-mãe, e era originada principalmente de sementes dos segmentos inferiores dos frutos. Abstract in english Cakile maritima occurs sporadically along the southern Brazilian coast, where it is restricted to more protected sites at the base of foredunes. Somatic dimorphism in C. maritima is manifested as morphologically distinct upper and lower fruit segments (silicules). The two morphs were tested for diff [...] erences in size, number of seeds, dispersal ability and natural establishment. In the C. maritima population of southern Brazil, the lower silicule has more seeds than upper silicule, and lower seeds are more likely to abort than the upper ones. Seeds from upper segments were significantly larger than those from lower ones; however, their mass ranges overlap. The mean silicule mass was not significantly different from both segments, but the silicule/seed mass ratio from upper and lower segments was significantly different. Both segments had high ability to float in sea water, more than 50% were still afloat after 70 days. Nevertheless, dispersal occurs mainly to landward due to dominant wind action. Most of the seedlings were restricted to within a one-metre radius of the mother plant, and were principally derived from lower fruit segments.

  7. Fungal decontamination and enhancement of shelf life of edible split beans of wild legume Canavalia maritima by the electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, P.; Sridhar, K. R.; Ganesh, S.

    2014-03-01

    Ripened split beans of the coastal sand dune wild legume Canavalia maritima serve as one of the traditional nutritional sources of the coastal dwellers in Southwest coast of India. Nine fungi were isolated from the unirradiated dry beans by plating on the potato dextrose agar medium. Toxigenic fungus Aspergillus niger showed the highest incidence (33-50%) followed by Aspergillus flavus (14-20%) and Penicillium chrysogenum (7-13%). Unirradiated dry beans and irradiated dry beans with electron beam doses 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 kGy were monitored for occurrence of fungal species and their incidence during 0, 3 and 6 months storage period under laboratory conditions. Irradiation resulted in dose-dependent decrease in fungal species (5-7, 4-6, 3-6 and 0 on irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 or 15 kGy, respectively) as well as incidence (80-99, 19-46, 13-21 and 0%, respectively). Although aflatoxins (B1 and B2) were found below detectable level (Aspergillus ochraceus in unirradiated and irradiated beans (2.5 and 5 kGy) stored for 3 and 6 months, the beans were devoid of ochratoxin-A. Electron beam irradiation dose 10 kGy could be recommended for fungal decontamination and improvement of shelf life of C. maritima ripened dry split beans.

  8. Structural Analysis of Semi-specific Oligosaccharide Recognition by a Cellulose-binding Protein of Thermotoga maritima Reveals Adaptations for Functional Diversification of the Oligopeptide Periplasmic Binding Protein Fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuneo, Matthew J.; Beese, Lorena S.; Hellinga, Homme W.; (Duke)

    2010-05-25

    Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) constitute a protein superfamily that binds a wide variety of ligands. In prokaryotes, PBPs function as receptors for ATP-binding cassette or tripartite ATP-independent transporters and chemotaxis systems. In many instances, PBPs bind their cognate ligands with exquisite specificity, distinguishing, for example, between sugar epimers or structurally similar anions. By contrast, oligopeptide-binding proteins bind their ligands through interactions with the peptide backbone but do not distinguish between different side chains. The extremophile Thermotoga maritima possesses a remarkable array of carbohydrate-processing metabolic systems, including the hydrolysis of cellulosic polymers. Here, we present the crystal structure of a T. maritima cellobiose-binding protein (tm0031) that is homologous to oligopeptide-binding proteins. T. maritima cellobiose-binding protein binds a variety of lengths of {beta}(1 {yields} 4)-linked glucose oligomers, ranging from two rings (cellobiose) to five (cellopentaose). The structure reveals that binding is semi-specific. The disaccharide at the nonreducing end binds specifically; the other rings are located in a large solvent-filled groove, where the reducing end makes several contacts with the protein, thereby imposing an upper limit of the oligosaccharides that are recognized. Semi-specific recognition, in which a molecular class rather than individual species is selected, provides an efficient solution for the uptake of complex mixtures.

  9. Isolation, identification and expression analysis of salt-induced genes in Suaeda maritima, a natural halophyte, using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahu Binod B

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite wealth of information generated on salt tolerance mechanism, its basics still remain elusive. Thus, there is a need of continued effort to understand the salt tolerance mechanism using suitable biotechnological techniques and test plants (species to enable development of salt tolerant cultivars of interest. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to generate information on salt stress responsive genes in a natural halophyte, Suaeda maritima, using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization (PCR-SSH technique. Results Forward and reverse SSH cDNA libraries were constructed after exposing the young plants to 425 mM NaCl for 24 h. From the forward SSH cDNA library, 429 high quality ESTs were obtained. BLASTX search and TIGR assembler programme revealed overexpression of 167 unigenes comprising 89 singletons and 78 contigs with ESTs redundancy of 81.8%. Among the unigenes, 32.5% were found to be of special interest, indicating novel function of these genes with regard to salt tolerance. Literature search for the known unigenes revealed that only 17 of them were salt-inducible. A comparative analysis of the existing SSH cDNA libraries for NaCl stress in plants showed that only a few overexpressing unigenes were common in them. Moreover, the present study also showed increased expression of phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene, indicating the possible accumulation of a much studied osmoticum, glycinebetaine, in halophyte under salt stress. Functional categorization of the proteins as per the Munich database in general revealed that salt tolerance could be largely determined by the proteins involved in transcription, signal transduction, protein activity regulation and cell differentiation and organogenesis. Conclusion The study provided a clear indication of possible vital role of glycinebetaine in the salt tolerance process in S. maritima. However, the salt-induced expression of a large number of genes involved in a wide range of cellular functions was indicative of highly complex nature of the process as such. Most of the salt inducible genes, nonetheless, appeared to be species-specific. In light of the observations made, it is reasonable to emphasize that a comparative analysis of ESTs from SSH cDNA libraries generated systematically for a few halophytes with varying salt exposure time may clearly identify the key salt tolerance determinant genes to a minimum number, highly desirable for any genetic manipulation adventure.

  10. Crystal structures of the laminarinase catalytic domain from Thermotoga maritima MSB8 in complex with inhibitors: essential residues for ?-1,3- and ?-1,4-glucan selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Wen-Yih; Wang, Nai-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Tse; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Wang, Andrew H-J

    2011-12-30

    Laminarinases hydrolyzing the ?-1,3-linkage of glucans play essential roles in microbial saccharide degradation. Here we report the crystal structures at 1.65-1.82 ? resolution of the catalytic domain of laminarinase from the thermophile Thermotoga maritima with various space groups in the ligand-free form or in the presence of inhibitors gluconolactone and cetyltrimethylammonium. Ligands were bound at the cleft of the active site near an enclosure formed by Trp-232 and a flexible GASIG loop. A closed configuration at the active site cleft was observed in some molecules. The loop flexibility in the enzyme may contribute to the regulation of endo- or exo-activity of the enzyme and a preference to release laminaritrioses in long chain carbohydrate hydrolysis. Glu-137 and Glu-132 are proposed to serve as the proton donor and nucleophile, respectively, in the retaining catalysis of hydrolyzation. Calcium ions in the crystallization media are found to accelerate crystal growth. Comparison of laminarinase and endoglucanase structures revealed the subtle difference of key residues in the active site for the selection of ?-1,3-glucan and ?-1,4-glucan substrates, respectively. Arg-85 may be pivotal to ?-1,3-glucan substrate selection. The similarity of the structures between the laminarinase catalytic domain and its carbohydrate-binding modules may have evolutionary relevance because of the similarities in their folds. PMID:22065588

  11. A ConA-like lectin isolated from Canavalia maritima seeds alters the expression of genes related to virulence and biofilm formation in Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Thays Arruda Cavalcante

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria form biofilms as an adaptive mechanism in response to environmental changes. Streptococcus mutans is the biofilm-forming bacterium that is primarily associated with dental caries. The expression of important genes by bacteria in biofilms is different from that of planktonic cells. Lectins are proteins that bind specifically to carbohydrates and may have important biological activities on bacterial cells, acting as antibacterial and anti-biofilm agents. ConM (Canavalia maritima lectin is a protein that is able to inhibit the planktonic growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of ConM and concanavalin A (ConA on the expression of genes related to virulence and biofilm formation in S. mutans. The results showed that ConM significantly reduced the expression of genes encoding enzymes related to adhesion, formation and regulation of biofilms. On the contrary, ConA did not alter the expression of the genes studied. Because the two lectins have a high degree of similarity, the differences in the actions of ConM and ConA may be explained by the small structural differences in the carbohydrate recognition domain of the lectins.

  12. Fungal decontamination and enhancement of shelf life of edible split beans of wild legume Canavalia maritima by the electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripened split beans of the coastal sand dune wild legume Canavalia maritima serve as one of the traditional nutritional sources of the coastal dwellers in Southwest coast of India. Nine fungi were isolated from the unirradiated dry beans by plating on the potato dextrose agar medium. Toxigenic fungus Aspergillus niger showed the highest incidence (33–50%) followed by Aspergillus flavus (14–20%) and Penicillium chrysogenum (7–13%). Unirradiated dry beans and irradiated dry beans with electron beam doses 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 kGy were monitored for occurrence of fungal species and their incidence during 0, 3 and 6 months storage period under laboratory conditions. Irradiation resulted in dose-dependent decrease in fungal species (5–7, 4–6, 3–6 and 0 on irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 or 15 kGy, respectively) as well as incidence (80–99, 19–46, 13–21 and 0%, respectively). Although aflatoxins (B1 and B2) were found below detectable level (1 and B2). • Irradiated split beans (10 kGy) showed improved shelf life up to six months without deterioration under normal laboratory conditions

  13. Helical shifts generate two distinct conformers in the atomic resolution structure of the CheA phosphotransferase domain from Thermotoga maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Cindy M; Gradinaru, Cristian; Simon, Melvin I; Bilwes, Alexandrine M; Crane, Brian R

    2004-08-27

    Helical histidine phosphotransferase (HPt) domains play a central role in many aspects of bacterial signal transduction. The 0.98 A resolution crystallographic structure of the amino-terminal HPt domain (P1) from the chemotaxis kinase CheA of Thermotoga maritima reveals a remarkable degree of structural heterogeneity within a four-helix bundle. Two of the four helices have alternate main-chain conformations that differ by a 1.3-1.7A shift along the bundle axis. These dual conformers were only resolved with atomic resolution diffraction data and their inclusion significantly improved refinement statistics. Neither conformer optimizes packing within the helical core, consistent with their nearly equal refined occupancies. Altered hydrogen bonding within an inter-helical loop may facilitate transition between conformers. Two discrete structural states rather than a continuum of closely related conformations indicates an energetic barrier to conversion between conformers in the crystal at 100K, although many more states are expected in solution at physiological temperatures. Anisotropic atomic thermal B factors within the two conformers indicate modest overall atomic displacement that is largest perpendicular to the helical bundle and not along the direction of apparent motion. Despite the conformational heterogeneity of P1 in the crystal at low temperature, the protein displays high thermal stability in solution (T(m)=100 degrees C). Addition of a variable C-terminal region that corresponds to a mobile helix in other CheA structures significantly narrows the temperature width of the unfolding transition and may affect domain dynamics. Helices that compose the kinase recognition site and contain the phospho-accepting His45 do not have alternate conformations. In this region, atomic resolution provides detailed structural parameters for a conserved hydrogen-bonding network that tunes the reactivity of His45. A neighboring glutamate (E67), essential for phosphotransferase activity hydrogen bonds directly to His45 N(delta1). E67 generates a negative electrostatic surface surrounding the reactive His that is conserved by most CheA kinases, but absent in related phosphotransferase proteins. The P1 conformations that we observe are likely relevant to other helical or coiled-coil proteins and may be important for generating switches in signaling processes. PMID:15321722

  14. Crystal structure of the reaction complex of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase from Thermotoga maritima refines the catalytic mechanism and indicates a new mechanism of allosteric regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilin, Igor A; Bauerle, Ronald; Wu, Jing; Woodard, Ronald W; Kretsinger, Robert H

    2004-08-01

    3-Deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS) catalyzes the first reaction of the aromatic biosynthetic pathway in bacteria, fungi, and plants, the condensation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and d-erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P) with the formation of DAHP. Crystals of DAHPS from Thermotoga maritima (DAHPS(Tm)) were grown in the presence of PEP and metal cofactor, Cd(2+), and then soaked with E4P at 4 degrees C where the catalytic activity of the enzyme is negligible. The crystal structure of the "frozen" reaction complex was determined at 2.2A resolution. The subunit of the DAHPS(Tm) homotetramer consists of an N-terminal ferredoxin-like (FL) domain and a (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel domain. The active site located at the C-end of the barrel contains Cd(2+), PEP, and E4P, the latter bound in a non-productive conformation. The productive conformation of E4P is suggested and a catalytic mechanism of DAHPS is proposed. The active site of DAHPS(Tm) is nearly identical to the active sites of the other two known DAHPS structures from Escherichia coli (DAHPS(Ec)) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (DAHPS(Sc)). However, the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of DAHPS(Tm) are more similar to the functionally related enzyme, 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonate-8-phosphate synthase (KDOPS) from E.coli and Aquiflex aeolicus, than to DAHPS(Ec) and DAHPS(Sc). Although DAHPS(Tm) is feedback-regulated by tyrosine and phenylalanine, it lacks the extra barrel segments that are required for feedback inhibition in DAHPS(Ec) and DAHPS(Sc). A sequence similarity search revealed that DAHPSs of phylogenetic family Ibeta possess a FL domain like DAHPS(Tm) while those of family Ialpha have extra barrel segments similar to those of DAHPS(Ec) and DAHPS(Sc). This indicates that the mechanism of feedback regulation in DAHPS(Tm) and other family Ibeta enzymes is different from that of family Ialpha enzymes, most likely being mediated by the FL domain. PMID:15276836

  15. GOSSYPIBOMA AND ITS IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Umunna, JI

    2012-01-01

    Surgical materials are sometimes inadvertently left in the body after surgical operations. Cotton materials are the commonest objects forgotten. The implications for the patient and the surgeon are grave. The purpose of this presentation is to rekindle awareness of the phenomenon of gossypiboma, highlight the implications and stress prevention. Data were collected from hospital records which included their demographics, clinical features, management outcome and follow-up. Four cases of gossyp...

  16. Logic, Algebra and Implication.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles

    Rio de Janeiro : ECEME - Escola de Comando e Estado-Maior do Exército, 2013 - (Béziau, J.; Buchsbaum, A.; Costa-Leite, A.; Altair, A.). s. 34-35 [UniLog 2013. World Congress and School on Universal Logic /4./. 29.03.2013-07.04.2013, Rio de Janeiro] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : abstract algebra ic logic * consequence relations * weakly implicative logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  17. Gossypiboma and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umunna, Ji

    2012-10-01

    Surgical materials are sometimes inadvertently left in the body after surgical operations. Cotton materials are the commonest objects forgotten. The implications for the patient and the surgeon are grave. The purpose of this presentation is to rekindle awareness of the phenomenon of gossypiboma, highlight the implications and stress prevention. Data were collected from hospital records which included their demographics, clinical features, management outcome and follow-up. Four cases of gossypiboma were found. Two had undergone caesarian section, one underwent pelvic floor repair for utero-vaginal prolapsed, and the fourth underwent transvesical prostatectomy. Their age, sex, causative operation and onset of symptoms, and salvage procedures were noted. Out of the 12304 surgical cases managed in our facility between November 1997 and December 2012, 4 (0.03%) cases of gossypiboma were recorded. Gauze extruded spontaneously from the abdominal scar in one patient who had undergone caesarian section. Intestinal obstruction occurred in another case of caesarian section and was relieved by intestinal resection and anastomosis. Also gauze extruded and was extracted from the urethra in the patient who underwent transvesical prostatectomy. Three (75%) patients survived while one (25%) died. We conclude that gossypiboma occurs most commonly after intra-abdominal operations. Women are at increased risk during obstetric and gynaecological operations, though both sexes are affected. The condition carries potentials for harm to the patient and medico-legal litigations. PMID:25453006

  18. Implications of recent MINER$\

    CERN Document Server

    Wolcott, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Among the most important tasks of neutrino oscillation experiments is correctly estimating the parent neutrino energy from the by-products of their interactions. Large uncertainties in our current understanding of such processes can significantly hamper this effort. We explore several recent measurements made using the \\mnv{} detector in the few-GeV NuMI muon neutrino beam at Fermilab: the differential cross-section vs. $Q^2$ for charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, the differential cross-sections vs. pion angle and pion kinetic energy for resonant single charged pion production, and the differential cross-sections vs. pion angle and kinetic energy for coherent pion production. We furthermore discuss their implications for energy reconstruction in oscillation measurements.

  19. Neutrino Experiments and Their Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in solar, reactor, and accelerator neutrino physics are reviewed. Implications for neutrino physics, solar physics, nuclear two-body physics, and r-process nucleosynthesis are briefly discussed.

  20. The privacy implications of Bluetooth

    OpenAIRE

    Kostakos, Vassilis

    2008-01-01

    A substantial amount of research, as well as media hype, has surrounded RFID technology and its privacy implications. Currently, researchers and the media focus on the privacy threats posed by RFID, while consumer groups choose to boycott products bearing RFID tags. At the same, however, a very similar technology has quietly become part of our everyday lives: Bluetooth. In this paper we highlight the fact that Bluetooth is a widespread technology that has real privacy implic...

  1. Implications of prion polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Leonardo M; Sim, Valerie L

    2013-01-01

    The sequence of a host’s prion protein (PrP) can affect that host’s susceptibility to prion disease and is the primary basis for the species barrier to transmission. Yet within many species, polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (Prnp) exist, each of which can further affect susceptibility or influence incubation period, pathology and phenotype. As strains are defined by these features (incubation period, pathology, phenotype), polymorphisms may also lead to the preferential propagation or generation of certain strains. In our recent study of the mouse Prnpa and Prnpb polymorphisms (which produced the proteins PrPa and PrPb, respectively), we found differences in aggregation tendency, strain adaptability and conformational variability. Comparing our in vitro data with that of in vivo studies, we found that differing incubation periods between Prnpa and Prnpb mice can primarily be explained on the basis of faster or more efficient aggregation of PrPa. In addition, and more importantly, we found that the faithful propagation of strains in Prnpb mice can be explained by the ability of PrPb to adopt a wider range of conformations. This adaptability allows PrPb to successfully propagate the structural features of a seed. In contrast, Prnpa mice revert PrPb strains into PrPa -type strains, and overall they have a narrower distribution of incubation periods. This can be explained by PrPa having fewer preferred conformations. We propose that Prnp polymorphisms are one route by which certain prion strains may preferentially propagate. This has significant implications for prion disease, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in particular, as it is spreading through North America. Deer which are susceptible to CWD also carry polymorphisms which influence their susceptibility. If these polymorphisms also preferentially allow strain diversification and propagation, this may accelerate the crossing of species barriers and propagation of the disease up the food chain. PMID:23807178

  2. Magnetic imaging of a submerged Roman harbour, Caesarea Maritima, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J. I.; Reinhardt, E. G.; Raban, A.; Pozza, M. R.

    2003-04-01

    The harbour built by King Herod's engineers at Caesarea represented a major advance in Roman harbour construction that incorporated the use of large (390 m^3), form-filled hydraulic concrete blocks to build an extensive foundation for the harbour moles and breakwater barriers. Marine geophysical surveys were recently conducted across the submerged harbour in an attempt to map the configuration of the buried concrete foundation. A total of 107 line km of high-resolution marine magnetic surveys (nominal 15 m line separations) and bathymetry data were acquired over a 1 km^2 area of the submerged harbour using an Overhauser marine magnetometer, integrated DGPS and single-beam (200 KHz) echosounder. The feasibility of magnetic detection of the concrete was established before the survey by magnetic susceptibility testing of concrete core samples. All concrete samples contained appreciable amounts of fe-oxide-rich volcanic ash ('pozzolana') and showed uniformly high susceptibility values (k > 10^-^4 cgs) when compared to harbour bottom sediments and building stones (k < 10 ^-^6 cgs). Magnetic surveys of the harbour identify a localized increase in magnetic intensity (ca. 1-7 nT) that is attributed to the presence of hydraulic concrete within the buried harbour structure. The mapped anomaly patterns are distinctly rectilinear, indicating that the concrete foundation was laid out in header fashion in dominantly N-S and W-E trending segments. Magnetic lows identify 'cells' within the concrete foundation framework that were likely filled with harbour sediments prior to construction of the harbour moles and quays.

  3. Mind, Matter and the Implicate Order The Implicate Order Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Pylkkänen, Paavo T I

    2007-01-01

    Proposes that Bohm's alternative interpretation of quantum theory resolves the paradoxes such as Schrodinger's cat, and the EPR paradox. This work uses Bohm's concepts of "implicate order", "active information" and "soma-significance" as tools to tackle several well-known problems in the philosophy of mind.

  4. Astrosociological Implications of Astrobiology (Revisited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Supporters of astrobiology continue to organize the field around formalized associations and organizations under the guise of the so-called ``hard'' sciences (e.g., biology and the related physical/natural sciences). The so-called ``soft'' sciences-including sociology and the other social sciences, the behavioral sciences, and the humanities-remain largely separated from this dynamically growing field. However, as argued in this paper, space exploration involving the search for extraterrestrial life should be viewed as consisting of two interrelated parts (i.e., two sides of the same coin): astrobiology and astrosociology. Together, these two fields broadly combine the two major branches of science as they relate to the relationship between human life and alien life, as appropriate. Moreover, with a formalized system of collaboration, these two complimentary fields would also focus on the implications of their research to human beings as well as their cultures and social structures. By placing the astrosociological implications of astrobiology at a high enough priority, scientists interested in the search for alien life can augment their focus to include the social, cultural, and behavioral implications that were always associated with their work (yet previously overlooked or understated, and too often misunderstood). Recognition of the astrosociological implications expands our perception about alien life by creating a new emphasis on their ramifications to human life on Earth.

  5. Policy Implications of Education Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jo Ann; O'Brien, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: This concluding article identifies the policy implications of education informatics and explores impacts of current copyright laws, legislative structures, publishing practices, and education organizations. Synthesizing the discussions in the preceding articles, this article highlights the importance of designing information…

  6. Some operations on lattice implication algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Young Bae Jun; Xu, Y.; Kim, S. Y.; Roh, E. H.

    2001-01-01

    We introduce the concept of a ⊗-closed set and a ⊗-homomorphism in lattice implication algebras, and we discuss some of their properties. Next, we introduce the fuzzy implicative filter and obtain equivalent conditions. Finally, we discuss the operation ⊗, fuzzy filters and fuzzy implicative filters.

  7. Some operations on lattice implication algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bae Jun

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the concept of a ⊗-closed set and a ⊗-homomorphism in lattice implication algebras, and we discuss some of their properties. Next, we introduce the fuzzy implicative filter and obtain equivalent conditions. Finally, we discuss the operation ⊗, fuzzy filters and fuzzy implicative filters.

  8. Pharmacogenomics and migraine: possible implications

    OpenAIRE

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Brøsen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics is the science about how inherited factors influence the effects of drugs. Drug response is always a result of mutually interacting genes with important modifications from environmental and constitutional factors. Based on the genetic variability of pharmacokinetic and in some cases pharmacodynamic variability we mention possible implications for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. Pharmacogenomics will most likely in the future be one part of our therapeutic arma...

  9. Economic implications from deficit finance

    OpenAIRE

    Gaber, Stevan

    2010-01-01

    The paper enlightens popular part of the budget policy - deficit finance. In the process of securing economic conditions to surpass the current economic crises, the governments all over the world incline towards debt deficit finance. The intention is to describe the implications such as multiplier effect, crowding out effect, correlation between budget and trade deficit. One of them are positive, they increase the aggregate demand and national income, other negative in term that they crowd ou...

  10. Testable implications of forecast optimality

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, Andrew J.; Timmermann, Allan

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of forecast optimality in economics and finance has almost exclusively been conducted on the assumption of mean squared error loss under which forecasts should be unbiased and forecast errors serially uncorrelated at the single period horizon with increasing variance as the forecast horizon grows. This paper considers properties of optimal forecasts under general loss functions and establishes new testable implications of forecast optimality. These hold when the forecaster’s loss f...

  11. Pharmacogenomics and migraine: possible implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, P.; Brosen, K.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics is the science about how inherited factors influence the effects of drugs. Drug response is always a result of mutually interacting genes with important modifications from environmental and constitutional factors. Based on the genetic variability of pharmacokinetic and in some cases pharmacodynamic variability we mention possible implications for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. Pharmacogenomics will most likely in the future be one part of our therapeutic armamentarium and will provide a stronger scientific basis for optimizing drug therapy on the basis of each patient's genetic constitution Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2

  12. Philosophical Implications of Inflationary Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Knobe, J; Vilenkin, A; Knobe, Joshua; Olum, Ken D.; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Recent developments in cosmology indicate that every history having a nonzero probability is realized in infinitely many distinct regions of spacetime. Thus, it appears that the universe contains infinitely many civilizations exactly like our own, as well as infinitely many civilizations that differ from our own in any way permitted by physical laws. We explore the implications of this conclusion for ethical theory and for the doomsday argument. In the infinite universe, we find that the doomsday argument applies only to effects which change the average lifetime of all civilizations, and not those which affect our civilization alone.

  13. A logic of implications in algebra and coalgebra

    OpenAIRE

    Ada?mek, Jiri?; Sobral, Manuela; Sousa, Lurdes

    2007-01-01

    Implications in a category can be presented as epimorphisms: an ob- ject satis¯es the implication i® it is injective w.r.t. that epimorphism. G. Ro»cu formulated a logic for deriving an implication from other implications. We present two versions of implicational logics: a general one and a ¯nitary one (for epimor- phisms with ¯nitely presentable domains and codomains). In categories Alg § of algebras on a given signature our logic specializes to the implicational logic o...

  14. Research on Implication and Intelligence Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li XU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The inference of implication can not separate from intelligence participation in that the process of intelligence participation needs the participation of the thinking of the brain. And the real meaning which the speaker wants to express requires the hearer to think, judge and infer. Therefore, they are interdependent. Moreover, the thesis summarizes the reasons for leading to the misunderstanding o f implication. And these reasons can provide the point of penetration for the hearer so as to analyze the implication correctly. In addition, the thesis also summarizes the relationship between intelligence participation and implication. It can guide the hearer to take an active attitude and correct methods to infer the implication through the analysis of the relationship between them. And it will finally realize successful communication

  15. Safety implications of control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safety Implications of Control Systems (SIOC) Program has three interrelated objectives: (1) to investigate failure modes and effects in non-safety control systems, including single failures and common cause, common mode, cascade, and other credible multiple failures, (2) to assess the impact upon safety of control system designs and their dynamic behavior, using methods that include computer modeling and analysis of system dynamics under stress, and (3) to develop criteria for determining the relative importance of control system influences upon safety, and with these as a basis to recommend design and operational standards for the systems involved. In support of these goals, the SIOC Program consists of three principal activities: (1) an augmented failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) of the overall plant; (2) specific analysis of the plant electrical system; and (3) a hybrid computer model to augment the FMEA. This paper will discuss the status of each of these activities

  16. Cosmological implications of unimodular gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a model of gravity and matter fields which is invariant only under unimodular general coordinate transformations (GCT). The determinant of the metric is treated as a separate field which transforms as a scalar under unimodular GCT. Furthermore we also demand that the theory is invariant under a new global symmetry which we call generalized conformal invariance. We study the cosmological implications of the resulting theory. We show that this theory gives a fit to the high-z supernova data which is identical to the standard Big Bang model. Hence we require some other cosmological observations to test the validity of this model. We also consider some models which do not obey the generalized conformal invariance. In these models we can fit the supernova data without introducing the standard cosmological constant term. Furthermore these models introduce only one dark component and hence solve the coincidence problem of dark matter and dark energy

  17. Environmental Implications of the Tourism Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Sarah.

    2000-01-01

    This Discussion Paper was posted at the Resources for the future (RFF) Website during March 2000. Terry Davies and Sarah Cahill wrote "Environmental Implications of the Tourism Industry," which elaborates on the impacts of tourism on the environment.

  18. A behaviorological thanatology: Foundations and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Fraley, Lawrence E.

    1998-01-01

    Foundation principles supporting a behaviorological thanatology are reviewed, including concepts of life, person, death, value, right, ethic, and body/person distinctions. These natural science foundations are contrasted with traditional foundations, and their respective implications are speculatively explored.

  19. Learning and reconsolidation implicate different synaptic mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yan; Meloni, Edward G.; Carlezon, William A; Milad, Mohammed R.; Pitman, roger k; Nader, Karim; Bolshakov, Vadim Y

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic mechanisms underlying memory reconsolidation after retrieval are largely unknown. Here we report that synapses in projections to the lateral nucleus of the amygdala implicated in auditory fear conditioning, which are potentiated by learning, enter a labile state after memory reactivation, and must be restabilized through a postsynaptic mechanism implicating the mammalian target of rapamycin kinase-dependent signaling. Fear-conditioning–induced synaptic enhancements were primarily pre...

  20. Dementia in prison: ethical and legal implications

    OpenAIRE

    Fazel, S.; Mcmillan, J; O Donnell, I.

    2002-01-01

    As the number of elderly prisoners increases in the UK and other Western countries, there will be individuals who develop dementia whilst in custody. We present two case vignettes of men with dementia in English prisons, and explore some of the ethical implications that their continuing detention raises. We find little to support their detention in the various purposes of prison put forward by legal philosophers and penologists, and conclude by raising some of the possible implications of The...

  1. The phenomenological movement: implications for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, A J

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the phenomenologies of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger with the aim of highlighting some of the critical distinctions between these two 'schools' of phenomenology concerning the methodological implications of each approach for nursing research. Specifically, the paper examines: the implications of epistemology versus ontology; issues relating to validity; the involvement of the researcher, and aspects relating to interpretation. PMID:8708201

  2. Globalization of Information: Intellectual Property Law Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Nayyer, Kim

    2002-01-01

    The globalization of information, facilitated by the Internet, has significant implications for intellectual property regimes domestically and internationally. Assessment of these implications and their probable outcomes is unavoidably value-driven. Many commentators foresee harmonization of intellectual property laws but some predict disparity in political economy outcomes. Some also see profound effects on sovereignty. A critical review of recent literature on these topics discloses a preva...

  3. Green buildings: Implications for acousticians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    This presentation will deal with the practical implications of green design protocols of the US Green Building Council on interior acoustics of buildings. Three areas of particular consequence to acousticians will be discussed. Ventilation Systems: reduced energy consumption goals dictate reliance on natural cooling and ventilation using ambient air when possible. The consequent large openings in the building envelope to bring fresh air into rooms, and similar sized openings to transfer the mixed air out, can severely compromise the noise isolation of the rooms concerned. Radiant Cooling: the heavy concrete floors of buildings can be used as a thermal flywheel to lessen the cooling load, which forces the concrete ceilings to be exposed to the occupied rooms for heat transfer, and strictly limits the application of acoustical absorption on the ceilings. This challenges the room acoustics design. Green Materials: the LEED protocols require the elimination of potentially harmful finishes, including fibrous materials which may impact air quality or contribute to health problems. Since the backbone of sound absorption is glass and mineral fibres, this further challenges provision of superior room acoustics. Examples and commentary will be provided based on current and recent projects.

  4. Mobile IPTV: Implications for Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannee Suanpang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile IPTV (Internet Protocol Television provides digital content which users watch as a television broadcast via the Internet on a mobile device. This paper presents the development of IPTV, Suan Dusit Internet Broadcasting, (SDIB to mobile IPTV and discusses the implications for education. Mobile IPTV was developed as a prototype and designed to support users via wireless and mobile networks regardless of the mobile device. The system can be broadcasted through both live and video on demand (VOD utilizing a mobile browser (smart phones, smart TVs, and tablets and web browsers (Windows, Mac, and UNIX. The mobile IPTV prototype has been used and evaluated in this study. The results of student’s behavior when using mobile phones in their learning found that the highest mobile use was for Facebook and Line to communicate and share information with their classmates. The results of student’s attitudes towards using mobile phones in their learning found that the highest mobile use was for sharing information with classmates, sharing learning experiences on social networks, and using mobile phones to support their studies. The result of the IPTV and mobile IPTV system evaluation found that overall mobile IPTV had a higher user satisfaction than IPTV. Furthermore, mobile IPTV creates a good learning experience for the users. This paper provides guidelines in technical issues for helping educational institutions to develop mobile IPTV for education.

  5. National and international social implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every new technology since slash-and-burn has required new social institutions to go along with it, and nuclear technology is no exception. There is, therefore, a need to go beyond decisionmaking among alternative peaceful proliferation schemes. There is a need also to look at the needs for new national and/or transnational institutions that will have to accompany any proliferations in area. There are five social implications that bear on the need to develop new social institutions. First is the issue of Great Power relations, in an era of nuclear proliferation. Second is the conflict between nationalism and internationalism. The third is the issue of the military and diplomatic strategies of small nations, particularly small nations on the threshold of nuclear capacity, and the question of military versus civilian rule in those nations. Fourth, and possibly the most important is the role of multinational corporations in nuclear regulation, and fifth, the question of secrecy and how that bears on power values of primacy in democratic states

  6. Implications of increased ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implications of increased ethanol production in Canada, assuming a 10% market penetration of a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend, are evaluated. Issues considered in the analysis include the provision of new markets for agricultural products, environmental sustainability, energy security, contribution to global warming, potential government cost (subsidies), alternative options to ethanol, energy efficiency, impacts on soil and water of ethanol crop production, and acceptance by fuel marketers. An economic analysis confirms that ethanol production from a stand-alone plant is not economic at current energy values. However, integration of ethanol production with a feedlot lowers the break-even price of ethanol by about 35 cents/l, and even further reductions could be achieved as technology to utilize lignocellulosic feedstock is commercialized. Ethanol production could have a positive impact on farm income, increasing cash receipts to grain farmers up to $53 million. The environmental impact of ethanol production from grain would be similar to that from crop production in general. Some concerns about ethanol/gasoline blends from the fuel industry have been reduced as those blends are now becoming recommended in some automotive warranties. However, the concerns of the larger fuel distributors are a serious constraint on an expansion of ethanol use. The economics of ethanol use could be improved by extending the federal excise tax exemption now available for pure alcohol fueemption now available for pure alcohol fuels to the alcohol portion of alcohol/gasoline blends. 9 refs., 10 tabs

  7. Implications of Donald Macdonald's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chairman of the session debating the implications of the Macdonald report identified three important aspects of utility restructuring: equity, efficiency and sustainability. Dr. Jan Carr, a member of the Macdonald Committee, predicted that the continental energy market will likely demand a much larger number of smaller energy transactions, and the value in having inherently low-cost generation located close to load centres, and/or close to the US border. Douglas Hall, Vice President of RBC Dominion Securities criticized the Macdonald Committee for leaving 70 per cent of Hydro's generating capacity in public hands. He favored transferring all assets to the private sector, and questioned the Committee's assumption that the utility could be broken down into four components that would share overhead and still compete against each other. John Murphy, President of the Power Workers Union stated that the Union was not ideologically opposed to competition in the electricity industry, but he questioned the Committee's assumption that competition would promote efficient supply of power at the least cost to the economy. Tony Jennings, Chief Executive of the Municipal Electric Association tackled a series of myths about municipal electric utilities, and IPPSO Counsel Jay Sheppard emphasized the need for making sure that the entity buying the power in the short term is truly independent and is not doing incestuous deals with its friends at Ontario Hydro Generation (one of the s at Ontario Hydro Generation (one of the four components of the proposed, restructured Corporation) , because otherwise competition will not work

  8. Geometric Implications of Maxwell's Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Felix T.

    2015-03-01

    Maxwell's synthesis of the varied results of the accumulated knowledge of electricity and magnetism, based largely on the searching insights of Faraday, still provide new issues to explore. A case in point is a well recognized anomaly in the Maxwell equations: The laws of electricity and magnetism require two 3-vector and two scalar equations, but only six dependent variables are available to be their solutions, the 3-vectors E and B. This leaves an apparent redundancy of two degrees of freedom (J. Rosen, AJP 48, 1071 (1980); Jiang, Wu, Povinelli, J. Comp. Phys. 125, 104 (1996)). The observed self-consistency of the eight equations suggests that they contain additional information. This can be sought as a previously unnoticed constraint connecting the space and time variables, r and t. This constraint can be identified. It distorts the otherwise Euclidean 3-space of r with the extremely slight, time dependent curvature k (t) =Rcurv-2 (t) of the 3-space of a hypersphere whose radius has the time dependence dRcurv / dt = +/- c nonrelativistically, or dRcurvLor / dt = +/- ic relativistically. The time dependence is exactly that of the Hubble expansion. Implications of this identification will be explored.

  9. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  10. Health implications of hydropower development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydropower development had been neglected in many countries during the past few decades, but the situation dramatically changed during the 1970s owing to the constantly increasing costs of electricity generation by fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. Currently, hydroelectric generation accounts for approximately 23% of total global electricity supply. Much of the hydropower potential in developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America still remains to be exploited. Like any other source of energy, hydropower development has several health impacts. Conceptually, health implications of hydropower development can be divided into two broad categories: short-term and long-term problems. Short-term health impacts occur during the planning, construction and immediate post-construction phases, whereas long-term impacts stem from the presence of large man-made lakes, development of extensive canal systems, alteration of the ecosystem of the area, and changing socio-economic conditions. Longer-term impacts are further classified into two categories: introduction of new diseases and/or intensification of existing ones due to the improvements of the habitats of disease-carrying vectors, and health problems arising from resettlement of the people whose homes and land-holdings are inundated by the reservoirs. All these impacts are discussed in detail. Health impacts of hydropower developments have not yet been studied extensively. It is often implicitly assumed that health t is often implicitly assumed that health impacts of major dams are minor compared with other social and environmental impacts. Future studies could possibly reverse this assumption. (author)

  11. Energy implications of bottled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs-for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration-are far smaller than those for the production of the bott than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.

  12. Possible implications of exponential decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiclassical concepts are developed which could make the appearance of a logarithmic nonlinearity in a Schroedinger-type equation plausible. This approach is based on the introduction of a novel wave function describing the center of mass (CM) motion of unstable particles or composite systems subject to statistical changes of their internal quantum state. The element of statistical randomness associated with a purely exponential decay law suggests the use of thermodynamic concepts like entropy and free energy. These concepts are applied only to a domain open-quotes blurredclose quotes by the quantum uncertainty principle where the problematic definition of a time and entropy operator might be possible. The paper consists of three main parts. Section 1 develops an extended nonrelativistic equation of motion. The proposed equation contains yet reinterprets the BBM equation, and for stable systems is reduced to the Schroedinger equation. Definite predictions are made for observable quantities. In Section 2, the family of localized, nonspreading ground-state solutions to the BBM equation is extended, in two and three spatial dimensions, to states classified by finite quantized angular momenta and definite values of entropy. The statistical behavior of CM systems and their electromagnetic interaction are investigated. In Section 3, implications of these concepts are outlined with emphasis on possible experimental manifestations. Suggested laboratory tests include high-preuggested laboratory tests include high-precision measurements of unstable particle diffraction on linear gratings as well as neutron interferometer experiments of the type previously attempted to test the BBM equation. A further testing possibility is the investigation of particle resonances. An important feature of the present model is a subtle combination of quantum and classical aspects, achieved without compromising fundamental principles, while reinterpreting microreversibility. 46 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Quasi-implicative lattices and the logic of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper seeks to provide a number of reformulations of the quasi-implicative conditions which are more intuitively plausible. Three sets of conditions are examined, and it is shown that each set of conditions is both necessary and sufficient to ensure that an ortholattice is orthomodular, and each set of conditions uniquely specifies the implication operation to be Mittelstaedt's quasi-implication. Various properties of the quasi-implication are then investigated. In particular, it is shown that the quasi-implication fails to satisfy a number of laws associated with the classical material conditional. Various weakenings of these laws, satisfied by the quasi-implication, are also discussed. (orig./BJ)

  14. Impacts of oil sands process water on fen plants: Implications for plant selection in required reclamation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fen plant growth in peat contaminated with groundwater discharges of oil sands process water (OSPW) was assessed in a greenhouse over two growing seasons. Three treatments (non-diluted OSPW, diluted OSPW and rainwater) were tested on five vascular plants and four mosses. All vascular plants tested can grow in salinity and naphthenic acids levels currently produced by oil sands activity in northwestern Canada. No stress sign was observed after both seasons. Because of plant characteristics, Carex species (C. atherodes and C. utriculata) and Triglochin maritima would be more useful for rapidly restoring vegetation and creating a new peat-accumulating system. Groundwater discharge of OSPW proved detrimental to mosses under dry conditions and ensuring adequate water levels would be crucial in fen creation following oil sands exploitation. Campylium stellatum would be the best choice to grow in contaminated areas and Bryum pseudotriquetrum might be interesting as it has spontaneously regenerated in all treatments. - Highlights: ? Fen plant growth was assessed under groundwater discharges of oil sands process water. ? Sedge and grass species were not stressed after two growing seasons in greenhouse. ? Carex species and Triglochin maritima would be helpful in created contaminated fens. ? In dry conditions, contaminated groundwater discharge was detrimental for mosses. ? Campylium stellatum would be the best choice in created fens with contaminated water. - Sedges ah contaminated water. - Sedges and grasses tolerated the contact with oil sands process water and could probably grow well in contaminated created fens, but mosses were particularly affected under dry conditions.

  15. Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Educational Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Jamal M. S.

    1995-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the educational implications of diabetes in children through discussion of the nature of diabetes, factors associated with educational performance, and the teacher's role in meeting the child's needs. It argues that teachers should treat these students as normal learners, without ignoring their unique needs or…

  16. Living Together in College: Implications for Courtship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risman, Barbara J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Implications of cohabitation for courtship were explored in a two-year study of 231 college dating couples. No differences were found between living together and other "going together" couples in rates of marriage or breakup. Differences were found in satisfaction, intimacy, problems, expectations, power, and transition to marriage. (Author)

  17. Peptides Targeting Protein Kinases: Strategies and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Protein kinases are important key regulators in most, if not all, biological processes and are linked with many human diseases. Protein kinases thus became attractive targets for drug design. Intracellularly active peptides that selectively interfere with kinase function and or kinase-mediated signaling pathways are potential drug compounds with therapeutic implications.

  18. Psychosocial implications of blepharoptosis and dermatochalasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, J. D.; Warwar, R. E.; Bienenfeld, D. G.; Marciniszyn, S. L.; Markert, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate, for the first time, the psychosocial implications of blepharoptosis and dermatochalasis. METHODS: Two hundred ten individuals rated whole-face photographs of a series of patients on the basis of 11 different personal characteristics: intelligence, throat, friendliness, health, trustworthiness, hard work, mental illness, financial success, attractiveness, alcoholism, and happiness. Preoperative and postoperative photographs of both male and female patients with bilater...

  19. CATV and Its Implications for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Cora E., Ed.

    The theme of the nineteenth Allerton Park Institute, held in November, 1973, centered on the implications of cable television for libraries. Nine of the oral presentations were edited for inclusion in this collection. The subjects covered are: the relationship between libraries and cable TV; the possibilities of a community network; franchising…

  20. Ethical Implications of Digital Imaging in Photojournalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Danal; Lasorsa, Dominic L.

    Arguing that the news media are about to adopt digital imaging systems that will have far-reaching implications for the practice of journalism, this paper discusses how the news media is expected to adopt the new technology and explains why the marriage of journalism and digital imaging will create ethical issues with respect to photo manipulation…

  1. Ritalin Update: Implications for Reading Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Robert B., Jr.; Werner, Patrice Holden

    1987-01-01

    Investigates how Ritalin, a powerful stimulant drug frequently prescribed for children exhibiting hyperactive behavior, poor attention span, and/or distractibility, is prescribed for children in educational settings, what doses seem appropriate, and what effect Ritalin has on reading achievement. Discusses the implications of Ritalin research for…

  2. Cultural Implications of Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranpruk, Chaiskran

    A discussion of the cultural effects of economic and, by extension, human resource development in Southeast Asia looks at short- and long-term implications. It is suggested that in the short term, increased competition will affect distribution of wealth, which can promote materialism and corruption. The introduction of labor-saving technology may…

  3. Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology—An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Louis Theodore; Leo Stander

    2011-01-01

    Some engineers and scientists are either directly or indirectly involved with nanotechnology issues. Nanotechnology concerns dealing with environmental implications and regulatory compliance encompass practicing areas for these technical individuals. Areas of particular concern include current/proposed environmental regulations and procedures for quantifying both health risks and hazard risks. This article addresses both of these issues.

  4. Coherence of Radial Implicative Fuzzy Systems.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coufal, David

    Madison : Omnipress, 2006, s. 903-910. ISBN 0-7803-9489-5. [2006 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems. Vancouver (CA), 16.07.2006-21.07.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0545 Keywords : implicative fuzzy systems * coherence * radial function Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  5. The implications of Jesus’ radical love

    OpenAIRE

    Pieterse, Hennie J. C.

    2011-01-01

    How to cite this book review: Pieterse, H.J.C., 2011, ‘The implications of Jesus’ radical love’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 67(3), Art. #1139, 1 page. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v67i3.1139

  6. Female-Headed Families: Trends and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenberg, Esther; Reinhardt, Hazel

    1979-01-01

    Current demographic data reveal that the form of the American family is undergoing dramatic change. One change is the unprecedented rise in the number of female-headed families. Reviews current demographic trends, examines the factors behind these changes and their implications, and proposes areas for further research. (Author)

  7. Cosmological and astrophysical implications of magnetic monopoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1983-03-11

    Among Dirac's many contributions to modern physics is the idea that charge quantization is natural in a theory with magnetic monopoles. The existence of magnetic monopoles would have drastic effects on the evolution of the universe, on galactic magnetic fields, and perhaps on the x-ray luminosity of neutron stars. Some astrophysical implications of massive magnetic monopoles are reviewed here.

  8. People and Technology Today: Some Educational Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sedano, Alfredo; Paris, Ana Costa; Mut, Maite Dassoy

    2011-01-01

    The present article approaches some of the educational implications borne by humanity with technological progress. We begin by pointing out significant data that classify what is considered relevant. Then, confronting the future is discussed by analyzing the attitudes necessary to promote the goals. Confronted with these challenges, three possible…

  9. Organizational Structure: Dimensions, Determinants and Managerial Implication

    OpenAIRE

    Ugbomhe, O. U.; Dirisu, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the meaning, nature, forms, dimensions, determinants and managerial implication of organizational structure and its impacts on the organisation. The review revealed that the dimension of organisation structure generally consists of complexity, formalization and centralization, and that strategy, size, culture, technology, environment, people and the like determine the organisation’s structure. work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, ce...

  10. Corporal Punishment: Legalities, Realities, and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a quiz that will help readers determine the reliability of their own perceptions relating to corporal punishment in schools. Discusses U.S. Courts and corporal punishment, worldwide and nationwide legality, and the realities of corporal punishment in the United States. Discusses implications for what teachers can do to address corporal…

  11. Implications of Solar and Atmospheric Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Langacker, Paul

    1993-01-01

    The importance of non-zero neutrino mass as a probe of particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology is emphasized. The present status and future prospects for the solar and atmospheric neutrinos are reviewed, and the implications for neutrino mass and mixing in 2, 3, and 4-neutrino schemes are discussed. The possibilities for significant mixing between ordinary and light sterile neutrinos are described.

  12. Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Srivastava

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are perceived, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise. Keywords: ERP, Chinese Cultural Implications, Societal Culture, Strategy

  13. Organizational Structure: Dimensions, Determinants and Managerial Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugbomhe, O. U.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the meaning, nature, forms, dimensions, determinants and managerial implication of organizational structure and its impacts on the organisation. The review revealed that the dimension of organisation structure generally consists of complexity, formalization and centralization, and that strategy, size, culture, technology, environment, people and the like determine the organisation’s structure. work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, centralization, decentralization and formalization are key elements to be considered in designing an effective organizational structure. In conclusion, the structure of an organisation has far-reaching implication on the organisation and its workforce. therefore, it was recommended among others that organisation should adopt a structure that enables it to maintain a competitive advantage in the industry it operates.

  14. Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Whicker, F.W. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1991-12-05

    The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study.

  15. Dental implications in oral cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Escoda Francolí, Jaume; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Araceli; Pérez-García, Sílvia; Gargallo Albiol, Jordi; Gay Escoda, Cosme

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. A study is made of the dental implications of oral cancer, with a view to avoiding the complications that appear once oncological treatment is started. Patients and Methods. The study comprised a total of 22 patients diagnosed with oral cancer according to clinical and histological criteria in the Service of Maxillofacial Surgery (Dental Clinic of the University of Barcelona, Spain) during the period 1996-2005, and posteriorly treated in different hospital centers in Barcelona. Re...

  16. Molecular Heterogeneity in Glioblastoma: Potential Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Nicole Renee; Khong, Peter; Parkinson, Jonathon Fergus; Howell, Viive Maarika; Wheeler, Helen Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastomas, (grade 4 astrocytomas), are aggressive primary brain tumors characterized by histopathological heterogeneity. High-resolution sequencing technologies have shown that these tumors also feature significant inter-tumoral molecular heterogeneity. Molecular subtyping of these tumors has revealed several predictive and prognostic biomarkers. However, intra-tumoral heterogeneity may undermine the use of single biopsy analysis for determining tumor genotype and has implications for potential targeted therapies. The clinical relevance and theories of tumoral molecular heterogeneity in glioblastoma are discussed. PMID:25785247

  17. Implications of Repo Markets for Central Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    A report by the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) (reviewed in the March 7, 1997 Scout Report), Implications of Repo Markets for Central Banks, seeks to "enhance central banks' understanding of the economic and monetary policy role of repo markets." Three chapters examine how private market participants use repos for hedging and leverage purposes and focus on the use of repos by central banks as an information source and policy instrument.

  18. Differential allocation: tests, mechanisms and implications.

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, Bc

    2000-01-01

    Differential allocation occurs when reproductive investment is influenced by mate attractiveness. Recently, wide-ranging empirical support for differential allocation has been obtained. These data suggest that mates can affect the payoffs from reproduction, thus making sacrifices of reproductive value worthwhile when breeding with an attractive mate. As an example of an adaptive parental effect, the existence of differential allocation has some interesting implications for empirical studies o...

  19. Social Implications of Neo - Imperialism in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dhas, Albert Christopher; Helen, Mary Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    The globalisation process, which aimed at integration of economies and global development, is basically a reflection of neo-imperialism ideas. The question addressed in this paper is: what are the social implications of the neo-imperialism (globalisation) process in India, particularly on the social security aspects of the working population? Accordingly, an attempt is made in this paper to examine changes in the social security status of the working population that have been brought ab...

  20. Banking across Borders: Evidence and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Niepmann, Friederike

    2012-01-01

    This thesis sheds light on the motives, the nature and the implications of banking across borders. In Chapter 1, co-authored with Tim Schmidt-Eisenlohr, I examine the challenges that increased financial integration presents for policy cooperation as financial crises and government intervention have stronger effects beyond borders. We provide a model of international contagion allowing for bank bailouts. While a social planner trades off tax distortions, liquidation losses and intra- and inte...

  1. The Greek crisis: Causes and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Vlamis Prodromos; Kouretas Georgios P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents and critically discusses the origins and causes of the Greek fiscal crisis and its implications for the euro currency as well as the SEE economies. In the aftermath of the 2007-2009 financial crisis the enormous increase in sovereign debt has emerged as an important negative outcome, since public debt was dramatically increased in an effort by the US and the European governments to reduce the accumulated growth of private debt in the years preceding the recent financ...

  2. Geometric Implications of the Naive Bayes Assumption

    OpenAIRE

    Peot, Mark Alan

    2013-01-01

    A naive (or Idiot) Bayes network is a network with a single hypothesis node and several observations that are conditionally independent given the hypothesis. We recently surveyed a number of members of the UAI community and discovered a general lack of understanding of the implications of the Naive Bayes assumption on the kinds of problems that can be solved by these networks. It has long been recognized [Minsky 61] that if observations are binary, the decision surfaces in t...

  3. Implications of Theoretical Ideas Regarding Cold Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Afsar

    1995-01-01

    A lot of theoretical ideas have been floated to explain the so called cold fusion phenomenon. I look at a large subset of these and study further physical implications of the concepts involved. I suggest that these can be tested by other independent physical means. Because of the significance of these the experimentalists are urged to look for these signatures. The results in turn will be important for a better understanding and hence control of the cold fusion phenomenon.

  4. Cosmological Implications of Radiatively Generated Axion Scale

    OpenAIRE

    K. Choi; Chun, E. J; Kim, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    We study cosmological implications of supersymmetric axion models in which the axion scale is generated radiatively. Such models lead to the so-called thermal inflation and subsequent reheating should be constrained not to yield a too large axion energy density at the time of nucleosynthesis. We examine how plausible it is that this nucleosynthesis constraint is satisfied for both hadronic and Dine-Fischler-Srednicki-Zhitnitskii type axion models. Baryogenesis and the possib...

  5. Cholinergic connectivity: it's implications for psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Scarr, Elizabeth; Andrew S. Gibbons; Neo, Jaclyn; Udawela, Madhara; Dean, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholine has been implicated in both the pathophysiology and treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders, with most of the data related to its role and therapeutic potential focusing on schizophrenia. However, there is little thought given to the consequences of the documented changes in the cholinergic system and how they may affect the functioning of the brain. This review looks at the cholinergic system and its interactions with the intrinsic neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-a...

  6. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory

    1998-12-01

    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

  7. Jumps in Oil Prices - Evidence and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Gronwald, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the dynamic behavior of daily oil prices and finds strong evidenceof GARCH as well as conditional jump behavior. This implies that conditional heteroscedasticity is present and the empirical distribution of oil price changes has heavy tails. Thus, the oil price considerably sensitive to news and does not settle around a long-run trend. This finding has several important implications: First, this financial market variable-type behaviour hampers finding optimal depletion path...

  8. Implications of the Higgs discovery for supersymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djouadi Abdelhak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the StandardModel, I summarize the implications of the discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC with a mass of approximately 125 GeV. The impact of the measured mass and production/decay rates of the observed particle and of the constraints in the search for the heavier Higgs states at the LHC are discussed.

  9. DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY AND JOURNALISM: implications for Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John V. Pavlik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital technology has brought sweeping changes to journalism  and the social institutions it serves. Journalism has historically played a central role in the U.S. and other democracies, serving as a primary source of news and information for citizens on matters of public importance. This paper examines the implications of these changes for democracy. It explores the question of whether a more interactive form of journalism will produce a more engaged and informed electorate.

  10. Ambiguity and Volatility: Asset Pricing Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Pataracchia, B.

    2011-01-01

    Using a simple dynamic consumption-based asset pricing model, this paper explores the implications of a representative investor with smooth ambiguity averse preferences [Klibano¤, Marinacci and Mukerji, Econometrica (2005)] and provides a comparative analysis of risk aversion and ambiguity aversion. The perception of ambiguity is described by a hidden Markovian consumption growth process. The hidden states di¤er both for the mean and the volatility. We show that the ambiguity-averse investo...

  11. The clock ambiguity: Implications and new developments

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, Andreas; Iglesias, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    We consider the ambiguity associated with the choice of clock in time reparameterization invariant theories. This arbitrariness undermines the goal of prescribing a fixed set of physical laws, since a change of time variable can completely alter the predictions of the theory. We review the main features of the clock ambiguity and our earlier work on its implications for the emergence of physical laws in a statistical manner. We also present a number of new results: We show t...

  12. Conflicting belief systems: some implications for education

    OpenAIRE

    Niekerk, E. J.

    1999-01-01

    In this article the conceptions of knowledge and time within Christianity, secular humanism and traditional African religion are juxtaposed. In order to emphasise the vital role o f belief systems in the field of education, some educational implications are inferred from these different conceptions of knowledge and time. The need to create enough space within the South African education system so that parents will be able to send their children to schools where education is conducted accordin...

  13. Interstellar Turbulence II: Implications and Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Scalo, John; Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2004-01-01

    Interstellar turbulence has implications for the dispersal and mixing of the elements, cloud chemistry, cosmic ray scattering, and radio wave propagation through the ionized medium. This review discusses the observations and theory of these effects. Metallicity fluctuations are summarized, and the theory of turbulent transport of passive tracers is reviewed. Modeling methods, turbulent concentration of dust grains, and the turbulent washout of radial abundance gradients are ...

  14. Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study

  15. The Spiral Curriculum: implications for online learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs Trevor; Masters Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background There is an apparent disjuncture between the requirements of the medical spiral curriculum and the practice of replacing previous online material in undergraduate courses. This paper investigates the extent to which students revisit previous online material for the purposes of building the educational spiral, and the implications for the implementation of a Faculty's Learning Management System implementation. Methods At the University of Cape Town, medical students' last d...

  16. Cosmological implications of an evolutionary quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Battisti, Marco Valerio

    2008-01-01

    The cosmological implications of an evolutionary quantum gravity are analyzed in the context of a generic inhomogeneous model. The Schr\\"{o}dinger problem is formulated and solved in the presence of a scalar field, an ultrarelativistic matter and a perfect gas regarded as the dust-clock. Considering the actual phenomenology, it is shown how the evolutionary approach overlaps the Wheeler-DeWitt one.

  17. Modeling stochastic gene expression: Implications for haploinsufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    COOK, DANIEL L.; Gerber, Anthony N.; Tapscott, Stephen J

    1998-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that stochastic processes regulate highly predictable patterns of gene expression in developing organisms, but the implications of stochastic gene expression for understanding haploinsufficiency remain largely unexplored. We have used simulations of stochastic gene expression to illustrate that gene copy number and expression deactivation rates are important variables in achieving predictable outcomes. In gene expression systems with non-zero expression deactiv...

  18. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE: IMPLICATIONS FROM A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Chiper, Sorina

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to research the ample cultural implications behind the expansion and adoption of corporate governance principles and practices and on the cultural differences inherent in the process of translation/localization of American, English or transnational practices towards continental Europe. More precisely, in the last part of this article, we shall compare the Olivencia rapport from Spain and the Code Corporate Governance Code of the Bucharest Stock Exchange, with a view to analy...

  19. The Risk Implications of Multinational Enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Multinational structure has been linked to operational flexibilities that can improve corporate adaptability and a knowledge-based view suggests that multinational resource diversity can facilitate responsive opportunities. The enhanced maneuverability from this can reduce earnings volatility and hence the corporate performance risk. But, the internationalization process may also require irreversible investments that increase corporate exposures and leave the risk implications of multinational enterprize somewhat ambiguous. Hence, the purpose of the paper is to present an empirical study of the implied relationships between the degree of multinationality and various risk measures including downside risk, upside potential, and performance risk. Design/methodology/approach – The paper provides a brief literature review, develops hypotheses, and tests them in two-stage least square regressions on archival data to control for pre-selection biases. Findings – The analyses indicate that multinationality is associated with lower downside risk as well as higher upside potential and leads to reduced performance risk. The study finds no trace of diminishing effects from higher degrees of multinationality. Research limitations/implications – The empirical study uses a sample of large US-based corporations, which could affect the generalizability of results. However, this is consistent with other studies and eases comparability of findings. Practical implications – The findings add to the ongoing debate about the risk effects of a multinational corporate structure and confirms that a diverse multinational presence is associated with positive risk outcomes. Originality/value – The paper complements a limited number of studies with equivocal results and adopts alternative risk outcome measures. The study extends the industry scope by introducing a comprehensive sample of firms operating in different manufacturing and service businesses.

  20. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF LOCATION-BASED SCHEDULING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas; Christensen, Knud

    2007-01-01

    The traditional method for planning, scheduling and controlling activities and resources in construction projects is the CPM-scheduling, which has been the predominant scheduling method since its introduction in the late 1950s. Over the years, CPM has proven to be a very powerful technique for planning, scheduling and controlling projects. However, criticism has been raised on the CPM method, specifically in the case of construction projects, for deficient management of construction work and discontinuous flow of resources. Alternative scheduling techniques, often called repetitive or linear scheduling methods, have proven to be well suited for projects of a repetitive nature, such as building projects. As the repetitive or linear scheduling methods may include locations or places, they are also referred to by the comprehensive term of location-based scheduling (LBS), which is the concept that will be used in this study. LBS is a scheduling method that rests upon the theories of line-of-balance and which usesthe graphic representation of a flowline chart. As such, LBS is adapted for planning and management of workflows and, thus, may provide a solution to the identified shortcomings of CPM. Even though LBS has a long history and is well grounded theoretically, it has gained generally little attention in the construction industry. Besides the theoretical research available on LBS, some studies report on the application of LBS, but empirical data on the practical implications of LBS is limited. This study rests upon three case studies of residential projects carried out in Denmark in 2006. The purpose is to test and evaluate the practical implications of LBS when applied on site. The study concludes, with emphasis from the site management involved, that improved schedule overview, establishment of workflows and improved project control constitute the three most important implications of LBS.

  1. Ionization potentials some variations, implications and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, L H

    1983-01-01

    Ionization Potentials: Some Variations, Implications and Applications covers several aspects of ionization potential that is a highly significant parameter in controlling the properties of electric discharge. Comprised of 17 chapters, the book covers topic relevant to ionization potentials, such as properties, concepts, and applications, in order to understand and fully comprehend all aspects of ionization potential. The opening chapter is a review of ionization potentials and a discussion of trends and features. The succeeding chapters then tackle complex topics such as the s and p electrons;

  2. Corporate Language and Implications for Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ZØlner, Mette

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores empirically implications of language use for MNCs’ learning from subsidiaries. Drawing on sociolinguistic literature, the article argues that while employing a single corporate language facilitates quick and direct communication of explicit knowledge, such a language design is insufficient to leverage contextually specific and culturally embedded knowledge. This indicates the need for disentangling language and culture. The paper further argues for the need to go beyond national language to consider how prevailing kinds of corporate talk may curb headquarters potential for learning from cultural and contextual diversity.

  3. Arab Spring: Geopolitical Implications for Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ekhtiari Amiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to examine the geopolitical implications of the Arab Spring for Iran. It hypothesizes that in spite of the initial short-term benefits of the Arab Spring, in the long-term it has transformed into an acute challenge for Iran. Developments in Bahrain, Egypt, and Syria-- thanks to their prominent positions in Iran’s foreign policy apparatus-- have contributed to serious friction between Iran and other regional rivals, namely Saudi Arabia, Israel and Turkey. The Arab Spring seems to have given rise to an Iranian Autumn.

  4. Device implications of spin-transfer torques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines spin-transfer torques from the perspective of three technological applications: hard disk drives, magnetic random access memory (MRAM), and current-tunable high-frequency oscillators. In hard disk drives, spin-transfer torques are a source of noise, and we discuss the implications spin-transfer noise will have on future sensor designs. For MRAM, we evaluate the feasibility of spin-transfer-driven switching. Finally, we discuss the possibility of GHz communication applications enabled by nanoscale spin-transfer oscillators

  5. Micro CHP - implications - for energy companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulation and private ownership is having a marked effect on the energy industry in the UK: many companies will have to make radical changes if they are to survive. Since cost-cutting cannot go on indefinitely, it will be technology to which companies must turn if they are to hold a competitive position and here it is suggested that micro-CHP may be the answer. A comparison of costs and technical implications for various types of generating plant is given. The paper is presented under the sub-headings of (i) business opportunity; (ii) business threat; and (iii) commercial viability of micro-CHP

  6. Implications of LHCb measurements and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Bharucha A.; Bigi I.I.; Bobeth C.; Bobrowski M.; Brod J.; Buras A.J.; Davies C.T.H.; Datta A; Delaunay C.; Descotes-Genon S.

    2013-01-01

    During 2011 the LHCb experiment at CERN collected 1.0 fb-1 of sqrt{s} = 7 TeV pp collisions. Due to the large heavy quark production cross-sections, these data provide unprecedented samples of heavy flavoured hadrons. The first results from LHCb have made a significant impact on the flavour physics landscape and have definitively proved the concept of a dedicated experiment in the forward region at a hadron collider. This document discusses the implications of these first me...

  7. Neutrino masses, neutrino oscillations, and cosmological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical concepts and motivations for considering neutrinos having finite masses are discussed. Following this, the experimental situation on searches for masses and oscillations is summarized. This includes a discussion of the solar neutrino problem, reactor, deep mine and accelerator data, tritium decay experiments and double beta-decay data. Finally, the cosmological implications and astrophysical data relating to neutrino masses are reviewed. Aspects of this topic include the neutrino oscillation solution to the solar neutrino problem, the missing mass problem in galaxy halos and galaxy clusters, galaxy formation and clustering, and radiative neutrino decay and the cosmic ultraviolet background radiation. (Auth.)

  8. Implications of interface conventions for morphometric thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, Andreas; Bier, Markus; Dietrich, S

    2015-02-01

    Several model fluids in contact with planar, spherical, and cylindrical walls are investigated for small number densities within density functional theory. The dependence of the solid-fluid interfacial tension on the curvature of spherical and cylindrical walls is examined and compared with the corresponding expression derived within the framework of morphometric thermodynamics. Particular attention is paid to the implications of the choice of the interface location, which underlies the definition of the interfacial tension. We find that morphometric thermodynamics is never exact for the considered systems and that its quality as an approximation depends sensitively on the choice of the interface location. PMID:25768517

  9. Reliability implications for commercial Plowshare applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the premise that there will always be a finite chance of a Plowshare project failure, the implications of such a failure are examined. It is suggested that the optimum reliability level will not necessarily be the highest attainable, but rather that which results in minimum average project cost. The type of performance guarantee that the U. S. should provide for nuclear explosive services, the determination of nuclear yield, courses of action to take in the event of failure, and methods to offset remedial costs are discussed. (author)

  10. Implications of the Foucauldian decentralization of economics

    OpenAIRE

    Zulfiqar Ali

    2011-01-01

    This essay aims to explore Foucault’s project of decentralizing economics and to hint on some implications. It also makes a comparative analysis between Foucault’s project and the projects similar to his design and aim. I argue that Foucault’s critique of the idea of economics as a science is stronger than that of the critiques which challenge the status of economics as a science by exposing its deep fictional, literary or narrative content and style. I argue that the strength of Foucau...

  11. Dust and radon: the legal implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that radon gas is not generally considered to be a major problem when encountered in the working environment. However, in its process of decay, a series of four short lived daughter products are formed. In a dust-laden atmosphere these daughter products, which are ionized readily, attach to the particulate material and when inhaled are deposited in the alveoli of the lungs. Therefore, if respirable dust is controlled, the effects of radon daughters will also be minimized. The legal requirements for dust control in South Africa and their implications are discussed. 1 ill

  12. Some Cosmological Implications of Hidden Sectors

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, J R; No, J M; Quirós, Mariano

    2008-01-01

    We discuss some cosmological implications of extensions of the Standard Model with hidden sector scalars coupled to the Higgs boson. We put special emphasis on the conformal case, in which the electroweak symmetry is broken radiatively with a Higgs mass above the experimental limit. Our refined analysis of the electroweak phase transition in this kind of models strengthens the prediction of a strongly first-order phase transition as required by electroweak baryogenesis. We further study gravitational wave production and the possibility of low-scale inflation as well as a viable dark matter candidate.

  13. Some cosmological implications of hidden sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss some cosmological implications of extensions of the standard model with hidden-sector scalars coupled to the Higgs boson. We put special emphasis on the conformal case, in which the electroweak symmetry is broken radiatively with a Higgs mass above the experimental limit. Our refined analysis of the electroweak phase transition in this kind of models strengthens the prediction of a strongly first-order phase transition as required by electroweak baryogenesis. We further study gravitational wave production and the possibility of low-scale inflation as well as a viable dark matter candidate.

  14. Task Complexity and Its Implication for Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Yousefi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper was to present the rationale for the Task-based Language teaching and discuss its significance within the SLA approaches to language teaching. First, different approaches to Task-based language teaching research and practice were discussed, then the notion of ‘Task Complexity” has been touched upon and different models for estimating task difficulty or Task Complexity were mentioned. Attempt, then, was made to elaborate on the empirical studies within the Cognition Hypothesis (Robinson, 2003, 2005, 2007. Finally, the implications of Task Complexity for SLA research and pedagogy were widely discussed.

  15. Forensic implications: adolescent sexting and cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenis, Panagiota; Billick, Stephen Bates

    2014-03-01

    Adolescence is marked by establishing a sense of identity, core values, a sense of one's relationship to the outside world and heightened peer relationships. In addition, there is also risk taking, impulsivity, self exploration and dramatic increase in sexuality. The dramatic increase in the use of cell phones and the Internet has additional social implications of sexting and cyberbullying. Sexting refers to the practice of sending sexually explicit material including language or images to another person's cell phone. Cyberbullying refers to the use of this technology to socially exclude, threaten, insult or shame another person. Studies of cell phone use in the 21st century report well over 50% of adolescents use them and that text messaging is the communication mode of choice. Studies also show a significant percentage of adolescents send and receive sex messaging, both text and images. This paper will review this expanding literature. Various motivations for sexting will also be reviewed. This new technology presents many dangers for adolescents. The legal implications are extensive and psychiatrists may play an important role in evaluation of some of these adolescents in the legal context. This paper will also make suggestions on future remedies and preventative actions. PMID:24129662

  16. Cholinergic connectivity: it's implications for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew S; Neo, Jaclyn; Udawela, Madhara; Dean, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholine has been implicated in both the pathophysiology and treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders, with most of the data related to its role and therapeutic potential focusing on schizophrenia. However, there is little thought given to the consequences of the documented changes in the cholinergic system and how they may affect the functioning of the brain. This review looks at the cholinergic system and its interactions with the intrinsic neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-amino butyric acid as well as those with the projection neurotransmitters most implicated in the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders; dopamine and serotonin. In addition, with the recent focus on the role of factors normally associated with inflammation in the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, links between the cholinergic system and these factors will also be examined. These interfaces are put into context, primarily for schizophrenia, by looking at the changes in each of these systems in the disorder and exploring, theoretically, whether the changes are interconnected with those seen in the cholinergic system. Thus, this review will provide a comprehensive overview of the connectivity between the cholinergic system and some of the major areas of research into the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, resulting in a critical appraisal of the potential outcomes of a dysregulated central cholinergic system. PMID:23653591

  17. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in puberty timing have implications for the treatment of individual children, for the risk of later adult disease, and for chemical testing and risk assessment for the population. Children with early puberty are at a risk for accelerated skeletal maturation and short adult height, early sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated with an increased risk for testicular cancer according to several, but not all, epidemiologic studies. Girls and, possibly, boys who exhibit premature adrenarche are at a higher risk for developing features of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in adulthood. Altered timing of puberty also has implications for behavioral disorders. For example, an early maturation is associated witha greater incidence of conduct and behavior disorders during adolescence. Finally, altered puberty timing is considered an adverse effect in reproductive toxicity risk assessment for chemicals. Recent US legislation has mandated improved chemical testing approaches for protecting children's health and screening for endocrine-disrupting agents, which has led to changes in the US Environmental Protection Agency's risk assessment and toxicity testing guidelines to include puberty-related assessments and to the validation of pubertal male and female rat assays for endocrine screening Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2

  18. Social Isolation of Youth at Risk: Conceptualizations and Practical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazler, Richard J.; Denham, Sharon A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses social isolation as a major factor in determining how youth are increasingly put at risk for both immediate and lifelong difficulties and examines three at-risk situations that counselors face to better understand the origins and implications affecting assessment and interventions. Presents practical implications for how school and…

  19. Motivation and Gifted Students: Implications of Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinkenbeard, Pamela R.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of contemporary motivation theories reveals implications for gifted and talented students. The expectancy-value framework, intrinsic-extrinsic motivation theories, goal orientations, self-efficacy and other self-perceptions, and attribution theory are described and discussed with respect to implications for the psychology and education…

  20. The Effects of Intelligence Participation and Implication on English Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Li

    2013-01-01

    English teachers are confronted with different problems on teaching. It is a kind of effective ways to use the knowledge of intelligence participation and implication to improve English teaching and learning. Teachers can provide guarantee for the intelligence participation of students and the degree of students’ intelligence participation affects English teaching. In addition, correct analysis of implication contributes to English learning abilities.

  1. The implications of anemia in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, Moshe

    2003-08-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is commonly associated with anemia. Several causes have been implicated, but anemia of chronic disease with inadequate erythropoietin (EPO) production related to the inflammatory cytokines appears to be of utmost importance. Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor are capable of suppressing erythropoiesis. Anemia has broad implications. First, the low hemoglobin and hematocrit are associated with poor quality of life and performance and affect daily activity. Second, anemia has an impact on the cardiovascular system. Considering that most MM patients are elderly, this may be even more important. Anemia has been shown to induce or aggravate hypoxia and ischemic complications. Third, anemia has been shown to be a poor prognostic factor in MM. Traditionally, patients with symptomatic anemia were treated with red blood cell transfusions as needed. The introduction of epoetin alfa and epoetin beta into clinical practice opened new avenues to these patients. The administration of epoetins to patients with MM and anemia have been shown to be very useful. Several studies in more than 1000 patients have demonstrated a high response rate (range, 25%-85%; mean, 60%). This response is characterized by a significant increase of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and the number of red blood cells together with a reduction in the blood transfusion requirements. This is also associated with an improved quality of life. Although there is no complete agreement about the role of pretreatment serum EPO levels, many investigators believe that relatively low levels may help in predicting response, thereby limiting the number of potential candidates to receive this expensive therapy. The epoetins are safe and well tolerated with minimal toxicity; however, some concern has been recently raised regarding several dozen patients who developed pure red cell aplasia while on epoetin therapy. However, this adverse effect appears to be extremely rare. Recent data suggest that EPO has additional biologic effects, such as longer-than-expected survival in patients with MM. This observation is further supported by animal studies, demonstrating an antimyeloma effect of EPO in mice models. This effect has been shown to be immune mediated. If these exciting data are confirmed in future clinical trials, this may have significant implications on the treatment of MM. PMID:14556675

  2. Environmental implications of China's WTO accession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's accession to the WTO in 2001 completed the country's entry into the global economy. We investigate environmental implications of WTO-accession. There are several hypotheses in this area: The scale hypothesis says that production is scaled up and in turn, pollution increases. The composition hypothesis says that composition of industries changes and pollution reflects the new composition. The technique hypothesis says that production methods become cleaner and pollution decreases. We analyze the relative strength of the hypotheses by means of an environmental CGE-model, and in the case of air pollution find support for a composition effect in favor of clean industries. Thanks to the composition effect, emissions to air of greenhouse gases fall. Emissions of particles and SO2 also fall, but emissions of NOx and VOC rise. Since particle and SO2-emissions fall we estimate that public health improves (author)

  3. Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mukesh, Srivastava; Betsy J, Gips.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are percei [...] ved, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise.

  4. Risk Implications of Energy Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena

    2014-01-01

    In many countries in Europe and the rest of the world, electricity systems are on the verge of a new era: they are transforming from begin CO2-intensive and centralised towards becoming sustainable and more integrated. The role of policy makers in this transition is evident: ambitious targets of abandoning the use of fossil fuels and increasing the use of renewable energy sources (RES) need to become reality through respective investments in new technologies. Understanding the effects of energy policy and support instruments on investments, especially in terms of risks, is crucial for developing an adequate policy framework in energy systems with high shares of renewable energies. This dissertation contributes to the research area of RES policy support. With a special focus on risk implications of policy, the economic consequences of different RES support instruments are investigated, both from an investor's perspective and from a societal point of view. This dissertation assesses energy policy and especially renewable support instruments with regard to their differences in investment incentives, effectiveness of deploying renewable technologies, cost-efficiency (in terms of required support levels) and welfare economic effects. Focus lies on policy incentives for electricity generation from renewable energies that have significant influence on the risk profile of investments (such as renewable quota systems and fixed feed-in tariffs). The consequences of different policy portfolios are evaluated. We show, both qualitatively and quantitatively, that policy makers cannot neglect risk implications when designing RES support instruments without compromising either on effectiveness or cost-efficiency of energy policy. The central research questions are: how can risk implications of RES policy instruments be integrated into policy design, so that the policies provide adequate investment incentives? And can the consideration of such risk implications in policy design make overall energy policy more successful? These questions are answered in seven research papers (four journal papers, two conference papers and a working paper), based on a combination of micro-economic and policy analysis. Financial theory is used for the quantitative analysis of investment problems under uncertainty, including mean-variance portfolio theory, real option analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and time series analysis of the underlying data. Modelling of stochastic price processes plays an important role in the analysis. Using concrete cases for offshore wind in Denmark and Germany, we show that feed-in premiums structurally require higher support levels than feed-in tariffs due to the higher risk exposure. We quantify this effect for several cases, and obtain differences of 4.3-10 EUR/MWh, corresponding to up to 40% of the support payments in particular cases. Lower risk exposure under feed-in tariffs also leads to faster deployment and in some situations smaller project sizes. The results for tradable green certificate schemes are more ambiguous, depending on the characteristics of the underlying stochastic processes. We also show that policies that reduce risk for investors can trigger more successful energy transitions, if certain conditions are fulfilled and policy safeguards are put in place for later phases of the development. Overall, this dissertation contributes with model development in the area of support scheme analysis, using several innovative approaches for partial models that produce easily and quickly applicable results. Thus, tools are provided that help in the design of RES support policies, e.g. when deciding between support instruments and when determining adequate support levels.

  5. Air transportation energy efficiency - Alternatives and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Results from recent studies of air transportation energy efficiency alternatives are discussed, along with some of the implications of these alternatives. The fuel-saving alternatives considered include aircraft operation, aircraft modification, derivative aircraft, and new aircraft. In the near-term, energy efficiency improvements should be possible through small improvements in fuel-saving flight procedures, higher density seating, and higher load factors. Additional small near-term improvements could be obtained through aircraft modifications, such as the relatively inexpensive drag reduction modifications. Derivatives of existing aircraft could meet the requirements for new aircraft and provide energy improvements until advanced technology is available to justify the cost of a completely new design. In order to obtain significant improvements in energy efficiency, new aircraft must truly exploit advanced technology in such areas as aerodynamics, composite structures, active controls, and advanced propulsion.

  6. Implications of inherent safe nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of present day nuclear power reactors and research reactors depends on a combination of design features of passive and active systems, and the alert judgement of their operators. A few inherently safe designs of nuclear reactors for power plants are currently under development. In these designs, the passive systems are emphasized, and the active systems are minimized. Also efforts are made to eliminate the potential for human failures that initiate the series of accidents. If a major system fails in these designs, the core is flooded automatically with coolants that flow by gravity, not by mechanical pumps or electromagnetic actuators. Depending on the choice of the coolants--water, liquid metal and helium gas--there are three principal types of inherently safe reactors. In this paper, these inherently safe reactor designs are reviewed and their implications are discussed. Further, future perspectives of their acceptance by nuclear industries are discussed. (author)

  7. Implications of nonlinearity for spherically symmetric accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Sourav

    2012-01-01

    Stationary solutions of spherically symmetric accretion processes have been subjected to a time-dependent radial perturbation, whose equation includes nonlinearity to any arbitrary order. Regardless of the order of nonlinearity, the equation of the perturbation bears a form that is remarkably similar to the metric equation of an analogue acoustic black hole. Casting the perturbation as a standing wave and maintaining nonlinearity in it up to the second order, brings out the time-dependence of the perturbation in the form of a Lienard system. A dynamical systems analysis of this Lienard system reveals a saddle point in real time, with the implication that instabilities will develop in the accreting system when the perturbation is extended into the nonlinear regime. The instability of initial subsonic states may also adversely affect the temporal evolution of the flow towards a final stable transonic state.

  8. Persuasive Recommender Systems Conceptual Background and Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, Kyung-Hyan; Zanker, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Whether users are likely to accept the recommendations provided by a recommender system is of utmost importance to system designers and the marketers who implement them. By conceptualizing the advice seeking and giving relationship as a fundamentally social process, important avenues for understanding the persuasiveness of recommender systems open up. Specifically, research regarding influential factors in advice seeking relationships, which is abundant in the context of human-human relationships, can provide an important framework for identifying potential influence factors in recommender system context. This book reviews the existing literature on the factors in advice seeking relationships in the context of human-human, human-computer, and human-recommender system interactions. It concludes that many social cues that have been identified as influential in other contexts have yet to be implemented and tested with respect to recommender systems. Implications for recommender system research and design are dis...

  9. Implications of the Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitcher, P.

    1998-11-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP), launched in 1991, aims to map and sequence the human genome by 2006. During the fifteen-year life of the project, it is projected that $3 billion in federal funds will be allocated to it. The ultimate aims of spending this money are to analyze the structure of human DNA, to identify all human genes, to recognize the functions of those genes, and to prepare for the biology and medicine of the twenty-first century. The following summary examines some of the implications of the program, concentrating on its scientific import and on the ethical and social problems that it raises. Its aim is to expose principles that might be used in applying the information which the HGP will generate. There is no attempt here to translate the principles into detailed proposals for legislation. Arguments and discussion can be found in the full report, but, like this summary, that report does not contain any legislative proposals.

  10. Implications of LHCb measurements and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Anelli, M; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Band, H; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Beigbeder-Beau, C; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernard, F; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; van Beveren, V; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bochin, B; Boer Rookhuizen, H; Bogdanova, G; Bonaccorsi, E; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Brarda, L; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cacérès, T; Cachemiche, J -P; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casajus Ramo, A; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Ceelie, L; Chadaj, B; Chanal, H; Charles, M; Charlet, D; Charpentier, Ph; Chebbi, M; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciambrone, P; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corajod, B; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; D'Antone, I; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Groen, P; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Decreuse, G; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Domke, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Drancourt, C; Duarte, O; Dumps, R; Dupertuis, F; Duval, P -Y; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Evangelisti, F; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Faulkner, P J W; Fave, V; Felici, G; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Föhr, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Fournier, C; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frei, R; Frosini, M; Fuchs, H; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Gets, S; Ghez, Ph; Giachero, A; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golovtsov, V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gong, G; Gong, H; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gromov, V; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Guzik, Z; Gys, T; Hachon, F; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; van der Heijden, B; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hofmann, W; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jamet, O; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jansen, L; Jansweijer, P; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karavichev, O; Karbach, T M; Kashchuk, A; Kechadi, T; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kihm, T; Kluit, R; Kochebina, O; Komarov, V; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kos, J; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Kristic, R; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudenko, Y; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Landi, L; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Laptev, S; Latham, T; Lax, I; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Likhoded, A; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V

    2013-01-01

    During 2011 the LHCb experiment at CERN collected $1.0 {\\mbox{fb}^{-1}}$ of $\\sqrt{s} = 7 {\\mathrm{\\,Te\\kern -0.1em V}}$ $pp$ collisions. Due to the large heavy quark production cross-sections, these data provide unprecedented samples of heavy flavoured hadrons. The first results from LHCb have made a significant impact on the flavour physics landscape and have definitively proved the concept of a dedicated experiment in the forward region at a hadron collider. This document discusses the implications of these first measurements on classes of extensions to the Standard Model, bearing in mind the interplay with the results of searches for on-shell production of new particles at ATLAS and CMS. The physics potential of an upgrade to the LHCb detector, which would allow an order of magnitude more data to be collected, is emphasised.

  11. Rumen bypass nutrients: Manipulation and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feeds available for ruminants in developing countries are either agro-industrial by-products or specially grown forage crops. Many of these feeds are low in protein and require supplementation with non-protein N (NPN) to maintain efficient rumen function and digestibility. The principles for utilizing high energy, low protein feeds by ruminants are discussed in relation to the supply of NPN, the establishment of efficient rumen function, maximizing feed intake by means of supplements, and increasing total energy and protein intake by using supplements which bypass the rumen. To illustrate it the application of these principles to feeding systems based on molasses, chopped whole sugar cane and derinded sugar cane is discussed. The implications of the principles in increasing the feeding value of straw are also discussed. (author)

  12. Waste management implications of concentrating slimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anticipated increase in demand for sand-size tailings from the uranium industry suggests that the fine-grained or 'slime' fraction will require special attention for disposal. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) required information on the behaviour and environmental significance of the fine-grained tailings fraction in disposal facilities. Beak Consultants and Golder Associates were contracted to review the significant characteristics of slimes disposal and prepare a report on the physical and chemical characteristics of fine-grained tailings (Phase 1). This report (Phase 2) presents a summary of disposal and management practices for slimes and outlines potential concerns related to these practices. The report also presents an approach to disposal planning and the implications of available and potential management techniques. Experience with the disposal of uranium slimes is scarce and, therefore, relevant information was borrowed from the other mining sectors to predict the consequences of various disposal scenarios

  13. Chronobiology of Bipolar Disorder: Therapeutic Implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaspezia, Sara; Benedetti, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that psychopathological symptoms of bipolar disorder arise in part from a malfunction of the circadian system, linking the disease with an abnormal internal timing. Alterations in circadian rhythms and sleep are core elements in the disorders, characterizing both mania and depression and having recently been shown during euthymia. Several human genetic studies have implicated specific genes that make up the genesis of circadian rhythms in the manifestation of mood disorders with polymorphisms in molecular clock genes not only showing an association with the disorder but having also been linked to its phenotypic particularities. Many medications used to treat the disorder, such as antidepressant and mood stabilizers, affect the circadian clock. Finally, circadian rhythms and sleep researches have been the starting point of the developing of chronobiological therapies. These interventions are safe, rapid and effective and they should be considered first-line strategies for bipolar depression. PMID:26112914

  14. Low energy implications of minimal superstring unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the phenomenological implications of effective supergravities based on string vacua with spontaneously broken N =1 supersymmetry by dilation and moduli F-terms. We further require Minimal String Unification, namely that large string threshold corrections ensure the correct unification of the gauge couplings at the grand unification scale. The whole supersymmetric mass spectrum turns out to be determined in terms of only two independent parameters, the dilaton-moduli mixing angle and the gravitino mass. In particular we discuss the region of the parameter space where at least one superpartner is ''visible'' at LEPII. We find that the most likely candidates are the scalar partner of the right-handed electron and the lightest chargino, with interesting correlations between their masses and with the mass of the lightest higgs. We show how discovering SUSY particles at LEPII might rather sharply discriminate between scenarios with pure dilaton SUSY breaking and mixed dilaton-moduli breaking. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs

  15. Histone modifications: implications in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Swathi; Ellis, Leigh; Pili, Roberto

    2013-08-01

    In 2012, an estimated 64,770 men and women were diagnosed with malignancy of the kidney and renal pelvis, of which 13,570 succumbed to their disease. Common genetic aberrations in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) include loss of function of the VHL gene in clear-cell RCC, overexpression of the c-MET gene in papillary RCC type I, deficiency in the FH gene in papillary RCC type II and loss of heterozygozity of the BHD gene in chromophobe RCC. Recent studies illustrate epigenetic silencing of VHL, as well as alterations in histone modifications and their governing enzymes. The possibility of reversing these epigenetic marks has resulted in efforts to target these changes by utilizing inhibitors of HDACs, DNA methyltransferases and, recently, histone methyltransferases in preclinical and clinical studies. This article focuses on potential therapeutic interventions, and the implications of histone modifications and related enzyme alterations in RCC. PMID:23895657

  16. Promoting biofuels: Implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in biofuels is growing worldwide as concerns about the security of energy supply and climate change are moving into the focus of policy makers. With the exception of bioethanol from Brazil, however, production costs of biofuels are typically much higher than those of fossil fuels. As a result, promotion measures such as tax exemptions or blending quotas are indispensable for ascertaining substantial biofuel demand. With particular focus on developing countries, this paper discusses the economic justification of biofuel promotion instruments and investigates their implications. Based on data from India and Tanzania, we find that substantial biofuel usage induces significant financial costs. Furthermore, acreage availability is a binding natural limitation that could also lead to conflicts with food production. Yet, if carefully implemented under the appropriate conditions, biofuel programs might present opportunities for certain developing countries

  17. Destination image: Origins, Developments and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Dominique Ferreira Lopes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, tourism has become one of the main sectors of the global economy, not only because of its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP of different countries, but also because of the employment it generates. Since 2009, however, the results of tourism have been severely affected by the economic and financial crisis and it is now essential to analyze the key elements of tourist consumer behavior. In this context, the image that a destination transmits to the market becomes one of the elements which influence tourists the most when choosing a tourist destination. The authors therefore aim to identify the main elements that characterize the image of a tourist destination, as well as their implications for the management of tourist destinations.

  18. Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has shown that the application of shear not only accelerates the transitions to more stable polymorphs, but also causes orientation of the crystallites[1]. The implications of orientation on the structures formed under conditions of shear and cooling will be described using x-ray diffraction and mechanical measurements. 1 G. Mazzanti, S. E. Guthrie, E. B. Sirota et al., Crystal Growth & Design 3 (5), 721 (2003).

  19. Implications of LHCb measurements and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharucha, A. [University of Hamburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Hamburg (Germany); Bigi, I.I. [University of Notre Dame du Lac, Department of Physics, Notre Dame (United States); Bobeth, C. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technical University Munich, Garching (Germany)] [and others; Collaboration: The LHCb Collaboration

    2013-04-15

    During 2011 the LHCb experiment at CERN collected 1.0 fb{sup -1} of {radical}(s) = 7 TeV pp collisions. Due to the large heavy quark production cross-sections, these data provide unprecedented samples of heavy flavoured hadrons. The first results from LHCb have made a significant impact on the flavour physics landscape and have definitively proved the concept of a dedicated experiment in the forward region at a hadron collider. This document discusses the implications of these first measurements on classes of extensions to the Standard Model, bearing in mind the interplay with the results of searches for on-shell production of new particles at ATLAS and CMS. The physics potential of an upgrade to the LHCb detector, which would allow an order of magnitude more data to be collected, is emphasised. (orig.)

  20. Implications of LHCb measurements and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 2011 the LHCb experiment at CERN collected 1.0 fb-1 of ?(s) = 7 TeV pp collisions. Due to the large heavy quark production cross-sections, these data provide unprecedented samples of heavy flavoured hadrons. The first results from LHCb have made a significant impact on the flavour physics landscape and have definitively proved the concept of a dedicated experiment in the forward region at a hadron collider. This document discusses the implications of these first measurements on classes of extensions to the Standard Model, bearing in mind the interplay with the results of searches for on-shell production of new particles at ATLAS and CMS. The physics potential of an upgrade to the LHCb detector, which would allow an order of magnitude more data to be collected, is emphasised. (orig.)

  1. Implications of international protocols on energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will have significant medium and long term implications for the economies of Annex B and non-Annex B countries. It is shown that the adoption of a system of internationally tradable emission quotas would result in three 'dividends' compared with an outcome where Article 17 trading - relating to emissions trading - is prohibited. First, trading would improve the environmental effectiveness of the protocol because the extent of carbon dioxide equivalent leakage would be reduced. Second, the overall cost of meeting the agreed Annex B targets would be reduced thus leading to greater certainty that the protocol will be implemented in full. Third, a disparity in the differential impacts of Annex B abatement policies on different developing countries would be reduced under emissions trading, leading to a more equitable outcome for these countries

  2. Dialectics of mindfulness: implications for western medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Siobhan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mindfulness as a clinical and nonclinical intervention for a variety of symptoms has recently received a substantial amount of interest. Although the application of mindfulness appears straightforward and its effectiveness is well supported, the concept may easily be misunderstood. This misunderstanding may severely limit the benefit of mindfulness-based interventions. It is therefore necessary to understand that the characteristics of mindfulness are based on a set of seemingly paradoxical structures. This article discusses the underlying paradox by disentangling it into five dialectical positions - activity vs. passivity, wanting vs. non-wanting, changing vs. non-changing, non-judging vs. non-reacting, and active acceptance vs. passive acceptance, respectively. Finally, the practical implications for the medical professional as well as potential caveats are discussed.

  3. IRON-TOLERANT CYANOBACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROBIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Mummey, Daniel L.; Sarkisova, Svetlana A.; McKay, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The review is dedicated to the new group of extremophiles - iron tolerant cyanobacteria. The authors have analyzed earlier published articles about the ecology of iron tolerant cyanobacteria and their diversity. It was concluded that contemporary iron depositing hot springs might be considered as relative analogs of Precambrian environment. The authors have concluded that the diversity of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria is understudied. The authors also analyzed published data about the physiological peculiarities of iron tolerant cyanobacteria. They made the conclusion that iron tolerant cyanobacteria may oxidize reduced iron through the photosystem of cyanobacteria. The involvement of both Reaction Centers 1 and 2 is also discussed. The conclusion that iron tolerant protocyanobacteria could be involved in banded iron formations generation is also proposed. The possible mechanism of the transition from an oxygenic photosynthesis to an oxygenic one is also discussed. In the final part of the review the authors consider the possible implications of iron tolerant cyanobacteria for astrobiology.

  4. Nursing implications for Hepatic arterial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurses working in Nuclear Medicine assist in Hepatic Artery Catheter (HAC) perfusion studies. This scan is not widely performed in Australia, the St George hospital for example performs approximately five per year. The purpose of this article is firstly to review the indications and rationale of HAC patency studies. Secondly, this article will stress the clinical implications for the Nuclear Medicine Nurse during this study. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of patient education during the procedure. A brief overview of hepatic anatomy and the radiopharmaceuticals administered during the scan is discussed. Finally, a step by step protocol is presented to show how the perfusion/ shunt study is performed. Copyright (1999) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  5. Implications of new generations on neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the possible implications that new families, that are being searched for at the LHC, would have on neutrino masses. In particular, we have explored the possibility that the smallness of the observed neutrino masses is naturally understood in a modified version of the Standard Model (SM) with complete extra generations of fermions, i.e., that have right-handed neutrinos, in which neutrino masses are generated at two loops. With one extra family it is not possible to fit the observed spectrum of masses and mixings. However, the radiative mass generated provides an important constraint in these kind of models, so the neutrino masses do not exceed their cosmological bound. Within the context of two extra families, we analyse the allowed parameter space and the possible phenomenological signals.

  6. Epigenetics: Relevance and Implications for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozek, Laura S.; Dolinoy, Dana C.; Sartor, Maureen A.; Omenn, Gilbert S.

    2015-01-01

    Improved understanding of the multilayer regulation of the human genome has led to a greater appreciation of environmental, nutritional, and epigenetic risk factors for human disease. Chromatin remodeling, histone tail modifications, and DNA methylation are dynamic epigenetic changes responsive to external stimuli. Careful interpretation can provide insights for actionable public health through collaboration between population and basic scientists and through integration of multiple data sources. We review key findings in environmental epigenetics both in human population studies and in animal models, and discuss the implications of these results for risk assessment and public health protection. To ultimately succeed in identifying epigenetic mechanisms leading to complex phenotypes and disease, researchers must integrate the various animal models, human clinical approaches, and human population approaches while paying attention to life-stage sensitivity, to generate effective prescriptions for human health evaluation and disease prevention. PMID:24641556

  7. Interstellar Turbulence II: Implications and Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Scalo, J

    2004-01-01

    Interstellar turbulence has implications for the dispersal and mixing of the elements, cloud chemistry, cosmic ray scattering, and radio wave propagation through the ionized medium. This review discusses the observations and theory of these effects. Metallicity fluctuations are summarized, and the theory of turbulent transport of passive tracers is reviewed. Modeling methods, turbulent concentration of dust grains, and the turbulent washout of radial abundance gradients are discussed. Interstellar chemistry is affected by turbulent transport of various species between environments with different physical properties and by turbulent heating in shocks, vortical dissipation regions, and local regions of enhanced ambipolar diffusion. Cosmic rays are scattered and accelerated in turbulent magnetic waves and shocks, and they generate turbulence on the scale of their gyroradii. Radio wave scintillation is an important diagnostic for small scale turbulence in the ionized medium, giving information about the power spe...

  8. Some phenomenological implications of string loop effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate low energy implications of string loop corrections to supergravity couplings which break a possible flavor universality of the tree level. If supersymmetry is broken by the dilaton F-term, universal soft scalar masses arise at the leading order but string loop corrections generically induce flavor-non-diagonal soft terms. Constraints from flavor changing neutral currents (FCNC) and CP violation then require a large supersymmetry breaking scale and thus heavy gluinos and squarks. If supersymmetry is broken by moduli F-terms, universality at the string tree level can only be guaranteed by extra conditions on the Kaehler potential. A large hierarchy between the gluino and squark masses ensures that FCNC and CP-violation constraints are satisfied. If the soft scalar masses vanish at the string tree level, the cosmological problems related to light moduli can be evaded. However, generic string loop corrections violate FCNC bounds and require very heavy squark masses (?100 TeV). (orig.)

  9. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  10. Implications of global warming on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the build up of green house gases in atmosphere, less heat escapes through the atmosphere promoting global warming. This may result in world wide droughts, sea-level rise inundating islands and coastal countries, cataclysmic hurricanes etc. Human health as a result of these changes, will be affected both physiologically and psychologically. Physiological effects may be more pronounced in cases occurring due to changes in rainfall and temperature patterns, food production amounts, water availability, etc. Psychological impact may be more in cases of catastrophes like floods, hurricanes or famine. In this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the implications of global warming on human health due to temperature change. Food production changes and ultra-violet radiation effects and cataclysmic disaster effects. (author)

  11. Exploring Forensic Implications of the Fusion Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the forensic implications of Apple's Fusion Drive. The Fusion Drive is an example of auto-tiered storage. It uses a combination of a flash drive and a magnetic drive. Data is moved between the drives automatically to maximize system performance. This is different from traditional caches because data is moved and not simply copied. The research included understanding the drive structure, populating the drive, and then accessing data in a controlled setting to observe data migration strategies. It was observed that all the data is first written to the flash drive with 4 GB of free space always maintained. If data on the magnetic drive is frequently accessed, it is promoted to the flash drive while demoting other information. Data is moved at a block-level and not a file-level. The Fusion Drive didn't alter the timestamps of files with data migration.

  12. Projections of energy requirements and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled as shown. Numerical data are indicated in parenthesis. The record of nuclear power forecasting (estimates of the growth of world nuclear power, penetration of the electric power market by nuclear power); brief review of energy forecasting techniques and problems; some views of future world energy demand (estimates of world primary energy requirements); possible allocations of energy resources to needs (allocation of resources (oil, oil from tar sands, shale, natural gas, coal, coal to gasification, hydroelectricity, renewable resources, nuclear) to the world's primary energy needs in the year 2000); observations on the adequacy of energy resources; implications for nuclear energy (postulated growth of world nuclear power, annual fuel cycle requirements of the world, annual uranium requirements of the world). (U.K.)

  13. Learning to Listen - Implications for Interdisciplinary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redish, Edward

    2015-04-01

    For more than twenty years, researchers in the University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group (UMd-PERG) have been developing a theoretical framework for trying to understand how students think about and learn physics - Resources. The Resources Framework provides tools for interpreting how our students respond to our instruction. What may appear on the surface to be serious misconceptions can turn out to have a subtler explanation once one takes into account the roles played in student thinking by (1) experiential knowledge, (2) the dynamic character of their cognitive responses, (3) epistemological assumptions and expectations, (4) framing of the activity along multiple dimensions. The Resources Framework also provides tools to help us understand what knowledge our students bring into our classes and how they use that knowledge to interpret what they are learning. What we have learned in this research has powerful implications for instruction, especially in service courses where an expert is charged with teaching a discipline to students from a different discipline, such as when physicists teach physics to biologists or engineers. For more than a decade, the UMd-PERG and our collaborators have been studying how life science students respond to physics instruction. We have found many surprising results by listening carefully to what students say: Often, ``student errors'' turn out to be failures of communication between teacher and student. Many common practices turn out to be counterproductive and misleading. I will give examples from NEXUS/Physics, an introductory physics class for life science students, and I will suggest implications for instruction and curriculum development. Support gratefully acknowledged for multiple NSF grants.

  14. Wheelchair propulsion biomechanics: implications for wheelchair sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlandewijck, Y; Theisen, D; Daly, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide the reader with a state-of-the-art review on biomechanics in hand rim wheelchair propulsion, with special attention to sport-specific implications. Biomechanical studies in wheelchair sports mainly aim at optimising sport performance or preventing sport injuries. The sports performance optimisation question has been approached from an ergonomic, as well as a skill proficiency perspective. Sports medical issues have been addressed in wheelchair sports mainly because of the extremely high prevalence of repetitive strain injuries such as shoulder impingement and carpal tunnel syndrome. Sports performance as well as sports medical reflections are made throughout the review. Insight in the underlying musculoskeletal mechanisms of hand rim wheelchair propulsion has been achieved through a combination of experimental data collection under realistic conditions, with a more fundamental mathematical modelling approach. Through a synchronised analysis of the movement pattern, force generation pattern and muscular activity pattern, insight has been gained in the hand rim wheelchair propulsion dynamics of people with a disability, varying in level of physical activity and functional potential. The limiting environment of a laboratory, however, has hampered the drawing of sound conclusions. Through mathematical modelling, simulation and optimisation (minimising injury and maximising performance), insight in the underlying musculoskeletal mechanisms during wheelchair propulsion is sought. The surplus value of inverse and forward dynamic simulation of hand rim stroke dynamics is addressed. Implications for hand rim wheelchair sports are discussed. Wheelchair racing, basketball and rugby were chosen because of the significance and differences in sport-specific movement dynamics. Conclusions can easily be transferred to other wheelchair sports where movement dynamics are fundamental. PMID:11347685

  15. The role of Spartina maritima and Sarcocornia fruticosa on trace metals retention in Ria Formosa, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira da Silva, M.; Duarte, Duarte; Isidoro, Jorge; Chícharo, Luís

    2013-01-01

    Over the last years, phytoremediation has become an increasingly recognized pathway for contaminant removal from water and shallow soils. Assessing the phytoremediation potential of wetlands is complex due to variable conditions of hydrology, soil/sediment types, plant species diversity, growing season and water chemistry. Physico-chemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating contaminants. Saltmarsh plants can sequestrate and inherently tolerate high metal c...

  16. Policy implications of technologies for cognitive enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarewitz, Daniel R. (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Karas, Thomas H.

    2007-02-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group at Sandia National Laboratory and the Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes at Arizona State University convened a workshop in May 2006 to explore the potential policy implications of technologies that might enhance human cognitive abilities. The group's deliberations sought to identify core values and concerns raised by the prospect of cognitive enhancement. The workshop focused on the policy implications of various prospective cognitive enhancements and on the technologies/nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science--that enable them. The prospect of rapidly emerging technological capabilities to enhance human cognition makes urgent a daunting array of questions, tensions, ambitions, and concerns. The workshop elicited dilemmas and concerns in ten overlapping areas: science and democracy; equity and justice; freedom and control; intergenerational issues; ethics and competition; individual and community rights; speed and deliberations; ethical uncertainty; humanness; and sociocultural risk. We identified four different perspectives to encompass the diverse issues related to emergence of cognitive enhancement technologies: (1) Laissez-faire--emphasizes freedom of individuals to seek and employ enhancement technologies based on their own judgment; (2) Managed technological optimism--believes that while these technologies promise great benefits, such benefits cannot emerge without an active government role; (3) Managed technological skepticism--views that the quality of life arises more out of society's institutions than its technologies; and (4) Human Essentialism--starts with the notion of a human essence (whether God-given or evolutionary in origin) that should not be modified. While the perspectives differ significantly about both human nature and the role of government, each encompasses a belief in the value of transparency and reliable information that can allow public discussion and decisions about cognitive enhancement. The practical question is how to foster productive discussions in a society whose attention is notably fragmented and priorities notably diverse. The question of what to talk about remains central, as each of the four perspectives is concerned about different things. Perhaps the key issue for initial clarification as a condition for productive democratic discussion has to do with the intended goals of cognitive enhancement, and the mechanisms for allowing productive deliberation about these goals.

  17. Environmental implications and applications of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka

    Recent advances in material science and nanotechnology have given rise to a myriad of developments, while in the meantime call for research into the impacts of nanomaterials on the environment and human health. Although considerable progress has been made in the past decade concerning the behavior of nanomaterials in biological systems, such understanding is critically lacking with respect to the fate of nanomaterials in ecosystems. Accordingly, this dissertation addresses the interactions between nanomaterials and algae---the major constituent of the aquatic food chain (Part I, Chapter two), and exploits the physicochemistry of nanoscaled synthetic dendritic polymers for environmental applications, especially for water purification that is a focused theme of the entire dossier (Part II, Chapters two--five). This dissertation is organized as follows. Chapter one presents a general review of the physical/physicochemical properties, characterizations, implications---especially ecological implication, and applications of a host of most produced and studied nanomaterials. In addition, advances in environmental applications of nanomaterials are discussed. Chapter two examines algal responses to two major types of engineered nanomaterials---quantum dots and polystyrene. Inhibited photosynthetic activities of green algae are observed as a result of the physical adsorption of the nanomaterials. Chapter three elucidates the physicochemical properties of poly(amidoamine)-tris(hydroxymethyl)amidomethane- and amine-terminated dendrimers towards their applications in water remediation. Here, the capacities and mechanisms of the dendrimers in hosting cationic copper, anionic nitrate, polyaromatic phenanthrene, and the more heterogeneous humic acids are discussed. Based on the results of Chapter three, Chapter four presents a dendrimer-based novel optical scheme for improving the detection sensitivity and selectivity of environmental pollutants. Specifically, the surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanowire and the high hosting capacity of dendrimers are utilized for enhancing the detection limit of copper down to the nanomolar level. Chapter five exploits a promising use of dendrimers for the removal of potentially harmful discharged nanoparticles. Here fullerenols are used as a model nanomaterial, and their interactions with dendrimers of two different generations are studied using spectrophotometry and thermodynamics methods. Chapter six summarizes the key findings in this dissertation and presents future work that is stimulated by this PhD research.

  18. Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinna F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Federica Pinna, Lucia Sanna, Bernardo Carpiniello Department of Public Health, Clinical and Molecular Medicine - Unit of Psychiatry, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy Abstract: A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific treatment. Further investigations are needed to overcome the methodological limitations of previous studies, to understand the actual impact of alexithymia on ED outcome, and to allow more precise implications for treatment to be drawn. Additional research should also be undertaken to specify which of the alexithymic dimensions are specifically relevant to the course and outcome of ED, and to identify treatment protocols producing a significantly greater efficacy in ED patients with relevant alexithymic traits. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, treatment

  19. Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Federica; Sanna, Lucia; Carpiniello, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED) achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific treatment. Further investigations are needed to overcome the methodological limitations of previous studies, to understand the actual impact of alexithymia on ED outcome, and to allow more precise implications for treatment to be drawn. Additional research should also be undertaken to specify which of the alexithymic dimensions are specifically relevant to the course and outcome of ED, and to identify treatment protocols producing a significantly greater efficacy in ED patients with relevant alexithymic traits. PMID:25565909

  20. Hypernova Nucleosynthesis and Implications for Cosmic Chemical Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Takayoshi; Umeda, Hideyuki; Iwamoto, Koichi; Nomoto, Ken Ichi; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Hix, W. Raphael; Thielemann, Friedrich-karl

    2001-01-01

    We examine the characteristics of nucleosynthesis in 'hypernovae', i.e., supernovae with very large explosion energies ($\\gsim 10^{52}$ ergs). Implications for the cosmic chemical evolution and the abundances in M82 are discussed.

  1. Coding, Planning and Mental Retardation: Theory, Evidence and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Geoffrey N.; Das, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    The paper traces the development of an integrated model of cognition stemming from Soviet neuropsychology and reviews recent research on simultaneous and successive syntheses. Implications for mental retardation, learning disability, hyperactivity, and reading disability are given. (Author/CL)

  2. SSC event characteristics and implications for detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the course of a one week workshop recent progress on event simulation at SSC energies was reviewed and implications for detector design were briefly evaluated. Questions needing to be answered by future work were formulated. 9 references, 16 figures

  3. Empirical Traffic Data and Their Implications for Traffic Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, D

    1997-01-01

    From single vehicle data a number of new empirical results about the temporal evolution, correlation, and density-dependence of macroscopic traffic quantities have been determined. These have relevant implications for traffic modeling and allow to test existing traffic models.

  4. Implications of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act Amendments of 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Richard P.

    1977-01-01

    Explains the provisions of the Equal Credit Opportunities Act Amendments of 1976 (Public Law 94-239, 94th Congress, H.R. 6516, March 23, 1976), discusses their implications, and suggests enforcement improvements in the Act. (Author/RK)

  5. Phenomenological Implications of a Class of Lepton Mass Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Dev, S.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Verma, Surender; Gupta, Shivani

    2008-01-01

    Phenomenological implications of a class of lepton mass matrices with parallel texture structure have been examined and phenomenologically interesting constraints on charged lepton and neutrino mass matrix parameters have been obtained.

  6. Shopper marketing implications on communication strategies and actions

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Paulo Duarte; Marreiros, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Shopper marketing is an international recent concept and approach to marketing. Since shopper marketing is in the early stages of development, it is also an emerging research field, and consequently questions and challenges acrossall the marketing-mix variables are emerging. This paper addressesshopper marketing implications on one of those variables – communication.Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to study the implications of the shopper marketing approach on marketing/brand comm...

  7. Closures and partial implications in educational data mining

    OpenAIRE

    Garci?a Sa?iz, Diego; Zorrilla Pantaleo?n, Marta Elena; Balca?zar Navarro, Jose? Luis

    2012-01-01

    Educational Data Mining (EDM) is a growing field of use of data analysis techniques. Speci fically, we consider partial implications. The main problems are, fi rst, that a support threshold is absolutely necessary but setting it "right" is extremely di fficult; and, second, that, very often, large amounts of partial implications are found, beyond what an EDM user would be able to manually inspect. Our program yacaree, recently developed, is an associator that tackles both problems. In an ...

  8. [The implications of various scientific-philosophical models on nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botes, A

    1996-03-01

    This article focuses on the implications for nursing of philosophy of science. The relation between the dimensions of research in nursing, paradigms in nursing and the philosophy of science are explained as background. Models of philosophies of science are described, namely positivism, critical rationalism, Kuhn's historical approach, the phenomenological approach, hermeneutics, critical theory, scientific realism and post-modernism. The implications of each of these models are described within nursing as a science. PMID:9257575

  9. Effects of ?9-THC on Working Memory: Implications for Schizophrenia?

    OpenAIRE

    Vadhan, Nehal P.; Serper, Mark R.; HANEY, MARGARET

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the acute effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive component of marijuana, on working memory, and the implications for schizophrenia. Working memory deficits are a hallmark feature of schizophrenia, and have been implicated as an etiologic mechanism contributing to the onset of the disorder. Regular marijuana smokers may also exhibit subtle working memory impairment relative to healthy controls, and an association between marijua...

  10. Business Implications of Integrated Product and Service Offerings

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Mattias; Sakao, Tomohiko; O?hrwall Ro?nnba?ck, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the business implications of Integrated Product and Service Offerings (IPSOs). The objective is to show examples of the business implications of IPSOs from a supplier’s perspective, and to suggest specifications for supporting methods needed for such an industrial company. The paper is largely based on empirical case studies of 120 Swedish manufacturing companies of all sizes. Results from the case studies show that both small and large companies that conduct the transit...

  11. AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE AND POLICY IMPLICATION FOR SOCIAL ENTERPRISE

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Doo Kim; Seok Yoon; Heon-Goo Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study looked at the current status of Korean social enterprises and their problems and suggested governmental policy implications for enhancing the competitiveness of social enterprises. As the study methods, the current status of social enterprises was analyzed and performance of social enterprise support was examined and then policy implications for promoting the social enterprises were analyzed. First, the direction of governmental policy regarding the promotion of social enterprise s...

  12. Co-benefits of CDM projects and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Qie; Xu, Bo; Wennersten, Ronald; Brandt, Nils

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to study the co-benefits of clean development mechanism (CDM) projects, and further to discuss the policy of its implications. It has been found that many energy-related climate change mitigation (CCM) activities, including CDM projects, are able to produce a significant amount of co-benefits, while the policy implications have been limited. Through co-benefits assessment of Chinese CDM projects, it can be concluded that: (1) there are uncertainties relating to co-benefits ass...

  13. Ordered direct implicational basis of a finite closure system

    OpenAIRE

    Adaricheva, Kira; Nation, J. B.; Rand, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Closure system on a finite set is a unifying concept in logic programming, relational data bases and knowledge systems. It can also be presented in the terms of finite lattices, and the tools of economic description of a finite lattice have long existed in lattice theory. We present this approach by describing the so-called D-basis and introducing the concept of ordered direct basis of an implicational system. A direct basis of a closure operator, or an implicational system,...

  14. Pharmacogenomics and Opioid Analgesics: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Variation exists in patient response on analgesic treatment in terms of efficacy and safety. This variation may be in part explained by pharmacogenomics. This paper aimed to review data on pharmacogenomics of opioid analgesics focusing on the effect of genetic variation on the efficacy and safety of these agents. Current evidence suggests that pharmacogenomics contribute to variation in efficacy and safety of opioids. However, most data come from case control studies and case reports. In addition, a recognized drawback in the field of pharmacogenomics is the common occurrence of false positive association between polymorphisms and the investigated outcome. Prospective studies are needed to further elucidate the clinical implications of available data as well as to define the guidelines for the clinical application of pharmacogenomic data. Furthermore, basic research should focus on the identification of biologically meaningful polymorphisms enabling a hypothesis with biological plausibility driven research in the field of pharmacogenomics of analgesics. Moreover, the publication of relevant negative results should be favoured. PMID:26075211

  15. NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebrahtom Gebrelibanos*, Dinka Tesfaye, Y. Raghavendra and Biruk Sintayeyu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Legumes are plants in the family Fabaceae characterized by seeds in pods that are often edible though sometimes poisonous. The nutrient content (protein, carbohydrate and micronutrients of legumes contribute to address under-nutrition, especially protein-calorie malnutrition among children and nursing mothers in developing countries where supplementing cereal-based diets with legumes is suggested as one of the best solutions to protein calorie malnutrition. Anti-nutritional factors, in legumes, may limit their biological value and acceptance as a regular food item, yet they are readily removable and recent research has shown potential health benefits of some of these compounds; and hence, manipulation of processing conditions may be required to remove or reduce only those unwanted components. Moreover, legumes play a role in prevention, improvement and/or treatment of disease conditions such as, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer diseases (e.g breast and prostate cancers and lowers blood cholesterol level. Most of these disease conditions are associated with over-nutrition and obesity and are considered as diseases of the rich. It is, therefore, claimed that including legumes in a health-promoting diet is important in meeting the major dietary recommendations to improve the nutritional status of undernourished as well as over-nourished individuals, and to reduce risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and cancer. In this review, some of the scientific viewpoints that attempt to justify the nutritional contributions, anti-nutritional considerations and health implications of legumes are discussed.

  16. Karyomorphology of Taiwanese Begonia (Begoniaceae): taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginuma, Kazuo; Peng, Ching-I

    2002-06-01

    The karyomorphology of all 14 species of Taiwanese Begonia was investigated to elucidate their chromosome features and chromosomal evolution. Among all species investigated, differences in chromosome features are found in: (1) chromosome number 2 n = 22, 26, 36, 38, 52, 60, 64, 82, and (2) frequencies of chromosomes with secondary, tertiary, and/or small constrictions of polyploids, ranging from 23% to 63%, which is higher than the expected value of about 9%. It is suggested that after polyploidization from the diploid species (i.e., 2 n = 22 and frequencies of chromosomes with secondary, tertiary, and/or small constrictions of polyploids of about 9%), chromosome translocations occurred, followed by a decrease in chromosome number, and subsequently stabilized genomes were formed in various species in Taiwan. The karyomorphological evidence also suggested that the chromosome morphology has evolved in parallel in the begonias belonging to different sections in Taiwan. The variation in chromosomal features is more complex than the variation in floral and fruit morphologies. Karyomorphological data also supports the recognition of five new species in Taiwan: Begonia bouffordii, B. chuyunshanensis, B. pinglinensis, B. tengchiana, and B. wutaiana. Based on detailed karyomorphological analyses, the taxonomic implications, speciation, and chromosomal evolution in Taiwanese Begoniaare discussed. PMID:12579372

  17. Family planning: implications for marital stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F C; Johnson, M R

    1980-01-01

    In Spring, 1977, a random sample of divorced persons (N=165) in Spokane County was compared to a matched group of people who had not divorced (N=102). It was found that it was not possible to predict marital stability from knowledge of number of children, presence or absence of children, or timing of childbirth in relationship to marriage date. A significant predictor of marital stability was found to be whether or not children were planned. In the past 2 decades, several fertility variables have been shown to have an effect on marital stability: presence or absence of children, child spacing, birth timing, and total number of children. Only 1 paper directly implicates the planning component of fertility, and then only from a theoretical perspective. Over 20% of the North American population will experience at least 1 divorce during their lifetime. Hurley and Palonen (1967) found that the higher the ratio of children per years of marriage, the less satisfactory the marital experience will be. Another study by Luckey (1966) found no relationship between the number of children and marital satisfaction. This study found that there was an effect on the stability of womens' marriages if there was a child from a previous marriage in the home. It also found that men did not regard paternity as critical to their marital happiness whereas women often depend on maternity for theirs. PMID:12336546

  18. Frost Flowers - Implications for Ice Core Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, A. M.; Wolff, E. W.; Martin, S.; Jones, A. E.

    2002-12-01

    Frost flowers sampled from the sea ice surface in the Weddell Sea over two consecutive years, and similar samples from a winter cruise near the Mertz glacier (on the opposite side of Antarctica to the Weddell Sea), are highly saline and show fractionation in sea salt ions, with sulfate being depleted strongly relative to sodium. Frost flowers give a bright return on satellite radar scatterometer images. When winds blow towards an aerosol sampling station from areas identified in scatterometer images as being covered in frost flowers, the aerosol collected is also depleted in sulfate. The finding that large quantities of fractionated sea salt are available at the sea-ice interface in the winter months, and may be transported inland as aerosol, has significant implications for the interpretation of ice core records. In a core from Dolleman Island (near-coastal Antarctica) it can be shown that the majority of the sodium comes from a fractionated source, rather than open water. Limited evidence suggests that salt-laden aerosol reaching South Pole (and presumably other deep inland sites) is depleted in sulfate, and may also originate from frost flowers. Hitherto, strong sea salt signals in ice cores have been attributed to increased open water and more efficient transport inland, perhaps due to stormier weather. However, at least in coastal regions they may instead be related to increased formation of sea ice, with associated increased frost flower formation.

  19. Rehabilitation of executive functions: Implications and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Executive Functions (EF concern a range of abilities including problem-solving, planning, initiation, selfmonitoring,conscious attention, cope with new situations and the ability to modify plans if necessary. It’s a high cognitive function that is crucial for a person to get engaged and maintain daily activities whilst keeping a good quality of life. Problems in the EF were formerly known as Dysexecutive Syndrome (DS. There are many models concerning DS, although the literature on the subject still remains unclear. Several works appoint the effects brought by elderly life, as well as abuse of drugs and some psychopathologies. These factors are known to increase the distress of the frontal circuits and that could be associated to executive deficits. The effects of DS would compromise individuals in day-to-day routine, academic, social and labor fields. There is a growing body of studies trying to determine the causes, implications, associations and the best way to take care of these effects. This work intends to review DS, focusing on the most important fields related to this area, such as psychopathology associations, cognitive reserve, assessment and cognitive rehabilitation programs.

  20. Humanistic Education: Concerns, Implications and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khatib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanistic approach introduced by the ideas of Scholars like Erickson, Roger, and Maslow began to permeate the field of second language teaching and learning towards the end of 1970. According to Lei (2007 humanistic approach emphasizes the importance of the inner world of the learner and places the individual’s thought, emotions and feelings at the forefront of all human development. Due to this new shift of focus, language education and pedagogy moved away from the previous behavioristic and mentalistic approaches, and as a result, a new kind of education known as humanistic education emerged. Consequently, significant changes occurred in all aspects of language education, that is, the traditional roles of teachers and learners were redefined and the previously authoritarian teaching practices were replaced by learner-centered classrooms. This paper is of two-fold. First, it is going to take a detailed look at the main principles and features of humanistic education, and second, it is aimed at discussing the implications and applications of humanistic education. Finally, it tries to clarify the new roles and responsibilities considered for language teachers to be able to fully engage the students in the learning process.

  1. The clock ambiguity: Implications and new developments

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    We consider the ambiguity associated with the choice of clock in time reparameterization invariant theories. This arbitrariness undermines the goal of prescribing a fixed set of physical laws, since a change of time variable can completely alter the predictions of the theory. We review the main features of the clock ambiguity and our earlier work on its implications for the emergence of physical laws in a statistical manner. We also present a number of new results: We show that (contrary to suggestions in our earlier work) time independent Hamiltonians may quite generally be assumed for laws of physics that emerge in this picture. We also further explore the degree to which the observed Universe can be well approximated by a random Hamiltonian. We discuss the possibility of predicting the dimensionality of space, and also relate the 2nd derivative of the density of states to the heat capacity of the Universe. This new work adds to the viability of our proposal that strong predictions for physical laws may eme...

  2. The public health implications of melioidosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Timothy J.J., Inglis; Anastácio Q., Sousa.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis, which is caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a potentially fatal tropical infection, little known outside its main endemic zone of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Though it has received more attention in recent years on account of its claimed suitability as a bi [...] ological weapon agent, the principal threat from melioidosis is a result of naturally occurring events. Occasional case clusters, sporadic cases outside the known endemic zone and infections in unusual demographic groups highlight a changing epidemiology. As melioidosis is the result of an environmental encounter and not person-to-person transmission, subtle changes in its epidemiology indicate a role environmental factors, such as man-made disturbances of soil and surface water. These have implications for travel, occupational and tropical medicine and in particular for risk assessment and prevention. Practical problems with definitive laboratory diagnosis, antibiotic treatment and the current lack of a vaccine underline the need for prevention through exposure avoidance and other environmental health measures. It is likely that the increasing population burden of the tropical zone and extraction of resources from the humid tropics will increase the prevalence of melioidosis. Climate change-driven extreme weather events will both increase the prevalence of infection and gradually extend its main endemic zone.

  3. [Clinical implications of the "war against cancer"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Miranda, Daniela; Fernández González, Loreto

    2015-03-01

    This article discusses the origin and implications of the "war on cancer" metaphor. Commonly present in mass media, the "war on cancer" notion circulates also among patients, their loved ones, their support networks, and oncological multidisciplinary teams. In our view when cancer is uprooted of its illness status, and conceptualized as an "enemy", myths about disease and those who suffer it (especially the idea of psychogenesis) are strengthened. Two topics in which the war metaphor is particularly problematic in the clinical context, are analyzed in depth. The first one is the relationship between the oncologic patient and his or her loved ones and support networks. When patients are insistently prompted to fight the disease and think positive, the expression of emotions associated to the adaptive process of receiving a diagnosis of cancer may be inhibited. Secondly, the war metaphor promotes an authoritarian view among the health teams and on the physician-patient relationship, undermining the patent's autonomy in the decision-making process, which may affect his global quality of life. Also, it encourages emotional isolation, concealment of psychiatric symptoms and conspiracies of silence. It is concluded that public policies to avoid the "war on" notion are required. Instead, education of the general population about wrong beliefs about cancer should be encouraged. PMID:26005822

  4. FDI in Indian retail – and its implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Chandrasekhar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The health of a nation is gauged not only by the quantum of FDI it attracts but also the trend it follows. In turn this is dependent on the economic policies formulated and practiced and the willingness of all concerned to engage with global economic practices. Since the early 1990’s when the government embarked on a policy of liberalization it has been observed that FDI inflows showed a steady increase until the last couple of years when in fact there has been a de-growth particularly 2010 over 2009 by almost 30%. On the other hand China has attracted FDI more than 4 times the quantum of India during the same period. Investors will look to invest in ‘opportunities’ as they see bearing the most attractive returns within a given frame work considering both the ‘home’ as well as ‘host’ country. Facts and figures very clearly indicate the positive impact even in India for certain sectors when FDI has been embraced. On the other hand, India most urgently requires gathering as much as investment as is possible to keep the momentum of growth going and one such opportunity is the organizing of our retail segment which would support development endeavor in a big way. The issue of embracing partial FDI in retail has seen some level of procrastination which requires more urgent and serious attention. Can India afford to lose this opportunity? This paper attempts to study the implications for this investment as also providing some suggestions.

  5. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  6. Therapeutic implications of colon cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eros Fabrizi, Simona di Martino, Federica Pelacchi, Lucia Ricci-Vitiani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in many industrialized countries and is characterized by a heterogenic pool of cells with distinct differentiation patterns. Recently, the concept that cancer might arise from a rare population of cells with stem cell-like properties has received support with regard to several solid tumors, including colorectal cancer. According to the cancer stem cell hypothesis, cancer can be considered a disease in which mutations either convert normal stem cells into aberrant counterparts or cause a more differentiated cell to revert toward a stem cell-like behaviour; either way these cells are thought to be responsible for tumor generation and propagation. The statement that only a subset of cells drives tumor formation has major implications for the development of new targeted therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating the tumor stem cell population. This review will focus on the biology of normal and malignant colonic stem cells, which might contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for tumor development and resistance to therapy.

  7. Implications of psychometric measurement for neuropsychological interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, Alison J; Belanger, Heather G; Vanderploeg, Rodney D

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the implications of various less-examined psychometric issues in the interpretation of neuropsychological data. Using a dataset of 4371 independent functioning and community-dwelling individuals who underwent neuropsychological evaluations, it was demonstrated that many common measures are not normally distributed. Non-normalized data can lead to erroneously pathological conclusions, particularly on the lower end of negatively skewed distributions. Another issue involves scatter. In line with previous studies, the current study found that approximately 67% of the 4371 participants showed discrepancies of three or more standard deviations between their highest and lowest test scores on 21 measures. However, in contradiction to the existing literature, in the current study mean scatter levels were relatively stable across increasing levels of intelligence. It is argued that this is due to regression to the mean. As an individual moves away from the population average in either direction, scores on other measures will regress from that person's IQ score toward the population mean. The lower a test correlates with IQ, the greater will be the regression toward the mean. Therefore the test battery in question must be considered during the interpretation process, in addition to the individual's premorbid IQ. PMID:21950842

  8. Danish energy reform: policy implications for renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For decades, renewables have been promoted in Denmark by the feed-in model (fixed price scheme) with favourable tariffs for green electricity. This has resulted in successful penetration of wind power covering more than 13% of Danish electricity consumption (2001). Changing the promotional scheme to a quota-based system with tradable green certificates has been on the political agenda since 1999. This article discusses Danish energy policy with focus on the implications for the penetration and deployment of renewables. It has turned out to be more complicated than anticipated to create an efficient operational system for trade in green certificates, and the starting date for trading has been postponed several times. The national green certificates market was to be fully operational by the beginning of 2003, however, political negotiations in the fall of 2001 seem to postpone the initiation of the certificate market until 2005. Transitional rules for green electricity during the period from 2003 to 2005 are under negotiation after a national election in November 2001. This situation has created widespread uncertainty among potential investors in green electricity. The article evaluates a number of problems related to the shift in Danish energy policy

  9. Microbiological implications of the food irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the wholesomeness of irradiated food which met in 1976 concluded after a detailed and critical review of the available information, that the microbiological aspects of food irradiation were fully comparable to those of conventional processes used in modern food technology. Processing of food by irradiation may be considered from the microbiological point of view as separate procedures: high dose treatment (> 10 kGy), for sterilisation (radappertization) and low dose treatment (< 10 kGy) for pasteurisation (radicidation, radurization), (for definitions see p. 43), disinfestation, or inhibition of sprouting. No public health hazards related to micro-organisms arise from high dose irradiation because this process results in commercially sterile products. On the other hand, it is important to consider the possible microbiological hazards when food is irradiated with a low dose. The microbiological implications relate to the natural radiation resistance of bacteria, yeasts, fungi and viruses or to the mutagenic effects of ionising radiation in micro-organisms. Both areas of concern were reviewed in detail by Ingram and Ingram and Farkas. (orig.)

  10. Language Learning Strategies: Classification and Pedagogical Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ag. Bambang Setiyadi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to explore language learning strategies (Rubin, 1975, Naiman et . al ., 1978; Fillmore, 1979; O'Malley et . al ., 1985 and 1990; Politzer and Groarty, 1985; Prokop, 1989; Oxford, 1990; and Wenden, 1991. In the current study a total of 79 university students participating in a 3 month English course participated. This study attempted to explore what language learning strategies successful learners used and to what extent the strategies contributed to success in learning English in Indonesia . Factor analyses, accounting for 62.1 %, 56.0 %, 41.1 %, and 43.5 % of the varience of speaking, listening, reading and writing measures in the language learning strategy questionnaire, suggested that the questionnaire constituted three constructs. The three constructs were named metacognitive strategies, deep level cognitive and surface level cognitive strategies. Regression analyses, performed using scales based on these factors revealed significant main effects for the use of the language learning strategies in learning English, constituting 43 % of the varience in the posttest English achievement scores. An analysis of varience of the gain scores of the highest, middle, and the lowest groups of performers suggested a greater use of metacognitive strategies among successful learners and a greater use of surface level cognitive strategies among unsuccessful learners. Implications for the classroom and future research are also discussed.

  11. The Spiral Curriculum: implications for online learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbs Trevor

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an apparent disjuncture between the requirements of the medical spiral curriculum and the practice of replacing previous online material in undergraduate courses. This paper investigates the extent to which students revisit previous online material for the purposes of building the educational spiral, and the implications for the implementation of a Faculty's Learning Management System implementation. Methods At the University of Cape Town, medical students' last date of access to 16 previous online courses was determined. Students completed a survey to determine their reasons for revisiting this material and the perceived benefits of this availability. Results 70% of the students revisited their previous online courses. The major reasons were to review lecture presentations, lectures notes, and quizzes. The perceived benefits were for understanding new material, preparation for assessments, and convenience. Although student comments were not always in line with the concept of the spiral curriculum, most referred to processes of building on previous work, and some mentioned the spiral curriculum specifically. Conclusion This study suggests that the practice of replacing previous online courses may hinder rather than support student learning. Although students visit previous material for ranges of reasons, a large number are aware of the spiral curriculum, and use the online environment to build upon previous material. Any practice, which entails replacing material and redesigning curricula content may be detrimental to the students' future learning needs, and such activities may need revision.

  12. The Greek crisis: Causes and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlamis Prodromos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and critically discusses the origins and causes of the Greek fiscal crisis and its implications for the euro currency as well as the SEE economies. In the aftermath of the 2007-2009 financial crisis the enormous increase in sovereign debt has emerged as an important negative outcome, since public debt was dramatically increased in an effort by the US and the European governments to reduce the accumulated growth of private debt in the years preceding the recent financial turmoil. Although Greece is the country member of the eurozone that has been in the middle of this ongoing debt crisis, since November 2009 when it was made clear that its budget deficit and mainly its public debt were not sustainable, Greece’s fiscal crisis is not directly linked to the 2007 US subprime mortgage loan market crisis. As a result of this negative downturn the Greek government happily accepted a rescue plan of 110 billion euros designed and financed by the European Union and the IMF. A lengthy austerity programme and a fiscal consolidation plan have been put forward and are to be implemented in the next three years.

  13. Detecting somatic mosaicism: considerations and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A S A; Wilson, S L; Trinh, J; Ye, X C

    2015-06-01

    Human disease is rarely a matter of all or nothing; variable expressivity is generally observed. Part of this variability is explained by somatic mosaicism, which can arise by a myriad of genetic alterations. These can take place at any stage of development, possibly leading to unusual features visible at birth, but can also occur later in life, conceivably leading to cancer. Previously, detection of somatic mosaicism was extremely challenging, as many gold standard tests lacked the necessary resolution. However, with the advances in high-throughput sequencing, mosaicism is being detected more frequently and at lower levels. This raises the issue of normal variation within each individual vs mosaicism leading to disease, and how to distinguish between the two. In this article, we will define somatic mosaicism with a brief overview of its main mechanisms in concrete clinical examples, discuss the impact of next-generation sequencing technologies in its detection, and expand on the clinical implications associated with a discovery of somatic mosaicism in the clinic. PMID:25223253

  14. Cloud Computing : Research Issues and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marupaka Rajenda Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a rapidly developing and excellent promising technology. It has aroused the concern of the computer society of whole world. Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared information, resources, and software, are provided to terminals and portable devices on-demand, like the energy grid. Cloud computing is the product of the combination of grid computing, distributed computing, parallel computing, and ubiquitous computing. It aims to build and forecast sophisticated service environment with powerful computing capabilities through an array of relatively low-cost computing entity, and using the advanced deployment models like SaaS (Software as a Service, PaaS (Platform as a Service, IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service,HaaS (Hardware as a Service to distribute the powerful computing capacity to end-users. This paper will explore the background and service models and also presents the existing research issues and implications in cloud computing such as security, reliability, privacy, and so on.

  15. WHO under stress: implications for health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, G

    1993-05-01

    A crisis is increasingly challenging the authority and prestige of the United Nations' specialized agencies. Although the World Health Organization is still held in great repute, it has not escaped criticism. Member countries have expressed concern about WHO's bureaucratic procedures, costs, proliferation of meetings, reports, lack of budget transparency. Doubts have been cast on the effectiveness of some programmes. This paper argues that such criticisms must be understood within the context of the huge changes that have occurred since WHO was established in the late 1940s. There has been a major shift in the financing of WHO, with extrabudgetary funding now providing more than half the total budget, which has implications for policy influence within the Organization. Policy is also being decided within an increasingly political milieu. These changes put significant pressure on the Organization in a number of ways, and it is essential to generate a public debate about WHO's future role if the Organization is to retain the esteem within which it is generally held. This paper makes an initial contribution to that debate. PMID:10126754

  16. Biological behaviour and clinical implications of micrometastases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kell, M R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The most important prognostic determinant in cancer is the identification of disseminated tumour burden (metastases). Micrometastases are microscopic (smaller than 2 mm) deposits of malignant cells that are segregated spatially from the primary tumour and depend on neovascular formation (angiogenesis) to propagate. METHODS: The electronic literature (1966 to present) on micrometastases and their implications in malignant melanoma and epithelial cancers was reviewed. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical techniques combined with serial sectioning offer the best accuracy for detection of nodal micrometastases. Molecular techniques should be reserved for blood samples or bone marrow aspirates. Detection of micrometastases in regional lymph nodes and\\/or bone marrow confers a poor prognosis in epithelial cancers. The concept of sentinel node biopsy combined with serial sectioning and dedicated screening for micrometastases may improve staging procedures. Strategies against angiogenesis may provide novel therapies to induce and maintain micrometastatic dormancy. CONCLUSION: The concept of micrometastases has resulted in a paradigm shift in the staging of epithelial tumours and our overall understanding of malignant processes.

  17. Framework and implications of virtual neurorobotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of societal investment in artificial learning systems, truly “intelligent” systems have yet to be realized. These traditional models are based on input-output pattern optimization and/or cognitive production rule modeling. One response has been social robotics, using the interaction of human and robot to capture important cognitive dynamics such as cooperation and emotion; to date, these systems still incorporate traditional learning algorithms. More recently, investigators are focusing on the core assumptions of the brain “algorithm” itself—trying to replicate uniquely “neuromorphic” dynamics such as action potential spiking and synaptic learning. Only now are large-scale neuromorphic models becoming feasible, due to the availability of powerful supercomputers and an expanding supply of parameters derived from research into the brain’s interdependent electrophysiological, metabolomic and genomic networks. Personal computer technology has also led to the acceptance of computer-generated humanoid images, or “avatars”, to represent intelligent actors in virtual realities. In a recent paper, we proposed a method of virtual neurorobotics (VNR in which the approaches above (social-emotional robotics, neuromorphic brain architectures, and virtual reality projection are hybridized to rapidly forward-engineer and develop increasingly complex, intrinsically intelligent systems. In this paper, we synthesize our research and related work in the field and provide a framework for VNR, with wider implications for research and practical applications.

  18. e-Science and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tony; Trefethen, Anne

    2003-08-15

    After a definition of e-science and the Grid, the paper begins with an overview of the technological context of Grid developments. NASA's Information Power Grid is described as an early example of a 'prototype production Grid'. The discussion of e-science and the Grid is then set in the context of the UK e-Science Programme and is illustrated with reference to some UK e-science projects in science, engineering and medicine. The Open Standards approach to Grid middleware adopted by the community in the Global Grid Forum is described and compared with community-based standardization processes used for the Internet, MPI, Linux and the Web. Some implications of the imminent data deluge that will arise from the new generation of e-science experiments in terms of archiving and curation are then considered. The paper concludes with remarks about social and technological issues posed by Grid-enabled 'collaboratories' in both scientific and commercial contexts. PMID:12952686

  19. Some practical implications of source term reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a brief summary of the current knowledge of severe accident source terms and suggests how this knowledge might be applied to a number of specific aspects of reactor safety. In preparing the report, consideration has been restricted to source term issues relating to light water reactors (LWRs). Consideration has also generally been restricted to the consequences of hypothetical severe accidents rather than their probability of occurrence, although it is recognized that, in the practical application of source term research, it is necessary to take account of probability as well as consequences. The specific areas identified were as follows: Exploration of the new insights that are available into the management of severe accidents; Investigating the impact of source term research on emergency planning and response; Assessing the possibilities which exist in present reactor designs for preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents and how these might be used effectively; Exploring the need for backfitting and assessing the implications of source term research for future designs; and Improving the quantification of the radiological consequences of hypothetical severe accidents for probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) and informing the public about the realistic risks associated with nuclear power plants. 7 refs

  20. Assessment literacy: definition, implementation, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhind, Susan M; Paterson, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the current notion of assessment literacy and describes delivery and evaluation of an intervention to support its development in two different cohorts in a veterinary curriculum. Before the intervention, two cohorts (Cohort A, first-year students; Cohort B, third-year students) were surveyed on their expectations and understanding of assessment. The new students expressed uncertainty about their understanding of the assessment process: 51% disagreed that they had a good understanding. As expected, more experienced students had a better understanding, although 30% still disagreed that they had a good understanding of the process. A workshop supporting the development of assessment literacy was implemented, giving students an opportunity to evaluate authentic student work of differing standards. Most of the students in both cohorts found the session helpful in terms of their understanding of different standards in assessments (92% and 97%), and most found it helped them understand how to prepare for the degree examination better (75% and 87%). Student grades were recorded in the workshop involving Cohort B, revealing a large variation in students' ability to grade other students' work accurately, with bias ranging from 22% to -25%. Finally, faculty views on student preparedness for assessment were also explored and compared to student views. Disagreement existed between faculty regarding perceived student preparedness for assessment, and significantly more faculty than students thought that students had a good understanding of how their assessments would be graded. The implications of these results for future work and faculty development are discussed. PMID:25547906

  1. Extremophile Diatoms: Implications to the Drake Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrenburg, Frithjof A. S.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms are unicellular Eukaryotes that (as a group and phylogenetically) are not strictly regarded as extremophiles , since the vast majority of diatoms are mesophilic photoautotrophs. However, among the terrestrial Eukaryotes, diatoms are by far the single group of organisms with the ability to inhabit the greatest range of hostile environments on Earth. They are the dominant eukaryotes in the polar regions; in fumaroles, hot springs and geysers; and in hypersaline and hyperalkaline lakes and pools. Cryophilic species such as Fragilaria sublinearis and Chaetoceras fragilis are able to carry out respiration at extremely low rates at low temperatures in darkness. The Drake Equation refers to the likelihood of there being intelligent life at the technological level of electromagnetic communication. However, consideration of the range of conditions suitable for the habitability of eukaryotic diatoms and prokaryotic extremophiles, the likelihood that life exists elsewhere in the cosmos becomes many orders of magnitude greater than that predicted by the classical Drake Equation. In this paper we review the characteristics of diatoms as eukaryotic extremophiles and consider the implications to adjustments needed to the Drake Equation to assess the possibility that life exists elsewhere in the Universe.

  2. Investigating Interruptions: Implications for Flightdeck Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorella, Kara A.

    1999-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of multiple task management is attending to new stimuli and integrating associated task requirements into an ongoing task set; this is "interruption management" (IM). Anecdotal evidence and field studies indicate the frequency and consequences of interruptions, however experimental investigations of mechanisms influencing IM are scarce. Interruptions on commercial flightdecks are numerous, of various forms, and have been cited as contributing factors in many aviation incident and accident reports. This research grounds an experimental investigation of flightdeck interruptions in a proposed IM stage model. This model organizes basic research, identifies influencing mechanisms, and suggests appropriate dependent measures for IM. Fourteen airline pilots participated in a flightdeck simulation experiment to investigate the general effects of performing an interrupting task and interrupted procedure, and the effects of specific task factors: (1) modality; (2) embeddedness, or goal-level, of an interruption; (3) strength of association, or coupling-strength, between interrupted tasks; (4) semantic similarity; and (5) environmental stress. General effects of interruptions were extremely robust. All individual task factors significantly affected interruption management, except "similarity." Results extend the Interruption Management model, and are interpreted for their implications for interrupted flightdeck performance and intervention strategies for mitigating their effects on the flightdeck.

  3. Practical implications of the new risk perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several authors have argued for the adoption of certain new types of risk perspectives which highlight uncertainties rather than probabilities in the way risk is understood and measured. The theoretical rationale for these new perspectives is well established, but the practical implications have not been so clearly demonstrated. There is a need to show how the new perspectives change the way risk is described and communicated in real-life situations and in its turn the effects on risk management and decision making. The present paper aims at contributing to this end by considering two cases, related to a national risk level, and a specific analysis concerning an LNG plant. The paper concludes that the new risk perspectives influence the current regime in many ways, in particular the manner in which the knowledge dimension is described and dealt with. Two methods for characterising the strength of knowledge are presented, one of them based on a new concept, the “assumption deviation risk”, reflecting risks related to the deviations from the conditions/states defined by the assumption made

  4. Safety implications of diesel generator aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergency diesel generators in a nuclear power plant have an important safety function-supplying emergency electrical power to maintain cooling and other vital functions. The research reviewed in this article addresses the safety implications of aging of these emergency diesel generators and the influence of aging on their reliability. Historical operational information was assembled on component and system failures and their causes. One significant research result is that the fast-starting and fast-loading test procedure mandated by Regulatory Guide 1.108 and the standard Technical Specifications has contributed to wear and degradation. Other equally important aging and degradation factors for the diesel generators are identified and reviewed. A new approach developed represents a more balanced aging management program that includes (1) slow-start testing during which operating parameters are monitored, (2) analysis of data trends, (3) training, and (4) maintenance. This approach should improve safety by identifying aging degradation that leads to future diesel generator failures. Timely maintenance could then prevent actual failures

  5. India-Pakistan Relations: International Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Jauhari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available India’s independence in 1947 from the British colonial rule and its subsequent division into two nations – India and Pakistan - has sowed the seeds of continuing conflict between the two countries since their independence. The partition of India was primarily based on the religious divide between the two communities – the Hindus and the Muslims. After India’s partition, the major issue of conflict between the two countries has been the Muslim dominated northern state of Jammu and Kashmir, currently a part of India. This bilateral conflict has had international implications over the years. Decades of conflict, which includes three major wars, has contributed to a nuclear race between the two countries and growth of terrorism in the region. These two regional outcomes of the conflict have assumed global significance with the growing international threat of nuclear proliferation and terrorism.The paper analyzes the bilateral conflict between India and Pakistan and the subsequent emergence of the global threats. The paper also emphasizes normalization of the bilateral relations as the key prerequisite to ensure peace and security for the region and also for relieving the global society from the perils of a growing nuclear threat and expanding forces of terrorism.

  6. Knowledge Management: Implications on Business Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ahmed I. Mulla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Every organization or individual has been traditionally managing the knowledge unconsciously. Now, the time has changed, as a result, a need is felt to manage knowledge consciously. Over the past one decade there has been an increasing recognition to knowledge management. More conscious and active management of knowledge can bring significant contribution and benefits to the organizations. Knowledge is an asset, which helps in achieving individual or organizational goal. The speed of changes generated by human knowledge is moving at a quantum leap, most of them are unexpected and some of them are uncontrolled, simply cannot turn back. We are living in an age of science and technology, knowledge and its varied application. The varied applications of knowledge will inevitably determine our future. In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight the knowledge, its source and forms, flow of knowledge management, knowledge creativity, functions of knowledge management and emergence of knowledge societies in general and its implications on business education in particular.

  7. [Burnout : concepts and implications affecting public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Burnout was originally described as a mental condition characterized by reduced work performance, impotence, frustration and lack of capability to reach objectives or goals while performing a job. For some authors, burnout is a poorly defined mixture of symptoms and signs, while other professionals think of it as a disease and a potential threat to public health. Worldwide, it has been observed that the most afflicted professionals and technicians are those who work providing services or assistance to other people, especially those dedicated to health care. This paper focuses on the idea that burnout should be considered a disease more than a syndrome. On the other hand, definitions of health and disease have changed with time, as well as theoretical and methodological references about burnout. In addition, burnout remains a condition that is being discussed in various scientific areas, with radically opposing positions; these approaches are discussed in this article. After presenting different conceptions regarding burnout, the essay concludes with an exploration of its implications and the identification of possible treatments, especially for health workers, among whom it is more common depending on their predisposing conditions and environments. PMID:25504242

  8. Cancer stem cells: implications for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Shaheenah; Austin, Laura; Cristofanilli, Massimo

    2014-12-01

    The survival of patients with cancer has improved significantly, primarily because of multidisciplinary care, improved chemotherapeutic agents in both the adjuvant and metastatic settings, the introduction of targeted biologic agents, and the incorporation of palliative care services into the management scheme. However, despite these advances, a significant proportion of patients continue to experience recurrence after adjuvant treatment, and survival associated with stage IV solid tumors still remains low. A primary or acquired resistance to chemotherapeutic and biologic agents is responsible for the failure of many of the agents used to treat patients with a malignancy. This can be explained by the presence of intratumoral heterogeneity and the molecular complexity of many cancers. Factors contributing to intratumoral heterogeneity include genetic mutations, interactions with the microenvironment-and the presence of cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells have been identified in a number of solid tumors, including breast cancer, brain tumors, lung cancer, colon cancer, and melanoma. Cancer stem cells have the capacity to self-renew, to give rise to progeny that are different from them, and to utilize common signaling pathways. Cancer stem cells may be the source of all the tumor cells present in a malignant tumor, the reason for the resistance to the chemotherapeutic agent used to treat the malignant tumor, and the source of cells that give rise to distant metastases. This review will focus on properties of cancer stem cells; will compare and contrast the cancer stem cell model with the clonal evolution model of tumorigenesis; will discuss the role of cancer stem cells in the development of resistance to chemotherapy; and will review the therapeutic implications and challenges of targeting cancer stem cells, with an assessment of the potential such an approach holds for improving outcomes for patients with cancer. PMID:25510809

  9. Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 ('burners') do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 ('breeders') have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is 'attractive' for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR1, heat, gamma, anfissile support. For CR>1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found among the higher actinides, so the neutron emission varies much stronger with CR, about three orders of magnitude.

  10. CHO Quasispecies—Implications for Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian M. Wurm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells are a source of multi-ton quantities of protein pharmaceuticals. They are, however, immortalized cells, characterized by a high degree of genetic and phenotypic diversity. As is known for any biological system, this diversity is enhanced by selective forces when laboratories (no sharing of gene pools grow cells under (diverse conditions that are practical and useful. CHO cells have been used in culture for more than 50 years, and various lines of cells are available and have been used in manufacturing. This article tries to represent, in a cursory way, the history of CHO cells, particularly the origin and subsequent fate of key cell lines. It is proposed that the name CHO represents many different cell types, based on their inherent genetic diversity and their dynamic rate of genetic change. The continuing remodeling of genomic structure in clonal or non-clonal cell populations, particularly due to the non-standardized culture conditions in hundreds of different labs renders CHO cells a typical case for “quasispecies”. This term was coined for families of related (genomic sequences exposed to high mutation rate environments where a large fraction of offspring is expected to carry one or more mutations. The implications of the quasispecies concept for CHO cells used in protein manufacturing processes are significant. CHO genomics/transcriptomics may provide only limited insights when done on one or two “old” and poorly characterized CHO strains. In contrast, screening of clonal cell lines, derived from a well-defined starting material, possibly within a given academic or industrial environment, may reveal a more narrow diversity of phenotypes with respect to physiological/metabolic activities and, thus, allow more precise and reliable predictions of the potential of a clone for high-yielding manufacturing processes.

  11. Oceanic implications for climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the United Nations convention on the law of the sea (1982), each participating country maintains exclusive economic and environmental rights within the oceanic region extending 200 nm from its territorial sea, known as the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Although the ocean within each EEZ is undoubtedly an anthropogenic CO2 sink, it has been over-looked within international climate policy. In this paper I use an area-weighted scaling argument to show that the inclusion of the EEZ CO2 sink within national carbon accounts would have significant implications in tracking national greenhouse commitments to any future climate change policy initiative. The advantages and disadvantages for inclusion of the EEZ CO2 sink into global climate change policy are also explored. The most compelling argument for including the EEZ CO2 sink is that it would enhance the equity and resources among coastal nations to combat and adapt against future climate change that will inherently impact coastal nations more so than land locked nations. If included, the funds raised could be used for either monitoring or adaptive coastal infrastructure among the most vulnerable nations. On the other hand, the EEZ anthropogenic CO2 sink cannot be directly controlled by human activities and could be used as a disincentive for some developed nations to reduce fossil-fuel related greenhouse gas emissions. This may therefore dampen efforts to ultimahis may therefore dampen efforts to ultimately reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. In consideration of these arguments it is therefore suggested that an 'EEZ clause' be added to Kyoto and any future international climate policy that explicitly excludes its use within national carbon accounts under these international climate frameworks

  12. Implications for environmental health of multiple stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose effects of ionising radiation have revealed that similar mechanisms can be induced by chemical stressors in the environment. This means that interactions between radiation and chemicals are likely and that the outcomes following mixed exposures to radiation and chemicals may not be predictable for human health, by consideration of single agent effects. Our understanding of the biological effects of low dose exposure has undergone a major paradigm shift. We now possess technologies which can detect very subtle changes in cells due to small exposures to radiation or other pollutants. We also understand much more now about cell communication, systems biology and the need to consider effects of low dose exposure at different hierarchical levels of organisation from molecules up to and including ecosystems. Furthermore we understand, at least in part, some of the mechanisms which drive low dose effects and which perpetuate these not only in the exposed organism but also in its progeny and in certain cases, its kin. This means that previously held views about safe doses or lack of harmful effects cannot be sustained. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and all national radiation and environmental protection organisations have always accepted a theoretical risk and have applied the precautionary principle and the LNT (linear-non-threshold) model which basically says ton-threshold) model which basically says that there is no safe dose of radiation. Therefore even in the absence of visible effects, exposure of people to radiation is strictly limited. This review will consider the historical context and the new discoveries and will focus on evidence for emergent effects after mixed exposures to combined stressors which include ionising radiation. The implications for regulation of low dose exposures to protect human health and environmental security will be discussed.

  13. Definitions of fuel poverty: Implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines why the definition of fuel poverty is important in policy formulation and describes how the Government's current definitions evolved from the original concept. It discusses the determination of income and fuel costs and the possibilities for a relative and common European measure. It examines problems inherent in assessing fuel costs as a percentage of income and puts forward the arguments for a ‘budget standard’ approach. The paper illustrates how the size of the problem depends on the definition and chosen threshold and suggests advantages for a rating scale. It illustrates how the income composition and thresholds also govern the distribution of the target populations and the relative importance of the main causal factors, and examines the consequent policy implications. It explores the definition of vulnerable households and the importance of severity and questions whether the UK fuel poverty strategy is targeted at households least able to afford their fuel costs (as the name implies) or primarily those at risk from excess winter and summer mortality and morbidity. Finally, after examining the role of supplementary indicators, it looks at the opportunities for changing the definition and comments on the Government review of the definition and targets. - Highlights: ? There are major failings in the existing official definitions of fuel poverty. ? expressing fuel costs as a percentage of income is a poor indicator of fuel poverty. ? Ar indicator of fuel poverty. ? A budget standard approach provides a more consistent, meaningful and fairer measure. ? The scale and nature of the problem changes dramatically with different definitions. ? The definition is crucial to the mix of policies and allocation of resources required.

  14. GEMAS - Soil geochemistry and health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Ladenberger, Anna; Wragg, Joanna; Gulan, Aleksandra

    2014-05-01

    The GEMAS Project resulted in a large coherent data set displaying baseline levels of elements in agricultural and grazing land soil, which has a wide variety of applications. Medical geology is an emerging new discipline providing a link between geoscience and medicine by interpreting natural geological factors in relation to human and animal health and their geographical distribution. Medical geology shows not only problems related to harmful health effects of natural geological materials and processes, but also deals with their beneficial aspects. Since the GEMAS project demonstrates the importance of geological factors in geochemical patterns in European soil, this data set can be used in improving our understanding of how the geological processes may affect human health in Europe. The main potential health problems are related to deficiency of nutrients in soil and toxic effects of potentially harmful elements. Deficiency in macro- (e.g., K, Fe, Mg, P) and micro-nutrients (e.g., Se, Zn, Cl) can be responsible for a reduction in crop productivity and certain health issues for livestock and humans. On the other hand, bioavailability of crucial elements depends on soil parameters, e.g., pH; namely, low pH in soil (in northern Europe) makes more micronutrients bioavailable, with the exception of Mo, P and Ca. Rocks underlying the soil layer have a major impact on soil composition, and soil parent material can be a main source of toxic metals, for instance, soil developed on black shale (e.g., Oslo region) shows potentially toxic levels of metals, such as As, Cd, U, Zn and Pb. High content of organic matter is another factor amplifying the toxic levels of metals in soil. Several important topics with health implications can be then addressed using the GEMAS data set, namely, soil properties and element bioavailability, arsenic toxicity, selenium deficiency, potential health effects of liming, uranium in European soil, influence of recent and historical volcanic activity on soil composition and its health consequences. References Reimann, C., Birke, M., Demetriades, A., Filzmoser, P. & O'Connor, P. (Editors), 2014. Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils - Part A: Methodology and interpretation of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B), Schweizerbarth, Hannover, 528 pp. Reimann, C., Birke, M., Demetriades, A., Filzmoser, P. & O'Connor, P. (Editors), 2014. Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils - Part B: General background information and further analysis of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B), Schweizerbarth, Hannover, 352 pp.

  15. Researching Lean: Methodological implications of loose definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännmark, Mikael; Langstrand, Jostein

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Lean Production has in Sweden become the dominating ideal for ‘best practice’ in rationalization, organizational development and how to organize the work system. However, research into the effects of Lean for different stakeholders has produced ambiguous results. Furthermore, Lean practices seem to overlap with other popular management concepts, such as High Performance Work Systems, World Class Manufacturing and Total Quality Management. This confusion, combined with different methodological and theoretical traditions, has led to much debate and contradictory conclusions regarding Lean. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate some key methodological issues that need to be considered in future Lean research to allow increased understanding of Lean effects for different stakeholders, primarily meaning the customer, employer and employees. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a multiple comparative case study, in which five Lean case studies are presented. All of the studies are of recent origin, and based in Sweden. The cases have been compared and contrasted based on the approaches to Lean, in terms of local ideals, operationalization and implementation. Findings – The findings from the case studies are in line with the existing literature, indicating that Lean has changed over time and that operationalization of the concept varies considerably between work life sectors. The findings demonstrate that approaches related to Lean differ significantly between the studied organizations and stakeholders. This applies to both the interpretations of the Lean concept itself, but also of the operationalization of Lean and implementation design. Although the cases show great similarities in the Lean ideals, the concept takes on many different forms when operationalized, which makes it very difficult to study through a priori definitions. Practical implications/recommendations – The large variation in interpretations of Lean complicates metaanalyses regarding potential impact of Lean on the primary stakeholders of an organization, i.e. the customer, employees and employer. Based on the case studies, we suggest that future investigations describe the Lean interventions in more detail. General descriptions or analogies, e.g. ‘learning organizations’, presumably increase the present confusion regarding Lean impact on different stakeholders. The case studies also illustrate the importance of describing factors that may mediate the effects of Lean, e.g. the local context of the investigated organizations, implementation design. More research is needed to identify these factors, how, and to what degree they mediate the consequences from Lean. Originality/value – The multidisciplinary approach of the included case studies provides an empirical richness that allows us to address the specific issues that need to be focused in the various disciplines investigating the impact of Lean on different organizational stakeholders.

  16. Habit formation: implications for alcoholism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Characteristics of individuals with severe alcohol use disorders include heightened cue sensitivity, compulsive seeking, craving, and continued alcohol use in the face of negative consequences. Animal models are useful for understanding behavioral and neurological mechanisms underlying problematic alcohol use. Seeking of operant reinforcers including alcohol is processed by two mechanisms, commonly referred to as "goal-directed" (action-outcome) and "habitual" (stimulus-response). As substance use disorders are characterized by continued use regardless of unfavorable outcomes, it is plausible that drug use causes an unnatural disruption of these mechanisms. We present a critical analysis of literature pertaining to behavioral neuroscience alcoholism research involving habit formation. Traditionally, when operant behavior is unaffected by a loss of subjective value of a reinforcer (devaluation), the behavior is considered habitual. Acquisition of instrumental behavior requires corticostriatal mechanisms that depend heavily on the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, whereas practiced behavior is more predominantly controlled by the dorsal striatum. Dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the neurological adaptations involved in stimulus-response action, and drugs of abuse appear to facilitate habitual behavior through high levels of dopamine release. Evidence suggests that the use of alcohol as a reinforcer expedites habit formation, and that a history of alcohol use produces alterations in striatal morphology, aids habit learning for non-psychoactive reinforcers, and promotes alcohol drinking despite aversive adulterants. In this review, we suggest directions for future alcoholism research that seeks to measure action made despite a devalued outcome, including procedural modifications and genotypic, pharmacological, or neurological manipulations. Most alcoholism models currently in use fail to reach substantial blood ethanol concentrations, a shortcoming that may be alleviated through the use of high-drinking rodent lines. Additionally, satiety, one common mechanism of devaluing reinforcers, is not recommended for alcohol research because the psychoactive effects of alcohol depress response rates, mimicking devaluation effects. Overall, further research of habit formation and potentially related perseverative behaviors could be invaluable in discovering genetic variance, traits that correlate with persistent alcohol seeking, implicated neural structures and processes of alcohol use, and eventually novel pharmacological treatment for alcoholism. PMID:24835007

  17. Generic implications of ATWS events at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant: generic implications. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the first of two volumes. It documents the work of an interoffice, interdisciplinary NRC Task Force established to determine the generic implications of two anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 on February 22 and 25, 1983. A second report will document the NRC actions to be taken based on the work of the Task Force. The Task Force was established to address three questions: (1) Is there a need for prompt action for similar equipment in other facilities. (2) Are NRC and its licensees learning the sefety-management lessons, and, (3) How should the priority and content of the ATWS rule be adjusted. A number of short-term actions were taken through Bulletins and an Information Notice. Intermediate-term actions to address the generic issues will be addressed in the separate report and implemented through appropriate regulatory mechanisms

  18. [Prescribing information for drugs--legal and regulatory implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahalom, Zohar; Shani, Segev

    2014-11-01

    The regulation of pharmaceuticals is becoming more complex in recent years. Current regulation is no longer limited to deciding whether a specific drug would be allowed to be placed on the market. Today, a significant part of the regulatory process is focused on setting the terms for utilization of each drug, regarding the target population, dosages, mode of administration, etc. These terms have enormous implications on both pharmaceutical companies and caregivers. In Israel, the only publicly available source of information on terms of registration is the prescribing information ("physician leaflet"). The prescribing information contains instructions for use, as well as a Lot of safety information regarding the product. Therefore, the wording of the prescribing information may have serious regulatory and legal implications on caregivers. The objective of this article is to describe the relevant laws and regulations requiring its publication, while discussing the practical issues and implications of the use of prescribing information by physicians in Israel. PMID:25563030

  19. Software Development Methodologies, Trends and Implications: A Testing Centric View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihui Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of software development has evolved steadily over the decades. Numerous methods and models (e.g., life cycle models and agile methods have been proposed to enhance its efficiency and effectiveness. This study provides a testing centric view of software development practices. Specifically, it reviews software development methodologies (i.e., methods and models, identifies the latest trends in the industry and discusses their implications. The review of methodologies, the identification of these trends and the discussion of their implications will be useful to software development educators, students, practitioners and researchers.

  20. Deforming Etna's Basement: Implications for Edifice stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Richard; Benson, Philip; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2013-04-01

    At over 3 kilometers in height, Mt. Etna (Italy) is the largest volcano of continental Europe. The volcano formed on top of the alpine fold and thrust belt, with basaltic outflows lying unconformably on top of an alternation between sandstones, limestones and clays. Presently Etna's eastern flank is moving with speeds up to 2cm/yr to the east [Tibaldi and Groppelli, 2002]. It is the sequence of layers below the volcano that is thought to provide a complex, structurally controlled, mechanism to the volcano deformation as a whole. This is due to the interplay of gravitational forces, volcanic pressurization, and regional tectonics, which combine to play a complex role that remains poorly understood, especially when the physical and mechanical properties of the rocks are considered. In this study, we concentrate on the rock mechanical component, and in particular the formation known as Comiso Limestone. This limestone forms of one of the key lithologies of Etna's basement. The formation has been suggested to be affected by thermal weakening [Heap et al., 2013]. Previous work on Comiso Limestone suggests brittle behavior for the range of temperatures (up to 760 ?C) and a significant reduction in strength with higher temperatures. [Mollo et al., 2011]. Chiodini et al [2011], speculate carbonate assimilation. This implies that the Carbondioxide created by decarbonatization, is able to escape. Using an internally heated "Paterson" type pressure vessel, we recreated conditions at 2-4 km depth (50-100 MPa) and using an anomalously high geotherm, as expected in volcanic settings (ranging from room to 600 ?C). With the addition of confining pressure, we show a brittle to ductile transition occurs at a relatively low temperature of 300 ?C. A significant decrease in strength occurs when the rock is exposed to temperatures exceeding 400 ?C. In addition, we observe a significant difference in mechanical behavior between vented and unvented situations when decarbonatization is active (>500 ?C). As shown by Gudmundsson [2011] a large contrast in mechanical properties between two formations could cause dyke arrest or deflection. Contacts between the Comiso Limestone (overall ductile at depth) and extruded basalt flows (overall brittle) could very well facilitate such a locality, and such 'layering' will form part of future laboratory investigations. References: Chiodini, G., S. Caliro, A. Aiuppa, R. Avino, D. Granieri, R. Moretti, and F. Parello (2011), First 13C/12C isotopic characterisation of volcanic plume CO2, Bulletin of Volcanology, 73(5), 531-542. Gudmundsson, A. (2011), Deflection of dykes into sills at discontinuities and magma-chamber formation, Tectonophysics, 500(1-4), 50-64. Heap, M. J., S. Mollo, S. Vinciguerra, Y. Lavallée, K. U. Hess, D. B. Dingwell, P. Baud, and G. Iezzi (2013), Thermal weakening of the carbonate basement under Mt. Etna volcano (Italy): Implications for volcano instability, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 250(0), 42-60. Mollo, S., S. Vinciguerra, G. Iezzi, A. Iarocci, P. Scarlato, M. J. Heap, and D. B. Dingwell (2011), Volcanic edifice weakening via devolatilization reactions, Geophysical Journal International, 186(3), 1073-1077. Tibaldi, A., and G. Groppelli (2002), Volcano-tectonic activity along structures of the unstable NE flank of Mt. Etna (Italy) and their possible origin, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 115(3-4), 277-302.

  1. Anaesthesia of farmed fish: implications for welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahl, Inger Hilde; Samuelsen, Ole; Kiessling, Anders

    2012-02-01

    During their life cycle as farmed animals, there are several situations in which fish are subjected to handling and confinement. Netting, weighing, sorting, vaccination, transport and, at the end, slaughter are frequent events under farming conditions. As research subjects, fish may also undergo surgical procedures that range from tagging, sampling and small incisions to invasive procedures. In these situations, treatment with anaesthetic agents may be necessary in order to ensure the welfare of the fish. The main objective of this paper is to review our knowledge of the effects of anaesthetic agents in farmed fish and their possible implications for welfare. As wide variations in response to anaesthesia have been observed both between and within species, special attention has been paid to the importance of secondary factors such as body weight, water temperature and acute stress. In this review, we have limited ourselves to the anaesthetic agents such as benzocaine, metacaine (MS-222), metomidate hydrochloride, isoeugenol, 2-phenoxyethanol and quinaldine. Anaesthetic protocols of fish usually refer to one single agent, whereas protocols of human and veterinary medicine cover combinations of several drugs, each contributing to the effects needed in the anaesthesia. As stress prior to anaesthesia may result in abnormal reactions, pre-anaesthetic sedation is regularly used in order to reduce or avoid stress and is an integral part of the veterinary protocols of higher vertebrates. Furthermore, the anaesthetic agents that are used in order to obtain general anaesthesia are combined with analgesic agents that target nociception. The increased use of such combinations in fish is therefore included as a special section. Anaesthetic agents are widely used to avoid stress during various farming procedures. While several studies report that anaesthetics are effective in reducing the stress associated with confinement and handling, there are indications that anaesthesia may in itself induce a stress response, measured by elevated levels of cortisol. MS-222 has been reported to elicit high cortisol release rates immediately following exposure, while benzocaine causes a bimodal response. Metomidate has an inhibitory effect on cortisol in fish and seems to induce the lowest release of cortisol of the agents reported in the literature. Compared to what is observed following severe stressors such as handling and confinement, the amount of cortisol released in response to anaesthesia appears to be low but may represent an extra load under otherwise stressful circumstances. Furthermore, anaesthetics may cause secondary adverse reactions such as acidosis and osmotic stress due to respiratory arrest and insufficient exchange of gas and ions between the blood and the water. All in all, anaesthetics may reduce stress and thereby improve welfare but can also have unwanted side effects that reduce the welfare of the fish and should therefore always be used with caution. Finally, on the basis of the data reported in the literature and our own experience, we recommend that anaesthetic protocols should always be tested on a few fish under prevailing conditions in order to ensure an adequate depth of anaesthesia. This recommendation applies whether a single agent or a combination of agents is used, although it appears that protocols comprising combinations of agents provide wider safety margins. The analgesic effects of currently used agents, in spite of their proven local effects, are currently being debated as the agents are administrated to fish via inhalation rather than locally at the target site. We therefore recommend that all protocols of procedures requiring general anaesthesia should be complemented by administration of agents with analgesic effect at the site of tissue trauma. PMID:22160749

  2. eBay Law: The Legal Implications of the C2C Electronic Commerce Model

    OpenAIRE

    Guadamuz, Andres

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to address some of the legal implications of the popular Consumer-to-Consumer electronic commerce model, in particular the implications of the successful and popular auctions site eBay.

  3. Medical Waste Management Implications for Small Medical Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrns, George; Burke, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the Medical Waste Management Act of 1988 for small medical facilities, public health, and the environment. Reviews health and environmental risks associated with medical waste, current regulatory approaches, and classifications. Concludes that the health risk of medical wastes has been overestimated; makes…

  4. The nucleon spin decomposition: news and experimental implications

    CERN Document Server

    Lorcé, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many nucleon spin decompositions have been proposed in the literature, creating a lot of confusion. This revived in particular old controversies regarding the measurability of theoretically defined quantities. We propose a brief overview of the different decompositions, discuss the sufficient requirements for measurability and stress the experimental implications.

  5. Sexual Addiction and the Internet: Implications for Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Brian J.; Chaney, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an overview of sexual addiction and explore the relationship between Internet use and sexual compulsivity. The role of Internet use in gay men's sexual behavior is described. Implications for the counseling profession are discussed, and a clinical case study is presented.

  6. Physical Education and Implications for Students with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Cynthia G.; Gaus, Mark D.; Biggs, Mary Jo Garcia; Williams, James, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, James Williams, a young man with Asperger's syndrome (AS) shares his experiences taking physical education in a generalized education setting and discusses the implications for students with AS. He was diagnosed with AS when he was 9 years old. School was tough at times, especially when social interactions came into play. One of…

  7. Islam and Citizenship Education in Singapore: Challenges and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    The religious diversity of Singapore, coupled with the current phenomenon of Islamic revivalism, makes the management of religion a paramount concern for the Singapore government. By examining the developments of Islam in Singapore, this article explores the challenges and implications these developments have on citizenship education in the…

  8. Physical Attractiveness, Dating Behavior, and Implications for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreadbury, Constance Lizotte; Reever, Joy Bennett

    1979-01-01

    Examined which of two sociological theories of dating preference was more powerful in predicting women's actual dating frequency. The theories tested were Waller's theory, which emphasizes physical attractiveness, and Blood's theory, which emphasizes personality. Evidence supported Waller's theory. Discussion and implications for women and…

  9. Implications of What Children Know about Computer Passwords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Porter E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present several implications and recommendations regarding what elementary school children, aged 9-12 years, know about computer passwords and what they know about why computer passwords are important. Student knowledge can then be used to make relevant curriculum decisions based in conjunction with applicable…

  10. Graduate Students on Campus: Needs and Implications for College Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benshoff, James M.; Cashwell, Craig S.; Rowell, P. Clay

    2015-01-01

    Graduate students compose an important segment of university and college populations. However, institutions of higher education often have not addressed adequately their status as adult students with different developmental and life issues and concerns. This article defines and describes the needs of graduate students, discusses implications, and…

  11. Modes of Funding Nigerian Universities and the Implications on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined the modes of funding Nigerian universities with a view to assessing their adequacy and effectiveness. The implications of the mechanisms of funding on university performance were investigated. The history of university funding in Nigeria was explored in order to determine the causes of shift in financing the system since 1948…

  12. Implications of "Amae" for HIV Risk in Japanese Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuoha, Francis N.; Munakata, Tsunetsugu

    2005-01-01

    Assertiveness, defined as perceived confidence to express true feelings in interpersonal relationships, has been reported to correlate with HIV risk avoidance. However, Japanese social structure encourages "amae" or self-repression. The present study investigated the implications of "amae" for HIV risk avoidance among Japanese university students.…

  13. Nutrition Advertisements in Consumer Magazines: Health Implications for African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Charlotte A.; Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the "Ladies' Home Journal" and two popular consumer magazines that target blacks to determine the proportions of food and beverage advertisements, nutrition advertisements and their promotional messages, and the health implications they reveal. Findings reveal these magazines had a significantly higher number of alcohol ads, limited…

  14. Clinical Implications of Dynamic Systems Theory for Phonological Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rvachew, Susan; Bernhardt, Barbara May

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine treatment outcomes in relation to the complexity of treatment goals for children with speech sound disorders. Method: The clinical implications of dynamic systems theory in contrast with learnability theory are discussed, especially in the context of target selection decisions for children with speech sound disorders. Detailed…

  15. Observations and implications of extra-terrestrial neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several examples of the data on extra-terrestrial neutrinos are treated to illustrate the progress in experimental neutrino astrophysics. Limits obtained from searches for stellar point sources of neutrinos and relic supernovae neutrinos are briefly described. The observations of atmospheric and solar neutrinos and their implications are discussed in greater detail

  16. Age-Related Hearing Loss: Implications for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pamela E.; Hoyer, William J.

    1996-01-01

    Examines adaptation strategies used by hearing-impaired listeners and considers the implications of age-related hearing loss for counseling, intervention, and self-management. Outlines information on hearing aids and on practical communication strategies and the growing importance of these strategies as the population grows increasingly older.…

  17. Financial Implications of Implementing an E-Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kunal

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to outline the financial implications, while deploying information and communication technologies for implementing e-learning, and to elucidate them, while implementing an e-learning project in a conventional university environment. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a descriptive account of the various cost factors…

  18. The Waxing and Waning of Movement: Implications for Psychological Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Warren O.; McKeen, Nancy A.; Campbell, Darren W.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve studies examined implications of age-related changes in movement between 6 weeks and 52 years for various psychological domains. Findings indicate an inverted U-shaped pattern in limb movements per hour that peaked in middle childhood, later than expected. This pattern in motor activity has relevance for development, and for ADHD,…

  19. Technology, Narcissism, and the Moral Sense: Implications for Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Francis; Bednar, Maryanne; Sweeder, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses narcissism, child-rearing practices that lead to child-centeredness, and social insensitivity and their implications for instruction. Considers moral education and the moral sense; cultivating the moral sense through technology; and idea and product technologies. Also includes a commentary on the article by Jonathan Ross and a response…

  20. A Prekindergarten Program: Policy Implications of the Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Mary D.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The New York State Experimental Prekindergarten Program, which operates in 52 school districts, is designed to reduce potential educational deficits of economically disadvantaged children. This article reports on the program's effects on cognitive functioning of children in their kindergarten years and discusses implications for educational…

  1. Marital Conflict Behaviors and Implications for Divorce over 16 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S.; Brown, Edna; Orbuch, Terri L.; McIlvane, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined self-reported marital conflict behaviors and their implications for divorce. Husbands and wives (N = 373 couples; 47% White American, 53% Black American) reported conflict behaviors in Years 1, 3, 7, and 16 of their marriages. Individual behaviors (e.g., destructive behaviors) and patterns of behaviors between partners (e.g.,…

  2. The Skills Implications of Electronic Retailing. IES Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackey, Nii Djan; Hillage, Jim; Jagger, Nick; Bates, Peter

    The skills and education/training implications of the development of electronic commerce in the United Kingdom's retail industry and its associated supply chain were examined. The major data collection activities were as follows: a literature review; consultation with leading academics and advisers; an e-mail-based call for information from…

  3. Didactical Implications of Children's Difficulties in Learning the Fraction Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Genevieve

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of the conceptual analysis of the unit fraction that provided the framework for developing a comprehensive array of fraction activities for fourth-grade students. Reveals the students' difficulties in learning the unit-fraction concept and discusses the didactical implications of these difficulties. Contains 15 references.…

  4. Tutorial in oral antithrombotic therapy: Biology and dental implications

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhri, Hamid R.; Janket, Sok J.; Jackson, Elizabeth A.; Alison E. Baird; Dinnocenzo, Richard; Jukka H. Meurman

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Recent developments of new direct oral anticoagulants that target specific clotting factors necessitate understanding of coagulation biology. The objective of this tutorial is to offer dental professionals a review of coagulation mechanisms and the pharmacodynamics of the conventional and new oral anticoagulants. Also, we summarized the dental implications of the conventional and new anticoagulants. Method: We searched Medline using search terms “antithrombotic”, “antihemostas...

  5. Traditional Healing in Africa: Implications for Cross-Cultural Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1991-01-01

    Examines role of traditional healers in African society. Indicates who the indigenous doctors are, role family plays in health maintenance, nature of the healing relationship, what diagnostic techniques are used, specific healing methods used, how music is used as therapeutic accompaniment, how healers are selected and prepared, and implications

  6. The Legal Challenge to Corrections: Implications for Manpower and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Fred

    Workers in the field of corrections will find in this consultant's paper an examination of: (1) legal changes outside the area of the criminal process which have implications for corrections, (2) legal changes within the area of the criminal process, and (3) legal norms as a background for analyzing problems in the area of corrections. Intended as…

  7. IMPLICATION OF MARKETING PLAN: FOR MARKETING LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. NAIKWADI AND P. M. CHASKAR

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the meaning and purpose of marketing in academic libraries and discusses five laws of library science in the view of marketing. It also describes marketing process, its development and implication of marketing plan, and list of the tools and techniques for marketing

  8. Implications for Counseling the Unemployed in a Recessionary Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifron, Rachel; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Addresses the implications of recessionary unemployment for the field of counseling, including family counseling, group counseling, and career education. Counseling should focus on maintaining the person's physical and psychological wellness, and teaching coping behavior to prevent temporary unemployment from becoming permanent. (JAC)

  9. Training for Innovation in India: Cultural Considerations and Strategic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L. Roxanne

    2008-01-01

    Global organizations with personnel in India rank innovation as a primary workforce development objective to stay competitive in the global market (NASSCOM, [2007]). This analysis reviews relevant literature for evidence of cultural factors that stand in the way of innovative performance in Indian personnel and discusses implications for the…

  10. Ordered direct implicational basis of a finite closure system

    CERN Document Server

    Adaricheva, Kira; Rand, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Closure system on a finite set is a unifying concept in logic programming, relational data bases and knowledge systems. It can also be presented in the terms of finite lattices, and the tools of economic description of a finite lattice have long existed in lattice theory. We present this approach by describing the so-called $D$-basis and introducing the concept of ordered direct basis of an implicational system. A direct basis of a closure operator, or an implicational system, is a set of implications that allows one to compute the closure of an arbitrary set by a single iteration. This property is preserved by the D-basis at the cost of following a prescribed order in which implications will be attended. In particular, using an ordered direct basis allows to optimize the forward chaining procedure in logic programming that uses the Horn fragment of propositional logic. One can extract the D-basis from any direct unit basis S in time polynomial in the size of S, and it takes only linear time of the cardinalit...

  11. A Cognitive Theory of Resistance and Reactance: Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, E. Thomas; Seibel, Cynthia A.

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to integrate the formulations of Brehm and Brehm and of Guidano and sets forth a cognitive theory of resistance and reactance within a cognitive developmental and individual differences context. Differentiates resistance from reactance and explores developmental antecedents of characterological reactance. Describes implications for…

  12. Using Cultural Diversity in Teaching Economics: Global Business Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitry, Darryl J.

    2008-01-01

    Globalization and increasing cross-cultural interactivity have implications for education in general and may also present valuable pedagogical opportunities in the practice of teaching economics for business students. Therefore, the author investigated this proposition and offers some empirical observations from research and teaching experiments.…

  13. The tomato genome: implications for plant breeding, genomics and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan, Aashish; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Sinha, Neelima R.

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), one of the most important vegetable crops, has recently been decoded. We address implications of the tomato genome for plant breeding, genomics and evolutionary studies, and its potential to fuel future crop biology research.

  14. Affirmative Action: Its Legal Mandate and Organizational Implications. No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, Jamie Beth; And Others

    This paper explores the dimensions of a law, Affirmative Action, and its impact on a university. Section 1 concerns legal aspects with emphasis on historical and legal perspectives of affirmative action; a summary of the guidelines and compliance procedures for administrators; and the legal implications of Affirmative Action as they may affect…

  15. Considering Shame and Its Implications for Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Diane Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Research evidence is accumulating to suggest that shame can be implicated in important ways in student adjustment to the learning environment. Student survey data spring-fall 2010 suggest that shame is associated with variables thought to be closely related to student learning--sense of community, burnout and achievement goals--and underline the…

  16. Representing Moving Images: Implications for Developers of Digital Video Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Abby A.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on an investigation which utilized multidimensional scaling (MDS) of paired comparison judgments as a means of evaluating representations for moving image documents. Discusses implications of the findings for visual information retrieval and the development of digital video collections. (Author/AEF)

  17. Implications of Transnational Adoption Status for Adult Korean Adoptees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Yoon, Eunju; Hacker, Jason; Caudill, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    This study used a consensual qualitative research method to explore the implications of transnational adoption in the lives of 12 adult Korean adoptees. From the analysis, 6 domains emerged: (a) adoption history and preadoptive memories, (b) meaning of adoption, (c) adoptive family dynamics, (d) racism, (e) identity formation, and (f) counseling…

  18. Radiological protection, environmental implications, health and risk management: forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics related to the radioactivity or radiation are presented. The importance of protection and security measures that are required both for public health, occupational health and the medical radiation is analyzed. In addition, it emphasizes the risks faced by professionals who work with radioactivity. Issues that confront the serious environmental implications of such activities are also showed

  19. Some Instructional Implications from a Mathematical Model of Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierkiewicz, Diane B.

    Cognitive development and various educational implications are discussed in terms of Donald Saari's model of the interaction of a learner and the enviroment and the constraints imposed by the inefficiency of the learner's cognitive system. Saari proposed a hierarchical system of cognitive structures such that the relationships between structures…

  20. Wireless Broadband Access: Policy Implications of Heterogeneous Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rendon Schneir, Juan

    2010-01-01

    A wireless heterogeneous network can help increase the access transmission speed and contribute thereby to the broadband deployment policies of administrations and telecommunications operators. Given the technical particularities of wireless heterogeneous networks, the deployment of wireless heterogeneous networks raises a number of challenges that need to be addressed by regulatory authorities. This article analyses the following regulatory implications: standardisation and technology neutra...

  1. Behavioral Momentum: Implications and Development from Reinforcement Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaud, Joseph J.; Gaither, George A.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes historical and contemporary theories of reinforcement and clinical application of reinforcement principles to behavior and modification therapy. Presents a behavioral momentum model that studies the allocation of behavior under changed environmental constraints and discusses the implications of this model on behavior modification and…

  2. Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderstrom, Irina R.

    2007-01-01

    Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

  3. Student Work Issues: Implications for College Transition and Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, William; Calderon, Kristine S.; Seabert, Denise

    2003-01-01

    Studied job stress of employed college students and considered the implications of this stress for college life and student retention. Findings for 275 college students at 2 universities show that for some students having a job adds more stress to their lives, increases exhaustion levels, and interferes with school responsibilities. (SLD)

  4. The Affective Politics of Hatred: Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that using the notion of ambivalence in understanding ethnic hatred can be helpful to educators who struggle to address the pedagogical implications of students' feelings of hatred. It is suggested that, although hate feelings are difficult to change, unraveling the ambivalence in the affective politics of hatred creates…

  5. Experimental implications of mirror matter-type dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Foot, R

    2003-01-01

    Mirror matter-type dark matter is one dark matter candidate which is particularly well motivated from high energy physics. The theoretical motivation and experimental evidence are pedagogically reviewed, with emphasis on the implications of recent orthopositronium experiments, the DAMA/NaI dark matter search, anomalous meteorite events etc.

  6. New physics searches at the LHC: theory implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiler, Andreas [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    I discuss the theoretical implications of the new physics searches at the LHC. The experimental program has been very successful and we have started to explore crucial regions of parameter space. I discuss what we have learned so far, which models might be getting into trouble and what the next frontiers are.

  7. Social and Labour Implications of Flexible Manufacturing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Karl-H.

    1985-01-01

    The flexible manufacturing system (FMS), a new way of organizing the production process by means of numerical control machines, robots, and computerized workstations, is described. The author examines some of the implications of FMS and the challenges it poses. (Author/CT)

  8. Financial Frictions and Real Implications of Macroprudential Policies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 3, ?. 26 (2012), s. 333-368. ISSN 1555-4961 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Debt * Equity * Bank * Default * Macroprudential policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/Derviz-financial frictions and real implications of macroprudential policies.pdf

  9. Economic Change: The Implications for Student Learning. A "Bulletin Special."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Sue E.

    1989-01-01

    The most profound educational implication of computers in the workplace is the replacement of observational learning with symbolic learning. Economic changes demand higher order thinking skills, knowing how to learn, and teamwork and conflict resolution abilities. An entirely new educational vocabulary and accountability system are needed.…

  10. Health Implications of Smokeless Tobacco Use. Volume 6, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD. Office of Medical Applications of Research.

    Concerned with the increase in use of chewing tobacco and snuff, this brochure looks at the health risks of using smokeless tobacco. It presents five questions about smokeless tobacco use and provides answers to the questions developed by a consensus development conference on health implications of smokeless tobacco use convened by the National…

  11. METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGIES: NONFERROUS METALS INDUSTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this task were to: (1) consider alternative methodologies for information collection, analysis, and presentation; (2) design a system for maintaining current awareness of the environmental implications of technology in the non-ferrous metals industry; and, (3) e...

  12. The Computer as Rorschach: Implications for Management and User Acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Bonnie

    1983-01-01

    Different views of the computer held by different participants in a medical computing project make it difficult to gain wide acceptance of an application. Researchers', programmers', and clinicians' views illustrate how users project their views onto the computer. Effects of these different views on user acceptance and implications for the management of computer projects are presented.

  13. Forgiveness: Theory, Research, and Clinical Implications for Adolescent Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelayo, Stephanie L.

    This paper reviews the literature on the subject of forgiveness and suggests clinical implications for the treatment of adolescent offenders. Although research has been done in the areas of forgiveness, no studies have been conducted with adolescent offenders. This dearth of information points to a gap in understanding the role of forgiveness in…

  14. Causes and implications of colloid and microorganism retention hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were designed to better understand the causes and implications of colloid and microorganism retention hysteresis with transients in solution ionic strength (IS). Saturated packed column experiments were conducted using two sizes of carboxyl modified latex (CML) microspheres (0.1 and 1.1...

  15. IMPLICATION OF MARKETING PLAN: FOR MARKETING LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. NAIKWADI AND P. M. CHASKAR

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the meaning and purpose of marketing in academic libraries and discusses five laws of library science in the view of marketing. It also describes marketing process, its development and implication of marketing plan, and list of the tools and techniques for marketing

  16. Advances in Child Behavior Therapy: Applications and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdin, Alan E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews advances in child behavior therapy by illustrating the range of problems treated and the techniques and accomplishments that have emerged. Discusses training of parents, teachers, peers, and children themselves in behavior change techniques, as well as general implications of therapeutic developments for enhancing child welfare. (GC)

  17. File-Sharing among College Students: Moral and Legal Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrum, Colton Dwayne

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the phenomenon of college students who illegally file-share. The main research question was, "What are the experiences of college students who file-share and what are their perspectives on the moral and legal implications for doing so?" Data were collected from six students using interviews, focus groups, and…

  18. Assessment and Self-Injury: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigen, Laurie M.; Healey, Amanda C.; Walley, Cynthia T.; Byrd, Rebekah; Schuster, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This article provides readers with an understanding of self-injury assessment. The article begins with a critical review of a number of self-injury assessments. The latter section of the article introduces a comprehensive two-tiered approach to accurately assessing self-injury. Implications for counselors related to the assessment of self-injury…

  19. Managerialism and Higher Education Governance: Implications for South African Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, F.

    2006-01-01

    This article identifies some of the implications of corporate forms of higher education governance for the management of South African universities. It explores corporate higher educational governance with reference to institutional autonomy incorporating academic freedom. It is the contention of this article that the primary driver of higher…

  20. Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study--"Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention"--was to explore and describe the perceptions and beliefs of Salvadoran mothers of low socioeconomic status regarding the language development of their young children in order to identify cultural variations in…

  1. Implications of bilateral free trade agreements on access to medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa Carlos María

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The TRIPS Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO mandated the introduction of protection of intellectual property rights, notably patents, for pharmaceutical products. While the implications for the access to medicines contained in the terms of this Agreement raised significant concerns, a recent new wave of free trade agreements, negotiated outside the WTO, requires even higher levels of intellectual property protection for medicines than those mandated by that Agreement. The measures involved include the extension of the patent term beyond 20 years; prohibition of use of test data on drug efficacy and safety for certain periods for the approval of generic products; the linkage between drug registration and patent protection; in some cases, limitations to the grounds for granting compulsory licences. This article reviews some of these measures that further limit the competition of generic products and discusses their possible implication for access to medicines.

  2. Globalization and Science Education: The Implications for Indigenous Knowledge Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassie Quigley

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Much of the current diversity literature in science education does not address the complexity of the issues of indigenous learners in their postcolonial environments and calls for a “one size fits all” instructional approach (Lee, 2001.  Indigenous knowledge needs to be promoted and supported. There is currently a global initiative of maintaining worldviews, languages, and environments of which science education can be a part (McKinley, 2007. This paper is organized around five main topics that further guide the theoretical framework for this important area: a describing postcolonialism and indigeneity related to science education, b defining the terms indigenous knowledge, traditional ecological knowledge, c western modern science and the effects of globalization on these terms d examining the research on learning implications of IK and/or TEK in classrooms with a focus on the research into student learning in indigenous language, e connecting place-based education to curricular implications for indigenous knowledge systems.

  3. Implications of bilateral free trade agreements on access to medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Carlos María

    2006-05-01

    The TRIPS Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) mandated the introduction of protection of intellectual property rights, notably patents, for pharmaceutical products. While the implications for the access to medicines contained in the terms of this Agreement raised significant concerns, a recent new wave of free trade agreements, negotiated outside the WTO, requires even higher levels of intellectual property protection for medicines than those mandated by that Agreement. The measures involved include the extension of the patent term beyond 20 years; prohibition of use of test data on drug efficacy and safety for certain periods for the approval of generic products; the linkage between drug registration and patent protection; in some cases, limitations to the grounds for granting compulsory licences. This article reviews some of these measures that further limit the competition of generic products and discusses their possible implication for access to medicines. PMID:16710551

  4. Smartphone Applications - Idea sourcing and app development: Implications for firms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    John, Bredican; Debbie, Vigar-Ellis.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The smartphone has become the uniquely personal computing device choice for consumers. Applications (apps) for smartphones are set to reach revenues of £25 billion according to Gartner. This presents great opportunities for marketing as apps can provide great benefits for consumers and firms. Howeve [...] r it is Information Systems (IS) departments that have traditionally been tasked with the acquisition and/or development of such information technologies within organisations. With such strong implications for marketing, this exploratory research has focused on the sources of app ideas within firms, locations for app development and perceptions of app development success. Results indicate that while most ideas for apps currently come from IS and marketing departments within the organisation, and development of apps is also done mainly within the organisation, these development strategies are not necessarily the most effective. Managerial implications' regarding the role of IS, Marketing and the customer in app development, are discussed.

  5. Pathological and evolutionary implications of retroviruses as mobile genetic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Madeline; Whitesell, Mackenzie; Brown, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Retroviruses, a form of mobile genetic elements, have important roles in disease and primate evolution. Exogenous retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), have significant pathological implications that have created a massive public health challenge in recent years. Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are the primary focus of this review, can also be pathogenic, as well as being beneficial to a host in some cases. Furthermore, retroviruses may have played a key role in primate evolution that resulted in the incorporation of these elements into the human genome. Retroviruses are mobile genetic elements that have important roles in disease and primate evolution. We will further discuss the pathogenic potential of retroviruses, including their role in cancer biology, and will briefly summarize their evolutionary implications. PMID:24705263

  6. Pathological and Evolutionary Implications of Retroviruses as Mobile Genetic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Brown

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses, a form of mobile genetic elements, have important roles in disease and primate evolution. Exogenous retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, have significant pathological implications that have created a massive public health challenge in recent years. Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs, which are the primary focus of this review, can also be pathogenic, as well as being beneficial to a host in some cases. Furthermore, retroviruses may have played a key role in primate evolution that resulted in the incorporation of these elements into the human genome. Retroviruses are mobile genetic elements that have important roles in disease and primate evolution. We will further discuss the pathogenic potential of retroviruses, including their role in cancer biology, and will briefly summarize their evolutionary implications.

  7. Sequencing approach evaluates all 24 genes implicated in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1994, many thousands of women with breast cancer from families severely affected with the disease have been tested for inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. The vast majority of those patients were told that their gene sequences were normal. With the development of modern genomics sequencing tools, the discovery of additional genes implicated in breast cancer and the change in the legal status of genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2, it is now possible to determine how often families in these circumstances actually do carry cancer-predisposing mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, or another gene implicated in breast cancer, despite the results of their previous genetic tests. The results were presented Oct. 24, by researchers from the University of Washington (which is affiliated with the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center) at the American Society of Human Genetics 2013 meeting in Boston.

  8. Implications of multiscale modeling on sensing predictions in Nafion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiscale modeling is used to investigate mechanical stiffness of ionic polymers and the subsequent implications for electromechanical sensing. Unlike the more common empirical and gray box approaches this study presents the hypothesis of streaming current as the fundamental, underlying mechanism responsible for sensing. The approach accommodates the observation that both stiffness and sensing response can be affected by cation type and hydration level. Rotational isomeric state (RIS) theory is used to predict the conformation of the hydrophobic backbone of a Nafion, 1200 equivalent weight (EW) in lithium and sodium forms. The RIS method generates crosslink-to-crosslink chain lengths to assess material multiscale stiffness. Both the stiffness and sensing predictions are compared to experiment for validation. It is observed that the multiscale stiffness does not necessarily evolve in concert with the global stiffness. However, the implications are consistent with, and offer an explanation of, experimentally observed water uptake and sensing phenomena

  9. Climate change and energy: The implications for the Spanish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the mutual implications between the climate change problem and the actual energy-at-a-crossroads situation of the unsustainable world energy model. The implications for the Spanish case are studied as a case example. The paper provides a brief review of the scientific evidence on climate change, analyzes the causes of the present energy dilemma and characterizes the problem to be addressed. The principal challenge for the future climate regime is to identify the nature and level of commitment that will provide sufficient incentives for all countries, with such a diversity of interests. The paper also exposes the most plausible framework for the future climate regime, the basic components of such a regime, the role to be played by the major stake holders and some guidelines for future negotiations. (Author)

  10. Clinical Implications of Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Olsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) still has one of the highest incidence and mortality rate among cancers. Therefore, improved differential diagnostics and personalized treatment are still needed. Several intestinal stem cell markers have been found to be associated with CRC and might have a prognostic and predictive significance in CRC patients. This review provides an overview of the intestinal stem cell markers leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), B cell–specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 (BMI1), Musashi1 (MSI1), and sex-determining region y-box 9 (SOX9) and their implications in human CRC. The exact roles of the intestinal stem cell markers in CRC development and progression remain unclear; however, high expression of these stem cell markers have a potential prognostic significance and might be implicated in chemotherapy resistance.

  11. Europa: Prospects for an ocean and exobiological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oro, John; Squyres, Steven W.; Reynolds, Ray T.; Mills, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    As far as we know, Earth is the only planet in our solar system that supports life. It is natural, therefore, that our understanding of life as a planetary phenomenon is based upon Earth-like planets. There are environments in the solar system where liquid water, commonly believed to be a prerequisite for biological activity, may exist in a distinctly non-Earth-like environment. One such location is Europa, one of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. The possibility that liquid water exists on Europa presents us with some interesting exobiological implications concerning the potential of the satellite to support life. Topics include the following: an ocean on Europa; thermal evolution of Europa; Europa's three models; exobiological implications; early conditions of Europa; low-temperature abiotic chemistry; possibility of the emergence of life on Europa; prerequisites for the habitability of Europa; energy sources for biosynthesis and metabolic activity; habitability of Europa by anaerobic life; and habitability by aerobic life.

  12. Asymmetric (S,s) pricing: implications for monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Babutsidze, Zakaria

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model of asymmetric (S,s) pricing. We investigate implications of such a behavior for the effectiveness of the monetary policy. We discuss two types of asymmetric responses to monetary interventions. One is the symmetry in the responses to positive and negative monetary shocks. The other is the variance in responses to monetary shocks during booms and recessions. The conclusion is that first type of asymmetry can be attributed to the asymmetry in adjustment bands, while ...

  13. The Ramanujan master theorem and its implications for special functions

    OpenAIRE

    Gorska, K.; Babusci, D.; Dattoli, G.; Duchamp, G. H. E.; Penson, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    We study a number of possible extensions of the Ramanujan master theorem, which is formulated here by using methods of Umbral nature. We discuss the implications of the procedure for the theory of special functions, like the derivation of formulae concerning the integrals of products of families of Bessel functions and the successive derivatives of Bessel type functions. We stress also that the procedure we propose allows a unified treatment of many problems appearing in app...

  14. Financial and economic crisis: implications for agricultural sector in India

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak, Shah

    2012-01-01

    In the light of the fact that the financial meltdown of September 2008 led to sharp slowdown in economic activity in the US and Europe with a massive drop in demand for goods and services from major exporting nations like China, Japan, Germany and other Asian countries, including India, this paper attempts to evaluate the implications of global meltdown on agricultural sector of India, especially with respect to commodity price, investment in agriculture and in general food security of the co...

  15. Technological Innovation: Concept, Process, Typology and Implications in the Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Diaconu, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    Growing interest worldwide to boost innovation in business sector activities, especially the technology, is intended to maintain or increase national economic competitiveness, inclusively as an effect of awareness concerning the effects resulting from economic activity on consumption of resources and environment, which requires design of new patterns of production and consumption. In this paper we review the most important contributions in the literature in terms of the implications of techno...

  16. Beyond Implications and Applications: the Story of ‘Safety by Design’

    OpenAIRE

    M Kelty, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Using long-term anthropological observations at the Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology in Houston, Texas, the article demonstrates in detail the creation of new objects, new venues and new modes of veridiction which have reoriented the disciplines of materials chemistry and nanotoxicology. Beginning with the confusion surrounding the meaning of ‘implications’ and ‘applications’ the article explores the creation of new venues (CBEN and its offshoot the International...

  17. Origin of the Old Testament Plagues: Explications and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrenkranz, N. Joel; Sampson, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    Analyses of past disasters may supply insights to mitigate the impact of recurrences. In this context, we offer a unifying causative theory of Old Testament plagues, which has present day public health implications. We propose the root cause to have been an aberrant El Niño-Southern Oscillation teleconnection that brought unseasonable and progressive climate warming along the ancient Mediterranean littoral, including the coast of biblical Egypt, which, in turn, initiated the serial catastrop...

  18. Prenatal Psychology: Implications for the Practice of Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Verny, Thomas R.

    1984-01-01

    Through the combined efforts of embryologists, neuro-embryologists, physiologists, obstetricians, pediatricians, nurses, psychiatrists, psychologists and many other health professionals a new science of pre- and perinatal psychology has begun to emerge. This science explores the psychology of conception, pregnancy, labor, delivery and the postpartum period, as well as the unborn and newborn child's intellectual and emotional development. Implications of this new knowledge for the family physi...

  19. Understanding Gender : Some Implications for Science and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Hearn, Jeffery; Husu, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Gender relations and gendered power relations are major defining features of science and technology. This article addresses the question of how to understand gender, and considers their various implications for science and technology. Gender and gender relations can be understood as operating and as relevant to science and technology at several levels: who does science and technology; how science and technology are organized; and the construction of knowledge in science and technology. We rev...

  20. On nonlinearity implications and wind forcing in Hasselmann equation

    CERN Document Server

    Andrei, Pushkarev

    2015-01-01

    We discuss several experimental and theoretical techniques historically used for Hasselmann equation wind input terms derivation. We show that recently developed ZRP technique in conjunction with high-frequency damping without spectral peak dissipation allows to reproduce more than a dozen of fetch-limited field experiments. Numerical simulation of the same Cauchy problem for different wind input terms has been performed to discuss nonlinearity implications as well as correspondence to theoretical predictions.

  1. Software Development Methodologies, Trends and Implications: A Testing Centric View

    OpenAIRE

    Xihui Zhang; Tao Hu; Hua Dai; Xiang Li

    2010-01-01

    The practice of software development has evolved steadily over the decades. Numerous methods and models (e.g., life cycle models and agile methods) have been proposed to enhance its efficiency and effectiveness. This study provides a testing centric view of software development practices. Specifically, it reviews software development methodologies (i.e., methods and models), identifies the latest trends in the industry and discusses their implications. The review of methodologies, the identif...

  2. HPV in HIV-Infected Women: Implications for Primary Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    NathalieDauphinMckenzie; ErinKobetz; JamesHnatyszyn; A.Morishita

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence that HIV-infected women might have a different HPV type distribution in cervical dysplasia specimens as compared to the general population. This has implications for primary prevention.Objective: We aimed to obtain preliminary data on the human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes prevalent in histological samples of HIV-infected women with CIN 3/ CIS of the cervix in Miami, Florida. Method: Retrospective data were collected on HIV-infected women referred to t...

  3. Implications of the New Political Realities on Healthcare Reform

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    With the recent change in power in the US House of Representatives that will take effect in January, questions arise regarding potential modifications to some features in the healthcare reform bill and its implementation. With many provisions scheduled to take effect between 2011 and 2014, the political implications of the elections have an immediate practical relevance to health plans, employers, and other healthcare stakeholders. American Health & Drug Benefits discussed some of these issue...

  4. The Use of Computer Technology in EFL Classrooms- Advantages & Implication

    OpenAIRE

    Safia Mujtaba AlSied; Mustafa Mubarak Pathan

    2013-01-01

    Technology has become inseparable part of today’s world and this is also true with the field of foreign language instruction. The use of technology in teaching and learning of foreign language like English has always dominated the pedagogical debates and discussions and made the luminaries and pedagogues in the field to investigate the possible advantages and implications of this technology for effective and dynamic teaching and learning of foreign language like English. Such debates and stud...

  5. Gender implications of biofuels expansion: A CGE analysis for Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Thurlow, James

    2010-01-01

    We use a gendered computable general equilibrium model to assess the implications of biofuels expansion in Mozambique. We compare scenarios with different gender employment intensities in producing jatropha for biodiesel. Under all scenarios, biofuels accelerate GDP growth and reduce poverty. However, a stronger tradeoff between biofuels and food availability emerges when female labour is used intensively, as women are drawn away from food production. A skills-shortage amongst female workers ...

  6. Targeting in Advertising Markets: Implications for Offline Versus Online Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bergemann, Dirk; Bonatti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model with many advertisers (products) and many advertising markets (media). Each advertiser sells to a different segment of consumers, and each medium is targeting a different audience. We characterize the competitive equilibrium in the advertising markets and evaluate the implications of targeting. An increase in targeting leads to an increase in the total number of consumer-product matches, and hence in the social value of advertising. Yet, targeting also increases the concent...

  7. The Hole Argument and Some Physical and Philosophical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    John Stachel

    2014-01-01

    This is a historical-critical study of the hole argument, concentrating on the interface between historical, philosophical and physical issues. Although it includes a review of its history, its primary aim is a discussion of the contemporary implications of the hole argument for physical theories based on dynamical, background-independent space-time structures. The historical review includes Einstein’s formulations of the hole argument, Kretschmann’s critique, as well as Hilbert’s r...

  8. Birthplace in England Research—Implications of New Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sandall, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of new evidence from recently published research on maternity services across England. The Birthplace in England Research Programme was commissioned in 2007 to address key gaps in the evidence and inform those who plan, deliver, and use maternity services. These included the pattern of current services and availability of different models of care; the ways in which maternal and infant outcomes differ between settings; their comparative cost-effectivenes...

  9. Imaging of lung cancer: Implications on staging and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purandare, Nilendu C; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. Accurate assessment of disease extent is important in deciding the optimal treatment approach. To play an important role in the multidisciplinary management of lung cancer patients, it is necessary that the radiologist understands the principles of staging and the implications of radiological findings on the various staging descriptors and eventual treatment decisions. PMID:25969634

  10. Implications of global budget payment system on nursing home costs

    OpenAIRE

    Di Giorgio, Laura; Filippini, Massimo; Masiero, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Pressure on health care systems due to the increasing expenditures of the elderly population is pushing policy makers to adopt new regulation and payment schemes for nursing home services. We consider the behavior of nonprofit nursing homes under different payment schemes and empirically investigate the implications of prospective payments on nursing home costs under tightly regulated quality aspects. To evaluate the impact of the policy change introduced in 2006 in Southern Switzerland – f...

  11. Strategic issues in information technology international implications for decision makers

    CERN Document Server

    Schütte, Hellmut

    2013-01-01

    Strategic Issues in Information Technology: International Implications for Decision Makers presents the significant development of information technology in the output of components, computers, and communication equipment and systems. This book discusses the integration of information technology into factories and offices to increase productivity.Organized into six parts encompassing 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the advancement towards an automated interpretation communication system to achieve real international communication. This text then examines the main determining

  12. ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL TOURISM ON TURKISH ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Akal

    2010-01-01

    This study outlines, with a review of earlier studies, the effects of international tourism by showing developments in tourism-related economic parameters and discusses the implications of such tourism on the economy of Turkey. It asks how far international tourism contributes to the economic growth and development of Turkey; how far the country fully values its tourism potential by varying the focus of tourism facilities beyond the sun-sea-sand type of tourism, in order to lead to developmen...

  13. Molecular epigenetics, chromatin, and NeuroAIDS/HIV: Translational implications

    OpenAIRE

    Shapshak, Paul; Chiappelli, Francesco; Commins, Deborah; Singer, Elyse; Levine, Andrew J.; Somboonwit, Charurut; Minagar, Alireza; Pellionisz, Andras J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe current research that applies epigenetics to a novel understanding of the immuno-neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 viral infection and NeuroAIDS. We propose the hypothesis that HIV-1 alters the structure-function relationship of chromatin, coding DNA and non-coding DNA, including RNA transcribed from these regions resulting in pathogenesis in AIDS, drug abuse, and NeuroAIDS. We discuss the general implications of molecular epigenetics with special emphasis on drug abuse, bar-...

  14. Mechanisms and Implications of Air Pollution Particle Associations with Chemokines

    OpenAIRE

    Seagrave, JeanClare

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation induced by inhalation of air pollutant particles has been implicated as a mechanism for the adverse health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. The inflammatory response is associated with upregulation of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We have previously shown that diesel exhaust particles (DEP), a significant constituent of air pollution particulate matter in many urban areas, bind and concentrate IL-8, an important human neutrophil-attracting c...

  15. Digital realm: Implications on urban development and planning

    OpenAIRE

    Brkovi?-Baji? Milica

    2008-01-01

    The implications of ICT on urban planning and development is the topic of this paper. At the outset, the relationship between the 'intelligent environment', and planning and development is outlined, followed by the discussion on new perspectives in the planning value system, and creation of the value-chains. The ICT based planning products and processes are outlined and explored. The author argues that ICT not only affects the very understanding of planning, its role and its attributes, but a...

  16. Resource implications of head injuries on an acute surgical unit.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, R.J.; Hittinger, R; Glazer, G

    1994-01-01

    Head injuries are expensive and demanding in terms of resources. In the UK, most are cared for outside neurosurgical centres. In the absence of specialist rehabilitation services, patients with on-going disability add to those admitted for observation and treatment on acute surgical wards. We audited the workload pattern and financial implications related to head injuries on a general surgical unit in a central London teaching hospital. Data collected prospectively at the time of admission an...

  17. PBM and Pharmaceutical Company Mergers: Policy and Regulatory Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Osvald-mruz, Christine A.

    1994-01-01

    A recent trend in the pharmaceutical industry has been for large pharmaceutical companies to acquire or merge with PBMs (prescriptionlpharmacy-benefits-management companies). Merck started this trend in November 1993 by merging with a PBM named Medco; two other pharmaceutical giants have followed suit. Since such mergers are a recent phenomenon, their full-scale implications are as yet unknown and there is little regulation in place specifically to address their potential effects. This essay...

  18. Implementing VAT in India :Implications for Federal Polity

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Chanchal Kumar

    2004-01-01

    Over the last few years, many attempts have been made to implement VAT in India. Initially, all states were to move to VAT system by 2000, but administrative problems and concern over the revenue implications of the change delayed the scheduled implementation. It has been postponed for five times in past five years. In fact, introduction of a full fledged VAT in India seem to present numerous administrative and constitutional difficulties, including the vexed question of uni...

  19. The Nominal Exchange Rate Implication of VAT Harmonization in EEC

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Meixing

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines, in a one-good two-country Cournot competition model, the implication of European VAT reform on the nominal exchange rate parities which will be pegged in the third stage of monetary union. As result of the reform, the deutchmark needs to be reevaluated so as to prevent generating systematic external disequilibrium of some other European countries, which is inconsistent with pegging nominal exchange parities of European currencies.

  20. Bridging immune activation with the kynurenine pathway : implications for psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Markus, Larsson

    2015-01-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, is elevated in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, elevated levels of KYNA are associated with activation of the immune system, which also has been implicated in the development and maintenance of psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. The aim of this thesis was to further investigate the role of KYNA in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Thus, patients with schizophrenia were exam...

  1. Ore concentrate line efficient operation: some energy saving implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihle, Christian F. [BRASS Engineering Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-07-01

    Among the outstanding attributes slurry pipelines must have is the need to optimize production efficiency and, in particular, minimize energy consumption. In the present paper, the energy saving implications of three different factors, namely process variable uncertainties, transport control variables and pipeline availability are referred to and exemplified using an idealized Bingham-type slurry pipeline. Present examples suggest that important energy savings can be achieved with proper designs, equipment and operations scheduling. (author)

  2. Arbitrage Opportunities and their Implications to Derivative Hedging

    OpenAIRE

    Panayides, Stephanos

    2005-01-01

    We explore the role that random arbitrage opportunities play in hedging financial derivatives. We extend the asymptotic pricing theory presented by Fedotov and Panayides [Stochastic arbitrage return and its implication for option pricing, Physica A 345 (2005), 207-217] for the case of hedging a derivative when arbitrage opportunities are present in the market. We restrict ourselves to finding hedging confidence intervals that can be adapted to the amount of arbitrage risk an...

  3. E-commerce Implications Potential Problems and Challenges in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hajah Mustafa Mohd Hanefah; Haslinda Hassan; Zaleha Othman

    2009-01-01

    E-commerce transaction has grown immensely. It has directly or indirectly imposed a number of challenges to the governmentadministration particularly to the tax system. There are mix views to the implication of e-commerce. Some opine that ecommerceimproves tax system, while others belief that tax system was designed in the era where e-commerce does not exist,thus, creating problems to the tax system. This study, therefore, investigates the tax problems posed by e-commerce andsolicit opinions ...

  4. New Types of Fuzzy Filter on Lattice Implication Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Liu; Yang Xu

    2011-01-01

    Extending the {\\it belongs} to ($\\in$) relation and {\\itquasi-coincidence with}($q$) relation between fuzzy points and a fuzzy subsets, the concept of $(\\alpha, \\beta)$-fuzzy filters and $(\\overline{\\alpha}, \\overline{\\beta})$-fuzzy filters of lattice implication algebras are introduced, where$\\alpha,\\beta\\in\\{\\in_{h},q_{\\delta},\\in_{h}\\veeq_{\\delta},\\in_{h}\\wedge q_{\\delta}\\}$,$\\overline{\\alpha},\\overline{\\beta}\\in\\{\\overline{\\in_{h}},\\overline{q_{\\delta}},\\overline{\\in_{h}}\\vee\\overline{q_{...

  5. Implications of climate change for the UK aviation sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pejovic, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    With demand for air travel continuing to rise, its climate impacts are expected to increase dramatically and will be of continuing concern to decision makers. There is also a need to better understand the ways a changing climate may impact on air transport, both operationally and economically. This will influence safety, efficiency and future environmental impacts and is important in the development of mitigation policies. This thesis investigates a new angle, the implications ...

  6. Patents and plant breeding: Implications for food security

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Blakeney

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the inter-relationship between plant variety protection (PVP) laws and patent laws and their implications for food security. PVP laws were developed to encourage and protect agricultural innovations by conferring exclusive rights upon the developers of new plant varieties, subject to exceptions for farmers to save seeds for future plantings and for plant breeders to develop new varieties. With the application of recombinant DNA technologies to agriculture and the possibi...

  7. Unit roots in macroeconomic time series: theory, implications, and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Libanio

    2005-01-01

    The theme of unit roots in macroeconomic time series has received a great amount of theoretical and applied research in the last two decades. This paper presents some of the main issues regarding unit root tests, explores some of the implications for macroeconomic theory and policy, and reviews the recent evidence on the presence of unit roots in GDP series for Latin American countries. We conclude that a consensual view on many of the aspects involved has not emerged from this literature.

  8. Implications of bilateral free trade agreements on access to medicines.

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Carlos María

    2006-01-01

    The TRIPS Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) mandated the introduction of protection of intellectual property rights, notably patents, for pharmaceutical products. While the implications for the access to medicines contained in the terms of this Agreement raised significant concerns, a recent new wave of free trade agreements, negotiated outside the WTO, requires even higher levels of intellectual property protection for medicines than those mandated by that Agreement. The measur...

  9. Environmental issues in economic partnership agreements: Implications for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Chaytor, Beatrice

    2009-01-01

    This issue paper, titled 'Environmental Issues in Economic Partnership Agreements: Implications for Developing Countries', and written by Mrs. Beatrice Dove-Edwin, is a contribution to that process. The paper exhaustively reviews all rules related to trade and environment in several of the already signed EPAs. The aim of the paper is to enable ACP countries to understand how trade policy related to the environment has been introduced in EPAs, and how those policies might impact sustainable de...

  10. Practical Implications of Data Reliability and Treatment Integrity Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Vollmer, Timothy R.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; St Peter Pipkin, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Data reliability and treatment integrity have important implications for clinical practice because they can affect clinicians' abilities to accurately judge the efficacy of behavioral interventions. Reliability and integrity data also allow clinicians to provide feedback to caregivers and to adjust interventions as needed. We present reasons why reliability and integrity measures are paramount in clinical work, discuss events that may result in decreased reliability or integrity, and provide ...

  11. Implications of the Admixture Process in Skin Color Molecular Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    de Cerqueira, Caio Cesar Silva; Hünemeier, Tábita; Gomez-Valdés, Jorge; Ramallo, Virgínia; Volasko-Krause, Carla Daiana; Barbosa, Ana Angélica Leal; Vargas-Pinilla, Pedro; Dornelles, Rodrigo Ciconet; Longo, Danaê; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of the complex genotype-phenotype architecture of human pigmentation has clear implications for the evolutionary history of humans, as well as for medical and forensic practices. Although dozens of genes have previously been associated with human skin color, knowledge about this trait remains incomplete. In particular, studies focusing on populations outside the European-North American axis are rare, and, until now, admixed populations have seldom been considered. The presen...

  12. SSC event characteristics and implications for detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the course of a one week workshop recent progress on event simulation at SSC energies was reviewed and implications for detector design were briefly evaluated. Questions needing to be answered by future work were formulated. The questions have to do with single particle distributions, the characteristics of jets at 40 TeV, and the reconstruction of specific final states from observed and reconstructed jets

  13. Implications of the global economic crisis for the Bangladesh economy

    OpenAIRE

    Raihan, Selim

    2012-01-01

    There is no denying the fact that the recent global economic crisis has profound implications for the developing countries like Bangladesh. This paper has explored the impacts of global economic crisis on the economy of Bangladesh in a general equilibrium framework. The CGE model for Bangladesh economy is developed with a Social Accounting Matrix for the year 2007 as the database. Analysis of the trend and pattern of the global economic crisis suggests that global economic crisis led to some ...

  14. The Finnish Team Academy model: implications for management education

    OpenAIRE

    Tosey, Pc; Dhaliwal, S.; Hassinen, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores an innovative model of management education, the Team Academy based in Finland, in which teams of learners create and operate real enterprises, supported by coaches. The contributions of the article are to provide insights into how the Team Academy works, and to review its implications for theories of management learning and educational design. Based on a case study of the Team Academy model we argue that management education programmes need to be construed as artificial...

  15. Allelic Diversity and Its Implications for the Rate of Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Armando; GARCÍA-DORADO, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation is usually estimated empirically from statistics based on population gene frequencies, but alternative statistics based on allelic diversity (number of allelic types) can provide complementary information. There is a lack of knowledge, however, on the evolutionary implications attached to allelic-diversity measures, particularly in structured populations. In this article we simulated multiple scenarios of single and structured populations in which a quantitative trait subjec...

  16. Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S.

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 ...

  17. The Political Implications of Violence Against Women in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Adebukola Foluke Osunyikanmi

    2011-01-01

    Using the primary and secondary tools of analysis, this paper brings out in succinct details, the diverse forms of violence that affect Africa women with greater emphasis, the implications of the phenomenon of violence against women’s political participation is discussed. We thus, canvass the elimination of all forms of violence against women through a new continental gender reawakening process. We reasoned that only this would enable women contribute their quota to the socio-econo...

  18. Implications of Neutron Decoupling in Short Gamma Ray Bursts

    OpenAIRE

    Pruet, Jason; Dalal, Neal

    2001-01-01

    Roughly half of the observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) may arise from the shocking of an ultra-relativistic shell of protons with the interstellar medium (ISM). Any neutrons originally present in the GRB fireball may, depending on the characteristics of the central engine, dynamically decouple as the fireball accelerates. This leads to outflow consisting of separate fast proton and slow neutron components. We derive detailed implications of neutron decoupling for the observed ...

  19. The multiple facets of the canonical direct implicational basis

    OpenAIRE

    Bertet, Karell; Monjardet, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Les systèmes de fermeture (dits aussi familles de Moore) définis sur un ensemble sont présents dans de nombreux domaines de mathématiques ou d'informatique : bases de données relationnelles, fouille des données, analyse des concepts, intelligence artificielle, programmation logique ou théorie des treillis. Les systèmes d'implications sont un outil efficace pour travailler sur les systèmes de fermeture, qui a été utilisé dans la plupart de ces domaines, mais souvent avec des termin...

  20. Conjecture on the physical implications of the scale anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Christopher T.; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    Murray Gell-Mann, after co-inventing QCD, recognized the interplay of the scale anomaly, the renormalization group, and the origin of the strong scale, {Lambda}{sub QCD}. I tell a story, then elaborate this concept, and for the sake of discussion, propose a conjecture that the physical world is scale invariant in the classical, {h_bar}, limit. This principle has implications for the dimensionality of space-time, the cosmological constant, the weak scale, and Planck scale.

  1. The Empirical Implications of Privacy-Aware Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Rachel; Echenique, Federico; Wierman, Adam

    2014-01-01

    This paper initiates the study of the testable implications of choice data in settings where agents have privacy preferences. We adapt the standard conceptualization of consumer choice theory to a situation where the consumer is aware of, and has preferences over, the information revealed by her choices. The main message of the paper is that little can be inferred about consumers' preferences once we introduce the possibility that the consumer has concerns about privacy. Thi...

  2. Applications and implications of nanotechnologies for the food sector

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry, Qasim; Scotter, Michael; Blackburn, James; Ross, Bryony; Boxall, Alistair; Castle, Laurence; Watkins, Richard; Aitken, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Abstract A review of the current and projected nanotechnology derived food ingredients, food additives, and food contact materials is presented in relation to potential implications for consumer safety and regulatory controls. Nanotechnology applications are expected to bring a range of benefits to the food sector, including new tastes, textures and sensations, less use of fat, enhanced absorption of nutrients, improved packaging, traceability and security of food products. The rev...

  3. 'Mathematical model of K Capture and its implications'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of K Capture, the nuclear absorption of electron in the K shell, as induced by electricity, is explained in this article. Furthermore, a mathematical model of K Capture is formulated. Then, K Capture is applied to explain the negative results obtained by Steven Jones and the positive results obtained by Pons-Fleischmann in Deuterium Oxide Electrolysis Experiments. The most important implication of K Capture is the possibility of obtaining nuclear energy by fusion at low temperature from heavy water

  4. The distributional implications of income underreporting in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Benedek, Dora; Lelkes, Orsolya

    2009-01-01

    The paper estimates the distributional implications of income tax evasion in Hungary based on a random sample of administrative tax records of 230 thousand individuals. Gross incomes in the administrative tax records are compared with those in a nationally representative household budget survey, assuming that tax-evaders are more likely to report their true incomes in an anonymous interview. Our estimates show that the average rate of underreporting is 11%, which conceals large differences be...

  5. Systematic Implications of Seed Coat Morphology in Malvaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Salah M. I. El Naggar

    2001-01-01

    Seed morphological characters and seed coat sculpture of 14 species of Malvaceae were examined to assess systematic implications of seed coat sculpture. These taxa are Malva aegyptia L., M. parviflora L., M. neglecta Wallr., M. nicaeensis All., M. sylvestris L., Lavatera cretica L., Alcea rosea All., Sida alba L., Abutilon theophrasti Medicus, A. pannosum (G. Forster) Schlecht., Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., H. trionum L., and Gossypium barbadense (L.). Seed shap...

  6. Sepsis induced immunosuppression: Implications for secondary infections and complications

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar, Krishna M; Sires, Mazen

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis is the commonest cause of admission to medical ICUs across the world. Mortality from sepsis continues to be high. Besides shock and multi-organ dysfunction occurring following the intense inflammatory reaction to sepsis, complications arising from sepsis-related immunoparalysis contribute to the morbidity and mortality from sepsis. This review explores the basis for sepsis related immune dysfunction and discusses its clinical implications for the treating intensivist. Recent trends ind...

  7. Pathological and Evolutionary Implications of Retroviruses as Mobile Genetic Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Mark A.; Mackenzie Whitesell; Madeline Hayes

    2013-01-01

    Retroviruses, a form of mobile genetic elements, have important roles in disease and primate evolution. Exogenous retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), have significant pathological implications that have created a massive public health challenge in recent years. Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are the primary focus of this review, can also be pathogenic, as well as being beneficial to a host in some cases. Furthermore, retroviruses may have played a key role in prim...

  8. Coal cleaning residues and Fe-minerals implications

    OpenAIRE

    Waanders, Frans Boudewijn; Da Boit, M Kátia; Macias, Felipe; Silva, Luis F.O.; Oliveira, Marcos L.S.

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation, a study was undertaken to understand the origin of Fe-minerals presents in Brazilian coal mining and to understand the environmental implication and the chemical heterogeneity in the study area. Coal cleaning residue samples rich in clays, quartz, sulphides, carbonates, sulphates, etc. were sampled from Lauro Muller, Urussanga, Treviso, Siderópolis, and Criciúma cities in the Santa Catarina State and a total of 19 samples were collected and Mössbauer, XRD, SEM...

  9. Malaria Proteins Implicated in Host-Parasite Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Laura Fay

    2007-01-01

    The invasive and transmission stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum express several proteins with domains implicated in host-parasite interactions, that are potential vaccine candidates or drug targets. The expression patterns of two proteins PfTRAMP (Plasmodium Related Apical Merozoite Protein) and PCRAGS (Plasmodium cysteine related antigen of gametocytes and schizonts), containing such putative domains, are examined and their potential roles in merozoite invasion and egress ...

  10. The Implications of Investor Behaviour to Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Majmin, Lisa Desiree

    2012-01-01

    Financial markets are subject to sentiment from within and beyond their nation's borders. Fund flows either flood markets with liquidity, or drain them to the point of asset fire sales. This typically occurs in accordance with investors' beliefs and risk preferences and ultimately renders markets unstable. This thesis serves to establish the implications of investor behaviour to financial markets. Chapter 2 proposes macro sentiment as a leading indicator for financial instability ...

  11. Avatar Mobility in Networked Virtual Environments: Measurements, Analysis, and Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Huiguang; Neo, Ming Feng; Ooi, Wei Tsang; Motani, Mehul

    2008-01-01

    We collected mobility traces of 84,208 avatars spanning 22 regions over two months in Second Life, a popular networked virtual environment. We analyzed the traces to characterize the dynamics of the avatars mobility and behavior, both temporally and spatially. We discuss the implications of the our findings to the design of peer-to-peer networked virtual environments, interest management, mobility modeling of avatars, server load balancing and zone partitioning, client-side caching, and prefetching.

  12. Avatar Mobility in Networked Virtual Environments: Measurements, Analysis, and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Huiguang; Tay, Ian; Neo, Ming Feng; Ooi, Wei Tsang; Motani, Mehul

    2008-01-01

    We collected mobility traces of 84,208 avatars spanning 22 regions over two months in Second Life, a popular networked virtual environment. We analyzed the traces to characterize the dynamics of the avatars mobility and behavior, both temporally and spatially. We discuss the implications of the our findings to the design of peer-to-peer networked virtual environments, interest management, mobility modeling of avatars, server load balancing and zone partitioning, client-side ...

  13. Pricing Implications of Shared Variance in Liquidity Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Chollete, Lorán; Næs, Randi; Skjeltorp, Johannes A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper constructs fundamental liquidity measures and investigates the pricing implications of shared variation in a large set of high frequency liquidity measures. Through a common factor analysis we estimate three orthogonal liquidity variables that statistically capture time series variation in market wide liquidity. We uncover three main results. First, we document that not one but two of the common liquidity factors are significantly related to cross-sectional differences in returns. ...

  14. Idiom Taxonomies and Idiom Comprehension: Implications for English Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorolhoda Saberian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Idioms are an important part of a language, as they are used to express ideas in a more concise and effective way. Idioms have a considerable role in a foreign language as in the mother tongue. Therefore, their learning and teaching in L2 are worthy of attention and research. This paper intends to define idioms, introduce their different taxonomies, discuss L2 idiom processing and comprehension, and use the information to endow English teachers with some pedagogical implications.

  15. Implications of radiation-compensation criteria for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of attributable risk and probability of causation concepts for assessing workmen's compensation are reviewed and applied to radiation workers in nuclear power plants. Estimations of cancer incidence for certain primary cancer sites for the period 1980 to 2045 are used to derive possible compensation costs, ranging from about 30 to 400 million dollars. The probability of causation method is shown to be quite sensitive to input parameter selection. Implications for the nuclear industry are reviewed. 18 references, 44 figures, 30 tables

  16. PXR: a xenobiotic receptor of diverse function implicated in pharmacogenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Bin ZHANG; Xie, Wen; Krasowski, Mathew D

    2008-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR; NR1I2), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, regulates the expression of drug-metabolic enzymes and transporters involved in the responses of mammals to their chemical environment. The same enzyme and transporter systems are also involved in the homeostasis of numerous endogenous chemicals. The regulatory function of PXR is implicated in normal physiology and diseases, such as drug–drug interactions, hepatic steatosis, vitamin D homeostasis, bile acids h...

  17. An implication of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Kitada, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    A proof of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem is given. With this new proof a transfinite extension of G\\"odel's theorem is considered. It is shown that if one assumes the set theory ZFC on the meta level as well as on the object level, a contradiction arises. The cause is shown to be the implicit identification of the meta level and the object level hidden behind the G\\"odel numbering. An implication of these considerations is stated.

  18. Embedded value systems in sustainability assessment tools and their implications.

    OpenAIRE

    Gasparatos, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the implications that arise with the selection of specific sustainability evaluation tools. Sustainability evaluation tools are conceptualized in this paper as value articulating institutions and as such their choice is a far from a trivial matter. In fact their choice can entail various ethical and practical repercussions. However, in most cases the choice of the evaluation tool is made by the analyst(s) without taking into consideration the values of the affected stakeho...

  19. Public perceptions of energy system risks: some policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; perceptions, beliefs and attitudes; the survey of public perceptions and attitudes towards energy systems; attitudes towards the five energy systems (nuclear, coal, oil, solar and hydro); perceptions of energy systems - the underlying dimensions of belief (economic benefits; environmental risk; psychological and physical risk; indirect risk; technology development); differential analysis of the perceptions of those pro and con nuclear energy; summary of perceptions of energy systems - relevance to the Austrian dilemma; policy implications. (U.K.)

  20. Financial and nonfinancial information in interim reports: Determinants and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Hannu, Schadewitz

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the determinants and implications of the information disclosed in interim reports submitted to the Helsinki Stock Exchange in the period 1985-93. The determinants part of the work is based primarily on prior literature, firm attributes, and the development of the institutional regime. Specifically, nine classes of determinants of disclosure are derived. These are: (1) governance structure, (2)business risk, (3) market risk, (4) capital structure, (5) stock valuation, (6) f...

  1. Negative Pressure of Anisotropic Compressible Hall States : Implication to Metrology

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, K; Maeda, N

    2000-01-01

    Pressure, compressibility, and Hall conductance of anisotropic states at higher Landau levels are computed. Pressure and compressibility become negative. Hall conductance is unquantized and varies with filling factor. These facts agree with the recent experimental observations of highly anisotropic compressible states at higher Landau levels. It is shown, as an implication of negative pressure, that the quantum Hall effect has extraordinary stability, that is, Hall resistanc...

  2. The implications of migration theory for distributive justice

    OpenAIRE

    Sager, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of empirical theories of migration for normative accounts of migration and distributive justice. It examines neo-classical economics, world-systems theory, dual labor market theory, and feminist approaches to migration and contends that neo-classical economic theory in isolation provides an inadequate understanding of migration. Other theories provide a fuller account of how national and global economic, political, and social institutions cause and shape m...

  3. Practices and wisdom in Nichiren Buddhism: implications for Western counselling

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Nobuki

    2008-01-01

    Practices and theories of Buddhist psychology are explored in general, and those of Nichiren Buddhism in particular. Three aspects of Buddhist psychology are given particular emphasis: the interconnection between people, mindfulness, and the battle with negative tendencies. These three qualities are essential for compassionate counsellors. Possible implications for counselling practices in the West are drawn from this exploration. It will be suggested that some concepts and practices of Nichi...

  4. Implications of purely classical gravity for inflationary tensor modes

    CERN Document Server

    Ashoorioon, Amjad; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the implications of purely classical, instead of quantum, theory of gravity for the gravitational wave spectrum generated during inflation. We show that a positive detection of primordial gravitational waves will no longer suffice to determine the scale of inflation in this case -- even a high-scale model of inflation can bypass the observational constraints due to large uncertainties in the initial classical amplitude of the tensor modes.

  5. Gas Flaring and its Implication for Environmental Accounting in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    AYOOLA Tajudeen John

    2011-01-01

    The study examines the theoretical framework for gas flaring and its implication for environmental accounting in the Nigerian Petroleum Industry. Data were sourced from the annual reports of companies involved in gas flaring in the oil and gas industry and the result reveals that the issue plaguing environmental accounting disclosures relate to lack of a standardized requirement for disclosure, political will for legislation, enforcement and the allocation of environmental costs, therefore, t...

  6. Drought-induced forest decline: causes, scope and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Lloret, Francisco; Breshears, David D

    2011-01-01

    A large number of episodes of forest mortality associated with drought and heat stress have been detected worldwide in recent decades, suggesting that some of the world's forested ecosystems may be already responding to climate change. Here, we summarize a special session titled ‘Drought-induced forest decline: causes, scope and implications’ within the 12th European Ecological Federation Congress, held in Ávila (Spain) from 25 to 29 September 2011. The session focused on the interacting...

  7. The precautionary principle : its implication in capture fisheries management

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Serge

    1994-01-01

    The paper attempts to clarify the research, management and legal implications of a potential application of the Precautionary Principle to capture fisheries, particularly in the international context. In the process, the paper also looks at related issues such as the burden of proof, the use of best available scientific evidence and technology, the reliance on prior scientific consensus, assimilative capacity and acceptable levels of impacts, etc., inthe fishery context. It is argued that, if...

  8. The Natural Resource Management Implications of Rural Property Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne Millar; Allan Curtis; Emily Mendham

    2012-01-01

    One aspect of recent rural change is in-migration, which is challenging the traditional dominance of production values in some areas. We explored the natural resource management implications of property turnover in two Australian regions. Our mixed-methods approach combined analysis of property sales records and spatially referenced landholder survey data with data from key informant interviews. Close to 50% of rural properties are expected to change hands between 2006 and 2016, double the ch...

  9. What do barnacle larvae feed on ? Implications in biofouling ecology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaonkar, C.; Anil, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    version: J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK, vol.90(6); 2010; 1241-1247 What do barnacle larvae feed on? Implications in biofouling ecology CHETAN A. GAONKAR AND ARGA CHANDRASHEKAR ANIL   National Institute of Oceanography (Council of Scientific and Industrial... for the larva in the environment or their capability to tolerate starvation (Desai & Anil, 2004). 6    As the success of population of barnacles in any given environment is determined by the events during larval life period it is important to ascertain...

  10. Obesity: Anaesthetic implications and considerations-a review

    OpenAIRE

    Teena Bansal; Sarla Hooda

    2014-01-01

    AbstractThe obese patient presents many challenges to anaesthesiologist. A good understanding of the pathophysiologic effects of obesity and its anaesthetic implications is important. The anaesthesiologist must recognize increased risks and comorbidities inherent to the obese patient and manage accordingly, optimizing multisystem function in the perioperative period that leads to successful outcomes. Perioperative issues such as intravenous access, difficulty in measuring non invasive blood p...

  11. Undocumented status: implications for child development, policy, and ethical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 5.5 million children in the United States grow up in the shadows of undocumented status. We review the ecological domains of influence in children's and adolescents' lives and briefly consider health, cognitive, socioemotional, educational, and labor market outcomes ripe for study. We also reflect upon the ethical policy implications of this growing demographic group and consider research strategies in conducting ethical research with this population. PMID:24038807

  12. CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Doo Kim; Seok Yoon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI) on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered...

  13. Alternative materials for crystalline silicon solar cells - Risks and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Kwapil, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    This thesis considers the use of alternative silicon materials for photovoltaics – often termed “upgraded metallurgical grade” silicon – from different angles and evaluates the risks and implications for the wafer and solar cell properties at selected steps along the entire process chain. The properties of the alternative, upgraded metallurgical grade silicon materials analyzed in the course of this thesis were governed by the simultaneous presence of boron and phosphorus in high c...

  14. Weight loss at high altitude: pathophysiology and practical implications.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamad, N; Travis, SP

    2006-01-01

    Climbers at high altitude (>5000 m) lose weight. This impairs performance and safety, but the mechanisms are not entirely due to an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. There is some evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption, but there are also changes in fat metabolism and total body water. This paper considers the physiological control of weight and then discusses the changes in each parameter before addressing the practical implications.

  15. Climate change: Implications for water and ecological resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conference was held to discuss the implications of climate change on water and ecological resources. The meeting consisted of a number of plenary sessions, luncheon speeches, an open forum, and five workshops. Presentations concerned regional and global issues, climate modelling, international aspects of climate change, water resources supply and demand, wetlands, wildlife and fisheries, agriculture and forests, and conservation strategies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 32 presentations from the conference

  16. Generation Methods for Multidimensional Knapsack Problems and their Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond R. Hill

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Although there are a variety of heuristics developed and applied to the variants of the binary knapsack problem, the testing of these heuristics are based on poorly defined test problems. This paper reviews the various types of knapsack problems, considers how test problems have been generated and depicts via empirical results the implications of using poorly formed test problems for empirical testing.

  17. Real Estate Business in Pakistan and Its Economic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Rehman, Atiq-ur-

    2014-01-01

    The real estate Business has been one of the most attractive businesses in Pakistan during the last decade. This business minimizes the investment risk and offers high profit margin simultaneously. Therefore this business attracted lot of investment. However, this business has very important implications for several socio- economic indicators. The real estate business demands huge amount of investments and earns high profit margin than the ordinary investment, therefore leads to increased in...

  18. Suicide Methods in Asia: Implications in Suicide Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Yip, Paul S F; Kevin Chien-Chang Wu; Ying-Yeh Chen

    2012-01-01

    As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications...

  19. Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) contamination of the indoor environment: Health implications

    OpenAIRE

    Bitnun, Ari; Nosal, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, widespread contamination of water-damaged school portables with the toxigenic mold Stachybotrys chartarum was detected in the province of Ontario. This mold may cause human disease through direct irritation, type 1 hypersensitivity or the production of toxins. A variety of respiratory, dermatological, eye and constitutional symptoms have been associated with heavy and prolonged exposure to S chartarum. S chartarum has also been potentially implicated as a rare cause of idiopathic pul...

  20. Advances in Seabed Liquefaction and its Implications for Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    A review is presented of recent advances in seabed liquefaction and its implications for marine structures. The review is organized in seven sections: Residual liquefaction, including the sequence of liquefaction, mathematical modelling, centrifuge modelling and comparison with standard wave-flume results; Momentary liquefaction; Floatation of buried pipelines; Sinking of pipelines and marine objects; Liquefaction at gravity structures; Stability of rock berms in liquefied soils; and Impact of seismic-induced liquefaction.

  1. Workplace bullying after whistleblowing:Future research and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørkelo, Brita

    2013-01-01

    Findings: Empirical research has documented the link between whistleblowing and workplace bullying and the devastating effects on health that may follow (e.g. depression and symptoms analogous to post traumatic stress). Implications for practice are as follows: first, to provide clear examples of unwanted workplace behavior; and second, to help clinicians to gain a balance between the client's need to re-tell and the need for psychological treatment.

  2. Social capital and health : implications for health promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Malin

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of the PhD Thesis of Malin Eriksson, entitled 'Social capital, health and community action - implications for health promotion.' The article presents a theoretical overview of social capital and its relation to health, reviews empirical findings of the links between social capital and (self-rated) health, and discusses the usefulness of social capital in health promotion interventions at individual and community levels. Social capital, conceptualized as an individual ...

  3. Social capital, health and community action : implications for health promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Malin

    2010-01-01

    Background; The overwhelming increase in studies about social capital and health occurring since 1995 indicates a renewed interest in the social determinants of health and a call for a more explicit use of theory in public health and epidemiology. The links between social capital and health are still not clear and the meanings of different forms of individual and collective social capital and their implications for health promotion needs further exploration. The overall aims of this thesis ar...

  4. Government Alternation and its Implications on Democratic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    PELLEGATA, ALESSANDRO

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with the concept of government alternation and its potential implications. The purpose of the thesis is twofold. On one side it gives an appropriate definition of the concept of alternation both in theoretical and empirical terms. On the other side the thesis aims at testing empirically the effects of government alternation on two important dimensions of democratic performance: accountability and responsiveness. Government alternation, enhancing the degree of competitiveness ...

  5. Adiponectin as a regulator of vascular redox state: therapeutic implications.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonopoulos, AS; Lee, R.; Margaritis, M; Antoniades, C

    2011-01-01

    Recently, adipose tissue has been implicated in the regulation of vascular function in humans. This regulatory function is mediated via the release of vasoactive cytokines called adipokines. Adiponectin is an adipokine with powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties being dysregulated in obesity and in insulin resistance states. In both in vitro and in vivo models adiponectin has been shown to increase nitric oxide bioavailability, improve endothelial function, and exert beneficial...

  6. Implications of nuclear data uncertainties to reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncertainties in nuclear data require significant allowances to be made in the design and the operating conditions of reactor cores and of shielded-reactor-plant and fuel-processing systems. These allowances result in direct cost increases due to overdesign of components and equipment and reduced core and fuel operating performance. Compromising the allowances for data uncertainties has indirect cost implications due to increased risks of failure to meet plant and fuel performance objectives, with warrantees involved in some cases, and to satisfy licensed safety requirements. Fast breeders are the most sensitive power reactors to the uncertainties in nuclear data over the neutron energy range of interest for fission reactors, and this paper focuses on the implications of the data uncertainties to design and operation of fast breeder reactors and fuel-processing systems. The current status of uncertainty in predicted physics parameters due to data uncertainties is reviewed and compared with the situation in 1966 and that projected for within the next two years due to anticipated data improvements. Implications of the uncertainties in the predicted physics parameters to design and operation are discussed for both a near-term prototype or demonstration breeder plant (?300 MW(e)) and a longer-term large (?1000 MW(e)) plant. Significant improvements in the nuclear data have been made during the past three years, the most important of these to fast power reactors being of these to fast power reactors being the 239Pu alpha below 15 keV. The most important remaining specific data uncertainties are illustrated by their individual contributions to the computational uncertainty of selected physics parameters, and recommended priorities and accuracy requirements for improved data are presented

  7. Exceptional visuospatial imagery in schizophrenia; implications for madness and creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TaylorBenson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Biographical and historical accounts suggest a link between scientific creativity and schizophrenia. Longitudinal studies of gifted children indicate that visuospatial imagery plays a pivotal role in exceptional achievements in science and mathematics. We asked whether visuospatial imagery is enhanced in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ. We compared SZ and matched healthy controls (HC on five visuospatial tasks tapping parietal and frontoparietal functions. Two aspects of visuospatial transformation, spatial location and mental imagery manipulation were examined with Paper Folding Test and Jigsaw Puzzle Task, respectively. Visuospatial intelligence was assessed with Ravens Progressive Matrices, which is associated with frontoparietal network activity. Hemispatial inattention implicating parietal function was assessed with line bisection task. Mediated by prefrontal cortex, spatial delayed response task was used to index working memory maintenance, which was impaired in SZ compared to HC. In contrast, SZ showed intact visuospatial intelligence and transformation of location. Further, SZ performed significantly better than HC on jigsaw puzzle task indicating enhanced mental imagery manipulation. Spatial working memory maintenance and mental imagery manipulation were strongly associated in HC but dissociated in SZ. Thus, we observed enhanced mental imagery manipulation in SZ but the dissociation of mental imagery from working memory suggests a disrupted frontoparietal network. Finally, while HC showed the expected leftward pseudoneglect, SZ showed increased rightward line bisection bias implicating left hemispatial inattention and impaired right parietal control of spatial attention. The current results chart a unique profile of impaired, spared and enhanced parietal-mediated visuospatial functions implicating parietal abnormalities as a biobehavioral marker for SZ. We discuss these results in relation to creative cognition.

  8. Cosmological implications of quantum entanglement in the multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Kanno, Sugumi

    2015-01-01

    We explore the cosmological implications of quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected universes in the multiverse. We first consider two causally separated de Sitter spaces with a state which is initially entangled. We derive the reduced density matrix of our universe and compute the spectrum of vacuum fluctuations. We then consider the same system with an initially non-entangled state. We find that scale dependent modulations may enter the spectrum for the case of initially non-entangled state due to quantum interference. This gives rise to the possibility that the existence of causally disconnected universes may be experimentally tested by analyzing correlators in detail.

  9. The Ramanujan master theorem and its implications for special functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gorska, K; Dattoli, G; Duchamp, G H E; Penson, K A

    2011-01-01

    We study a number of possible extensions of the Ramanujan master theorem, which is formulated here by using methods of Umbral nature. We discuss the implications of the procedure for the theory of special functions, like the derivation of formulae concerning the integrals of products of families of Bessel functions and the successive derivatives of Bessel type functions. We stress also that the procedure we propose allows a unified treatment of many problems appearing in applications, which can formally be reduced to the evaluation of exponential- or Gaussian-like integrals.

  10. Minerals resource implications of a tokamak fusion reactor economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral resource implications of an economy of tokamak-type fusion reactors are assessed based upon the recent conceptual reactor design study, NUWMAK, developed at the University of Wisconsin. For comparative purposes, various structural alloys of vanadium and steel are assumed to be usable in the NUWMAK design in place of the titanium alloy originally selected. In addition, the inner blanket core and magnet system of the conceptual reactor, HFCTR, developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, are assumed to be interchangeable with the comparable components in NUWMAK. These variations permit a range of likely requirements to be assessed

  11. Implications of the new political realities on healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    With the recent change in power in the US House of Representatives that will take effect in January, questions arise regarding potential modifications to some features in the healthcare reform bill and its implementation. With many provisions scheduled to take effect between 2011 and 2014, the political implications of the elections have an immediate practical relevance to health plans, employers, and other healthcare stakeholders. American Health & Drug Benefits discussed some of these issues with Dan Mendelson, who served in the Clinton administration between 1997 and 2000, when there was a similar division of party power between Congress and the administration. PMID:25126329

  12. Nanoparticles and nanomaterials: chemistry, interactions, environmental and biomedical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoscience involves the study of materials on the nanoscale level between approximately 1 and 100 nm and involves study of how to control the formation of two- and three-dimensional assemblies of molecular scale building blocks into well-defined nanostructures or nanomaterials. Among novel nanomaterials, nanoparticles (NPs, with all three dimensions between 1 and 100 nm) play an important role in nanotechnology advances in the production of nanoscale materials and the rapid increase of their applications in many areas. Key words: nanoparticles, nanomaterials, implications

  13. Alternative nuclear fuel cycles: the implications on uranium resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors attempt to summarize the implications of fuel-cycle selection by criteria based on proliferation grounds and on achievable nuclear electric capacities within a limited natural resource base. The question is how far can uranium supplies be stretched if criteria of this kind are used to define admissible reactor cycles. The question is a simple one. The problem in answering it lies in the very number of reactor types, fuel cycles, and deployment permutations; and the widely varying opinion currently held on both the magnitude of the uranium resource base and the amount and time span of nuclear power that may represent an adequate objective. 1 ref

  14. Considerations on the criteria, parameters and tax implications of depreciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Mate?

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature presents several methods of depreciation. In Romania, not all depreciation methods are recommended by existing legislation. In this paper we propose to address through the income tax three methods of depreciation of assets, which are recommended by our country's legislation, and to highlight the tax benefits of their application within the entities. In the first part we propose to define what are the criteria for evaluating of a assets depreciation and accounting parameters of the assets depreciation. In the second part of the paper will be presented depreciation methods as linear, diminishing and accelerating with the tax implications.

  15. Implications of current constraints on parton charge symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. T. Londergan; A. W. Thomas

    2005-11-01

    For the first time, charge symmetry breaking terms in parton distribution functions have been included in a global fit to high energy data. We review the results obtained for both valence and sea quark charge symmetry violation and compare these results with the most stringent experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation for parton distribution functions, as well as with theoretical estimates of charge symmetry violation. The limits allowed in the global fit would tolerate a rather large violation of charge symmetry. We discuss the implications of this for various observables, including extraction of the Weinberg angle in neutrino DIS and the Gottfried and Adler sum rules.

  16. ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL TOURISM ON TURKISH ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study outlines, with a review of earlier studies, the effects of international tourism by showing developments in tourism-related economic parameters and discusses the implications of such tourism on the economy of Turkey. It asks how far international tourism contributes to the economic growth and development of Turkey; how far the country fully values its tourism potential by varying the focus of tourism facilities beyond the sun-sea-sand type of tourism, in order to lead to development of the industry countrywide and contribute further to economic growth; and other positive and negative effects of international tourism on the economy.

  17. Implications of the War On Terror for Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoor Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The US-led War on Terror in Afghanistan conducted for the aim of eliminating Al- Qaeda and Osama-bin-Laden has brought about enormous economic, social and political changes in the region. Pakistan’s role as a front-line state in the War on Terror has had profound implications for its domestic politics and foreign policy. Pakistan not only took a U-turn on its Afghanistan policy, but also had to crack down on internal extremism and terrorism. Several military operations were carried out agai...

  18. Prosthetic devices within radiotherapy fields: planning implications and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosthetic devices made of plastic or silicon are occasionally present in patients requiring radiotherapy (RT). The effect of RT on these devices and the potential implications of their presence on RT planning are relatively unknown. Three examples are presented in which various devices were included in RT fields. In two of the examples, in vitro testing of the devices with high single doses of radiation was undertaken. Radiotherapy was given to all patients with high doses received by the devices. Minor adjustments were made to the planning techniques to reduce the doses to the devices. Neither significant complications nor any malfunctions of the devices were noted subsequently. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  19. Recent Changes in Earth Oblateness: Causes and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, J. O.; Marcus, S. L.; de Viron, O.; Fukumori, I.

    2002-12-01

    Fluctuations in the Earth's dynamic oblateness (J2) as measured by space geodetic technique over more than two decades, are dominated by a seasonal cycle and a negative trend induced mostly by post-glacial rebound. However, since 1998 the Earth's J2 has begun to increase, indicating a pronounced global-scale mass redistribution within the Earth system from high to low latitudes. Cox and Chao reported this discovery in Science (August 2, 2002) and left the sources of this anomaly unresolved. Here, we present the results of our analysis, identifying the source and discussing the implications.

  20. Implications of QCD for soft hadronic and nuclear processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical implications of QCD for strong forces in soft processes are discussed. Topics include long-range force, Van der Waals force, nuclear force, hadron and quark structures. In the absence of a reliable calculational scheme, phenomenological models have been built that incorporate QCD ideas as far as possible. In the framework of those models calculations have been made that provide an understanding of the soft processes in terms of quarks and gluons. We review recent work on nuclear potential, form factors at low Q2, pion decay constant, inclusive distribution of low p/sub T/, and radiation length of fast quark in nuclear matter

  1. The Institutional Implications of the Unfair Terms Directive in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Man?ko, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I focus on the institutional implications of the EU Unfair Terms Directive (93/13) in Poland in the broader context of the welfare state model prevalent in that post-socialist EU Member State. I depart from the assumption that there is, in principle, a link between the intensity of the welfare state and the level of consumer protection, as evidenced e.g. by the traditionally high level of both in the Nordic countries. Such a view is supported by the fact that both policies are t...

  2. Arbitrage Opportunities and their Implications to Derivative Hedging

    CERN Document Server

    Panayides, S

    2005-01-01

    We explore the role that random arbitrage opportunities play in hedging financial derivatives. We extend the asymptotic pricing theory presented by Fedotov and Panayides [Stochastic arbitrage return and its implication for option pricing, Physica A 345 (2005), 207-217] for the case of hedging a derivative when arbitrage opportunities are present in the market. We restrict ourselves to finding hedging confidence intervals that can be adapted to the amount of arbitrage return risk an investor will permit to be exposed to. The resulting hedging bands are independent of the detailed statistical characteristics of the arbitrage return.

  3. An Abstract Approach to Fuzzy Logics: Implicational Semilinear Logics.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, C.

    Granada : EUSFLAT, 2009 - (Carvalho, J.; Dubois, D.; Kaymak, U.; Sousa, J.), s. 519-524 ISBN 978-989-95079-6-8. [IFSA - EUSFLAT 2009. International Fuzzy Systems Association World Congress 2009, European Society for Fuzzy Logic and Technology Conference 2009. Lisabon (PT), 20.07.2009-24.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA ?R GEICC/08/E018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * implicative logics * Leibnitz hierarchy * mathematical fuzzy logic * semilinear logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  4. Vaginal Lactobacillus: biofilm formation in vivo – clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventolini, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal lactobacilli provide protection against intrusive pathogenic bacteria. Some Lactobacillus spp. produce in vitro a thick, protective biofilm. We report in vivo formation of biofilm by vaginal Lactobacillus jensenii. The biofilm formation was captured in fresh wet-mount microscopic samples from asymptomatic patients after treatment for recurrent bacterial vaginitis. In vivo documentation of biofilm formation is in our opinion noteworthy, and has significant clinical implications, among which are the possibility to isolate, grow, and therapeutically utilize lactobacilli to prevent recurrent vaginal infections and preterm labor associated with vaginal microbial pathogens. PMID:25733930

  5. Implications of agricultural transitions and urbanization for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Graeme S; Buerkert, Andreas; Hoffmann, Ellen M; Schlecht, Eva; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-11-01

    Historically, farmers and hunter-gatherers relied directly on ecosystem services, which they both exploited and enjoyed. Urban populations still rely on ecosystems, but prioritize non-ecosystem services (socioeconomic). Population growth and densification increase the scale and change the nature of both ecosystem- and non-ecosystem-service supply and demand, weakening direct feedbacks between ecosystems and societies and potentially pushing social-ecological systems into traps that can lead to collapse. The interacting and mutually reinforcing processes of technological change, population growth and urbanization contribute to over-exploitation of ecosystems through complex feedbacks that have important implications for sustainable resource use. PMID:25373674

  6. Cellular uptake of steroid carrier proteins--mechanisms and implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willnow, Thomas E; Nykjaer, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Steroid hormones are believed to enter cells solely by free diffusion through the plasma membrane. However, recent studies suggest the existence of cellular uptake pathways for carrier-bound steroids. Similar to the clearance of cholesterol via lipoproteins, these pathways involve the recognition of carrier proteins by endocytic receptors on the surface of target cells, followed by internalization and cellular delivery of the bound sterols. Here, we discuss the emerging concept that steroid hormones can selectively enter steroidogenic tissues by receptor-mediated endocytosis, and we discuss the implications of these uptake pathways for steroid hormone metabolism and action in vivo.

  7. Outsourcing ship management: Implications for the logistics chain

    OpenAIRE

    Cariou, Pierre; Wolff, François-Charles

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the probability that shipping companies outsource the management of vessels to ship management companies, a decision with many implications for the logistics chain. Data on 39,925 vessels are used to investigate to the extent to which 4,049 different ship-owners (each operating a fleet of at least two vessels) outsource to ship-management service providers. We rely on multinomial Logit random and fixed effects regressions...

  8. Pure versus hybrid: performance implications of Porter's generic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K; Subramanian, R; Yauger, C

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies the strategic types in the hospital industry based on the hospital's use of Porter's generic strategies in their pure and hybrid forms. The article also examines differences in performance of hospitals across strategic types. Results indicate that hospitals that follow a focussed cost leadership strategy, in general, have superior performance on a variety of performance measures, while hospitals that use a combination of cost leadership and differentiation perform the poorest. Implications of findings for hospital administrators are also discussed. PMID:9358260

  9. Squark Flavor Implications from B --> K(*) l+ l-

    OpenAIRE

    Behring, Arnd; Gross, Christian; Hiller, Gudrun; Schacht, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical progress regarding B --> K(*) l+ l- decays led to improved bounds on the Wilson coefficients C_9 and C_10 of four-fermion operators of the |Delta B|=|Delta S|=1 effective Hamiltonian. We analyze the resulting implications on squark flavor violation in the MSSM and obtain new constraints on flavor-changing left-right mixing in the up-squark-sector. We find the dimensionless flavor mixing parameter (delta^u_23)_LR, depending on the flavor-di...

  10. Planetological implications of mass loss from the early Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, D. P.; Matese, J. J.; Doyle, L. R.; Reynolds, R. T.

    1991-01-01

    The element lithium is observed to be underabundant in the Sun by a factor of approx. equal to 100. To account for this depletion, Boothroyd et al. (Ap. J., in press 1991) proposed a model in which the Sun's zero-age-main-sequence mass was approx. 1.1 solar magnitude. If this is the explanation for the lithium depletion, then astronomical observations of F/G dwarfs in clusters suggest that the timescale for mass loss is approx. equal to 0.6 Gyr. Assuming this approximate timescale, the authors investigated several planetological implications of the astrophysical model.

  11. Historically defined autobiographical periods : their origins and implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.

    2012-01-01

    The chapter reviews a research programme that has demonstrated the existence of historically defined autobiographical periods and identified the conditions that bring them about. Data from four samples of World War II-generation adults show that historically defined autobiographical periods endure over time and theoretical implications are discussed, notably by introducing a new approach to autobiographical memory, Transition Theory, which assumes that autobiographical memory is organized by transitional events that can be selfinitiated or externally imposed - historically defined autobiographical periods are the latter.

  12. Gas Flaring and its Implication for Environmental Accounting in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYOOLA Tajudeen John

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the theoretical framework for gas flaring and its implication for environmental accounting in the Nigerian Petroleum Industry. Data were sourced from the annual reports of companies involved in gas flaring in the oil and gas industry and the result reveals that the issue plaguing environmental accounting disclosures relate to lack of a standardized requirement for disclosure, political will for legislation, enforcement and the allocation of environmental costs, therefore, the study recommends the development of an integrated corporate environmental policy with legal backing that will streamline environmental information disclosures in annual accounts

  13. Improving statistical reasoning theoretical models and practical implications

    CERN Document Server

    Sedlmeier, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This book focuses on how statistical reasoning works and on training programs that can exploit people''s natural cognitive capabilities to improve their statistical reasoning. Training programs that take into account findings from evolutionary psychology and instructional theory are shown to have substantially larger effects that are more stable over time than previous training regimens. The theoretical implications are traced in a neural network model of human performance on statistical reasoning problems. This book apppeals to judgment and decision making researchers and other cognitive scientists, as well as to teachers of statistics and probabilistic reasoning.

  14. Contesting conventional periodontal wisdom : implications for periodontal classifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Rodrigo; Baelum, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the common approach used to classify periodontal diseases and how this obstructs our understanding of the disease process. We address the implications of including etiological and pathogenesis-related considerations in the classifications of complex diseases like periodontitis and argue that the number of periodontal entities in a classification system ought to be determined by well-documented differences in the management of each entity. We finally discuss how an ecosocial theory of disease distribution can be helpful to understand the determinants of the distribution of disease in the population.

  15. Barriers to Research and Implications for Training Counselors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Ruby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Research is an important part of quality clinical practice in the field of counseling. This study addresses the constraints that produce a gap in master’s level practitioner research among counselors in Illinois. Ninety-nine master’s level clinicians responded to surveys and answered a series of questions regarding what constrains them from being more involved in research. These respondents provided valuable feedback regarding possible recommendations for training that might encourage increased research activity for future master’s level counselors. Training improvements such as mentored research activity and training in less complex research methods were indicated. Keywords: Clinical practice, Implications, Barriers to research, less complex research

  16. A q-deformed logistic map and its implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new q-deformed logistic map is proposed and it is found to have concavity in parts of the x-space. Its one-cycle and two-cycle non-trivial fixed points are obtained which are found to be qualitatively and quantitatively different from those of the usual logistic map. The stability of the proposed q-logistic map is studied using the Lyapunov exponent, and with a change in the value of the deformation parameter q, one is able to go from the chaotic to regular dynamical regime. The implications of this q-logistic map on Parrondo's paradox are examined.

  17. The Implications of Interactions for Science and Philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Reductionism has dominated science and philosophy for centuries. Complexity has recently shown that interactions---which reductionism neglects---are relevant for understanding phenomena. When interactions are considered, reductionism becomes limited in several aspects. In this paper, I argue that interactions imply non-reductionism, non-materialism, non-predictability, non-Platonism, and non-nihilism. As alternatives to each of these, holism, informism, adaptation, contextuality, and meaningfulness are put forward, respectively. A worldview that includes interactions not only describes better our world, but can help to solve many open scientific, philosophical, and social problems caused by implications of reductionism.

  18. Tourist activated networks: Implications for dynamic packaging systems in tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zach, Florian; Gretzel, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses tourist activated networks as a concept to inform technological applications supporting dynamic bundling and en-route recommendations. Empirical data was collected from travellers who visited a regional destination in the US and then analyzed with respect to its network structure. The results indicate that the tourist activated network for the destination is rather sparse and that there are clearly differences in core and peripheral nodes. The findings illustrate the structure of a tourist activated network and provide implications for technology design and tourism marketing.

  19. Being and Implication: On Hegel and the Greeks

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Haas

    2007-01-01

    This work shows that being must originally be understood as implication. We begin with what Heidegger calls Hegelrsquo;s lsquo;new concept of beingrsquo; in the emPhenomenology of Spirit/em: time as history is the essence of being. This concept however, is not univocalmdash;for supersession means destroying-preserving. Hegel shows himself to be the thinker of truth as essentially ambiguous; and the emPhenomenology/em is onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, the history of the being and unity, time ...

  20. Arbitrage opportunities and their implications to derivative hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayides, Stephanos

    2006-02-01

    We explore the role that random arbitrage opportunities play in hedging financial derivatives. We extend the asymptotic pricing theory presented by Fedotov and Panayides [Stochastic arbitrage return and its implication for option pricing, Physica A 345 (2005) 207-217] for the case of hedging a derivative when arbitrage opportunities are present in the market. We restrict ourselves to finding hedging confidence intervals that can be adapted to the amount of arbitrage risk an investor will permit to be exposed to. The resulting hedging bands are independent of the detailed statistical characteristics of the arbitrage opportunities.