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Crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima TM0439: implications for the mechanism of bacterial GntR transcription regulators with Zn2+-binding FCD domains  

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The GntR superfamily of dimeric transcription factors, with more than 6200 members encoded in bacterial genomes, are characterized by N-terminal winged helix (WH) DNA-binding domains and diverse C-terminal, regulatory domains, which provide a basis for the classification of the constituent families. The largest of these families, FadR, contains nearly 3000 proteins with all a-helical regulatory domains classified into two related Pfam families: FadR{_}C and FCD. Only two crystal structures of the FadR family members, i.e. the E. coli FadR protein and the LldR from C. glutamicum, have been described to date in literature. Here we describe the crystal structure of TM0439, a GntR regulator with an FCD domain, found in the Thermotoga maritima genome. The FCD domain is similar to that of the LldR regulator, and contains a buried metal binding site. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy and Trp fluorescence, we show that the recombinant protein contains bound Ni{sup 2+} ions, but it is able to bind Zn{sup 2+} with K{sub D} < 70 nM . We conclude that Zn{sup 2+} is the likely physiological metal, where it may perform either or both structural and regulatory roles. Finally, we compare the TM0439 structure to two other FadR family structures recently deposited by Structural Genomics consortia. The results call for a revision in the classification of the FadR family of transcription factors.

Zheng, Meiying; Cooper, David; Grossoehmerb, Nickolas; Yu, Minmin; Hung, Li-Wei; Cieslik, Murcin; Derewendaro, Urszula; Lesley, Scott; Wilson, Ian; Giedrocb, David; Derewenda, Zygmunt

2009-06-06

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Ten years of demographic and genetic monitoring of Stachys maritima in Catalonia (2001-2010. Implications for a recovery plan  

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Full Text Available Stachys maritima is a species typical of the coastal dunes, with a wide distribution within the Mediterranean Basin. In spite of this, the species shows a clear regression. In Catalonia, it has been observed an important reduction of its populations since early 20th century, where it has disappeared from several localities in which it was relatively common (Tarragonès, Barcelonès. Herein we present the results of the demographic monitoring of the species during the last 10 years (2001-2010 in the known localities in Catalonia. Besides corroborating the disappearance (northern Sant Martí d’Empúries, the re-discovering (Llobregat Delta beach and the detection of new populations (inner dunes of the Montgrí, a large year-to-year fluctuation of the monitored populations is stated; the possible reasons are discussed. In addition, the present work also includes the results of the allozyme diversity analysis of the new detected populations as well as the rediscoveries of the period 2004-2008, which were not included in a former study of genetic diversity carried out in 2002-2003. It is necessary to emphasize that the contribution of the new populations to the genetic diversity of Stachys maritima is very small, which can be attributed to their limited population size and /or to founder effects. Despite that the species is included in the Annex 2 (“En Perill d’Extinció” within the Catàleg de Flora Amenaçada de Catalunya (Catalogue of Endangered Flora of Catalonia, and some “soft” conservation measures have been applied at local level (signposting of the beach accesses, environmental education, etc. coupled with other more significant measures (e.g. translocation of individuals discovered in an artificial sandbank, it would be necessary the coordinated action and the scientific support of any initiative of conservation that could be carried out. The general frame to initiate actions of conservation should be the recovery plan of Stachys maritima, whose draft and application is mandatory in accordance to the Catàleg.Stachys maritima es una especie característica de dunas litorales, con una amplia área de distribución en el Mediterráneo. A pesar de ello, la especie muestra una clara regresión. En Catalunya se ha observado una importante reducción de sus poblaciones desde principios del siglo XX, donde ha desaparecido de diversas localidades en las que era relativamente abundante (Tarragonès, Barcelonès. Se presentan los resultados del seguimiento demográfico de la especie durante los últimos 10 años (2001-2010 en las localidades conocidas en Catalunya. Al margen de corroborar la desaparición de algunos núcleos (núcleo norte de Sant Martí d’Empúries, el redescubrimiento de otros (playa del Delta del Llobregat o la detección de nuevas poblaciones (dunas interiores del Montgrí, se constata una gran fluctuación interanual de los núcleos monitorizados, las posibles causas de la cual se discuten detenidamente. Por otro lado, el presente trabajo incluye también los resultados del análisis de la diversidad isoenzimática de las nuevas poblaciones detectadas así como los redescubrimientos del periodo 2004-2008, que no se habían incluido en los estudios de diversidad genética de los años 2002-2003. Cabe destacar que la contribución de los nuevos núcleos a la diversidad genética de Stachys maritima es muy pequeña y se puede atribuir a su reducido tamaño poblacional y/o a efectos fundadores. A pesar que la especie se ha incluido en el Anexo 2 (“En Perill d’Extinció” del Catàleg de Flora Amenaçada de Catalunya, y que a escala local se han realizado algunas medidas de conservación “blandas” (señalización de los accesos a la playa, educación ambiental, etc., junto a otras medidas más significativas pero realizadas con carácter de urgencia (p. ej. la translocación de individuos descubiertos en un arenal, sería necesario la acción coordinada y el apoyo científico de cualquier iniciativa de conservación que se lleve a cabo. El marco general para iniciar

Massó, S.

2010-12-01

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Ambrosia maritima L., Molluscicide végétal prometteur !  

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Full Text Available Ambrosia maritima L., a promising molluscicide of plant origin !. Masses of granivorous birds destroy about 5-10 % of the rice crop produced in the central Niger delta. To the local species (ducks, ploceid birds and the quelea, which is the most abundant and noxious pest with numbers ranging from 18 million in January to 10 million in May-June add palearctic migratory birds, which are mainly ducks and stilt-birds. Bird control is necessarily undertaken but is inefficient due to the vastness of the region, difficult access to the sites, the number of birds and insufficient financial means.

Sidhom, MZ.

1983-01-01

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Números cromosómicos de Cryptantha diffusa y C.maritima (Boraginaceae) / Chromosome numbers of Cryptantha diffusa and C. maritima (Boraginaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudiaron por primera vez los cromosomas mitóticos de dos especies argentinas de Cryptantha. Para C. diffusa (Phil.) I. M. Johnst. se halló 2n=56 y para C. maritima Greene var. pilosa Johnst. 2n=20, sugiriéndose que sus números básicos son x=7 y x=10, respectivamente. [...] Abstract in english Mitotic chromosome counts are given, for the first time for two species of Cryptantha from Argentina. C. diffusa (Phil.) I. M. Johnst. (2n=56) and C. maritima Greene var. pilosa Johnst. (2n=20). The basic numbers x=7 and x=10, respectively, are suggested for them. [...

Maria Laura, Las Peñas.

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Números cromosómicos de Cryptantha diffusa y C.maritima (Boraginaceae Chromosome numbers of Cryptantha diffusa and C. maritima (Boraginaceae  

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Full Text Available Se estudiaron por primera vez los cromosomas mitóticos de dos especies argentinas de Cryptantha. Para C. diffusa (Phil. I. M. Johnst. se halló 2n=56 y para C. maritima Greene var. pilosa Johnst. 2n=20, sugiriéndose que sus números básicos son x=7 y x=10, respectivamente.Mitotic chromosome counts are given, for the first time for two species of Cryptantha from Argentina. C. diffusa (Phil. I. M. Johnst. (2n=56 and C. maritima Greene var. pilosa Johnst. (2n=20. The basic numbers x=7 and x=10, respectively, are suggested for them.

Maria Laura Las Peñas

2005-12-01

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Transcriptional regulation of the carbohydrate utilization network in Thermotoga maritima  

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Full Text Available Hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Thermotogales lineage can produce hydrogen by fermenting a wide range of carbohydrates. Previous experimental studies identified a large fraction of genes committed to carbohydrate degradation and utilization in the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Knowledge of these genes enabled comprehensive reconstruction of biochemical pathways comprising the carbohydrate utilization network. However, transcriptional factors (TFs and regulatory mechanisms driving this network remained largely unknown. Here, we used an integrated approach based on comparative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data for the reconstruction of the carbohydrate utilization regulatory networks in 11 Thermotogales genomes. We identified DNA-binding motifs and regulons for 19 orthologous TFs in the Thermotogales. The inferred regulatory network in T. maritima contains 181 genes encoding TFs, sugar catabolic enzymes and ABC-family transporters. In contrast to many previously described bacteria, a transcriptional regulation strategy of Thermotoga does not employ global regulatory factors. The reconstructed regulatory network in T. maritima was validated by gene expression profiling on a panel of mono- and disaccharides and by in vitro DNA-binding assays. The observed upregulation of genes involved in catabolism of pectin, trehalose, cellobiose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, glucose, galactose, and ribose showed a strong correlation with the UxaR, TreR, BglR, CelR, AraR, RhaR, XylR, GluR, GalR, and RbsR regulons. Ultimately, this study elucidated the transcriptional regulatory network and mechanisms controlling expression of carbohydrate utilization genes in T. maritima. In addition to improving the functional annotations of associated transporters and catabolic enzymes, this research provides novel insights into the evolution of regulatory networks in Thermotogales.

DmitryARodionov

2013-08-01

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Micropropagation of Urginea maritima (L. Baker s. str.  

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Full Text Available A method of micropropagation of Urginea maritima (L. Baker s.str. (Liliaceae by adventitious shoot formation was developed. Bulb scales and leaf fragments were used as primary and secondary explants, respectively. The most favourable for shoot regeneration were media: MS supplemented with BAP or kinetin (bulb scales and medium C containing NAA along with BAP (leaf explants. No difficulties in rooting and adapting of plants to greenhouse conditions were observed.

Anna Stojakowska

1993-06-01

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NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE SUBMERGED ANGIO-SPERM 'RUPPIA MARITIMA' IN ALGAE-FREE CULTURE  

Science.gov (United States)

Ruppia maritima has the potential to become a model laboratory organism for studies with submerged aquatic vascular plants. The present study demonstrated that algae-free R. maritima grew well in a defined medium without sediment. Growth was a linear response to photon flux densi...

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Thermotoga maritima TM0298 is a highly thermostable mannitol dehydrogenase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermotoga maritima TM0298 is annotated as an alcohol dehydrogenase, yet it shows high identity and similarity to mesophilic mannitol dehydrogenases. To investigate this enzyme further, its gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme was most active on fructose and mannitol, making it the first known hyperthermophilic mannitol dehydrogenase. T. maritima mannitol dehydrogenase (TmMtDH) is optimally active between 90 and 100 degrees C and retains 63% of its activity at 120 degrees C but shows no detectable activity at room temperature. Its kinetic inactivation follows a first-order mechanism, with half-lives of 57 min at 80 degrees C and 6 min at 95 degrees C. Although TmMtDH has a higher V (max) with NADPH than with NADH, its catalytic efficiency is 2.2 times higher with NADH than with NADPH and 33 times higher with NAD(+) than with NADP(+). This cofactor specificity can be explained by the high density of negatively charged residues (Glu193, Asp195, and Glu196) downstream of the NAD(P) interaction site, the glycine motif. We demonstrate that TmMtDH contains a single catalytic zinc per subunit. Finally, we provide the first proof of concept that mannitol can be produced directly from glucose in a two-step enzymatic process, using a Thermotoga neapolitana xylose isomerase mutant and TmMtDH at 60 degrees C. PMID:18719905

Song, Seung Hoon; Ahluwalia, Nitasha; Leduc, Yvonne; Delbaere, Louis T J; Vieille, Claire

2008-12-01

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Diterpene and other constituents from Stemodia maritima (Scrophulariaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um novo diterpeno, (5S*,8S*,9R*,10S*)-11?,12?-epoxi-9?-hidróxi-19(4?3) abeo-abieta-3,13-dieno-19,18-olideo, e as substâncias conhecidas estemodina, D-manitol, ácido betulínico, uma mistura de 3?-O-?-D-glicopiranosil-?-sitosterol e 3?-O-?-D-glicopiranosilestigmasterol, e 5,7,4'-triidróxi-3,8,3'-trime [...] toxiflavona, foram isolados das folhas e talos de Stemodia maritima. A elucidação estrutural de todas as substâncias baseou-se na interpretação de dados espectrais, principalmente RMN (1D e 2D) e espectrometria de massa (EM), envolvendo comparação com valores descritos na literatura. Abstract in english A new diterpene, (5S*,8S*,9R*,10S*)-11?,12?-epoxy-9?-hydroxy-19(4?3) abeo-abieta-3,13-diene-19,18-olide, together with the known compounds stemodin, D-mannitol, betulinic acid, a mixture of 3?-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-sitosterol and 3?-O-?-D-glucopyranosylstigmasterol and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,8,3'-trim [...] ethoxyflavone were isolated from the leaves and stems of Stemodia maritima. Structural elucidation of all compounds was based on interpretation of spectral data, mainly NMR (1D and 2D) and MS, including comparison with values described in the literature.

Francisco E. A., Rodrigues; Jefferson Q., Lima; Maria da Conceição F. de, Oliveira; Jackson N., Vasconcelos; Gilvandete M. P., Santiago; Jair, Mafezoli; Raimundo, Braz-Filho; Angela M. C., Arriaga.

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Diterpene and other constituents from Stemodia maritima (Scrophulariaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um novo diterpeno, (5S*,8S*,9R*,10S*)-11?,12?-epoxi-9?-hidróxi-19(4?3) abeo-abieta-3,13-dieno-19,18-olideo, e as substâncias conhecidas estemodina, D-manitol, ácido betulínico, uma mistura de 3?-O-?-D-glicopiranosil-?-sitosterol e 3?-O-?-D-glicopiranosilestigmasterol, e 5,7,4'-triidróxi-3,8,3'-trime [...] toxiflavona, foram isolados das folhas e talos de Stemodia maritima. A elucidação estrutural de todas as substâncias baseou-se na interpretação de dados espectrais, principalmente RMN (1D e 2D) e espectrometria de massa (EM), envolvendo comparação com valores descritos na literatura. Abstract in english A new diterpene, (5S*,8S*,9R*,10S*)-11?,12?-epoxy-9?-hydroxy-19(4?3) abeo-abieta-3,13-diene-19,18-olide, together with the known compounds stemodin, D-mannitol, betulinic acid, a mixture of 3?-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-sitosterol and 3?-O-?-D-glucopyranosylstigmasterol and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,8,3'-trim [...] ethoxyflavone were isolated from the leaves and stems of Stemodia maritima. Structural elucidation of all compounds was based on interpretation of spectral data, mainly NMR (1D and 2D) and MS, including comparison with values described in the literature.

Francisco E. A., Rodrigues; Jefferson Q., Lima; Maria da Conceição F. de, Oliveira; Jackson N., Vasconcelos; Gilvandete M. P., Santiago; Jair, Mafezoli; Raimundo, Braz-Filho; Angela M. C., Arriaga.

1581-15-01

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A NusG-like protein from Thermotoga maritima binds to DNA and RNA.  

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The NusG-like protein from Thermotoga maritima was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Purified T. maritima NusG exhibited a generalized, non-sequence-specific and highly cooperative DNA and RNA binding activity. The complexes formed between nucleic acid and T. maritima NusG were unable to penetrate a polyacrylamide or agarose gel. The affinity of the protein for DNA was highest in buffers containing about 50 mM salt. The DNA-protein complexes could not be stained with ...

Liao, D.; Lurz, R.; Dobrinski, B.; Dennis, P. P.

1996-01-01

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Germinação de sementes de Matelea maritima (Jack. Woods (Asclepiadaceae Seed germination in Matelea maritima (Jack. Woods (Asclepiadaceae  

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Full Text Available Sementes de M. maritima germinam na temperatura ótima de 25°C com valores máximos na luz, sendo o processo otimizado em temperatura alternada de 25/30°C. Escarificação mecânica promove a germinação. Em sementes nuas, a germinação é promovida e acelerada tanto na luz quanto no escuro. Temperatura de armazenamento e tempo de estocagem alteram a fotossensibilidade das sementes: sementes estocadas à temperatura ambiente por 90 dias perdem o fotoblastismo positivo enquanto que nas estocadas sob baixa temperatura (10°C este efeito permanece. O teste do tetrazólio demonstra que aos 180 dias de estocagem 46% das sementes permaneceram viáveis. Análises topoquímicas indicam que a principal fonte de reserva destas sementes, localizada nos cotilédones, é proteica.Seeds of M. maritima germinate at an optimum temperature of 25°C, with maximum values in light, the process being optimized by alternate temperatures of 25/35°C. Mechanical scarification promotes germination. In uncoated seeds germination is promoted and enhanced both in light and in darkness. Temperature and time of storage affect seed photosensitivity: positive photoblastism is lost in seeds maintained at room temperature for 90 days while being maintained in seeds kept at low temperature (10°C. The tetrazolium test showed that at 180 days of storage, 46% of the seeds remain viable. Topochemical analysis indicates that the main storage of these seeds located in the cotyledons is protein.

GERALDO ROGÉRIO FAUSTINI CUZZUOL

1999-04-01

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Effect of Oxygen and Redox Potential on Glucose Fermentation in Thermotoga maritima under Controlled Physicochemical Conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Batch cultures of Thermotoga maritima were performed in a bioreactor equipped with instruments adapted for experiments performed at 80°C to mimic the fluctuating oxidative conditions in the hot ecosystems it inhabits. When grown anaerobically on glucose, T. maritima was shown to significantly decrease the redox potential (Eh) of the culture medium down to about -480?mV, as long as glucose was available. Addition of oxygen into T. maritima cultures during the stationary growth phase led to a drastic reduction in glucose consumption rate. However, although oxygen was toxic, our experiment unambiguously proved that T. maritima was able to consume it during a 12-hour exposure period. Furthermore, a shift in glucose metabolism towards lactate production was observed under oxidative conditions. PMID:21461371

Lakhal, Raja; Auria, Richard; Davidson, Sylvain; Ollivier, Bernard; Dolla, Alain; Hamdi, Moktar; Combet-Blanc, Yannick

2010-01-01

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ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF SUAEDA MARITIMA (L. DUMORTIER STEM IN TRITON INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIC RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic effect of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier stem extracts in triton induced hyperlipidemia. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier were administered at dose 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg/day orally, respectively. Simultaneous administrations of stem extracts of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier significantly prevent the rise in serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL whereas significant increases in the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL in both secretary and excretory phase. The Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier methanol extract of stem at dose 300mg/kg body weight orally showed significant antihyperlipidemic activity which may be due to the presence of triterpenoids and sterols found in the preliminary phytochemical screening.

Rajinder mann

2013-04-01

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Reactivation of methionine synthase from Thermotoga maritima (TM0268) requires the downstream gene product TM0269  

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The crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima gene product TM0269, determined as part of genome-wide structural coverage of T. maritima by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics, revealed structural homology with the fourth module of the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli, despite the lack of significant sequence homology. The gene specifying TM0269 lies in close proximity to another gene, TM0268, which shows sequence homology with the first three module...

Huang, Sha; Romanchuk, Gail; Pattridge, Katherine; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.; Matthews, Rowena G.; Ludwig, Martha

2007-01-01

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Volatile composition of oyster leaf (Mertensia maritima (L.) Gray).  

Science.gov (United States)

Oyster leaf (Mertensia maritima), also called vegetarian oyster, has a surprising oyster-like aroma. Its volatile composition was investigated here for the first time. In total, 109 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified by GC-FID. The use of GC-olfactometry on both polar and nonpolar columns allowed the detection of the molecules having an oyster-like, marine odor. Four compounds were identified and confirmed by synthesis: (Z)-3-nonenal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-ol, (Z,Z)-3,6-nonadienal, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one. After evaluation of freshly prepared reference samples, these compounds were confirmed to be reminiscent of the oyster-like marine notes perceived in the tasting of cut leaves. PMID:23140514

Delort, Estelle; Jaquier, Alain; Chapuis, Christian; Rubin, Mark; Starkenmann, Christian

2012-11-28

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Variability of volatile constituents in Artemisia maritima in western Himalaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia maritima, collected from three different high altitude locations in western Himalaya was studied by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry. Twenty-five constituents were identified in the oil distilled from the sample from Pooh, of which 1,8-cineole (23.8%) and chrysanthenone (17.54%) were the major constituents. Twenty volatile constituents were identified from the sample collected from Rhongtong pass, of which chrysanthenone (38.1%) and 1,8-cineole (37.3%) were the major constituents. In the oil distilled from the sample collected from Lahaul-Spiti 28 constituents were identified, of which 1,8-cineole (44.22%), camphor (9.16%) and borneol (10.94%) were the major constituents. In this sample chrysanthenone was present in very low percentage. PMID:18569692

Jaitak, Vikas; Singh, Bikram; Kaul, V K

2008-05-10

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Diterpene and other constituents from Stemodia maritima (Scrophulariaceae)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new diterpene, (5S{sup *},8S{sup *},9R{sup *},10S{sup *})-11{beta},12{beta}-epoxy-9{alpha}-hydroxy-19(4 -> 3)abeo-abieta-3,13-diene-19,18-olide, together with the known compounds stemodin, D-mannitol, betulinic acid, a mixture of 3{beta}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl-{beta}-sitosterol and 3{beta}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosylstigmasterol and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,8,3'-trimethoxyflavone were isolated from the leaves and stems of Stemodia maritima. Structural elucidation of all compounds was based on interpretation of spectral data, mainly NMR (1D and 2D) and MS, including comparison with values described in the literature. (author)

Rodrigues, Francisco E.A.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Vasconcelos, Jackson N.; Mafezoli, Jair; Arriaga, Angela M.C., E-mail: angelamcarriaga@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DQOI/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Curso de Pos-Graducao em Quimica; Lima, Jefferson Q. [Instituto Federal do Ceara, Juazeiro do Norte, CE (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia Ambiental; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DQOI/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (CCT/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias

2010-07-01

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The genome organization of Thermotoga maritima reflects its lifestyle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The generation of genome-scale data is becoming more routine, yet the subsequent analysis of omics data remains a significant challenge. Here, an approach that integrates multiple omics datasets with bioinformatics tools was developed that produces a detailed annotation of several microbial genomic features. This methodology was used to characterize the genome of Thermotoga maritima--a phylogenetically deep-branching, hyperthermophilic bacterium. Experimental data were generated for whole-genome resequencing, transcription start site (TSS) determination, transcriptome profiling, and proteome profiling. These datasets, analyzed in combination with bioinformatics tools, served as a basis for the improvement of gene annotation, the elucidation of transcription units (TUs), the identification of putative non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), and the determination of promoters and ribosome binding sites. This revealed many distinctive properties of the T. maritima genome organization relative to other bacteria. This genome has a high number of genes per TU (3.3), a paucity of putative ncRNAs (12), and few TUs with multiple TSSs (3.7%). Quantitative analysis of promoters and ribosome binding sites showed increased sequence conservation relative to other bacteria. The 5'UTRs follow an atypical bimodal length distribution comprised of "Short" 5'UTRs (11-17 nt) and "Common" 5'UTRs (26-32 nt). Transcriptional regulation is limited by a lack of intergenic space for the majority of TUs. Lastly, a high fraction of annotated genes are expressed independent of growth state and a linear correlation of mRNA/protein is observed (Pearson r = 0.63, p<2.2 × 10(-16) t-test). These distinctive properties are hypothesized to be a reflection of this organism's hyperthermophilic lifestyle and could yield novel insights into the evolutionary trajectory of microbial life on earth. PMID:23637642

Latif, Haythem; Lerman, Joshua A; Portnoy, Vasiliy A; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Nagarajan, Harish; Schrimpe-Rutledge, Alexandra C; Smith, Richard D; Adkins, Joshua N; Lee, Dae-Hee; Qiu, Yu; Zengler, Karsten

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
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GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CRAMBE MARITIMA L. (FAM. BRASSICACEAE IN INTRODUCTION CONDITIONS OF THE BOTA-NICAL GARDEN OF SFEDU  

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Full Text Available Study results of Crambe maritima L. growth and development at introduction in Botanical garden of SFU are presented in article. It was revealed that the life cycle of majority specimens lasts three years. Results the ontogenetic and phenologic studies testify about success of primary introduction of Crambe maritima

Shmaraeva A. N.

2014-02-01

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(Beta alpha)8-barrel proteins of tryptophan biosynthesis in the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima.  

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To better understand the evolution of a key metabolic pathway, we have sequenced the trpCFBA gene cluster of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. The genes were cloned by complementation in vivo of trp deletion strains of Escherichia coli. The new sequences, together with earlier findings, establish that the trp operon of T.maritima has the order trpE(G.D)CFBA, which might represent the ancestral organization of the tryptophan operon. Heterologous expression of the trp(G.D) an...

Sterner, R.; Dahm, A.; Darimont, B.; Ivens, A.; Liebl, W.; Kirschner, K.

1995-01-01

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Structure of an essential GTPase, YsxC, from Thermotoga maritima  

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Apo and GDP-bound crystal structures of an essential GTPase, YsxC, from T. maritima were determined to maximal resolutions of 2.3 and 1.9?Å, respectively. Switch I in GDP–YsxC can adopt both an ‘open’ and ‘closed’ conformation, suggesting a mechanism for diffusion of GDP out of the nucleotide-binding pocket.

Chan, Kwok-ho; Wong, Kam-bo

2011-01-01

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Micromonospora maritima sp. nov., isolated from mangrove soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strain D10-9-5(T) was isolated from mangrove soil in Samut Sakhon province, Thailand. A polyphasic approach was used to determine the taxonomic position of the strain. The strain presented single rough spores on substrate mycelium and no aerial mycelium. Chemotaxonomic data supported the assignment of strain D10-9-5(T) to the genus Micromonospora based on the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid and glycolyl muramic acid in the peptidoglycan, ribose, mannose, galactose, xylose and glucose as whole-cell sugars, MK-10(H(4)) (14.8?%), MK-10(H(6)) (46.7?%) and MK-10(H(8)) (27.5?%) as the predominant isoprenoid quinones, iso-C(15?:?0) (17.9?%), anteiso-C(17?:?0) (14.6?%), iso-C(17?:?0) (9.6?%), C(17?:?0) (8.0?%), iso-C(16?:?0) (7.7?%) and C(17?:?1)?8c (7.0?%) as the major cellular fatty acids, and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and phosphatidylethanolamine as the predominant phospholipids in the cell wall. The 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that strain D10-9-5 was closely related to Micromonospora marina JCM 12870(T) (99.6?%), Micromonospora coxensis JCM 13248 (T) (99.4?%), Micromonospora aurantiaca JCM 10878(T) (99.3?%), Micromonospora humi JCM15292(T) (99.3?%), Micromonospora halophytica JCM 3125(T) (99.1%) and Micromonospora chalcea JCM 3031(T) (99.1?%). Strain D10-9-5(T) could be clearly distinguished from related members of the genus Micromonospora by its physiological and biochemical characteristics as well as its phylogenetic position and level of DNA-DNA relatedness. Therefore, the strain represents a novel species for which the name Micromonospora maritima sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is D10-9-5(T) (?=?JCM 17013(T)?=?NBRC 108767(T)?=?PCU 322(T)?=?TISTR 2000(T)). PMID:22523171

Songsumanus, Apakorn; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Kudo, Takuji

2013-02-01

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Spartina maritima influence on the dynamics of the phosphorus sedimentary cycle in a warm temperate estuary (Mondego estuary, Portugal)  

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Abstract During the last decades the Mondego estuary has been under severe ecological stress mainly caused by eutrophication. In this salt march system, Spartina maritima covers about 10.5 ha of the intertidal areas. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Spartina maritima marshes on the dynamics of phosphorus (P) binding in the surface sediment. We compare phosphate and oxygen fluxes, P-adsorption capacity, phosphate concentrations and total amount, and the extract...

Lillebø, Ana; Coelho, J.; Flindt, M.; Jensen, H.; Marques, J.; Pedersen, C.; Pardal, M.

2007-01-01

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Structural analysis of DNA sequence: evidence for lateral gene transfer in Thermotoga maritima  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The recently published complete DNA sequence of the bacterium Thermotoga maritima provides evidence, based on protein sequence conservation, for lateral gene transfer between Archaea and Bacteria. We introduce a new method of periodicity analysis of DNA sequences, based on structural parameters, which brings independent evidence for the lateral gene transfer in the genome of T.maritima, The structural analysis relates the Archaea-like DNA sequences to the genome of Pyrococcus horikoshii. Analysis of 24 complete genomic DNA sequences shows different periodicity patterns for organisms of different origin, The typical genomic periodicity for Bacteria is 11 bp whilst it is 10 bp for Archaea, Eukaryotes have more complex spectra but the dominant period in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is 10.2 bp. These periodicities are most likely reflective of differences in chromatin structure.

Worning, Peder; Jensen, Lars Juhl

2000-01-01

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Effets de dix traitements sur la germination des akènes d'Ambrosia maritima L  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effects of ten treatments on the germination of Ambrosia maritima L. seeds. Stratification of Ambrosia maritima seeds at + 10°C for 7 days appeared to be the best practical method to break their embryonic dormancy with 80 % germination occuring 18 days following the treatment, compared to 17 % for the control. This experiment confirms the susceptibility of embryonic dormancy to low temperatures. Treatments with waterat + 80°C or concentrated H2S04 for 15 mn and mechanical treatments eliminating the inhibition effect of seed integuments also gave higher results (43 to 53 % germination rate. However, germination in the control group was significantly higher than in the group of seeds subjected to dry heat. Although the first results obtained on the field from these trials were satisfactory, further research is needed to confirm them.

Schafer, JL.

1989-01-01

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Monoterpenoids glycosides content from two Mediterranean populations of Crucianella maritima L.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the iridoidic content of two accessions of Crucianella maritima L., one from Sardinia and the second from Latium, was examined and compared. From a qualitative point of view, the iridoidic pattern of the two samples was similar, since the same compounds (asperuloside, asperulosidic acid and deacetyl asperulosidic acid) were isolated. Asperuloside was the main compound in both accessions. Asperulosidic acid was the second compound in the accession from Sardinia, while the accession from Latium exhibited a similar amount of asperulosidic acid and deacetyl asperulosidic acid. These iridoids can be considered as chemotaxonomic markers for parts of the Rubiaceae family, in particular for the Rubioideae subfamily to which C. maritima belongs. PMID:24499293

Venditti, A; Altieri, A; Bianco, A

2014-01-01

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Reactivation of methionine synthase from Thermotoga maritima (TM0268) requires the downstream gene product TM0269.  

Science.gov (United States)

The crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima gene product TM0269, determined as part of genome-wide structural coverage of T. maritima by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics, revealed structural homology with the fourth module of the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli, despite the lack of significant sequence homology. The gene specifying TM0269 lies in close proximity to another gene, TM0268, which shows sequence homology with the first three modules of E. coli MetH. The fourth module of E. coli MetH is required for reductive remethylation of the cob(II)alamin form of the cofactor and binds the methyl donor for this reactivation, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Measurements of the rates of methionine formation in the presence and absence of TM0269 and AdoMet demonstrate that both TM0269 and AdoMet are required for reactivation of the inactive cob(II)alamin form of TM0268. These activity measurements confirm the structure-based assignment of the function of the TM0269 gene product. In the presence of TM0269, AdoMet, and reductants, the measured activity of T. maritima MetH is maximal near 80 degrees C, where the specific activity of the purified protein is approximately 15% of that of E. coli methionine synthase (MetH) at 37 degrees C. Comparisons of the structures and sequences of TM0269 and the reactivation domain of E. coli MetH suggest that AdoMet may be bound somewhat differently by the homologous proteins. However, the conformation of a hairpin that is critical for cobalamin binding in E. coli MetH, which constitutes an essential structural element, is retained in the T. maritima reactivation protein despite striking divergence of the sequences. PMID:17656578

Huang, Sha; Romanchuk, Gail; Pattridge, Katherine; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A; Matthews, Rowena G; Ludwig, Martha

2007-08-01

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An epidemiological assessment of Ambrosia maritima on the transmission of schistosomiasis in the Egyptian Nile Delta.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ambrosia maritima (Damsissa), a proven molluscicide, was investigated in a seven year epidemiological trial in four villages in the northern Egyptian Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni prevalence and other measures of infection were initially high in the four villages before the trial began. Two villages were used to test the impact of A. maritima application both on snail populations and on infection in the village population. Two villages were held as controls and not treated with A. maritima. The entire population of all four villages was included in the study. Prevalence and other measures of infection fell dramatically following treatment with praziquantel 40 mg kg-1 body weight. On annual follow ups, the prevalence of infection and geometric mean egg counts began to increase back to original levels in both test and control villages; age adjusted incidence rates were lower in one test village, but higher in the other when compared to the control villages. Snail populations were destroyed in the treated canals and drains located near the test villages. The lack of a clear epidemiologic impact is discussed. PMID:8256093

Barakat, R; Farghaly, A; el-Sawy, M F; Soliman, N K; Duncan, J; Zaki, A; Miller, F D

1993-09-01

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Complexes of Thermotoga maritimaS-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase provide insights into substrate specificity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous aliphatic cations and are essential for cellular growth and differentiation. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is a critical pyruvoyl-dependent enzyme in the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway. The crystal structures of AdoMetDC from humans and plants and of the AdoMetDC proenzyme from Thermotoga maritima have been obtained previously. Here, the crystal structures of activated T. maritima AdoMetDC (TmAdoMetDC) and of its complexes with S-adenosylmethionine methyl ester and 5'-deoxy-5'-dimethylthioadenosine are reported. The results demonstrate for the first time that TmAdoMetDC autoprocesses without the need for additional factors and that the enzyme contains two complete active sites, both of which use residues from both chains of the homodimer. The complexes provide insights into the substrate specificity and ligand binding of AdoMetDC in prokaryotes. The conservation of the ligand-binding mode and the active-site residues between human and T. maritima AdoMetDC provides insight into the evolution of AdoMetDC. PMID:20124698

Bale, Shridhar; Baba, Kavita; McCloskey, Diane E; Pegg, Anthony E; Ealick, Steven E

2010-02-01

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Complexes of Thermotoga maritima S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase provide insights into substrate specificity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous aliphatic cations and are essential for cellular growth and differentiation. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is a critical pyruvoyl-dependent enzyme in the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway. The crystal structures of AdoMetDC from humans and plants and of the AdoMetDC proenzyme from Thermotoga maritima have been obtained previously. Here, the crystal structures of activated T. maritima AdoMetDC (TmAdoMetDC) and of its complexes with S-adenosylmethionine methyl ester and 5{prime}-deoxy-5{prime}-dimethylthioadenosine are reported. The results demonstrate for the first time that TmAdoMetDC autoprocesses without the need for additional factors and that the enzyme contains two complete active sites, both of which use residues from both chains of the homodimer. The complexes provide insights into the substrate specificity and ligand binding of AdoMetDC in prokaryotes. The conservation of the ligand-binding mode and the active-site residues between human and T. maritima AdoMetDC provides insight into the evolution of AdoMetDC.

Bale, Shridhar; Baba, Kavita; McCloskey, Diane E.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E.

2010-06-25

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Morphological characterization of the antennal sensilla of t he earwig Anisolabis maritima (Dermaptera: Carcinophoridae) with reference to their probable functions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The earwig, Anisolabis maritima (Dermaptera: Carcinophoridae), is one of the most significant insects in KSA because, it was recorded in Saudi Arabia as a beneficial predator on eggs and newly hatched larvae of the red palm weevil, Rhyncophorus ferrugineus. We examined the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of males and females of A. maritima using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The filiform antennae of A. maritima were of the conventional type comprising a basal scape, pedicle and a long, thread-like flagellum, which was composed of 12 flagellomeres of males and 16 flagellomeres of females. Six morphologically unique sensillar types were found and described on the antennae of males and females of A. maritima. Of those identified, there were three types of porous trichoid sensilla (long, curved and arcuate), and two types of basiconic sensilla (short and curved), and one type of aporous trichoid sensilla. The shape, external morphology and array of sensilla on the antennae of males and females of A. maritima were similar. PMID:23961038

Al-Dosary, Mona Mohammed

2009-07-01

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Extracts from Alternanthera maritima as natural photosensitizers in photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effect of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) using extracts from Alternanthera maritima on the viability of Candida dubliniensis. Human infections constitute a great health problem. Several antifungal drugs are currently available, but their uses are limited by a number of factors, such as low potency, poor solubility, microbial resistance, and drug toxicity. Therefore, the search for new and more effective antimicrobial agents and the development of alternative therapies, such as PACT, are necessary. Crude hexane and ethanol extracts of A. maritima were produced. The prepared extracts presented absorption at 650-700 nm. For bioassays, 50 microL of culture medium, 50 microL of extract (25 mg/mL) or control, and 5 microL of a suspension of the microorganism to be tested (C. dubliniensis ATCC 778157 or ATCC 777, 10(7)CFU/mL) were placed in a sterile 96-well microtiter plate (well cross section=0.38 cm(2)). The contents of each well were irradiated with a 685-nm diode laser with an output power of 35 mW, which was distributed through the well cross section yielding an energy dosage of 28 J/cm(2). In each assay (n=6), one plate was subjected to irradiation, and one was not. For each active sample, the number of colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) was obtained, and data were analyzed by the Tukey test. The chemical compositions of the extracts were determined by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The results suggest inhibition of the growth of C. dubliniensis when irradiated with a diode laser in the presence of hexane and ethanol extracts from A. maritima as photosensitizers. Laser irradiation alone or crude extracts at 25mg/mL did not significantly reduce the number of CFU/mL. Steroids, triterpenes, and flavonoids were identified in the analyzed extracts. In conclusion, the photoactivation of crude hexane and ethanol extracts of A. maritima by red laser radiation at 685 nm promoted an antimicrobial effect, showing that these natural products can be used as photosensitizers in PACT. PMID:20172737

Gasparetto, Adriana; Lapinski, Tadia F; Zamuner, Stella R; Khouri, Sonia; Alves, Leandro P; Munin, Egberto; Salvador, Marcos J

2010-04-01

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Glycerate 2-Kinase of Thermotoga maritima and Genomic Reconstruction of Related Metabolic Pathways? †  

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Members of a novel glycerate-2-kinase (GK-II) family were tentatively identified in a broad range of species, including eukaryotes and archaea and many bacteria that lack a canonical enzyme of the GarK (GK-I) family. The recently reported three-dimensional structure of GK-II from Thermotoga maritima (TM1585; PDB code 2b8n) revealed a new fold distinct from other known kinase families. Here, we verified the enzymatic activity of TM1585, assessed its kinetic characteristics, and used directed m...

Yang, Chen; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Rodionova, Irina A.; Li, Xiaoqing; Osterman, Andrei L.

2008-01-01

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Effects of elevated CO2 on the vasculature and phenolic secondary metabolism of plantago maritima.  

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We have examined the effect of elevated CO2 on the vasculature and phenolic secondary metabolism on clones of the maritime plant Plantago maritima (L.). Plants were exposed to either ambient (360 ?mol CO2 mol?1) or elevated (600 ?mol CO2 mol?1) atmospheric CO2 within a Solardome facility and harvested after 12 months' growth. Histochemical analysis of the leaves identified increases in the diameter of the minor leaf vein and associated lignified vessels in plants exposed to elevated CO2...

Matthew, P. D.; Bryant, D. N.; Cummins, I.; Ashenden, T. W.; Gates, P.; Baxter, R.; Edwards, R.

2004-01-01

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Quinone- and nitroreductase reactions of Thermotoga maritima peroxiredoxin-nitroreductase hybrid enzyme.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermotoga maritima peroxiredoxin-nitroreductase hybrid enzyme (Prx-NR) consists of a FMN-containing nitroreductase (NR) domain fused to a peroxiredoxin (Prx) domain. These domains seem to function independently as no electron transfer occurs between them. The reduction of quinones and nitroaromatics by NR proceeded in a two-electron manner, and follows a 'ping-pong' scheme with sometimes pronounced inhibition by quinone substrate. The comparison of steady- and presteady-state kinetic data shows that in most cases, the oxidative half-reaction may be rate-limiting in the catalytic cycle of NR. The enzyme was inhibited by dicumarol, a classical inhibitor of oxygen-insensitive nitroreductases. The reduction of quinones and nitroaromatic compounds by Prx-NR was characterized by the linear dependence of their reactivity (logk(cat)/K(m)) on their single-electron reduction potentials E(7)(1), while the reactivity of quinones markedly exceeded the one with nitroaromatics. It shows that NR lacks the specificity for the particular structure of these oxidants, except their single-electron accepting potency and the rate of electron self-exchange. It points to the possibility of a single-electron transfer step in a net two-electron reduction of quinones and nitroaromatics by T. maritima Prx-NR, and to a significant diversity of the structures of flavoenzymes which may perform the two-electron reduction of quinones and nitroaromatics. PMID:22982531

Anusevi?ius, Žilvinas; Misevi?ien?, Lina; Šarlauskas, Jonas; Rouhier, Nicolas; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; ??nas, Narimantas

2012-12-01

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Biophysical probing of Spartina maritima photo-system II changes during prolonged tidal submersion periods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Submergence is one of the major constrains affecting wetland plants, with inevitable impacts on their physiology and productivity. Global warming as a driving force of sea level rise, tend to increase the submersion periods duration. Photosynthesis biophysical probing arise as an important tool to understand the energetics underlying plant feedback to these constrains. As in previous studies with Spartina maritima, there was no inhibition of photosynthetic activity in submerged individuals. Comparing both donor and acceptor sides of the PSII, the first was more severely affected during submersion, driven by the inactivation of the OEC with consequent impairment of the ETC. Although this apparent damage in the PSII donor side, the electron transport per active reaction centre was not substantially affected, indicating that this reduction in the electron flow is accompanied by a proportional increase in the number of active reaction centres. These conditions lead to the accumulation of excessive reducing power, source of damaging ROS, counteracted by efficient energy dissipation processes and anti-oxidant enzymatic defences. This way, S. maritima appears as a well-adapted species with an evident photochemical plasticity towards submersion, allowing it to maintain its photosynthetic activity even during prolonged submersion periods. PMID:24630362

Duarte, B; Santos, D; Marques, J C; Caçador, I

2014-04-01

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Effect of Gamma Rays and Salinity on Growth and Chemical Composition of Ambrosia maritima L. Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work achieved to study the effects of, mixture of salt 2:2:1 (Na Cl-CaCl2 and Mg SO4), concentration of (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). on growth characters, some chemical components and some active ingredients in shoots of Ambrosia maritima plants, at different stages of growth, during two seasons. Pots 30 cm in diameter were filled of sand-loamy soils in appropriate concentration, all pots were irrigated with tap water. The exposed damsisa seeds to gamma rays, doses (0, 20, 40, and 80 Gy) before sowing together with control non irradiated seeds were sown in saline soils (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). Soil salinity treatments caused a decrease in plant height, number of leaves, content of damsin, and an increase in fresh weigh, dry weight, total sugars, total chlorophyll, amino acids and ambrosine content. Also, Gamma rays caused an increase in most of growth parameters and most of chemical composition. It was observed that 40 or 80 Gy was more effective. We investigated the combined effect of levels of salinity and doses of radiation used, this interference improve growth parameters and chemical composition in ambrosia maritima plants and caused ascertain the role of gamma irradiation in plants tolerance to soil salinity and alleviation their harmful effect on plants.

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Metabolic Responses to Lead of Metallicolous and Nonmetallicolous Populations of Armeria maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic responses to Pb(NO3)2 (Pb) ions of excised leaves of metallicolous (MPs) and nonmetallicolous populations (NMPs) of Armeria maritima, cultivated on normal soil, were examined. Detached leaves were exposure to Pb for 24 h, and metabolic parameters were investigated. Pb decreased the photosynthesis (Pn) rate and photosystem II (PSII) activity, whereas the photochemical efficiency of PSII remained unchanged. In both populations, Pb ions caused increase in O2 uptake of dark-treated leaves; however, respiration after Pn was not affected. Pb increased superoxide dismutase activity in MP leaves and malondialdehyde content in NMP leaves. Other metabolites after Pb treatment were increased (proline or H2O2) or decreased (malate). Ascorbate peroxidase activity and adenosine triphosphate content decreased more in MP than in NMP leaves. Our results indicate that A. maritima is well adapted to heavy metal-contaminated soils, and we discuss potential causes of the stimulation of respiration by Pb ions and possible reasons for the tolerance to oxidative stress of plants growing in a metal-rich habitat. PMID:25070267

Parys, Eugeniusz; Wasilewska, Wioleta; Siedlecka, Maria; Zienkiewicz, Maksymilian; Dro?ak, Anna; Romanowska, El?bieta

2014-11-01

 
 
 
 
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Site-directed mutagenesis and CBM engineering of Cel5A (Thermotoga maritima).  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to make cost-effective bioethanol from dynamic lignocellulosic material, we require potentially acting and stable cellulolytic enzymes. In our investigation, the hyperthermostable endoglucanase Cel5A from Thermotoga maritima was subjected to site-directed mutagenesis and carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) engineering. For this purpose, amino acids around the active-site region were targeted. Results indicated that five single mutants showed a shift in optimal pH from 5 to 5.4. The N147E mutant displayed 10% higher activity than native Cel5A. Domain engineering was performed with fungal and bacterial CBM. In addition, CBM1 from (CBHII) Trichoderma reesei and CBM6 from Clostridium stercorarium xylanase A were fused with Cel5A. Both the CBM-engineered Cel5A showed 14-18-fold higher hydrolytic activity towards Avicel. Immuno-gold labeling assay of engineered enzymes further indicated the relativity that exists between binding ability and activity. PMID:18752623

Mahadevan, Shobana Arumugam; Wi, Seung Gon; Lee, Dae-Seok; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

2008-10-01

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Characterization of a Thermostable l-Arabinose (d-Galactose) Isomerase from the Hyperthermophilic Eubacterium Thermotoga maritima  

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The araA gene encoding l-arabinose isomerase (AI) from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein containing a C-terminal hexahistidine sequence. This gene encodes a 497-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 56,658. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity by heat precipitation followed by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The native enzyme was estimated by gel filtration chromatography to b...

Lee, Dong-woo; Jang, Hyeung-jin; Choe, Eun-ah; Kim, Byoung-chan; Lee, Sang-jae; Kim, Seong-bo; Hong, Young-ho; Pyun, Yu-ryang

2004-01-01

43

Purification and Characterization of Two Extremely Thermostable Enzymes, Phosphate Acetyltransferase and Acetate Kinase, from the Hyperthermophilic Eubacterium Thermotoga maritima  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phosphate acetyltransferase (PTA) and acetate kinase (AK) of the hyperthermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga maritima have been purified 1,500- and 250-fold, respectively, to apparent homogeneity. PTA had an apparent molecular mass of 170 kDa and was composed of one subunit with a molecular mass of 34 kDa, suggesting a homotetramer (?4) structure. The N-terminal amino acid sequence showed significant identity to that of phosphate butyryltransferases from Clostridium acetobutylicum rather than t...

Bock, Anne-katrin; Glasemacher, Ju?rgen; Schmidt, Roland; Scho?nheit, Peter

1999-01-01

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Positive correlation between recombination rates and levels of genetic variation in natural populations of sea beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima).  

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The relation between the level of genetic variation and the rate of recombination per physical unit was investigated in sea beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima). The rate of recombination per physical unit was estimated indirectly through marker density in an RFLP linkage map of sugar beet. From this map, we also selected RFLP markers covering two of the nine chromosomes in Beta. The markers were used to estimate the level of genetic variation in three populations of sea beet, two from Italy ...

Kraft, T.; Sa?ll, T.; Magnusson-rading, I.; Nilsson, N. O.; Hallde?n, C.

1998-01-01

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Water Stress in Beta vulgaris: Osmotic Adjustment Response and Gene Expression Analysis in ssp. vulgaris and maritima  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Beta vulgaris genus comprises wild and cultivated subspecies. The “maritima” subspecies is formed by wild or weedy accessions, well adapted to low-water potential environments; it was previously shown that B. vulgaris ssp. maritima has mechanisms of osmotic adjustment more effective than the cultivated B. vulgaris ssp. vulgaris. The response to a progressive lowering of soil potential was compared in two Beta accessions, a cultivated and a wild one. Throughout the 4-months experiment under rain shelters, osmotic potential and relative water content were measured and total RNA was extracted to test the expression of six target genes known in sugar beet or in other plants to be modulated by water shortage. The mild occurrence of drought was paralleled by slow increase in transcription for sucrose synthase 1 and choline monoxygenase, in a way that was in some cases accession-dependent, e.g. the gene for choline monoxygenase was found to be up-regulated at the later stages of growth in stressed plants compared to control ones, and showed a higher constitutive transcription in sea beet compared to sugar beet. Transcription factor DREB2Aalso was slowly induced during the growth season and upon onset of water shortage, and this induction was stronger in sea beet than in sugar beet. In control plants, the transcription of all genes tested except DREB2Awere significantly higher in maritima accession compared to vulgaris one.

Paola Vastarelli

2013-01-01

46

Structural insights into the mechanism of the PLP synthase holoenzyme from Thermotoga maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is the biologically active form of vitamin B6 and is an important cofactor for several of the enzymes involved in the metabolism of amine-containing natural products such as amino acids and amino sugars. The PLP synthase holoenzyme consists of two subunits: YaaD catalyzes the condensation of ribulose 5-phosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, and ammonia, and YaaE catalyzes the production of ammonia from glutamine. Here we describe the structure of the PLP synthase complex (YaaD-YaaE) from Thermotoga maritima at 2.9 A resolution. This complex consists of a core of 12 YaaD monomers with 12 noninteracting YaaE monomers attached to the core. Compared with the previously published structure of PdxS (a YaaD ortholog in Geobacillus stearothermophilus), the N-terminus (1-18), which includes helix alpha0, the beta2-alpha2 loop (46-56), which includes new helix alpha2a, and the C-terminus (270-280) of YaaD are ordered in the complex but disordered in PdxS. A ribulose 5-phosphate is bound to YaaD via an imine with Lys82. Previous studies have demonstrated a similar imine at Lys149 and not at Lys81 (equivalent to Lys150 and Lys82 in T. maritima) for the Bacillus subtilis enzyme suggesting the possibility that two separate sites on YaaD are involved in PLP formation. A phosphate from the crystallization solution is found bound to YaaD and also serves as a marker for a possible second active site. An ammonia channel that connects the active site of YaaE with the ribulose 5-phosphate binding site was identified. This channel is similar to one found in imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase; however, when the beta-barrels of the two complexes are superimposed, the glutaminase domains are rotated by about 180 degrees with respect to each other. PMID:17144654

Zein, Fairuz; Zhang, Yan; Kang, You-Na; Burns, Kristin; Begley, Tadhg P; Ealick, Steven E

2006-12-12

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Elementary analysis of Alternanthera Maritima and Blutaparon Portulacoides (Gomphreneae, Amaranthacear) by X-ray fluorescence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phytochemical study and the evaluation of biological activities of plants species have been intensified in the last years. The modernization of analytical equipment allowed significant progress in the natural products chemistry. Most of the plants researches emphasize the isolation of secondary metabolites and the metal analysis is neglected. In this study, aqueous and ethanolic extracts and the intact plant of Alternanthera maritima (aerial parts and roots) and Blutaparon portulacoides (aerial parts and roots), species commonly found on the beaches of eastern coast of Brazil (Restinga de Marica, RJ), were selected for analysis by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). With the standard sample aid, the correlation between the elementary sensitivity and the atomic numbers of the elements was determined. The elements P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, As, Zn, Br, Sr, Sn and Sb, supported in membranes, were detected in the two analyzed plants, but only the elements in the interval 26 (Fe) ? Z ? 30 (Zn) were quantified with elementary concentration between 8,7 and 895,0 ?g.g-1. (author)

48

Urgineaglyceride A: a new monoacylglycerol from the Egyptian Drimia maritima bulbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

One new compound, (2S)-1-O-(Z)-tetracos-6-enoate glycerol (1) named urgineaglyceride A, along with six known compounds, 3,5,7,3',5'-pentahydroxydihydroflavonol (2), stigmasterol (3), (25S)-5?-furostane-3?-22?-26-triol (4), scillaridin A (5), (2S)-(+)-2-hydroxynaringenin-4'-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (6) and quercetin-3'-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (7), were isolated from the EtOAc fraction of Drimia maritima (L.) Stearn bulbs. Their structures were secured based on their IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR data, in addition to HR-MS data and comparison with the literature data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro growth inhibitory activity against A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), U373 glioblastoma (GBM) and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. Compounds 2 and 3 displayed variable activities against the tested cancer cell lines. Compound 2 was a selective inhibitor of the NSCLC cell line with an IC?? of 2.3 ?M, whereas 3 was selective against GBM with IC?? of 0.5 ?M and against PC-3 with 2.0 ?M. PMID:24938488

Mohamed, Gamal A; Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Shaala, Lamiaa A; Alshali, Khalid Z; Youssef, Diaa T A

2014-01-01

49

The carbohydrate-binding specificity and molecular modelling of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora lectins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The carbohydrate-binding specificity of lectins from the seeds of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora was studied by hapten-inhibition of haemagglutination using various sugars and sugar derivatives as inhibitors, including N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid. Despite some discrepancies, both lectins exhibited a very similar carbohydrate-binding specificity as previously reported for other lectins from Diocleinae (tribe Phaseoleae, sub-tribe Diocleinae. Accordingly, both lectins exhibited almost identical hydropathic profiles and their three-dimensional models built up from the atomic coordinates of ConA looked very similar. However, docking experiments of glucose and mannose in their monosaccharide-binding sites, by comparison with the ConA-mannose complex used as a model, revealed conformational changes in side chains of the amino acid residues involved in the binding of monosaccharides. These results fully agree with crystallographic data showing that binding of specific ligands to ConA requires conformational chances of its monosaccharide-binding site.

Márcio Viana Ramos

1996-12-01

50

In the absence of thioredoxins, what are the reductants for peroxiredoxins in Thermotoga maritima?  

Science.gov (United States)

Three peroxiredoxins (Prxs) were identified in Thermotoga maritima, which possesses neither glutathione nor typical thioredoxins: one of the Prx6 class; one 2-Cys PrxBCP; and a unique hybrid protein containing an N-terminal 1-Cys PrxBCP domain fused to a flavin mononucleotide-containing nitroreductase (Ntr) domain. No peroxidase activity was detected for Prx6, whereas both bacterioferritin comigratory proteins (BCPs) were regenerated by a NADH/thioredoxin reductase/glutaredoxin (Grx)-like system, constituting a unique peroxide removal system. Only two of the three Grx-like proteins were able to support peroxidase activity. The inability of TmGrx1 to regenerate oxidized 2-Cys PrxBCP probably results from the thermodynamically unfavorable difference in their disulfide/dithiol E(m) values, -150 and -315 mV, respectively. Mutagenesis of the Prx-Ntr fusion, combined with kinetic and structural analyses, indicated that electrons are not transferred between its two domains. However, their separate activities could function in a complementary manner, with peroxide originating from the chromate reductase activity of the Ntr domain reduced by the Prx domain. PMID:22866991

Couturier, Jérémy; Prosper, Pascalita; Winger, Alison M; Hecker, Arnaud; Hirasawa, Masakazu; Knaff, David B; Gans, Pierre; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Navaza, Alda; Haouz, Ahmed; Rouhier, Nicolas

2013-05-01

51

Functional characterization of the glycosyltransferase domain of penicillin-binding protein 1a from Thermotoga maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Class A penicillin-binding proteins (A-PBPs) are high-molecular weight membrane-bound bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the penicillin-sensitive transpeptidation and transglycosylation reaction steps involved in peptidoglycan assembling. We have over-expressed and characterized a soluble form of the glycosyltransferase domain of PBP1a (GT-PBP1a*) from the hyperthermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima. GT-PBP1a* efficiently catalyses peptidoglycan biosynthesis, as shown using an in vitro biosynthetized dansylated-lipid II substrate and a HPLC-coupled assay, and is specifically inhibited by moenomycin. GT-PBP1a* tends to spontaneously aggregate in detergent-free solution, a feature that supports existence of a secondary site for membrane association, distinct from the N-terminal transmembrane anchoring region. Overall, our preliminary data document the biochemical properties of GT-PBP1a* and should guide further studies aimed at deciphering the structural determinants involved into membrane binding by this class of enzymes. PMID:16725395

Offant, Julien; Michoux, François; Dermiaux, Annabelle; Biton, Jacques; Bourne, Yves

2006-06-01

52

Effect of Gamma Rays and Salinity on Growth and Chemical Composition of Ambrosia maritima L. Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work was achieved in pots at the wire house of the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) during the two successive seasons of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of gamma irradiation doses (0, 20, 40 and 80 Gy) on damssisa plants (Ambrosia maritima L.) under salt stress after sowing in (3:2, sand: loamy) soils with mixture of salts. The mixture of salts was sodium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium sulfate at the ratio of 2:2:1. Three concentrations of the used mixture were prepared; 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm. It was observed that irradiation of damsissa seeds with 40 or 80 Gy increased plant tolerance to salinity comparing to control, concerning plant height, fresh and dry weights and photosynthetic pigments. This increase was often significant with low concentration of salinity. On the other hand, sowing seeds in 6000 ppm concentration decreased all the previous measurements. Also, it was noticed that radiation alleviates the adverse effect of salinity by increasing total sugar and total soluble phenols in shoots of damsissa plants.

53

Complexed Structures of Formylglycinamide Ribonucleotide Amidotransferase from Thermotoga maritima Describe a Novel ATP Binding Protein Superfamily  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Formylglycinamide ribonucleotide amidotransferase (FGAR-AT) catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of formylglycinamidine ribonucleotide (FGAM) from formylglycinamide ribonucleotide (FGAR) and glutamine in the fourth step of the purine biosynthetic pathway. FGAR-AT is encoded by the purL gene. Two types of PurL have been detected. The first type, found in eukaryotes and Gram-negative bacteria, consists of a single 140 kDa polypeptide chain and is designated large PurL (lgPurL). The second type, small PurL (smPurL), is found in archaea and Gram-positive bacteria and consists of an 80 kDa polypeptide chain. SmPurL requires two additional gene products, PurQ and PurS, for activity. PurL is a member of a protein superfamily that contains a novel ATP-binding domain. Structures of several members of this superfamily are available in the unliganded form. We determined five different structures of FGAR-AT from Thermotoga maritima in the presence of substrates, a substrate analogue, and a product. These complexes have allowed a detailed description of the novel ATP-binding motif. The availability of a ternary complex enabled mapping of the active site, thus identifying potential residues involved in catalysis. The complexes show a conformational change in the active site compared to the unliganded structure. Surprising discoveries, an ATP molecule in an auxiliary site of the protein and the conformational changes associated with its binding, provoke speculation about the regulatory role of the auxiliary site in formation of the PurLSQ complex as well as the evolutionary relationship of PurLs from different organisms.

Morar, Mariya; Anand, Ruchi; Hoskins, Aaron A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Ealick, Steven E. (MIT); (Cornell)

2008-09-11

54

Formylglycinamide Ribonucleotide Amidotransferase from Thermotoga maritima: Structural Insights into Complex Formation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the fourth step of the purine biosynthetic pathway, formyl glycinamide ribonucleotide (FGAR) amidotransferase, also known as PurL, catalyzes the conversion of FGAR, ATP, and glutamine to formyl glycinamidine ribonucleotide (FGAM), ADP, P{sub i}, and glutamate. Two forms of PurL have been characterized, large and small. Large PurL, present in most Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes, consists of a single polypeptide chain and contains three major domains: the N-terminal domain, the FGAM synthetase domain, and the glutaminase domain, with a putative ammonia channel located between the active sites of the latter two. Small PurL, present in Gram-positive bacteria and archaea, is structurally homologous to the FGAM synthetase domain of large PurL, and forms a complex with two additional gene products, PurQ and PurS. The structure of the PurS dimer is homologous with the N-terminal domain of large PurL, while PurQ, whose structure has not been reported, contains the glutaminase activity. In Bacillus subtilis, the formation of the PurLQS complex is dependent on glutamine and ADP and has been demonstrated by size-exclusion chromatography. In this work, a structure of the PurLQS complex from Thermotoga maritima is described revealing a 2:1:1 stoichiometry of PurS:Q:L, respectively. The conformational changes observed in TmPurL upon complex formation elucidate the mechanism of metabolite-mediated recruitment of PurQ and PurS. The flexibility of the PurS dimer is proposed to play a role in the activation of the complex and the formation of the ammonia channel. A potential path for the ammonia channel is identified.

Morar, Mariya; Hoskins, Aaron A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Ealick, Steven E. (MIT); (Cornell)

2008-10-02

55

Characterization of Thermotoga maritima glycerol dehydrogenase for the enzymatic production of dihydroxyacetone.  

Science.gov (United States)

NAD-dependent Thermotoga maritima glycerol dehydrogenase (TmGlyDH) converts glycerol into dihydroxyacetone (DHA), a valuable synthetic precursor and sunless tanning agent. In this work, recombinant TmGlyDH was characterized to determine if it can be used to catalyze DHA production. The pH optima for glycerol oxidation and DHA reduction at 50 °C were 7.9 and 6.0, respectively. Under the conditions tested, TmGlyDH had a linear Arrhenius plot up to 80 °C. TmGlyDH was more thermostable than other glycerol dehydrogenases, remaining over 50 % active after 7 h at 50 °C. TmGlyDH was active on racemic 1,2-propanediol and produced (R)-1,2-propanediol from hydroxyacetone with an enantiomeric excess above 99 %, suggesting that TmGlyDH can also be used for chiral synthesis. (R)-1,2-propanediol production from hydroxyacetone was demonstrated for the first time in a one-enzyme cycling reaction using glycerol as the second substrate. Negative cooperativity was observed with glycerol and DHA, but not with the cofactor. Apparent kinetic parameters for glycerol, DHA, and NAD(H) were determined over a broad pH range. TmGlyDH showed little activity with N(6)-carboxymethyl-NAD(+) (N(6)-CM-NAD), an NAD(+) analog modified for easy immobilization to amino groups, but the double mutation V44A/K157G increased catalytic efficiency with N(6)-CM-NAD(+) ten-fold. Finally, we showed for the first time that a GlyDH is active with immobilized N(6)-CM-NAD(+), suggesting that N(6)-CM-NAD(+) can be immobilized on an electrode to allow TmGlyDH activity in a system that reoxidizes the cofactor electrocatalytically. PMID:24664447

Beauchamp, Justin; Gross, Phillip G; Vieille, Claire

2014-08-01

56

Formylglycinamide ribonucleotide amidotransferase from Thermotoga maritima: structural insights into complex formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the fourth step of the purine biosynthetic pathway, formyl glycinamide ribonucleotide (FGAR) amidotransferase, also known as PurL, catalyzes the conversion of FGAR, ATP, and glutamine to formyl glycinamidine ribonucleotide (FGAM), ADP, P i, and glutamate. Two forms of PurL have been characterized, large and small. Large PurL, present in most Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes, consists of a single polypeptide chain and contains three major domains: the N-terminal domain, the FGAM synthetase domain, and the glutaminase domain, with a putative ammonia channel located between the active sites of the latter two. Small PurL, present in Gram-positive bacteria and archaea, is structurally homologous to the FGAM synthetase domain of large PurL, and forms a complex with two additional gene products, PurQ and PurS. The structure of the PurS dimer is homologous with the N-terminal domain of large PurL, while PurQ, whose structure has not been reported, contains the glutaminase activity. In Bacillus subtilis, the formation of the PurLQS complex is dependent on glutamine and ADP and has been demonstrated by size-exclusion chromatography. In this work, a structure of the PurLQS complex from Thermotoga maritima is described revealing a 2:1:1 stoichiometry of PurS:Q:L, respectively. The conformational changes observed in TmPurL upon complex formation elucidate the mechanism of metabolite-mediated recruitment of PurQ and PurS. The flexibility of the PurS dimer is proposed to play a role in the activation of the complex and the formation of the ammonia channel. A potential path for the ammonia channel is identified. PMID:18597481

Morar, Mariya; Hoskins, Aaron A; Stubbe, JoAnne; Ealick, Steven E

2008-07-29

57

Complexed structures of formylglycinamide ribonucleotide amidotransferase from Thermotoga maritima describe a novel ATP binding protein superfamily.  

Science.gov (United States)

Formylglycinamide ribonucleotide amidotransferase (FGAR-AT) catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of formylglycinamidine ribonucleotide (FGAM) from formylglycinamide ribonucleotide (FGAR) and glutamine in the fourth step of the purine biosynthetic pathway. FGAR-AT is encoded by the purL gene. Two types of PurL have been detected. The first type, found in eukaryotes and Gram-negative bacteria, consists of a single 140 kDa polypeptide chain and is designated large PurL (lgPurL). The second type, small PurL (smPurL), is found in archaea and Gram-positive bacteria and consists of an 80 kDa polypeptide chain. SmPurL requires two additional gene products, PurQ and PurS, for activity. PurL is a member of a protein superfamily that contains a novel ATP-binding domain. Structures of several members of this superfamily are available in the unliganded form. We determined five different structures of FGAR-AT from Thermotoga maritima in the presence of substrates, a substrate analogue, and a product. These complexes have allowed a detailed description of the novel ATP-binding motif. The availability of a ternary complex enabled mapping of the active site, thus identifying potential residues involved in catalysis. The complexes show a conformational change in the active site compared to the unliganded structure. Surprising discoveries, an ATP molecule in an auxiliary site of the protein and the conformational changes associated with its binding, provoke speculation about the regulatory role of the auxiliary site in formation of the PurLSQ complex as well as the evolutionary relationship of PurLs from different organisms. PMID:17154526

Morar, Mariya; Anand, Ruchi; Hoskins, Aaron A; Stubbe, JoAnne; Ealick, Steven E

2006-12-19

58

Thermodynamic Properties of the ?-glucosidase from Thermotoga maritima Extend the Upper Limit of Thermophilicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enzymes from thermophilic organisms are believed to be strong candidates for industrial applications due to their ability to withstand temperature-induced enzyme inactivation. The present study demonstrated molecular cloning, over-expression, purification and characterization of ?-glucosidase from Thermotoga maritima. The bglA gene with a capacity to encode a 51 kDa enzyme was heterologously expressed in E. coli M15. The enzyme was produced @130 mgL(-1) in LB media and @440 mgL(-1) in Dubos salt medium accounting 40-47 % of total cellular soluble proteins when lactose was used as an inducer. The enzyme showed a peak activity between pH and temperature range of 5.0-7.0 and 80-100 °C, respectively. The activity was fairly stable up to 140 °C. The turnover rate (kcat) of the enzyme was 187.1±20 s(-1), whereas the Km and Vmax values were 0.56 mM and 238±2.4 IU mg(-1) protein, respectively. The enzyme was shown to have half-life of 136, 71 and 12.6 h at 80, 90 and 100 °C, respectively. Thermodynamics parameters including melting temperature (130 °C), activation energy for inactivation (36.92 kJmole(-1)), enthalpy (33.73 kJmole(-1)), Gibb's free energy (127.96 kJmole(-1)) and entropy (-246.46 Jmole(-1)K(-1)) have shown that the enzyme have enhanced hydrophobic interactions to prevent its thermal unfolding. These features endorse the industrial applications of the enzyme. PMID:24939659

Mehmood, Muhammad A; Shahid, Izzah; Hussain, Khadim; Latif, Farooq; Rajoka, Muhammad I

2014-01-01

59

Ethanolic crude extract and flavonoids isolated from Alternanthera maritima: neutrophil chemiluminescence inhibition and free radical scavenging activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts from Alternanthera maritima are used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Bioassay-guided fractionation of A. maritima aerial parts yielded an ethanolic crude extract, its butanolic fraction and seven isolated flavonoids (two aglycones, two O-glycosides and three C-glycosides) with antioxidative activity. The ability of these samples to scavenge enzymatically generated free radicals (luminol-horseradish peroxidase-H2O2 reaction) and inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by opsonized zymosan-stimulated human neutrophils (PMNLs) was evaluated by chemiluminescence methods. In both assays, the butanolic fraction was significantly more active than the ethanolic crude extract, the flavonoid aglycones had high inhibitory activities and the C-glycosylated flavonoids had no significant effect even at the highest concentration tested (50 micromol/L). However, the O-glycosylated flavonoids inhibitory effects on chemiluminescence were strongly dependent on the chemical structure and assay type (cellular or cell-free system). Under the conditions tested, active samples were not toxic to human PMNLs. PMID:17708437

Souza, Joel G; Tomei, Rafael R; Kanashiro, Alexandre; Kabeya, Luciana M; Azzolini, Ana Elisa C S; Dias, Diones A; Salvador, Marcos J; Lucisano-Valim, Yara M

2007-01-01

60

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of Suaeda maritima (L.) dumort ethanolic extract on concanavalin-A induced hepatotoxicity in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of Suaeda maritima (L.) Dumort on concanavalin-A induced stress in Wistar albino rats have been reported. Rats were administered with ethanolic extract of Suaeda maritimna at the concentration of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg of body wt. for 9 days and concanavalin-A was administrated (iv) 12 mg/kg on 9th day. Rats in concanavalin-A administered group showed elevated levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilurubin. Pretreatment of rats with ethanolic extract (300 mg/kg) significantly reduced these serum parameters compared to concavalin-A administered group. Histopathological examination of liver sections showed that, normal liver architecture was disturbed by hepatotoxin intoxication. The extract treated group and silymarin treated group retained the normal cell architecture, although less visible changes were observed. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of triterpenioids and may be responsible for the hepatoprotective activity. The LD50 was calculated as 3 g/kg of the body weight. IC50 values of hydroxyl (52.21+/-1.32 microg/ml) and nitric oxide radicals (09.14+/-0.94 microg/ml) scavenging results showed comparable activity with vitamin-C. Results of this study may be useful for the development of herbal medicine from Suaeda maritima for the treatment of hepatitis. PMID:21702225

Ravikumar, S; Gnanadesigan, M; Inbaneson, S Jacob; Kalaiarasi, A

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
61

Draft Genome Sequence of Thermotoga maritima A7A Reconstructed from Metagenomic Sequencing Analysis of a Hydrocarbon Reservoir in the Bass Strait, Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The draft genome sequence of Thermotoga maritima A7A was obtained from a metagenomic assembly obtained from a high-temperature hydrocarbon reservoir in the Gippsland Basin, Australia. The organism is predicted to be a motile anaerobe with an array of catabolic enzymes for the degradation of numerous carbohydrates. PMID:24009120

Sutcliffe, Brodie; Midgley, David J; Rosewarne, Carly P; Greenfield, Paul; Li, Dongmei

2013-01-01

62

Selenium accumulation in submerged aquatic macrophytes Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Ruppia maritima L. from water with elevated chloride and sulfate salinity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Submerged aquatic macrophyte species Potamogeton crispus L. (curlyleaf pondweed) and Ruppia maritima L. (widegeongrass) were examined for selenium accumulation from agricultural drainage water in the field and under laboratory conditions. High concentrations of chloride and sulfate salts were found in the drainage water of the constructed wetland at Tulare Lake Drainage District, Corcorn, California. Samples of P. crispus and R. maritima collected from the field, had similar plant-tissue Se concentrations, but the rhizomes accumulated significantly greater amounts of Se than the shoot tissues. When the plants were grown in culture solution supplemented with either chloride or sulfate salt, R. maritima was found to be more salt tolerant than P. crispus, and P. crispus accumulated more Se than R. maritima. Free seleno-amino acids were detected in the plant tissue, and organic Se was detected in the culture solution after 10 days of growth. The release of organic Se into the water by the plants may have a negative impact on the wetland environment. PMID:11800546

Wu, Lin; Guo, Xun

2002-01-01

63

Characterization of glycosyl hydrolase family 3 beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga neapolitana.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genes encoding beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (nagA and cbsA) from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga neapolitana were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli in order to investigate whether Thermotoga sp. is capable of utilizing chitin as a carbon source. NagA and CbsA were purified to homogeneity by HiTrap Q HP and Sephacryl S-200 HR column chromatography. Both enzymes were homodimers containing a family 3 glycoside hydrolase (GH3) catalytic domain, with a monomer molecular mass of 54 kDa. The optimal temperatures and pHs for the activities of the beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases were found to be 65-75 degrees C and 7.0-8.0, respectively. Both enzymes hydrolyzed chitooligomers such as di-N-acetylchitobiose and tri-N-acetylchitotriose, and synthetic substrates such as p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucose (pNPGlc), p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl beta-D-glucosamine (pNPGlcNAc), p-nitrophenyl di-N-acetyl beta-D-chitobiose (pNPGlcNAc(2)) and p-nitrophenyl tri-N-acetyl beta-D-chitotriose (pNPGlcNAc(3)). However, the enzymes had no activity against p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactose (pNPGal) and p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl beta-D-galactosamine (pNPGalNAc) or highly polymerized chitin. The k(cat) and K(m) values were determined for pNPGlcNAc, pNPGlcNAc(2) and pNPGlcNAc(3). The k(cat)/K(m) value for pNPGlcNAc was the highest among three synthetic substrates. NagA and CbsA initially hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl substrates to give GlcNAc, suggesting that the enzymes have exo-activity with chitin oligosaccharides from the non-reducing ends, like other beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases. However, NagA and CbsA can be distinguished from other GH3-type beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases in that they are highly active against di-N-acetylchitobiose. Thus, the present results suggest that the physiological role of both enzymes is to degrade the chitooligosaccharides transported through membrane following hydrolysis of chitin into beta-N-acetylglucosamine to be further metabolized in Thermotoga sp. PMID:19914575

Choi, Kyoung-Hwa; Seo, Ja Yeong; Park, Kyung-Min; Park, Cheon-Seok; Cha, Jaeho

2009-12-01

64

Properties and gene structure of the Thermotoga maritima alpha-amylase AmyA, a putative lipoprotein of a hyperthermophilic bacterium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermotoga maritima MSB8 has a chromosomal alpha-amylase gene, designated amyA, that is predicted to code for a 553-amino-acid preprotein with significant amino acid sequence similarity to the 4-alpha-glucanotransferase of the same strain and to alpha-amylase primary structures of other organisms. Upstream of the amylase gene, a divergently oriented open reading frame which can be translated into a polypeptide with similarity to the maltose-binding protein MalE of Escherichia coli was found. The T. maritima alpha-amylase appears to be the first known example of a lipoprotein alpha-amylase. This is in agreement with observations pointing to the membrane localization of this enzyme in T. maritima. Following the signal peptide, a 25-residue putative linker sequence rich in serine and threonine was found. The amylase gene was expressed in E. coli, and the recombinant enzyme was purified and characterized. The molecular mass of the recombinant enzyme was estimated at 61 kDa by denaturing gel electrophoresis (63 kDa by gel permeation chromatography). In a 10-min assay at the optimum pH of 7.0, the optimum temperature of amylase activity was 85 to 90 degrees C. Like the alpha-amylases of many other organisms, the activity of the T. maritima alpha-amylase was dependent on Ca2+. The final products of hydrolysis of soluble starch and amylose were mainly glucose and maltose. The extraordinarily high specific activity of the T. maritima alpha-amylase (about 5.6 x 10(3) U/mg of protein at 80 degrees C, pH 7, with amylose as the substrate) together with its extreme thermal stability makes this enzyme an interesting candidate for biotechnological applications in the starch processing industry. PMID:9006052

Liebl, W; Stemplinger, I; Ruile, P

1997-02-01

65

Comparative study of antibacterial and antifugal activity of callus culture and adult plants extracts from Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae) / Estudo comparativo da atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos obtidos da cultura de calos e da planta adulta de Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo procedeu-se a avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica dos extratos brutos de Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae) planta in natura de duas coletas distintas e obtidos por cultura de células buscando-se averiguar a manutenção da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos obtidos [...] da planta in vivo e in vitro. A ação antibacteriana e antifúngica foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar (técnica do poço) utilizando-se trinta cepas de microrganismos indicadores (bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas, leveduras e dermatófitos). Todos os extratos obtidos com solventes orgânicos avaliados apresentaram-se bioativos com halos de inibição de 6 a 20 mm. Os extratos da planta in natura das duas coletas (Restinga de Marica (RJ), verão de 1995 e 1998) inibiram o desenvolvimento de diferentes microrganismos (bactérias, leveduras e dermatófitos). Os extratos obtidos da cultura de calos desenvolvidos em duas condições de cultivo diferentes, também se mantiveram bioativos. Assim, os resultados obtidos encorajam a realização de novos estudos com esta espécie vegetal para se determinar quais as substâncias presentes nos extratos e que contribuem para a atividade biológica, como também para entender seu mecanismo de ação e avaliar sua toxicidade, visando uma possível aplicação farmacêutica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of callus culture (two different hormonal combination culture medium) and adult plants (two collect) extracts from Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae) investigating the maintenance of antimicrobial activity in vivo an [...] d in vitro. The antibacterial and antifungal activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method against thirty strains of microorganisms including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes. All the organic crude extracts studied were bioactive. Extracts of aerial parts and roots of adult plants collected during the same period of years of 1995 and 1998 (Restinga de Maricá (RJ), collect 1 and 2) inhibited the growth of several microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes) with inhibition halo between 6 and 20 mm. Plant cell callus culture extracts obtained from two culture conditions were also bioactive. Thus, the positive results suggest that the A. maritima extracts should be further studied to determine the bioactive chemical compounds as well as to understand the possible mechanisms of action and evaluate their toxicity looking toward a pharmaceutical employment.

Marcos J., Salvador; Paulo S., Pereira; Suzelei C., França; Regina C., Candido; Izabel Y., Ito; Diones A., Dias.

66

Comparative study of antibacterial and antifugal activity of callus culture and adult plants extracts from Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae Estudo comparativo da atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos obtidos da cultura de calos e da planta adulta de Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of callus culture (two different hormonal combination culture medium and adult plants (two collect extracts from Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae investigating the maintenance of antimicrobial activity in vivo and in vitro. The antibacterial and antifungal activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method against thirty strains of microorganisms including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes. All the organic crude extracts studied were bioactive. Extracts of aerial parts and roots of adult plants collected during the same period of years of 1995 and 1998 (Restinga de Maricá (RJ, collect 1 and 2 inhibited the growth of several microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes with inhibition halo between 6 and 20 mm. Plant cell callus culture extracts obtained from two culture conditions were also bioactive. Thus, the positive results suggest that the A. maritima extracts should be further studied to determine the bioactive chemical compounds as well as to understand the possible mechanisms of action and evaluate their toxicity looking toward a pharmaceutical employment.Neste estudo procedeu-se a avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica dos extratos brutos de Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae planta in natura de duas coletas distintas e obtidos por cultura de células buscando-se averiguar a manutenção da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos obtidos da planta in vivo e in vitro. A ação antibacteriana e antifúngica foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar (técnica do poço utilizando-se trinta cepas de microrganismos indicadores (bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas, leveduras e dermatófitos. Todos os extratos obtidos com solventes orgânicos avaliados apresentaram-se bioativos com halos de inibição de 6 a 20 mm. Os extratos da planta in natura das duas coletas (Restinga de Marica (RJ, verão de 1995 e 1998 inibiram o desenvolvimento de diferentes microrganismos (bactérias, leveduras e dermatófitos. Os extratos obtidos da cultura de calos desenvolvidos em duas condições de cultivo diferentes, também se mantiveram bioativos. Assim, os resultados obtidos encorajam a realização de novos estudos com esta espécie vegetal para se determinar quais as substâncias presentes nos extratos e que contribuem para a atividade biológica, como também para entender seu mecanismo de ação e avaliar sua toxicidade, visando uma possível aplicação farmacêutica.

Marcos J. Salvador

2004-06-01

67

Comparative study of antibacterial and antifugal activity of callus culture and adult plants extracts from Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae) / Estudo comparativo da atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos obtidos da cultura de calos e da planta adulta de Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo procedeu-se a avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica dos extratos brutos de Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae) planta in natura de duas coletas distintas e obtidos por cultura de células buscando-se averiguar a manutenção da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos obtidos [...] da planta in vivo e in vitro. A ação antibacteriana e antifúngica foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar (técnica do poço) utilizando-se trinta cepas de microrganismos indicadores (bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas, leveduras e dermatófitos). Todos os extratos obtidos com solventes orgânicos avaliados apresentaram-se bioativos com halos de inibição de 6 a 20 mm. Os extratos da planta in natura das duas coletas (Restinga de Marica (RJ), verão de 1995 e 1998) inibiram o desenvolvimento de diferentes microrganismos (bactérias, leveduras e dermatófitos). Os extratos obtidos da cultura de calos desenvolvidos em duas condições de cultivo diferentes, também se mantiveram bioativos. Assim, os resultados obtidos encorajam a realização de novos estudos com esta espécie vegetal para se determinar quais as substâncias presentes nos extratos e que contribuem para a atividade biológica, como também para entender seu mecanismo de ação e avaliar sua toxicidade, visando uma possível aplicação farmacêutica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of callus culture (two different hormonal combination culture medium) and adult plants (two collect) extracts from Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae) investigating the maintenance of antimicrobial activity in vivo an [...] d in vitro. The antibacterial and antifungal activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method against thirty strains of microorganisms including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes. All the organic crude extracts studied were bioactive. Extracts of aerial parts and roots of adult plants collected during the same period of years of 1995 and 1998 (Restinga de Maricá (RJ), collect 1 and 2) inhibited the growth of several microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes) with inhibition halo between 6 and 20 mm. Plant cell callus culture extracts obtained from two culture conditions were also bioactive. Thus, the positive results suggest that the A. maritima extracts should be further studied to determine the bioactive chemical compounds as well as to understand the possible mechanisms of action and evaluate their toxicity looking toward a pharmaceutical employment.

Marcos J., Salvador; Paulo S., Pereira; Suzelei C., França; Regina C., Candido; Izabel Y., Ito; Diones A., Dias.

2004-06-01

68

The elucidation of the structure of Thermotoga maritima peptidoglycan reveals two novel types of cross-link.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermotoga maritima is a Gram-negative, hyperthermophilic bacterium whose peptidoglycan contains comparable amounts of L- and D-lysine. We have determined the fine structure of this cell-wall polymer. The muropeptides resulting from the digestion of peptidoglycan by mutanolysin were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by amino acid analysis after acid hydrolysis, dinitrophenylation, enzymatic determination of the configuration of the chiral amino acids, and mass spectrometry. The high-performance liquid chromatography profile contained four main peaks, two monomers, and two dimers, plus a few minor peaks corresponding to anhydro forms. The first monomer was the d-lysine-containing disaccharide-tripeptide in which the D-Glu-D-Lys bond had the unusual gamma-->epsilon arrangement (GlcNAc-MurNAc-L-Ala-gamma-D-Glu-epsilon-D-Lys). The second monomer was the conventional disaccharide-tetrapeptide (GlcNAc-MurNAc-L-Ala-gamma-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala). The first dimer contained a disaccharide-L-Ala as the acyl donor cross-linked to the alpha-amine of D-Lys in a tripeptide acceptor stem with the sequence of the first monomer. In the second dimer, donor and acceptor stems with the sequences of the second and first monomers, respectively, were connected by a D-Ala4-alpha-D-Lys3 cross-link. The cross-linking index was 10 with an average chain length of 30 disaccharide units. The structure of the peptidoglycan of T. maritima revealed for the first time the key role of D-Lys in peptidoglycan synthesis, both as a surrogate of L-Lys or meso-diaminopimelic acid at the third position of peptide stems and in the formation of novel cross-links of the L-Ala1(alpha-->alpha)D-Lys3 and D-Ala4(alpha-->alpha)D-Lys3 types. PMID:19542229

Boniface, Audrey; Parquet, Claudine; Arthur, Michel; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Blanot, Didier

2009-08-14

69

The conformational flexibility of the helicase-like domain from Thermotoga maritima reverse gyrase is restricted by the topoisomerase domain.  

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Reverse gyrase is the only enzyme known to introduce positive supercoils into DNA. Positive supercoiling is achieved by the functional cooperation of a helicase-like and a topoisomerase domain. The isolated helicase-like domain is a DNA-stimulated ATPase, and the isolated topoisomerase domain can relax supercoiled DNA. In the context of reverse gyrase, these individual activities are suppressed or attenuated. The helicase-like domain of Thermotoga maritima reverse gyrase is a nucleotide-dependent conformational switch that binds DNA and ATP cooperatively. It provides a nucleotide-dependent DNA-binding site to reverse gyrase and thus serves as a valuable model for the investigation of the effect of nucleotides on DNA processing by reverse gyrase that is key to its supercoiling activity. To improve our understanding of the structural basis for the functional cooperation of a helicase domain with a DNA topoisomerase, we have determined the structures of the isolated helicase-like domain of T. maritima reverse gyrase in five different conformations. Comparison of these structures reveals extensive domain flexibility in the absence of conformational restrictions by the topoisomerase that is consistent with single-molecule Fo?rster resonance energy transfer experiments presented here. The structure of the first ADP-bound form provides novel details about nucleotide binding to reverse gyrase. It demonstrates that reverse gyrases use the canonical nucleotide binding mode common to superfamily 2 helicases despite large deviations in the conserved motifs. A characteristic insert region adopts drastically different structures in different reverse gyrases. Counterparts of this insert region are located at very different positions in other DNA-processing enzymes but may point toward a general role in DNA strand separation. PMID:21627332

del Toro Duany, Yoandris; Klostermeier, Dagmar; Rudolph, Markus G

2011-07-01

70

Periplasmic Binding Proteins in Thermophiles: Characterization and Potential Application of an Arginine-Binding Protein from Thermotoga maritima: A Brief Thermo-Story  

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Full Text Available Arginine-binding protein from the extremophile Thermotoga maritima is a 27.7 kDa protein possessing the typical two-domain structure of the periplasmic binding proteins family. The protein is characterized by a very high specificity and affinity to bind to arginine, also at high temperatures. Due to its features, this protein could be taken into account as a potential candidate for the design of a biosensor for arginine. It is important to investigate the stability of proteins when they are used for biotechnological applications. In this article, we review the structural and functional features of an arginine-binding protein from the extremophile Thermotoga maritima with a particular eye on its potential biotechnological applications.

Sabato D'Auria

2013-02-01

71

Study with an isotopic method using tritiated water of hydric exchanges in Plantago maritima L. var Graminaea and Plantago lanceolata L.: effect of an antitranspirant  

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The study with an isotopic method using tritiated water of total hydric exchanges in an halophyte (Plantago maritima) and a glycophyte (Plantago lanceolata) grown in the presence or not of NaCl and treated or not by an antitranspirant, point out two facts: the specific origin for the plant salinity resistances and the stomatal nature which characterizes the modality for the efficience of antitranspirant tested

72

Subcellular concentrations of sugar alcohols and sugars in relation to phloem translocation in Plantago major, Plantago maritima, Prunus persica, and Apium graveolens  

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Sugar and sugar alcohol concentrations were analyzed in subcellular compartments of mesophyll cells, in the apoplast, and in the phloem sap of leaves of Plantago major (common plantain), Plantago maritima (sea plantain), Prunus persica (peach) and Apium graveolens (celery). In addition to sucrose, common plantain, sea plantain, and peach also translocated substantial amounts of sorbitol, whereas celery translocated mannitol as well. Sucrose was always present in vacuole and cytosol of mesophy...

Nadwodnik, Jan; Lohaus, Gertrud

2008-01-01

73

Comparative analysis of pyruvate kinases from the hyperthermophilic archaea Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Aeropyrum pernix, and Pyrobaculum aerophilum and the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima: unusual regulatory properties in hyperthermophilic archaea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pyruvate kinases (PK, EC 2.7.1.40) from three hyperthermophilic archaea (Archaeoglobus fulgidus strain 7324, Aeropyrum pernix, and Pyrobaculum aerophilum) and from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima were compared with respect to their thermophilic, kinetic, and regulatory properties. PKs from the archaea are 200-kDa homotetramers composed of 50-kDa subunits. The enzymes required divalent cations, Mg2+ and Mn2+ being most effective, but were independent of K+. Temperature optima for activity were 85 degrees C (A. fulgidus) and above 98 degrees C (A. pernix and P. aerophilum). The PKs were highly thermostable up to 110 degrees C (A. pernix) and showed melting temperatures for thermal unfolding at 93 degrees C (A. fulgidus) or above 98 degrees C (A. pernix and P. aerophilum). All archaeal PKs exhibited sigmoidal saturation kinetics with phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and ADP indicating positive homotropic cooperative response with both substrates. Classic heterotropic allosteric regulators of PKs from eukarya and bacteria, e.g. fructose 1,6-bisphosphate or AMP, did not affect PK activity of hyperthermophilic archaea, suggesting the absence of heterotropic allosteric regulation. PK from the bacterium T. maritima is also a homotetramer of 50-kDa subunits. The enzyme was independent of K+ ions, had a temperature optimum of 80 degrees C, was highly thermostable up to 90 degrees C, and had a melting temperature above 98 degrees C. The enzyme showed cooperative response to PEP and ADP. In contrast to its archaeal counterparts, the T. maritima enzyme exhibited the classic allosteric response to the activator AMP and to the inhibitor ATP. Sequences of hyperthermophilic PKs showed significant similarity to characterized PKs from bacteria and eukarya. Phylogenetic analysis of PK sequences of all three domains indicates a distinct archaeal cluster that includes the PK from the hyperthermophilic bacterium T. maritima. PMID:12654928

Johnsen, Ulrike; Hansen, Thomas; Schonheit, Peter

2003-07-11

74

Elementary analysis of Alternanthera Maritima and Blutaparon Portulacoides (Gomphreneae, Amaranthacear) by X-ray fluorescence; Analise elementar de Alternanthera Maritima e Blutaparon Portulacoides (Gomphreneae, Amaranthacear) por fluorescencia de raios-X  

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The phytochemical study and the evaluation of biological activities of plants species have been intensified in the last years. The modernization of analytical equipment allowed significant progress in the natural products chemistry. Most of the plants researches emphasize the isolation of secondary metabolites and the metal analysis is neglected. In this study, aqueous and ethanolic extracts and the intact plant of Alternanthera maritima (aerial parts and roots) and Blutaparon portulacoides (aerial parts and roots), species commonly found on the beaches of eastern coast of Brazil (Restinga de Marica, RJ), were selected for analysis by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). With the standard sample aid, the correlation between the elementary sensitivity and the atomic numbers of the elements was determined. The elements P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, As, Zn, Br, Sr, Sn and Sb, supported in membranes, were detected in the two analyzed plants, but only the elements in the interval 26 (Fe) {<=} Z {<=} 30 (Zn) were quantified with elementary concentration between 8,7 and 895,0 {mu}g.g{sup -1}. (author)

Salvador, M.J.; Dias, D.A.; Zucchi, O.L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Fisica e Quimica]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp,br; mjsalva@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, V.F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

2002-07-01

75

Accuracy of replication in the polymerase chain reaction. Comparison between Thermotoga maritima DNA polymerase and Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english For certain applications of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), it may be necessary to consider the accuracy of replication. The breakthrough that made PCR user friendly was the commercialization of Thermus aquaticus (Taq) DNA polymerase, an enzyme that would survive the high temperatures needed fo [...] r DNA denaturation. The development of enzymes with an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease proofreading activity, lacking in Taq polymerase, would be an improvement when higher fidelity is needed. We used the forward mutation assay to compare the fidelity of Taq polymerase and Thermotoga maritima (ULTMA™) DNA polymerase, an enzyme that does have proofreading activity. We did not find significant differences in the fidelity of either enzyme, even when using optimal buffer conditions, thermal cycling parameters, and number of cycles (0.2% and 0.13% error rates for ULTMA™ and Taq, respectively, after reading about 3,000 bases each). We conclude that for sequencing purposes there is no difference in using a DNA polymerase that contains an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease activity for DNA amplification. Perhaps the specificity and fidelity of PCR are complex issues influenced by the nature of the target sequence, as well as by each PCR component.

R.S., Diaz; E.C., Sabino.

1998-10-01

76

Structural analysis of alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase from Thermotoga maritima reveals characteristics for thermostability and substrate specificity.  

Science.gov (United States)

An alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase (TmAFase) from Thermotoga maritima MSB8 is a highly thermostable exo-acting hemicellulase that exhibits a relatively higher activity towards arabinan and arabinoxylan, compared with other glycoside hydrolase 51 family enzymes. In the present study, we carried out the enzymatic characterization and structural analysis of TmAFase. Tight domain associations found in TmAFase, such as an inter-domain disulfide bond (Cys306 and Cys476) in each monomer, a novel extended arm (amino acids 374-385) at the dimer interface, and total 12 salt bridges in the hexamer, may account for the thermostability of the enzyme. One of the xylan binding determinants (Trp96) was identified in the active site, and a region of amino acids (374-385) protrudes out forming an obvious wall at the substrate-binding groove to generate a cavity. The altered cavity shape with a strong negative electrostatic distribution is likely related to the unique substrate preference of TmAFase towards branched polymeric substrates. PMID:23221536

Dumbrepatil, Arti; Park, Jung-Mi; Jung, Tae Yang; Song, Hyung-Nam; Jang, Myoung-Uoon; Han, Nam Soo; Kim, Tae-Jip; Woo, Eui Jeon

2012-12-01

77

Growth of the dune wintergreen (Pyrola rotundifolia ssp. maritima) at Braunton Burrows in relation to weather factors  

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This study primarily concerns the relation between: (i) the growth of one particular invasive colony of dune wintergreen (Pyrola rotundifolia ssp. maritima) on Braunton Burrows, as shown by the numbers of living rosettes counted at midsummer from 1964-74 inclusive; and (ii) concurrent meteorological records made nearby. After de-trending the Pyrola data statististically, correlations were sought between the growth in numbers achieved in each year and the local air temperature (three bases), rainfall and duration of bright sunshine. While the annual increase in net numbers appears to have been unaffected by sunshine hours, this increase does seem to have been much diminished by cold nights, particularly in early spring and, though less strongly so, by low rainfall in the latter part of the preceding summer. Taking account of the performance of Pyrola in other habitats on the Burrows, it is suggested that the rainfall correlation may reflect the influence of atmospheric humidity rather than water supply to the roots. Local meteorological records over a 51-year period show combined temperature and rainfall conditions consistently favorable to Pyrola growth throughout a 5-year run to a degree which might be expected to occur in only three such runs out of every hundred. The favorable period (1957-61) occurred between the inferred first occurrence of Pyrola on the Burrows and its observed rapid spread. 13 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

Hunt, R.; Hope-Simpson, J.F.; Snape, J.B.

1985-01-01

78

The Structural Basis of Alpha-Glucan Recognition by a Family 41 Carbohydrate-Binding Module from Therotoga Maritima  

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Starch recognition by carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) is important for the activity of starch-degrading enzymes. The N-terminal family 41 CBM, TmCBM41 (from pullulanase PulA secreted by Thermotoga maritima) was shown to have {alpha}-glucan binding activity with specificity for {alpha}-1, 4-glucans but was able to tolerate the {alpha}-1, 6-linkages found roughly every three or four glucose units in pullulan. Using X-ray crystallography, the structures were solved for TmCBM41 in an uncomplexed form and in complex with maltotetraose and 63-{alpha}-d-glucosyl-maltotriose (GM3). Ligand binding was facilitated by stacking interactions between the {alpha}-faces of the glucose residues and two tryptophan side-chains in the two main subsites of the carbohydrate-binding site. Overall, this mode of starch binding is quite well conserved by other starch-binding modules. The structure in complex with GM3 revealed a third binding subsite with the flexibility to accommodate an {alpha}-1, 4- or an {alpha}-1, 6-linked glucose.

van Bueren,A.; Boraston, A.

2006-01-01

79

Accuracy of replication in the polymerase chain reaction. Comparison between Thermotoga maritima DNA polymerase and Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For certain applications of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR, it may be necessary to consider the accuracy of replication. The breakthrough that made PCR user friendly was the commercialization of Thermus aquaticus (Taq DNA polymerase, an enzyme that would survive the high temperatures needed for DNA denaturation. The development of enzymes with an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease proofreading activity, lacking in Taq polymerase, would be an improvement when higher fidelity is needed. We used the forward mutation assay to compare the fidelity of Taq polymerase and Thermotoga maritima (ULTMA? DNA polymerase, an enzyme that does have proofreading activity. We did not find significant differences in the fidelity of either enzyme, even when using optimal buffer conditions, thermal cycling parameters, and number of cycles (0.2% and 0.13% error rates for ULTMA? and Taq, respectively, after reading about 3,000 bases each. We conclude that for sequencing purposes there is no difference in using a DNA polymerase that contains an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease activity for DNA amplification. Perhaps the specificity and fidelity of PCR are complex issues influenced by the nature of the target sequence, as well as by each PCR component.

Diaz R.S.

1998-01-01

80

Structure of a D-tagatose 3-epimerase-related protein from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

The crystal structure of a D-tagatose 3-epimerase-related protein (TM0416p) encoded by the hypothetical open reading frame TM0416 in the genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima was determined at a resolution of 2.2 A. The asymmetric unit contained two homologous subunits and a dimer was generated by twofold symmetry. The main-chain coordinates of the enzyme monomer proved to be similar to those of D-tagatose 3-epimerase from Pseudomonas cichorii and D-psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens; however, TM0416p exhibited a unique solvent-accessible substrate-binding pocket that reflected the absence of an alpha-helix that covers the active-site cleft in the two aforementioned ketohexose 3-epimerases. In addition, the residues responsible for creating a hydrophobic environment around the substrate in TM0416p differ entirely from those in the other two enzymes. Collectively, these findings suggest that the substrate specificity of TM0416p is likely to differ substantially from those of other D-tagatose 3-epimerase family enzymes. PMID:19255464

Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Yoneda, Kazunari; Satomura, Takenori; Kawakami, Ryushi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
81

Stationary phase and nutrient levels trigger transcription of a genomic locus containing a novel peptide (TM1316) in the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima encodes numerous putative peptides/proteins of 100 amino acids or less. While most of these open reading frames (ORFs) are transcribed during growth, their corresponding physiological roles are largely unknown. The onset of stationary phase in T. maritima was accompanied by significant morphological changes and upregulation of several ORFs located in the TM1298-TM1336 genome locus. This region contains putative HicAB toxin-antitoxin pairs, hypothetical proteins, radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes, and ABC transporters. Of particular note was the TM1315-TM1319 operon, which includes a putative 31-amino-acid peptide (TM1316) that was the most highly transcribed gene in the transcriptome during stationary phase. Antibodies directed against a synthetic version of TM1316 were used to track its production, which correlated closely with transcriptomic data. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that TM1316 was localized to the cell envelope and prominent in cell aggregates formed during stationary phase. The only functionally characterized locus with an organization similar to that of TM1315-TM1319 is in Bacillus subtilis, which contains subtilosin A, a cyclic peptide with Cys-to-?-carbon linkages that functions as an antilisterial bacteriocin. While the organization of TM1316 resembled that of the Bacillus peptide (e.g., in its number of amino acids and spacing of Cys residues), preparations containing high levels of TM1316 affected the growth of neither Thermotoga species nor Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated from the same locale as T. maritima. Several other putative Cys-rich peptides could be identified in the TM1298-TM1336 locus, and while their roles are also unclear, they merit examination as potential antimicrobial agents in hyperthermophilic biotopes. PMID:23974142

Frock, Andrew D; Montero, Clemente I; Blumer-Schuette, Sara E; Kelly, Robert M

2013-11-01

82

Properties and gene structure of the Thermotoga maritima alpha-amylase AmyA, a putative lipoprotein of a hyperthermophilic bacterium.  

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Thermotoga maritima MSB8 has a chromosomal alpha-amylase gene, designated amyA, that is predicted to code for a 553-amino-acid preprotein with significant amino acid sequence similarity to the 4-alpha-glucanotransferase of the same strain and to alpha-amylase primary structures of other organisms. Upstream of the amylase gene, a divergently oriented open reading frame which can be translated into a polypeptide with similarity to the maltose-binding protein MalE of Escherichia coli was found. ...

Liebl, W.; Stemplinger, I.; Ruile, P.

1997-01-01

83

Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima - ancestor of all beet crops - and modern sugar beets  

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Full Text Available The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 47.4% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (?45.8% than for sugar beet (?57.5%. Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes.

ChristinZachow

2014-08-01

84

Growth of the dune wintergreen ( Pyrola rotundifolia ssp. maritima) at Braunton Burrows in relation to weather factors  

Science.gov (United States)

The dune wintergreen ( Pyrola rotundifolia ssp. maritima) is an evergreen perennial herb which has spread extensively in recent decades to, and on, various British dune systems including Braunton Burrows, N. Devon. Its multiplication is partly vegetative, by rhizomes bearing leaf rosettes. This study primarily concerns the relation between: (i) the growth of one particular invasive colony on Braunton Burrows, as shown by the numbers of living rosettes counted at midsummer from 1964 74 inclusive; and (ii) concurrent meteorological records made nearby. Monthly weather means were calculated on various quarterly bases. After de-trending the Pyrola data statistically, correlations were sought between the growth in numbers achieved in each year and the local air temperature (three bases), rainfall and duration of bright sunshine. While the annual increase in net numbers appears to have been unaffected by sunshine hours, this increase does seem to have been much diminished by cold nights, particularly in early spring and, though less strongly so, by low rainfall in the latter part of the preceding summer. Taking account of the performance of Pyrola in other habitats on the Burrows, it is suggested that the rainfall correlation may reflect the influence of atmospheric humidity rather than water supply to the roots. Local meteorological records over a 51-year period show combined temperature and rainfall conditions consistently favourable to Pyrola growth throughout a 5-year run to a degree which might be expected to occur in only three such runs out of every hundred. The favourable period (1957 61) occurred between the inferred first occurrence of Pyrola on the Burrows and its observed rapid spread.

Hunt, R.; Hope-Simpson, J. F.; Snape, J. B.

1985-12-01

85

Modification of granular corn starch with 4-alpha-glucanotransferase from Thermotoga maritima: effects on structural and physical properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Corn starch was converted using alpha-1,4-glucanotransferase from Thermotoga maritima (Tm alpha GT), a hyperthermophilic bacterium, without inducing gelatinization, and the structural changes and physical properties of the modified starches were investigated. Enzyme modification was induced at 65 degrees C for 8, 16, or 24 h, and the morphology of the modified starches was observed with light and scanning electron microscopy. Granule integrity was mostly maintained after enzyme treatment, although some granules were partially fragmented as evidenced by enlarged surface pores and some cracks. The modified starches had lower apparent amylose levels than raw starch. The molecular weights of amylose and amylopectin molecules in the treated starches were lower than those of raw starch, and the amount of branched molecules, which had much lower molecular weights, also increased in the treated starches. The chain-length distribution of amylopectin showed an increased number of shorter branched chains. The modified starches showed a wider melting temperature range and a lower melting enthalpy than that of raw starch. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the modified starches showed typical A-type starch peaks, but the relative crystallinities were lower than that of raw starch. The solubility and paste clarity of the modified starches were much higher than those of raw starch. The modified starch gels maintained their rigidity over the whole frequency range tested and showed thermoreversibility between 4 and 75 degrees C. These results suggest that Tm alpha GT can be used to produce granular corn starch, which contains amylose and amylopectin having lower molecular weights and a thermoreversible gelation property. PMID:18387093

Oh, E J; Choi, S J; Lee, S J; Kim, C H; Moon, T W

2008-04-01

86

Seed characteristics and dispersal of dimorphic fruit segments of Cakile maritima Scopoli (Brassicaceae) population of southern Brazilian coastal dunes / Características das sementes e dispersão dos segmentos de frutos dimórficos de uma população de Cakile maritima Scopoli (Brassicaceae) nas dunas costeiras do Sul do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Cakile maritima ocorre esporadicamente ao longo da costa Sul do Brasil, onde é encontrada restrita aos locais mais protegidos na base das dunas frontais. O dimorfismo somático é manifestado como segmentos de frutos (silículas) superior e inferior, morfologicamente distintos. As sementes dos dois tip [...] os de segmentos foram avaliadas quanto ao tamanho, número, capacidade de dispersão e estabelecimento em condições naturais. Na população de C. maritima no Sul do Brasil as silículas inferiores apresentaram maior número de sementes do que as siliculas superiores, e as sementes das silículas inferiores foram mais abortadas que as das superiores. As sementes dos segmentos superiores foram significativamente maiores do que aquelas dos segmentos inferiores; entretanto ocorreu uma sobreposição nos pesos entre elas. O peso médio das silículas dos dois segmentos não difere significativamente, mas a razão peso das silículas / peso das sementes foi significativamente diferente para os segmentos superior e inferior. Ambos segmentos apresentaram grande habilidade de flutuar em água salgada, superior a 50% após 70 dias. Todavia, a dispersão dos segmentos dos frutos ocorre principalmente em direção ao continente através da ação do vento. A maioria das plântulas encontradas no ambiente natural se encontrava restrita num raio de um metro da planta-mãe, e era originada principalmente de sementes dos segmentos inferiores dos frutos. Abstract in english Cakile maritima occurs sporadically along the southern Brazilian coast, where it is restricted to more protected sites at the base of foredunes. Somatic dimorphism in C. maritima is manifested as morphologically distinct upper and lower fruit segments (silicules). The two morphs were tested for diff [...] erences in size, number of seeds, dispersal ability and natural establishment. In the C. maritima population of southern Brazil, the lower silicule has more seeds than upper silicule, and lower seeds are more likely to abort than the upper ones. Seeds from upper segments were significantly larger than those from lower ones; however, their mass ranges overlap. The mean silicule mass was not significantly different from both segments, but the silicule/seed mass ratio from upper and lower segments was significantly different. Both segments had high ability to float in sea water, more than 50% were still afloat after 70 days. Nevertheless, dispersal occurs mainly to landward due to dominant wind action. Most of the seedlings were restricted to within a one-metre radius of the mother plant, and were principally derived from lower fruit segments.

César Vieira, Cordazzo.

87

Salt tolerance in the halophyte Suaeda maritima L. Dum. : The maintenance of turgor pressure and water-potential gradients in plants growing at different salinities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osmotic potentials and individual epidermal cell turgor pressures were measured in the leaves of seedlings of Suaeda maritima growing over a range of salinities. Leaf osmotic potentials were lower (more negative) the higher the salt concentration of the solution and were lowest in the youngest leaves and stem apices, producing a gradient of osmotic potential towards the apex of the plant. Epidermal cell turgor pressures were of the order of 0.25 to 0.3 MPa in the youngest leaves measured, decreasing to under 0.05 MPa for the oldest leaves. This pattern of turgor pressure was largely unaffected by external salinity. Calculation of leaf water potential indicated that the gradient between young leaves and the external medium was not altered by salinity, but with older leaves, however, this gradient diminished from being the same as that for young leaves in the absence of NaCl, to under 30% of this value at 400 mM NaCl. These results are discussed in relation to the growth response of S. maritima. PMID:24241145

Clipson, N J; Tomos, A D; Flowers, T J; Jones, R G

1985-08-01

88

A thermostable S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase from Thermotoga maritima: Properties and its application on S-adenosylhomocysteine production with enzymatic cofactor regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) is an effective sedative, a good sleep modulator, and a new anticonvulsant. SAH can be synthesized from adenosine and homocysteine by using microbial S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHase). The extremely thermostable SAHase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from Thermotoga maritima were successfully overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by heat treatments. The SAHase exhibited the highest activity at 85°C and pH 8.0 with a specific activity of 6.2U/mg when NAD concentration was 1mM. However, optimal SAHase reaction conditions shifted to 100°C and pH 11.2, and its specific activity increased to 36.8U/mg after NAD concentration was raised to 8mM. Biosynthesis of SAH at 85°C largely increased the adenosine solubility which was a limiting factor for improving the titer of product. At 85°C and pH 8.0, 24?mol of SAH was obtained when 0.5mg of SAHase was applied to a 10ml reaction mixture. The SAH production was further increased to 153?mol by adding LDH and pyruvate into the reaction mixture for NAD regeneration. Therefore, extremely thermostable enzymes SAHase and LDH from T. maritima form an efficient NAD consumption and regeneration system for SAH biosynthesis. This method has great potential for industrial-scale enzymatic production of SAH. PMID:25152414

Qian, Guojun; Chen, Caiping; Zhou, Rong; He, Yanbin; Shao, Weilan

2014-10-01

89

Interaction indole-3-acetic acid IAA with lectin Canavalia maritima seeds reveal new function of lectins in plant physiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: Lectins are a class of proteins of non-immune origin characterized by its capability in interacts specifically and reversibly to mono and oligosaccharides. In plant several possible roles have been suggested including their function in seed maturation, cell wall assembly, defense mechanisms, or rhizobial nodulation of legume roots. Nearly all application and proposed of the plant lectins are based on their specific carbohydrate binding. However, it has been reported that lectins from legumes, might interact with other molecules, such as non proteic amino acids and hydrophobic compounds. This study show the first the crystal structure based on molecular replacement of the Canavalia maritima (CML) complexed with IAA correlated with possible role in plant development. Purified CML was dissolved in 20 mMTrisHCl pH 7.6 containing 5 mM IAA, the suitable co-crystals from CML-IAA complex grew in condition 4 of screen I (0.1 M TrisHCl pH 8.5 and 2.0 M ammonium sulfate). This crystal belong to the orthorhombic space group I222 with unit-cell parameters a = 67.1 ; b = 70.7 , c = 97.7 , The structure was refined at 2.1 of resolution to a final R factor of 20.63 % and an R free of 22.54 %. To check the relative position of the IAA molecule in relation to the biological assemble of the CML, the tetrameric structure was generate by crystallographic symmetry. IAA molecules are positioned in the central cavity. The IAA is stabilized by interacting through hydrogen bounds and Van der Waals forces with the amino acids residues Ser 108 and Asn131, and two water molecules. The hydrophilic interactions occur between IAA and side chains of Ser 108, Asn131 and water molecules 26 and 31 by H-bonds. The OG oxygen from Ser108 display H-bonds with O2 and O3 oxygen atoms from IAA, 3.1 and 2.8 respectively. The tetrameric structure of CML complexed with IAA revels which this protein can act during the seedling in plant development. (author)

Silva Filho, J.C.; Santi-Gadelha, T.; Gadelha, C.A.A.; Delatorre, P. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Teixeira, C.S.; Rocha, B.A.M.; Nobrega, R.B.; Alencar, K.L.L.; Cavada, B.S. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

2012-07-01

90

Interaction indole-3-acetic acid IAA with lectin Canavalia maritima seeds reveal new function of lectins in plant physiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Lectins are a class of proteins of non-immune origin characterized by its capability in interacts specifically and reversibly to mono and oligosaccharides. In plant several possible roles have been suggested including their function in seed maturation, cell wall assembly, defense mechanisms, or rhizobial nodulation of legume roots. Nearly all application and proposed of the plant lectins are based on their specific carbohydrate binding. However, it has been reported that lectins from legumes, might interact with other molecules, such as non proteic amino acids and hydrophobic compounds. This study show the first the crystal structure based on molecular replacement of the Canavalia maritima (CML) complexed with IAA correlated with possible role in plant development. Purified CML was dissolved in 20 mMTrisHCl pH 7.6 containing 5 mM IAA, the suitable co-crystals from CML-IAA complex grew in condition 4 of screen I (0.1 M TrisHCl pH 8.5 and 2.0 M ammonium sulfate). This crystal belong to the orthorhombic space group I222 with unit-cell parameters a = 67.1 ; b = 70.7 , c = 97.7 , The structure was refined at 2.1 of resolution to a final R factor of 20.63 % and an R free of 22.54 %. To check the relative position of the IAA molecule in relation to the biological assemble of the CML, the tetrameric structure was generate by crystallographic symmetry. IAA molecules are positioned in the central cavity. The IAA is stabilized by interacting through hydrogen bounds and Van der Waals forces with the amino acids residues Ser 108 and Asn131, and two water molecules. The hydrophilic interactions occur between IAA and side chains of Ser 108, Asn131 and water molecules 26 and 31 by H-bonds. The OG oxygen from Ser108 display H-bonds with O2 and O3 oxygen atoms from IAA, 3.1 and 2.8 respectively. The tetrameric structure of CML complexed with IAA revels which this protein can act during the seedling in plant development. (author)

91

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the putative ABC transporter ATP-binding protein from Thermotoga maritima  

Science.gov (United States)

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are ATP hydrolysis-dependent transmembrane transporters. Here, the overproduction, purification and crystallization of the putative ABC transporter ATP-binding protein TM0222 from Thermotoga maritima are reported. The protein was crystallized in the hexagonal space group P6422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 148.49, c = 106.96?Å, ? = 120.0°. Assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the calculated V M is 2.84?Å3?Da?1, which corresponds to a solvent content of 56.6%. A three-wavelength MAD data set was collected to 2.3?Å resolution from SeMet-substituted TM0222 crystals. Data sets were collected on the BL38B1 beamline at SPring-8, Japan. PMID:18540059

Ethayathulla, Abdul S.; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Shinkai, Akeo; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Singh, Tej P.; Kaur, Punit; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

2008-01-01

92

Fusion of family 2b carbohydrate-binding module increases the catalytic activity of a xylanase from Thermotoga maritima to soluble xylan.  

Science.gov (United States)

A family 2b carbohydrate-binding module from Streptomyces thermoviolaceus STX-II was fused at the carboxyl-terminus of XynB, a thermostable and single domain family 10 xylanase from Thermotoga maritima, to create a chimeric xylanase. The chimeric enzyme (XynB-CBM2b) was purified and characterized. It displayed a pH-activity profile similar to that of XynB and was stable up to 90 degrees C. XynB-CBM2b bound to insoluble birchwood and oatspelt xylan. Whereas its hydrolytic activities toward insoluble xylan and p-nitrophenyl-beta-xylopyranoside were similar to those of XynB, its activity toward soluble xylan was moderately higher than that of XynB. PMID:12914941

Kittur, Farooqahmed S; Mangala, Selanere L; Rus'd, Ahmed Abu; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Tsujibo, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Kiyoshi

2003-08-14

93

Fungal decontamination and enhancement of shelf life of edible split beans of wild legume Canavalia maritima by the electron beam irradiation  

Science.gov (United States)

Ripened split beans of the coastal sand dune wild legume Canavalia maritima serve as one of the traditional nutritional sources of the coastal dwellers in Southwest coast of India. Nine fungi were isolated from the unirradiated dry beans by plating on the potato dextrose agar medium. Toxigenic fungus Aspergillus niger showed the highest incidence (33-50%) followed by Aspergillus flavus (14-20%) and Penicillium chrysogenum (7-13%). Unirradiated dry beans and irradiated dry beans with electron beam doses 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 kGy were monitored for occurrence of fungal species and their incidence during 0, 3 and 6 months storage period under laboratory conditions. Irradiation resulted in dose-dependent decrease in fungal species (5-7, 4-6, 3-6 and 0 on irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 or 15 kGy, respectively) as well as incidence (80-99, 19-46, 13-21 and 0%, respectively). Although aflatoxins (B1 and B2) were found below detectable level (beans (2.5 and 5 kGy), they were not present in beans irradiated with 10 and 15 kGy. In spite of occurrence of toxigenic fungus Aspergillus ochraceus in unirradiated and irradiated beans (2.5 and 5 kGy) stored for 3 and 6 months, the beans were devoid of ochratoxin-A. Electron beam irradiation dose 10 kGy could be recommended for fungal decontamination and improvement of shelf life of C. maritima ripened dry split beans.

Supriya, P.; Sridhar, K. R.; Ganesh, S.

2014-03-01

94

Isolation, identification and expression analysis of salt-induced genes in Suaeda maritima, a natural halophyte, using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite wealth of information generated on salt tolerance mechanism, its basics still remain elusive. Thus, there is a need of continued effort to understand the salt tolerance mechanism using suitable biotechnological techniques and test plants (species to enable development of salt tolerant cultivars of interest. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to generate information on salt stress responsive genes in a natural halophyte, Suaeda maritima, using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization (PCR-SSH technique. Results Forward and reverse SSH cDNA libraries were constructed after exposing the young plants to 425 mM NaCl for 24 h. From the forward SSH cDNA library, 429 high quality ESTs were obtained. BLASTX search and TIGR assembler programme revealed overexpression of 167 unigenes comprising 89 singletons and 78 contigs with ESTs redundancy of 81.8%. Among the unigenes, 32.5% were found to be of special interest, indicating novel function of these genes with regard to salt tolerance. Literature search for the known unigenes revealed that only 17 of them were salt-inducible. A comparative analysis of the existing SSH cDNA libraries for NaCl stress in plants showed that only a few overexpressing unigenes were common in them. Moreover, the present study also showed increased expression of phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene, indicating the possible accumulation of a much studied osmoticum, glycinebetaine, in halophyte under salt stress. Functional categorization of the proteins as per the Munich database in general revealed that salt tolerance could be largely determined by the proteins involved in transcription, signal transduction, protein activity regulation and cell differentiation and organogenesis. Conclusion The study provided a clear indication of possible vital role of glycinebetaine in the salt tolerance process in S. maritima. However, the salt-induced expression of a large number of genes involved in a wide range of cellular functions was indicative of highly complex nature of the process as such. Most of the salt inducible genes, nonetheless, appeared to be species-specific. In light of the observations made, it is reasonable to emphasize that a comparative analysis of ESTs from SSH cDNA libraries generated systematically for a few halophytes with varying salt exposure time may clearly identify the key salt tolerance determinant genes to a minimum number, highly desirable for any genetic manipulation adventure.

Sahu Binod B

2009-06-01

95

Identification of Tyr241 as a key catalytic base in the family 4 glycoside hydrolase BglT from Thermotoga maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

While the vast majority of glycosidases catalyze glycoside hydrolysis via oxocarbenium ion-like transition states and typically employ carboxylic acid residues as acid/base or nucleophile catalysts, two subfamilies of these enzymes (GH4 and GH109 in the CAZY classification) conduct hydrolysis via a redox-assisted mechanism involving anionic transition states. While good evidence of this mechanism has been obtained, the identities of the catalytic residues involved have not yet been confirmed. Mechanistic analyses of mutants of the 6-phospho-?-glucosidase from Thermotoga maritima (BglT), in which the active site tyrosine residue (Tyr 241) has been replaced with Phe and Ala, provide support for its role as a catalytic base. The pH dependence of k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m), particularly of the acidic limb corresponding to the base, is shifted relative to that of the wild-type enzyme. Kinetic isotope effects for hydrolysis of substrates deuterated at C1, C2, and C3 by the Tyr 241 mutants are strongly pH-dependent, with essentially full primary kinetic isotope effects being observed for the 2-deutero substrate at low pH with the Tyr241Ala mutant. This is consistent with a slowing of the deprotonation step upon removal of the base. PMID:23025815

Yip, Vivian L Y; Withers, Stephen G

2012-10-23

96

Some Active Ingredients, Total Protein and Amino Acids in Plants Produced from Irradiated Ambrosia maritima Seeds Growing under Different Soil Salinity Levels  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out at the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology during two successive seasons, of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009, respectively in pots 30 cm in diameter. The aim of this experiment was to study the response of damsisa (Ambrosia maritima L. seeds that exposed to different doses of radiation (0, 20, 40, 80 Gy after planting in soils contain mixtures of salts. The dose rate was 0.89 and 0.87 rad sec-1. The salts used were NaCl, CaCl2 and MgSO4 in ratio 2:2:1 with concentrations 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm. Irradiated and un- irradiated seeds were sown in, sand-loamy, soil with mixture of salts. Also, a group of irradiated and un-irradiated seeds were sown in normal soils without salt and serve as a control, all pots irrigated with tap water until field capacity. It was observed that saline condition decreased ambrosin, protein and amino acids trend, in damsisa shoots. While, the results obtained refer to increasing proline concentration separated as a result of uses ?-rays and salinity treatments. The extreme sensitivity of the metabolic processes of proline synthesis and degradation themselves may be of benefit by regulating metabolic processes which adversely affected by stress. So, it was concluded that ?-rays improve plant growth and increase its chemical components under saline stress condition.

A.R. Ghalab

2012-01-01

97

Subcellular concentrations of sugar alcohols and sugars in relation to phloem translocation in Plantago major, Plantago maritima, Prunus persica, and Apium graveolens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar and sugar alcohol concentrations were analyzed in subcellular compartments of mesophyll cells, in the apoplast, and in the phloem sap of leaves of Plantago major (common plantain), Plantago maritima (sea plantain), Prunus persica (peach) and Apium graveolens (celery). In addition to sucrose, common plantain, sea plantain, and peach also translocated substantial amounts of sorbitol, whereas celery translocated mannitol as well. Sucrose was always present in vacuole and cytosol of mesophyll cells, whereas sorbitol and mannitol were found in vacuole, stroma, and cytosol in all cases except for sea plantain. The concentration of sorbitol, mannitol and sucrose in phloem sap was 2- to 40-fold higher than that in the cytosol of mesophyll cells. Apoplastic carbohydrate concentrations in all species tested were in the low millimolar range versus high millimolar concentrations in symplastic compartments. Therefore, the concentration ratios between the apoplast and the phloem were very strong, ranging between 20- to 100-fold for sorbitol and mannitol, and between 200- and 2000-fold for sucrose. The woody species, peach, showed the smallest concentration ratios between the cytosol of mesophyll cells and the phloem as well as between the apoplast and the phloem, suggesting a mixture of apoplastic and symplastic phloem loading, in contrast to the herbal plant species (common plantain, sea plantain, celery) which likely exhibit an active loading mode for sorbitol and mannitol as well as sucrose from the apoplast into the phloem. PMID:18188589

Nadwodnik, Jan; Lohaus, Gertrud

2008-04-01

98

A ConA-like lectin isolated from Canavalia maritima seeds alters the expression of genes related to virulence and biofilm formation in Streptococcus mutans  

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Full Text Available Bacteria form biofilms as an adaptive mechanism in response to environmental changes. Streptococcus mutans is the biofilm-forming bacterium that is primarily associated with dental caries. The expression of important genes by bacteria in biofilms is different from that of planktonic cells. Lectins are proteins that bind specifically to carbohydrates and may have important biological activities on bacterial cells, acting as antibacterial and anti-biofilm agents. ConM (Canavalia maritima lectin is a protein that is able to inhibit the planktonic growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of ConM and concanavalin A (ConA on the expression of genes related to virulence and biofilm formation in S. mutans. The results showed that ConM significantly reduced the expression of genes encoding enzymes related to adhesion, formation and regulation of biofilms. On the contrary, ConA did not alter the expression of the genes studied. Because the two lectins have a high degree of similarity, the differences in the actions of ConM and ConA may be explained by the small structural differences in the carbohydrate recognition domain of the lectins.

Theodora Thays Arruda Cavalcante

2013-12-01

99

Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima-ancestor of all beet crops-and modern sugar beets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (?45.8%) than for sugar beet (?57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes. PMID:25206350

Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

2014-01-01

100

Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima--ancestor of all beet crops--and modern sugar beets  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (?45.8%) than for sugar beet (?57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes. PMID:25206350

Zachow, Christin; Muller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Effect of dietary supplementation with Suaeda maritima on blood physiology, innate immune response, and disease resistance in olive flounder against Miamiensis avidus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of Suaeda maritima enriched diet on blood physiology, innate immune response, and disease resistance in olive flounder Paralichythys olivaceus against Miamiensis avidus on weeks 1, 2, and 4 was investigated. Feeding with any enriched diet and then challenging with M. avidus significantly increased white blood cells (WBC) on weeks 2 and 4; the red blood cells (RBC) significantly increased with 0.1% and 1.0% enriched diets on week 4. The hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) levels significantly increased when fed with 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diets on weeks 2 and 4. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) did not significantly vary with any diet and time; however the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) significantly increased with 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diets on weeks 2 and 4. The leukocytes such as lymphocytes (Lym), monocytes (Mon), neutrophils (Neu) and biochemical parameters such as total protein (TP), glucose (GLU), and calcium (CAL) levels significantly increased in 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diet fed groups on weeks 2 and 4. The serum lysozyme activity was significantly enhanced in 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diet fed groups from weeks 1 to 4 when compared to the control (0% herbal extract enriched diet). The scuticocidal activity and respiratory burst activity were significantly enhanced when fish were fed with 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diets from weeks 2 and 4. The protective effect in terms of cumulative mortality (50% and 40%) was low in groups on being fed with 0.1% and 1.0% supplemented diet. Therefore the present study suggested that 0.1% and 1.0% S. maritime-supplemented diets protect the hematological and biochemical parameters, improving the innate immunity, affording protection disease from M. avidus infection in olive flounder. PMID:22490817

Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Ju-Sang; Kim, Man-Chul; Dharaneedharan, Subramanian; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Hong, Seung-Hyun; Song, Chang-Young; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

2012-06-01

102

Simultaneous determination of bufadienolides and phenolic compounds in sea squill (Drimia maritima (L.) Stearn) by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) as a means to differentiate individual plant parts and developmental stages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mediterranean sea squill (Drimia maritima (L.) Stearn) is used in the production of medicinal products. Current HPLC methods comprise tedious sample clean-up and have been merely focused on the analysis of cardiac glycosides, whereas a thorough characterization of D. maritima considering both the latter compound class and more hydrophilic secondary metabolites in one HPLC run has not been performed so far. Consequently, a novel HPLC-DAD-MS(n) method has been developed allowing the simultaneous determination of both cardiac glycosides and phenolic compounds, which is characterized by simplified sample preparation. This method was applied to characterize sea squill, revealing a complex profile of its extractive compounds derived from the two classes. Furthermore, the potential of the method reported here to quantitate the predominant compounds, i.e., dihydroquercetin derivatives and bufadienolides, was demonstrated. The occurrence of phenolic compounds, not described for sea squill so far, and of characteristic compounds specific to individual plant parts or vegetation stages was further addressed. The data revealed that classification of various vegetation phases based on quantitative evaluation of bufadienolides and dihydroquercetin derivatives applying principal component analysis (PCA) appears possible. Thus, the methodology presented here forms the basis for future routine application in quality control of raw materials and pharmaceutical preparations derived from sea squill. This will allow systematic comparison of different plant parts, vegetation stages and origins based on an extended sample set. PMID:25027721

Knittel, Diana N; Stintzing, Florian C; Kammerer, Dietmar R

2014-09-01

103

Effect of Air-Borne Salinity on the Growth and Appearance of the Tropical Perennial Strandline Plant, Commelina erecta subsp. maritima (C.V. Morton C.V. Morton  

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Full Text Available Selection of salt spray tolerant plants with good physical appearance is of concern to ornamental growers in coastal communities. Commelina erecta subsp. maritima (C.V. Morton C.V. Morton is a seashore plant that is widely distributed along the coast of West Africa. Therefore, the effect of salt spray was examined on the plant in a greenhouse experiment to determine its responses to various levels of air-borne salinity and to have an insight in the ecophysiological adaptations underlying these responses. It was also aimed to determine if varying levels of salt spray differentially damaged the plant. Filtered seawater was used to spray potted plants at: two sprays per week (2SS, four sprays per week (4SS or six sprays per week (6SS while in the control treatment (CSS, plants were sprayed with deionized water. Plants sprayed with seawater did not differ significantly (p > 0.05 in percentage necrotic leaf area compared to the control. All the plants survived but growth was inhibited by salt spray. Salt spray caused a significant (p < 0.05 reduction in leaf size and total chlorophyll content. Salt was accumulated in the shoot of salt-sprayed plants which led to ion toxicity. Salt sprays led to reduction in amount of essential nutrients in plant parts. C. erecta subsp. maritima adjusted osmotically to salt stress and increased stem succulence for ion dilution. The growth of the plant was negatively affected by salt sprays but it showed no significant necrotic damage, hence it is suitable for use as a landscaping plant in coastal beaches.

Otitoloju Kekere

2014-02-01

104

Positive implicative ordered filters of implicative semigroups  

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Full Text Available We introduce the notion of positive implicative ordered filters in implicative semigroups. We show that every positive implicative ordered filter is both an ordered filter and an implicative ordered filter. We give examples that an ordered filter (an implicative ordered filter may not be a positive implicative ordered filter. We also give equivalent conditions of positive implicative ordered filters. Finally we establish the extension property for positive implicative ordered filters.

Kyung Ho Kim

2000-06-01

105

Environmental implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors examine the environmental implications and applications of current information and communication technologies. The book also reviews emerging trends in information technology and some of the attendant issues for policy makers, particularly those relating to economic growth in developing countries.

Elkington, J.; Shopley, J.

1988-01-01

106

Advances in fuzzy implication functions  

CERN Document Server

Fuzzy implication functions are one of the main operations in fuzzy logic. They generalize the classical implication, which takes values in the set {0,1}, to fuzzy logic, where the truth values belong to the unit interval [0,1]. These functions are not only fundamental for fuzzy logic systems, fuzzy control, approximate reasoning and expert systems, but they also play a significant role in mathematical fuzzy logic, in fuzzy mathematical morphology and image processing, in defining fuzzy subsethood measures and in solving fuzzy relational equations. This volume collects 8 research papers on fuzzy implication functions. Three articles focus on the construction methods, on different ways of generating new classes and on the common properties of implications and their dependencies. Two articles discuss implications defined on lattices, in particular implication functions in interval-valued fuzzy set theories. One paper summarizes the sufficient and necessary conditions of solutions for one distributivity equation...

Beliakov, Gleb; Sola, Humberto; Pradera, Ana

2013-01-01

107

Implications of antisocial parents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antisocial behavior is a socially maladaptive and harmful trait to possess. This can be especially injurious for a child who is raised by a parent with this personality structure. The pathology of antisocial behavior implies traits such as deceitfulness, irresponsibility, unreliability, and an incapability to feel guilt, remorse, or even love. This is damaging to a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parents with this personality makeup can leave a child traumatized, empty, and incapable of forming meaningful personal relationships. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of antisocial behavior. Moreover, the child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial behavior who is raised with a parental style that triggers the genetic liability is at high risk for developing the same personality structure. Antisocial individuals are impulsive, irritable, and often have no concerns over their purported responsibilities. As a parent, this can lead to erratic discipline, neglectful parenting, and can undermine effective care giving. This paper will focus on the implications of parents with antisocial behavior and the impact that this behavior has on attachment as well as on the development of antisocial traits in children. PMID:21293928

Torry, Zachary D; Billick, Stephen B

2011-12-01

108

Mind, Matter and the Implicate Order The Implicate Order Revisited  

CERN Document Server

Proposes that Bohm's alternative interpretation of quantum theory resolves the paradoxes such as Schrodinger's cat, and the EPR paradox. This work uses Bohm's concepts of "implicate order", "active information" and "soma-significance" as tools to tackle several well-known problems in the philosophy of mind.

Pylkkänen, Paavo T I

2007-01-01

109

The Interpreted Executive: Theory, Models, and Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzes the interpreter's role in international business ventures. Presents descriptive models of the role, highlights major implications executives should consider before hiring an interpreter, and poses research questions based on these implications. (SR)

Sussman, Lyle; Johnson, Denise M.

1993-01-01

110

Strong implicative hyper K-ideals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A condition for a strong hyper K-ideal to be a strong implicative hyper K-ideal is given. Homomorphic images and inverse images of strong implicative hyper K-ideals are considered.

Young Bae Jun

2006-05-01

111

Congruence Relations on Lattice Implication Algebras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lattice implication algebra is an important logic algebra, congruence relations is one of important contents in it. The basic properties and the structures of general congruence relations on lattice implication algebras are discussed; The results that a lattice implication algebra is congruence-permutable is obtained.

Yi Liu

2011-05-01

112

A Bayesian Model for Discovering Typological Implications  

CERN Document Server

A standard form of analysis for linguistic typology is the universal implication. These implications state facts about the range of extant languages, such as ``if objects come after verbs, then adjectives come after nouns.'' Such implications are typically discovered by painstaking hand analysis over a small sample of languages. We propose a computational model for assisting at this process. Our model is able to discover both well-known implications as well as some novel implications that deserve further study. Moreover, through a careful application of hierarchical analysis, we are able to cope with the well-known sampling problem: languages are not independent.

Daumé, Hal

2009-01-01

113

Safety implications of control systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Safety Implications of Control Systems Program has three major activities in support of USI-A47. The first task is a failure mode and effects analysis of all plant systems which may potentially induce control system disturbance that have safety implications. This task has made a preliminary study of overfill events and recommended cases for further analysis on the hybrid simulator. Work continues on overcooling and undercooling. A detailed investigation of electric power network is in progress. LERs are providing guidance on important failure modes that will provide initial conditions for further simulator studies. The simulator taks is generating a detailed model of the control system supported by appropriate neutronics, hydraulics, and thermodynamics submodels of all other principal plant components. The simulator is in the last stages of development. Checkout calculations are in progress to establish model stability, robustness, and qualitative credibility. Verification against benchmark codes and plant data will follow

114

Practical implications of 'postmodern philosophy'  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article examines the implications of the discourse about postmodernity. Postmodernity is analyzed as a complex discursive figure. Within the discourse about postmodernity three levels are distinguished: the postmodern condition, postmodernism, and reflection of the postmodern condition. Special attention is paid to globalization and the problem of the enforcement of modern projects in East-European societies, particularly Serbia. These societies are termed object-societies, while their modification of modernity is called eastmodernity. The author's answer to the complexity of the postmodern condition is a conception of the politics of subsistence.

Savi? Mile V.

2002-01-01

115

Networking activism: implications for Greece  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The outbreak of December 2008 against police brutality through a wave of demonstrations and street protests in Athens, which was strongly advocated by protest activities and practices across the world, addresses several issues in relation to the transformative potentials of mediated collective action. The paper critically evaluates different accounts of December events, probing then into thevery networking of that movement. From this perspective, it points out another aspect of the local-global interplay in protest culture along new mediating practices (beyond the creation of transnational publics, that of the implications of transnational networking for local social activism and identi?cation, addressing relevant questions in the Greek context.

Pantelis Vatikiotis

2011-12-01

116

Inflationary implications of supersymmetry breaking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll parameters and the geometry of the Kähler manifold of the chiral scalars. We analyse the inflationary implications of this bound, and in particular discuss to what extent the requirements of single field and slow-roll can both be met in F-term inflation

117

Inflationary implications of supersymmetry breaking  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll parameters and the geometry of the Kähler manifold of the chiral scalars. We analyse the inflationary implications of this bound, and in particular discuss to what extent the requirements of single field and slow-roll can both be met in F-term inflation.

Borghese, Andrea; Roest, Diederik; Zavala, Ivonne [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

2013-07-23

118

Philosophical Implications of Inflationary Cosmology  

CERN Document Server

Recent developments in cosmology indicate that every history having a nonzero probability is realized in infinitely many distinct regions of spacetime. Thus, it appears that the universe contains infinitely many civilizations exactly like our own, as well as infinitely many civilizations that differ from our own in any way permitted by physical laws. We explore the implications of this conclusion for ethical theory and for the doomsday argument. In the infinite universe, we find that the doomsday argument applies only to effects which change the average lifetime of all civilizations, and not those which affect our civilization alone.

Knobe, J; Vilenkin, A; Knobe, Joshua; Olum, Ken D.; Vilenkin, Alexander

2003-01-01

119

Fantastic filters of lattice implication algebras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The notion of a fantastic filter in a lattice implication algebra is introduced, and the relations among filter, positive implicative filter, and fantastic filter are given. We investigate an equivalent condition for a filter to be fantastic, and state an extension property for fantastic filter.

Young Bae Jun

2000-08-01

120

Safety implications of control systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Safety Implications of Control Systems (SIOC) Program has three interrelated objectives: (1) to investigate failure modes and effects in non-safety control systems, including single failures and common cause, common mode, cascade, and other credible multiple failures, (2) to assess the impact upon safety of control system designs and their dynamic behavior, using methods that include computer modeling and analysis of system dynamics under stress, and (3) to develop criteria for determining the relative importance of control system influences upon safety, and with these as a basis to recommend design and operational standards for the systems involved. In support of these goals, the SIOC Program consists of three principal activities: (1) an augmented failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) of the overall plant; (2) specific analysis of the plant electrical system; and (3) a hybrid computer model to augment the FMEA. This paper will discuss the status of each of these activities

 
 
 
 
121

HIV: implication in Burkitt lymphoma.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The risk of Burkitt lymphoma (BL is increased in HIV-infected patients as compared to general population in Europe and in the US. This effect might be due to immune suppression and low CD4-cell counts associated with the development of AIDS. However, there is also evidence of a direct effect of HIV on B cell proliferation and differentiation, which may account for the development of B cell malignancies. We shall discuss possible mechanisms of implication of HIV in BL with a focus on the role of different viral components (Tat, Nef and gp120 proteins, viral envelope in the c-myc/IgH translocation characteristic of BL.

Vassetzky Y. S.

2012-07-01

122

Policy implications of greenhouse warming  

Science.gov (United States)

A study panel of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine recently issued the report Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. That report examined relevant scientific knowldeg and evidence about the potential of greenhouse warming, and assayed actions that could slow the onset of warming (mitigation policies) or help human and natural systems of plants and animals adapt to climatic changes (adaptation policies). The panel found that, even given the considerable uncertainties knowledge of the relevant phenomena, greenhouse warming poses a threat sufficient to merit prompt action. People in this country could probably adapt to the changes likely to accompany greenhouse warming. The costs, however, could be substantial. Investment in mitigation acts as insurance protection against the great uncertainties and the possibility of dramatic surprises. The panel found mitigation options that could reduce U.S. emissions by an estimated 10 to 40 percent at modest cost.

Coppock, Rob

1992-03-01

123

Mining TCGA data using Boolean implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Boolean implications (if-then rules) provide a conceptually simple, uniform and highly scalable way to find associations between pairs of random variables. In this paper, we propose to use Boolean implications to find relationships between variables of different data types (mutation, copy number alteration, DNA methylation and gene expression) from the glioblastoma (GBM) and ovarian serous cystadenoma (OV) data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We find hundreds of thousands of Boolean implications from these data sets. A direct comparison of the relationships found by Boolean implications and those found by commonly used methods for mining associations show that existing methods would miss relationships found by Boolean implications. Furthermore, many relationships exposed by Boolean implications reflect important aspects of cancer biology. Examples of our findings include cis relationships between copy number alteration, DNA methylation and expression of genes, a new hierarchy of mutations and recurrent copy number alterations, loss-of-heterozygosity of well-known tumor suppressors, and the hypermethylation phenotype associated with IDH1 mutations in GBM. The Boolean implication results used in the paper can be accessed at http://crookneck.stanford.edu/microarray/TCGANetworks/. PMID:25054200

Sinha, Subarna; Tsang, Emily K; Zeng, Haoyang; Meister, Michela; Dill, David L

2014-01-01

124

On implications in sectionally pseudocomplemented posets  

CERN Document Server

A sectionally pseudocomplemented poset P is one which has the top element and in which every principal order filter is a pseudocomplemented poset. The sectional pseudocomplements give rise to an implication-like operation on P which coincides with the relative pseudocomplementation if P is relatively psudocomplemented. We characterise this operation and study some elementary properties of upper semilattices, lower semilattices and lattices equipped with this kind of implication. We deal also with a few weaker versions of implication. Sectionally pseudocomplemented lattices have already been studied in the literature.

Cärulis, Jänis

2007-01-01

125

Personal Narratives: Cultural Differences and Clinical Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to examine the misdiagnosis of cultural difference deficits and how mistaking deficits in narrative production for cultural differences can be avoided. Findings reveal the implications for intervention.

Bliss, Lynn S.; McCabe, Allyssa

2008-01-01

126

Intuitionistic implication makes model checking hard  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the complexity of the model checking problem for intuitionistic propositional logic IPC, and for the intuitionistic logics BPL (basic propositional logic), FPL (formal propositional logic), and KC (Jankov's logic). We show that the model checking problem is P-complete for the implicational fragments of all these logics. For BPL and FPL we reach P- hardness even on the implicational fragment with only one variable. The same hardness results are obtained for the strictly implicational fragments of their modal companions. Moreover, we investigate whether formulas with less variables and additional connectives make model checking easier. Whereas for variable free formulas outside of the implicational fragment, FPL model checking is shown to be in LOGCFL, the problem remains P-complete for BPL.

Mundhenk, Martin

2011-01-01

127

On the implications of recent SNO results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Model-dependent and model-independent implications of the Super Kamiokande and SNO results are outlined. Related deductions about the deformation of the solar neutrino spectrum, and the existence of oscillations between two active types of neutrinos, are revisited

128

Implications of Future Shock for Vocational Guidance  

Science.gov (United States)

Toffler's concept of future shock speaks directly to the acceleration of transience before we have developed adaptive strategies; the impact of transience is discussed, with implications for vocational counseling. (Author)

Hoffman, S. David; Rolin, Stephen A.

1972-01-01

129

Sex Differences in Intelligence: Implications for Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

A psychobiosocial model that is based on the inextricable link between the biological bases of intelligence and environmental events is proposed as an alternative to nature/nurture dichotomies. Societal implications and applications to teaching and learning are suggested. (MMU)

Halpern, Diane F.

1997-01-01

130

Business ethics: implications for managed care contracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Business ethics is a specialized study that emphasizes how moral standards apply to organizations, policies, procedures and behavior. Moral standards must be considered to understand the implications of business ethics in subacute care. PMID:9004681

Stahl, D A

1997-01-01

131

Environmental Implications of the Tourism Industry  

Science.gov (United States)

This Discussion Paper was posted at the Resources for the future (RFF) Website during March 2000. Terry Davies and Sarah Cahill wrote "Environmental Implications of the Tourism Industry," which elaborates on the impacts of tourism on the environment.

Cahill, Sarah.; Davies, Terry

2000-01-01

132

Climatic implications of ice microphysics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on aircraft measurements of mid-latitude cirrus clouds, ice crystal size distribution and ice water content (IWC) are shown to be dependent on temperature. This dependence is also evident from the theoretical consideration of ice crystal growth. Using simple models of the diffusion and accretion growth of ice particles, the computed mean ice crystal size and IWC compare reasonably well with the measured mean values. The temperature dependence of ice crystal size and IWC has important climatic implications in that the temperature field perturbed by external radiative forcings, such as greenhouse warming, can alter the composition of ice crystal clouds. Through radiative transfer, ice microphysics can in turn affect the temperature field. Higher IWC would increase cloud solar albedo and infrared emissivity, while for a given IWC, larger crystals would reduce cloud albedo and emissivity. The competing effects produced by greenhouse temperature perturbations via ice micro-physics and radiation interactions and feedbacks are assessed by a one-dimensional radiative-convective climate model that includes an advanced radiation parameterization program. 3 figs.

Liou, K.N. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1995-09-01

133

Green buildings: Implications for acousticians  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation will deal with the practical implications of green design protocols of the US Green Building Council on interior acoustics of buildings. Three areas of particular consequence to acousticians will be discussed. Ventilation Systems: reduced energy consumption goals dictate reliance on natural cooling and ventilation using ambient air when possible. The consequent large openings in the building envelope to bring fresh air into rooms, and similar sized openings to transfer the mixed air out, can severely compromise the noise isolation of the rooms concerned. Radiant Cooling: the heavy concrete floors of buildings can be used as a thermal flywheel to lessen the cooling load, which forces the concrete ceilings to be exposed to the occupied rooms for heat transfer, and strictly limits the application of acoustical absorption on the ceilings. This challenges the room acoustics design. Green Materials: the LEED protocols require the elimination of potentially harmful finishes, including fibrous materials which may impact air quality or contribute to health problems. Since the backbone of sound absorption is glass and mineral fibres, this further challenges provision of superior room acoustics. Examples and commentary will be provided based on current and recent projects.

Noble, Michael R.

2005-04-01

134

Implications of Donald Macdonald's report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chairman of the session debating the implications of the Macdonald report identified three important aspects of utility restructuring: equity, efficiency and sustainability. Dr. Jan Carr, a member of the Macdonald Committee, predicted that the continental energy market will likely demand a much larger number of smaller energy transactions, and the value in having inherently low-cost generation located close to load centres, and/or close to the US border. Douglas Hall, Vice President of RBC Dominion Securities criticized the Macdonald Committee for leaving 70 per cent of Hydro's generating capacity in public hands. He favored transferring all assets to the private sector, and questioned the Committee's assumption that the utility could be broken down into four components that would share overhead and still compete against each other. John Murphy, President of the Power Workers Union stated that the Union was not ideologically opposed to competition in the electricity industry, but he questioned the Committee's assumption that competition would promote efficient supply of power at the least cost to the economy. Tony Jennings, Chief Executive of the Municipal Electric Association tackled a series of myths about municipal electric utilities, and IPPSO Counsel Jay Sheppard emphasized the need for making sure that the entity buying the power in the short term is truly independent and is not doing incestuous deals with its friends at Ontario Hydro Generation (one of the four components of the proposed, restructured Corporation) , because otherwise competition will not work

135

Mobile IPTV: Implications for Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile IPTV (Internet Protocol Television provides digital content which users watch as a television broadcast via the Internet on a mobile device. This paper presents the development of IPTV, Suan Dusit Internet Broadcasting, (SDIB to mobile IPTV and discusses the implications for education. Mobile IPTV was developed as a prototype and designed to support users via wireless and mobile networks regardless of the mobile device. The system can be broadcasted through both live and video on demand (VOD utilizing a mobile browser (smart phones, smart TVs, and tablets and web browsers (Windows, Mac, and UNIX. The mobile IPTV prototype has been used and evaluated in this study. The results of student’s behavior when using mobile phones in their learning found that the highest mobile use was for Facebook and Line to communicate and share information with their classmates. The results of student’s attitudes towards using mobile phones in their learning found that the highest mobile use was for sharing information with classmates, sharing learning experiences on social networks, and using mobile phones to support their studies. The result of the IPTV and mobile IPTV system evaluation found that overall mobile IPTV had a higher user satisfaction than IPTV. Furthermore, mobile IPTV creates a good learning experience for the users. This paper provides guidelines in technical issues for helping educational institutions to develop mobile IPTV for education.

Pannee Suanpang

2013-10-01

136

Energy implications of bottled water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs-for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration-are far smaller than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.

137

Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

2010-03-01

138

Impacts of oil sands process water on fen plants: Implications for plant selection in required reclamation projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fen plant growth in peat contaminated with groundwater discharges of oil sands process water (OSPW) was assessed in a greenhouse over two growing seasons. Three treatments (non-diluted OSPW, diluted OSPW and rainwater) were tested on five vascular plants and four mosses. All vascular plants tested can grow in salinity and naphthenic acids levels currently produced by oil sands activity in northwestern Canada. No stress sign was observed after both seasons. Because of plant characteristics, Carex species (C. atherodes and C. utriculata) and Triglochin maritima would be more useful for rapidly restoring vegetation and creating a new peat-accumulating system. Groundwater discharge of OSPW proved detrimental to mosses under dry conditions and ensuring adequate water levels would be crucial in fen creation following oil sands exploitation. Campylium stellatum would be the best choice to grow in contaminated areas and Bryum pseudotriquetrum might be interesting as it has spontaneously regenerated in all treatments. - Highlights: ? Fen plant growth was assessed under groundwater discharges of oil sands process water. ? Sedge and grass species were not stressed after two growing seasons in greenhouse. ? Carex species and Triglochin maritima would be helpful in created contaminated fens. ? In dry conditions, contaminated groundwater discharge was detrimental for mosses. ? Campylium stellatum would be the best choice in created fens with contaminated water. - Sedges ah contaminated water. - Sedges and grasses tolerated the contact with oil sands process water and could probably grow well in contaminated created fens, but mosses were particularly affected under dry conditions.

139

Health implications of hydropower development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower development had been neglected in many countries during the past few decades, but the situation dramatically changed during the 1970s owing to the constantly increasing costs of electricity generation by fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. Currently, hydroelectric generation accounts for approximately 23% of total global electricity supply. Much of the hydropower potential in developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America still remains to be exploited. Like any other source of energy, hydropower development has several health impacts. Conceptually, health implications of hydropower development can be divided into two broad categories: short-term and long-term problems. Short-term health impacts occur during the planning, construction and immediate post-construction phases, whereas long-term impacts stem from the presence of large man-made lakes, development of extensive canal systems, alteration of the ecosystem of the area, and changing socio-economic conditions. Longer-term impacts are further classified into two categories: introduction of new diseases and/or intensification of existing ones due to the improvements of the habitats of disease-carrying vectors, and health problems arising from resettlement of the people whose homes and land-holdings are inundated by the reservoirs. All these impacts are discussed in detail. Health impacts of hydropower developments have not yet been studied extensively. It is often implicitly assumed that health t is often implicitly assumed that health impacts of major dams are minor compared with other social and environmental impacts. Future studies could possibly reverse this assumption. (author)

140

Corporal Punishment: Legalities, Realities, and Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a quiz that will help readers determine the reliability of their own perceptions relating to corporal punishment in schools. Discusses U.S. Courts and corporal punishment, worldwide and nationwide legality, and the realities of corporal punishment in the United States. Discusses implications for what teachers can do to address corporal…

Hinchey, Patricia H.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Genetic Counseling: Implications for Community Counselors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Special issue of the "Journal of Health Psychology" (Vol. 7, No. 2, 2002) was reviewed. Articles covered a variety of qualitative studies conducted using an interpretive phenomenological analysis method to examine the interviews with people who had received genetic testing and counseling. Implications for the broader counseling field were also…

Bodenhorn, Nancy; Lawson, Gerard

2003-01-01

142

Constructivism and Education: Misunderstandings and Pedagogical Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Constructivism is a popular concept in contemporary teacher education programs. However, a genuine concern arises with the concept's application because many teachers and teacher educators claim that knowledge is constructed, without appreciating the epistemological and pedagogical implications such a claim entails. This article employs Phillips'…

Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Strobel, Johannes

2008-01-01

143

Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology—An Update  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some engineers and scientists are either directly or indirectly involved with nanotechnology issues. Nanotechnology concerns dealing with environmental implications and regulatory compliance encompass practicing areas for these technical individuals. Areas of particular concern include current/proposed environmental regulations and procedures for quantifying both health risks and hazard risks. This article addresses both of these issues.

2011-01-01

144

Autoerotic Fatalities: Implications for Health Educators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health educators should consider autoerotic death as a topic for possible inclusion in health and death education classes. This article provides background information which includes extent of the problem, signs and symptoms of participation, health education curriculum, prevention, and implications for death education. (IAH)

Bechtel, Lori S.; And Others

1990-01-01

145

Property Tax Reform: Implications and Prospects.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the literature of property taxation in order to assess the implications and prospects for property tax reform. Four different types of property tax reform are considered: A change in the present system of local property taxation to a St...

L. A. Dougharty

1975-01-01

146

Neurotoxin Exposure and MMPI Forensic Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) has been widely used as an objective personality test, in addition to being used in forensic assessments, especially involving claims of physical or emotional damage. It now appears that questions must be raised concerning the MMPI's forensic implications given the advent of new disease…

Storm, Heidi A.

147

Living Together in College: Implications for Courtship.  

Science.gov (United States)

Implications of cohabitation for courtship were explored in a two-year study of 231 college dating couples. No differences were found between living together and other "going together" couples in rates of marriage or breakup. Differences were found in satisfaction, intimacy, problems, expectations, power, and transition to marriage. (Author)

Risman, Barbara J.; And Others

1981-01-01

148

Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology—An Update  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some engineers and scientists are either directly or indirectly involved with nanotechnology issues. Nanotechnology concerns dealing with environmental implications and regulatory compliance encompass practicing areas for these technical individuals. Areas of particular concern include current/proposed environmental regulations and procedures for quantifying both health risks and hazard risks. This article addresses both of these issues.

Louis Theodore

2011-02-01

149

Implications of Telecommuting in a Library Environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussion of telecommuting possibilities focuses on a program at Information Access Company that allows indexers and abstractors to work at home. Employer and employee expectations are discussed, equipment provisions are described, employee benefits are examined, and implications for the library environment are suggested. (LRW)

Meglio, Delores

1991-01-01

150

IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBALIZATION ON THE WORLD ECONOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the issues of maximum interes to our century is the analysis of implications of globalization on the world economy and this proves to be even more important now in the middle of financial crisis. Forecasts from the World Bank are very optimistic o

Niculcea Silviu Petrisor

2009-05-01

151

Implications of Distributed Cognition for PER  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, discusses how Cognitive Science has influenced physics education research and introduces the 'radical' notion of distributed cognition, which posits that our surroundings and tools have intelligence. After the introduction of this notion, the author discusses a few implications for physics education research.

Foster, Tom

2010-05-10

152

How Children Grieve: Implications for Counseling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current literature about how children grieve and various implications for counseling are discussed. In reviewing the literature available concerning how children grieve, it is evident that the articles cover three distinct areas important for consideration. These include information that addresses children's developmental understanding of death…

McGlauflin, Helene

153

Genetic Counseling: Ethical and Professional Role Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic counseling assists people in identifying potential or manifest genetic problems, understanding their implications, making decisions about what course to follow, and working through psychological and social aspects as they affect individuals or couples. Four ethical principles and related ethical issues pertaining to autonomy, beneficence…

Witmer, J. Melvin; And Others

1986-01-01

154

Educational Implications of Microelectronics and Microprocessors.  

Science.gov (United States)

This conference report explores microelectronic technology, its effect on educational methods and objectives, and its implications for educator responsibilities. Two main areas were considered: the significance of the likely impact of the large scale introduction of microprocessors and microelectronics on commercial and industrial processes, the…

Harris, N. D. C., Ed.

155

Total Quality Management: Implications for Educational Assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deming's "System of Profound Knowledge" is even more fundamental than his 14-principle system transformation guide and is based on 4 elements: systems theory, statistical variation, a theory of knowledge, and psychology. Management should revamp total system processes so that quality of product is continually improved. Implications for educational…

Rankin, Stuart C.

1992-01-01

156

Commentary: Pedagogical Implications of Experimental SNS Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This special issue of the "Heritage Language Journal", guest edited by Silvina Montrul, unites four papers on different aspects of heritage Spanish speakers' linguistic abilities. In this commentary, we reexamine these important contributions with an eye toward implications for instruction and toward general trends for the field. In particular, we…

Carreira, Maria; Potowski, Kim

2011-01-01

157

Total Quality Management: Implications for Higher Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book contains 19 papers describing the implementation of Total Quality Management in a variety of higher education settings. Following a Foreword by Peter Likins and a Preface by Daniel J. Julius, the chapter titles and authors are: (1) "TQM: Implications for Higher Education--A Look Back to the Future" (Allan M. Hoffman and Randall Summers);…

Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.; Julius, Daniel J., Ed.

158

Ritalin Update: Implications for Reading Teachers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates how Ritalin, a powerful stimulant drug frequently prescribed for children exhibiting hyperactive behavior, poor attention span, and/or distractibility, is prescribed for children in educational settings, what doses seem appropriate, and what effect Ritalin has on reading achievement. Discusses the implications of Ritalin research for…

Cotter, Robert B., Jr.; Werner, Patrice Holden

1987-01-01

159

Peptides Targeting Protein Kinases: Strategies and Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein kinases are important key regulators in most, if not all, biological processes and are linked with many human diseases. Protein kinases thus became attractive targets for drug design. Intracellularly active peptides that selectively interfere with kinase function and or kinase-mediated signaling pathways are potential drug compounds with therapeutic implications.

2006-12-01

160

Against Music as Communication: Implications for Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Referring to the writings of L. Meyer, the author analyzes the view of music which emphasizes transmission of meaning and hence the reception and perception processes of the listener. She proposes an alternate view of music as an active mental construction and considers the teaching implications of both theories. (Author/SJL)

Serafine, Mary Louise

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Implications of Shifting Technology in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the implications of shifting technology trends by looking at what we've lost or are losing, where we are, and where we need to go for making the needed transitions in knowledge and skills. Areas of growth within new media and the tech industry are good indicators of our growing interests in mobility, improved quality,…

Holland, Janet; Holland, John

2014-01-01

162

Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are perceived, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise. Keywords: ERP, Chinese Cultural Implications, Societal Culture, StrategyImplementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are perceived, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise. Keywords: ERP, Chinese Cultural Implications, Societal Culture, StrategyImplementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are perceived, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise. Keywords: ERP, Chinese Cultural Implications, Societal Culture, Strategy

Mukesh Srivastava

2009-05-01

163

The environmental implications of landfill gas control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper reviews the implications for landfill gas control of the Environmental Protection Bill in relation to proposed, existing and closed sites. If the Bill is enacted in its present form these changes will have far reaching implications on the waste management industry and especially those involved in landfill gas monitoring and control. The paper describes the requirements for the management of landfill gas both on and around landfill sites before, during and after the cessation of waste disposal operations. It describes the duties of Waste Regulation Authorities (WRAs) under the Bill in relation to landfill gas including their duties in relation to closed sites. The paper concludes that when the WRAs fulfill these duties the risk of further incidents occurring with landfill gas will be significantly reduced. (author)

164

Organizational Structure: Dimensions, Determinants and Managerial Implication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examined the meaning, nature, forms, dimensions, determinants and managerial implication of organizational structure and its impacts on the organisation. The review revealed that the dimension of organisation structure generally consists of complexity, formalization and centralization, and that strategy, size, culture, technology, environment, people and the like determine the organisation’s structure. work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, centralization, decentralization and formalization are key elements to be considered in designing an effective organizational structure. In conclusion, the structure of an organisation has far-reaching implication on the organisation and its workforce. therefore, it was recommended among others that organisation should adopt a structure that enables it to maintain a competitive advantage in the industry it operates.

Ugbomhe, O. U.

2011-08-01

165

Implications of environmental degradation in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The environment can be broadly classified into two areas: physical and cultural. The interaction between these two categories have far reaching implications for both. Their interactions is already exerting a negative influence, in various ways, on man and on ecosystems. An urgent and enduring solution is therefore called for to ensure the survival of both man and ecosystems. This paper looks at three major environmental problems in Nigeria - gas flaring, soil erosion and solid waste. It analyses their causes, and socio-economic and socio-cultural implications for the country. In conclusion, a strategy of action is proposed to combat these problems and alleviate their pressure on the nation. (author). 34 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

166

Cognitive Variables Implicated In Chronic Pain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the creation of gate control theory, the importance of psychological variables in chronic pain has emerged. Thus, the cognitive variables are emphasized in between behaviors, emotions and social factors for the explanation of chronic pain. Considering the gate control theory, cognitive variables modulate the other two dimensions of the chronic pain experience: the motivational-afective dimension and the sensory-discriminative dimension (Camacho Martel & Anarte Ortiz, 2001; Gatchel, Peng, Peters, Fuchs & Turk, 2007. The aim of this work is to review the main cognitive variables implicated in the chronic pain experience. Moreover, empirical evidence that support the importance of these variables is presented. Furthermore, it is discussed the clinical implications and the importance of this area in the local context.

Moretti, Luciana Sofía

2010-12-01

167

Growth Laws in Cancer: Implications for Radiotherapy  

CERN Document Server

Comparing both, the more conventional Gompertz tumor growth law (GL) and the ``Universal'' law (UL), recently proposed and applied to cancer,we have investigated the growth law's implications on various radiotherapy regimen. According to GL, the surviving tumor cell fraction could be reduced 'ad libidum', independently of the initial tumor mass,simply by increasing the number of treatments. On the contrary, if tumor growth dynamics would indeed follow the Universal scaling law, there is a lower limit of the survival fraction that cannot be reduced any further regardless of the total number of treatments. This finding can explain the so called ``tumor size effect'' and re-emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis as it implies that radiotherapy may be successful provided the tumor mass at treatment onset is rather small. Taken together with our previous works, implications of these findings include revisiting standard radiotherapy regimen and overall treatment protocols.

Castorina, P; Gabriele, P; Guiot, C

2006-01-01

168

DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY AND JOURNALISM: implications for Democracy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Digital technology has brought sweeping changes to journalism  and the social institutions it serves. Journalism has historically played a central role in the U.S. and other democracies, serving as a primary source of news and information for citizens on matters of public importance. This paper examines the implications of these changes for democracy. It explores the question of whether a more interactive form of journalism will produce a more engaged and informed electorate.

Pavlik, John V.

2011-01-01

169

Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory

1998-12-01

170

Baryogenesis and its implications to fundamental physics  

Science.gov (United States)

In this talk I shall explain some basic concepts of baryogenesis and leptogenesis theory, and a new idea of experimental method of verification of fundamental ingredients of leptogenesis theory; the Majorana nature and the absolute magnitude of neutrino masses. Both of these are important to the quest of physics beyond the standard theory, and have far reaching implications irrespective of any particular medel of leptogenesis. If this new method works ideally, there is even a further possibility of detecting relic neutrinos.

Yoshimura, M.

2008-08-01

171

Generalised network clustering and its dynamical implications  

CERN Document Server

A parameterisation of generalised network clustering, in the form of four-motif prevalences, is presented. This involves three real parameters that are conditional on one- two- and three-motif prevalences. Interpretations of these real parameters are presented that motivate a set of rewiring schemes to create appropriately clustered networks. Finally, the dynamical implications of higher order structure, as parameterised, for a contact process are considered.

House, Thomas

2010-01-01

172

Inventing or spying ? implications for growth.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An engineer graduates if shederives the obvious implications of her instructor's hints. Butthe patent system rewards only the first to present nonobviousadvancements—ideas similarly skilled engineers are notexpected to invent. If a fraction of the newly invented hintsspill over before the technological advances they entail arecompleted and granted legal protection, the R&D workerswill find it convenient to spend some time searching for eachother's hints instead of creating their own. A simp...

Cozzi, G.

2001-01-01

173

African Regional Integration: Implications for Food Security  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report looks at the African regional trade, regional integration agreements (RIAs) and the implications for food security. An overview is presented on the present state of African regional integration and the determinants of regional trade in agriculture and food commodities. In particular the study focuses on eight target countries, related RIAs and a set of strategic food commodities. The evidence presented in this study shows that African countries have made progress in opening up agr...

Dijk, M.

2011-01-01

174

Theoretical Implications of the Biomechanical Fracture Threshold  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Because of the dichotomous nature of a bone fracture, when ?, the ratio of the applied impact force to the bone strength, is greater than a critical value—the biomechanical fracture threshold—fracture should occur. We sought to elucidate the conceptual implications of this biomechanical fracture threshold with application to hip fracture. We used data from the PaTH study, a 2-yr clinical trial in postmenopausal women treated with alendronate, PTH, or their combination. Outcomes included ...

Keaveny, Tony M.; Bouxsein, Mary L.

2008-01-01

175

Implications of Repo Markets for Central Banks  

Science.gov (United States)

A report by the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) (reviewed in the March 7, 1997 Scout Report), Implications of Repo Markets for Central Banks, seeks to "enhance central banks' understanding of the economic and monetary policy role of repo markets." Three chapters examine how private market participants use repos for hedging and leverage purposes and focus on the use of repos by central banks as an information source and policy instrument.

176

Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

Yi-Hsuan Hsiao, Ming-Chih Chou, Carol Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, Yan-gao Man

2010-01-01

177

IT Industry in Bangalore: Some Economic Implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

IT industry has shown phenomenal growth in the city of Bangalore which has changed the very nature of the city. Large migration to the city also has created several environmental problems. Because of growth of this industry in selected pockets income inequality in the state is also on the rise which have many adverse social implications. But the sector has been able to generate significant employment and this role needs to be highlighted as educated unemployment can create many adverse econom...

Rajeev, Meenakshi

2012-01-01

178

Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study

179

DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY AND JOURNALISM: implications for Democracy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital technology has brought sweeping changes to journalism  and the social institutions it serves. Journalism has historically played a central role in the U.S. and other democracies, serving as a primary source of news and information for citizens on matters of public importance. This paper examines the implications of these changes for democracy. It explores the question of whether a more interactive form of journalism will produce a more engaged and informed electorate.

John V. Pavlik

2011-12-01

180

The Risk Implications of Multinational Enterprise  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – Multinational structure has been linked to operational flexibilities that can improve corporate adaptability and a knowledge-based view suggests that multinational resource diversity can facilitate responsive opportunities. The enhanced maneuverability from this can reduce earnings volatility and hence the corporate performance risk. But, the internationalization process may also require irreversible investments that increase corporate exposures and leave the risk implications of multinational enterprize somewhat ambiguous. Hence, the purpose of the paper is to present an empirical study of the implied relationships between the degree of multinationality and various risk measures including downside risk, upside potential, and performance risk. Design/methodology/approach – The paper provides a brief literature review, develops hypotheses, and tests them in two-stage least square regressions on archival data to control for pre-selection biases. Findings – The analyses indicate that multinationality is associated with lower downside risk as well as higher upside potential and leads to reduced performance risk. The study finds no trace of diminishing effects from higher degrees of multinationality. Research limitations/implications – The empirical study uses a sample of large US-based corporations, which could affect the generalizability of results. However, this is consistent with other studies and eases comparability of findings. Practical implications – The findings add to the ongoing debate about the risk effects of a multinational corporate structure and confirms that a diverse multinational presence is associated with positive risk outcomes. Originality/value – The paper complements a limited number of studies with equivocal results and adopts alternative risk outcome measures. The study extends the industry scope by introducing a comprehensive sample of firms operating in different manufacturing and service businesses.

Andersen, Torben Juul

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Implications of Curriculum Reform for School Buildings in Scotland  

Science.gov (United States)

Scotland's Building Excellence programme is exploring the implications of curriculum reform for school building design. It includes events which bring together teachers, designers, school managers and local authorities.

Scott-Watson, W.

2008-01-01

182

Psychosocial benefits and implications of exercise.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review is based on a case report that concerns a young female athlete who experienced some of the negative aspects of exercise. Overtraining, a negative byproduct of excessive exercise, can turn the positive psychosocial and physiologic benefits of regular physical activity into an activity detrimental to one's health. With the proper psychological skills and appropriate exercise regimen, these negatives can be turned into positives. Once learned, the psychosocial benefits of exercise, as well as the positive implications, will become more prevalent, similar to the way in which proper physical training helps one become more fit over time. PMID:23174543

Gaz, Daniel V; Smith, Aynsley M

2012-11-01

183

Nutritional care: implications and recommendations for nursing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutrition is a basic human requirement with both physiological and psychosocial dimensions that affect well-being. In times of illness ensuring adequate nutrition is particularly important because of the central part it plays in healing and recovery. This article explores the premise that current nutritional care in nursing practice is often inadequate with the result that patients' nutritional requirements are not met. It investigates the causative factors of poor nutritional care in nursing practice, the implications of such practice for both the patient and the professional, and proposes a number of recommendations for future change. PMID:11984457

Grieve, Robert John; Finnie, Alison

184

Implications of isotopic anomalies for nucleosynthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent investigations of isotopic anomalies in meteorites are reviewed, with a focus on their implications for theoretical models of nucleosynthesis in the early solar system. The types of anomalies observed are listed, and the approaches used to interpret them are explained and illustrated with extensive diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data. Particular attention is given to the heavy elements and the r, s, and p nucleosynthesis processes; the Fe-group elements; and enhancement factors. The anomalous enrichment of Ca-48, Ti-30, and Cr-54 in carbonaceous meteorites is tentatively attributed to e-process Si burning near the high-density core of an SN progenitor. 40 references

185

Dust and radon: the legal implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is known that radon gas is not generally considered to be a major problem when encountered in the working environment. However, in its process of decay, a series of four short lived daughter products are formed. In a dust-laden atmosphere these daughter products, which are ionized readily, attach to the particulate material and when inhaled are deposited in the alveoli of the lungs. Therefore, if respirable dust is controlled, the effects of radon daughters will also be minimized. The legal requirements for dust control in South Africa and their implications are discussed. 1 ill

186

Corporate Language and Implications for Organizational Learning  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper explores empirically implications of language use for MNCs’ learning from subsidiaries. Drawing on sociolinguistic literature, the article argues that while employing a single corporate language facilitates quick and direct communication of explicit knowledge, such a language design is insufficient to leverage contextually specific and culturally embedded knowledge. This indicates the need for disentangling language and culture. The paper further argues for the need to go beyond national language to consider how prevailing kinds of corporate talk may curb headquarters potential for learning from cultural and contextual diversity.

ZØlner, Mette

2013-01-01

187

Reliability implications for commercial Plowshare applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the premise that there will always be a finite chance of a Plowshare project failure, the implications of such a failure are examined. It is suggested that the optimum reliability level will not necessarily be the highest attainable, but rather that which results in minimum average project cost. The type of performance guarantee that the U. S. should provide for nuclear explosive services, the determination of nuclear yield, courses of action to take in the event of failure, and methods to offset remedial costs are discussed. (author)

188

Implications of Generalized Z-Z' Mixing  

CERN Document Server

We discuss experimental implications of extending the gauge structure of the Standard Model to include an additional U(1) interaction broken at or near the weak scale. We work with the most general, renormalizable Lagrangian for the SU(2)\\times U(1)\\times U(1) sector, with emphasis on the phenomenon of gauge kinetic mixing between the two U(1) gauge fields, and do not restrict ourselves to any of the "canonical" Z' models often discussed in the literature. Low-energy processes and Z-pole precision measurements are specifically addressed.

Babu, K S; March-Russell, John David; Kolda, Christopher; March-Russell, John

1998-01-01

189

Arab Spring: Geopolitical Implications for Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article sets out to examine the geopolitical implications of the Arab Spring for Iran. It hypothesizes that in spite of the initial short-term benefits of the Arab Spring, in the long-term it has transformed into an acute challenge for Iran. Developments in Bahrain, Egypt, and Syria-- thanks to their prominent positions in Iran’s foreign policy apparatus-- have contributed to serious friction between Iran and other regional rivals, namely Saudi Arabia, Israel and Turkey. The Arab Spring seems to have given rise to an Iranian Autumn.

Reza Ekhtiari Amiri

2012-09-01

190

PRIMARY NURSING IMPLICATIONS ON NURSING CARE ASSISTANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors present the method ?Primary Nursing?, which has as principle the elevation of thenurse?s autonomy, in which he is responsible for the patient 24 hours a day. The also present the function of eachnurse engaged in that process, pointing out the advantages of the method and its implications in the practice. In itsreview, they put results of 07 present works accomplished with the introduction of the ?Primary Nursing?. As finalconsiderations, the state that the ?Primary Nursing? improves the quality of assistance given by the nurse, and itsperformance will mainly depend on the nurse?s interest, on changing the reference system towards the professionalcompetence.

Luciana Mahnis Pereira Carmona

2002-06-01

191

Task Complexity and Its Implication for Pedagogy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper was to present the rationale for the Task-based Language teaching and discuss its significance within the SLA approaches to language teaching. First, different approaches to Task-based language teaching research and practice were discussed, then the notion of ‘Task Complexity” has been touched upon and different models for estimating task difficulty or Task Complexity were mentioned. Attempt, then, was made to elaborate on the empirical studies within the Cognition Hypothesis (Robinson, 2003, 2005, 2007. Finally, the implications of Task Complexity for SLA research and pedagogy were widely discussed.

Mohammad Hossein Yousefi

2012-07-01

192

The developing social brain: implications for education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the development of the human social brain. First, I will argue that social cognition is uniquely important and describe evidence that social interaction plays a critical role in early brain development. I will then discuss recent research demonstrating that the social brain undergoes protracted development and that adolescence in particular represents a period of reorganization of the social brain. Finally, I will attempt to draw out potential implications of this new research for education policy and for human wellbeing. PMID:20346751

Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

2010-03-25

193

Conflicting belief systems: some implications for education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article the conceptions of knowledge and time within Christianity, secular humanism and traditional African religion are juxtaposed. In order to emphasise the vital role o f belief systems in the field of education, some educational implications are inferred from these different conceptions of knowledge and time. The need to create enough space within the South African education system so that parents will be able to send their children to schools where education is conducted according to their particular belief systems is also foregrounded.

E.J. van Niekerk

1999-03-01

194

Micro CHP - implications - for energy companies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deregulation and private ownership is having a marked effect on the energy industry in the UK: many companies will have to make radical changes if they are to survive. Since cost-cutting cannot go on indefinitely, it will be technology to which companies must turn if they are to hold a competitive position and here it is suggested that micro-CHP may be the answer. A comparison of costs and technical implications for various types of generating plant is given. The paper is presented under the sub-headings of (i) business opportunity; (ii) business threat; and (iii) commercial viability of micro-CHP

195

GLOBAL WARMING: IMPLICATIONS AND ANTICIPATORY ADAPTIVE MEASURES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our earth is warming up. There is no denying to this fact that the gradual heating up of our globe has a tremendous effect on the climate. It in turn has affected the biotic factors that make up our biosphere, eventually directing the course of our socio-economic development. Some workers are, however, optimistic about this natural phenomenon. Various ways have been suggested to mitigate the effects of global warming, but the damage already done cannot be revoked. Hence, the thing that we are left with is to go for anticipatory adaptive measures so as to tone down the intensity of future implications of global warming.

MUNESH KUMAR

2011-12-01

196

The Global Economic Crisis: Implications in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global economic crisis which the whole world has been witnessing in the past few years now has taken a toll on Nigeria and Nigerians. This paper examined the implications of the global crisis on Nigeria and suggests few steps to be taken to ameliorate the effects on the citizens. It also studied the steps the Federal government has taken so far to reduce the impact on the economy and the society at large most importantly, the paper highlighted the need for Nigeria to diversify its economy and look more inward into other solid minerals deposits development and agriculture so as to remove herself from the over dependence on oil.

Uchem R. O.

2010-04-01

197

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE: IMPLICATIONS FROM A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to research the ample cultural implications behind the expansion and adoption of corporate governance principles and practices and on the cultural differences inherent in the process of translation/localization of American, English or transnational practices towards continental Europe. More precisely, in the last part of this article, we shall compare the Olivencia rapport from Spain and the Code Corporate Governance Code of the Bucharest Stock Exchange, with a view to analyzing how elements of national culture influence the transfer of corporate governance principles.

Sorina CHIPER

2010-01-01

198

Some Implications of Human-Structure Interaction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

On structures, humans may be active which may cause structural vibrations as human activity can excite structural vibration modes. However, humans may also be passive (sitting or standing on the structure). The paper addresses this subject and explores the implications of having passive humans present on the structure. It is not conventional to model the presence of passive humans when predicting structural response, but nevertheless it is instructive to investigate which effect they do in fact have on structural behavior and modal characteristics of structures. Such investigations are made in the present paper.

Pedersen, Lars

2013-01-01

199

Social origins and implications of child labor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child labor continues to present a serious health threat to millions of children worldwide. Not all work is detrimental to children, and under carefully controlled conditions can benefit them in terms of physical and intellectual development as well as make positive contributions to their financial status. Unfortunately, most situations where children are used as a labor force are not designed with the health of the laborers as a primary concern. This article will review the current status of child labor, present theories regarding the social, cultural and economic bases of the practice, discuss its health implications and finally, explore possible solutions to this complex problem. PMID:24441409

Budd, P P; McIvor Joss, D

1998-01-01

200

Ionization potentials some variations, implications and applications  

CERN Document Server

Ionization Potentials: Some Variations, Implications and Applications covers several aspects of ionization potential that is a highly significant parameter in controlling the properties of electric discharge. Comprised of 17 chapters, the book covers topic relevant to ionization potentials, such as properties, concepts, and applications, in order to understand and fully comprehend all aspects of ionization potential. The opening chapter is a review of ionization potentials and a discussion of trends and features. The succeeding chapters then tackle complex topics such as the s and p electrons;

Ahrens, L H

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

FEMALE URETHRA – ANATOMO-CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urethra represents the last segment of the urinary tract. We present a comprehensive account of the female urethral anatomy, including its component structures, neurovascular supply, relationship to adjacent structures (the vagina, bladder and vestibular glands, and connective tissue supports and histology. These data are important because the distal segment of the female urethra is implicated in the mechanism of urinary continence (female stress urinary incontinence is thought to result from impairment of the connective tissue ligaments of the urethra. That why, the surgical repair of female incontinence must involves fixation of the urethra to the pubic bone or other surrounding structures.

C. Zanoschi

2006-01-01

202

Variations of Fathering: Implications for Social Policy. Single Fathers with Custody: Implications for Social Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document summarizes current knowledge about single custodial fathers, and draws implications for social policy. Through a review of the literature, the following characteristics of single fathers are described: socioeconomic status, race, custody status, religion, age, employment, parental history, homemaking skills, motivation for custody,…

Hanson, Shirley May Harmon

203

Mitochondrial protein quality control: implications in ageing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitochondria represent both a major source for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and a target for oxidative macromolecular damage. Increased production of ROS and accumulation of oxidized proteins have been associated with cellular ageing. Protein quality control, also referred as protein maintenance, is very important for the elimination of oxidized proteins through degradation and repair. Chaperone proteins have been implicated in refolding of misfolded proteins while oxidized protein repair is limited to the catalyzed reduction of certain oxidation products of the sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine, by specific enzymatic systems. In the mitochondria, oxidation of methionine residues within proteins can be catalytically reversed by the methionine sulfoxide reductases, an ubiquitous enzymatic system that has been implicated both in ageing and protection against oxidative stress. Irreversibly oxidized proteins are targeted to degradation by mitochondrial matrix proteolytic systems such as the Lon protease. The ATP-stimulated Lon protease is believed to play a crucial role in the degradation of oxidized proteins within the mitochondria and age-related declines in the activity and/or expression of this proteolytic system have been previously reported. Age-related impairment of mitochondrial protein maintenance may therefore contribute to the age-associated build-up of oxidized proteins and impairment of mitochondrial redox homeostasis. PMID:18446870

Friguet, Bertrand; Bulteau, Anne-Laure; Petropoulos, Isabelle

2008-06-01

204

Public health implications of altered puberty timing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Changes in puberty timing have implications for the treatment of individual children, for the risk of later adult disease, and for chemical testing and risk assessment for the population. Children with early puberty are at a risk for accelerated skeletal maturation and short adult height, early sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated with an increased risk for testicular cancer according to several, but not all, epidemiologic studies. Girls and, possibly, boys who exhibit premature adrenarche are at a higher risk for developing features of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in adulthood. Altered timing of puberty also has implications for behavioral disorders. For example, an early maturation is associated witha greater incidence of conduct and behavior disorders during adolescence. Finally, altered puberty timing is considered an adverse effect in reproductive toxicity risk assessment for chemicals. Recent US legislation has mandated improved chemical testing approaches for protecting children's health and screening for endocrine-disrupting agents, which has led to changes in the US Environmental Protection Agency's risk assessment and toxicity testing guidelines to include puberty-related assessments and to the validation of pubertal male and female rat assays for endocrine screening Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2

Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.

2008-01-01

205

Epilepsy and menopause: potential implications for pharmacotherapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Being a woman with epilepsy is not the same as being a man with the disease. There is a complex multidirectional interaction between sex hormones, seizures and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) with gender-specific implications. Estrogen can be a potent proconvulsant, whereas progesterone is an anticonvulsant in experimental models. It is well established that women with epilepsy can have changes in seizure propensity related to their menstrual cycle (catamenial epilepsy). There is good evidence that the gonadotropin-releasing hormone cell population in the hypothalamus can be affected by seizures originating in the limbic system, possibly leading to anovulatory menses, possibly contributing to lower fertility, and earlier menopause among women with epilepsy. Data on the effects of menopause on epilepsy are scarce. In general, menopause appears to have limited effects on seizure control, with the possible exception of women with catamenial epilepsy who may experience an increase in seizure frequency during perimenopause and a decrease after menopause. Hormone replacement therapy has the potential to increase seizure frequency and thus cannot be recommended for women with epilepsy. Of particular relevance for menopause is the adverse effect on bone mineral density caused by enzyme inducers and other AEDs. In general, there is a remarkable shortage of studies on the impact of menopause on epilepsy and on its implications for epilepsy treatment. PMID:25079452

Sveinsson, Olafur; Tomson, Torbjörn

2014-09-01

206

Abiding IPRs in Technological Implications for Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focal objective of this article is to analyze the role of intellectual property rights in technological implications within a general context. The performance of the IPRs system and its interaction with national innovation system with some degrees of success has also been highlighted. Major encounter over subsequently decade will be to identify policies and solutions that would permit marketplace economy to flourish in the framework of this intellectual property insurrection. There has been a lot of dispute on the role of intellectual property protection regime specially in fostering innovation, technology development of a country. IPRs are expected to emboli the innovation, by rewarding inventor with a grant of domination rights over the mercantile exploitation for a specified time period. This article tries to attempts to review the role of the IPR regime in technological development and also have suggested some policy implications for country like Pakistan and some reflecting lessons for other developing countries with similar settings and common characteristics. Keywords -

Murtaza Hussain Shaikh A

2014-03-01

207

Neuroscience, “Giftedness” and Implications for Curriculum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article briefly reviews a group of disciplines belonging to neuroscience and discusses potential educational implications for children and adolescents labeled as gifted. A short structural and functional introduction highlights the main points of the human nervous system which works as a background to bridge the gap between neuroscience, “giftedness” and creativity. Some basic evolutionary and biological characteristics findings are speculated to be in the origin of neural circuits underlying innate capacities related to learning and memory. It is discussed how information is codified in brain regions and the possible ways gifted students make cognitive links and analogies particularly on mathematical reasoning. Developmental stages and neural plasticity are analyzed and which is the role played by genetics connected to environmental experiences which may be on the gist of “giftedness”. Identification methods are listed to evaluate presumed gifted children and adolescents. A chart compares characteristics peculiar to prodigies and savant children. A list of suggested questions are presented for further research which may bring insights how the brain process information having in mind educational implications with examples for biology teaching.

Amauri Betini Bartoszeck

2014-09-01

208

False or Recovered Memories?: Legal and Ethical Implications for Therapists.  

Science.gov (United States)

Places the development of the debate over false or recovered memories in its social and historical context. Identifies some of the ethical and legal implications of this area of work for therapists by using the Drama Triangle. Outlines ethical dilemmas for therapists and some of the implications for therapeutic practice. (RJM)

Jenkins, Peter

1997-01-01

209

Education System Reform in China after 1978: Some Practical Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of education system reform in China since 1978, and its practical implications. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from literature review and interview. An overview of education system reform and its practical implications was found through data analysis. Findings: There has been two…

Sun, Miantao

2010-01-01

210

Motivation and Gifted Students: Implications of Theory and Research  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis of contemporary motivation theories reveals implications for gifted and talented students. The expectancy-value framework, intrinsic-extrinsic motivation theories, goal orientations, self-efficacy and other self-perceptions, and attribution theory are described and discussed with respect to implications for the psychology and education…

Clinkenbeard, Pamela R.

2012-01-01

211

Counseling Competence: Application and Implications of a Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Working from their proposed model of counseling competence, the authors address critical implications and applications of the model. First, they present a 10-parameter juxtaposition of the model of counseling competence and the microskills training model, including points of comparision and contrast. Second, they discuss implications of the model…

Ridley, Charles R.; Mollen, Debra; Kelly, Shannon M.

2011-01-01

212

Public health implications of emerging zoonoses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many new, emerging and re-emerging diseases of humans are caused by pathogens which originate from animals or products of animal origin. A wide variety of animal species, both domestic and wild, act as reservoirs for these pathogens, which may be viruses, bacteria or parasites. Given the extensive distribution of the animal species affected, the effective surveillance, prevention and control of zoonotic diseases pose a significant challenge. The authors describe the direct and indirect implications for public health of emerging zoonoses. Direct implications are defined as the consequences for human health in terms of morbidity and mortality. Indirect implications are defined as the effect of the influence of emerging zoonotic disease on two groups of people, namely: health professionals and the general public. Professional assessment of the importance of these diseases influences public health practices and structures, the identification of themes for research and allocation of resources at both national and international levels. The perception of the general public regarding the risks involved considerably influences policy-making in the health field. Extensive outbreaks of zoonotic disease are not uncommon, especially as the disease is often not recognised as zoonotic at the outset and may spread undetected for some time. However, in many instances, the direct impact on health of these new, emerging or re-emerging zoonoses has been small compared to that of other infectious diseases affecting humans. To illustrate the tremendous indirect impact of emerging zoonotic diseases on public health policy and structures and on public perception of health risks, the authors provide a number of examples, including that of the Ebola virus, avian influenza, monkeypox and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Recent epidemics of these diseases have served as a reminder of the existence of infectious diseases and of the capacity of these diseases to occur unexpectedly in new locations and animal species. The need for greater international co-operation, better local, regional and global networks for communicable disease surveillance and pandemic planning is also illustrated by these examples. These diseases have contributed to the definition of new paradigms, especially relating to food safety policies and more generally to the protection of public health. Finally, the examples described emphasise the importance of intersectorial collaboration for disease containment, and of independence of sectorial interests and transparency when managing certain health risks. PMID:11189723

Meslin, F X; Stöhr, K; Heymann, D

2000-04-01

213

Environmental implications of China's WTO accession  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China's accession to the WTO in 2001 completed the country's entry into the global economy. We investigate environmental implications of WTO-accession. There are several hypotheses in this area: The scale hypothesis says that production is scaled up and in turn, pollution increases. The composition hypothesis says that composition of industries changes and pollution reflects the new composition. The technique hypothesis says that production methods become cleaner and pollution decreases. We analyze the relative strength of the hypotheses by means of an environmental CGE-model, and in the case of air pollution find support for a composition effect in favor of clean industries. Thanks to the composition effect, emissions to air of greenhouse gases fall. Emissions of particles and SO2 also fall, but emissions of NOx and VOC rise. Since particle and SO2-emissions fall we estimate that public health improves (author)

214

IRON-TOLERANT CYANOBACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROBIOLOGY  

Science.gov (United States)

The review is dedicated to the new group of extremophiles - iron tolerant cyanobacteria. The authors have analyzed earlier published articles about the ecology of iron tolerant cyanobacteria and their diversity. It was concluded that contemporary iron depositing hot springs might be considered as relative analogs of Precambrian environment. The authors have concluded that the diversity of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria is understudied. The authors also analyzed published data about the physiological peculiarities of iron tolerant cyanobacteria. They made the conclusion that iron tolerant cyanobacteria may oxidize reduced iron through the photosystem of cyanobacteria. The involvement of both Reaction Centers 1 and 2 is also discussed. The conclusion that iron tolerant protocyanobacteria could be involved in banded iron formations generation is also proposed. The possible mechanism of the transition from an oxygenic photosynthesis to an oxygenic one is also discussed. In the final part of the review the authors consider the possible implications of iron tolerant cyanobacteria for astrobiology.

Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Mummey, Daniel L.; Sarkisova, Svetlana A.; McKay, David S.

2006-01-01

215

Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are percei [...] ved, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise.

Mukesh, Srivastava; Betsy J, Gips.

216

Nursing implications for Hepatic arterial perfusion scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nurses working in Nuclear Medicine assist in Hepatic Artery Catheter (HAC) perfusion studies. This scan is not widely performed in Australia, the St George hospital for example performs approximately five per year. The purpose of this article is firstly to review the indications and rationale of HAC patency studies. Secondly, this article will stress the clinical implications for the Nuclear Medicine Nurse during this study. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of patient education during the procedure. A brief overview of hepatic anatomy and the radiopharmaceuticals administered during the scan is discussed. Finally, a step by step protocol is presented to show how the perfusion/ shunt study is performed. Copyright (1999) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

217

Destination image: Origins, Developments and Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the last few decades, tourism has become one of the main sectors of the global economy, not only because of its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP of different countries, but also because of the employment it generates. Since 2009, however, the results of tourism have been severely affected by the economic and financial crisis and it is now essential to analyze the key elements of tourist consumer behavior. In this context, the image that a destination transmits to the market becomes one of the elements which influence tourists the most when choosing a tourist destination. The authors therefore aim to identify the main elements that characterize the image of a tourist destination, as well as their implications for the management of tourist destinations.

Sérgio Dominique Ferreira Lopes

2011-04-01

218

Astrophysical implications of e+e- measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Implications of the e+e- measurements at LEP, in particular the determination of the number of neutrino flavors with m? > or approx. MZ/2, on big bang nucleosynthesis and on dark matter are discussed. For the early Universe, the LEP measurements fix N? = 3. This together with recent measurements of the neutron half-life and new observations of 4He and 7Li determine the baryon-to-photon ratio ? = 3x10-10 implying that baryons provide only 1-8% of the closure density. In addition the determination that N? ? 3.14 (95% C.L.) indicates that certain dark matter candidates such as Dirac and Majorana neutrinos are excluded. The supersymmetric parameters space is somewhat restricted but still easily allows for candidates supplying the missing mass in the Universe. (orig.)

219

Implications of nonlinearity for spherically symmetric accretion  

CERN Document Server

Stationary solutions of spherically symmetric accretion processes have been subjected to a time-dependent radial perturbation, whose equation includes nonlinearity to any arbitrary order. Regardless of the order of nonlinearity, the equation of the perturbation bears a form that is remarkably similar to the metric equation of an analogue acoustic black hole. Casting the perturbation as a standing wave and maintaining nonlinearity in it up to the second order, brings out the time-dependence of the perturbation in the form of a Lienard system. A dynamical systems analysis of this Lienard system reveals a saddle point in real time, with the implication that instabilities will develop in the accreting system when the perturbation is extended into the nonlinear regime. The instability of initial subsonic states may also adversely affect the temporal evolution of the flow towards a final stable transonic state.

Sen, Sourav

2012-01-01

220

Implications of nonlinearity for spherically symmetric accretion  

Science.gov (United States)

We subject the steady solutions of a spherically symmetric accretion flow to a time-dependent radial perturbation. The equation of the perturbation includes nonlinearity up to any arbitrary order and bears a form that is very similar to the metric equation of an analogue acoustic black hole. Casting the perturbation as a standing wave on subsonic solutions, and maintaining nonlinearity in it up to the second order, we get the time dependence of the perturbation in the form of a Liénard system. A dynamical systems analysis of the Liénard system reveals a saddle point in real time, with the implication that instabilities will develop in the accreting system when the perturbation is extended into the nonlinear regime. The instability of initial subsonic states also adversely affects the temporal evolution of the flow toward a final and stable transonic state.

Sen, Sourav; Ray, Arnab K.

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, TCS, EVA Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Many options for exploration of space have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was announced in 2004. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration then the Human Exploration Framework Teams (HEFT and HEFT2) evaluated potential exploration missions and the infrastructure and technology needs for those missions. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed by the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to, and then inhabit and explore, the moon. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of space for the implications of architectures on the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS), Thermal Control (TCS), and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems.

Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don

2011-01-01

222

Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, EVA, TCS Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Many options for exploration of space have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was announced in 2004. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed in the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to and then inhabit and explore the moon. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration and identified many options for how to conduct human spaceflight in the future. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of space for the implications of architectures on the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS), ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) and Thermal Control System (TCS) Systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each architecture and options are presented.

Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don; Lawrence, Carl

2010-01-01

223

Implications of global warming on human health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the build up of green house gases in atmosphere, less heat escapes through the atmosphere promoting global warming. This may result in world wide droughts, sea-level rise inundating islands and coastal countries, cataclysmic hurricanes etc. Human health as a result of these changes, will be affected both physiologically and psychologically. Physiological effects may be more pronounced in cases occurring due to changes in rainfall and temperature patterns, food production amounts, water availability, etc. Psychological impact may be more in cases of catastrophes like floods, hurricanes or famine. In this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the implications of global warming on human health due to temperature change. Food production changes and ultra-violet radiation effects and cataclysmic disaster effects. (author)

224

Implications of an axino LSP for naturalness  

Science.gov (United States)

Both the naturalness of the electroweak symmetry breaking and the resolution of the strong CP problem may require a small Higgsino mass ? generated by a realization of the DFSZ axion model. Assuming the axino is the lightest supersymmetric particle, we study its implications on ? and the axion scale. Copiously produced light Higgsinos at collider (effectively only neutral next-to-lightest superparticles pairs) eventually decay to axinos leaving prompt multileptons or displaced vertices which are being looked for at the LHC. We use latest LHC7+8 results to derive current limits on ? and the axion scale. Various Higgsino-axino phenomenology is illustrated by comparing with a standard case without lightest axinos as well as with a more general case with additional light gauginos in the spectrum.

Barenboim, Gabriela; Chun, Eung Jin; Jung, Sunghoon; Park, Wan Il

2014-08-01

225

Low prior + frightening implications = inflammatory epidemiology?  

Science.gov (United States)

It is often difficult for the media and the public to appreciate the role of flawed but contributory epidemiologic research. A study of cell phone use and children's behavior problems (published in this issue) illustrates the ingredients of "inflammatory epidemiology"--there is a common exposure and a common health problem, a very low prior probability of a biologic effect, and a statistical association between the exposure and outcome. The authors acknowledge the study's limitations, and the reviewers and editors share the view that these findings are worth disseminating to the scientific community for their evaluation. This report moves the evidence from an extremely low prior probability to a slightly higher (but still extremely low) posterior probability. The potential for misinterpretation can be mitigated by appropriately cautious interpretation of the findings, and by reliance on expert panels to integrate evidence and to draw the behavioral and policy implications of such studies. PMID:18497702

Savitz, David A

2008-07-01

226

Implications of conformal invariance in momentum space  

CERN Document Server

We present a comprehensive analysis of the implications of conformal invariance for 3-point functions of the stress-energy tensor, conserved currents and scalar operators in general dimension and in momentum space. Our starting point is a novel and very effective decomposition of tensor correlators which reduces their computation to that of a number of scalar form factors. For example, the most general 3-point function of a conserved and traceless stress-energy tensor is determined by only five form factors. Dilatations and special conformal Ward identities then impose additional conditions on these form factors. The special conformal Ward identities become a set of first and second order differential equations, whose general solution is given in terms of integrals involving a product of three Bessel functions (`triple-K integrals'). All in all, the correlators are completely determined up to a number of constants, in agreement with well-known position space results. We develop systematic methods for explicit...

Bzowski, Adam; Skenderis, Kostas

2013-01-01

227

The international remote monitoring project and implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Becoming aware of the significant changes of the past several years and their effect on the expectations to international safeguards, it is necessary to reflect on which direction the development of nuclear safeguards in a new era needs to take. The time-proven monitoring techniques, based on quantitative factors and demonstrated universal application, have shown their merit. However, the new expectations suggest a possibility that a future IAEA safeguards system could rely more heavily on the value of a comprehensive, transparent, and open implementation regime. Within such a regime, the associated measures need to be determined and technological support identified. This paper will identify proven techniques which, with appropriate implementation support, could most quickly make available additional measures for a comprehensive, transparent and open implementation regime. In particular, it will examine the future of remote monitoring in International Safeguards, and provide an update on the International Remote Monitoring Project and related implications. (author)

228

The International Remote Monitoring Project and implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Becoming aware of the significant changes of the past several years and their effect on the expectations to international safeguards, it is necessary to reflect on which direction the development of nuclear safeguards in a new era needs to take. The time-proven monitoring techniques, based on quantitative factors and demonstrated universal application, have shown their merit. However, the new expectations suggest a possibility that a future IAEA safeguards, system could rely more heavily on the value of a comprehensive, transparent, and open implementation regime. Within such a regime, the associated measures need to be determined and technological support identified. This paper will identify proven techniques which, with appropriate implementation support, could most quickly make available additional measures for a comprehensive, transparent and open implementation regime. In particular, it will examine the future of remote monitoring in International Safeguards, and provide an update on the International Remote Monitoring Project and related implications.

Sonnier, C.S.; Johnson, C.S.

1994-10-01

229

Promoting biofuels: Implications for developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interest in biofuels is growing worldwide as concerns about the security of energy supply and climate change are moving into the focus of policy makers. With the exception of bioethanol from Brazil, however, production costs of biofuels are typically much higher than those of fossil fuels. As a result, promotion measures such as tax exemptions or blending quotas are indispensable for ascertaining substantial biofuel demand. With particular focus on developing countries, this paper discusses the economic justification of biofuel promotion instruments and investigates their implications. Based on data from India and Tanzania, we find that substantial biofuel usage induces significant financial costs. Furthermore, acreage availability is a binding natural limitation that could also lead to conflicts with food production. Yet, if carefully implemented under the appropriate conditions, biofuel programs might present opportunities for certain developing countries

230

Projections of energy requirements and their implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject is covered in sections, entitled as shown. Numerical data are indicated in parenthesis. The record of nuclear power forecasting (estimates of the growth of world nuclear power, penetration of the electric power market by nuclear power); brief review of energy forecasting techniques and problems; some views of future world energy demand (estimates of world primary energy requirements); possible allocations of energy resources to needs (allocation of resources (oil, oil from tar sands, shale, natural gas, coal, coal to gasification, hydroelectricity, renewable resources, nuclear) to the world's primary energy needs in the year 2000); observations on the adequacy of energy resources; implications for nuclear energy (postulated growth of world nuclear power, annual fuel cycle requirements of the world, annual uranium requirements of the world). (U.K.)

231

Implications of international protocols on energy markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will have significant medium and long term implications for the economies of Annex B and non-Annex B countries. It is shown that the adoption of a system of internationally tradable emission quotas would result in three 'dividends' compared with an outcome where Article 17 trading - relating to emissions trading - is prohibited. First, trading would improve the environmental effectiveness of the protocol because the extent of carbon dioxide equivalent leakage would be reduced. Second, the overall cost of meeting the agreed Annex B targets would be reduced thus leading to greater certainty that the protocol will be implemented in full. Third, a disparity in the differential impacts of Annex B abatement policies on different developing countries would be reduced under emissions trading, leading to a more equitable outcome for these countries

232

Gaming Goes Mobile: Issues and Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A recent report by the telecommunications research firm Analysys predicts that mobile games will replace ringtones, logos and other personalisation services as one of the key drivers of the mobile market. Despite the rapid growth of the mobile gaming market, there appears to have been little critical analysis of this phenomenon. The paper aims to investigate the industrial and social implications of mobile gaming, by bringing together some of the current research on both mobile communications and computer games. Beginning with a broad overview of the major stakeholders in the market, the paper examines how mobile gaming functions as a vehicle for convergence, bringing together previously disparate industries around a common form of content. It also examines the regulatory complexities that arise when gaming becomes mobile, and in particular how the rise of technologies like location-based services might impact on issues such as privacy.

Finn, Mark

2005-10-01

233

Indigenous patterns of conserving biodiversity: pharmacologic implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accelerating rate at which the world's botanical resources are being depleted today has inspired redoubled efforts on the part of global conservation programs. For the most part, this reflects the actions of outsiders who are culturally and politically detached from the threatened environments, and who identify species for conservation through western economic models. In view of this, ethnopharmacologists--and primarily those representing the social sciences--have drawn attention to the cogency of indigenous knowledge of biotic diversity and its conservation. This paper reviews how local paradigms of plant management promote conservation, and problematizes the issue specifically to the use of plants by Hausa peoples in northern Nigeria. The pharmacologic implications of indigenous patterns of plant use and conservation derive from the manifold and overlapping contexts in which plants, especially wild species, are used by local communities. These applications identify the importance of particular species and should be employed in assigning priority for the conservation of plants. PMID:10030728

Etkin, N L

1998-12-01

234

Rehabilitation treatment taxonomy: implications and continuations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In relation to the conceptual framework for a rehabilitation treatment taxonomy (RTT), which has been proposed in other articles in this supplement, this article discusses a number of issues relevant to its further development, including creating distinctions within the major target classes; the nature and quantity of allowable targets of treatment; and bracketing as a way of specifying (1) the skill or knowledge taught; (2) the nature of compensation afforded by changes in the environment, assistive technology, and orthotics/prosthetics; and (3) the ingredients in homework a clinician assigns. Clarification is provided regarding the role of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, focusing a taxonomy on ingredients versus other observable aspects of treatment, and regarding our lack of knowledge and its impact on taxonomy development. Finally, this article discusses the immediate implications of the work to date and presents the need for rehabilitation stakeholders of all disciplines to be involved in further RTT development. PMID:24370324

P Dijkers, Marcel; Hart, Tessa; Whyte, John; M Zanca, Jeanne; Packel, Andrew; Tsaousides, Theodore

2014-01-01

235

Hyperspectral forest monitoring and imaging implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The forest biome is vital to the health of the earth. Canada and the United States have a combined forest area of 4.68 Mkm2. The monitoring of these forest resources has become increasingly complex. Hyperspectral remote sensing can provide a wealth of improved information products to land managers to make more informed decisions. Research in this area has demonstrated that hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to create more accurate products for forest inventory (major forest species), forest health, foliar biochemistry, biomass, and aboveground carbon. Operationally there is a requirement for a mix of airborne and satellite approaches. This paper surveys some methods and results in hyperspectral sensing of forests and discusses the implications for space initiatives with hyperspectral sensing

Goodenough, David G.; Bannon, David

2014-05-01

236

Sex differences in intelligence. Implications for education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex differences in intelligence is among the most politically volatile topics in contemporary psychology. Although no single finding has unanimous support, conclusions from multiple studies suggest that females, on average, score higher on tasks that require rapid access to and use of phonological and semantic information in long-term memory, production and comprehension of complex prose, fine motor skills, and perceptual speed. Males, on average, score higher on tasks that require transformations in visual-spatial working memory, motor skills involved in aiming, spatiotemporal responding, and fluid reasoning, especially in abstract mathematical and scientific domains. Males, however, are also over-represented in the low-ability end of several distributions, including mental retardation, attention disorders, dyslexia, stuttering, and delayed speech. A psychobiosocial model that is based on the inextricable links between the biological bases of intelligence and environmental events is proposed as an alternative to nature-nurture dichotomies. Societal implications and applications to teaching and learning are suggested. PMID:9329293

Halpern, D F

1997-10-01

237

Diminishing Digital Divide: Dynamics and Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A consensus is swiftly emerging regarding the democratizing impacts of moderncommunication technologies. However, the major challenge in this perspective comes from ‘digitaldivide’ which refers to ‘haves’ and ‘have not’ of the modern communication technologies and accessto information. This divide, primarily stems from the existing socioeconomic divides. However, inperspective of existing scholarly research and quantitative data on the issue, it is argued that digitaldivide is diminishing gradually. The advancements in technology particularly the integrative featuresof modern technology along with increasing affordability is denting the digital divide. The ebbingaway of digital divide has various implications for individual, civil society and state.This articleelaborates this issue at length by juxtaposing the findings from the existing research and presents acompact schematic model for better comprehension of the issue.

Muhammad Zubair Khan

2012-12-01

238

Implications of the Human Genome Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Human Genome Project (HGP), launched in 1991, aims to map and sequence the human genome by 2006. During the fifteen-year life of the project, it is projected that $3 billion in federal funds will be allocated to it. The ultimate aims of spending this money are to analyze the structure of human DNA, to identify all human genes, to recognize the functions of those genes, and to prepare for the biology and medicine of the twenty-first century. The following summary examines some of the implications of the program, concentrating on its scientific import and on the ethical and social problems that it raises. Its aim is to expose principles that might be used in applying the information which the HGP will generate. There is no attempt here to translate the principles into detailed proposals for legislation. Arguments and discussion can be found in the full report, but, like this summary, that report does not contain any legislative proposals.

Kitcher, P.

1998-11-01

239

Implications of inherent safe nuclear power system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The safety of present day nuclear power reactors and research reactors depends on a combination of design features of passive and active systems, and the alert judgement of their operators. A few inherently safe designs of nuclear reactors for power plants are currently under development. In these designs, the passive systems are emphasized, and the active systems are minimized. Also efforts are made to eliminate the potential for human failures that initiate the series of accidents. If a major system fails in these designs, the core is flooded automatically with coolants that flow by gravity, not by mechanical pumps or electromagnetic actuators. Depending on the choice of the coolants--water, liquid metal and helium gas--there are three principal types of inherently safe reactors. In this paper, these inherently safe reactor designs are reviewed and their implications are discussed. Further, future perspectives of their acceptance by nuclear industries are discussed. (author)

240

Heat Shock Proteins and their clinical Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge of the physiological role of heat shock proteins is currently limited; however better understanding of their function and thereby the acquisition of the capacity to harness their power might lead to their use as therapeutic agents and revolutionize clinical practice in a number of areas. Future work is needed to translate the experimental data on the capacity of heat shock proteins to induce tumor protection and immunity to infectious agents into the clinical environment. Approach to cancer vaccine is based on the role of HSP in the presentation of antigens. In several infections and especially autoimmune diseases, the implications of immune responses against HSP are still not properly or fully understood. HSP have clinical significance in conditions such as cardiac hypertrophy, vascular wall injury, cardiac surgery, ischemic preconditioning and ageing. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000: 558-560

M. M. Pathan

 
 
 
 
241

Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are percei [...] ved, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise.

Mukesh, Srivastava; Betsy J, Gips.

2009-05-01

242

Dialectics of mindfulness: implications for western medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Mindfulness as a clinical and nonclinical intervention for a variety of symptoms has recently received a substantial amount of interest. Although the application of mindfulness appears straightforward and its effectiveness is well supported, the concept may easily be misunderstood. This misunderstanding may severely limit the benefit of mindfulness-based interventions. It is therefore necessary to understand that the characteristics of mindfulness are based on a set of seemingly paradoxical structures. This article discusses the underlying paradox by disentangling it into five dialectical positions - activity vs. passivity, wanting vs. non-wanting, changing vs. non-changing, non-judging vs. non-reacting, and active acceptance vs. passive acceptance, respectively. Finally, the practical implications for the medical professional as well as potential caveats are discussed.

Lynch Siobhan

2011-05-01

243

Implications of LHCb measurements and future prospects  

CERN Document Server

During 2011 the LHCb experiment at CERN collected $1.0 {\\mbox{fb}^{-1}}$ of $\\sqrt{s} = 7 {\\mathrm{\\,Te\\kern -0.1em V}}$ $pp$ collisions. Due to the large heavy quark production cross-sections, these data provide unprecedented samples of heavy flavoured hadrons. The first results from LHCb have made a significant impact on the flavour physics landscape and have definitively proved the concept of a dedicated experiment in the forward region at a hadron collider. This document discusses the implications of these first measurements on classes of extensions to the Standard Model, bearing in mind the interplay with the results of searches for on-shell production of new particles at ATLAS and CMS. The physics potential of an upgrade to the LHCb detector, which would allow an order of magnitude more data to be collected, is emphasised.

Aaij, R; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Anelli, M; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Band, H; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Beigbeder-Beau, C; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernard, F; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; van Beveren, V; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bochin, B; Boer Rookhuizen, H; Bogdanova, G; Bonaccorsi, E; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Brarda, L; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cacérès, T; Cachemiche, J -P; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casajus Ramo, A; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Ceelie, L; Chadaj, B; Chanal, H; Charles, M; Charlet, D; Charpentier, Ph; Chebbi, M; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciambrone, P; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corajod, B; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; D'Antone, I; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Groen, P; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Decreuse, G; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Domke, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Drancourt, C; Duarte, O; Dumps, R; Dupertuis, F; Duval, P -Y; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Evangelisti, F; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Faulkner, P J W; Fave, V; Felici, G; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Föhr, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Fournier, C; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frei, R; Frosini, M; Fuchs, H; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Gets, S; Ghez, Ph; Giachero, A; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golovtsov, V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gong, G; Gong, H; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gromov, V; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Guzik, Z; Gys, T; Hachon, F; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; van der Heijden, B; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hofmann, W; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jamet, O; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jansen, L; Jansweijer, P; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karavichev, O; Karbach, T M; Kashchuk, A; Kechadi, T; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kihm, T; Kluit, R; Kochebina, O; Komarov, V; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kos, J; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Kristic, R; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudenko, Y; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Landi, L; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Laptev, S; Latham, T; Lax, I; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Likhoded, A; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V

2013-01-01

244

Waste management implications of concentrating slimes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The anticipated increase in demand for sand-size tailings from the uranium industry suggests that the fine-grained or 'slime' fraction will require special attention for disposal. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) required information on the behaviour and environmental significance of the fine-grained tailings fraction in disposal facilities. Beak Consultants and Golder Associates were contracted to review the significant characteristics of slimes disposal and prepare a report on the physical and chemical characteristics of fine-grained tailings (Phase 1). This report (Phase 2) presents a summary of disposal and management practices for slimes and outlines potential concerns related to these practices. The report also presents an approach to disposal planning and the implications of available and potential management techniques. Experience with the disposal of uranium slimes is scarce and, therefore, relevant information was borrowed from the other mining sectors to predict the consequences of various disposal scenarios

245

The Implications of Information Technology for Scientific Journal Publishing: A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

... The Implications of Information Technology for Scientific Journal Publishing: A Literature Review ... Hypertext Format The Implications of Information Technology for Scientific Journal Publishing: A ...

246

The Application and Implications of Information Technologies in Postsecondary Distance Education: An Initial Bibliography  

Science.gov (United States)

... The Application and Implications of Information Technologies in Postsecondary Distance Education: An ... The Application and Implications of Information Technologies in Postsecondary Distance Education: An ...

247

Cosmological implications of the Machian principle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The famous idea of Ernst Mach concerning the non-absolute but relational character of particle inertia is taken up in this paper and is reinvestigated with respect to its cosmological implications. From Thirring's general relativistic study of the old Newtonian problem of the relativity of rotations in different reference systems, it appears that the equivalence principle with respect to rotating reference systems, if at all, can only be extended to the system of the whole universe, if the mass of the universe scales with the effective radius or extent of the universe. A reanalysis of Thirring's derivations still reveals this astonishing result, and thus the general question must be posed: how serious this result has to be taken with respect to cosmological implications. As we will show, the equivalence principle is, in fact, fulfilled by a universe with vanishing curvature, i.e. with a curvature parameter k = 0, which just has the critical density rho (crit) = (3H)(2)/8piG, where H is the Hubble constant. It turns out, however, that this principle can only permanently be fulfilled in an evolving cosmos, if the cosmic mass density, different from its conventional behaviour, varies with the reciprocal of the squared cosmic scale. This, in fact, would automatically be realized, if the mass of each cosmic particle scales with the scale of the universe. The latter fact, on one hand, is a field-theoretical request from a general relativistic field theory which fulfills H. Weyl's requirement of a conformal scale invariance. On the other hand, it can perhaps also be concluded on purely physical grounds, when taking into account that as source of the cosmic metrics only an effective mass density can be taken. This mass density represents the bare mass density reduced by its mass equivalent of gravitational self-binding energy. Some interesting cosmological conclusions connected with this fact are pointed out in this paper. PMID:16944092

Fahr, Hans J; Zoennchen, Jochen H

2006-12-01

248

Implications of rock criticality for reservoir characterization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is mounting evidence that self-similarity (scale-invariance) characterizes many geological phenomena (and much of the physical world), particular those associated with the fluid-rock stress interactions of cracks and microcracks in rocks. This pervasive self-similarity is a result of the criticality of the distributions of stressed fluid-saturated crack, microcrack, and low aspect-ratio pores in reservoir rock. Criticality has profound implications for the response of hydrocarbon reservoirs to changes during production, and hence for the concept of reservoir characterization. The bad news is that these implications include: (1) the existence of spatial and temporal heterogeneities at all scale lengths; (2) the inappropriateness of Gaussian statistics (averages are no longer meaningful); (3) the inability to reliably extrapolate from place to place and from time to time; and (4) the possibility of any known or measured reservoir characteristics degrading with time. These specifically limit the success of conventional reservoir characterization. The good news is that criticality means that: (1) the response of a known reservoir to known changes can be calculated by anisotropic poro-elasticity (APE); (2) the current configuration can be monitored by seismic shear-wave splitting; (3) the response to given changes (waterflood injection pressures, say) can be predicted by APE; and (4) the reservoir can be controlled via feedback by adjusting input parameters (injection pressures, say) to optimise the effects (water flooding, say) monitored by shear-wave splitting. Finally, the technology for monitoring producing reservoirs with high-frequency shear-waves along short ray paths within the reservoir itself is now being developed in the UNIWELL configuration of three-component geophones and source(s) in the same producing well. UNIWELL will allow detailed fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interactions to be monitored around the production well as frequently as necessary.

Crampin, S. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Edinburgh, Grant Institute, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, Scotland (United Kingdom)

1999-11-01

249

Learners’ Motivation and the Implications for Classroom Teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available
Motivation accounts for remarkable and significant places in individual differences and L2 acquisition. Moreover, its implications for classroom teaching seem to be more practical, which makes a great difference to teachers who can completely understand and take advantage of the implications.
Keywords: motivation; classroom teaching
Résumé: La motivation joue un rôle remarquable et signifiant dans les différences individuelles et l’acquissions de L2. Pourtant, ses implications pour l’apprentissage en classe apparaissent plus pratiques, ce qui engendre une grande différence dans les enseignants qui peuvent comprendre complètement et en bien profiter.
Mots-clés: motivation, apprentissage en classe.

Ai-ming ZOU

2006-03-01

250

Policy implications of technologies for cognitive enhancement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Advanced Concepts Group at Sandia National Laboratory and the Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes at Arizona State University convened a workshop in May 2006 to explore the potential policy implications of technologies that might enhance human cognitive abilities. The group's deliberations sought to identify core values and concerns raised by the prospect of cognitive enhancement. The workshop focused on the policy implications of various prospective cognitive enhancements and on the technologies/nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science--that enable them. The prospect of rapidly emerging technological capabilities to enhance human cognition makes urgent a daunting array of questions, tensions, ambitions, and concerns. The workshop elicited dilemmas and concerns in ten overlapping areas: science and democracy; equity and justice; freedom and control; intergenerational issues; ethics and competition; individual and community rights; speed and deliberations; ethical uncertainty; humanness; and sociocultural risk. We identified four different perspectives to encompass the diverse issues related to emergence of cognitive enhancement technologies: (1) Laissez-faire--emphasizes freedom of individuals to seek and employ enhancement technologies based on their own judgment; (2) Managed technological optimism--believes that while these technologies promise great benefits, such benefits cannot emerge without an active government role; (3) Managed technological skepticism--views that the quality of life arises more out of society's institutions than its technologies; and (4) Human Essentialism--starts with the notion of a human essence (whether God-given or evolutionary in origin) that should not be modified. While the perspectives differ significantly about both human nature and the role of government, each encompasses a belief in the value of transparency and reliable information that can allow public discussion and decisions about cognitive enhancement. The practical question is how to foster productive discussions in a society whose attention is notably fragmented and priorities notably diverse. The question of what to talk about remains central, as each of the four perspectives is concerned about different things. Perhaps the key issue for initial clarification as a condition for productive democratic discussion has to do with the intended goals of cognitive enhancement, and the mechanisms for allowing productive deliberation about these goals.

Sarewitz, Daniel R. (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Karas, Thomas H.

2007-02-01

251

Environmental implications and applications of nanomaterials  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in material science and nanotechnology have given rise to a myriad of developments, while in the meantime call for research into the impacts of nanomaterials on the environment and human health. Although considerable progress has been made in the past decade concerning the behavior of nanomaterials in biological systems, such understanding is critically lacking with respect to the fate of nanomaterials in ecosystems. Accordingly, this dissertation addresses the interactions between nanomaterials and algae---the major constituent of the aquatic food chain (Part I, Chapter two), and exploits the physicochemistry of nanoscaled synthetic dendritic polymers for environmental applications, especially for water purification that is a focused theme of the entire dossier (Part II, Chapters two--five). This dissertation is organized as follows. Chapter one presents a general review of the physical/physicochemical properties, characterizations, implications---especially ecological implication, and applications of a host of most produced and studied nanomaterials. In addition, advances in environmental applications of nanomaterials are discussed. Chapter two examines algal responses to two major types of engineered nanomaterials---quantum dots and polystyrene. Inhibited photosynthetic activities of green algae are observed as a result of the physical adsorption of the nanomaterials. Chapter three elucidates the physicochemical properties of poly(amidoamine)-tris(hydroxymethyl)amidomethane- and amine-terminated dendrimers towards their applications in water remediation. Here, the capacities and mechanisms of the dendrimers in hosting cationic copper, anionic nitrate, polyaromatic phenanthrene, and the more heterogeneous humic acids are discussed. Based on the results of Chapter three, Chapter four presents a dendrimer-based novel optical scheme for improving the detection sensitivity and selectivity of environmental pollutants. Specifically, the surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanowire and the high hosting capacity of dendrimers are utilized for enhancing the detection limit of copper down to the nanomolar level. Chapter five exploits a promising use of dendrimers for the removal of potentially harmful discharged nanoparticles. Here fullerenols are used as a model nanomaterial, and their interactions with dendrimers of two different generations are studied using spectrophotometry and thermodynamics methods. Chapter six summarizes the key findings in this dissertation and presents future work that is stimulated by this PhD research.

Bhattacharya, Priyanka

252

Malaysia: Political Transition and Implications for U.S. Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report analyzes the political changes and economic developments in Malaysia and their implications for U.S. policy. The bilateral relationship between the United States and Malaysia is generally positive and constructive, particularly in the area of ...

B. Vaughn

2003-01-01

253

Complex Disease Endotypes and Implications for GWAS and Exposomics***  

Science.gov (United States)

Presentation Type: Symposia Symposium Title: Human Exposome Discovery and Disease Investigation Abstract Title: Complex Disease Endotypes and Implications for GWAS and Exposomics Authors: Stephen W. Edwards1, David M. Reif, Elaine Cohen Hubaf, ClarLynda Williams-DeVa...

254

Ethical, Legal, and Social Implication of Cancer Research | Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The ethical, legal, and social implications of cancer research (ELSI) are increasingly complex and of paramount concern in the genomic era. Protecting the rights and welfare of human research participants involves moral considerations as well as regulatory compliance.

255

On Power Idealization Filter Topologies of Lattice Implication Algebras  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to introduce power idealization filter topologies with respect to filter topologies and power ideals of lattice implication algebras, and to investigate some properties of power idealization filter topological spaces and their quotient spaces.

Bai, Shi-Zhong

2014-01-01

256

Organisational implications of concentration orthopaedic services.  

Science.gov (United States)

The re-organisation of the acute health services in 1999 is causing many acute trusts to consider the practical implications of concentrating services. This may be in terms of the complete merger of departments at different units or a less radical policy of the alternation of the responsibility for emergency receiving between units. The benefits may include the opportunity to improve the quality of care by providing more specialist services, more attractive working conditions with a larger pool of specialists providing the on-call rota and enhanced opportunity for training. Economic theory indicates that concentration should lead to economies of scale by greater sharing of fixed overhead costs, whilst statistical theory specifies that concentration should produce a relative decline in the variability of demand. This paper examines the effects of concentration on emergency admissions in an orthopaedic department by means of a series of simulation experiments. It examines the potential economies of scale for theatre utilisation and bed usage associated with increasing the volume of non-elective patients. As the volume of patients increases so the relative variability of demand decreases and the relative demand for emergency operating theatre time declines. Concentration could offer savings on theatre time allocated to trauma patients, but the impact on wards is less significant with concentration having a limited effect on the demand for beds. PMID:12661388

Bowers, J; Mould, G

2001-11-01

257

Clinical implication of latent myofascial trigger point.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are hyperirritable points located within a taut band of skeletal muscle or fascia, which cause referred pain, local tenderness and autonomic changes when compressed. There are fundamental differences between the effects produced by the two basic types of MTrPs (active and latent). Active trigger points (ATrPs) usually produce referred pain and tenderness. In contrast, latent trigger points (LTrPs) are foci of hyperirritability in a taut band of muscle, which are clinically associated with a local twitch response, tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. LTrPs may be found in many pain-free skeletal muscles and may be "activated" and converted to ATrPs by continuous detrimental stimuli. ATrPs can be inactivated by different treatment strategies; however, they never fully disappear but rather convert to the latent form. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of LTrPs is important. This review highlights the clinical implication of LTrPs. PMID:23801006

Celik, Derya; Mutlu, Ebru Kaya

2013-08-01

258

Epistasis and its implications for personal genetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The widespread availability of high-throughput genotyping technology has opened the door to the era of personal genetics, which brings to consumers the promise of using genetic variations to predict individual susceptibility to common diseases. Despite easy access to commercial personal genetics services, our knowledge of the genetic architecture of common diseases is still very limited and has not yet fulfilled the promise of accurately predicting most people at risk. This is partly because of the complexity of the mapping relationship between genotype and phenotype that is a consequence of epistasis (gene-gene interaction) and other phenomena such as gene-environment interaction and locus heterogeneity. Unfortunately, these aspects of genetic architecture have not been addressed in most of the genetic association studies that provide the knowledge base for interpreting large-scale genetic association results. We provide here an introductory review of how epistasis can affect human health and disease and how it can be detected in population-based studies. We provide some thoughts on the implications of epistasis for personal genetics and some recommendations for improving personal genetics in light of this complexity. PMID:19733727

Moore, Jason H; Williams, Scott M

2009-09-01

259

The implications of water quality in hemodialysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water used in dialysis requires additional treatment to minimize patient exposure to potential contaminants that may be present in drinking water. Although standards for the chemical purity of water are in existence and have eliminated many of the problems seen in renal units in the 1970s, some problems remain, and the importance of newer contaminants arising from changes in water treatment at the municipal level are being recognized. Despite this, recent surveys have indicated considerable shortcomings in compliance with chemical standards. The water quality used in the preparation of dialysis fluid also requires minimal bacterial content. Staff working in renal units are frequently unaware of the level of microbiologic contamination in their dialysis fluid arising from the presence of biofilm in the dialysis machines and the water distribution network. Bacterial fragments generated by such biofilms are able to cross the dialysis membrane and stimulate an inflammatory response in the patient. Such inflammation has been implicated in the mortality and morbidity associated with dialysis. The desire to improve treatment outcomes has led to the application of more stringent standards for the microbiologic purity of dialysis fluid and to the introduction of ultraclean dialysis fluid into clinical practice. PMID:14629613

Hoenich, Nicholas A; Levin, Robert

2003-01-01

260

Some practical implications of source term reassessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides a brief summary of the current knowledge of severe accident source terms and suggests how this knowledge might be applied to a number of specific aspects of reactor safety. In preparing the report, consideration has been restricted to source term issues relating to light water reactors (LWRs). Consideration has also generally been restricted to the consequences of hypothetical severe accidents rather than their probability of occurrence, although it is recognized that, in the practical application of source term research, it is necessary to take account of probability as well as consequences. The specific areas identified were as follows: Exploration of the new insights that are available into the management of severe accidents; Investigating the impact of source term research on emergency planning and response; Assessing the possibilities which exist in present reactor designs for preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents and how these might be used effectively; Exploring the need for backfitting and assessing the implications of source term research for future designs; and Improving the quantification of the radiological consequences of hypothetical severe accidents for probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) and informing the public about the realistic risks associated with nuclear power plants. 7 refs

 
 
 
 
261

Stress generation: future directions and clinical implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the past two decades have seen increasing empirical interest in stress generation, the process whereby depressed or depression-prone individuals experience higher rates of life stress that are at least in part influenced by their own cognitive and behavioral characteristics, several important aspects of this phenomenon remain relatively unexamined, leaving open several promising opportunities for future advancement of the field. The current paper begins with a brief review of the extant literature on the influence of cognitive, behavioral and interpersonal, childhood maltreatment, and genetic factors on stress generation. An integrative theoretical model is then presented tying together these different lines of research in accounting for the stress generation effect and its potential depressogenic sequelae (i.e., depression recurrence and depression contagion). Drawing on this model, particular focus is given to the need to identify the behavioral processes through which cognitive factors confer risk for stress generation, as well as to the need for research assessing the full etiological chain posited by the stress generation hypothesis linking self-generated stress with subsequent depression. In addition, methodological issues of particular relevance to this area of research are discussed. The current review ends with a consideration of the clinical implications of the stress generation phenomenon. PMID:23416877

Liu, Richard T

2013-04-01

262

Relativistic implications of the quantum phase  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantum phase leads to projective representations of symmetry groups in quantum mechanics. The projective representations are equivalent to the unitary representations of the central extension of the group. A celebrated example is Wigner's formulation of special relativistic quantum mechanics as the projective representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group. However, Wigner's formulation makes no mention of the Weyl-Heisenberg group and the hermitian representation of its algebra that are the Heisenberg commutation relations fundamental to quantum physics. We put aside the relativistic symmetry and show that the maximal quantum symmetry that leaves the Heisenberg commutation relations invariant is the projective representations of the conformally scaled inhomogeneous symplectic group. The Weyl-Heisenberg group and noncommutative structure arises directly because the quantum phase requires projective representations. We then consider the relativistic implications of the quantum phase that lead to the Born line element and the projective representations of an inhomogeneous unitary group that defines a noninertial quantum theory. (Understanding noninertial quantum mechanics is a prelude to understanding quantum gravity.) The remarkable properties of this symmetry and its limits are studied.

Low, Stephen G.

2012-02-01

263

The Spiral Curriculum: implications for online learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an apparent disjuncture between the requirements of the medical spiral curriculum and the practice of replacing previous online material in undergraduate courses. This paper investigates the extent to which students revisit previous online material for the purposes of building the educational spiral, and the implications for the implementation of a Faculty's Learning Management System implementation. Methods At the University of Cape Town, medical students' last date of access to 16 previous online courses was determined. Students completed a survey to determine their reasons for revisiting this material and the perceived benefits of this availability. Results 70% of the students revisited their previous online courses. The major reasons were to review lecture presentations, lectures notes, and quizzes. The perceived benefits were for understanding new material, preparation for assessments, and convenience. Although student comments were not always in line with the concept of the spiral curriculum, most referred to processes of building on previous work, and some mentioned the spiral curriculum specifically. Conclusion This study suggests that the practice of replacing previous online courses may hinder rather than support student learning. Although students visit previous material for ranges of reasons, a large number are aware of the spiral curriculum, and use the online environment to build upon previous material. Any practice, which entails replacing material and redesigning curricula content may be detrimental to the students' future learning needs, and such activities may need revision.

Gibbs Trevor

2007-12-01

264

Implications of conformal invariance in momentum space  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a comprehensive analysis of the implications of conformal invariance for 3-point functions of the stress-energy tensor, conserved currents and scalar operators in general dimension and in momentum space. Our starting point is a novel and very effective decomposition of tensor correlators which reduces their computation to that of a number of scalar form factors. For example, the most general 3-point function of a conserved and traceless stress-energy tensor is determined by only five form factors. Dilatations and special conformal Ward identities then impose additional conditions on these form factors. The special conformal Ward identities become a set of first and second order differential equations, whose general solution is given in terms of integrals involving a product of three Bessel functions (`triple- K integrals'). All in all, the correlators are completely determined up to a number of constants, in agreement with well-known position space results. In odd dimensions 3-point functions are finite without renormalisation while in even dimensions non-trivial renormalisation in required. In this paper we restrict ourselves to odd dimensions. A comprehensive analysis of renormalisation will be discussed elsewhere. This paper contains two parts that can be read independently of each other. In the first part, we explain the method that leads to the solution for the correlators in terms of triple- K integrals while the second part contains a self-contained presentation of all results. Readers interested only in results may directly consult the second part of the paper.

Bzowski, Adam; McFadden, Paul; Skenderis, Kostas

2014-03-01

265

Childhood internalizing behaviour: analysis and implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of 'internalizing behaviour' reflects a child's emotional or psychological state and typically includes depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, somatic complaints and teenage suicide. Genetic and environmental causes have been largely implicated, although research continues to explore social etiological factors. Some research suggests females may be especially vulnerable to internalizing disorders, while data across ethnicities are somewhat variable. Regarding treatment, cognitive-behavioural therapies and use of pharmacological approaches (i.e. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) have both shown great promise in reducing symptoms of internalizing disorders. However, given the role of the social environment, prevention programmes aimed at reducing exposure to drugs, violence/abuse and environmental toxins are highly important. Internalizing disorders are associated with a host of deleterious outcomes (e.g. school drop-out, substance use and potentially suicide) as well as psychopathological outcomes (e.g. co-morbid anxiety or depression, externalizing disorders - including suicide). Children with mental health problems suffer educationally and are more likely to become entangled in the justice and welfare systems. Clearly, early treatment and prevention programmes for internalizing disorders need to be a priority from a public health perspective as well as from a family and community perspective. PMID:22070805

Liu, J; Chen, X; Lewis, G

2011-12-01

266

Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several lines of evidence converge to the idea that rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a good model to foster our understanding of psychosis. Both REMS and psychosis course with internally generated perceptions and lack of rational judgment, which is attributed to a hyperlimbic activity along with hypofrontality. Interestingly, some individuals can become aware of dreaming during REMS, a particular experience known as lucid dreaming (LD), whose neurobiological basis is still controversial. Since the frontal lobe plays a role in self-consciousness, working memory and attention, here we hypothesize that LD is associated with increased frontal activity during REMS. A possible way to test this hypothesis is to check whether transcranial magnetic or electric stimulation of the frontal region during REMS triggers LD. We further suggest that psychosis and LD are opposite phenomena: LD as a physiological awakening while dreaming due to frontal activity, and psychosis as a pathological intrusion of dream features during wake state due to hypofrontality. We further suggest that LD research may have three main clinical implications. First, LD could be important to the study of consciousness, including its pathologies and other altered states. Second, LD could be used as a therapy for recurrent nightmares, a common symptom of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, LD may allow for motor imagery during dreaming with possible improvement of physical rehabilitation. In all, we believe that LD research may clarify multiple aspects of brain functioning in its physiological, altered and pathological states. PMID:23838126

Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Araujo, John F

2013-11-01

267

Statistical implications in Monte Carlo depletions - 051  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of steady advances of computer power, continuous-energy Monte Carlo depletion analysis is attracting considerable attention for reactor burnup calculations. The typical Monte Carlo analysis is set up as a combination of a Monte Carlo neutron transport solver and a fuel burnup solver. Note that the burnup solver is a deterministic module. The statistical errors in Monte Carlo solutions are introduced into nuclide number densities and propagated along fuel burnup. This paper is towards the understanding of the statistical implications in Monte Carlo depletions, including both statistical bias and statistical variations in depleted fuel number densities. The deterministic Studsvik lattice physics code, CASMO-5, is modified to model the Monte Carlo depletion. The statistical bias in depleted number densities is found to be negligible compared to its statistical variations, which, in turn, demonstrates the correctness of the Monte Carlo depletion method. Meanwhile, the statistical variation in number densities generally increases with burnup. Several possible ways of reducing the statistical errors are discussed: 1) to increase the number of individual Monte Carlo histories; 2) to increase the number of time steps; 3) to run additional independent Monte Carlo depletion cases. Finally, a new Monte Carlo depletion methodology, called the batch depletion method, is proposed, which consists of performing a set of independent Monte Carlo depletions and is thus capable of estimating the overall statistical errors including both the local statistical error and the propagated statistical error. (authors)

268

Diagnosis and clinical implications of pancreatobiliary reflux  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sphincter of Oddi is located at the distal end of the pancreatic and bile ducts and regulates the outflow of bile and pancreatic juice. A common channel can be so long that the junction of the pancreatic and bile ducts is located outside of the duodenal wall, as occurs in pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM; in such cases, sphincter action does not functionally affect the junction. As the hydropressure within the pancreatic duct is usually greater than in the bile duct, pancreatic juice frequently refluxes into the biliary duct (pancreatobiliary reflux in PBM, resulting in carcinogenetic conditions in the biliary tract. Pancreatobiliary reflux can be diagnosed from elevated amylase level in the bile, secretin-stimulated dynamic magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and pancreatography via the minor duodenal papilla. Recently, it has become obvious that pancreatobiliary reflux can occur in individuals without PBM. Pancreatobiliary reflux might be related to biliary carcinogenesis even in some individuals without PBM. Since few systemic studies exist with respect to clinical relevance and implications of the pancreatobiliary reflux in individuals with normal pancreaticobiliary junction, further prospective clinical studies including appropriate management should be performed.

Terumi Kamisawa, Hajime Anjiki, Naoto Egawa, Masanao Kurata, Goro Honda, Kouji Tsuruta

2008-11-01

269

Implications of terrain movements in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to study the causes of localized terrain movements in Egypt. The motivation behind this research has been the vast progress in constructing huge engineering structures (dams, bridge,, tall buildings, etc.) as well as extending the urban activities in many new cities. These must be properly studied to ensure their safety versus their cost and other economic factors. In addition, the recent tendency is towards building nuclear power stations whose locations must be carefully investigated against the hazard and danger of inevitable atomic leakage, especially in the case of seismically active regions. Also the discovery of new oil wells and mines and the effects of future depletion require considerable attention from qualified investigators. The relative tectonic movements of North Africa and Southern Europe, the seismic activities around the Alexandria region, the presence of faults related to the region of the High Dam and its reservoir in Aswan, the erosion of the banks of the River Nile and its islands as well as coastal lines along the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, and the deformation and damage to large buildings in the Cairo area are examined here as a few examples of the implications of the earth's deformations within Egyptian territory. Strong recommendations are made concerning the necessity of studying and monitoring the terrain movements in the areas where new cities, large engineering constructions and power plants are planned to be erected.

Nassar, Mohamed M.

1988-10-01

270

Implications of the Foucauldian decentralization of economics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay aims to explore Foucault’s project of decentralizing economics and to hint on some implications. It also makes a comparative analysis between Foucault’s project and the projects similar to his design and aim. I argue that Foucault’s critique of the idea of economics as a science is stronger than that of the critiques which challenge the status of economics as a science by exposing its deep fictional, literary or narrative content and style. I argue that the strength of Foucault’s decentralization project lies in the fact that he does not refer to the discursive content of economics in order to demonstrate that it is not a science. Instead, he unveils its epistemological conditions the character of which deeply haunts the sketch of economics as a science. Foucault undertakes decentralization both at the formal and historical level. At the formal level he shows that there are underlying epistemological conditions that govern the formation of discourses including economics in the West. At the historical level he demonstrates that there is no trace of economics up to the eighteenth century in the West. This fact, that economics is governed by modern Western epistemological conditions, encourages me to question the aim of teaching economics in societies such as Pakistan which are not part of the Western civilization.

Zulfiqar Ali

2011-11-01

271

Microbiological implications of the food irradiation process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the wholesomeness of irradiated food which met in 1976 concluded after a detailed and critical review of the available information, that the microbiological aspects of food irradiation were fully comparable to those of conventional processes used in modern food technology. Processing of food by irradiation may be considered from the microbiological point of view as separate procedures: high dose treatment (> 10 kGy), for sterilisation (radappertization) and low dose treatment (< 10 kGy) for pasteurisation (radicidation, radurization), (for definitions see p. 43), disinfestation, or inhibition of sprouting. No public health hazards related to micro-organisms arise from high dose irradiation because this process results in commercially sterile products. On the other hand, it is important to consider the possible microbiological hazards when food is irradiated with a low dose. The microbiological implications relate to the natural radiation resistance of bacteria, yeasts, fungi and viruses or to the mutagenic effects of ionising radiation in micro-organisms. Both areas of concern were reviewed in detail by Ingram and Ingram and Farkas. (orig.)

272

NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF LEGUMES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Legumes are plants in the family Fabaceae characterized by seeds in pods that are often edible though sometimes poisonous. The nutrient content (protein, carbohydrate and micronutrients of legumes contribute to address under-nutrition, especially protein-calorie malnutrition among children and nursing mothers in developing countries where supplementing cereal-based diets with legumes is suggested as one of the best solutions to protein calorie malnutrition. Anti-nutritional factors, in legumes, may limit their biological value and acceptance as a regular food item, yet they are readily removable and recent research has shown potential health benefits of some of these compounds; and hence, manipulation of processing conditions may be required to remove or reduce only those unwanted components. Moreover, legumes play a role in prevention, improvement and/or treatment of disease conditions such as, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer diseases (e.g breast and prostate cancers and lowers blood cholesterol level. Most of these disease conditions are associated with over-nutrition and obesity and are considered as diseases of the rich. It is, therefore, claimed that including legumes in a health-promoting diet is important in meeting the major dietary recommendations to improve the nutritional status of undernourished as well as over-nourished individuals, and to reduce risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and cancer. In this review, some of the scientific viewpoints that attempt to justify the nutritional contributions, anti-nutritional considerations and health implications of legumes are discussed.

Mebrahtom Gebrelibanos*, Dinka Tesfaye, Y. Raghavendra and Biruk Sintayeyu

2013-04-01

273

Karyomorphology of Taiwanese Begonia (Begoniaceae): taxonomic implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The karyomorphology of all 14 species of Taiwanese Begonia was investigated to elucidate their chromosome features and chromosomal evolution. Among all species investigated, differences in chromosome features are found in: (1) chromosome number 2 n = 22, 26, 36, 38, 52, 60, 64, 82, and (2) frequencies of chromosomes with secondary, tertiary, and/or small constrictions of polyploids, ranging from 23% to 63%, which is higher than the expected value of about 9%. It is suggested that after polyploidization from the diploid species (i.e., 2 n = 22 and frequencies of chromosomes with secondary, tertiary, and/or small constrictions of polyploids of about 9%), chromosome translocations occurred, followed by a decrease in chromosome number, and subsequently stabilized genomes were formed in various species in Taiwan. The karyomorphological evidence also suggested that the chromosome morphology has evolved in parallel in the begonias belonging to different sections in Taiwan. The variation in chromosomal features is more complex than the variation in floral and fruit morphologies. Karyomorphological data also supports the recognition of five new species in Taiwan: Begonia bouffordii, B. chuyunshanensis, B. pinglinensis, B. tengchiana, and B. wutaiana. Based on detailed karyomorphological analyses, the taxonomic implications, speciation, and chromosomal evolution in Taiwanese Begoniaare discussed. PMID:12579372

Oginuma, Kazuo; Peng, Ching-I

2002-06-01

274

Practical implications of the new risk perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years several authors have argued for the adoption of certain new types of risk perspectives which highlight uncertainties rather than probabilities in the way risk is understood and measured. The theoretical rationale for these new perspectives is well established, but the practical implications have not been so clearly demonstrated. There is a need to show how the new perspectives change the way risk is described and communicated in real-life situations and in its turn the effects on risk management and decision making. The present paper aims at contributing to this end by considering two cases, related to a national risk level, and a specific analysis concerning an LNG plant. The paper concludes that the new risk perspectives influence the current regime in many ways, in particular the manner in which the knowledge dimension is described and dealt with. Two methods for characterising the strength of knowledge are presented, one of them based on a new concept, the “assumption deviation risk”, reflecting risks related to the deviations from the conditions/states defined by the assumption made

275

[Mitral atresia. Anatomical study and surgical implications].  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the pathological study of 17 cases of mitral atresia with patent aortic valve and their surgical implications. The study is based on the type of atrioventricular connection, presence or absence of ventricular septum, size of the left ventricle and relation of the aorta with the aforementioned ventricle. We have classified mitral atresia into two groups by assessing these data. Group A) Both ventricles and atrioventricular connections are present and there is ventricular septal defect. The aorta may connect with an either normal or hypoplastic left ventricle or it may emerge in double outlet from the right ventricle. Group B) Absent left ventricle and atrioventricular connection. The aorta emerges from the single ventricle or the rudimentary chamber. Thirteen cases belonged to group A and four to group B. The pathological structure of mitral atresia requires the decompression of the left atrium by atrioseptostomy during the neonatal period to enable survival. On a second stage a palliative correction should be carried out, which; depending on ventricular size and outlet of the vessels, will be a valvular prosthesis left atrium-left ventricle or the modified atriopulmonary technique connecting the new left atrium with the systemic ventricle and aorta after resecting the auricular septum and connecting the right atrium with the pulmonary artery. PMID:3963641

Cabrera, A; Irurita, M; Lekuona, I; Galdeano, J M; Chouza, M; Mendía, M I; Azcárate, M J; Arrinda, J M; Pastor, E

1986-01-01

276

Biological behaviour and clinical implications of micrometastases.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: The most important prognostic determinant in cancer is the identification of disseminated tumour burden (metastases). Micrometastases are microscopic (smaller than 2 mm) deposits of malignant cells that are segregated spatially from the primary tumour and depend on neovascular formation (angiogenesis) to propagate. METHODS: The electronic literature (1966 to present) on micrometastases and their implications in malignant melanoma and epithelial cancers was reviewed. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical techniques combined with serial sectioning offer the best accuracy for detection of nodal micrometastases. Molecular techniques should be reserved for blood samples or bone marrow aspirates. Detection of micrometastases in regional lymph nodes and\\/or bone marrow confers a poor prognosis in epithelial cancers. The concept of sentinel node biopsy combined with serial sectioning and dedicated screening for micrometastases may improve staging procedures. Strategies against angiogenesis may provide novel therapies to induce and maintain micrometastatic dormancy. CONCLUSION: The concept of micrometastases has resulted in a paradigm shift in the staging of epithelial tumours and our overall understanding of malignant processes.

Kell, M R

2012-02-03

277

The public health implications of melioidosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Melioidosis, which is caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a potentially fatal tropical infection, little known outside its main endemic zone of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Though it has received more attention in recent years on account of its claimed suitability as a bi [...] ological weapon agent, the principal threat from melioidosis is a result of naturally occurring events. Occasional case clusters, sporadic cases outside the known endemic zone and infections in unusual demographic groups highlight a changing epidemiology. As melioidosis is the result of an environmental encounter and not person-to-person transmission, subtle changes in its epidemiology indicate a role environmental factors, such as man-made disturbances of soil and surface water. These have implications for travel, occupational and tropical medicine and in particular for risk assessment and prevention. Practical problems with definitive laboratory diagnosis, antibiotic treatment and the current lack of a vaccine underline the need for prevention through exposure avoidance and other environmental health measures. It is likely that the increasing population burden of the tropical zone and extraction of resources from the humid tropics will increase the prevalence of melioidosis. Climate change-driven extreme weather events will both increase the prevalence of infection and gradually extend its main endemic zone.

Timothy J.J., Inglis; Anastácio Q., Sousa.

2009-02-01

278

The public health implications of melioidosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melioidosis, which is caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a potentially fatal tropical infection, little known outside its main endemic zone of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Though it has received more attention in recent years on account of its claimed suitability as a biological weapon agent, the principal threat from melioidosis is a result of naturally occurring events. Occasional case clusters, sporadic cases outside the known endemic zone and infections in unusual demographic groups highlight a changing epidemiology. As melioidosis is the result of an environmental encounter and not person-to-person transmission, subtle changes in its epidemiology indicate a role environmental factors, such as man-made disturbances of soil and surface water. These have implications for travel, occupational and tropical medicine and in particular for risk assessment and prevention. Practical problems with definitive laboratory diagnosis, antibiotic treatment and the current lack of a vaccine underline the need for prevention through exposure avoidance and other environmental health measures. It is likely that the increasing population burden of the tropical zone and extraction of resources from the humid tropics will increase the prevalence of melioidosis. Climate change-driven extreme weather events will both increase the prevalence of infection and gradually extend its main endemic zone.

Timothy J.J. Inglis

2009-02-01

279

Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

1992-03-01

280

Language Learning Strategies: Classification and Pedagogical Implication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to explore language learning strategies (Rubin, 1975, Naiman et . al ., 1978; Fillmore, 1979; O'Malley et . al ., 1985 and 1990; Politzer and Groarty, 1985; Prokop, 1989; Oxford, 1990; and Wenden, 1991. In the current study a total of 79 university students participating in a 3 month English course participated. This study attempted to explore what language learning strategies successful learners used and to what extent the strategies contributed to success in learning English in Indonesia . Factor analyses, accounting for 62.1 %, 56.0 %, 41.1 %, and 43.5 % of the varience of speaking, listening, reading and writing measures in the language learning strategy questionnaire, suggested that the questionnaire constituted three constructs. The three constructs were named metacognitive strategies, deep level cognitive and surface level cognitive strategies. Regression analyses, performed using scales based on these factors revealed significant main effects for the use of the language learning strategies in learning English, constituting 43 % of the varience in the posttest English achievement scores. An analysis of varience of the gain scores of the highest, middle, and the lowest groups of performers suggested a greater use of metacognitive strategies among successful learners and a greater use of surface level cognitive strategies among unsuccessful learners. Implications for the classroom and future research are also discussed.

Ag. Bambang Setiyadi

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

WHO under stress: implications for health policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A crisis is increasingly challenging the authority and prestige of the United Nations' specialized agencies. Although the World Health Organization is still held in great repute, it has not escaped criticism. Member countries have expressed concern about WHO's bureaucratic procedures, costs, proliferation of meetings, reports, lack of budget transparency. Doubts have been cast on the effectiveness of some programmes. This paper argues that such criticisms must be understood within the context of the huge changes that have occurred since WHO was established in the late 1940s. There has been a major shift in the financing of WHO, with extrabudgetary funding now providing more than half the total budget, which has implications for policy influence within the Organization. Policy is also being decided within an increasingly political milieu. These changes put significant pressure on the Organization in a number of ways, and it is essential to generate a public debate about WHO's future role if the Organization is to retain the esteem within which it is generally held. This paper makes an initial contribution to that debate. PMID:10126754

Walt, G

1993-05-01

282

Humanistic Education: Concerns, Implications and Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Humanistic approach introduced by the ideas of Scholars like Erickson, Roger, and Maslow began to permeate the field of second language teaching and learning towards the end of 1970. According to Lei (2007 humanistic approach emphasizes the importance of the inner world of the learner and places the individual’s thought, emotions and feelings at the forefront of all human development. Due to this new shift of focus, language education and pedagogy moved away from the previous behavioristic and mentalistic approaches, and as a result, a new kind of education known as humanistic education emerged. Consequently, significant changes occurred in all aspects of language education, that is, the traditional roles of teachers and learners were redefined and the previously authoritarian teaching practices were replaced by learner-centered classrooms. This paper is of two-fold. First, it is going to take a detailed look at the main principles and features of humanistic education, and second, it is aimed at discussing the implications and applications of humanistic education. Finally, it tries to clarify the new roles and responsibilities considered for language teachers to be able to fully engage the students in the learning process.

Mohammad Khatib

2013-01-01

283

Rehabilitation of executive functions: Implications and strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Executive Functions (EF concern a range of abilities including problem-solving, planning, initiation, selfmonitoring,conscious attention, cope with new situations and the ability to modify plans if necessary. It’s a high cognitive function that is crucial for a person to get engaged and maintain daily activities whilst keeping a good quality of life. Problems in the EF were formerly known as Dysexecutive Syndrome (DS. There are many models concerning DS, although the literature on the subject still remains unclear. Several works appoint the effects brought by elderly life, as well as abuse of drugs and some psychopathologies. These factors are known to increase the distress of the frontal circuits and that could be associated to executive deficits. The effects of DS would compromise individuals in day-to-day routine, academic, social and labor fields. There is a growing body of studies trying to determine the causes, implications, associations and the best way to take care of these effects. This work intends to review DS, focusing on the most important fields related to this area, such as psychopathology associations, cognitive reserve, assessment and cognitive rehabilitation programs.

Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon

2013-01-01

284

Managed care implications in managing rheumatoid arthritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory form of arthritis characterized by joint inflammation, pain, swelling, and stiffness. While contemporary treatment strategies based on early diagnosis, aggressive treatment, and regular monitoring have helped a significant number of patients achieve evidence-based treatment goals, RA still presents substantial management challenges to both clinicians and patients, and has the potential to lead to severe disability over time. In addition to its significant clinical consequences, RA has important economic implications. Both direct and indirect medical costs associated with RA are significant, including costs of medications, ambulatory and office-based care, and quality-of-life and productivity costs. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with prevalent RA have associated cardiovascular disease and other comorbidities, further compounding healthcare costs and complicating management of this disorder. Clinically favorable and cost-effective management must focus on prevention of disease progression and the improved patient health status and productivity than can result from optimal disease control. With the myriad of treatment options both available and emerging, managed care organizations are faced with difficult decisions surrounding the most clinically and cost-effective allocation of treatments designed to improve disease outcomes for patients with RA. It is vital that managed care clinicians and providers analyze both the overall burden and the specific costs of RA. This will allow a better understanding of how costs and issues relating to healthcare utilization affect the treatment of patients with RA and impact individualized therapy, care coordination, and outcomes. PMID:25180623

Owens, Gary M

2014-05-01

285

The Greek crisis: Causes and implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents and critically discusses the origins and causes of the Greek fiscal crisis and its implications for the euro currency as well as the SEE economies. In the aftermath of the 2007-2009 financial crisis the enormous increase in sovereign debt has emerged as an important negative outcome, since public debt was dramatically increased in an effort by the US and the European governments to reduce the accumulated growth of private debt in the years preceding the recent financial turmoil. Although Greece is the country member of the eurozone that has been in the middle of this ongoing debt crisis, since November 2009 when it was made clear that its budget deficit and mainly its public debt were not sustainable, Greece’s fiscal crisis is not directly linked to the 2007 US subprime mortgage loan market crisis. As a result of this negative downturn the Greek government happily accepted a rescue plan of 110 billion euros designed and financed by the European Union and the IMF. A lengthy austerity programme and a fiscal consolidation plan have been put forward and are to be implemented in the next three years.

Vlamis Prodromos

2010-01-01

286

FDI in Indian retail – and its implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The health of a nation is gauged not only by the quantum of FDI it attracts but also the trend it follows. In turn this is dependent on the economic policies formulated and practiced and the willingness of all concerned to engage with global economic practices. Since the early 1990’s when the government embarked on a policy of liberalization it has been observed that FDI inflows showed a steady increase until the last couple of years when in fact there has been a de-growth particularly 2010 over 2009 by almost 30%. On the other hand China has attracted FDI more than 4 times the quantum of India during the same period. Investors will look to invest in ‘opportunities’ as they see bearing the most attractive returns within a given frame work considering both the ‘home’ as well as ‘host’ country. Facts and figures very clearly indicate the positive impact even in India for certain sectors when FDI has been embraced. On the other hand, India most urgently requires gathering as much as investment as is possible to keep the momentum of growth going and one such opportunity is the organizing of our retail segment which would support development endeavor in a big way. The issue of embracing partial FDI in retail has seen some level of procrastination which requires more urgent and serious attention. Can India afford to lose this opportunity? This paper attempts to study the implications for this investment as also providing some suggestions.

Natarajan Chandrasekhar

2013-05-01

287

The public health implications of melioidosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Melioidosis, which is caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a potentially fatal tropical infection, little known outside its main endemic zone of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Though it has received more attention in recent years on account of its claimed suitability as a bi [...] ological weapon agent, the principal threat from melioidosis is a result of naturally occurring events. Occasional case clusters, sporadic cases outside the known endemic zone and infections in unusual demographic groups highlight a changing epidemiology. As melioidosis is the result of an environmental encounter and not person-to-person transmission, subtle changes in its epidemiology indicate a role environmental factors, such as man-made disturbances of soil and surface water. These have implications for travel, occupational and tropical medicine and in particular for risk assessment and prevention. Practical problems with definitive laboratory diagnosis, antibiotic treatment and the current lack of a vaccine underline the need for prevention through exposure avoidance and other environmental health measures. It is likely that the increasing population burden of the tropical zone and extraction of resources from the humid tropics will increase the prevalence of melioidosis. Climate change-driven extreme weather events will both increase the prevalence of infection and gradually extend its main endemic zone.

Timothy J.J., Inglis; Anastácio Q., Sousa.

288

Cloud Computing : Research Issues and Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cloud computing is a rapidly developing and excellent promising technology. It has aroused the concern of the computer society of whole world. Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared information, resources, and software, are provided to terminals and portable devices on-demand, like the energy grid. Cloud computing is the product of the combination of grid computing, distributed computing, parallel computing, and ubiquitous computing. It aims to build and forecast sophisticated service environment with powerful computing capabilities through an array of relatively low-cost computing entity, and using the advanced deployment models like SaaS (Software as a Service, PaaS (Platform as a Service, IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service,HaaS (Hardware as a Service to distribute the powerful computing capacity to end-users. This paper will explore the background and service models and also presents the existing research issues and implications in cloud computing such as security, reliability, privacy, and so on.

Marupaka Rajenda Prasad

2013-01-01

289

Implications of the Higgs discovery for the MSSM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The implications of the discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC with a mass of approximately 125 GeV are summarised in the context of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, the MSSM. Discussed are the implications from the measured mass and production/decay rates of the observed particle and from the constraints in the search for the heavier Higgs states at the LHC. (orig.)

Djouadi, Abdelhak [Paris-Sud Univ. et CNRS, Lab. de Physique Theorique, Orsay (France); TH Unit, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

2014-05-15

290

Implications of the Higgs discovery for the MSSM  

CERN Document Server

The implications of the discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC with a mass of approximately 125 GeV are summarised in the context of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, the MSSM. Discussed are the implications from the measured mass and production/decay rates of the observed particle and from the constraints in the search for the heavier Higgs states at the LHC.

Djouadi, Abdelhak

2013-01-01

291

LOCAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT – IMPLICATIONS FOR LOCAL PUBLIC FINANCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Local sustainable development implications on local public finances are complex because this phenomenon explained by development strategies mobilizes local resources towards achieving the three dimensions that define the phenomenon. This paper aims to develop these implications in Romania, showing that the local development strategy determines the reorganization of local government finances in identifying resources to cover expenses, which are directed towards achieving the goals.

FLORIN OPREA

2012-05-01

292

[The implications of various scientific-philosophical models on nursing].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the implications for nursing of philosophy of science. The relation between the dimensions of research in nursing, paradigms in nursing and the philosophy of science are explained as background. Models of philosophies of science are described, namely positivism, critical rationalism, Kuhn's historical approach, the phenomenological approach, hermeneutics, critical theory, scientific realism and post-modernism. The implications of each of these models are described within nursing as a science. PMID:9257575

Botes, A

1996-03-01

293

Effects of ?9-THC on Working Memory: Implications for Schizophrenia?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reviews the literature on the acute effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive component of marijuana, on working memory, and the implications for schizophrenia. Working memory deficits are a hallmark feature of schizophrenia, and have been implicated as an etiologic mechanism contributing to the onset of the disorder. Regular marijuana smokers may also exhibit subtle working memory impairment relative to healthy controls, and an association between marijua...

Vadhan, Nehal P.; Serper, Mark R.; Haney, Margaret

2009-01-01

294

Shopper marketing implications on communication strategies and actions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Shopper marketing is an international recent concept and approach to marketing. Since shopper marketing is in the early stages of development, it is also an emerging research field, and consequently questions and challenges acrossall the marketing-mix variables are emerging. This paper addressesshopper marketing implications on one of those variables – communication.Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to study the implications of the shopper marketing approach on marketing/brand comm...

Silveira, Paulo Duarte; Marreiros, Cristina

2013-01-01

295

Ductal plates in hepatic ductular reactions. Hypothesis and implications. III. Implications for liver pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses on the basis of the ductal plate hypothesis the implication of the concept for several liver abnormalities. The occurrence of ductal plates (DP) during liver growth in childhood would explain the paraportal and parenchymal localizations of von Meyenburg complexes in postnatally developed parts of the liver, and their higher incidence in adulthood versus childhood. It partly clarifies the lack of postnatal intrahepatic bile duct development in Alagille syndrome and the reduced number of portal tracts in this disease. Ductular reactions (DRs) in DP configuration are the predominant type of progenitor cell reaction in fulminant necro-inflammatory liver disease, when lack of sufficient parenchymal regeneration results in liver failure. The concept of dissecting DRs explains the micronodular pattern of advanced biliary and alcoholic cirrhosis. The concept explains the DP patterns of bile ducts in several cases of biliary atresia, with implications for diagnosis and prognosis. The hypothesis also has an impact on concepts about stem/progenitor cells and their niche. PMID:21301864

Desmet, Valeer J

2011-03-01

296

Sonographic findings of ischemic colitis: Clinical implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To find out clinical implications of sonographic findings in cases of ischemic colitis. Sonographic images were retrospectively reviewed in 39 patients who were diagnosed of ischemic colitis either by endoscopic biopsy (n=36) or by surgery (n=3). Each patients, were described in one of the three segments (ascending colon, transverse colon, or descending including sigmoid colon) were involved. Morphologic patterns in cross section images were described in terms of which layer in the bowel wall was thickened and whether there was a distinction among layers. Degree of wall thickening and presence or absence of ascites were described in each patient and were correlated with longevity of hospitalization. Follow-up sonography was performed in six patients. Most commonly involved segment was descending including sigmoid colon (n=24), followed by the entire colon (n=6),ascending plus transvers colon (n=6), and in ascending colon (n=3). The most common morphologic pattern was thickening of echogenic middle layer (n=25), followed by thickening of echolucent inner layer (n=12), panmural thickening with loss of distinction among layers (n=2). Nine patients with ascites were hospitalized for average period 13.3 days whereas 30 other patients without ascites were hospitalized for average 9.5 days. Nine patients with ascites showed more severe wall thickening (mean 15.3 mm) than patients without ascites (mean 10.3 mm). When follow-up sonography was done, wall thickening was not seen in any of six patients, and their symptoms had been improved as well. In cases of ischemic colitis, severe wall thickening and/or presence of ascites are associated with longer hospitalization (or necessary of surgery)

Lee, Jong Eun; Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Dong Ho; Lim, Joo Won [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2000-09-15

297

Implications of climate change for potamodromous fishes.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is little understanding of how climate change will impact potamodromous freshwater fishes. Since the mid 1970s, a decline in annual rainfall in south-western Australia (a globally recognized biodiversity hotspot) has resulted in the rivers of the region undergoing severe reductions in surface flows (ca. 50%). There is universal agreement amongst Global Climate Models that rainfall will continue to decline in this region. Limited data are available on the movement patterns of the endemic freshwater fishes of south-western Australia or on the relationship between their life histories and hydrology. We used this region as a model to determine how dramatic hydrological change may impact potamodromous freshwater fishes. Migration patterns of fishes in the largest river in south-western Australia were quantified over a 4 year period and were related to a number of key environmental variables including discharge, temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen. Most of the endemic freshwater fishes were potamodromous, displaying lateral seasonal spawning migrations from the main channel into tributaries, and there were significant temporal differences in movement patterns between species. Using a model averaging approach, amount of discharge was clearly the best predictor of upstream and downstream movement for most species. Given past and projected reductions in surface flow and groundwater, the findings have major implications for future recruitment rates and population viabilities of potamodromous fishes. Freshwater ecosystems in drying climatic regions can only be managed effectively if such hydro-ecological relationships are considered. Proactive management and addressing existing anthropogenic stressors on aquatic ecosystems associated with the development of surface and groundwater resources and land use is required to increase the resistance and resilience of potamodromous fishes to ongoing flow reductions. PMID:24307662

Beatty, Stephen J; Morgan, David L; Lymbery, Alan J

2014-06-01

298

Definitions of fuel poverty: Implications for policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines why the definition of fuel poverty is important in policy formulation and describes how the Government's current definitions evolved from the original concept. It discusses the determination of income and fuel costs and the possibilities for a relative and common European measure. It examines problems inherent in assessing fuel costs as a percentage of income and puts forward the arguments for a ‘budget standard’ approach. The paper illustrates how the size of the problem depends on the definition and chosen threshold and suggests advantages for a rating scale. It illustrates how the income composition and thresholds also govern the distribution of the target populations and the relative importance of the main causal factors, and examines the consequent policy implications. It explores the definition of vulnerable households and the importance of severity and questions whether the UK fuel poverty strategy is targeted at households least able to afford their fuel costs (as the name implies) or primarily those at risk from excess winter and summer mortality and morbidity. Finally, after examining the role of supplementary indicators, it looks at the opportunities for changing the definition and comments on the Government review of the definition and targets. - Highlights: ? There are major failings in the existing official definitions of fuel poverty. ? expressing fuel costs as a percentage of income is a poor indicator of fuel poverty. ? A budget standard approach provides a more consistent, meaningful and fairer measure. ? The scale and nature of the problem changes dramatically with different definitions. ? The definition is crucial to the mix of policies and allocation of resources required.

299

Oceanic implications for climate change policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the United Nations convention on the law of the sea (1982), each participating country maintains exclusive economic and environmental rights within the oceanic region extending 200 nm from its territorial sea, known as the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Although the ocean within each EEZ is undoubtedly an anthropogenic CO2 sink, it has been over-looked within international climate policy. In this paper I use an area-weighted scaling argument to show that the inclusion of the EEZ CO2 sink within national carbon accounts would have significant implications in tracking national greenhouse commitments to any future climate change policy initiative. The advantages and disadvantages for inclusion of the EEZ CO2 sink into global climate change policy are also explored. The most compelling argument for including the EEZ CO2 sink is that it would enhance the equity and resources among coastal nations to combat and adapt against future climate change that will inherently impact coastal nations more so than land locked nations. If included, the funds raised could be used for either monitoring or adaptive coastal infrastructure among the most vulnerable nations. On the other hand, the EEZ anthropogenic CO2 sink cannot be directly controlled by human activities and could be used as a disincentive for some developed nations to reduce fossil-fuel related greenhouse gas emissions. This may therefore dampen efforts to ultimahis may therefore dampen efforts to ultimately reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. In consideration of these arguments it is therefore suggested that an 'EEZ clause' be added to Kyoto and any future international climate policy that explicitly excludes its use within national carbon accounts under these international climate frameworks

300

Oceanic implications for climate change policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under the United Nations convention on the law of the sea (1982), each participating country maintains exclusive economic and environmental rights within the oceanic region extending 200 nm from its territorial sea, known as the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Although the ocean within each EEZ is undoubtedly an anthropogenic CO{sub 2} sink, it has been over-looked within international climate policy. In this paper I use an area-weighted scaling argument to show that the inclusion of the EEZ CO{sub 2} sink within national carbon accounts would have significant implications in tracking national greenhouse commitments to any future climate change policy initiative. The advantages and disadvantages for inclusion of the EEZ CO{sub 2} sink into global climate change policy are also explored. The most compelling argument for including the EEZ CO{sub 2} sink is that it would enhance the equity and resources among coastal nations to combat and adapt against future climate change that will inherently impact coastal nations more so than land locked nations. If included, the funds raised could be used for either monitoring or adaptive coastal infrastructure among the most vulnerable nations. On the other hand, the EEZ anthropogenic CO{sub 2} sink cannot be directly controlled by human activities and could be used as a disincentive for some developed nations to reduce fossil-fuel related greenhouse gas emissions. This may therefore dampen efforts to ultimately reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. In consideration of these arguments it is therefore suggested that an 'EEZ clause' be added to Kyoto and any future international climate policy that explicitly excludes its use within national carbon accounts under these international climate frameworks.

McNeil, Ben I. [Climate and Environmental Dynamics Laboratory, School of Mathematics, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)]. E-mail: b.mcneil@unsw.edu.au

2006-11-15

 
 
 
 
301

Siderophilic Cyanobacteria: Implications for Early Earth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of all extant environs, iron-depositing hot springs (IDHS) may exhibit the greatest similarity to late Precambrian shallow warm oceans in regards to temperature, O2 gradients and dissolved iron and H2S concentrations. Despite the insights into the ecology, evolutionary biology, paleogeobiochemistry, and astrobiology examination of IDHS could potentially provide, very few studies dedicated to the physiology and diversity of cyanobacteria (CB) inhabiting IDHS have been conducted. Results. Here we describe the phylogeny, physiology, ultrastructure and biogeochemical activity of several recent CB isolates from two different greater Yellowstone area IDHS, LaDuke and Chocolate Pots. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated that 6 of 12 new isolates examined couldn't be placed within established CB genera. Some of the isolates exhibited pronounced requirements for elevated iron concentrations, with maximum growth rates observed when 0.4-1 mM Fe(3+) was present in the media. In light of "typical" CB iron requirements, our results indicate that elevated iron likely represents a salient factor selecting for "siderophilicM CB species in IDHS. A universal feature of our new isolates is their ability to produce thick EPS layers in which iron accumulates resulting in the generation of well preserved signatures. In parallel, siderophilic CB show enhanced ability to etch the analogs of iron-rich lunar regolith minerals and impact glasses. Despite that iron deposition by CB is not well understood mechanistically, we recently obtained evidence that the PS I:PS II ratio is higher in one of our isolates than for other CB. Although still preliminary, this finding is in direct support of the Y. Cohen hypothesis that PSI can directly oxidize Fe(2+). Conclusion. Our results may have implications for factors driving CB evolutionary relationships and biogeochemical processes on early Earth and probably Mars.

Brown, I. I.; Mummey, D.; Sarkisova, S.; Shen, G.; Bryant, D. A.; Lindsay, J.; Garrison, D.; McKay, D. S.

2006-01-01

302

BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level.. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

Serghei M RGULESCU

2012-06-01

303

BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

SERGHEI MARGULESCU

2012-05-01

304

Multiple infections and cancer: implications in epidemiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 18% of the global cancer burden has been attributed to infectious agents, with estimates ranging from 7% in developed countries to about 22% in developing countries. Chronic infections caused by the hepatitis B and C viruses, human papilloma viruses (HPV), and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are reported to be responsible for approximately 15% of all human cancers. Interestingly, although many of the infectious agents that have been associated with cancer--such as HPV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and H. pylori--are highly prevalent in the world, most infected individuals do not develop cancer but remain lifelong carriers. Malignancies associated with infectious agents may result from prolonged latency as a result of chronic infections. Pathogenic infections are necessary but are not sufficient for cancer initiation or progression. Cancer initiation may require additional cofactors, including secondary infections. Therefore, in patients with chronic infection with one agent, secondary co-infection with another agent may serve as an important co-factor that may cause cancer initiation and progression. Additionally, opportunistic co-infections could significantly inhibit response to cancer treatment and increase cancer mortality. Co-infections are relatively common in areas with a high prevalence of infectious agents, especially in developing countries. These co-infections can cause an imbalance in the host immune system by affecting persistence of and susceptibility to malignant infections. Several articles have been published that focus on infectious agents and cancer. In this article, we discuss the role of infectious agents in malignancies, highlight the role of multiple/co-infections in cancer etiology, and review implications for cancer epidemiology. PMID:23919392

Vedham, Vidya; Divi, Rao L; Starks, Vaurice L; Verma, Mukesh

2014-04-01

305

Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 (“burners”) do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 (“breeders”) have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is “attractive” for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR<1, the heat, gamma, and neutron emission increase as material is recycled. The uranium utilization is at or below 1%, just as it is in thermal reactors as both types of reactors require continuing fissile support. For CR>1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found among the higher actinides, so the neutron emission varies much stronger with CR, about three orders of magnitude.

Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays

2010-11-01

306

GEMAS - Soil geochemistry and health implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The GEMAS Project resulted in a large coherent data set displaying baseline levels of elements in agricultural and grazing land soil, which has a wide variety of applications. Medical geology is an emerging new discipline providing a link between geoscience and medicine by interpreting natural geological factors in relation to human and animal health and their geographical distribution. Medical geology shows not only problems related to harmful health effects of natural geological materials and processes, but also deals with their beneficial aspects. Since the GEMAS project demonstrates the importance of geological factors in geochemical patterns in European soil, this data set can be used in improving our understanding of how the geological processes may affect human health in Europe. The main potential health problems are related to deficiency of nutrients in soil and toxic effects of potentially harmful elements. Deficiency in macro- (e.g., K, Fe, Mg, P) and micro-nutrients (e.g., Se, Zn, Cl) can be responsible for a reduction in crop productivity and certain health issues for livestock and humans. On the other hand, bioavailability of crucial elements depends on soil parameters, e.g., pH; namely, low pH in soil (in northern Europe) makes more micronutrients bioavailable, with the exception of Mo, P and Ca. Rocks underlying the soil layer have a major impact on soil composition, and soil parent material can be a main source of toxic metals, for instance, soil developed on black shale (e.g., Oslo region) shows potentially toxic levels of metals, such as As, Cd, U, Zn and Pb. High content of organic matter is another factor amplifying the toxic levels of metals in soil. Several important topics with health implications can be then addressed using the GEMAS data set, namely, soil properties and element bioavailability, arsenic toxicity, selenium deficiency, potential health effects of liming, uranium in European soil, influence of recent and historical volcanic activity on soil composition and its health consequences. References Reimann, C., Birke, M., Demetriades, A., Filzmoser, P. & O'Connor, P. (Editors), 2014. Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils - Part A: Methodology and interpretation of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B), Schweizerbarth, Hannover, 528 pp. Reimann, C., Birke, M., Demetriades, A., Filzmoser, P. & O'Connor, P. (Editors), 2014. Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils - Part B: General background information and further analysis of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B), Schweizerbarth, Hannover, 352 pp.

Ernstsen, Vibeke; Ladenberger, Anna; Wragg, Joanna; Gulan, Aleksandra

2014-05-01

307

Habit formation: implications for alcoholism research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Characteristics of individuals with severe alcohol use disorders include heightened cue sensitivity, compulsive seeking, craving, and continued alcohol use in the face of negative consequences. Animal models are useful for understanding behavioral and neurological mechanisms underlying problematic alcohol use. Seeking of operant reinforcers including alcohol is processed by two mechanisms, commonly referred to as "goal-directed" (action-outcome) and "habitual" (stimulus-response). As substance use disorders are characterized by continued use regardless of unfavorable outcomes, it is plausible that drug use causes an unnatural disruption of these mechanisms. We present a critical analysis of literature pertaining to behavioral neuroscience alcoholism research involving habit formation. Traditionally, when operant behavior is unaffected by a loss of subjective value of a reinforcer (devaluation), the behavior is considered habitual. Acquisition of instrumental behavior requires corticostriatal mechanisms that depend heavily on the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, whereas practiced behavior is more predominantly controlled by the dorsal striatum. Dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the neurological adaptations involved in stimulus-response action, and drugs of abuse appear to facilitate habitual behavior through high levels of dopamine release. Evidence suggests that the use of alcohol as a reinforcer expedites habit formation, and that a history of alcohol use produces alterations in striatal morphology, aids habit learning for non-psychoactive reinforcers, and promotes alcohol drinking despite aversive adulterants. In this review, we suggest directions for future alcoholism research that seeks to measure action made despite a devalued outcome, including procedural modifications and genotypic, pharmacological, or neurological manipulations. Most alcoholism models currently in use fail to reach substantial blood ethanol concentrations, a shortcoming that may be alleviated through the use of high-drinking rodent lines. Additionally, satiety, one common mechanism of devaluing reinforcers, is not recommended for alcohol research because the psychoactive effects of alcohol depress response rates, mimicking devaluation effects. Overall, further research of habit formation and potentially related perseverative behaviors could be invaluable in discovering genetic variance, traits that correlate with persistent alcohol seeking, implicated neural structures and processes of alcohol use, and eventually novel pharmacological treatment for alcoholism. PMID:24835007

O'Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas

2014-06-01

308

Researching Lean: Methodological implications of loose definitions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – Lean Production has in Sweden become the dominating ideal for ‘best practice’ in rationalization, organizational development and how to organize the work system. However, research into the effects of Lean for different stakeholders has produced ambiguous results. Furthermore, Lean practices seem to overlap with other popular management concepts, such as High Performance Work Systems, World Class Manufacturing and Total Quality Management. This confusion, combined with different methodological and theoretical traditions, has led to much debate and contradictory conclusions regarding Lean. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate some key methodological issues that need to be considered in future Lean research to allow increased understanding of Lean effects for different stakeholders, primarily meaning the customer, employer and employees. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a multiple comparative case study, in which five Lean case studies are presented. All of the studies are of recent origin, and based in Sweden. The cases have been compared and contrasted based on the approaches to Lean, in terms of local ideals, operationalization and implementation. Findings – The findings from the case studies are in line with the existing literature, indicating that Lean has changed over time and that operationalization of the concept varies considerably between work life sectors. The findings demonstrate that approaches related to Lean differ significantly between the studied organizations and stakeholders. This applies to both the interpretations of the Lean concept itself, but also of the operationalization of Lean and implementation design. Although the cases show great similarities in the Lean ideals, the concept takes on many different forms when operationalized, which makes it very difficult to study through a priori definitions. Practical implications/recommendations – The large variation in interpretations of Lean complicates metaanalyses regarding potential impact of Lean on the primary stakeholders of an organization, i.e. the customer, employees and employer. Based on the case studies, we suggest that future investigations describe the Lean interventions in more detail. General descriptions or analogies, e.g. ‘learning organizations’, presumably increase the present confusion regarding Lean impact on different stakeholders. The case studies also illustrate the importance of describing factors that may mediate the effects of Lean, e.g. the local context of the investigated organizations, implementation design. More research is needed to identify these factors, how, and to what degree they mediate the consequences from Lean. Originality/value – The multidisciplinary approach of the included case studies provides an empirical richness that allows us to address the specific issues that need to be focused in the various disciplines investigating the impact of Lean on different organizational stakeholders.

Winkel, JØrgen

2012-01-01

309

Thermoluminescence of ice and its implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A set of six glow curves of hexagonal ice irradiated at 77 K with various doses of ?-rays have been subjected to rigorous analysis. It shows the presence of as many as 11 thermoluminescence (TL) peaks at 108.2 ± 1.7 K, 115.5 ± 1.4 K, 123.4 ± 3.6 K, 131.8 ± 2.5 K, 138.9 ± 2.2 K, 149.8 ± 1.2 K, 161.3 ± 0.9 K, 168.4 ± 0.8 K, 178.0 ± 0.8 K, 194.1 ± 0.8 K and 203.8 ± 3.9 K (for a heating rate of 0.05 K/s) with thermal activation energies of 0.29 ± 0.01 eV, 0.31 ± 0.01 eV, 0.34 ± 0.01 eV, 0.40 ± 0.00 eV, 0.40 ± 0.01 eV, 0.41 ± 0.01 eV, 0.69 ± 0.01 eV, 0.70 ± 0.00 eV, 0.70 ± 0.01 eV, 0.70 ± 0.01 eV and 0.70 ± 0.01 eV, respectively. The lifetime of electrons in the trap giving rise to the most intense TL peak of ice (161.3 ± 0.9 K) estimated from TL data at 273 K is ?55 ns, while that at 77 K is ?2.0 x 10+18 years i.e. ice can be used for TL dating of icy bodies in the solar system. The physical basis of these findings have been provided keeping in mind the formation of H0, O-, OH-, HO2- and trapped electrons that are known to be produced by irradiation of ice. The implications of these findings have been discussed.

310

Profiling of genetic switches using boolean implications in expression data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Correlation analysis assuming coexpression of the genes is a widely used method for gene expression analysis in molecular biology. Yet growing extent, quality and dimensionality of the molecular biological data permits emerging, more sophisticated approaches like Boolean implications. We present an approach which is a combination of the SOM (self organizing maps) machine learning method and Boolean implication analysis to identify relations between genes, metagenes and similarly behaving metagene groups (spots). Our method provides a way to assign Boolean states to genes/metagenes/spots and offers a functional view over significantly variant elements of gene expression data on these three different levels. While being able to cover relations between weakly correlated entities Boolean implication method also decomposes these relations into six implication classes. Our method allows one to validate or identify potential relationships between genes and functional modules of interest and to assess their switching behaviour. Furthermore the output of the method renders it possible to construct and study the network of genes. By providing logical implications as updating rules for the network it can also serve to aid modelling approaches. PMID:25318120

Çak?r, Mehmet Volkan; Binder, Hans; Wirth, Henry

2014-01-01

311

Generic implications of ATWS events at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant: generic implications. Vol. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is the first of two volumes. It documents the work of an interoffice, interdisciplinary NRC Task Force established to determine the generic implications of two anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 on February 22 and 25, 1983. A second report will document the NRC actions to be taken based on the work of the Task Force. The Task Force was established to address three questions: (1) Is there a need for prompt action for similar equipment in other facilities. (2) Are NRC and its licensees learning the sefety-management lessons, and, (3) How should the priority and content of the ATWS rule be adjusted. A number of short-term actions were taken through Bulletins and an Information Notice. Intermediate-term actions to address the generic issues will be addressed in the separate report and implemented through appropriate regulatory mechanisms

312

Implications for global energy markets: implications for non-fossil energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper highlights the recent developments concerning non-fossil energy and examines the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on non-fossil energy sources, and the implications for non-fossil sources in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. The current contributions of fossil and non-fossil fuels to electricity production, prospects for expansion of the established non-fossil sources, new renewables in Europe to date, renewables in Europe to 2010, and policy integration in the EU are discussed. Charts illustrating the generating capacity of renewable energy plant in Britain (1992-1966), wind energy capacity in Europe (1990-2000), and projected renewable energy contributions in the EU (wind, small hydro, photovoltaic, biomass and geothermal) are provided. (UK)

313

The aging of China's population: perspectives and implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

"China's efforts to accelerate the pace of modernization emphasize the promotion of economic development and the reduction of its population growth through the adoption of a one-child per family policy. However, that policy has implications for the eventual aging of the country's population. This article reviews the changes in the status of the elderly, explores the changes in size of the elderly population, and various related social and policy implications." Topics considered include socioeconomic changes, underlying population dynamics, the current situation of the elderly, some international comparisons, implications of aging, planning for support of the elderly, health care, living arrangements and family support, retirement, and the status of the widowed, divorced, and unmarried in the elderly population. PMID:12269187

Yang, Q

1988-03-01

314

What Are the New Implications of Chaos for Unpredictability?  

CERN Document Server

From the beginning of chaos research until today, the unpredictability of chaos has been a central theme. It is widely believed and claimed by philosophers, mathematicians and physicists alike that chaos has a new implication for unpredictability, meaning that chaotic systems are unpredictable in a way that other deterministic systems are not. Hence one might expect that the question 'What are the new implications of chaos for unpredictability?' has already been answered in a satisfactory way. However, this is not the case. I will critically evaluate the existing answers and argue that they do not fit the bill. Then I will approach this question by showing that chaos can be defined via mixing, which has not been explicitly argued for. Based on this insight, I will propose that the sought-after new implication of chaos for unpredictability is the following: for predicting any event all sufficiently past events are approximately probabilistically irrelevant.

Werndl, Charlotte

2013-01-01

315

Magmatic gas scrubbing: implications for volcano monitoring  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the abundance of SO 2(g) in magmatic gases, precursory increases in magmatic SO 2(g) are not always observed prior to volcanic eruption, probably because many terrestrial volcanoes contain abundant groundwater or surface water that scrubs magmatic gases until a dry pathway to the atmosphere is established. To better understand scrubbing and its implications for volcano monitoring, we model thermochemically the reaction of magmatic gases with water. First, we inject a 915°C magmatic gas from Merapi volcano into 25°C air-saturated water (ASW) over a wide range of gas/water mass ratios from 0.0002 to 100 and at a total pressure of 0.1 MPa. Then we model closed-system cooling of the magmatic gas, magmatic gas-ASW mixing at 5.0 MPa, runs with varied temperature and composition of the ASW, a case with a wide range of magmatic-gas compositions, and a reaction of a magmatic gas-ASW mixture with rock. The modeling predicts gas and water compositions, and, in one case, alteration assemblages for a wide range of scrubbing conditions; these results can be compared directly with samples from degassing volcanoes. The modeling suggests that CO 2(g) is the main species to monitor when scrubbing exists; another candidate is H 2S (g), but it can be affected by reactions with aqueous ferrous iron. In contrast, scrubbing by water will prevent significant SO 2(g) and most HCl (g) emissions until dry pathways are established, except for moderate HCl (g) degassing from pHpost-eruptive period, scrubbing appears to have drastically diminished pre-, inter-, and post-eruptive SO 2(g) emissions, but had much less impact on CO 2(g) emissions. (2) Mount St. Helens where scrubbing of SO 2(g) was important prior to and three weeks after the 18 May 1980 eruption. Scrubbing was also active during a period of unrest in the summer of 1998. (3) Mount Pinatubo where early drying out prevented SO 2(g) scrubbing before the climactic 15 June 1991 eruption. (4) The ongoing eruption at Popocatépetl in an arid region of Mexico where there is little evidence of scrubbing. In most eruptive cycles, the impact of scrubbing will be greater during pre- and post-eruptive periods than during the main eruptive and intense passive degassing stages. Therefore, we recommend monitoring the following gases: CO 2(g) and H 2S (g) in precursory stages; CO 2(g), H 2S (g), SO 2(g), HCl (g), and HF (g) in eruptive and intense passive degassing stages; and CO 2(g) and H 2S (g) again in the declining stages. CO 2(g) is clearly the main candidate for early emission rate monitoring, although significant early increases in the intensity and geographic distribution of H 2S (g) emissions should be taken as an important sign of volcanic unrest and a potential precursor. Owing to the difficulty of extracting SO 2(g) from hydrothermal waters, the emergence of >100 t/d (tons per day) of SO 2(g) in addition to CO 2(g) and H 2S (g) should be taken as a criterion of magma intrusion. Finally, the modeling suggests that the interpretation of gas-ratio data requires a case-by-case evaluation since ratio changes can often be produced by several mechanisms; nevertheless, several gas ratios may provide useful indices for monitoring the drying out of gas pathways.

Symonds, R. B.; Gerlach, T. M.; Reed, M. H.

2001-08-01

316

Software Development Methodologies, Trends and Implications: A Testing Centric View  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The practice of software development has evolved steadily over the decades. Numerous methods and models (e.g., life cycle models and agile methods have been proposed to enhance its efficiency and effectiveness. This study provides a testing centric view of software development practices. Specifically, it reviews software development methodologies (i.e., methods and models, identifies the latest trends in the industry and discusses their implications. The review of methodologies, the identification of these trends and the discussion of their implications will be useful to software development educators, students, practitioners and researchers.

Xihui Zhang

2010-01-01

317

SYMPOSIUM - MACRONUTRIENT UTILIZATION DURING EXERCISE: IMPLICATIONS FOR PERFORMANCE AND SUPPLEMENTATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The review articles constitute a mini-symposium entitled "Macronutrient Utilization During Exercise: Implications for Performance and Supplementation" that were recently presented at the 2004 annual conference of the International Society of Sports Nutrition in Las Vegas, NV. Much controversy often surrounds macronutrient intake, utilization, and subsequent metabolism regarding exercise and athletic performance. Furthermore, the role of macronutrient supplementation with the specificintent of improving body composition and exercise performance by way of nutrient timing is also an important issue. As such, the articles provide a comprehensive overview of metabolic and performance-enhancing implications regarding carbohydrate, fat, and protein.

Darryn S. Willoughby

2004-09-01

318

The Political Implications of Violence Against Women in Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Using the primary and secondary tools of analysis, this paper brings out in succinct details, the diverse forms of violence that affect Africa women with greater emphasis, the implications of the phenomenon of violence against women’s political participation is discussed. We thus, canvass the elimination of all forms of violence against women through a new continental gender reawakening process. We reasoned that only this would enable women contribute their quota to the socio-economic and political development of Africa.

Key words: Violence; Africa women; Political participation; Implication

Adebukola Foluke Osunyikanmi

2011-12-01

319

eBay Law: The Legal Implications of the C2C Electronic Commerce Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper attempts to address some of the legal implications of the popular Consumer-to-Consumer electronic commerce model, in particular the implications of the successful and popular auctions site eBay.

Guadamuz, Andres

2003-01-01

320

Enterprise Culture--Its Meaning and Implications for Education and Training.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the following aspects of entrepreneurship: definitions of entrepreneurship and enterprise culture; social, political, and economic context; relationship with education; entrepreneurial versus corporist education with implications for business schools; developing intrapreneurship in large corporations; and implications for training policy.…

Gibb, Allan A.

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

The Neuropsychiatric Implications of Illiteracy: 20 Years Later.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research project was to replicate a study of the neuropsychiatric implications of illiteracy conducted by Hunt and Wittson in 1951. First-year discharge information was collected for (1) 1518 recruits who had been assigned to an academ...

A. L. Holberg, C. J. Hysham, N. H. Berry

1974-01-01

322

Complications of Diabetes and Their Implications for Service Providers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents information on the complications of both Type I and Type II diabetes and the implications for the rehabilitation of persons with diabetes and visual impairment. Topics covered include retinopathy, cataracts, glaucoma, peripheral neuropathy, carpal tunnel syndrome, diabetic hand syndrome, neuropathy of the autonomic nervous…

Ponchillia, S. V.

1993-01-01

323

Clinical Implications of Dynamic Systems Theory for Phonological Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To examine treatment outcomes in relation to the complexity of treatment goals for children with speech sound disorders. Method: The clinical implications of dynamic systems theory in contrast with learnability theory are discussed, especially in the context of target selection decisions for children with speech sound disorders. Detailed…

Rvachew, Susan; Bernhardt, Barbara May

2010-01-01

324

Baccalaureate Degrees at Ontario Colleges: Issues and Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper identifies and examines major issues and implications of the proposal to substantially increase the number of applied baccalaureate degrees offered by Ontario's Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology, including increasing four-year applied degree offerings and introducing three-year applied degrees. Currently, provincial…

Panacci, Adam G.

2014-01-01

325

Islam and Citizenship Education in Singapore: Challenges and Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The religious diversity of Singapore, coupled with the current phenomenon of Islamic revivalism, makes the management of religion a paramount concern for the Singapore government. By examining the developments of Islam in Singapore, this article explores the challenges and implications these developments have on citizenship education in the…

Tan, Charlene

2007-01-01

326

Implications for Child Bilingual Acquisition, Optionality and Transfer  

Science.gov (United States)

Amaral & Roeper's Multiple Grammars (MG) proposal offers an appealingly simple way of thinking about the linguistic representations of bilingual speakers. This article presents a commentary on the MG language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in this issue, focusing on the theory's implications for child…

Serratrice, Ludovica

2014-01-01

327

Bimetric gravity doubly coupled to matter: theory and cosmological implications  

CERN Document Server

A ghost-free theory of gravity with two dynamical metrics both coupled to matter is shown to be consistent and viable. Its cosmological implications are studied, and the models, in particular in the context of partially massless gravity, are found to naturally explain the cosmic acceleration without resorting to dark energy.

Akrami, Yashar; Mota, David F; Sandstad, Marit

2013-01-01

328

Financial Implications of Implementing an E-Learning Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This paper aims to outline the financial implications, while deploying information and communication technologies for implementing e-learning, and to elucidate them, while implementing an e-learning project in a conventional university environment. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a descriptive account of the various cost factors…

Sharma, Kunal

2011-01-01

329

Suicide in Middle Level Schools: Implications for Principals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevention of teenage suicide and coping with it when it occurs is an increasing concern for middle-level principals. This article focuses on specific implications of the youth suicide problem for middle-level principals with considerations for other principals as well. (Author/TE)

Toepfer, Conrad F., Jr.

1986-01-01

330

Youth Victimization: Implications for Prevention, Intervention, & Public Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

Following violence exposure, an interplay of personal, familial, and social factors may serve to either promote or undermine child psychosocial adjustment. This article provides a review of youth victimization, with implications for prevention, intervention, and public policy discussed. (Contains 1 table.)

Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Saunders, Benjamin; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

2007-01-01

331

The public health policy implications of understanding metabiosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Siegel et al. (2014) report that colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae is facilitated by coinfection with influenza virus through utilization of sialic acids cleaved by the viral neuraminidase. The implications of this finding for use of influenza antivirals to prevent flu-related complications are discussed. PMID:25011101

McCullers, Jonathan A

2014-07-01

332

Constructivism: Its Theoretical Underpinnings, Variations, and Implications for Classroom Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of constructivism and its implications for classroom practices. To that end, it first describes the basic features of constructivism along with its major forms or variations. It then elucidates the constructivist view of knowledge, learning, teaching, and the relationship among these constructs. More specifically,…

Yilmaz, Kaya

2008-01-01

333

A Developmental Perspective for Functional Communication: Implications for Lifelong Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Speech Communication Association's National Project on Speech Communication Competencies yielded a developmental perspective of functional communication, from which implications for lifelong learning can be derived. The project resulted in the following contributions: a definition of communication competence; a description of the child as a…

Brown, Kenneth L.

334

Implications of dynamical symmetry breaking for high energy experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scenario of dynamical symmetry breaking as an alternative to the canonical Higgs mechanism with elementary spin-O fields is described, and its implications for high energy experiments contrasted with those of the canonical theory. The potential role of e+e- annihilation physics in unravelling the nature of spontaneous symmetry breaking is emphasized. (orig.)

335

The Skills Implications of Electronic Retailing. IES Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The skills and education/training implications of the development of electronic commerce in the United Kingdom's retail industry and its associated supply chain were examined. The major data collection activities were as follows: a literature review; consultation with leading academics and advisers; an e-mail-based call for information from…

Tackey, Nii Djan; Hillage, Jim; Jagger, Nick; Bates, Peter

336

Experimental implications of mirror matter-type dark matter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mirror matter-type dark matter is one dark matter candidate which is particularly well motivated from high energy physics. The theoretical motivation and experimental evidence are pedagogically reviewed, with emphasis on the implications of recent orthopositronium experiments, the DAMA/NaI dark matter search, anomalous meteorite events etc.

Foot, R.

2003-01-01

337

Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Implications for School Psychologists  

Science.gov (United States)

Pediatric exposure to polychlorinated biphynels (PCBs) is a national health concern with significant implications for school psychologists. According to the healthcare collaboration model, the school psychologist plays a key role in the provision of services to children affected by environmental teratogens. To effectively function as healthcare…

Cook-Cottone, Catherine

2004-01-01

338

The Changing Demography of Private Schools: Trends and Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores (1) the changing private school universe, marked by increases in religious diversity; (2) shifts in private school concentration from the Northeast and Great Lakes regions, to the South, Far West, and midsection of the nation; and (3) the rising size and power of the private school sector, and implications for educational policymaking.…

Cooper, Bruce S.

1984-01-01

339

Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

1998-01-01

340

Findings from research on divorce: implications for professionals' skill development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Results from research on divorce are synthesized, and practical implications for the development of conceptual, perceptual, and executive skills for educators, lawyers, mental health clinicians, health care professionals, social policy planners, and the media are presented. An interdisciplinary approach to intervention is proposed, and recommendations for future research on divorce are made. PMID:6610363

Leahey, M

1984-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

K-12 Implications Seen in Some Cases before High Court  

Science.gov (United States)

Arizona's variation on government vouchers for religious schools and California's prohibition on the sale of violent video games to minors present the top two cases with implications for education in the U.S. Supreme Court term that formally begins Oct. 4. New Justice Elena Kagan brings to the court extensive education policy experience as a…

Walsh, Mark

2010-01-01

342

Development of U.S. Lodging Industry and its Implication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available
This article reviews the development of U.S. lodging industry and its implications, it shows the high degree of concentration in some aspects related to development of U.S. lodging industry such as market size, major players, and customer types.. And then further analyses the factors and its implications that influencing the lodging industry of US, it mainly was studied from the aspects of economic, social and technological sides. Finally forecasts the key trends of the lodging industry.
Key words: Development, Influence Factor, Issue, Trend
Résumé: Cet article passe en revue le développement de l’industrie de logement des Etat-Unis et son implication. Cette rétrospective montre la concentration de haut niveau sous certains aspects relatifs au développement de cette industrie tels que la dimension du marché, les acteurs principaux et les types des clients. Et puis l’article analyse les facteurs et ses implications qui influent l’industrie de logement des Etat-Unis dans les perspectives économique, sociale et technologique. Finalement, l’auteur prévoit les tendances importantes de l’industrie.
Mots-Clés: développement, facteurs influants, problème, tendance

Jin-zhao WANG

2007-02-01

343

Development of Proverb Comprehension in Adolescents: Implications for Instruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparison of the comprehension of proverbs of 200 students (50 each in Grades 6, 8, 10, and 12) found growth in proverb comprehension was most pronounced at two transitional points in development: when students move from late childhood into early adolescence, and again when they move from late adolescence into adulthood. Implications for…

Nippold, Marilyn A.; Hegel, Susan L.; Uhden, Linda D.; Bustamante, Silvia

1998-01-01

344

New physics searches at the LHC: theory implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

I discuss the theoretical implications of the new physics searches at the LHC. The experimental program has been very successful and we have started to explore crucial regions of parameter space. I discuss what we have learned so far, which models might be getting into trouble and what the next frontiers are.

Weiler, Andreas [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

2012-07-01

345

IMPLICATION OF MARKETING PLAN: FOR MARKETING LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper describes the meaning and purpose of marketing in academic libraries and discusses five laws of library science in the view of marketing. It also describes marketing process, its development and implication of marketing plan, and list of the tools and techniques for marketing

Chaskar, V. A. Naikwadi And P. M.

2012-01-01

346

IMPLICATION OF MARKETING PLAN: FOR MARKETING LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper describes the meaning and purpose of marketing in academic libraries and discusses five laws of library science in the view of marketing. It also describes marketing process, its development and implication of marketing plan, and list of the tools and techniques for marketing

V. A. NAIKWADI AND P. M. CHASKAR

2012-11-01

347

Implications of LHC Higgs and SUSY searches for MSSM  

CERN Document Server

The implications of the LHC SUSY searches as well as the discovery of a new bosonic state compatible with the lightest Higgs boson will be discussed in the context of constrained and general MSSM scenarios. Exploring the MSSM through the Higgs sector is an alternative and complementary path to direct searches, and tight constraints on the MSSM parameter space can be obtained.

Mahmoudi, F; Battaglia, M; Djouadi, A

2012-01-01

348

Stella, A Simulation Construction Kit: Cognitive Process and Educational Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document describes the construction/simulation software called Stella which can be used in the investigation of dynamic causal models. Topics considered are its built-in perspective of system dynamics and capabilities, its potential drawbacks, and its cognitive implications for educational applications. (JJK)

Steed, Marlo

1992-01-01

349

Theoretical implications for swarm studies of ion-neutral interactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although accurate swarm data are now available for many ion-neutral systems, several theoretical problems have prevented these data from being fully exploited in terms of the basic ion-neutral interactions. The current status of some of these problems is reviewed and the theoretical implications discussed. (Author)

350

Single-Father Families: Implications for Early Childhood Educators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports on research about single-father families and discusses implications for early childhood educators. Suggests that educators encourage the single-father, adapt to his schedule, cope with adult and child stress, provide parenting information, become aware of custody arrangements, and adjust the curriculum for all children. (AS)

Briggs, Beverly A; Walters, Connor M.

1985-01-01

351

Conceptualizing Public Speaking as Advanced Composition: Contemplating the Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scholars in the communications field rarely have discussed speech composition, and this conversation is long overdue. Reconceptualizing the basic course as advanced composition can enhance the integrity and reputation of the course. Several noteworthy implications emerge that suggest the desirability of operationalizing such a conception,…

Williams, Glen

352

Gas Flaring and its Implication for Environmental Accounting in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study examines the theoretical framework for gas flaring and its implication for environmental accounting in the Nigerian Petroleum Industry. Data were sourced from the annual reports of companies involved in gas flaring in the oil and gas industry and the result reve...

Ayoola, Tajudeen John

2011-01-01

353

Racial Microaggressions against Black Americans: Implications for Counseling  

Science.gov (United States)

Racial microaggression themes were identified using a focus-group analysis of self-identified Black participants. Six categories of demeaning and invalidating messages reflected beliefs of White supremacy that were unintentionally conveyed by perpetrators. Implications for counselors and the counseling process are discussed.

Sue, Derald Wing; Nadal, Kevin L.; Capodilupo, Christina M.; Lin, Annie I.; Torino, Gina C.; Rivera, David P.

2008-01-01

354

Physical Attractiveness, Dating Behavior, and Implications for Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined which of two sociological theories of dating preference was more powerful in predicting women's actual dating frequency. The theories tested were Waller's theory, which emphasizes physical attractiveness, and Blood's theory, which emphasizes personality. Evidence supported Waller's theory. Discussion and implications for women and…

Spreadbury, Constance Lizotte; Reever, Joy Bennett

1979-01-01

355

Managerialism and Higher Education Governance: Implications for South African Universities?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article identifies some of the implications of corporate forms of higher education governance for the management of South African universities. It explores corporate higher educational governance with reference to institutional autonomy incorporating academic freedom. It is the contention of this article that the primary driver of higher…

Adams, F.

2006-01-01

356

A Gaming Frame of Mind: Digital Contexts and Academic Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

When considering the interdisciplinary nature of education, researchers need to acknowledge students' traditional and multimodal literacies and learning environments. Technological changes have brought about new learning spaces and what students learn through their video gaming experiences seems to have important academic implications and…

Abrams, Sandra S.

2009-01-01

357

Neo-Conservatives as Social Darwinists: Implications for Higher Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compares the Social Darwinism of the 1890s with neo-conservatism of the 1980s. Discusses the ideologies of fair play versus fair shares, the theory of supply-side economics, and the implications of neo-conservatism for higher education. Argues that neo-conservatism is altering radically our conceptions of democracy, equality, and freedom. (KH)

Sola, Peter; And Others

1986-01-01

358

A Decade since Title IX: Some Implications for Teacher Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article highlights changes in elementary, secondary, and vocational schools, as well as in colleges and universities, that have followed the passage of Title IX. Discussed are changes in enrollment demographics, employment in education, athletics, and curricular options. Implications for teacher education are also outlined. (JMK)

Metha, Arlene

1983-01-01

359

Media Technology Perspectives and Their Curriculum Implications for Media Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Develops a typology to evaluate and analyze the social and cultural impact of media technologies and to explore curriculum implications. The typology divides existing studies on communication technology into technological determinism, determined technology, and socially constructed technology. Resulting curriculum developments in media education…

Lee, Alice Yuet Lin

1996-01-01

360

Exploring the practical implications of proposals for marine planning ...  

Bill might work in coastal areas and the subsequent implications for the ... \\stakeholders in the wider coastal community, who might not have otherwise had \\... A Marine Bill White Paper. ...... Businesses – need to determine how to engage \\with business as a sector ... Use schools and community groups ... Obligation - \\Aarhus.

 
 
 
 
361

Understanding Homophobic Behavior and Its Implications for Policy and Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we consider recent advances in scholarship on homophobic bullying, and implications for policy and practice. We first consider toward whom homophobic behavior is directed, drawing attention to the nuances among LGBT youth, and the realities of homophobic bullying for heterosexual or straight youth. We review the correlates or…

Poteat, V. Paul; Russell, Stephen T.

2013-01-01

362

Considering Shame and Its Implications for Student Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Research evidence is accumulating to suggest that shame can be implicated in important ways in student adjustment to the learning environment. Student survey data spring-fall 2010 suggest that shame is associated with variables thought to be closely related to student learning--sense of community, burnout and achievement goals--and underline the…

Johnson, Diane Elizabeth

2012-01-01

363

Group Cohesiveness and Classroom Instruction: Implications for Open Classroom Practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purposes of this paper are to focus on the property of group cohesiveness as a positive force affecting students' cognitive and personal growth, and to draw some implications from the research on cohesiveness for teachers who employ open classroom techniques. A bibliography is included. (Author/MLF)

Stancato, Frank A.

364

Whiteness as Technology of Affect: Implications for Educational Praxis  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the embodiment and affectivity of whiteness, particularly as it implicates educational praxis and social justice in education, focusing on the following questions: In what ways are affect and whiteness constitutive of each other in race dialogue? How does emotion intersect with racial practices and white privilege, and what…

Leonardo, Zeus; Zembylas, Michalinos

2013-01-01

365

Ancient Athenian Democratic Knowledge and Citizenship: Connectivity and Intercultural Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the implications that ancient Athens had for modern representative democracies and the links that can be made to the philosophical principles that form the essence of intercultural education. Such an exploration shows that modern democratic societies have ignored many key aspects of the important legacy left to us by these…

Gundara, Jagdish S.

2011-01-01

366

Using Cultural Diversity in Teaching Economics: Global Business Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Globalization and increasing cross-cultural interactivity have implications for education in general and may also present valuable pedagogical opportunities in the practice of teaching economics for business students. Therefore, the author investigated this proposition and offers some empirical observations from research and teaching experiments.…

Mitry, Darryl J.

2008-01-01

367

Spirituality of South Asian Women: Implications for Adult Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The implications of the spirituality of South Asian women for adult learning were examined through semistructured interviews of five South Asian women who resided in Canada. The women, who included students, working professionals, mothers, and single women, originated from Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka and were from Hindu, Moslem, and…

Marshall, Jody L.

368

Social Planning and Social Administration: Implications for Curriculum Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a conceptual framework for viewing social planning and social administration as one activity concerned with goal identification and the development of appropriate administrative structures for their implementation. The implication is that curriculum planning should maximize the integration of social policy, social planning, and…

Gummer, Burton

1975-01-01

369

The Implications of Relational Aggression toward Females Pursuing Educational Administration  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the existence and implications of relational aggression toward female educational administrators. This qualitative study examined the impacts of relational aggression toward ten female superintendents, their observations of relational aggression in the workplace, strategies to overcome relational…

Dryier, Kimberly J.

2009-01-01

370

Relational Aggression, Victimization, and Language Development: Implications for Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

This review explores the development of relational aggression and relational victimization among peers, with specific emphasis on clinical implications for speech-language pathologists. Developmental manifestations of relational aggression and victimization are reviewed from early childhood through emerging adulthood. The concurrent and…

Ostrov, Jamie M.; Godleski, Stephanie A.

2007-01-01

371

Radiological protection, environmental implications, health and risk management: forum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Topics related to the radioactivity or radiation are presented. The importance of protection and security measures that are required both for public health, occupational health and the medical radiation is analyzed. In addition, it emphasizes the risks faced by professionals who work with radioactivity. Issues that confront the serious environmental implications of such activities are also showed

372

Cognitive Moral Development and Clinical Performance: Implications for Pharmacy Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study explored the notion that moral reasoning skills are important to the provision of pharmaceutical care. It compared the moral reasoning skills of two classes of pharmacy students with those of practitioners who scored high on measures of pharmaceutical care and clinical decision making. Implications for pharmacy school admissions and…

Latif, David A.; Berger, Bruce A.

1999-01-01

373

The Politics of Mourning in Cyprus and Israel: Educational Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper suggests the need for a critical analysis of the nationalization of mourning and its educational implications, especially in conflict-ridden areas. Our thoughts are grounded in a comparative study on mourning that has been conducted as part of our long-standing ethnographic research in schools in Cyprus and Israel during the last 10…

Zembylas, Michalinos; Bekerman, Zvi; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Schaade, Nader

2010-01-01

374

LHCb results on flavour physics and implications to BSM  

CERN Document Server

LHCb is a dedicated flavour physics experiment at the LHC. Precision measurements of CP violation and the study of rare decays of hadrons containing beauty and charm quarks constitute powerful searches for New Physics. A selection of recent LHCb results and their implications to physics beyond the Standard Model are discussed.

Langenbruch, C

2013-01-01

375

Behavioral Momentum: Implications and Development from Reinforcement Theories.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzes historical and contemporary theories of reinforcement and clinical application of reinforcement principles to behavior and modification therapy. Presents a behavioral momentum model that studies the allocation of behavior under changed environmental constraints and discusses the implications of this model on behavior modification and…

Plaud, Joseph J.; Gaither, George A.

1996-01-01

376

Discussion Forum--Population Theories: Their Implications on Population Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contends that unless population education programs have a clear conceptual framework built upon a consistent set of population theories, they will remain merely as appendices to established school projects. Several population theories and their implications for population education are described. These include Malthusian demographic transition,…

Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1983

1983-01-01

377

Competitive Sports in the Elementary School: Psychological and Physical Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Implications of participation in highly competitive sports by children from 7 through 12 years of age are examined. Evidence supports the conclusion that highly competitive sports are often harmful to both physiological and psychological growth and development. However, through participation in sports and physical activity, children can develop…

Jackson, Charles; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

378

Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

Soderstrom, Irina R.

2007-01-01

379

The Goals of Higher Education and Their Financial Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper identifies the goals that are sought through higher education in all its aspects and explores the implications of these goals for the financing of higher education. Fifteen goals are considered including: economic growth and military power, supply of professional and other skilled persons, citizenship and civic leadership, solution of…

Bowen, Howard R.

380

Implications of Sociopolitical Context for Career Services Delivery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzes the implications of sociopolitical context for career services delivery. Reflects on the social foundations of the practice of career counseling, and presents and discusses four specific Portuguese conditions in light of existing knowledge in the field. Proposes a research agenda founded in political anthropology that may enhance future…

Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando; Chaves, Anna

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Does Styles Research Have Useful Implications for Educational Practice?  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews eight articles on the implications of styles research contained in this special issue of "Learning and Individual Differences". Three of the papers present original research on topics such as the nature of visualizer cognitive style and intuitive cognitive style. Five of the papers offer reviews or analyses of styles research,…

Mayer, Richard E.

2011-01-01

382

A Cognitive Theory of Resistance and Reactance: Implications for Treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attempts to integrate the formulations of Brehm and Brehm and of Guidano and sets forth a cognitive theory of resistance and reactance within a cognitive developmental and individual differences context. Differentiates resistance from reactance and explores developmental antecedents of characterological reactance. Describes implications for…

Dowd, E. Thomas; Seibel, Cynthia A.

1990-01-01

383

English as a Lingua Franca: Concepts, Use, and Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Sowden's article raises a number of questions concerning English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) and criticizes it as a simplified and culturally neutral means of communication. In this response, I address the issues concerning the conceptualization and use of ELF as well as the implications for ELT. I provide up-to-date evidence of ELF research and show…

Cogo, Alessia

2012-01-01

384

Boundary implications for frequency response of interval FIR filters  

Science.gov (United States)

It is shown that vertex implication results in parameter space apply to interval trigonometric polynomials, which characterize the frequency response of a finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter. A weak result and a strong result are given, and the conclusions are illustrated by examples.

Bose, N. K.; Kim, K. D.

1989-01-01

385

Some Implications of the Psychological Experience of Unemployment  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a summary of some of the implications gleaned from a research project which investigated the psychological influences on the experience of unemployment. Drawing from deprivation theory and the stress and coping literature, the research project explored coping resources, cognitive appraisals, coping behaviours, mental health and…

Hoare, P. Nancey; Machin, M. Anthony

2009-01-01

386

Fast Reconnection and Reconnection Diffusion: Implications for Star Formation  

CERN Document Server

Fast reconnection of magnetic field in turbulent fluids allows magnetic fields change their topology and connections. As a result the traditional concept of magnetic field being frozen into plasma is no more applicable. Plasma which is at one instance can be associated with a given magnetic field lines at the next instant is distributed along a different set of magnetic field lines. This diffusion is enabled by reconnection and therefore is termed "reconnection diffusion". The astrophysical implications of this concept include many astrophysical phenomena, e.g. heat transfer in plasmas, advection of metals in plasmas etc. However, the most dramatic implications of the concept are related to star formation process. The reason for that is that the existing theory of star formation was developed assuming that the decoupling of mass and magnetic field is due to neutrals drifting in respect to magnetic field with entrained ions, i.e. through the process of ambipolar diffusion. This implies that if the ionization o...

Lazarian, A

2011-01-01

387

The future of nursing: domestic agenda, global implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2010 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health, challenges the nursing profession to take a key role in redesigning the health care system. Intended to shape the future of nursing in the United States, the IOM report has implications for nursing worldwide. While individual states and nursing organizations are developing initiatives to implement the IOM recommendations in the United States, there must be a concomitant effort to examine the ripple effect on global health and the nursing community. This article addresses four IOM recommendations that are directly relevant to internationally educated nurses who practice across borders: nurse residency programs, lifelong learning, leading change to advance health, and interprofessional health care workforce data. The article discusses the IOM recommendations through a global perspective and offers policy implications for legislators, health care organizations and nurse educators, regulators and administrators. PMID:24595160

Shaffer, Franklin A; Davis, Catherine R; To Dutka, Julia; Richardson, Donna R

2014-10-01

388

Ethical implications and decision making in care education process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. To determine ethical implications for nursing practice at the point of decision making by nursing professors in practice area. Methodology. A qualitative method was adopted, with use of semistructured interviews with sixteen nursing professors who delivered care at a teaching hospital in Salvador, Bahia, from May to June 2011. The methodological reference used was the discourse of the collective subject (DCS) by Lefévre and Lefévre. Results. In response to DCSs, the following subjects appeared: "Ethics is fundamental and of vital importance in the decision making process," "searching for knowledge and research to identify problems and solutions, including alternatives and support for decisions," and "to act in the best way." Conclusion. Professors who provide education about patient care also delivered care. They have the responsibility to consider the ethical implications of decision making because they stimulate fundamental reflection and could positively influence future nursing professionals. PMID:25230034

Kelle Silva, Layse; Dos Santos Marins, Paulo Roberto; Nascimento Nobre, Tábata Cerqueira; da Silva Frazão, Iracema; de Oliveira Santa Rosa, Darci

2014-07-01

389

Implications of multiscale modeling on sensing predictions in Nafion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multiscale modeling is used to investigate mechanical stiffness of ionic polymers and the subsequent implications for electromechanical sensing. Unlike the more common empirical and gray box approaches this study presents the hypothesis of streaming current as the fundamental, underlying mechanism responsible for sensing. The approach accommodates the observation that both stiffness and sensing response can be affected by cation type and hydration level. Rotational isomeric state (RIS) theory is used to predict the conformation of the hydrophobic backbone of a Nafion, 1200 equivalent weight (EW) in lithium and sodium forms. The RIS method generates crosslink-to-crosslink chain lengths to assess material multiscale stiffness. Both the stiffness and sensing predictions are compared to experiment for validation. It is observed that the multiscale stiffness does not necessarily evolve in concert with the global stiffness. However, the implications are consistent with, and offer an explanation of, experimentally observed water uptake and sensing phenomena

390

Implications of endogenous opioids in the informational aggression syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Starting from the observation that the informational aggression syndrome (IAS) in animals resembles the opioid abstinence syndrome, the authors studied the implications of endogenous opioids in experimentally induced IAS. They induced an IAS in rats, by means of specific sound signals and examined the animals' behaviour by a test used in the study of the opioid abstinence syndrome, as well as their reaction to noxious stimuli by means of thermal stimulation. The results show the implications of endogenous opioids in the IAS. During the first stage, a larger amount of endogenous opioids is secreted; specific symptoms of the opioid abstinence syndrome develop during the second stage. These symptoms can be prevented with clonidine, that has been used in the treatment of the exogenous opioid abstinence syndrome. PMID:3356503

Cristea, A; Restian, A

1988-01-01

391

Electron impact processes in cometary coma: Implications for cometary missions  

Science.gov (United States)

The energetics and chemistry in the cometary coma are initiated by the absorption of solar radiation by neutral constituents of the coma. Solar EUV radiation has been considered as the major source of aeronomical processes, such as ionization, excitation, dissociation, in the cometary coma; other sources include EUV-generated photoelectrons and auroral electrons of solar wind origin. Several studies have suggested that electron impact is also an important source of excitation and ionization in cometary coma, which at times exceeds than that produced by solar EUV radiation. Such results have major implications on deriving abundances of species from emissions. This paper will present results on processes initiated by electron impact, its consequences on the cometary coma science, and will discuss its implications for cometary missions. Finally, possibilities of an Indian flyby mission to Asteroid/comet will be presented.

Bhardwaj, Anil

392

ERP in large Danish enterprises: Implications for SCM  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper argues that with the present state of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) adoption by the companies, the potential benefits of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and integration is about to be unleashed. This paper presents the results and the implications of a survey on ERP adoption in the 500 largest Danish enterprises. The study is based on telephone interviews with ERP managers in 88.4% of the "top 500" enterprises in Denmark. Based on the survey, the paper suggests the following four propositions: (i) ERP has become the pervasive infrastructure; (ii) ERP has become a contemporary technology; (iii) ERP adoption has matured; and (iv) ERP adoption is converging towards a dominant design. Finally, the paper discusses the general implications of the surveyed state of practice on the SCM research challenges. Consequently we argue that research needs to adjust its conceptions of the ERP concept towards ERP II in order to accommodate to the emerging practices.

MØller, Charles

2004-01-01

393

Implications of chemokines, chemokine receptors, and inflammatory lipids in atherosclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemokines are a diverse group of molecules with important implications for the development of solid tissues and normal function of the immune system. However, change of the conditions for such a complex system can have important and dangerous consequences leading to diseases. The specific implications of the various chemokines in diseases have been elucidated in the last few years, prompting hope of manipulating this system for therapy or prevention of diseases. On the other hand, inflammatory lipids are biologically active molecules with crucial impacts on the function of various cell types, including immune cells in health and disease. Here, we describe how these lipids affect the chemokine system and how they interact with chemokines to shape chronic inflammation in the case of atherosclerosis. PMID:24493826

Rolin, Johannes; Maghazachi, Azzam A

2014-04-01

394

Misuse of "study drugs:" prevalence, consequences, and implications for policy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-medical/illegal use of prescription stimulants popularly have been referred to as "study drugs". This paper discusses the current prevalence and consequences of misuse of these drugs and implications of this information for drug policy. Results Study drugs are being misused annually by approximately 4% of older teens and emerging adults. Yet, there are numerous consequences of misuse of prescription stimulants including addiction, negative reactions to high dosages, and medical complications. Policy implications include continuing to limit access to study drugs, finding more safe prescription drug alternatives, interdiction, and public education. Conclusion Much more work is needed on prescription stimulant misuse assessment, identifying the extent of the social and economic costs of misuse, monitoring and reducing access, and developing prevention and cessation education efforts.

Spruijt-Metz Donna

2006-06-01

395

Globalization and Science Education: The Implications for Indigenous Knowledge Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Much of the current diversity literature in science education does not address the complexity of the issues of indigenous learners in their postcolonial environments and calls for a “one size fits all” instructional approach (Lee, 2001.  Indigenous knowledge needs to be promoted and supported. There is currently a global initiative of maintaining worldviews, languages, and environments of which science education can be a part (McKinley, 2007. This paper is organized around five main topics that further guide the theoretical framework for this important area: a describing postcolonialism and indigeneity related to science education, b defining the terms indigenous knowledge, traditional ecological knowledge, c western modern science and the effects of globalization on these terms d examining the research on learning implications of IK and/or TEK in classrooms with a focus on the research into student learning in indigenous language, e connecting place-based education to curricular implications for indigenous knowledge systems.

Cassie Quigley

2009-02-01

396

Intellectual and ethical development in higher education students: Pedagogical implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyses some pedagogical implications of studies on the intellectual and ethical development of adults in general, and higher education students in particular. In an initial phase two studies are described (those of Perry and Kitchener and collaborators, with samples of higher education students in which one can see that their thinking developed, throughout their studies, from a radical absolutism to a progressive relativization of knowledge. Subsequently (1 the results are analysed of the research that shows that few higher education students reach the most advanced stages of intellectual and ethical development, and (2 the main implications of these results are identified in pursuit of the goals of higher education. Finally some strategies are proposed with a view to triggering the intellectual development of the students.

Helena Marchand

2008-09-01

397

Digital realm: Implications on urban development and planning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The implications of ICT on urban planning and development is the topic of this paper. At the outset, the relationship between the 'intelligent environment', and planning and development is outlined, followed by the discussion on new perspectives in the planning value system, and creation of the value-chains. The ICT based planning products and processes are outlined and explored. The author argues that ICT not only affects the very understanding of planning, its role and its attributes, but also changes the planning's scope, and the character of its performance. The challenges to the ICT alternative are highlighted in the last section, and debated vis-à-vis observed benefits. Implications for the concrete planning practice are at the heart of the overall discussion. .

Brkovi?-Baji? Milica

2008-01-01

398

Patents and plant breeding: Implications for food security  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines the inter-relationship between plant variety protection (PVP laws and patent laws and their implications for food security. PVP laws were developed to encourage and protect agricultural innovations by conferring exclusive rights upon the developers of new plant varieties, subject to exceptions for farmers to save seeds for future plantings and for plant breeders to develop new varieties. With the application of recombinant DNA technologies to agriculture and the possibility of patenting DNA and associated enabling technologies the seed saving privilege and breeders’ exception in PVP laws could be circumvented. This has important implications for food security, as does recent efforts of plant breeders to patent their breeding methods. This article examines two recent determinations by the European Patent Office’s Enlarged Board of Appeal concerning attempts to patent plant breeding methods.

Michael Blakeney

2011-08-01

399

Business development - the function, research propositions, and managerial implications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  The management literature reflects remarkable little effort to investigate the nature and consequences of firms' business development activities. This exploratory research aims at synthesizing the scholarly knowledge on the subject with field interviews with senior business developers and executives from high-tech firms and venture capitalists in North America, Asia, and Europe to provide a foundation for future research. Business development is an emerging staff function providing an added level of sophistication to the firms' overall strategic management with interesting performance implications. The business development function is typically found in progressive firms especially within high-tech industries, but is argued to become critical for all types of firms across industries wishing to grow and accumulate wealth. Research propositions and managerial implications are discussed.

SØrensen, Hans Eibe

400

Taxation of the economical activities developed in the sea regions; Tributacao das atividades economicas desenvolvidas nas regioes maritimas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Usually, the power of taxation is straightly connected to the idea of territory. It is important to establish the limits of tax jurisdiction not only for taxes in view of which territoriality is part of the taxable event as defined in legislation - import tax (I.I.) and excise tax (IPI) -, but also for those the location of a possession - property tax (IPTU) - or the place in which services are rendered - service occupation tax (ISS) and sales tax (ICMS) - appear as the main component of the taxable event. According to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982, and the Brazilian internal legislation as well, Federal Government has full sovereignty over its territorial sea -12 mile zone. In other areas (contiguous zone, exclusive economic zone and brazilian continental shelf), sovereignty is restricted to the supervision of some activities, not involving power of taxation. (author)

Oliveira, Marcio Branco de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico Juridico. Setor de Planejamento Tributario

2000-07-01

 
 
 
 
401

Process audits in maritime facilities for the production of petroleum; Auditorias de processo em instalacoes maritimas de producao de petroleo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In oil industry, the process audits are so important as the system audits (quality and environmental) and contribute highly to the improvement of the oil production processes overall. With the increasing hardness of the international safety and environmental standards, and the intense technical development of this sector, the process audit appear as an strategic tool, aiming the rising of the competitive capacity of the organization, both national and international ambit. The basic object of this work is evaluate a methodology to the conduction of process audits in offshore oil production facilities, in Brazil.Furthermore this work presents a methodological proposal to conduct a process audit in offshore oil production facilities, that can be implemented in Brazilian oil industry. This methodology was developed from the elaboration of study of case of two offshore oil production facilities, localized in Campos Basin, north of State of Rio de Janeiro. It is believed that this work will contribute to the sensitization of managers and representations of oil operator companies, that operates in Brazil and others government bodies, according the importance of the implementation of process audits. This is an opportunity of improvement of the offshore oil production process, with focus in the minimization of environmental, personal, community and financial impacts, besides contribute for the reduction of risks, as the less level as possible. (author)

Maia, Joao Luiz Ponce [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Unidade de Negocios]. E-mail: joao.maia@poli.usp.br; jponce@petrobras.com.br

2003-12-01

402

Accuracy of replication in the polymerase chain reaction. Comparison between Thermotoga maritima DNA polymerase and Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For certain applications of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), it may be necessary to consider the accuracy of replication. The breakthrough that made PCR user friendly was the commercialization of Thermus aquaticus (Taq) DNA polymerase, an enzyme that would survive the high temperatures needed for DNA denaturation. The development of enzymes with an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease proofreading activity, lacking in Taq polymerase, would be an improvement when higher fidelity is needed. We use...

Diaz, R. S.; Sabino, E. C.

1998-01-01

403

Eating disordered patients: personality, alexithymia, and implications for primary care.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are becoming more apparent in primary care. Descriptions of character traits related to people with eating disorders are rarely reported in the primary care literature and there is little awareness of the implications of alexithymia--a concept that defines the inability to identify or express emotion. We hypothesised that many individuals with active eating disorders have alexithymic traits and a tendency to somatize their distress. AIM: To analyse the character t...

Beales, D. L.; Dolton, R.

2000-01-01

404

Ore concentrate line efficient operation: some energy saving implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among the outstanding attributes slurry pipelines must have is the need to optimize production efficiency and, in particular, minimize energy consumption. In the present paper, the energy saving implications of three different factors, namely process variable uncertainties, transport control variables and pipeline availability are referred to and exemplified using an idealized Bingham-type slurry pipeline. Present examples suggest that important energy savings can be achieved with proper designs, equipment and operations scheduling. (author)

Ihle, Christian F. [BRASS Engineering Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

2009-07-01

405

Advances in Seabed Liquefaction and its Implications for Marine Structures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A review is presented of recent advances in seabed liquefaction and its implications for marine structures. The review is organized in seven sections: Residual liquefaction, including the sequence of liquefaction, mathematical modelling, centrifuge modelling and comparison with standard wave-flume results; Momentary liquefaction; Floatation of buried pipelines; Sinking of pipelines and marine objects; Liquefaction at gravity structures; Stability of rock berms in liquefied soils; and Impact of seismic-induced liquefaction.

Sumer, B. Mutlu

2013-01-01

406

Understanding Gender : Some Implications for Science and Technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gender relations and gendered power relations are major defining features of science and technology. This article addresses the question of how to understand gender, and considers their various implications for science and technology. Gender and gender relations can be understood as operating and as relevant to science and technology at several levels: who does science and technology; how science and technology are organized; and the construction of knowledge in science and technology. We rev...

Hearn, Jeffery; Husu, Liisa

2011-01-01

407

Earthquake 2005: Some Implications for Environment and Human Capital  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Loss of human capital in the form of skills and experiences is one of the outcomes of any natural hazard such as earthquake, drought, famine, and floods. Generally such losses have many implications for further growth of individuals, communities and nations. Disaster management and risk assessment has established a new need to constitute a paradigm of planning frameworks to develop modules for dealing with interactive rehabilitation and reconstruction activities. However, such management stil...

Hamdani, Nisar Hussain; Shah, Syed Akhter Hussain

2005-01-01

408

Conjecture on the physical implications of the scale anomaly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Murray Gell-Mann, after co-inventing QCD, recognized the interplay of the scale anomaly, the renormalization group, and the origin of the strong scale, {Lambda}{sub QCD}. I tell a story, then elaborate this concept, and for the sake of discussion, propose a conjecture that the physical world is scale invariant in the classical, {h_bar}, limit. This principle has implications for the dimensionality of space-time, the cosmological constant, the weak scale, and Planck scale.

Hill, Christopher T.; /Fermilab

2005-10-01

409

Tourism and spatial transformations; implications for policy and planning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The transformation of space by tourism and recreation is examined and the implications for tourism policy and planning are drawn out. A general model of transformation as a guide to intervention is presented. The first part of the book focuses on the procedures and includes case-studies from the Spanish coast, French mountains and northern Thailand. The second part considers the management of the tourism product, with examples from the Amsterdam Waterfront and holiday villages in northern Eur...

Ashworth, G. J.; Dietvorst, A. G. J.

1995-01-01

410

Financial and economic crisis: implications for agricultural sector in India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the light of the fact that the financial meltdown of September 2008 led to sharp slowdown in economic activity in the US and Europe with a massive drop in demand for goods and services from major exporting nations like China, Japan, Germany and other Asian countries, including India, this paper attempts to evaluate the implications of global meltdown on agricultural sector of India, especially with respect to commodity price, investment in agriculture and in general food security of the co...

Deepak, Shah

2012-01-01

411

Adiponectin as a regulator of vascular redox state: therapeutic implications.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, adipose tissue has been implicated in the regulation of vascular function in humans. This regulatory function is mediated via the release of vasoactive cytokines called adipokines. Adiponectin is an adipokine with powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties being dysregulated in obesity and in insulin resistance states. In both in vitro and in vivo models adiponectin has been shown to increase nitric oxide bioavailability, improve endothelial function, and exert beneficial...

Antonopoulos, As; Lee, R.; Margaritis, M.; Antoniades, C.

2011-01-01

412

Local organic food: The social implications of sustainable consumption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years organically-grown produce for local markets has become more popular with consumers, and re-localising food chains has been put forward as a strategy for sustainable consumption due to the apparent benefits to local economies, communities, and environments. Notions of 'sustainable consumption' are contested, however, and can represent competing ideologies and perspectives about the environment and society. In order to examine the social implications of sustainable consumption, ...

Seyfang, Gill

2004-01-01

413

Hypothetical Gravity Control and Implications for Spacecraft Propulsion  

CERN Document Server

A scientific analysis of the conditions under which gravity could be controlled and the implications that an hypothetical manipulation of gravity would have for known schemes of space propulsion have been the scope of a recent study carried out for the European Space Agency. The underlying fundamental physical principles of known theories of gravity were analysed and shown that even if gravity could be modified it would bring somewhat modest gains in terms of launching of spacecraft and no breakthrough for space propulsion.

Bertolami, O

2002-01-01

414

Uncultivable bacteria: Implications and recent trends towards identification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diseases due to uncultivable bacteria could represent emerging infectious diseases. However, the growing importance of these pathogens remains ill understood and undefined. Non-culture based approaches, especially molecular genetic methods are evolving as the most important tool in our understanding of these enigmatic pathogens. This article attempts to discuss the scientific implications of the evolution of uncultivable bacteria, review the recent trends in identification, and highlight their relevance in clinical medicine.

Bhattacharya S

2002-01-01

415

Interlanguage Pragmatics Theory and Its Implications for Foreign Language  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The major purpose of college English teaching is to cultivate and develop student’s pragmatic competence. Interlanguage pragmatics is a new interdisciplinary branch of study based on the theories of pragmatics and second language acquisition which has direct guide significance for foreign language teaching. This paper firstly introduces the theoretical models of the two theories and then focuses on the implications for foreign language teaching.

Qian Huang

2010-09-01

416

The national security implications of illegal immigration to South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to confirm whether illegal immigration to South Africa is being regarded as a threat to national security and to analyse the implications thereof. The dissertation presents three assumptions to be explored and tested, namely: Illegal immigration poses a growing threat to South Africas national security. The latter is due to an increase in the number of illegal immigrants entering the country as well as their seemingly increasing involvement in es...

Vermaak, Corneluis Grugorius Buitendag

2010-01-01

417

Gender implications of biofuels expansion: A CGE analysis for Mozambique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We use a gendered computable general equilibrium model to assess the implications of biofuels expansion in Mozambique. We compare scenarios with different gender employment intensities in producing jatropha for biodiesel. Under all scenarios, biofuels accelerate GDP growth and reduce poverty. However, a stronger tradeoff between biofuels and food availability emerges when female labour is used intensively, as women are drawn away from food production. A skills-shortage amongst female workers ...

Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Thurlow, James

2010-01-01

418

Learning Styles and Their Implications in Learning and Teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Learning style in SLA is one of the individual factors in SLA. This paper starts by stating the importance of studying learning styles. Then it quotes several definitions of learning style. The main part of it sums up the types and models of learning styles. Learning style is mainly divided into three categories: perceptual learning style, cognitive learning style and personality learning style. In the end, it states the implications of learning style for language learning and language teaching.

Wen Xu

2011-04-01

419

Hypothetical Gravity Control and Implications for Spacecraft Propulsion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A scientific analysis of the conditions under which gravity could be controlled and the implications that an hypothetical manipulation of gravity would have for known schemes of space propulsion have been the scope of a recent study carried out for the European Space Agency. The underlying fundamental physical principles of known theories of gravity were analysed and shown that even if gravity could be modified it would bring somewhat modest gains in terms of launching of sp...

Bertolami, O.; Tajmar, M.

2002-01-01

420

Implications of breast cancer screening : a clinical study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is a compilation of several studies about breast cancer screening. The Mitotic Activity Index (MAI) is studied in screened and non-screened breast cancer patients. There is a significant lower MAI in screen detected breast cancer patients, implicating a less aggressive biological behaviour. In interval breast cancers the MAI is not higher than in symptomatic tumours, indicating a similar biological stage of the tumour. In patients with a family history of breast cancer a lower MAI...

Groenendijk, Richard Peter Robe?rt

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

The Political Implications of Violence Against Women in Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using the primary and secondary tools of analysis, this paper brings out in succinct details, the diverse forms of violence that affect Africa women with greater emphasis, the implications of the phenomenon of violence against women’s political participation is discussed. We thus, canvass the elimination of all forms of violence against women through a new continental gender reawakening process. We reasoned that only this would enable women contribute their quota to the socio-econo...

Adebukola Foluke Osunyikanmi

2011-01-01

422

Imaging of Brain Dopamine Pathways: Implications for Understanding Obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is typically associated with abnormal eating behaviors. Brain imaging studies in humans implicate the involvement of dopamine (DA)-modulated circuits in pathologic eating behavior(s). Food cues increase striatal extracellular DA, providing evidence for the involvement of DA in the nonhedonic motivational properties of food. Food cues also increase metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex indicating the association of this region with the motivation for food consumption. Similar to drug-...

Wang, Gene-jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Fowler, Joanna S.

2009-01-01

423

Computational Implications of Reducing Data to Sufficient Statistics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given a large dataset and an estimation task, it is common to pre-process the data by reducing them to a set of sufficient statistics. This step is often regarded as straightforward and advantageous (in that it simplifies statistical analysis). I show that -on the contrary- reducing data to sufficient statistics can change a computationally tractable estimation problem into an intractable one. I discuss connections with recent work in theoretical computer science, and implic...

Montanari, Andrea

2014-01-01

424

CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI) on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered...

Seok Yoon; Yoon-Doo Kim

2012-01-01

425

Implications of long-distance flavonoid movement in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Flavonoid synthesis is modulated by developmental and environmental signals that control the amounts and localization of the diverse flavonoids found in plants. Flavonoids are implicated in regulating a number of physiological processes including UV protection, fertilization, auxin transport, plant architecture, gravitropism and pathogenic and symbiotic interactions with other organisms. Recently we showed that flavonoids can move long distances in plants, which may facilitate these molecules...

Buer, Charles S.; Muday, Gloria K.; Djordjevic, Michael A.

2008-01-01

426

Part 4. Safety implications of alternative fuel types  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides an assessment of safety implications associated with alternatives relative to the reference (U,Pu) oxide fuel in fast breeder reactors. The alternatives considered include thorium- and uranium-based oxide, carbide and metal fuel types for the LMFBR and oxide fuel types for the GCFR. Major emphasis is put on low probability, but potentially large-consequence accidents, e.g., core-disruptive accidents

427

Suicide methods in Asia: Implications in suicide prevention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications...

Yip, Paul S. F.; Kevin Chien-Chang Wu; Ying-Yeh Chen

2012-01-01

428

Learning Styles and Their Implications in Learning and Teaching  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Learning style in SLA is one of the individual factors in SLA. This paper starts by stating the importance of studying learning styles. Then it quotes several definitions of learning style. The main part of it sums up the types and models of learning styles. Learning style is mainly divided into three categories: perceptual learning style, cognitive learning style and personality learning style. In the end, it states the implications of learning style for language learning and language teaching.

Wen Xu

2011-01-01

429

Utah and Western Water Rates: Implications for Water Use  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This presentation will focus on a 2003 survey of Utah and Western U.S. community water rate and service charge structures and some implications that varying rates have on water use and the possibilities for conservation. The survey includes a range of in service area size amongst communities ranging from a large City of Los Angeles system to smaller systems such as Corvallis, Oregon and St. George, Utah. Though each water provider faces unique circumstances that affect the cost of water deliv...

Garbett, David; Glover, T. F.

2004-01-01

430

Fly-in/Fly-out: Implications for Community Sustainability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

“Fly-in/fly-out” is a form of work organization that has become the standard model for new mining, petroleum and other types of resource development in remote areas. In many places this “no town” model has replaced that of the “new town.” The work system has both beneficial and adverse implications for the sustainability of both existing communities near new resource developments and for the more distant communities from which workers are drawn. This paper explores these outcomes ...

Keith Storey

2010-01-01

431

ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL TOURISM ON TURKISH ECONOMY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study outlines, with a review of earlier studies, the effects of international tourism by showing developments in tourism-related economic parameters and discusses the implications of such tourism on the economy of Turkey. It asks how far international tourism contributes to the economic growth and development of Turkey; how far the country fully values its tourism potential by varying the focus of tourism facilities beyond the sun-sea-sand type of tourism, in order to lead to developmen...

Mustafa Akal

2010-01-01

432

Economic Implications of International Tourism on Turkish Economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study outlines, with a review of earlier studies, the effects of international tourism by showing developments in tourism-related economic parameters and discusses the implications of such tourism on the economy of Turkey. It asks how far international tourism contributes to the economic growth and development of Turkey; how far the country fully values its tourism potential by varying the focus of tourism facilities beyond the sun-sea-sand type of tourism, in order to lead to developmen...

Akal, Mustafa

2009-01-01

433

PXR: a xenobiotic receptor of diverse function implicated in pharmacogenetics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pregnane X receptor (PXR; NR1I2), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, regulates the expression of drug-metabolic enzymes and transporters involved in the responses of mammals to their chemical environment. The same enzyme and transporter systems are also involved in the homeostasis of numerous endogenous chemicals. The regulatory function of PXR is implicated in normal physiology and diseases, such as drug–drug interactions, hepatic steatosis, vitamin D homeostasis, bile acids...

Zhang, Bin; Xie, Wen; Krasowski, Mathew D.

2008-01-01

434

The Finnish Team Academy model: implications for management education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article explores an innovative model of management education, the Team Academy based in Finland, in which teams of learners create and operate real enterprises, supported by coaches. The contributions of the article are to provide insights into how the Team Academy works, and to review its implications for theories of management learning and educational design. Based on a case study of the Team Academy model we argue that management education programmes need to be construed as artificial...

Tosey, Pc; Dhaliwal, S.; Hassinen, J.

2013-01-01

435

Applications and implications of nanotechnologies for the food sector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract A review of the current and projected nanotechnology derived food ingredients, food additives, and food contact materials is presented in relation to potential implications for consumer safety and regulatory controls. Nanotechnology applications are expected to bring a range of benefits to the food sector, including new tastes, textures and sensations, less use of fat, enhanced absorption of nutrients, improved packaging, traceability and security of food products. The rev...

2008-01-01

436

Essential aspects and practical implications of sexual identity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sexual identity is a multidimensional construct that includes sex identity, gender identity, socio-sexual identity, and erotic identity. Sexual identity has theoretical and practical implications for sexual and reproductive health. For adults, concordance among biological sex, gender and role identity, and erotic identity is expected. However, 10% of the general population reports itself as non-heterosexual and another significant percent shows discordant sexual behavior with sexual identit...

Adalberto Campo-Arias

2010-01-01

437

Monitoring a common agent : implications for financial contracting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the problem of multiple principals who want to obtain income from a privately informed agent and design their contracts non-cooperatively. Our analysis reveals that the degree of coordination between principals has strong implications for the shapes of contracts and the amount of monitoring. Equity-like contracts and excessive monitoring emerge when principals are able to coordinate monitoring or verify each others? monitoring efforts. When this is not possible, free riding in monito...

Khalil, Fahad; Martimort, David; Parigi, Bruno Maria

2005-01-01

438

Eye mechanics and their implications for eye movement control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The topic of this thesis is the investigation of the mechanical properties of the oculomotor system and the implications of these properties for eye movement control. The investigation was conducted by means of computer models and simulations. This allowed us to combine data from anatomy, physiology and psychophysics with basic principles of physics (mechanics) and mathematics (geometry). In chapter 2 we investigate the degree to which mechanical and neural non-linearities contribute to t...

Koene, Ansgar Roald

2002-01-01

439

Diabetes and oral disease: implications for health professionals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

“Diabetes and Oral Disease: Implications for Health Professionals” was a one-day conference convened by the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine, the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, and the New York Academy of Sciences on May 4, 2011in New York City. The program included an examination of the bidirectional relationship between oral disease and diabetes and the inter-professional working relationships for the care of people who have diabetes. The overall g...

Albert, David A.; Ward, Angela; Allweiss, Pamela; Graves, Dana T.; Knowler, William C.; Kunzel, Carol; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Novak, Karen F.; Oates, Thomas W.; Papapanou, Panos N.; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Taylor, George W.; Lamster, Ira B.; Lalla, Evanthia

2012-01-01

440

Public perceptions of energy system risks: some policy implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; perceptions, beliefs and attitudes; the survey of public perceptions and attitudes towards energy systems; attitudes towards the five energy systems (nuclear, coal, oil, solar and hydro); perceptions of energy systems - the underlying dimensions of belief (economic benefits; environmental risk; psychological and physical risk; indirect risk; technology development); differential analysis of the perceptions of those pro and con nuclear energy; summary of perceptions of energy systems - relevance to the Austrian dilemma; policy implications. (U.K.)

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