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Crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima TM0439: implications for the mechanism of bacterial GntR transcription regulators with Zn2+-binding FCD domains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The GntR superfamily of dimeric transcription factors, with more than 6200 members encoded in bacterial genomes, are characterized by N-terminal winged helix (WH) DNA-binding domains and diverse C-terminal, regulatory domains, which provide a basis for the classification of the constituent families. The largest of these families, FadR, contains nearly 3000 proteins with all a-helical regulatory domains classified into two related Pfam families: FadR{_}C and FCD. Only two crystal structures of the FadR family members, i.e. the E. coli FadR protein and the LldR from C. glutamicum, have been described to date in literature. Here we describe the crystal structure of TM0439, a GntR regulator with an FCD domain, found in the Thermotoga maritima genome. The FCD domain is similar to that of the LldR regulator, and contains a buried metal binding site. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy and Trp fluorescence, we show that the recombinant protein contains bound Ni{sup 2+} ions, but it is able to bind Zn{sup 2+} with K{sub D} < 70 nM . We conclude that Zn{sup 2+} is the likely physiological metal, where it may perform either or both structural and regulatory roles. Finally, we compare the TM0439 structure to two other FadR family structures recently deposited by Structural Genomics consortia. The results call for a revision in the classification of the FadR family of transcription factors.

Zheng, Meiying; Cooper, David; Grossoehmerb, Nickolas; Yu, Minmin; Hung, Li-Wei; Cieslik, Murcin; Derewendaro, Urszula; Lesley, Scott; Wilson, Ian; Giedrocb, David; Derewenda, Zygmunt

2009-06-06

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Motility and thermotactic responses of Thermotoga maritima.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thermotoga maritima, a thermophilic eubacterium, is motile at temperatures ranging from 50 to 105 degrees C. The cells are propelled by a single flagellum which most of the time spins clockwise. Changes in the swimming direction ("tumbles") are achieved by short reversals of the direction of filamen...

Gluch, M F; Typke, D; Baumeister, W

3

Novel inositol catabolic pathway in Thermotoga maritima.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

myo-inositol (MI) is a key sugar alcohol component of various metabolites, e.g. phosphatidylinositol-based phospholipids that are abundant in animal and plant cells. The seven-step pathway of MI degradation was previously characterized in various soil bacteria including Bacillus subtilis. Through a combination of bioinformatics and experimental techniques we identified a novel variant of the MI catabolic pathway in the marine hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. By using in vitro biochemical assays with purified recombinant proteins we characterized four inositol catabolic enzymes encoded in the TM0412-TM0416 chromosomal gene cluster. The novel catabolic pathway in T.?maritima starts as the conventional route using the myo-inositol dehydrogenase IolG followed by three novel reactions. The first 2-keto-myo-inositol intermediate is oxidized by another, previously unknown NAD-dependent dehydrogenase TM0412 (named IolM), and a yet unidentified product of this reaction is further hydrolysed by TM0413 (IolN) to form 5-keto-l-gluconate. The fourth step involves epimerization of 5-keto-l-gluconate to d-tagaturonate by TM0416 (IolO). T.?maritima is unable to grow on myo-inositol as a single carbon source. The determined in vitro specificity of the InoEFGK (TM0418-TM0421) transporter to myo-inositol-phosphate suggests that the novel pathway in Thermotoga utilizes a phosphorylated derivative of inositol.

Rodionova IA; Leyn SA; Burkart MD; Boucher N; Noll KM; Osterman AL; Rodionov DA

2013-08-01

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Fructo-oligosaccharides from Urginea maritima.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fructo-oligosaccharides from red squill (Urginea maritima) were isolated by precipitation with methanol, GPC on Biogel P2/P4, and reversed-phase HPLC. Structures of the tri- and tetra-saccharides were verified by the reductive cleavage method. A tetrasaccharide that contained both (2-->1)- and (2-->6)-linked beta-D-Fru f residues was isolated. The higher fractions from GPC were analysed by the reductive cleavage method without prior purification by reversed-phase HPLC. The mode of biosynthesis of sinistrin is discussed.

Praznik W; Spies T

1993-04-01

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Fructo-oligosaccharides from Urginea maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fructo-oligosaccharides from red squill (Urginea maritima) were isolated by precipitation with methanol, GPC on Biogel P2/P4, and reversed-phase HPLC. Structures of the tri- and tetra-saccharides were verified by the reductive cleavage method. A tetrasaccharide that contained both (2-->1)- and (2-->6)-linked beta-D-Fru f residues was isolated. The higher fractions from GPC were analysed by the reductive cleavage method without prior purification by reversed-phase HPLC. The mode of biosynthesis of sinistrin is discussed. PMID:8324767

Praznik, W; Spies, T

1993-04-23

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Bufadienolides from Urginea maritima from Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Forty-one bufadienolides were isolated from the bulbs of Urginea maritima agg. from Egypt; 26 of them are new natural compounds. Structure elucidation was performed by comparison with authentic substances or by means of 1H, 13C NMR and FAB mass spectroscopy. Sixteen of the glycosides derive from nine structurally new aglycones: 16 beta-hydroxy-scillarenin, 16 beta-O-acetyl- scillarenin, 12 beta-hydroxy-5 alpha-4,5-dihydro-scillirosidin, 16 beta- hydroxy-5 alpha-4,5-dihydro-scillirosidin, 16 beta-O-acetyl-5 alpha-4,5- dihydro-scillirosidin, 12 beta-hydroxy-scillirubrosidin, 16 beta-O-acetyl- scillirubrosidin, 9-hydroxy-scilliphaeosidine and 12 beta-hydroxy-desacetyl- scillirosidine.

Kopp B; Krenn L; Draxler M; Hoyer A; Terkola R; Vallaster P; Robien W

1996-05-01

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The centipede Strigamia maritima: what it can tell us about the development and evolution of segmentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most fundamental features of the body plan of arthropods is its segmental design. There is considerable variation in segment number among arthropod groups (about 20-fold); yet, paradoxically, the vast majority of arthropod species have a fixed number of segments, thus providing no variation in this character for natural selection to act upon. However, the 1000-species-strong centipede order Geophilomorpha provides an exception to the general rule of intraspecific invariance in segment number. Members of this group, and especially our favourite animal Strigamia maritima, may thus help us to understand the evolution of segment number in arthropods. Evolution must act by modifying the formation of segments during embryogenesis. So, how this developmental process operates, in a variable-segment-number species, is of considerable interest. Strigamia maritima turns out to be a tractable system both at the ecological level of investigating differences in mean segment number between populations and at the molecular level of studying the expression patterns of developmental genes. Here we report the current state of play in our work on this fascinating animal, including our recent finding of a double-segment periodicity in the expression of two Strigamia segmentation genes, and its possible implications for our understanding of arthropod segmentation mechanisms in general. PMID:15892117

Arthur, Wallace; Chipman, Ariel D

2005-06-01

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Números cromosómicos de Cryptantha diffusa y C.maritima (Boraginaceae)/ Chromosome numbers of Cryptantha diffusa and C. maritima (Boraginaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se estudiaron por primera vez los cromosomas mitóticos de dos especies argentinas de Cryptantha. Para C. diffusa (Phil.) I. M. Johnst. se halló 2n=56 y para C. maritima Greene var. pilosa Johnst. 2n=20, sugiriéndose que sus números básicos son x=7 y x=10, respectivamente. Abstract in english Mitotic chromosome counts are given, for the first time for two species of Cryptantha from Argentina. C. diffusa (Phil.) I. M. Johnst. (2n=56) and C. maritima Greene var. pilosa Johnst. (2n=20). The basic numbers x=7 and x=10, respectively, are suggested for them.

Las Peñas, Maria Laura

2005-12-01

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Pterocarpin and isoflavan derivatives from Canavalia maritima (Aubl.) Thou.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available P terocarpin and isoflavan derivatives were isolated from ethanol extract of Canavalia maritima (Aubl.) Thou on column chromatography. By analyzing spectral data, the structures were elucidated as 2-hydroxy-3, 9-dimethoxypterocarpin (1), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-8,9-methylenedioxypterocarpan (2), medicarpin (3), 7-hydroxy-2',4'-dimethoxy isoflavan (4), 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyisofalvone (5) 5,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (6), 3,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxylflavone (7) and quercetin (8). This paper firstly reports the compounds of pterocarpan and isoflavan from C . maritima, which would help understand the pharmaceutical mechanisms of these bioactive substances for wide medical applications. T he 1 3C-NMR spectr al data of Compound 1 was reported for the first time.

Xinping Huang; Bing Mu; Wenhan Lin; Yan Qiu

2012-01-01

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Six new compounds from the heartwood of Diospyros maritima.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Six new compounds, diospyrolide (1), diospyrolidone (2), diethyl (2R)-malate (3), 3-(E)-coumaroylbetulin-28-yl ethyl nonanedioate (4), 3-(E)-coumaroylbetulin-28-yl ethyl succinate (5), and 3-(E)-coumaroylbetulin-28-yl ethyl (2R)-2-hydroxysuccinate (6), have been isolated from the heartwood of Diospyros maritima. Compounds 1 and 2 are novel trinorlupanes, and 4, 5 and 6 are lupane derivatives. Their structures were determined using spectral and chemical methods.

Kuo YH; Chang CI

2000-08-01

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Transcriptional regulation of the carbohydrate utilization network in Thermotoga maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Thermotogales lineage can produce hydrogen by fermenting a wide range of carbohydrates. Previous experimental studies identified a large fraction of genes committed to carbohydrate degradation and utilization in the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Knowledge of these genes enabled comprehensive reconstruction of biochemical pathways comprising the carbohydrate utilization network. However, transcriptional factors (TFs) and regulatory mechanisms driving this network remained largely unknown. Here, we used an integrated approach based on comparative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data for the reconstruction of the carbohydrate utilization regulatory networks in 11 Thermotogales genomes. We identified DNA-binding motifs and regulons for 19 orthologous TFs in the Thermotogales. The inferred regulatory network in T. maritima contains 181 genes encoding TFs, sugar catabolic enzymes and ABC-family transporters. In contrast to many previously described bacteria, a transcriptional regulation strategy of Thermotoga does not employ global regulatory factors. The reconstructed regulatory network in T. maritima was validated by gene expression profiling on a panel of mono- and disaccharides and by in vitro DNA-binding assays. The observed upregulation of genes involved in catabolism of pectin, trehalose, cellobiose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, glucose, galactose, and ribose showed a strong correlation with the UxaR, TreR, BglR, CelR, AraR, RhaR, XylR, GluR, GalR, and RbsR regulons. Ultimately, this study elucidated the transcriptional regulatory network and mechanisms controlling expression of carbohydrate utilization genes in T. maritima. In addition to improving the functional annotations of associated transporters and catabolic enzymes, this research provides novel insights into the evolution of regulatory networks in Thermotogales. PMID:23986752

Rodionov, Dmitry A; Rodionova, Irina A; Li, Xiaoqing; Ravcheev, Dmitry A; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Portnoy, Vasiliy A; Zengler, Karsten; Osterman, Andrei L

2013-08-23

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Micropropagation of Urginea maritima (L.) Baker s. str.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A method of micropropagation of Urginea maritima (L.) Baker s.str. (Liliaceae) by adventitious shoot formation was developed. Bulb scales and leaf fragments were used as primary and secondary explants, respectively. The most favourable for shoot regeneration were media: MS supplemented with BAP or kinetin (bulb scales) and medium C containing NAA along with BAP (leaf explants). No difficulties in rooting and adapting of plants to greenhouse conditions were observed.

Anna Stojakowska

1993-01-01

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Effect of Oxygen and Redox Potential on Glucose Fermentation in Thermotoga maritima under Controlled Physicochemical Conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Batch cultures of Thermotoga maritima were performed in a bioreactor equipped with instruments adapted for experiments performed at 80°C to mimic the fluctuating oxidative conditions in the hot ecosystems it inhabits. When grown anaerobically on glucose, T. maritima was shown to significantly decrea...

Lakhal, Raja; Auria, Richard; Davidson, Sylvain; Ollivier, Bernard; Dolla, Alain; Hamdi, Moktar; Combet-Blanc, Yannick

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The Genome Organization of Thermotoga maritima Reflects Its Lifestyle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent studies have revealed that microbial genomes have many more organizational features than previously thought. Here, an integrated approach utilizing multiple ‘omics’ datasets and bioinformatics tools is established that elucidates genomic features spanning various levels of cellular organization. This methodology produces gene annotation improvements and includes the definition of transcription units. These enhancements to the annotation enable identification of a set of genetic elements instrumental to gene expression and regulation including promoters, ribosome binding sites (RBSs) and untranslated regions (UTRs). This was applied to characterize the genome organization of Thermotoga maritima—a phylogenetically deep-branching, hyperthermophilic bacterium with a small 1.86 Mb genome. Analysis derived from this multiomics approach in combination with bioinformatics tools demonstrate that the genome organization of T. maritima reflects its lifestyle, both with respect to its extreme growth temperature and compact genome. Comparative analysis of genome features suggests that thermodynamic limitations on binding kinetics for RNA polymerase and the ribosome necessitate increased sequence conservation of promoters and RBSs. Thus, restricting the sequences capable of initiating transcription and translation. Furthermore, this organism has uncharacteristically short 5’UTRs (11-17 nucleotides), which reduce the potential for 5’UTR regulatory interactions. The short intergenic distances in the T. maritima genome (5 bp on average) leave little space for regulation through transcription factor binding. The net effect of these constraints, temperature and genomic space, is a reduced ability to tune gene expression. This effect is readily apparent in global gene expression patterns, which show a high fraction of genes expressed independent of growth state with a tight, linear mRNA/protein correlation (Pearson r = 0.62, p < 2.2 x 10-16 t-test). This methodology for characterizing the genome organization is applicable to any culturable bacteria, and as similar studies are completed in diverse taxa, comparative analysis of genome features may provide insights into microbial evolution.

Latif, Haythem; Lerman, Joshua A.; Portnoy, Vasiliy A.; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Nagarajan, Harish; Rutledge, Alexandra C.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lee, Dae-Hee; Qiu, Yu; Zengler, Karsten

2013-04-25

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Diterpene and other constituents from Stemodia maritima (Scrophulariaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new diterpene, (5S*,8S*,9R*,10S*)-11?,12?-epoxy-9?-hydroxy-19(4 -> 3)abeo-abieta-3,13-diene-19,18-olide, together with the known compounds stemodin, D-mannitol, betulinic acid, a mixture of 3?-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-sitosterol and 3?-O-?-D-glucopyranosylstigmasterol and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,8,3'-trimethoxyflavone were isolated from the leaves and stems of Stemodia maritima. Structural elucidation of all compounds was based on interpretation of spectral data, mainly NMR (1D and 2D) and MS, including comparison with values described in the literature. (author)

2010-01-01

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Synergistic TRAIL sensitizers from Barleria alluaudii and Diospyros maritima.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Barleria alluaudii and Diospyros maritima were both investigated as part of an ongoing search for synergistic TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-?-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) sensitizers. As a result of this study, two naphthoquinone epoxides, 2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrolapachol (1) and 2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydro-8-hydroxylapachol (2), both not previously isolated from natural sources, and the known 2-methylanthraquinone (3) were identified from B. alluaudii. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra were utilized to establish the absolute configuration of 1 and 2. Additionally, five known naphthoquinone derivatives, maritinone (4), elliptinone (5), plumbagin (6), (+)-cis-isoshinanolone (7), and ethylidene-6,6'-biplumbagin (8), were isolated from D. maritima. Compounds 1, 2, and 4-6 showed varying levels of synergy with TRAIL. Maritinone (4) and elliptinone (5) showed the highest synergistic effect, with more than a 3-fold increase in activity observed with TRAIL than with compound alone.

Whitson EL; Sun H; Thomas CL; Henrich CJ; Sayers TJ; McMahon JB; Griesinger C; McKee TC

2012-03-01

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Synergistic TRAIL sensitizers from Barleria alluaudii and Diospyros maritima#  

Science.gov (United States)

Barleria alluaudii and Diospyros maritima were both investigated as part of an ongoing search for synergistic TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-?-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) sensitizers. As a result of this study, two naphthoquinone epoxides, 2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrolapachol (1) and 2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydro-8-hydroxylapachol (2), both not previously isolated from natural sources, and the known 2-methyl anthraquinone (3) were identified from B. alluaudii. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra were utilized to establish the absolute configuration of 1 and 2. Additionally, five known naphthoquinone derivatives, maritinone (4), elliptinone (5), plumbagin (6), (+)-cis-isoshinanolone (7), and ethylidene-6,6?-biplumbagin (8) were isolated from D. maritima. Compounds 1, 2, and 4–6 showed varying levels of synergy with TRAIL. Maritinone (4) and elliptinone (5) showed the highest synergistic effect, with more than a three-fold increase in activity observed with TRAIL than with compound alone.

Whitson, Emily L.; Sun, Han; Thomas, Cheryl L.; Henrich, Curtis J.; Sayers, Thomas J.; McMahon, James B.; Griesinger, Christian; McKee, Tawnya C.

2012-01-01

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Synergistic TRAIL sensitizers from Barleria alluaudii and Diospyros maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Barleria alluaudii and Diospyros maritima were both investigated as part of an ongoing search for synergistic TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-?-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) sensitizers. As a result of this study, two naphthoquinone epoxides, 2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrolapachol (1) and 2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydro-8-hydroxylapachol (2), both not previously isolated from natural sources, and the known 2-methylanthraquinone (3) were identified from B. alluaudii. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra were utilized to establish the absolute configuration of 1 and 2. Additionally, five known naphthoquinone derivatives, maritinone (4), elliptinone (5), plumbagin (6), (+)-cis-isoshinanolone (7), and ethylidene-6,6'-biplumbagin (8), were isolated from D. maritima. Compounds 1, 2, and 4-6 showed varying levels of synergy with TRAIL. Maritinone (4) and elliptinone (5) showed the highest synergistic effect, with more than a 3-fold increase in activity observed with TRAIL than with compound alone. PMID:22313254

Whitson, Emily L; Sun, Han; Thomas, Cheryl L; Henrich, Curtis J; Sayers, Thomas J; McMahon, James B; Griesinger, Christian; McKee, Tawnya C

2012-02-07

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Diterpene and other constituents from Stemodia maritima (Scrophulariaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Um novo diterpeno, (5S*,8S*,9R*,10S*)-11?,12?-epoxi-9?-hidróxi-19(4?3) abeo-abieta-3,13-dieno-19,18-olideo, e as substâncias conhecidas estemodina, D-manitol, ácido betulínico, uma mistura de 3?-O-?-D-glicopiranosil-?-sitosterol e 3?-O-?-D-glicopiranosilestigmasterol, e 5,7,4'-triidróxi-3,8,3'-trimetoxiflavona, foram isolados das folhas e talos de Stemodia maritima. A elucidação estrutural de todas as substâncias baseo (more) u-se na interpretação de dados espectrais, principalmente RMN (1D e 2D) e espectrometria de massa (EM), envolvendo comparação com valores descritos na literatura. Abstract in english A new diterpene, (5S*,8S*,9R*,10S*)-11?,12?-epoxy-9?-hydroxy-19(4?3) abeo-abieta-3,13-diene-19,18-olide, together with the known compounds stemodin, D-mannitol, betulinic acid, a mixture of 3?-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-sitosterol and 3?-O-?-D-glucopyranosylstigmasterol and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,8,3'-trimethoxyflavone were isolated from the leaves and stems of Stemodia maritima. Structural elucidation of all compounds was based on i (more) nterpretation of spectral data, mainly NMR (1D and 2D) and MS, including comparison with values described in the literature.

Rodrigues, Francisco E. A.; Lima, Jefferson Q.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceição F. de; Vasconcelos, Jackson N.; Santiago, Gilvandete M. P.; Mafezoli, Jair; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Arriaga, Angela M. C.

2010-01-01

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Effect of Oxygen and Redox Potential on Glucose Fermentation in Thermotoga maritima under Controlled Physicochemical Conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Batch cultures of Thermotoga maritima were performed in a bioreactor equipped with instruments adapted for experiments performed at 80°C to mimic the fluctuating oxidative conditions in the hot ecosystems it inhabits. When grown anaerobically on glucose, T. maritima was shown to significantly decrease the redox potential (Eh) of the culture medium down to about ?480?mV, as long as glucose was available. Addition of oxygen into T. maritima cultures during the stationary growth phase led to a drastic reduction in glucose consumption rate. However, although oxygen was toxic, our experiment unambiguously proved that T. maritima was able to consume it during a 12-hour exposure period. Furthermore, a shift in glucose metabolism towards lactate production was observed under oxidative conditions.

Lakhal, Raja; Auria, Richard; Davidson, Sylvain; Ollivier, Bernard; Dolla, Alain; Hamdi, Moktar; Combet-Blanc, Yannick

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Effect of Oxygen and Redox Potential on Glucose Fermentation in Thermotoga maritima under Controlled Physicochemical Conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Batch cultures of Thermotoga maritima were performed in a bioreactor equipped with instruments adapted for experiments performed at 80°C to mimic the fluctuating oxidative conditions in the hot ecosystems it inhabits. When grown anaerobically on glucose, T. maritima was shown to significantly decrease the redox potential (Eh) of the culture medium down to about -480?mV, as long as glucose was available. Addition of oxygen into T. maritima cultures during the stationary growth phase led to a drastic reduction in glucose consumption rate. However, although oxygen was toxic, our experiment unambiguously proved that T. maritima was able to consume it during a 12-hour exposure period. Furthermore, a shift in glucose metabolism towards lactate production was observed under oxidative conditions.

Lakhal R; Auria R; Davidson S; Ollivier B; Dolla A; Hamdi M; Combet-Blanc Y

2010-01-01

22

Clinicopathological Effects of Various Levels of Dietary Ambrosia maritima on Wistar Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study deals with the clinicopathological and biochemical effect of A. maritima on male Wistar rats. Ambrosia maritime is claimed to have several medicinal properties and used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various disorders. The plant was fed to rats at 2 and 10% of the standard diet for 4 weeks. A 2% A. maritima was not toxic to rats during the experiment. However, mild increase in body weight, fatty cytoplasmic vacuolation, centrolobular individual cell necrosis and mild enteritis were observed in rats fed a diet containing 10% A. maritima. These findings were accompanied by alteration of serum Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and no changes were observed in the activities of ALP, concentrations of total protein, urea, total bilirubin, HDL and LDL. The concentrations of cholesterol and glucose were significantly decreased in the serum of rats fed 2 and 10% A. maritima.

S.E.M. Barakat; F.A. Al-Hizab; A.O. Bakheit

2012-01-01

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The structure of the fructan sinistrin from Urginea maritima.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The structure of sinistrin from red squill (Urginea maritima) was determined by methylation analysis and 13C NMR spectroscopy, using the fructans from Pucinella peisonis and quack-grass (Agropyron repens) as reference substances. Application of the reductive cleavage method showed that, of the beta-D-fructofuranosyl residues in sinistrin, 33% were 1-linked, 19% were 6-linked, 25% were terminal, and 19% were 1,6-linked. The average dp was 31 and, of the 3.24% of alpha-D-glucopyranosyl residues, 0.54% were terminal and 2.70% were 6-substituted. The fructan of quack grass was also highly branched with a (2-->6)-linked backbone, terminal alpha-D-glucopyranosyl residues, and a dp of approximately 45. The fructan from Pucinella peisonis was slightly branched, with a dp of approximately 10 and a (2-->6)-linked backbone.

Spies T; Praznik W; Hofinger A; Altmann F; Nitsch E; Wutka R

1992-11-01

24

The structure of the fructan sinistrin from Urginea maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure of sinistrin from red squill (Urginea maritima) was determined by methylation analysis and 13C NMR spectroscopy, using the fructans from Pucinella peisonis and quack-grass (Agropyron repens) as reference substances. Application of the reductive cleavage method showed that, of the beta-D-fructofuranosyl residues in sinistrin, 33% were 1-linked, 19% were 6-linked, 25% were terminal, and 19% were 1,6-linked. The average dp was 31 and, of the 3.24% of alpha-D-glucopyranosyl residues, 0.54% were terminal and 2.70% were 6-substituted. The fructan of quack grass was also highly branched with a (2-->6)-linked backbone, terminal alpha-D-glucopyranosyl residues, and a dp of approximately 45. The fructan from Pucinella peisonis was slightly branched, with a dp of approximately 10 and a (2-->6)-linked backbone. PMID:1473105

Spies, T; Praznik, W; Hofinger, A; Altmann, F; Nitsch, E; Wutka, R

1992-11-01

25

Diterpene and other constituents from Stemodia maritima (Scrophulariaceae)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new diterpene, (5S{sup *},8S{sup *},9R{sup *},10S{sup *})-11{beta},12{beta}-epoxy-9{alpha}-hydroxy-19(4 -> 3)abeo-abieta-3,13-diene-19,18-olide, together with the known compounds stemodin, D-mannitol, betulinic acid, a mixture of 3{beta}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl-{beta}-sitosterol and 3{beta}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosylstigmasterol and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,8,3'-trimethoxyflavone were isolated from the leaves and stems of Stemodia maritima. Structural elucidation of all compounds was based on interpretation of spectral data, mainly NMR (1D and 2D) and MS, including comparison with values described in the literature. (author)

Rodrigues, Francisco E.A.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Vasconcelos, Jackson N.; Mafezoli, Jair; Arriaga, Angela M.C., E-mail: angelamcarriaga@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DQOI/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Curso de Pos-Graducao em Quimica; Lima, Jefferson Q. [Instituto Federal do Ceara, Juazeiro do Norte, CE (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia Ambiental; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DQOI/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (CCT/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias

2010-07-01

26

Antialgal ent-labdane diterpenes from Ruppia maritima.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seven ent-labdane diterpenes have been isolated from Ruppia maritima. The structures 15,16-epoxy-ent-labda-8(17),13(16),14-trien-19-al; 15,16-epoxy-ent-labda-8(17),13(16),14-trien-19-ol acetate; methyl 15,16-epoxy-12-oxo-ent-labda-8(17),13(16),14-trien-19-oate; 15,16-epoxy-ent-labd-8(17),13E-dien-15-ol and 13-oxo-15,16-bis-nor-ent-labd-8(17)-ene have been assigned to the five new compounds by spectroscopic means and chemical correlations. The phytotoxicity of the diterpenes has been assessed using the alga Selenastrum capricornutum as organism test.

DellaGreca M; Fiorentino A; Isidori M; Monaco P; Zarrelli A

2000-12-01

27

Efficient harvesting of marine microalgae Nannochloropsis maritima using magnetic nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

An efficient magnetic separation technology using Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles was developed for harvesting marine microalgae Nannochloropsis maritima from culture broth. Recovery capacity of these nanoparticles was affected by microalgal growth phase and reached the peak value when the microalgal growth reached its maximal biomass after 18 days. The recovery efficiency of microalgal cells from the culture medium reached more than 95% at the particle dosage of 120 mg/L within 4 min. Electrostatic attraction at acidic pH and cell aggregation under neutral and alkaline conditions was beneficial for harvesting the algal cells. Higher operation temperature resulted in higher adsorption capacity of these nanoparticles for microalgawl cells. Reuse of the culture medium obtained from magnetic separation gave similar biomass production in comparison with that from centrifugation separation after 5 recycles. Together with these results provide a great potential in high-efficient and economical harvesting of tiny marine microalgae using magnetic separation technology in practice. PMID:23639490

Hu, Yi-Ru; Wang, Feng; Wang, Shi-Kai; Liu, Chun-Zhao; Guo, Chen

2013-04-13

28

Efficient harvesting of marine microalgae Nannochloropsis maritima using magnetic nanoparticles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An efficient magnetic separation technology using Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles was developed for harvesting marine microalgae Nannochloropsis maritima from culture broth. Recovery capacity of these nanoparticles was affected by microalgal growth phase and reached the peak value when the microalgal growth reached its maximal biomass after 18 days. The recovery efficiency of microalgal cells from the culture medium reached more than 95% at the particle dosage of 120 mg/L within 4 min. Electrostatic attraction at acidic pH and cell aggregation under neutral and alkaline conditions was beneficial for harvesting the algal cells. Higher operation temperature resulted in higher adsorption capacity of these nanoparticles for microalgawl cells. Reuse of the culture medium obtained from magnetic separation gave similar biomass production in comparison with that from centrifugation separation after 5 recycles. Together with these results provide a great potential in high-efficient and economical harvesting of tiny marine microalgae using magnetic separation technology in practice.

Hu YR; Wang F; Wang SK; Liu CZ; Guo C

2013-06-01

29

The genome organization of Thermotoga maritima reflects its lifestyle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The generation of genome-scale data is becoming more routine, yet the subsequent analysis of omics data remains a significant challenge. Here, an approach that integrates multiple omics datasets with bioinformatics tools was developed that produces a detailed annotation of several microbial genomic features. This methodology was used to characterize the genome of Thermotoga maritima--a phylogenetically deep-branching, hyperthermophilic bacterium. Experimental data were generated for whole-genome resequencing, transcription start site (TSS) determination, transcriptome profiling, and proteome profiling. These datasets, analyzed in combination with bioinformatics tools, served as a basis for the improvement of gene annotation, the elucidation of transcription units (TUs), the identification of putative non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), and the determination of promoters and ribosome binding sites. This revealed many distinctive properties of the T. maritima genome organization relative to other bacteria. This genome has a high number of genes per TU (3.3), a paucity of putative ncRNAs (12), and few TUs with multiple TSSs (3.7%). Quantitative analysis of promoters and ribosome binding sites showed increased sequence conservation relative to other bacteria. The 5'UTRs follow an atypical bimodal length distribution comprised of "Short" 5'UTRs (11-17 nt) and "Common" 5'UTRs (26-32 nt). Transcriptional regulation is limited by a lack of intergenic space for the majority of TUs. Lastly, a high fraction of annotated genes are expressed independent of growth state and a linear correlation of mRNA/protein is observed (Pearson r = 0.63, p<2.2 × 10(-16) t-test). These distinctive properties are hypothesized to be a reflection of this organism's hyperthermophilic lifestyle and could yield novel insights into the evolutionary trajectory of microbial life on earth.

Latif H; Lerman JA; Portnoy VA; Tarasova Y; Nagarajan H; Schrimpe-Rutledge AC; Smith RD; Adkins JN; Lee DH; Qiu Y; Zengler K

2013-04-01

30

The Genome Organization of Thermotoga maritima Reflects Its Lifestyle  

Science.gov (United States)

The generation of genome-scale data is becoming more routine, yet the subsequent analysis of omics data remains a significant challenge. Here, an approach that integrates multiple omics datasets with bioinformatics tools was developed that produces a detailed annotation of several microbial genomic features. This methodology was used to characterize the genome of Thermotoga maritima—a phylogenetically deep-branching, hyperthermophilic bacterium. Experimental data were generated for whole-genome resequencing, transcription start site (TSS) determination, transcriptome profiling, and proteome profiling. These datasets, analyzed in combination with bioinformatics tools, served as a basis for the improvement of gene annotation, the elucidation of transcription units (TUs), the identification of putative non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), and the determination of promoters and ribosome binding sites. This revealed many distinctive properties of the T. maritima genome organization relative to other bacteria. This genome has a high number of genes per TU (3.3), a paucity of putative ncRNAs (12), and few TUs with multiple TSSs (3.7%). Quantitative analysis of promoters and ribosome binding sites showed increased sequence conservation relative to other bacteria. The 5?UTRs follow an atypical bimodal length distribution comprised of “Short” 5?UTRs (11–17 nt) and “Common” 5?UTRs (26–32 nt). Transcriptional regulation is limited by a lack of intergenic space for the majority of TUs. Lastly, a high fraction of annotated genes are expressed independent of growth state and a linear correlation of mRNA/protein is observed (Pearson r?=?0.63, plifestyle and could yield novel insights into the evolutionary trajectory of microbial life on earth.

Portnoy, Vasiliy A.; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Nagarajan, Harish; Schrimpe-Rutledge, Alexandra C.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lee, Dae-Hee; Qiu, Yu; Zengler, Karsten

2013-01-01

31

Growth and solute pattern of Suaeda maritima and Suaeda asparagoides in an abandoned salt field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To investigate the environmental adaptation and ecophysiological characteristics of Suaeda maritima and S. asparagoidesunder saline conditions, plant growth and density were analyzed according to environmental changes of habitats.The total ion content of soil decreased with time, which was caused by the predominance of exchangeable Na+ and Cl- inthe upper layers. The population of S. maritima was more densely distributed in the region with higher ion contents ofCl-, Mg2+, K+ and Na+ than the population of S. asparagoides. Both species were showed a decreased population densityaccording to increases in plant growth. Under the conditions of a salt field, S. maritima and S. asparagoides containedhigh inorganic ions to maintain low water potential, but low water soluble carbohydrate contents. In the case of freeamino acid, S. maritima showed an especially high proline content, and contained rather large amounts of free aminoacids, whereas S. asparagoides did not. Both species showed high inorganic ion contents in the leaves, which might bea mechanism of avoiding the ionic toxicity by diluting the accumulated ionic concentration with a high ratio of watercontent to dry weight. This result suggests that S. maritima seems to adapt to saline conditions by accumulating prolinein addition to inorganic ions. S. asparagoides seems to adapt by osmoregulation processes, using inorganic ions ratherthan free amino acids.

Sung-Chul Choi; Sung-Hwan Lim; Sang-Hun Kim; Deok-Gyun Choi; Jong-Guk Kim; Yeon-Sik Choo*

2012-01-01

32

[Role of Corollospora maritima in the degradation and bioconversion of leaf material from Posidonia oceanica  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Posidonia oceanica supports mainly saprophytic marine flora, comprising predominantly lignicolous fungi. The frequency of occurrence of species recorded on this marine angiosperm, was high, indicating that they play a major role in the biological degradation of the sea grass Posidonia oceanica. In vitro experiments with Corollospora maritima (isolated from leaf material) were conducted in order to evaluate their role in the degradation of leaf material. Corollospora maritima actively degrade leaf material. Biophysical and biochemical changes (particle detritus formation, C and N variation), enzymatic activity involved and sterol production were studied during the transformation process of leaves to mycelial biomass.

De Feo V; Maiello D; Guarracino G

1991-02-01

33

The embryonic development of the centipede Strigamia maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

The geophilomorph centipede Strigamia maritima is an emerging model for studies of development and evolution among the myriapods. A draft genome sequence has recently been completed, making it also an important reference for comparative genomics, and for studies of myriapod physiology more generally. Here we present the first detailed description of myriapod development using modern techniques. We describe a timeline for embryonic development, with a detailed staging system based on photographs of live eggs and fixed embryos. We show that the early, cleavage and nuclear migration, stages of development are remarkably prolonged, accounting for nearly half of the total developmental period (approx 22 of 48 days at 13 °C). Towards the end of this period, cleavage cells migrate to the egg periphery to generate a uniform blastoderm. Asymmetry quickly becomes apparent as cells in the anterior half of the egg condense ventrally to form the presumptive head. Five anterior segments, the mandibular to the first leg-bearing segment (1st LBS) become clearly visible through the chorion almost simultaneously. Then, after a short pause, the next 35 leg-bearing segments appear at a uniform rate of 1 segment every 3.2 h (at 13 °C). Segment addition then slows to a halt with 40-45 LBS, shortly before the dramatic movements of germ band flexure, when the left and right halves of the embryo separate and the embryo folds deeply into the yolk. After flexure, segment morphogenesis and organogenesis proceed for a further 10 days, before the egg hatches. The last few leg-bearing segments are added during this period, much more slowly, at a rate of 1-2 segments/day. The last leg-bearing segment is fully defined only after apolysis of the embryonic cuticle, so that at hatching the embryo displays the final adult number of leg-bearing segments (typically 47-49 in our population). PMID:22138381

Brena, Carlo; Akam, Michael

2011-11-19

34

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a lectin from Canavalia maritima seeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A lectin from C. maritima was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method and crystals diffracted to 2.1?Å resolution. A molecular-replacement search found a solution with a correlation coefficient of 69.2% and an R factor of 42.5%, refinement is in progress.

de Almeida Gadelha, Carlos Alberto; Moreno, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Cajazeiras, João Batista

35

Xylanase Attachment to the Cell Wall of the Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga maritima?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cellular localization and processing of the endo-xylanases (1,4-?-d-xylan-xylanohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.8) of the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima were investigated, in particular with respect to the unusual outer membrane (“toga”) of this gram-negative bacterium. XynB (40 kDa) was detected in t...

Liebl, Wolfgang; Winterhalter, Christoph; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Armbrecht, Martin; Valdez, Michael

36

Clinicopathological Effects of Various Levels of Dietary Ambrosia maritima on Wistar Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study deals with the clinicopathological and biochemical effect of A. maritima on male Wistar rats. Ambrosia maritime is claimed to have several medicinal properties and used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various disorders. The plant was fed to rats at 2...

S.E.M. Barakat; F.A. Al-Hizab; A.O. Bakheit

37

The aquatic vascular plant Ruppia maritima as an indicator organisms for contaminated sediments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ongoing estuarine ecological risk assessment case study for the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in the Great Bay (Kittery, ME, Portsmouth, NH) has been the catalyst for continued methods development with a rooted aquatic plant for a sediment toxicity test. A test using the aquatic vascular plant Ruppia maritima would be similar in it`s utility to the Algal (Champia parvula) Reproduction Test, an accepted, short term test (US EPA Short term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Marine and Estuarine Organisms). Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate effects of lead, the primary site contaminant on R. maritima in the Great Bay. Morphology and life cycle of R. maritima are similar to that of the aquatic vascular plant Zostra marina which comprises up to 46% of the Great Bay habitat (Short 1992). R. maritima`s reduced size makes it a practical laboratory organism and Ruppia`s effects may offer useful insights into potential effects on Zostra or other aquatic vascular plants. Presently rooted vascular plants are not found in the site of concern (Clark Cove). This can be contributed to either of two factors; the physical parameters of the site, i.e., a depositional zone or the chemical parameters, i.e., metals contamination, specifically lead. Exposure of bedded and nonbedded plants occurred over a four day and ten day period using lead sulfate. Concentrations for bedded exposures were as follows, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0 simultaneously extracted metal/acid volatile sulfide (SEM/AVS) molar ratios, and 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 and 100.0mg/l Pb for water only exposures. Some reduction in cumulative leaf growth was observed in the site samples as well as the spiked samples as compared to site controls. Results of this study and associated research which focuses on the further development of the Ruppia test methods will be presented.

Tagliabue, M.D.; Thursby, G.B. [Science Applications International Corporation, Narragansett, RI (United States); Walker, H.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Johnston, R.K.

1994-12-31

38

Demonstration of a heritable component of the variation in segment number in the centipede Strigamia maritima.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Here we address the question of how arthropod segment number may evolve by reporting the results of further work on the model system Strigamia maritima. Recently, we showed that there was a plastic component of the variation in segment number within this species; now we demonstrate that there is also a heritable component. This is important because it enables a connection to be made between the known latitudinal trend among species of geophilomorph centipedes (more segments at lower latitudes) and the parallel trend within them. This latter trend is best documented in S. maritima but is also known in several other species. However, while a general connection between the inter- and intraspecific trends can now be made, deciding upon a specific hypothesis of the nature of the selection involved is still problematic. We provide two alternative hypotheses, one based on the temperature-related plasticity in segment number being adaptive, the other based on it being nonadaptive.

Vedel V; Brena C; Arthur W

2009-07-01

39

Demonstration of a heritable component of the variation in segment number in the centipede Strigamia maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we address the question of how arthropod segment number may evolve by reporting the results of further work on the model system Strigamia maritima. Recently, we showed that there was a plastic component of the variation in segment number within this species; now we demonstrate that there is also a heritable component. This is important because it enables a connection to be made between the known latitudinal trend among species of geophilomorph centipedes (more segments at lower latitudes) and the parallel trend within them. This latter trend is best documented in S. maritima but is also known in several other species. However, while a general connection between the inter- and intraspecific trends can now be made, deciding upon a specific hypothesis of the nature of the selection involved is still problematic. We provide two alternative hypotheses, one based on the temperature-related plasticity in segment number being adaptive, the other based on it being nonadaptive. PMID:19601976

Vedel, Vincent; Brena, Carlo; Arthur, Wallace

40

HISTOANATOMICAL AND ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON SOME HALOPHYTES FROM ROMANIA - PLANTAGO MARITIMA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an histoanatomical and ecophysiological study of Plantago maritima. Studies were conducted to assess the diversity of anatomical adaptations of vegetative organs (roots, aerial stems, rhizomes and leaves) in this taxa. Results are presented with original photographs. The analysis of leaf anatomy in P. maritima showed that the leaves contained xeromorphic traits (high development of palisade and water storage parenchyma). Stomatal density is high for both epidermis and cuticle is very thick. Analyses made in the scope of the present study indicated that total ash content of the dry leaf matter is 11.98%. Rhizome is strong and shows aeriferous tissue. Leaf relative water content (LRWC) values indicates that juvenile leaves harvested from eroded and nude soil, exposed to salt stress and heat can accumulate more water.

Nicoleta IANOVICI

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Structural analysis of DNA sequence: evidence for lateral gene transfer in Thermotoga maritima  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The recently published complete DNA sequence of the bacterium Thermotoga maritima provides evidence, based on protein sequence conservation, for lateral gene transfer between Archaea and Bacteria. We introduce a new method of periodicity analysis of DNA sequences, based on structural parameters, which brings independent evidence for the lateral gene transfer in the genome of T.maritima, The structural analysis relates the Archaea-like DNA sequences to the genome of Pyrococcus horikoshii. Analysis of 24 complete genomic DNA sequences shows different periodicity patterns for organisms of different origin, The typical genomic periodicity for Bacteria is 11 bp whilst it is 10 bp for Archaea, Eukaryotes have more complex spectra but the dominant period in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is 10.2 bp. These periodicities are most likely reflective of differences in chromatin structure.

Worning, Peder; Jensen, Lars Juhl

2000-01-01

42

Perianth development in the basal monocot Triglochin maritima (Juncaginaceae)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Basal monocots exhibit considerable variation in inflorescence and floral structure. In some cases, such as Triglochin maritima, it is not clear whether the lateral and terminal structures of the inflorescence are flowers or pseudanthia, or where the limits between flowers and inflorescence lie. To address these questions, morphological studies were carried out, and the results show that in T. maritima both terminal and lateral structures are flowers, not pseudanthia. The terminal flower of T. maritima develops from the apical inflorescence meristem, suggesting that the apical meristem identity changes from ‘‘inflorescence'' to ‘‘flower'' during inflorescence development. In addition, distal flowers of T. maritima are reduced, and there is no distinct flower-subtending bract; instead, the perianth develops are reduced, and there is no distinct flower-subtending bract; instead, the perianth develops unidirectionally, resulting in an abaxial-median bract-like tepal and bilaterally symmetrical flowers, similar to those of other basal monocots, such as Aponogeton and Acorus. It is possible that the leaf primordium changes its positional homology from ‘‘flower-subtending bract'' to ‘‘tepal.'' Therefore, in some basal angiosperms with abbreviated development of lateral flowers the demarcation of the flower vs. the inflorescence is ontogenetically ambiguous. In situ hybridization experiments show that a putative ortholog of the B-class gene APETALA3/DEFICIENS is expressed in developing stamens and carpels, and may also be expressed in the shoot axis of the very young inflorescence. This expression pattern seems to be consistent with the gradual transition between inflorescence and flower that was observed morphologically.

Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Douglas E.

2006-01-01

43

Xylanase Attachment to the Cell Wall of the Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga maritima?  

Science.gov (United States)

The cellular localization and processing of the endo-xylanases (1,4-?-d-xylan-xylanohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.8) of the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima were investigated, in particular with respect to the unusual outer membrane (“toga”) of this gram-negative bacterium. XynB (40 kDa) was detected in the periplasmic fraction of T. maritima cells and in the culture supernatant. XynA (120 kDa) was partially released to the surrounding medium, but most XynA remained cell associated. Immunogold labeling of thin sections revealed that cell-bound XynA was localized mainly in the outer membranes of T. maritima cells. Amino-terminal sequencing of purified membrane-bound XynA revealed processing of the signal peptide after the eighth residue, thereby leaving the hydrophobic core of the signal peptide attached to the enzyme. This mode of processing is reminiscent of type IV prepilin signal peptide cleavage. Removal of the entire XynA signal peptide was necessary for release from the cell because enzyme purified from the culture supernatant lacked 44 residues at the N terminus, including the hydrophobic part of the signal peptide. We conclude that toga association of XynA is mediated by residues 9 to 44 of the signal peptide. The biochemical and electron microscopic localization studies together with the amino-terminal processing data indicate that XynA is held at the cell surface of T. maritima via a hydrophobic peptide anchor, which is highly unusual for an outer membrane protein.

Liebl, Wolfgang; Winterhalter, Christoph; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Armbrecht, Martin; Valdez, Michael

2008-01-01

44

Complexes of Thermotoga maritima S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase provide insights into substrate specificity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous aliphatic cations and are essential for cellular growth and differentiation. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is a critical pyruvoyl-dependent enzyme in the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway. The crystal structures of AdoMetDC from humans and plants and of the AdoMetDC proenzyme from Thermotoga maritima have been obtained previously. Here, the crystal structures of activated T. maritima AdoMetDC (TmAdoMetDC) and of its complexes with S-adenosylmethionine methyl ester and 5{prime}-deoxy-5{prime}-dimethylthioadenosine are reported. The results demonstrate for the first time that TmAdoMetDC autoprocesses without the need for additional factors and that the enzyme contains two complete active sites, both of which use residues from both chains of the homodimer. The complexes provide insights into the substrate specificity and ligand binding of AdoMetDC in prokaryotes. The conservation of the ligand-binding mode and the active-site residues between human and T. maritima AdoMetDC provides insight into the evolution of AdoMetDC.

Bale, Shridhar; Baba, Kavita; McCloskey, Diane E.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E.

2010-06-25

45

The aquatic vascular plant Ruppia maritima as an indicator organism for contaminated sediments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ongoing estuarine ecological risk assessment case study for the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in the Great Bay Estuary (New Hampshire, Maine) was the catalyst to continue development a rooted aquatic plant sediment toxicity test. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate effects of lead, the primary site contaminant on R. maritima in the Great Bay. Although the aquatic vascular plant Zostra marina comprises up to 46% of the Great Bay subtidal habitat, R. maritima`s much smaller size makes it a more practical laboratory organism. Effects on Ruppia may offer useful insights into potential effects on Zostra or other aquatic vascular plants. Presently rooted vascular plants are not found in Clark Cove located adjacent to a landfill disposal site on the shipyard. The absence of rooted vegetation can be contributed to, physical parameters of the site (turbidity, grain size, texture) or chemical parameters (heavy metal/Pb contamination, redox potential). Exposure of bedded and nonbedded plants occurred over a four day and ten day period using lead sulfate. Concentrations for bedded exposures were as follows, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0 simultaneously extracted metal/acid volatile sulfide (SEM/AVS) molar ratios, and 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 and 100.0mg/l Pb for water only exposures. Reduction in cumulative leaf growth was observed for the Clark Cove sediments as well as the spiked sediments as compared to reference sediments.

Tagliabue, M.D.; Thursby, G.B.; Walker, H.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Johnston, R.K.

1995-12-31

46

Ecophysiological response of Crambe maritima to airborne and soil-borne salinity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is a need to evaluate the salt tolerance of plant species that can be cultivated as crops under saline conditions. Crambe maritima is a coastal plant, usually occurring on the driftline, with potential use as a vegetable crop. The aim of this experiment was to determine the growth response of Crambe maritima to various levels of airborne and soil-borne salinity and the ecophysiological mechanisms underlying these responses. METHODS: In the greenhouse, plants were exposed to salt spray (400 mM NaCl) as well as to various levels of root-zone salinity (RZS) of 0, 50, 100, 200 and 300 mM NaCl during 40 d. The salt tolerance of Crambe maritima was assessed by the relative growth rate (RGR) and its components. To study possible salinity effects on the tissue and cellular level, the leaf succulence, tissue Na(+) concentrations, Na(+) : K(+) ratio, net K(+)/Na(+) selectivity, N, P, K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), proline, soluble sugar concentrations, osmotic potential, total phenolics and antioxidant capacity were measured. KEY RESULTS: Salt spray did not affect the RGR of Crambe maritima. However, leaf thickness and leaf succulence increased with salt spray. Root zone salinities up to 100 mM NaCl did not affect growth. However, at 200 mM NaCl RZS the RGR was reduced by 41 % compared with the control and by 56 % at 300 mM NaCl RZS. The reduced RGR with increasing RZS was largely due to the reduced specific leaf area, which was caused by increased leaf succulence as well as by increased leaf dry matter content. No changes in unit leaf rate were observed but increased RZS resulted in increased Na(+) and proline concentrations, reduced K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentrations, lower osmotic potential and increased antioxidant capacity. Proline concentrations of the leaves correlated strongly (r = 0.95) with RZS concentrations and not with plant growth. CONCLUSIONS: Based on its growth response, Crambe maritima can be classified as a salt spray tolerant plant that is sensitive to root zone salinities exceeding 100 mM NaCl.

de Vos AC; Broekman R; Groot MP; Rozema J

2010-06-01

47

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies on 4-alpha-glucanotransferase from Thermotoga maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermotoga maritima 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (GTase), a 52 kDa molecular-weight amylolytic enzyme, has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG monomethylether 5000 as a precipitating agent. A complete data set has been collected to 2.6 A resolution using cryocooling conditions and synchrotron radiation. The crystals belong to space group I222 or I2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 92.6, b = 180.3, c = 199.2 A. PMID:11418778

Roujeinikova, A; Raasch, C; Sedelnikova, S; Liebl, W; Rice, D W

2001-06-21

48

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies on 4-alpha-glucanotransferase from Thermotoga maritima.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thermotoga maritima 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (GTase), a 52 kDa molecular-weight amylolytic enzyme, has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG monomethylether 5000 as a precipitating agent. A complete data set has been collected to 2.6 A resolution using cryocooling conditions and synchrotron radiation. The crystals belong to space group I222 or I2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 92.6, b = 180.3, c = 199.2 A.

Roujeinikova A; Raasch C; Sedelnikova S; Liebl W; Rice DW

2001-07-01

49

Chemical Composition of Essential Oils and Aromatic Waters from Different Italian Anthemis maritima Populations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The chemical composition of the essential oils and aromatic waters isolated from six Italian Anthemis maritima populations was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 122 and 100 chemical compounds were identified in the essential oils and the aromatic waters, respectively. The main compound classes represented in the oils were monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and terpene esters. Multivariate chemometric techniques such as cluster analysis (CA) and principal coordinate analysis (PCO) were used to classify the samples according to the geographical origin. Statistical analysis allowed the attribution of the analyzed populations to different chemotype groups.

Ciccarelli D; Noccioli C; Pistelli L

2013-09-01

50

Chemical Composition of Essential Oils and Aromatic Waters from Different Italian Anthemis maritima Populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical composition of the essential oils and aromatic waters isolated from six Italian Anthemis maritima populations was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 122 and 100 chemical compounds were identified in the essential oils and the aromatic waters, respectively. The main compound classes represented in the oils were monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and terpene esters. Multivariate chemometric techniques such as cluster analysis (CA) and principal coordinate analysis (PCO) were used to classify the samples according to the geographical origin. Statistical analysis allowed the attribution of the analyzed populations to different chemotype groups. PMID:24078600

Ciccarelli, Daniela; Noccioli, Cecilia; Pistelli, Luisa

2013-09-01

51

Chemical composition of the halophyte plant Stachys maritima Gouan from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four groups of metabolites from the halophyte plant Stachys maritima Gouan, family Lamiaceae, were investigated: lipids, sterols, volatiles and polar compounds. Most of the metabolites have been previously reported to possess biological activity. Two of the main substances in the volatile fraction--phenidone and naphthalene, unusual for plants--were products of environmental contamination. This is a typical example of how marine pollutants could transfer and threaten terrestrial organisms via the trophic chain. The n-butanol extract possessed a relatively high antibacterial activity against S. aureus and Candida albicans, but was not active against Escherichia coli.

Ivanova A; Nechev J; Tsvetkova I; Stefanov K; Popov S

2009-01-01

52

Specification of neural precursor identity in the geophilomorph centipede Strigamia maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite differences in the formation of neural precursors, all arthropod species analyzed so far generate about 30 single precursors (insects/crustaceans) or precursor groups (chelicerates/myriapods) per hemi-segment. In Drosophila, each precursor has a distinct identity conferred by segment polarity and dorso-ventral patterning genes that subdivide the ventral neuroectoderm into a grid-like structure. Temporal patterning mechanisms generate additional diversity after delamination from the neuroectoderm. Previous work shows that the genetic network involved in recruitment and specification of neural precursors is conserved in arthropods. However, comparative studies on generation of precursor diversity are few and partial. Here, we test whether aspects of the Drosophila model may apply in the geophilomorph centipede Strigamia maritima. We describe precursor formation, based on morphology and on Delta and Notch expression. We then show that in S. maritima, hunchback and Krüppel are expressed in subsets of neural precursors generating distinct temporal expression domains within the plane of the neuroectoderm. This expression pattern suggests that temporal changes in spatial patterning cues may result in the ordered production of different neural identities. We suggest that temporal patterning mechanisms were present in the last common ancestor of arthropods, although the regulatory interactions of transcription factors might have diverged in the lineage leading to insects. PMID:16380110

Chipman, Ariel D; Stollewerk, Angelika

2005-12-27

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Anthemis maritima L. in different coastal habitats: A tool to explore plant plasticity  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthemis maritima, a plant which has the ability to colonise different stressful coastal environments, sand dunes and rocky cliff ecosystems, exhibits a high degree of leaf trait plasticity. The key parameters are the regulation of stomatal density and size, the succulence index and the specific antioxidant response. With the aim to explore plant plasticity, we analysed various morphological and physiological traits of the leaves of A. maritima populations dwelling in three different coastal areas of Italy. The highest values of stomatal density, leaf thickness, and succulence index were found in plants living in a sub-arid climate, on rocky cliffs, with the highest soil pH and salinity. Although this population exhibited the highest concentration of oxygen reactive species (hydrogen peroxide), it also had the lowest value of lipid peroxidation, an indicator of oxidative stress. Ascorbate was the main protective molecule in this population, while phenols appeared to carry out this role in plants living on soils with the lowest salinity and highest annual rainfall.

Spanò, Carmelina; Balestri, Mirko; Bottega, Stefania; Grilli, Isa; Forino, Laura Maria Costantina; Ciccarelli, Daniela

2013-09-01

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The protective role of damsissa (Ambroosia Maritima) against gamma irradiation in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work was directed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with damsissa (Ambrosia maritima) for thirty consecutive days pre- irradiation exposure in controlling the post-irradiation hazards in irradiated rats. Male albino rats (Spraue Dowley strain) weighing about 120+- 10 g were used and blood samples were collected from tails of animals thirty days after treatment with damsissa and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysis such as liver functions, kidney function and lipid profile. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant decrease in the contents of total proteins accompanied by significant increase of urea level as recorded on the 7th days post irradiation. Data obtained in this study revealed that whole body gamma irradiation induced significant elevation in all tested blood lipid functions. There was significant increase of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) whole alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed statistical significant decrease as compared with the control group. Damisissa (Ambrosia maritima) treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of damsissa may be due to its anti-inflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

2003-01-01

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Sequencing and Expression of Additional Xylanase Genes from the Hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima FjSS3B.1  

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Two genes, xynB and xynC, coding for xylanases were isolated from Thermotoga maritima FjSS3B.1 by a genomic-walking–PCR technique. Sequencing of the genes showed that they encode multidomain family 10 xylanases. Only XynB exhibited activity against xylan substrates. The temperature optimum (87°C) an...

Reeves, Rosalind A.; Gibbs, Moreland D.; Morris, Daniel D.; Griffiths, Katherine R.; Saul, David J.; Bergquist, Peter L.

56

FIRST RECORD AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A POWDERY MILDEW ON A MEMBER OF THE JUNCAGINACEAE: LEVEILLULA TAURICA ON TRIGLOCHIN MARITIMA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The powdery mildew fungus Leveillula taurica (Erysiphales) is reported for the first time from Triglochin maritima (Jungacinaceae), a widespread salt marsh plant that causes economic losses because of its high toxicity to young livestock. This is the first report of a powdery mildew fungus on a mem...

57

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the putative ABC transporter ATP-binding protein from Thermotoga maritima  

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The putative ABC transporter ATP-binding protein TM0222 from T. maritima was cloned, overproduced, purified and crystallized. A complete MAD diffraction data set has been collected to 2.3?Å resolution.

Ethayathulla, Abdul S.; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Shinkai, Akeo; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Singh, Tej P.; Kaur, Punit

58

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies on maltosyltransferase from Thermotoga maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermotoga maritima maltosyltransferase (MTase) is a 73.7 kDa molecular weight amylolytic enzyme which catalyzes the transfer of maltosyl units from maltodextrins or starch to suitable acceptors. Crystals of recombinant MTase have been obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium phosphate as a precipitating agent. The crystals belong to space group P4(1)22 or its enantiomorph P4(3)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 148.7, c = 106.7 A. The asymmetric unit appears to contain one subunit, corresponding to a very low packing density of 4.0 A(3) Da(-1). The crystals diffract X-rays to at least 2.4 A resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source. PMID:10944350

Burke, J; Roujeinikova, A; Baker, P J; Sedelnikova, S; Raasch, C; Liebl, W; Rice, D W

2000-08-01

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Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies on maltosyltransferase from Thermotoga maritima.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thermotoga maritima maltosyltransferase (MTase) is a 73.7 kDa molecular weight amylolytic enzyme which catalyzes the transfer of maltosyl units from maltodextrins or starch to suitable acceptors. Crystals of recombinant MTase have been obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium phosphate as a precipitating agent. The crystals belong to space group P4(1)22 or its enantiomorph P4(3)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 148.7, c = 106.7 A. The asymmetric unit appears to contain one subunit, corresponding to a very low packing density of 4.0 A(3) Da(-1). The crystals diffract X-rays to at least 2.4 A resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source.

Burke J; Roujeinikova A; Baker PJ; Sedelnikova S; Raasch C; Liebl W; Rice DW

2000-08-01

60

Is Seedling Establishment Very Rare in the Oklahoma Seaside Alder, Alnus maritima ssp. oklahomensis?  

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Full Text Available The Oklahoma seaside alder (Alnus maritima ssp. oklahomensis) is a shrub that grows almost exclusively in Johnston County. While individuals resprout vigorously from rootstocks, few seedlings have been observed in the wild. We surveyed 1,848 one-meter-square plots of suitable microhabitat at two locations on the Blue River and a location on Pennington Creek. We found only 20 alder seedlings, all of them in their first year, and most of them in unsuitable, shaded conditions. These observations are consistent with the interpretation that, despite its abundant production of viable seeds, the Oklahoma seaside alder has effectively no long-term successful seedling establishment. These observations serve as a basis for seedling establishment experiments planned for the near future.

Stanley A. Rice; J. Phil Gibson

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a lectin from Canavalia maritima seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

A lectin from Canavalia maritima seeds (ConM) was purified and submitted to crystallization experiments. The best crystals were obtained using the vapour-diffusion method at a constant temperature of 293?K and grew in 7?d. A complete structural data set was collected to 2.1?Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The ConM crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.15, b = 70.90, c = 97.37?Å. A molecular-replacement search found a solution with a correlation coefficient of 69.2% and an R factor of 42.5%. Crystallographic refinement is under way.

de Almeida Gadelha, Carlos Alberto; Moreno, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Cajazeiras, Joao Batista; da Rocha, Bruno Anderson M.; Rustiguel, Joane Kathelen Rodrigues; Freitas, Beatriz Tupinamba; Canduri, Fernanda; Delatorre, Plinio; de Azevedo, Walter Filgueira; Cavada, Benildo S.

2005-01-01

62

Structure of a periplasmic glucose-binding protein from Thermotoga maritima.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABC transport systems have been characterized in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. In most bacterial systems, the periplasmic component is the primary determinant of specificity of the transport complex as a whole. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of a periplasmic glucose-binding protein (GBP) from Thermotoga maritima determined at 2.4?Å resolution is reported. The molecule consists of two similar ?/? domains connected by a three-stranded hinge region. In the current structure, a ligand (?-D-glucose) is buried between the two domains, which have adopted a closed conformation. Details of the substrate-binding sites revealed features that determine substrate specificity. In toto, ten residues from both domains form eight hydrogen bonds to the bound sugar and four aromatic residues (two from each domain) stabilize the substrate through stacking interactions.

Palani K; Kumaran D; Burley SK; Swaminathan S

2012-12-01

63

Crystal structures of glycoside hydrolase family 51 ?-L-arabinofuranosidase from Thermotoga maritima.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

?-L-Arabinofuranosidase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima (Tm-AFase) is an extremely thermophilic enzyme belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 51. It can catalyze the transglycosylation of a novel glycosyl donor, 4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl (DMT)-?-D-xylopyranoside. In this study we determined the crystal structures of Tm-AFase in substrate-free and complex forms with arabinose and xylose at 1.8-2.3 Å resolution to determine the architecture of the substrate binding pocket. Subsite -1 of Tm-AFase is similar to that of ?-L-arabinofuranosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, but the substrate binding pocket of Tm-AFase is narrower and more hydrophobic. Possible substrate binding modes were investigated by automated docking analysis.

Im DH; Kimura K; Hayasaka F; Tanaka T; Noguchi M; Kobayashi A; Shoda S; Miyazaki K; Wakagi T; Fushinobu S

2012-01-01

64

Structure of a periplasmic glucose-binding protein from Thermotoga maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABC transport systems have been characterized in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. In most bacterial systems, the periplasmic component is the primary determinant of specificity of the transport complex as a whole. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of a periplasmic glucose-binding protein (GBP) from Thermotoga maritima determined at 2.4?Å resolution is reported. The molecule consists of two similar ?/? domains connected by a three-stranded hinge region. In the current structure, a ligand (?-D-glucose) is buried between the two domains, which have adopted a closed conformation. Details of the substrate-binding sites revealed features that determine substrate specificity. In toto, ten residues from both domains form eight hydrogen bonds to the bound sugar and four aromatic residues (two from each domain) stabilize the substrate through stacking interactions. PMID:23192024

Palani, Kandavelu; Kumaran, Desigan; Burley, Stephen K; Swaminathan, Subramanyam

2012-11-19

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Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance in Armeria maritima (Mill.) Willd. ssp. halleri (Wallr.); Physiologisch-biochemische Mechanismen der Schwermetalltoleranz bei Armeria maritima (Mill.) Willd. ssp. halleri (Wallr.)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author combined ultrastructural information with investigations of the spatial distribution of Cu, Zn and Si in the heavy metal tolerant plant Armeria maritima (Mill.) Willd. ssp. halleri (Wallr.). Information obtained on the bonding partners of these elements in the various cell compartments was investigated. The results suggest that there are various mechanisms contributing to the heavy metal tolerance of Armeria. (orig.) [German] Die Verknuepfung ultrastruktureller Informationen und der raeumlichen Verteilung von Cu, Zn und Si in der schwermetalltoleranten Pflanze Armeria maritima (Mill.) Willd. ssp. halleri (Wallr.) stellte den Ausgangspunkt der vorliegenden Arbeit dar. Den dadurch gewonnen Hinweisen auf die Bindungspartner dieser Elemente in den verschiedenen Zellkompartimenten wurde dabei nachgegangen. Die hier gezeigten Ergebnisse lassen den Schluss zu, dass in Armeria verschiedene Mechanismen fuer die Toleranz gegenueber einzelnen Metallen entscheidend sind. (orig.)

Figueiredo, C. de

2002-07-01

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Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the lectins from seeds of Dioclea lehmanni and Canavalia maritima.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The amino acid sequences of the major lectins from the seeds of Dioclea lehmanni and Canavalia maritima were determined by DABITC/PITC microsequence analysis of peptides derived from the proteins by enzymatic digestions with trypsin, chymotrypsin and the protease from S. aureus V8. These sequences were found to be very similar to those of the lectins from Dioclea grandiflora and Canavalia ensiformis (Con A). The D. lehmanni lectin was unusual amongst legume lectins in that it contained a single Cys.

Perez G; Perez C; Sousa-Cavada B; Moreira R; Richardson M

1991-01-01

67

Characterization of two genes encoding metal tolerance proteins from Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima that confers manganese tolerance in yeast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Manganese (Mn(2+)) is an essential micronutrient in plants. However increased Mn(2+) levels are toxic to plant cells. Metal tolerance proteins (MTPs), member of cation diffusion facilitator protein (CDF) family, have important roles in metal homeostatis in different plant species and catalyse efflux of excess metal ions. In this study, we identified and characterized two MTP genes from Beta vulgaris spp. maritima (B. v. ssp. maritima). Overexpression of these two genes provided Mn tolerance in yeast cells. Sequence analyses displayed BmMTP10 and BmMTP11as members of the Mn-CDF family. Functional analyses of these proteins indicated that they are specific to Mn(2+) with a role in reducing excess cellular Mn(2+) levels when expressed in yeast. GFP-fusion constructs of both proteins localized to the Golgi apparatus as a punctuated pattern. Finally, Q-RT-PCR results showed that BmMTP10 expression was induced threefold in response to the excess Mn(2+) treatment. On the other hand BmMTP11 expression was not affected in response to excess Mn(2+) levels. Thus, our results suggest that the BmMTP10 and BmMTP11 proteins from B. v. ssp. maritima have non-redundant functions in terms of Mn(2+) detoxification with a similar in planta localization and function as the Arabidopsis Mn-CDF homolog AtMTP11 and this conservation shows the evolutionary importance of these vesicular proteins in heavy metal homeostatis among plant species. PMID:23864431

Erbasol, Isil; Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan; Koc, Ahmet; Pedas, Pai; Karakaya, Huseyin Caglar

2013-07-18

68

Characterization of two genes encoding metal tolerance proteins from Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima that confers manganese tolerance in yeast.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Manganese (Mn(2+)) is an essential micronutrient in plants. However increased Mn(2+) levels are toxic to plant cells. Metal tolerance proteins (MTPs), member of cation diffusion facilitator protein (CDF) family, have important roles in metal homeostatis in different plant species and catalyse efflux of excess metal ions. In this study, we identified and characterized two MTP genes from Beta vulgaris spp. maritima (B. v. ssp. maritima). Overexpression of these two genes provided Mn tolerance in yeast cells. Sequence analyses displayed BmMTP10 and BmMTP11as members of the Mn-CDF family. Functional analyses of these proteins indicated that they are specific to Mn(2+) with a role in reducing excess cellular Mn(2+) levels when expressed in yeast. GFP-fusion constructs of both proteins localized to the Golgi apparatus as a punctuated pattern. Finally, Q-RT-PCR results showed that BmMTP10 expression was induced threefold in response to the excess Mn(2+) treatment. On the other hand BmMTP11 expression was not affected in response to excess Mn(2+) levels. Thus, our results suggest that the BmMTP10 and BmMTP11 proteins from B. v. ssp. maritima have non-redundant functions in terms of Mn(2+) detoxification with a similar in planta localization and function as the Arabidopsis Mn-CDF homolog AtMTP11 and this conservation shows the evolutionary importance of these vesicular proteins in heavy metal homeostatis among plant species.

Erbasol I; Bozdag GO; Koc A; Pedas P; Karakaya HC

2013-10-01

69

Structure of the endonuclease IV homologue from Thermotoga maritima in the presence of active-site divalent metal ions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most frequent lesion in DNA is at apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites resulting from DNA-base losses. These AP-site lesions can stall DNA replication and lead to genome instability if left unrepaired. The AP endonucleases are an important class of enzymes that are involved in the repair of AP-site intermediates during damage-general DNA base-excision repair pathways. These enzymes hydrolytically cleave the 5{prime}-phosphodiester bond at an AP site to generate a free 3{prime}-hydroxyl group and a 5{prime}-terminal sugar phosphate using their AP nuclease activity. Specifically, Thermotoga maritima endonuclease IV is a member of the second conserved AP endonuclease family that includes Escherichia coli endonuclease IV, which is the archetype of the AP endonuclease superfamily. In order to more fully characterize the AP endonuclease family of enzymes, two X-ray crystal structures of the T. maritima endonuclease IV homologue were determined in the presence of divalent metal ions bound in the active-site region. These structures of the T. maritima endonuclease IV homologue further revealed the use of the TIM-barrel fold and the trinuclear metal binding site as important highly conserved structural elements that are involved in DNA-binding and AP-site repair processes in the AP endonuclease superfamily.

Tomanicek, Stephen J.; Hughes, Ronny C.; Ng, Joseph D.; Coates, Leighton (UAH); (ORNL)

2010-10-05

70

Water Stress in Beta vulgaris: Osmotic Adjustment Response and Gene Expression Analysis in ssp. vulgaris and maritima  

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Full Text Available Beta vulgaris genus comprises wild and cultivated subspecies. The “maritima” subspecies is formed by wild or weedy accessions, well adapted to low-water potential environments; it was previously shown that B. vulgaris ssp. maritima has mechanisms of osmotic adjustment more effective than the cultivated B. vulgaris ssp. vulgaris. The response to a progressive lowering of soil potential was compared in two Beta accessions, a cultivated and a wild one. Throughout the 4-months experiment under rain shelters, osmotic potential and relative water content were measured and total RNA was extracted to test the expression of six target genes known in sugar beet or in other plants to be modulated by water shortage. The mild occurrence of drought was paralleled by slow increase in transcription for sucrose synthase 1 and choline monoxygenase, in a way that was in some cases accession-dependent, e.g. the gene for choline monoxygenase was found to be up-regulated at the later stages of growth in stressed plants compared to control ones, and showed a higher constitutive transcription in sea beet compared to sugar beet. Transcription factor DREB2Aalso was slowly induced during the growth season and upon onset of water shortage, and this induction was stronger in sea beet than in sugar beet. In control plants, the transcription of all genes tested except DREB2Awere significantly higher in maritima accession compared to vulgaris one.

Paola Vastarelli; Anna Moschella; Daniela Pacifico; Giuseppe Mandolino

2013-01-01

71

Expression and characterization of a thermostable beta-xylosidase from the hyperthermophile, Thermotoga maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

A thermostable beta-xylosidase from a hyperthermophilic bacterium, Thermotoga maritima, was over-expressed in Escherichia coli using the T7 polymerase expression system. The expressed beta-xylosidase was purified in two steps, heat treatment and immobilized metal affinity chromatography, and gave a single band on SDS-PAGE. The maximum activity on p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside was at 90 degrees C and pH 6.1. The purified enzyme had a half-life of over 22-min at 95 degrees C, and retained over 57% of its activity after holding a pH ranging from 5.4 to 8.5 for 1 h at 80 degrees C. Among all tested substrates, the purified enzyme had specific activities of 275, 50 and 29 U mg(-1) on pNPX, pNPAF, and pNPG, respectively. The apparent Michaelis constant of the beta-xylosidase was 0.13 mM for p NPX with a V (max) of 280 U mg(-1). When the purified beta-xylosidase was added to xylanase, corncob xylan was hydrolized completely to xylose. PMID:15604789

Xue, Yemin; Shao, Weilan

2004-10-01

72

Temperature-dependent plasticity of segment number in an arthropod species: the centipede Strigamia maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of arthropod segment number provides us with a paradox, because, whereas there is more than 20-fold variation in this character overall, most classes and orders of arthropods are composed of species that lack any variation in the number of segments. So, what is the origin of the higher-level variation? The centipede order Geophilomorpha is unusual because, with the exception of one of its families, all species exhibit intraspecific variation in segment number. Hence it provides an opportunity to investigate how segment number may change in a microevolutionary context. Here, we show that segment number can be directly altered by an environmental factor (temperature)-this is the first such demonstration for any arthropod. The direction of the effect is such that higher temperature during embryogenesis produces more segments. This potentially explains an intraspecific cline in the species concerned, Strigamia maritima, but it does not explain how such a cline is translated into the parallel interspecific pattern of lower-latitude species having more segments. Given the plastic nature of the intraspecific variation, its link with interspecific differences may lie in selection acting on developmental reaction norms. PMID:18638325

Vedel, Vincent; Chipman, Ariel D; Akam, Michael; Arthur, Wallace

73

Insectidical activity of ethanolic extracts of Urginea maritima (L.) Baker bulbs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Squill bulbs (Urginea maritima (L.) Baker) have long been used as a source of natural products with pharmaceutical (cardiotonic) and biocidal (rodenticide) applications, although other biological activities remain to be studied. It has considerable crop potential for semiarid zones but product utilization is negatively affected by variations in toxicity due to genetic and environmental effects. In this paper we studied the insecticidal activity of a group of 24 ethanolic extracts of squill bulbs: 12 wild Spanish populations of different bulb colours with 3n, 4n or 6n ploidy levels extracted either after harvesting or after exposure to indirect sunlight for drying during 30 days. Bioassays were performed using the stored product pest Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Extracts topically applied at 25-day-old larvae, caused a mortality of 60-100% (after 24 h) at doses over 10 micrograms/insect, although no differences were recorded due to bulb colour, ploidy level, sample origin or light exposure prior to extraction. When extracts were mixed at 10% in the diet, newly hatched larvae showed growth inhibition (3.0-6.2 mm in comparison with 6.5 mm of the control) after 14 days of feeding; extracts from tetra- and hexaploid white bulbs were more active (P < 0.001) than those from triploid red bulbs and an indirect sunlight exposure of the bulbs prior to extraction increased the activity as well.

Pascual-Villalobos MJ; Fernandez M

1999-09-01

74

Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of the Ruppia maritima complex focusing on taxa from the Mediterranean.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent molecular phylogenetic studies reported high diversity of Ruppia species in the Mediterranean. Multiple taxa, including apparent endemics, are known from that region, however, they have thus far not been exposed to phylogenetic analyses aimed at studying their relationships to taxa from other parts of the world. Here we present a comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of the R. maritima complex using data sets composed of DNA sequences of the plastid genome, the multi-copy nuclear ITS region, and the low-copy nuclear phyB gene with a primary focus on the Mediterranean representatives of the complex. As a result, a new lineage, "Drepanensis", was identified as the seventh entity of the complex. This lineage is endemic to the Mediterranean. The accessions included in the former "Tetraploid" entity were reclassified into two entities: an Asia-Australia-Europe disjunct "Tetraploid_?" with a paternal "Diploid" origin, and a European "Tetraploid_?" originating from a maternal "Drepanensis" lineage. Another entity, "Tetraploid_?", is likely to have been originated as a result of chloroplast capture through backcrossing hybridization between paternal "Tetraploid_?" and maternal "Tetraploid_?". Additional discovery of multiple tetraploidizations as well as hybridization and chloroplast capture at the tetraploid level indicated that hybridization has been a significant factor in the diversification of Ruppia.

Ito Y; Ohi-Toma T; Murata J; Tanaka N

2013-06-01

75

The carbohydrate-binding specificity and molecular modelling of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora lectins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The carbohydrate-binding specificity of lectins from the seeds of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora was studied by hapten-inhibition of haemagglutination using various sugars and sugar derivatives as inhibitors, including N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid. Despite some discrepancies, both lectins exhibited a very similar carbohydrate-binding specificity as previously reported for other lectins from Diocleinae (tribe Phaseoleae, sub-tribe Diocleinae). Accordingly, both lectins exhibited almost identical hydropathic profiles and their three-dimensional models built up from the atomic coordinates of ConA looked very similar. However, docking experiments of glucose and mannose in their monosaccharide-binding sites, by comparison with the ConA-mannose complex used as a model, revealed conformational changes in side chains of the amino acid residues involved in the binding of monosaccharides. These results fully agree with crystallographic data showing that binding of specific ligands to ConA requires conformational chances of its monosaccharide-binding site.

Márcio Viana Ramos; Renato de Azevedo Moreira; José Tadeu Abreu Oliveira; Benildo Sousa Cavada; Pierre Rougé

1996-01-01

76

In the absence of thioredoxins, what are the reductants for peroxiredoxins in Thermotoga maritima?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three peroxiredoxins (Prxs) were identified in Thermotoga maritima, which possesses neither glutathione nor typical thioredoxins: one of the Prx6 class; one 2-Cys PrxBCP; and a unique hybrid protein containing an N-terminal 1-Cys PrxBCP domain fused to a flavin mononucleotide-containing nitroreductase (Ntr) domain. No peroxidase activity was detected for Prx6, whereas both bacterioferritin comigratory proteins (BCPs) were regenerated by a NADH/thioredoxin reductase/glutaredoxin (Grx)-like system, constituting a unique peroxide removal system. Only two of the three Grx-like proteins were able to support peroxidase activity. The inability of TmGrx1 to regenerate oxidized 2-Cys PrxBCP probably results from the thermodynamically unfavorable difference in their disulfide/dithiol E(m) values, -150 and -315 mV, respectively. Mutagenesis of the Prx-Ntr fusion, combined with kinetic and structural analyses, indicated that electrons are not transferred between its two domains. However, their separate activities could function in a complementary manner, with peroxide originating from the chromate reductase activity of the Ntr domain reduced by the Prx domain.

Couturier J; Prosper P; Winger AM; Hecker A; Hirasawa M; Knaff DB; Gans P; Jacquot JP; Navaza A; Haouz A; Rouhier N

2013-05-01

77

Functional and structural characterization of a thermostable acetyl esterase from Thermotoga maritima.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

TM0077 from Thermotoga maritima is a member of the carbohydrate esterase family 7 and is active on a variety of acetylated compounds, including cephalosporin C. TM0077 esterase activity is confined to short-chain acyl esters (C2-C3), and is optimal around 100°C and pH 7.5. The positional specificity of TM0077 was investigated using 4-nitrophenyl-?-D-xylopyranoside monoacetates as substrates in a ?-xylosidase-coupled assay. TM0077 hydrolyzes acetate at positions 2, 3, and 4 with equal efficiency. No activity was detected on xylan or acetylated xylan, which implies that TM0077 is an acetyl esterase and not an acetyl xylan esterase as currently annotated. Selenomethionine-substituted and native structures of TM0077 were determined at 2.1 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively, revealing a classic ?/?-hydrolase fold. TM0077 assembles into a doughnut-shaped hexamer with small tunnels on either side leading to an inner cavity, which contains the six catalytic centers. Structures of TM0077 with covalently bound phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and paraoxon were determined to 2.4 and 2.1 Å, respectively, and confirmed that both inhibitors bind covalently to the catalytic serine (Ser188). Upon binding of inhibitor, the catalytic serine adopts an altered conformation, as observed in other esterase and lipases, and supports a previously proposed catalytic mechanism in which Ser hydroxyl rotation prevents reversal of the reaction and allows access of a water molecule for completion of the reaction.

Levisson M; Han GW; Deller MC; Xu Q; Biely P; Hendriks S; Ten Eyck LF; Flensburg C; Roversi P; Miller MD; McMullan D; von Delft F; Kreusch A; Deacon AM; van der Oost J; Lesley SA; Elsliger MA; Kengen SW; Wilson IA

2012-06-01

78

The carbohydrate-binding specificity and molecular modelling of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora lectins  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The carbohydrate-binding specificity of lectins from the seeds of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora was studied by hapten-inhibition of haemagglutination using various sugars and sugar derivatives as inhibitors, including N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid. Despite some discrepancies, both lectins exhibited a very similar carbohydrate-binding specificity as previously reported for other lectins from Diocleinae (tribe Phaseoleae, sub-tribe Diocleinae (more) ). Accordingly, both lectins exhibited almost identical hydropathic profiles and their three-dimensional models built up from the atomic coordinates of ConA looked very similar. However, docking experiments of glucose and mannose in their monosaccharide-binding sites, by comparison with the ConA-mannose complex used as a model, revealed conformational changes in side chains of the amino acid residues involved in the binding of monosaccharides. These results fully agree with crystallographic data showing that binding of specific ligands to ConA requires conformational chances of its monosaccharide-binding site.

Ramos, Márcio Viana; Moreira, Renato de Azevedo; Oliveira, José Tadeu Abreu; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Rougé, Pierre

1996-12-01

79

Effect of Gamma Rays and Salinity on Growth and Chemical Composition of Ambrosia maritima L. Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work was achieved in pots at the wire house of the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) during the two successive seasons of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of gamma irradiation doses (0, 20, 40 and 80 Gy) on damssisa plants (Ambrosia maritima L.) under salt stress after sowing in (3:2, sand: loamy) soils with mixture of salts. The mixture of salts was sodium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium sulfate at the ratio of 2:2:1. Three concentrations of the used mixture were prepared; 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm. It was observed that irradiation of damsissa seeds with 40 or 80 Gy increased plant tolerance to salinity comparing to control, concerning plant height, fresh and dry weights and photosynthetic pigments. This increase was often significant with low concentration of salinity. On the other hand, sowing seeds in 6000 ppm concentration decreased all the previous measurements. Also, it was noticed that radiation alleviates the adverse effect of salinity by increasing total sugar and total soluble phenols in shoots of damsissa plants.

2011-01-01

80

In the absence of thioredoxins, what are the reductants for peroxiredoxins in Thermotoga maritima?  

Science.gov (United States)

Three peroxiredoxins (Prxs) were identified in Thermotoga maritima, which possesses neither glutathione nor typical thioredoxins: one of the Prx6 class; one 2-Cys PrxBCP; and a unique hybrid protein containing an N-terminal 1-Cys PrxBCP domain fused to a flavin mononucleotide-containing nitroreductase (Ntr) domain. No peroxidase activity was detected for Prx6, whereas both bacterioferritin comigratory proteins (BCPs) were regenerated by a NADH/thioredoxin reductase/glutaredoxin (Grx)-like system, constituting a unique peroxide removal system. Only two of the three Grx-like proteins were able to support peroxidase activity. The inability of TmGrx1 to regenerate oxidized 2-Cys PrxBCP probably results from the thermodynamically unfavorable difference in their disulfide/dithiol E(m) values, -150 and -315 mV, respectively. Mutagenesis of the Prx-Ntr fusion, combined with kinetic and structural analyses, indicated that electrons are not transferred between its two domains. However, their separate activities could function in a complementary manner, with peroxide originating from the chromate reductase activity of the Ntr domain reduced by the Prx domain. PMID:22866991

Couturier, Jérémy; Prosper, Pascalita; Winger, Alison M; Hecker, Arnaud; Hirasawa, Masakazu; Knaff, David B; Gans, Pierre; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Navaza, Alda; Haouz, Ahmed; Rouhier, Nicolas

2012-09-24

 
 
 
 
81

Synthetic symmetrization in the crystallization and structure determination of CelA from Thermotoga maritima  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein crystallization continues to be a major bottleneck in X-ray crystallography. Previous studies suggest that symmetric proteins, such as homodimers, might crystallize more readily than monomeric proteins or asymmetric complexes. Proteins that are naturally monomeric can be made homodimeric artificially. Our approach is to create homodimeric proteins by introducing single cysteines into the protein of interest, which are then oxidized to form a disulfide bond between the two monomers. By introducing the single cysteine at different sequence positions, one can produce a variety of synthetically dimerized versions of a protein, with each construct expected to exhibit its own crystallization behavior. In earlier work, we demonstrated the potential utility of the approach using T4 lysozyme as a model system. Here we report the successful application of the method to Thermotoga maritima CelA, a thermophilic endoglucanase enzyme with low sequence identity to proteins with structures previously reported in the Protein Data Bank. This protein had resisted crystallization in its natural monomeric form, despite a broad survey of crystallization conditions. The synthetic dimerization of the CelA mutant D188C yielded well-diffracting crystals with molecules in a packing arrangement that would not have occurred with native, monomeric CelA. A 2.4 Å crystal structure was determined by single anomalous dispersion using a seleno-methionine derivatized protein. The results support the notion that synthetic symmetrization can be a useful approach for enlarging the search space for crystallizing monomeric proteins or asymmetric complexes.

Forse, G Jason; Ram, Nina; Banatao, D Rey; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R; Klock, Heath E; Lesley, Scott A; Yeates, Todd O

2011-01-01

82

Detection of the strand exchange reaction using DNAzyme and Thermotoga maritima recombinase A.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have designed multiple detection systems for the DNA strand exchange process. Thermostable Thermotoga maritima recombinase A (TmRecA), a core protein in homologous recombination, and DNAzyme, a catalytic DNA that can cleave a specific DNA sequence, are introduced in this work. In a colorimetric method, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified with complementary DNAs (cDNAs) were assembled by annealing. Aggregated AuNPs were then separated irreversibly by TmRecA and DNAzyme, leading to a distinct color change in the particles from purple to red. For the case of fluorometric detection, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled DNA as a fluorophore and black hole quencher 1 (BHQ1)-labeled DNA as a quencher were used; successful strand exchange was clearly detected by variations in fluorescence intensity. In addition, alterations in the impedance of a gold electrode with immobilized DNA were employed to monitor the regular exchange of DNA strands. All three methods provided sufficient evidence of efficient strand exchange reactions and have great potential for applications in the monitoring of recombination, discovery of new DNAzymes, detection of DNAzymes, and measurement of other protein activities.

Jo H; Lee S; Min K; Ban C

2012-02-01

83

In the halotolerant Lobularia maritima (Brassicaceae) salt adaptation correlates with activation of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase and the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lobularia maritima (Brassicaceae) is a facultative halophyte related to Arabidopsis thaliana and may be a suitable model to identify molecular mechanisms that regulate tolerance to salt stress in plants. Under the same salt stress conditions, the accumulation of sodium was similar in shoots and roots of Lobularia maritima and Arabidopsis thaliana, whereas the sodium to potassium ratio was less in Lobularia maritima. Aquaporins, the NHX-type Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, and the vacuolar ATPase are well established targets of regulation under salt stress that have a central role in the control of water status and cytoplasmic sodium homeostasis. Therefore, salt-dependent expression of transcripts encoding a PIP2;1 aquaporin, the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter NHX, and V-ATPase subunit E (VHA-E) was characterized in Lobularia maritima. Transcription of LmPIP2;1 was repressed in leaves and roots by treatment with 500mM NaCl. In contrast, salt stress stimulated the expression of LmNHX1 and LmVHA-E. Cell-specificity of the transcription of LmNHX1 was analyzed by fluorescence in situ PCR in leaf cross sections of Lobularia maritima. Expression of the gene was localized to the phloem and to mesophyll cells. In plants treated with 500 mM NaCl, transcription of LmNHX1 was stimulated in the mesophyll. The findings indicate divergent transcriptional responses of key mechanisms of salt adaptation in Lobularia maritima and suggest distinct regulation of sodium homeostasis and water flux under salt stress. PMID:17166622

Popova, Olga V; Golldack, Dortje

2006-12-12

84

An early temperature-sensitive period for the plasticity of segment number in the centipede Strigamia maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Geophilomorph centipedes show variation in segment number (a) between closely related species and (b) within and between populations of the same species. We have previously shown for a Scottish population of the coastal centipede Strigamia maritima that the temperature of embryonic development is one of the factors that affects the segment number of hatchlings, and hence of adults, as these animals grow epimorphically--that is, without postembryonic addition of segments. Here, we show, using temperature-shift experiments, that the main developmental period during which embryos are sensitive to environmental temperature is surprisingly early, during blastoderm formation and before, or very shortly after, the onset of segmentation. PMID:20618430

Vedel, Vincent; Apostolou, Zivkos; Arthur, Wallace; Akam, Michael; Brena, Carlo

85

An early temperature-sensitive period for the plasticity of segment number in the centipede Strigamia maritima.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Geophilomorph centipedes show variation in segment number (a) between closely related species and (b) within and between populations of the same species. We have previously shown for a Scottish population of the coastal centipede Strigamia maritima that the temperature of embryonic development is one of the factors that affects the segment number of hatchlings, and hence of adults, as these animals grow epimorphically--that is, without postembryonic addition of segments. Here, we show, using temperature-shift experiments, that the main developmental period during which embryos are sensitive to environmental temperature is surprisingly early, during blastoderm formation and before, or very shortly after, the onset of segmentation.

Vedel V; Apostolou Z; Arthur W; Akam M; Brena C

2010-07-01

86

Expression of trunk Hox genes in the centipede Strigamia maritima: sense and anti-sense transcripts.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the coding sequence and embryonic expression of the four trunk Hox genes Antennapedia (Antp), Ultrabithorax (Ubx), abdominal-A (abd-A), and Abdominal-B (Abd-B) in the geophilomorph centipede Strigamia maritima. In geophilomorph centipedes, all leg-bearing segments (LBS) are generated during embryogenesis, allowing us to define expression in relation to the full extent of the forming trunk. Persistent Antp expression characterizes the maxillipedal (poison claw) segment, whereas all LBS express the three Hox genes Antp, Ubx, and abd-A. Abd-B is never detectably expressed in segmented tissue, but is restricted to a zone around the proctodaeum that contributes to the hindgut. Expression of all these Hox genes initiates in the unsegmented tissue of the blastodisc, with expression of Antp respecting a sharply defined anterior border before the appearance of morphological segmentation in the trunk. The accumulation of Hox gene transcripts is strongly modulated by the maturing segment pattern, suggesting regulatory interactions with multiple levels of the segment patterning machinery. For one of these genes, Ubx, we detect both sense and anti-sense transcripts. The anti-sense transcripts originate 3' to the Ubx coding sequence and overlap the homeobox exon; they are expressed earlier than the Ubx coding transcripts and persistently, in an axially restricted pattern comparable to but distinct from those of the Hox coding transcripts. The pattern of accumulation of Ubx sense and anti-sense transcripts is strikingly complementary, suggesting the possibility of anti-sense regulation of Ubx expression. PMID:16686636

Brena, Carlo; Chipman, Ariel D; Minelli, Alessandro; Akam, Michael

87

Phylogenetic analyses of two "archaeal" genes in thermotoga maritima reveal multiple transfers between archaea and bacteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The genome sequence of Thermotoga maritima revealed that 24% of its open reading frames (ORFs) showed the highest similarity scores to archaeal genes in BLAST analyses. Here we screened 16 strains from the genus Thermotoga and other related Thermotogales for the occurrence of two of these "archaeal" genes: the gene encoding the large subunit of glutamate synthase (gltB) and the myo-inositol 1P synthase gene (ino1). Both genes were restricted to the Thermotoga species within the Thermotogales. The distribution of the two genes, along with results from phylogenetic analyses, showed that they were acquired from Archaea during the divergence of the Thermotogales. Database searches revealed that three other bacteria-Dehalococcoides ethenogenes, Sinorhizobium meliloti, and Clostridium difficile-possess archaeal-type gltBs, and the phylogenetic analyses confirmed at least two lateral gene transfer (LGT) events between Bacteria and Archaea. These LGT events were also strongly supported by gene structure data, as the three domains in bacterial-type gltB are homologous to three independent ORFs in Archaea and Bacteria with archaeal-type gltBs. The ino1 gene has a scattered distribution among Bacteria, and apart from the Thermotoga strains it is found only in Aquifex aeolicus, D. ethenogenes, and some high-G+C Gram-positive bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of the ino1 sequences revealed three highly supported prokaryotic clades, all containing a mixture of archaeal and bacterial sequences, and suggested that all bacterial ino1 genes had been recruited from archaeal donors. The Thermotoga strains and A. aeolicus acquired this gene independently from different archaeal species. Although transfer of genes from hyperthermophilic Archaea may have facilitated the evolution of bacterial hyperthermophily, between-domain transfers also affect mesophilic species. For hyperthermophiles, we hypothesize that LGT may be as much a consequence as the cause of adaptation to hyperthermophily.

Nesbo CL; L'Haridon S; Stetter KO; Doolittle WF

2001-03-01

88

Hoeflea suaedae sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from the root of the halophyte Suaeda maritima.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A Gram-negative, aerobic, short rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain YC6898(T), was isolated from the surface-sterilized root of a halophyte (Suaeda maritima) inhabiting tidal flat of Namhae Island, Korea. Strain YC6898(T) grew optimally at 30-37 °C and pH 6.5-7.5. The strain inhibited mycelial growth of Pythium ultimum and Phytophthora capsici. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YC6898(T) belongs to the genus Hoeflea in the family Phyllobacteriaceae. Its closest relatives were Hoeflea alexandrii AM1V30(T) (96.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Hoeflea anabaenae WH2K(T) (95.7%), Hoeflea phototrophica DFL-43(T) (95.5%) and Hoeflea marina LMG 128(T) (94.8%). Strain YC6898(T) contained Q-10 as the major ubiquinone. The major fatty acids of strain YC6898(T) were C18:1?7c (61.1%), C16:0 (11.9%), 11-methyl C18:1?7c (9.6%) and C19:0 cyclo ?8c (8.0%). The polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, unknown lipids and an unknown glycolipid. The total genomic DNA G+C content was 53.7 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analysis, strain YC6898(T) represents a novel species of the genus Hoeflea, for which the name Hoeflea suaedae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6898(T) (=KACC 14911(T)=NBRC 107700(T)).

Chung EJ; Park JA; Pramanik P; Bibi F; Jeon CO; Chung YR

2013-06-01

89

Hoeflea suaedae sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from the root of the halophyte Suaeda maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Gram-negative, aerobic, short rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain YC6898(T), was isolated from the surface-sterilized root of a halophyte (Suaeda maritima) inhabiting tidal flat of Namhae Island, Korea. Strain YC6898(T) grew optimally at 30-37 °C and pH 6.5-7.5. The strain inhibited mycelial growth of Pythium ultimum and Phytophthora capsici. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YC6898(T) belongs to the genus Hoeflea in the family Phyllobacteriaceae. Its closest relatives were Hoeflea alexandrii AM1V30(T) (96.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Hoeflea anabaenae WH2K(T) (95.7%), Hoeflea phototrophica DFL-43(T) (95.5%) and Hoeflea marina LMG 128(T) (94.8%). Strain YC6898(T) contained Q-10 as the major ubiquinone. The major fatty acids of strain YC6898(T) were C18:1?7c (61.1%), C16:0 (11.9%), 11-methyl C18:1?7c (9.6%) and C19:0 cyclo ?8c (8.0%). The polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, unknown lipids and an unknown glycolipid. The total genomic DNA G+C content was 53.7 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analysis, strain YC6898(T) represents a novel species of the genus Hoeflea, for which the name Hoeflea suaedae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6898(T) (=KACC 14911(T)=NBRC 107700(T)). PMID:23159752

Chung, Eu Jin; Park, Jeong Ae; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bibi, Fehmida; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

2012-11-16

90

Characterization of Di-myo-inositol-1,1{prime}-phosphate in the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Di-myo-inositol-1,1{prime}-phosphate (DIP) is present at a significant concentration ({approximately}160 nmol/mg of protein) in the cytoplasm of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. The concentrations of DIP was independent of the pH of the growth medium or the cell growth phase but increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl in the growth medium, reaching a maximum ({approximately}450 nmol/mg of protein) at 0.4 to 0.6 M NaCl. A large-scale purification procedure for DIP which yields approximately 18 g of DIP per kg of cells (wet weight) is described. Purified DIP was stable at 90{degrees}C for at least 5 h. The presence of DIP(50 mM) did not increase the stability at 90{degrees}C of pure forms of the hydrogenase or pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase of T. maritima, suggesting that DIP is not a general thermoprotectant. 25 refs., 4 figs.

Ramakrishnan, V.; Verhagen, M.F.J.M.; Adams, M.W.W. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

1997-01-01

91

Influence of sulfide on the distribution of higher plants in salt marshes. [Salicornia europaea; Puccinellia maritima; Atriplex patula; Festuca rubra  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soluble sulfide in surface (0-5 cm) salt marsh sediments was detectable only on the lower marsh, salt pans and creek beds. On the lower-marsh only Salicornia europaea amongst the vascular plant species present was rooted in sulfide-containing sediments. No significant correlation was observed between soluble sulfide concentration and redox potential in soil samples from the lower-marsh. When eight salt marshes from around the coast of Britain were compared, six had a detectable sulfide concentration in the lower-marsh sediments. Divisive information analysis of the vegetation data from these sites indicated that in all cases the most significant association was between Salicornia europaea and otherwise bare ground. In two marshes where no soluble sulfide could be measured, S. europaea was associated with other plant species rather than bare ground. Monthly observations of plant cover and sulfide concentration in sixteen permanent quadrats on the lower marsh revealed a significant positive correlation between the cover of Salicornia europaea and soil sulfide. In contrast, Puccinellia maritima showed a significant negative correlation with sulfide concentration. In liquid media, the growth of Atriplex patula, Festuca rubra and Puccinellia maritima, was significantly inhibited by sulfide whereas there was no marked effect on that of Salicornia europaea. The results suggest that S. europaea is relatively tolerant of sulfide and is able to establish on areas of the lower marsh from which other species are excluded by the presence of sulfide.

Ingold, A.; Havill, D.C.

1984-11-01

92

Xylanase XynA from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima: structure and stability of the recombinant enzyme and its isolated cellulose-binding domain.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima is capable of gaining metabolic energy utilizing xylan. XynA, one of the corresponding hydrolases required for its degradation, is a 120-kDa endo-1,4-D-xylanase exhibiting high intrinsic stability and a temperature optimum approximately 90 degrees ...

Wassenberg, D.; Schurig, H.; Liebl, W.; Jaenicke, R.

93

Draft Genome Sequence of Thermotoga maritima A7A Reconstructed from Metagenomic Sequencing Analysis of a Hydrocarbon Reservoir in the Bass Strait, Australia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The draft genome sequence of Thermotoga maritima A7A was obtained from a metagenomic assembly obtained from a high-temperature hydrocarbon reservoir in the Gippsland Basin, Australia. The organism is predicted to be a motile anaerobe with an array of catabolic enzymes for the degradation of numerous carbohydrates.

Sutcliffe B; Midgley DJ; Rosewarne CP; Greenfield P; Li D

2013-01-01

94

Isolation and cloning of Omp alpha, a coiled-coil protein spanning the periplasmic space of the ancestral eubacterium Thermotoga maritima.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have discovered a new oligomeric protein component associated with the outer membrane of the ancestral eubacterium Thermotoga maritima. In electron micrographs, the protein, Omp alpha, appears as a rod-shaped spacer that spans the periplasm, connecting the outer membrane to the inner cell body. P...

Engel, A M; Cejka, Z; Lupas, A; Lottspeich, F; Baumeister, W

95

The influence of water extracts from Galium aparine L. and Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora (L.) Dostal on germination of winter rye and triticale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the research, it was assessed how water extracts from Galium aparine and Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora affect the germination energy and capacity, as well as the length of the seedling root and the first leaf of the Dankowskie Zlote cultivar of Secale cereale and of the Janko cultivar of Triticale rimpaui. The experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions, with the use of Petri dishes. The influence of three concentrations of water extracts prepared from the dry and fresh mass of the plant’s above-ground parts was examined. Petri dishes watered with distilled water constituted the control treatment. Water extracts prepared from the Matricaria maritima subsp.inodora dry and fresh mass and Galium aparine fresh mass reduced the germination capacity and energy of rye and triticale in direct proportion to the increase of concentration. Higher concentrations of water extracts reduced, to a significantly larger extent, the growth of the seedling roots of both species. Lowest-concentration water extracts from the Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora dry and fresh mass and from the Galium aparine fresh mass stimulated the growth of seedling root of the cereals under study. Higher concentrations of water extracts prepared from the Galium aparine and the Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora dry mass reduced, to a significantly larger extent, the growth of the first leaf.

Ewa Kwieci?ska-Poppe; Piotr Kraska; Edward Pa?ys

2011-01-01

96

Protein Electrophoresis and DNA in Herbs Produced from Irradiated Ambrosia maritima Seeds Grown under Soil Salinity and Their Resistance to Insect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Damsisa (Ambrosia maritima L.) is one of the wild plants present in Egypt and different African countries of the Nile Valley. It considered as potential source of molluscicides for treatment of infected sites. In this study, DNA amplifications technique and protein electrophoresis were use...

O.S. Hussein

97

Some Active Ingredients, Total Protein and Amino Acids in Plants Produced from Irradiated Ambrosia maritima Seeds Growing under Different Soil Salinity Levels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was carried out at the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology during two successive seasons, of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009, respectively in pots 30 cm in diameter. The aim of this experiment was to study the response of damsisa (Ambrosia maritima L.) seeds that exposed ...

O.S. Hussein; A.H. Hanafy Ahmed; A.R. Ghalab; A.M. El-Hefny

98

A ocorrência do mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae) e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren), Nasutitermitinae, em afloramentos rochosos no Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A presença de colônias de C. silvestrii é comum nos lajeados existentes em Itapuã. Na estação Morro da Grota1, 92,0 % dos termiteiros situados na rocha exposta e em ilhas de vegetação estão associados a D. maritima. Esta convivência ocorre em 31,2 % das ilhas na qual esta bromélia se faz presente. Nas ilhas, a comparação entre os substratos aonde D. maritima vegeta, o solo litólico húmico existente sob o manto do musgo Campylopus spp. e o substrato constituído pelo cupinzeiro indica que este último possui os teores mais elevados dos nutrientes P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn e Mn, maior CTC e maiores teores de partículas finas, principalmente o silte. O estabelecimento de D. maritima sobre os termiteiros de grande porte aumenta o seu valor de cobertura em ilhas de vegetação quando comparado com ilhas sem termiteiros ou com termiteiros de pequeno porte em áreas entre 2,7 a 8,0 m². Este fato é atribuído à melhoria físico-química do substrato e ao aumento de superfície e volume aptos a serem colonizados pela bromélia e proporciona maior competitividade em relação a outras espécies vegetais. As características apresentadas pela interação entre este cupim e D. maritima, pela primeira vez descrita na literatura, permitem indicar esta relação ecológica como mutualismo facultativo. Inferimos que o conjunto de observações apresentado constitui um modelo temporal de crescimento deste mutualismo, cujas fases inicial e tardia estão descritas neste trabalho.

Waldemar Celso Copstein; Irgang Bruno Edgar

2003-01-01

99

Molecular microbial ecology of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima : transcriptional and physiological response to antibiotic challenge and inter-species interactions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Whole genome cDNA microarray-based analysis was used to monitor differential transcription during cultivation of T. maritima under a variety of environmental conditions, including chloramphenicol challenge and in co-culture with other hyperthermophiles. Transcriptional analysis of wild-type T. maritima and a resistant mutant revealed mechanisms by which this bacterium responded to chloramphenicol challenge. In the mutant strain, the presence of five mutations in the 23S rRNA, two of which were associated with the catalytic PTC center, were attributed to chloramphenicol resistance. Transcriptional response of T. maritima grown in co-culture with Methanococcus jannaschii, Pyrococcus furiosus or in P. furiosus spent media indicated up-regulation of small open reading frames of unknown function. Two of these, TM1316 and TM0504, were examined with respect to their potential ecological roles. The ORF encoding TM1316, corresponding to a putative 31 amino acid peptide, was up-regulated during growth in defined media, growth on spent P. furiosus media, and when a chloramphenicol-resistant mutant of T. maritima was challenged with the antibiotic. In the T. maritima genome, TM1316 is located adjacent to a putative SAM radical super-family processing enzyme and components of a putative ABC transporter. The resemblance of TM1316 to Subtilosin A in Bacillus subtilis, a known bacteriocin, raised the possibility that this molecule plays a similar role in T. maritima. TM0504, a 42 amino acid peptide previously associated with cell-to-cell signaling and exopolysaccharide production in T. maritima, was found to be co-located with the gene for tmRNA, an essential component of the bacterial ribosomal rescue system mediated by trans-translation. A Real Time PCR strategy was developed to detect differential transcription of TM0504 and tmRNA under various growth conditions. Furthermore, bioinformatic analysis of over 200 bacterial genomes indicated the presence of co-located TM0504-like peptides and tmRNA. Taken together the results from this study demonstrate the strategic use of DNA microarrays and global transcriptional response analysis to reveal otherwise inaccessible features of molecular microbial ecology.

Montero CI

100

Comparative study of antibacterial and antifugal activity of callus culture and adult plants extracts from Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae) Estudo comparativo da atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos obtidos da cultura de calos e da planta adulta de Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae)  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of callus culture (two different hormonal combination culture medium) and adult plants (two collect) extracts from Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae) investigating the maintenance of antimicrobial activity in vivo and in vitro. The antibacterial and antifungal activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method against thirty strains of microorganisms including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes. All the organic crude extracts studied were bioactive. Extracts of aerial parts and roots of adult plants collected during the same period of years of 1995 and 1998 (Restinga de Maricá (RJ), collect 1 and 2) inhibited the growth of several microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes) with inhibition halo between 6 and 20 mm. Plant cell callus culture extracts obtained from two culture conditions were also bioactive. Thus, the positive results suggest that the A. maritima extracts should be further studied to determine the bioactive chemical compounds as well as to understand the possible mechanisms of action and evaluate their toxicity looking toward a pharmaceutical employment.Neste estudo procedeu-se a avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica dos extratos brutos de Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae) planta in natura de duas coletas distintas e obtidos por cultura de células buscando-se averiguar a manutenção da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos obtidos da planta in vivo e in vitro. A ação antibacteriana e antifúngica foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar (técnica do poço) utilizando-se trinta cepas de microrganismos indicadores (bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas, leveduras e dermatófitos). Todos os extratos obtidos com solventes orgânicos avaliados apresentaram-se bioativos com halos de inibição de 6 a 20 mm. Os extratos da planta in natura das duas coletas (Restinga de Marica (RJ), verão de 1995 e 1998) inibiram o desenvolvimento de diferentes microrganismos (bactérias, leveduras e dermatófitos). Os extratos obtidos da cultura de calos desenvolvidos em duas condições de cultivo diferentes, também se mantiveram bioativos. Assim, os resultados obtidos encorajam a realização de novos estudos com esta espécie vegetal para se determinar quais as substâncias presentes nos extratos e que contribuem para a atividade biológica, como também para entender seu mecanismo de ação e avaliar sua toxicidade, visando uma possível aplicação farmacêutica.

Marcos J. Salvador; Paulo S. Pereira; Suzelei C. França; Regina C. Candido; Izabel Y. Ito; Diones A. Dias

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Overexpression of ?-glucosidase from Thermotoga maritima for the production of highly purified aglycone isoflavones from soy flour  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To produce aglycone isoflavones from soy flour, the ?-glucosidase A gene (bglA) of Thermotoga maritima was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21-CodonPlus (DE3)-RIL. The K m and V max values of the purified BglA for pNPG were 0.43 mM and 323.6 U mg?¹, respectively, and those for salicin were 9.0 mM and 183.2 U mg?¹, respectively. The biochemical and kinetic characteristics of his-tagged BglA were found to be similar to those of BglA, except for the temperature stability and specific activity. Production of aglycone isoflavones from soy flour by BglA was examined by HPLC. For 3 h at 80°C, all the isoflavone glycosides approximated to the complete conversion into aglycone isoflavones, over seven times higher than that obtained from soy flour without BglA.

Xue Yemin; Song Xiangfei; Yu Jinjin

2009-12-01

102

Biomass and nutrient accumulation at different growth rates in thinned plantations of Corsican pine. [Pinus nigra var. maritima (Ait. ) Melv  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Regressions of weight of tree components on volume or volume increment were prepared using measurements from a crop of Pinus nigra var. maritima (Ait.) Melv. that had shown large growth responses to nitrogen fertilizer. These regressions were solved for the appropriate values of volume or volume increment from published yield tables for this species, to give tables in terms of harvestable biomass of different tree components, by age, for Yield Classes 6 to 16. Using values for nutrient concentration obtained from the experimental crop, similar tables were prepared giving the weights of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Mn and Cu that would be removed on harvesting any component. Nutrient losses estimated from these tables are discussed and compared with the known input of nutrients in rainfall and from other sources.

Miller, H.G.; Miller, J.D.; Cooper, J.M.

1980-01-01

103

Characterization of an aldo-keto reductase from Thermotoga maritima with high thermostability and a broad substrate spectrum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A novel aldo-keto reductase gene, Tm1743, from Thermotoga maritima was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme displayed the highest activity at 90 °C and at pH 9. It retained 63 % of its activity after 15 h at 85 °C. The enzyme also could tolerate (up to 10 % v/v) acetonitrile, ethanol and 2-propanol with slightly increased activities. Methanol, DMSO and acetone decreased activity slightly. Furthermore, Tm1743 exhibited broad substrate specificity towards various keto esters, ketones and aldehydes, with relative activities ranging from 2 to 460 % compared to the control. Its optimum substrate, 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone, was asymmetrically reduced in a coupled NADPH-regeneration system with an enantioselectivity of 99.8 % and a conversion of 98 %.

Ma YH; Lv DQ; Zhou S; Lai DY; Chen ZM

2013-05-01

104

Overexpression and simple purification of the Thermotoga maritima 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli and its application for NADPH regeneration  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermostable enzymes from thermophilic microorganisms are playing more and more important roles in molecular biology R&D and industrial applications. However, over-production of recombinant soluble proteins from thermophilic microorganisms in mesophilic hosts (e.g. E. coli) remains challenging sometimes. Results An open reading frame TM0438 from a hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima putatively encoding 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified protein was confirmed to have 6PGDH activity with a molecular mass of 53 kDa. The kcat of this enzyme was 325 s-1 and the Km values for 6-phosphogluconate, NADP+, and NAD+ were 11, 10 and 380 ?M, respectively, at 80°C. This enzyme had half-life times of 48 and 140 h at 90 and 80°C, respectively. Through numerous approaches including expression vectors, hosts, cultivation conditions, inducers, and codon-optimization of the 6pgdh gene, the soluble 6PGDH expression levels were enhanced to ~250 mg per liter of culture by more than 500-fold. The recombinant 6PGDH accounted for >30% of total E. coli cellular proteins when lactose was used as a low-cost inducer. In addition, this enzyme coupled with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase for the first time was demonstrated to generate two moles of NADPH per mole of glucose-6-phosphate. Conclusion We have achieved a more than 500-fold improvement in the expression of soluble T. maritima 6PGDH in E. coli, characterized its basic biochemical properties, and demonstrated its applicability for NADPH regeneration by a new enzyme cocktail. The methodology for over-expression and simple purification of this thermostable protein would be useful for the production of other thermostable proteins in E. coli.

Wang Yiran; Zhang Y-H Percival

2009-01-01

105

Oxygen uptake rates in the hyperthermophilic anaerobe Thermotoga maritima grown in a bioreactor under controlled oxygen exposure: clues to its defence strategy against oxidative stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 2.3-L bioreactor was specially adapted to grow hyperthermophilic microorganisms under controlled conditions of temperature, pH, redox potential and dissolved O(2). Using this bioreactor regulated at 80°C and pH 7.0, we demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima recovered its growth despite being exposed to oxygen for a short time (30 min with a maximum concentration of 23 ?M of dissolved oxygen). Under these conditions, we demonstrated that O(2) uptake rate, estimated at 73.6 ?moles O(2) min(-1) g proteins(-1) for dissolved oxygen, was optimal and constant, when dissolved oxygen was present in a range of 22-5 ?M. Transcription analyses revealed that during short oxygen exposure, T. maritima expressed genes coding for enzymes to deal with O(2) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as peroxides. Thus, genes encoding ROS-scavenging systems, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (ahp), thioredoxin-dependent thiol peroxidase (bcp 2) and to a lesser extent neelaredoxin (nlr) and rubrerythrin (rbr), were found to be upregulated during oxygen exposure. The oxygen reductase FprA, homologous to the rubredoxin-oxygen oxidoreductase (ROO) found in Desulfovibrio species, is proposed as a primary consumer of O(2) in T. maritima. Moreover, the expression of frpA was shown to depend on the redox (Eh) level of the culture medium.

Lakhal R; Auria R; Davidson S; Ollivier B; Durand MC; Dolla A; Hamdi M; Combet-Blanc Y

2011-06-01

106

The structure and dynamic properties of the complete histidine phosphotransfer domain of the chemotaxis specific histidine autokinase CheA from Thermotoga maritima  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bacterial histidine autokinase CheA contains a histidine phosphotransfer (Hpt) domain that accepts a phosphate from the catalytic domain and donates the phosphate to either target response regulator protein, CheY or CheB. The Hpt domain forms a helix-bundle structure with a conserved four-helix bundle motif and a variable fifth helix. Observation of two nearly equally populated conformations in the crystal structure of a Hpt domain fragment of CheA from Thermotoga maritima containing only the first four helices suggests more mobility in a tightly packed helix bundle structure than previously thought. In order to examine how the structures of Hpt domain homologs may differ from each other particularly in the conformation of the last helix, and whether an alternative conformation exists in the intact Hpt domain in solution, we have solved a high-resolution, solution structure of the CheA Hpt from T. maritima and characterized the backbone dynamics of this protein. The structure contains a four-helix bundle characteristic of histidine phosphotransfer domains. The position and orientation of the fifth helix resembles those in known Hpt domain crystal and solution structures in other histidine kinases. The alternative conformation that was reported in the crystal structure of the CheA Hpt from T. maritima missing the fifth helix is not detected in the solution structure, suggesting a role for the fifth helix in providing stabilizing forces to the overall structure.

Vu, Anh; Hamel, Damon J.; Zhou Hongjun; Dahlquist, Frederick W., E-mail: dahlquist@chem.ucsb.edu [University of California Santa Barbara, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States)

2011-09-15

107

The structure and dynamic properties of the complete histidine phosphotransfer domain of the chemotaxis specific histidine autokinase CheA from Thermotoga maritima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The bacterial histidine autokinase CheA contains a histidine phosphotransfer (Hpt) domain that accepts a phosphate from the catalytic domain and donates the phosphate to either target response regulator protein, CheY or CheB. The Hpt domain forms a helix-bundle structure with a conserved four-helix bundle motif and a variable fifth helix. Observation of two nearly equally populated conformations in the crystal structure of a Hpt domain fragment of CheA from Thermotoga maritima containing only the first four helices suggests more mobility in a tightly packed helix bundle structure than previously thought. In order to examine how the structures of Hpt domain homologs may differ from each other particularly in the conformation of the last helix, and whether an alternative conformation exists in the intact Hpt domain in solution, we have solved a high-resolution, solution structure of the CheA Hpt from T. maritima and characterized the backbone dynamics of this protein. The structure contains a four-helix bundle characteristic of histidine phosphotransfer domains. The position and orientation of the fifth helix resembles those in known Hpt domain crystal and solution structures in other histidine kinases. The alternative conformation that was reported in the crystal structure of the CheA Hpt from T. maritima missing the fifth helix is not detected in the solution structure, suggesting a role for the fifth helix in providing stabilizing forces to the overall structure.

2011-01-01

108

A ocorrência do mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae) e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren), Nasutitermitinae, em afloramentos rochosos no Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS/ The occurrence of facultative mutualism between Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae) and the termite Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren), Nasutitermitinae, on rock outcrops in Itapuã State Park, Viamão, RS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A presença de colônias de C. silvestrii é comum nos lajeados existentes em Itapuã. Na estação Morro da Grota1, 92,0 % dos termiteiros situados na rocha exposta e em ilhas de vegetação estão associados a D. maritima. Esta convivência ocorre em 31,2 % das ilhas na qual esta bromélia se faz presente. Nas ilhas, a comparação entre os substratos aonde D. maritima vegeta, o solo litólico húmico existente sob o manto do musgo Campylopus spp. e o substrato constitu (more) ído pelo cupinzeiro indica que este último possui os teores mais elevados dos nutrientes P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn e Mn, maior CTC e maiores teores de partículas finas, principalmente o silte. O estabelecimento de D. maritima sobre os termiteiros de grande porte aumenta o seu valor de cobertura em ilhas de vegetação quando comparado com ilhas sem termiteiros ou com termiteiros de pequeno porte em áreas entre 2,7 a 8,0 m². Este fato é atribuído à melhoria físico-química do substrato e ao aumento de superfície e volume aptos a serem colonizados pela bromélia e proporciona maior competitividade em relação a outras espécies vegetais. As características apresentadas pela interação entre este cupim e D. maritima, pela primeira vez descrita na literatura, permitem indicar esta relação ecológica como mutualismo facultativo. Inferimos que o conjunto de observações apresentado constitui um modelo temporal de crescimento deste mutualismo, cujas fases inicial e tardia estão descritas neste trabalho. Abstract in english The presence of colonies of C. silvestrii is common, both on the rock surface and at islands of vegetation. At Morro da Grota1 station, 92,0 % of the termite nests on rocky outcrops and at island of vegetation are associated with this bromeliad. These nests are associated with D. maritima, in 31,2 % of the islands where this bromeliad occurs. At these island communities, the comparison between the substrata where D. maritima occurs, the litolic Waldemar & Irgang: Mutualis (more) mo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii humic soil existing under the mantle of the moss Campylopus spp. and the substratum produced by termites indicates that this possesses higher levels of the nutrients P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Mn, CEC and higher fine particles content, mainly silt. The establishment of D. maritima rosettes on great termite nests increase their value of relative coverage at islands inside areas between 2,7 to 8,0 m². This fact is attributed to the improvement physical-chemistry of the substratum and the increase of surface and volume to be colonized for the Bromeliad. It provides for greater competitiveness at this species in relation to other vegetal species. The features presented for the interaction between this termite and D. maritima, for the first time described in literature, lead to the classification of this ecological relationship as facultative mutualism. The set of observations constitute a temporal model of development of this mutualism at island's vegetation, whose phases, initial and advanced are described.

Waldemar, Celso Copstein; Irgang, Bruno Edgar

2003-03-01

109

A ocorrência do mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae) e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren), Nasutitermitinae, em afloramentos rochosos no Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS The occurrence of facultative mutualism between Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae) and the termite Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren), Nasutitermitinae, on rock outcrops in Itapuã State Park, Viamão, RS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A presença de colônias de C. silvestrii é comum nos lajeados existentes em Itapuã. Na estação Morro da Grota1, 92,0 % dos termiteiros situados na rocha exposta e em ilhas de vegetação estão associados a D. maritima. Esta convivência ocorre em 31,2 % das ilhas na qual esta bromélia se faz presente. Nas ilhas, a comparação entre os substratos aonde D. maritima vegeta, o solo litólico húmico existente sob o manto do musgo Campylopus spp. e o substrato constituído pelo cupinzeiro indica que este último possui os teores mais elevados dos nutrientes P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn e Mn, maior CTC e maiores teores de partículas finas, principalmente o silte. O estabelecimento de D. maritima sobre os termiteiros de grande porte aumenta o seu valor de cobertura em ilhas de vegetação quando comparado com ilhas sem termiteiros ou com termiteiros de pequeno porte em áreas entre 2,7 a 8,0 m². Este fato é atribuído à melhoria físico-química do substrato e ao aumento de superfície e volume aptos a serem colonizados pela bromélia e proporciona maior competitividade em relação a outras espécies vegetais. As características apresentadas pela interação entre este cupim e D. maritima, pela primeira vez descrita na literatura, permitem indicar esta relação ecológica como mutualismo facultativo. Inferimos que o conjunto de observações apresentado constitui um modelo temporal de crescimento deste mutualismo, cujas fases inicial e tardia estão descritas neste trabalho.The presence of colonies of C. silvestrii is common, both on the rock surface and at islands of vegetation. At Morro da Grota1 station, 92,0 % of the termite nests on rocky outcrops and at island of vegetation are associated with this bromeliad. These nests are associated with D. maritima, in 31,2 % of the islands where this bromeliad occurs. At these island communities, the comparison between the substrata where D. maritima occurs, the litolic Waldemar & Irgang: Mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii humic soil existing under the mantle of the moss Campylopus spp. and the substratum produced by termites indicates that this possesses higher levels of the nutrients P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Mn, CEC and higher fine particles content, mainly silt. The establishment of D. maritima rosettes on great termite nests increase their value of relative coverage at islands inside areas between 2,7 to 8,0 m². This fact is attributed to the improvement physical-chemistry of the substratum and the increase of surface and volume to be colonized for the Bromeliad. It provides for greater competitiveness at this species in relation to other vegetal species. The features presented for the interaction between this termite and D. maritima, for the first time described in literature, lead to the classification of this ecological relationship as facultative mutualism. The set of observations constitute a temporal model of development of this mutualism at island's vegetation, whose phases, initial and advanced are described.

Celso Copstein Waldemar; Bruno Edgar Irgang

2003-01-01

110

Cytotoxic and antimicrobial constituents of the bark of Diospyros maritima collected in two geographical locations in Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioactivity-directed fractionation of extracts of two Diospyros maritima bark samples from Indonesia,one collected at sea level in a beach forest in Java and the other collected at a slight elevation away from the sea shore on the island of Lombok, yielded a diverse set of secondary metabolites. The naphthoquinone plumbagin (1), although found in extracts of both specimens, constituted a much larger percentage of the former sample, which also yielded a series of plumbagin dimers, maritinone (2), chitranone (3), and zeylanone (4). The latter sample yielded a new naphthoquinone derivative, (4S)-shinanolone (5), and a new natural product coumarin, 7,8-dimethoxy-6-hydroxycoumarin (6), along with three other analogues of plumbagin, 2-methoxy-7-methyljuglone (7), 3-methoxy-7-methyljuglone (8), and 7-methyljuglone (9). The structures of compounds 5 and 6 were elaborated by physical, spectral, and chemical methods. All of the isolates were evaluated in both cytotoxicity and antimicrobial assays, and structure-activity relationships of these naphthoquinones are proposed. Plumbagin (1) and maritinone (2) were evaluated also for in vivo antitumor activity in the hollow fiber assay, but both were found to be inactive. PMID:15270571

Gu, Jian-Qiao; Graf, Tyler N; Lee, Dongho; Chai, Hee-Byung; Mi, Qiuwen; Kardono, Leonardus B S; Setyowati, Fransisca M; Ismail, Rachman; Riswan, Soedarsono; Farnsworth, Norman R; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Pezzuto, John M; Swanson, Steven M; Kroll, David J; Falkinham, Joseph O; Wall, Monroe E; Wani, Mansukh C; Kinghorn, A Douglas; Oberlies, Nicholas H

2004-07-01

111

Cytotoxic and antimicrobial constituents of the bark of Diospyros maritima collected in two geographical locations in Indonesia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bioactivity-directed fractionation of extracts of two Diospyros maritima bark samples from Indonesia,one collected at sea level in a beach forest in Java and the other collected at a slight elevation away from the sea shore on the island of Lombok, yielded a diverse set of secondary metabolites. The naphthoquinone plumbagin (1), although found in extracts of both specimens, constituted a much larger percentage of the former sample, which also yielded a series of plumbagin dimers, maritinone (2), chitranone (3), and zeylanone (4). The latter sample yielded a new naphthoquinone derivative, (4S)-shinanolone (5), and a new natural product coumarin, 7,8-dimethoxy-6-hydroxycoumarin (6), along with three other analogues of plumbagin, 2-methoxy-7-methyljuglone (7), 3-methoxy-7-methyljuglone (8), and 7-methyljuglone (9). The structures of compounds 5 and 6 were elaborated by physical, spectral, and chemical methods. All of the isolates were evaluated in both cytotoxicity and antimicrobial assays, and structure-activity relationships of these naphthoquinones are proposed. Plumbagin (1) and maritinone (2) were evaluated also for in vivo antitumor activity in the hollow fiber assay, but both were found to be inactive.

Gu JQ; Graf TN; Lee D; Chai HB; Mi Q; Kardono LB; Setyowati FM; Ismail R; Riswan S; Farnsworth NR; Cordell GA; Pezzuto JM; Swanson SM; Kroll DJ; Falkinham JO 3rd; Wall ME; Wani MC; Kinghorn AD; Oberlies NH

2004-07-01

112

The segmentation cascade in the centipede Strigamia maritima: involvement of the Notch pathway and pair-rule gene homologues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The centipede Strigamia maritima forms all of its segments during embryogenesis. Trunk segments form sequentially from an apparently undifferentiated disk of cells at the posterior of the germ band. We have previously described periodic patterns of gene expression in this posterior disc that precede overt differentiation of segments, and suggested that a segmentation oscillator may be operating in the posterior disc. We now show that genes of the Notch signalling pathway, including the ligand Delta, and homologues of the Drosophila pair-rule genes even-skipped and hairy, show periodic expression in the posterior disc, consistent with their involvement in, or regulation by, such an oscillator. These genes are expressed in a pattern of apparently expanding concentric rings around the proctodeum, which become stripes at the base of the germ band where segments are emerging. In this transition zone, these primary stripes define a double segment periodicity: segmental stripes of engrailed expression, which mark the posterior of each segment, arise at two different phases of the primary pattern. Delta and even-skipped are also activated in secondary stripes that intercalate between primary stripes in this region, further defining the single segment repeat. These data, together with observations that Notch mediated signalling is required for segment pattern formation in other arthropods, suggest that the ancestral arthropod segmentation cascade may have involved a segmentation oscillator that utilised Notch signalling. PMID:18455712

Chipman, Ariel D; Akam, Michael

2008-03-04

113

Proteomic and physiological responses of the halophyte Cakile maritima to moderate salinity at the germinative and vegetative stages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Responses of the halophyte Cakile maritima to moderate salinity were addressed at germination and vegetative stages by bringing together proteomics and eco-physiological approaches. 75 mM NaCl-salinity delayed significantly the germination process and decreased slightly the seed germination percentage compared to salt-free conditions. Monitoring the proteome profile between 0 h and 120 h after seed sowing revealed a delay in the degradation of seed storage proteins when germination took place under salinity, which may explain the slower germination rate observed. Of the sixty-seven proteins identified by mass spectrometry, several proteins involved in glycolysis, amino acid metabolism, photosynthesis, and protein folding showed significantly increased abundance during germination. This pattern was less pronounced under salinity. At the vegetative stage, 100mM NaCl-salinity stimulated significantly the plant growth, which was sustained by enhanced leaf expansion, water content, and photosynthetic activity. Comparative proteome analyses of leaf tissue revealed 44 proteins with different abundance changes, most of which being involved in energy metabolism. A specific set of proteins predominantly involved in photosynthesis and respiration showed significantly higher abundance in salt-treated plants. Altogether, combining proteomics with eco-physiological tools provides valuable information, which contributes to improve our understanding in the salt-response of this halophyte during its life cycle.

Debez A; Braun HP; Pich A; Taamalli W; Koyro HW; Abdelly C; Huchzermeyer B

2012-10-01

114

A novel alpha-D-galactosynthase from Thermotoga maritima converts beta-D-galactopyranosyl azide to alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The large-scale production of oligosaccharides is a daunting task, hampering the study of the role of glycans in vivo and the testing of the efficacy of novel glycan-based drugs. Glycosynthases, mutated glycosidases that synthesize oligosaccharides in high yields, are becoming important chemo-enzymatic tools for the production of oligosaccharides. However, while ?-glycosynthase can be produced with a rather well-established technology, examples of ?-glycosynthases are thus far limited only to enzymes from glycoside hydrolase 29 (GH29), GH31 and GH95 families. ?-L-Fucosynthases from GH29 use convenient glycosyl azide derivatives as a strategic alternative to glycosyl fluoride donors. However, the general applicability of this method to other ?-glycosynthases is not trivial and remains to be confirmed. Here, ?-D-galactopyranosyl azide was converted to ?-galacto-oligosaccharides with good yields and high regioselectivity, catalyzed by a novel ?-galactosynthase based on the GH36 ?-galactosidase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. These results open a new avenue to the practical synthesis of biologically interesting ?-galacto-oligosaccharides and demonstrate more widespread use of ?-glycosyl-azide as donors, confirming their utility to expand the repertoire of glycosynthases.

Cobucci-Ponzano B; Zorzetti C; Strazzulli A; Carillo S; Bedini E; Corsaro MM; Comfort DA; Kelly RM; Rossi M; Moracci M

2011-04-01

115

Diverse substrate recognition mechanism revealed by Thermotoga maritima Cel5A structures in complex with cellotetraose, cellobiose and mannotriose.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The hyperthermophilic endoglucanase Cel5A from Thermotoga maritima can find applications in lignocellulosic biofuel production, because it catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucan- and mannan-based polysaccharides. Here, we report the crystal structures in apo-form and in complex with three ligands, cellotetraose, cellobiose and mannotriose, at 1.29Å to 2.40Å resolution. The open carbohydrate-binding cavity which can accommodate oligosaccharide substrates with extensively branched chains explained the dual specificity of the enzyme. Combining our structural information and the previous kinetic data, it is suggested that this enzyme prefers ?-glucosyl and ?-mannosyl moieties at the reducing end and uses two conserved catalytic residues, E253 (nucleophile) and E136 (general acid/base), to hydrolyze the glycosidic bonds. Moreover, our results also suggest that the wide spectrum of Tm_Cel5A substrates might be due to the lack of steric hindrance around the C2-hydroxyl group of the glucose or mannose unit from active-site residues.

Wu TH; Huang CH; Ko TP; Lai HL; Ma Y; Chen CC; Cheng YS; Liu JR; Guo RT

2011-12-01

116

Growth habit and mechanical architecture of the sand dune-adapted climber Clematis flammula var. maritima L.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clematis flammula var. maritima is a woody lianoid plant that grows on coastal sand dunes in the Mediterranean region. Older perennial stems are present as extensive underground axes. These generate surface growth of shorter-lived stems producing monospecific trellises above the surface of the sand. Despite its sand dune habitat and shortage of host support plants, this variety of Clematis shows mechanical characteristics during growth that are closely comparable with those of scandent woody lianas. A significant decrease in the value of structural Young's modulus is observed from the aerial trellis-forming shoots (1.619 +/- 0.492 GN m(-2)) to emergent axes (0.855 +/- 0.253 GN m(-2)) and underground woody stems (0.470 +/- 0.113 GN m(-2)). Biomechanical and developmental observations indicate that most emergent branches are optimized geometrically and mechanically in relation to their points of emergence from the sand, with increases in structural Young's modulus and the second moment of area around the surface of the sand. Lianoid plants, physiologically capable of withstanding sand dune environments, might represent acceptable natural or introduced species for dune stabilization and conservation.

Isnard S; Rowe N; Speck T

2003-03-01

117

Amino acid transport in thermophiles: characterization of an arginine-binding protein from Thermotoga maritima. 3. Conformational dynamics and stability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arginine-binding protein from Thermotoga maritima (TmArgBP) is a 27.7 kDa protein possessing the typical two domain structure of the periplasmic binding protein family. The protein is characterized by high specificity and affinity for binding a single molecule of l-arginine. In this work, the effect of temperature and/or guanidine hydrochloride on structure and stability of the protein in the absence and in the presence of l-arginine has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, far-UV circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan phosphorescence and fluorescence. The results revealed that TmArgBP undergoes an irreversible one-step thermal unfolding process in a cooperative mode. The TmArgBP melting temperature was recorded at 115 °C. The presence of l-arginine did not change the protein secondary structure content as well as the intrinsic phosphorescence and fluorescence protein properties, even if it increases the structural stability of the protein. The obtained results are discussed in combination with a detailed inspection of the three-dimensional structure of the protein. PMID:23232322

Ausili, A; Pennacchio, A; Staiano, M; Dattelbaum, J D; Fessas, D; Schiraldi, A; D'Auria, S

2012-11-29

118

Hippea maritima gen. nov., sp. nov., a new genus of thermophilic, sulfur-reducing bacterium from submarine hot vents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three strains of moderately thermophilic, sulfur-reducing bacteria were isolated from shallow-water hot vents of the Bay of Plenty (New Zealand) and Matupi Harbour (Papua New Guinea). Cells of all isolates were short, Gram-negative, motile rods with one polar flagellum. All strains were obligate anaerobes and grew optimally at pH 5.8-6.2, 52-54 degrees C and 2.5-3% (w/v) NaCl. Growth substrates were molecular hydrogen, acetate and saturated fatty acids; one of the strains, isolated from Matupi Harbour, was able to utilize ethanol. Elemental sulfur was required for growth. H2S and CO2 were the only growth products. No growth occurred in the absence of 100 mg yeast extract I-1. The G+C content of the DNA determined for the type strain MH2T was 40.4 mol%. Results of 16S rDNA sequencing indicated that these strains represent a distinct lineage most closely related to the genus Desulfurella. On the basis of the results of morphological, physiological and phylogenetic studies, a new genus, Hippea gen. nov., is proposed with the type species Hippea maritima gen. nov., sp. nov., of which the type strain is MH2T (= DSM 10411T).

Miroshnichenko ML; Rainey FA; Rhode M; Bonch-Osmolovskaya EA

1999-07-01

119

Nutritional and biological qualities of the ripened beans of Canavalia maritima from the coastal sand dunes of India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Raw and pressure-cooked ripened beans of Canavalia maritima were assessed for nutritional quality. The beans possess high protein, carbohydrate, fiber and energy contents. Potassium, magnesium, zinc and manganese of the raw and cooked beans meet NRC/NAS recommended pattern for infants. The essential amino acids (threonine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine/phenylalanine and lysine) in raw and cooked ripened beans fulfill the FAO/WHO/UNU recommended pattern for adults. Oleic acid in raw beans and linolenic acid in cooked beans were highest and linoleic and arachidonic acids were confined to raw beans. Cooking lowered the total phenolics, while tannins were negligible and devoid of orthodihydric phenols and trypsin inhibitors. Hemagglutinating activity decreased up to 50% in cooked beans. Rats fed with a pressure-cooked bean diet showed significant elevation of all growth and nitrogen balance parameters (P<0.05) than the rats which received the raw bean diet. The low protein quality of beans warrants appropriate thermal processing to eliminate antinutritional factors.

Bhagya B; Sridhar KR; Raviraja NS; Young CC; Arun AB

2009-01-01

120

Accuracy of replication in the polymerase chain reaction. Comparison between Thermotoga maritima DNA polymerase and Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase  

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Full Text Available For certain applications of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), it may be necessary to consider the accuracy of replication. The breakthrough that made PCR user friendly was the commercialization of Thermus aquaticus (Taq) DNA polymerase, an enzyme that would survive the high temperatures needed for DNA denaturation. The development of enzymes with an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease proofreading activity, lacking in Taq polymerase, would be an improvement when higher fidelity is needed. We used the forward mutation assay to compare the fidelity of Taq polymerase and Thermotoga maritima (ULTMA™) DNA polymerase, an enzyme that does have proofreading activity. We did not find significant differences in the fidelity of either enzyme, even when using optimal buffer conditions, thermal cycling parameters, and number of cycles (0.2% and 0.13% error rates for ULTMA™ and Taq, respectively, after reading about 3,000 bases each). We conclude that for sequencing purposes there is no difference in using a DNA polymerase that contains an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease activity for DNA amplification. Perhaps the specificity and fidelity of PCR are complex issues influenced by the nature of the target sequence, as well as by each PCR component.

R.S. Diaz; E.C. Sabino

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Accuracy of replication in the polymerase chain reaction. Comparison between Thermotoga maritima DNA polymerase and Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For certain applications of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), it may be necessary to consider the accuracy of replication. The breakthrough that made PCR user friendly was the commercialization of Thermus aquaticus (Taq) DNA polymerase, an enzyme that would survive the high temperatures needed for DNA denaturation. The development of enzymes with an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease proofreading activity, lacking in Taq polymerase, would be an improvement when higher fidelity is needed. We used the forward mutation assay to compare the fidelity of Taq polymerase and Thermotoga maritima (ULTMA?) DNA polymerase, an enzyme that does have proofreading activity. We did not find significant differences in the fidelity of either enzyme, even when using optimal buffer conditions, thermal cycling parameters, and number of cycles (0.2% and 0.13% error rates for ULTMA? and Taq, respectively, after reading about 3,000 bases each). We conclude that for sequencing purposes there is no difference in using a DNA polymerase that contains an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease activity for DNA amplification. Perhaps the specificity and fidelity of PCR are complex issues influenced by the nature of the target sequence, as well as by each PCR component.

Diaz R.S.; Sabino E.C.

1998-01-01

122

Accuracy of replication in the polymerase chain reaction. Comparison between Thermotoga maritima DNA polymerase and Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english For certain applications of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), it may be necessary to consider the accuracy of replication. The breakthrough that made PCR user friendly was the commercialization of Thermus aquaticus (Taq) DNA polymerase, an enzyme that would survive the high temperatures needed for DNA denaturation. The development of enzymes with an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease proofreading activity, lacking in Taq polymerase, would be an improvement when higher fidel (more) ity is needed. We used the forward mutation assay to compare the fidelity of Taq polymerase and Thermotoga maritima (ULTMA?) DNA polymerase, an enzyme that does have proofreading activity. We did not find significant differences in the fidelity of either enzyme, even when using optimal buffer conditions, thermal cycling parameters, and number of cycles (0.2% and 0.13% error rates for ULTMA? and Taq, respectively, after reading about 3,000 bases each). We conclude that for sequencing purposes there is no difference in using a DNA polymerase that contains an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease activity for DNA amplification. Perhaps the specificity and fidelity of PCR are complex issues influenced by the nature of the target sequence, as well as by each PCR component.

Diaz, R.S.; Sabino, E.C.

1998-10-01

123

The Structural Basis of Alpha-Glucan Recognition by a Family 41 Carbohydrate-Binding Module from Therotoga Maritima  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Starch recognition by carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) is important for the activity of starch-degrading enzymes. The N-terminal family 41 CBM, TmCBM41 (from pullulanase PulA secreted by Thermotoga maritima) was shown to have {alpha}-glucan binding activity with specificity for {alpha}-1, 4-glucans but was able to tolerate the {alpha}-1, 6-linkages found roughly every three or four glucose units in pullulan. Using X-ray crystallography, the structures were solved for TmCBM41 in an uncomplexed form and in complex with maltotetraose and 63-{alpha}-d-glucosyl-maltotriose (GM3). Ligand binding was facilitated by stacking interactions between the {alpha}-faces of the glucose residues and two tryptophan side-chains in the two main subsites of the carbohydrate-binding site. Overall, this mode of starch binding is quite well conserved by other starch-binding modules. The structure in complex with GM3 revealed a third binding subsite with the flexibility to accommodate an {alpha}-1, 4- or an {alpha}-1, 6-linked glucose.

van Bueren,A.; Boraston, A.

2006-01-01

124

In planta differential targeting analysis of Thermotoga maritima Cel5A and CBM6-engineered Cel5A for autohydrolysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The heterologous expression of glycosyl hydrolases in bioenergy crops can improve the lignocellulosic conversion process for ethanol production. We attempted to obtain high-level expression of an intact Thermotoga maritima endoglucanase, Cel5A, and CBM6-engineered Cel5A in transgenic tobacco plants for the mass production and autohydrolysis of endoglucanase. Cel5A expression was targeted to different subcellular compartments, namely, the cytosol, apoplast, and chloroplast, using the native form of the pathogenesis-related protein 1a (PR1a) and Rubisco activase (RA) transit peptides. Cel5A transgenic tobacco plants with the chloroplast transit peptide showed the highest average endoglucanase activity and protein accumulation up to 4.5% total soluble protein. Cel5A-CBM6 was targeted to the chloroplast and accumulated up to 5.2% total soluble protein. In terms of the direct conversion of plant tissue into free sugar, the Cel5A-CBM6 transgenic plant was 33% more efficient than the Cel5A transgenic plant. The protein stability of Cel5A and Cel5A-CBM6 in lyophilized leaf material is an additional advantage in the bioconversion process. PMID:21152978

Mahadevan, Shobana Arumugam; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Yeon Ok; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

2010-12-09

125

In planta differential targeting analysis of Thermotoga maritima Cel5A and CBM6-engineered Cel5A for autohydrolysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The heterologous expression of glycosyl hydrolases in bioenergy crops can improve the lignocellulosic conversion process for ethanol production. We attempted to obtain high-level expression of an intact Thermotoga maritima endoglucanase, Cel5A, and CBM6-engineered Cel5A in transgenic tobacco plants for the mass production and autohydrolysis of endoglucanase. Cel5A expression was targeted to different subcellular compartments, namely, the cytosol, apoplast, and chloroplast, using the native form of the pathogenesis-related protein 1a (PR1a) and Rubisco activase (RA) transit peptides. Cel5A transgenic tobacco plants with the chloroplast transit peptide showed the highest average endoglucanase activity and protein accumulation up to 4.5% total soluble protein. Cel5A-CBM6 was targeted to the chloroplast and accumulated up to 5.2% total soluble protein. In terms of the direct conversion of plant tissue into free sugar, the Cel5A-CBM6 transgenic plant was 33% more efficient than the Cel5A transgenic plant. The protein stability of Cel5A and Cel5A-CBM6 in lyophilized leaf material is an additional advantage in the bioconversion process.

Mahadevan SA; Wi SG; Kim YO; Lee KH; Bae HJ

2011-08-01

126

Stationary Phase and Nutrient Levels Trigger Transcription of a Genomic Locus Containing a Novel Peptide (TM1316) in the Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga maritima.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima encodes numerous putative peptides/proteins of 100 amino acids or less. While most of these open reading frames (ORFs) are transcribed during growth, their corresponding physiological roles are largely unknown. The onset of stationary phase in T. maritima was accompanied by significant morphological changes and upregulation of several ORFs located in the TM1298-TM1336 genome locus. This region contains putative HicAB toxin-antitoxin pairs, hypothetical proteins, radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes, and ABC transporters. Of particular note was the TM1315-TM1319 operon, which includes a putative 31-amino-acid peptide (TM1316) that was the most highly transcribed gene in the transcriptome during stationary phase. Antibodies directed against a synthetic version of TM1316 were used to track its production, which correlated closely with transcriptomic data. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that TM1316 was localized to the cell envelope and prominent in cell aggregates formed during stationary phase. The only functionally characterized locus with an organization similar to that of TM1315-TM1319 is in Bacillus subtilis, which contains subtilosin A, a cyclic peptide with Cys-to-?-carbon linkages that functions as an antilisterial bacteriocin. While the organization of TM1316 resembled that of the Bacillus peptide (e.g., in its number of amino acids and spacing of Cys residues), preparations containing high levels of TM1316 affected the growth of neither Thermotoga species nor Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated from the same locale as T. maritima. Several other putative Cys-rich peptides could be identified in the TM1298-TM1336 locus, and while their roles are also unclear, they merit examination as potential antimicrobial agents in hyperthermophilic biotopes. PMID:23974142

Frock, Andrew D; Montero, Clemente I; Blumer-Schuette, Sara E; Kelly, Robert M

2013-08-23

127

Stationary Phase and Nutrient Levels Trigger Transcription of a Genomic Locus Containing a Novel Peptide (TM1316) in the Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga maritima.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima encodes numerous putative peptides/proteins of 100 amino acids or less. While most of these open reading frames (ORFs) are transcribed during growth, their corresponding physiological roles are largely unknown. The onset of stationary phase in T. maritima was accompanied by significant morphological changes and upregulation of several ORFs located in the TM1298-TM1336 genome locus. This region contains putative HicAB toxin-antitoxin pairs, hypothetical proteins, radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes, and ABC transporters. Of particular note was the TM1315-TM1319 operon, which includes a putative 31-amino-acid peptide (TM1316) that was the most highly transcribed gene in the transcriptome during stationary phase. Antibodies directed against a synthetic version of TM1316 were used to track its production, which correlated closely with transcriptomic data. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that TM1316 was localized to the cell envelope and prominent in cell aggregates formed during stationary phase. The only functionally characterized locus with an organization similar to that of TM1315-TM1319 is in Bacillus subtilis, which contains subtilosin A, a cyclic peptide with Cys-to-?-carbon linkages that functions as an antilisterial bacteriocin. While the organization of TM1316 resembled that of the Bacillus peptide (e.g., in its number of amino acids and spacing of Cys residues), preparations containing high levels of TM1316 affected the growth of neither Thermotoga species nor Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated from the same locale as T. maritima. Several other putative Cys-rich peptides could be identified in the TM1298-TM1336 locus, and while their roles are also unclear, they merit examination as potential antimicrobial agents in hyperthermophilic biotopes.

Frock AD; Montero CI; Blumer-Schuette SE; Kelly RM

2013-11-01

128

Thermotoga maritima-Escherichia coli chimeric topoisomerases. Answers about involvement of the carboxyl-terminal domain in DNA topoisomerase I-mediated catalysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial topoisomerases I are generally composed of two domains as follows: a core domain, which contains all the conserved motifs involved in the trans-esterification reactions, and a carboxyl-terminal domain, highly variable in size and sequence. In the present work, we have addressed the question of the respective roles of the two domains in the different steps of the topoisomerization cycle. For this purpose, we prepared various recombinant topoisomerases from two model enzymes: topoisomerase I from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima and topoisomerase I from Escherichia coli. We compared the properties of the two core domains to that of the topoisomerases formed by combining the core domain of one enzyme to the carboxyl-terminal domain of the other. We found that, contrary to E. coli (Lima, C. D., Wang, J. C., and Mondragon, A. (1993) J. Mol. Biol. 232, 1213-1216), the core domain from T. maritima (TmTop65) is able to sustain by itself a complete topoisomerization cycle, although with low efficiency. Fusion of TmTop65 to the entire carboxyl-terminal domain from E. coli considerably increases binding efficiency, thermal stability, and DNA relaxation activity. Moreover, the chimera predominantly acquires the cleavage specificity of E. coli full-length topoisomerase. For the chimera obtained by fusion of the T. maritima carboxyl-terminal domain to the core EcTop67, very low DNA relaxation activity and binding are recovered, but formation of a covalent DNA adduct is impaired. Taken together, our results show that the presence and the nature of the carboxyl-terminal domain of bacterial topoisomerases I strongly determine their DNA binding efficiency and cleavage specificity but is not strictly required for strand passage. PMID:15140883

Viard, Thierry; Cossard, Raynald; Duguet, Michel; de La Tour, Claire Bouthier

2004-05-11

129

Thermotoga maritima-Escherichia coli chimeric topoisomerases. Answers about involvement of the carboxyl-terminal domain in DNA topoisomerase I-mediated catalysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bacterial topoisomerases I are generally composed of two domains as follows: a core domain, which contains all the conserved motifs involved in the trans-esterification reactions, and a carboxyl-terminal domain, highly variable in size and sequence. In the present work, we have addressed the question of the respective roles of the two domains in the different steps of the topoisomerization cycle. For this purpose, we prepared various recombinant topoisomerases from two model enzymes: topoisomerase I from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima and topoisomerase I from Escherichia coli. We compared the properties of the two core domains to that of the topoisomerases formed by combining the core domain of one enzyme to the carboxyl-terminal domain of the other. We found that, contrary to E. coli (Lima, C. D., Wang, J. C., and Mondragon, A. (1993) J. Mol. Biol. 232, 1213-1216), the core domain from T. maritima (TmTop65) is able to sustain by itself a complete topoisomerization cycle, although with low efficiency. Fusion of TmTop65 to the entire carboxyl-terminal domain from E. coli considerably increases binding efficiency, thermal stability, and DNA relaxation activity. Moreover, the chimera predominantly acquires the cleavage specificity of E. coli full-length topoisomerase. For the chimera obtained by fusion of the T. maritima carboxyl-terminal domain to the core EcTop67, very low DNA relaxation activity and binding are recovered, but formation of a covalent DNA adduct is impaired. Taken together, our results show that the presence and the nature of the carboxyl-terminal domain of bacterial topoisomerases I strongly determine their DNA binding efficiency and cleavage specificity but is not strictly required for strand passage.

Viard T; Cossard R; Duguet M; de La Tour CB

2004-07-01

130

Stationary phase and nutrient levels trigger transcription of a genomic locus containing a novel peptide (TM1316) in the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima encodes numerous putative peptides/proteins of 100 amino acids or less. While most of these ORFs are transcribed during growth, their corresponding physiological roles are largely unknown. The onset of stationary phase in T. maritima was accompanied by significant morphological changes and up-regulation of several ORFs encoded in the TM1298-1336 genome locus. This region contains putative HicAB toxin/antitoxin pairs, hypothetical proteins, radical SAM enzymes, and ABC transporters. Of particular note was the TM1315-1319 operon, which includes a putative 31-amino acid peptide (TM1316) that was the most highly transcribed gene in the transcriptome during stationary phase. Antibodies directed against a synthetic version of TM1316 were used to track its production, which correlated closely with transcriptomic data. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that TM1316 was localized to the cell envelope and prominent in cell aggregates formed during stationary phase. The only functionally characterized locus with similar organization to the TM1315-1319 is in Bacillus subtilis, which contains subtilosin A, a cyclic peptide with Cys to ?-carbon linkages that functions as an anti-listerial bacteriocin. While the organization of TM1316 resembled the Bacillus peptide (e.g., number of amino acids, spacing of Cys residues), preparations containing high levels of TM1316 affected neither the growth of Thermotoga species nor Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated from the same locale as T. maritima. Several other putative Cys-rich, peptides could be identified in the TM1298-1336 locus, and, while their roles are also unclear, they merit examination as potential anti-microbial agents in hyperthermophilic biotopes.

Frock AD; Montero CI; Blumer-Schuette S; Kelly RM

2013-08-01

131

Seed characteristics and dispersal of dimorphic fruit segments of Cakile maritima Scopoli (Brassicaceae) population of southern Brazilian coastal dunes Características das sementes e dispersão dos segmentos de frutos dimórficos de uma população de Cakile maritima Scopoli (Brassicaceae) nas dunas costeiras do Sul do Brasil  

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Full Text Available Cakile maritima occurs sporadically along the southern Brazilian coast, where it is restricted to more protected sites at the base of foredunes. Somatic dimorphism in C. maritima is manifested as morphologically distinct upper and lower fruit segments (silicules). The two morphs were tested for differences in size, number of seeds, dispersal ability and natural establishment. In the C. maritima population of southern Brazil, the lower silicule has more seeds than upper silicule, and lower seeds are more likely to abort than the upper ones. Seeds from upper segments were significantly larger than those from lower ones; however, their mass ranges overlap. The mean silicule mass was not significantly different from both segments, but the silicule/seed mass ratio from upper and lower segments was significantly different. Both segments had high ability to float in sea water, more than 50% were still afloat after 70 days. Nevertheless, dispersal occurs mainly to landward due to dominant wind action. Most of the seedlings were restricted to within a one-metre radius of the mother plant, and were principally derived from lower fruit segments.Cakile maritima ocorre esporadicamente ao longo da costa Sul do Brasil, onde é encontrada restrita aos locais mais protegidos na base das dunas frontais. O dimorfismo somático é manifestado como segmentos de frutos (silículas) superior e inferior, morfologicamente distintos. As sementes dos dois tipos de segmentos foram avaliadas quanto ao tamanho, número, capacidade de dispersão e estabelecimento em condições naturais. Na população de C. maritima no Sul do Brasil as silículas inferiores apresentaram maior número de sementes do que as siliculas superiores, e as sementes das silículas inferiores foram mais abortadas que as das superiores. As sementes dos segmentos superiores foram significativamente maiores do que aquelas dos segmentos inferiores; entretanto ocorreu uma sobreposição nos pesos entre elas. O peso médio das silículas dos dois segmentos não difere significativamente, mas a razão peso das silículas / peso das sementes foi significativamente diferente para os segmentos superior e inferior. Ambos segmentos apresentaram grande habilidade de flutuar em água salgada, superior a 50% após 70 dias. Todavia, a dispersão dos segmentos dos frutos ocorre principalmente em direção ao continente através da ação do vento. A maioria das plântulas encontradas no ambiente natural se encontrava restrita num raio de um metro da planta-mãe, e era originada principalmente de sementes dos segmentos inferiores dos frutos.

César Vieira Cordazzo

2006-01-01

132

Constitutive high-level expression of a codon-optimized ?-fructosidase gene from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima in Pichia pastoris.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Enzymes for use in the sugar industry are preferred to be thermotolerant. In this study, a synthetic codon-optimized gene encoding a highly thermostable ?-fructosidase (BfrA, EC 3.2.1.26) from the bacterium Thermotoga maritima was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The gradual increase of the transgene dosage from one to four copies under the control of the constitutive glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter had an additive effect on BfrA yield without causing cell toxicity. Maximal values of cell biomass (115 g/l, dry weight) and overall invertase activity (241 U/ml) were reached at 72 h in fed-batch fermentations using cane sugar as the main carbon source for growth. Secretion driven by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-factor signal peptide resulted in periplasmic retention (44 %) and extracellular release (56 %) of BfrA. The presence of N-linked oligosaccharides did not influence the optimal activity, thermal stability, kinetic properties, substrate specificity, and exo-type action mode of the yeast-secreted BfrA in comparison to the native unglycosylated enzyme. Complete inversion of cane sugar at initial concentration of 60 % (w/v) was achieved by periplasmic BfrA in undisrupted cells reacting at pH 5.5 and 70 °C, with average productivity of 4.4 g of substrate hydrolyzed per grams of biomass (wet weight) per hour. The high yield of fully active glycosylated BfrA here attained by recombinant P. pastoris in a low-cost fermentation process appears to be attractive for the large-scale production of this thermostable enzyme useful for the manufacture of inverted sugar syrup.

Menéndez C; Martínez D; Trujillo LE; Mazola Y; González E; Pérez ER; Hernández L

2013-02-01

133

Directed evolution of the alpha-L-fucosidase from Thermotoga maritima into an alpha-L-transfucosidase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The alpha-L-fucosidase from Thermotoga maritima (Tm alpha fuc) was converted into alpha-L-transfucosidase variants by directed evolution. The wild-type enzyme catalyzes oligosaccharide synthesis by transfer of a fucosyl residue from a pNP-fucoside donor to pNP-fucoside (self-condensation) with alpha-(1-->3) regioselectivity or pNP-galactoside (transglycosylation) with alpha-(1-->2) regioselectivity at low yields (7%). The wild-type enzyme was submitted to one cycle of mutagenesis, followed by rational recombination of the selected mutations, which allowed identification of variants with improved transferase activity. The transferase and hydrolytic kinetics of all the mutants were assessed by NMR methods and capillary electrophoresis. It was shown that the best mutant exhibited a dramatic 32-fold increase in the transferase/hydrolytic kinetic ratio, while keeping 60% of the overall wild-type enzyme activity. Accordingly, the maximum yield of a specific transglycosylation product [pNP-Gal-alpha-(1-->2)-Fuc] reached more than 60% compared to 7% with WT enzyme at equimolar and low concentrations of donor and acceptor (10 mM). Such an improvement was obtained with only three mutations (T264A, Y267F, L322P), which were all located in the second amino acid shell of the fucosidase active site. Molecular modeling suggested that some of these mutations (T264A, Y267F) cause a reorientation of the amino acids that are in direct contact with the substrates, resulting in a better docking energy. Such mutants with high transglycosidase activity may constitute novel enzymatic tools for the synthesis of fucooligosaccharides. PMID:17240986

Osanjo, George; Dion, Michel; Drone, Jullien; Solleux, Claude; Tran, Vinh; Rabiller, Claude; Tellier, Charles

2007-01-30

134

Genetic structure of coastal and inland populations of the annual halophyte Suaeda maritima (L.) dumort. in Central Europe, inferred from amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Naturally occurring inland salt habitats are highly threatened due to increasing fragmentation and area reduction, while the surroundings of former potash mining dumps have experienced a massive invasion by halophytes over the last 20 years. We reconstructed colonisation patterns of these purely anthropogenic inland salt sites using molecular markers in the obligate halophyte Suaeda maritima (L.) dumort. (Chenopodiaceae), a typical plant in such areas. In the present study, 120 individual plants from 40 coastal and inland populations in Central Europe were subjected to AFLP analysis with nine primer combinations. A total of 243 AFLP band positions were scored as presence/absence characters. Genetic diversity values were not significantly different in populations from natural and anthropogenic inland salt sites as compared to coastal habitats. Results from principal coordinate analysis, neighbour-joining analysis and analysis of molecular variance (amova) all indicated that most of the genetic variation is preserved within populations, while genetic differentiation among populations is comparatively low. We conclude that S. maritima has repeatedly and independently colonised the surroundings of former potash mining dumps in Central Germany. However, the absence of founder effects and the lack of phylogeographic structure prevented us from identifying putative donor populations.

Prinz K; Weising K; Hensen I

2009-11-01

135

Historical biogeography in a linear system: genetic variation of sea rocket (Cakile maritima) and sea holly (Eryngium maritimum) along European coasts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The exclusively coastal Cakile maritima and Eryngium maritimum represent a linear biogeographical system. Genetic variation among 25 individuals of C. maritima and 16 individuals of E. maritimum, from the coasts of Europe, North Africa and the Canary Islands, was analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) and intersimple sequence repeats (ISSRs). Genetic distances (Dice) were calculated and used to investigate the correlation between genetic and geographical distances, to construct Neighbour Joining (NJ) trees, and to compare mean genetic distances between areas within and across species. Genetic distances and geographical distances measured along the coast are well correlated in Cakile and Eryngium. This implies that dispersal in both species is largely along the coast. The NJ analyses resulted in the recognition of Atlantic and Mediterranean clusters in both Cakile and Eryngium. The genetic distance between these two clusters is much larger in Eryngium (0. 285) than in Cakile (0.037). Mean genetic distances are substantially higher in the Mediterranean than in the Atlantic clusters in both species, and higher in Cakile than in Eryngium particularly in the Atlantic cluster. It is argued that all similarities and differences between the two species can be explained with the presumed distribution of the two species in the Würm glacial as reconstructed from their extant temperature requirements, the distribution of ice cover, permafrost, and sea surface temperatures in that period, and indirect fossil evidence.

Clausing G; Vickers K; Kadereit JW

2000-11-01

136

Historical biogeography in a linear system: genetic variation of sea rocket (Cakile maritima) and sea holly (Eryngium maritimum) along European coasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The exclusively coastal Cakile maritima and Eryngium maritimum represent a linear biogeographical system. Genetic variation among 25 individuals of C. maritima and 16 individuals of E. maritimum, from the coasts of Europe, North Africa and the Canary Islands, was analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) and intersimple sequence repeats (ISSRs). Genetic distances (Dice) were calculated and used to investigate the correlation between genetic and geographical distances, to construct Neighbour Joining (NJ) trees, and to compare mean genetic distances between areas within and across species. Genetic distances and geographical distances measured along the coast are well correlated in Cakile and Eryngium. This implies that dispersal in both species is largely along the coast. The NJ analyses resulted in the recognition of Atlantic and Mediterranean clusters in both Cakile and Eryngium. The genetic distance between these two clusters is much larger in Eryngium (0. 285) than in Cakile (0.037). Mean genetic distances are substantially higher in the Mediterranean than in the Atlantic clusters in both species, and higher in Cakile than in Eryngium particularly in the Atlantic cluster. It is argued that all similarities and differences between the two species can be explained with the presumed distribution of the two species in the Würm glacial as reconstructed from their extant temperature requirements, the distribution of ice cover, permafrost, and sea surface temperatures in that period, and indirect fossil evidence. PMID:11091318

Clausing, G; Vickers, K; Kadereit, J W

2000-11-01

137

The traditional medical uses and cytotoxic activities of sixty-one Egyptian plants: discovery of an active cardiac glycoside from Urginea maritima.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Medicinal plants from the Sinai desert are widely used in traditional Bedouin medicine to treat a range of conditions including, cancers, and may thus be useful sources of novel anti-tumor compounds. Information on plants used in this way was obtained through collaboration with Bedouin herbalists. AIM OF THE STUDY: To document the traditional uses of 61 species from 29 families of Egyptian medicinal plants and to investigate their biological activity using a cytotoxicity assay. MATERIAL AND METHODS: MeOH extracts of the 61 plant species investigated were dissolved in 10% DMSO and their cytotoxic activity was evaluated. The extracts were tested in duplicate on three separate occasions at three different concentrations (1, 10 and 100?g/ml) against human lymphoma U-937 GTB. The most active extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation using HPLC and LC/ESI-MS to isolate and identify its active components. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The most potent extracts were those from Asclepias sinaica, Urginea maritima, Nerium oleander and Catharanthus roseus, followed by those from Cichorium endivia, Pulicaria undulate and Melia azedarach. Literature reports indicate that several of these plants produce cardiac glycosides. Bioassay-guided fractionation of alcoholic U. maritima extracts led to the isolation of a bioactive bufadienolide that was subsequently shown to be proscillaridin A, as determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. This result demonstrates the value of plants used in traditional medicine as sources of medicinally interesting cytotoxic compounds.

El-Seedi HR; Burman R; Mansour A; Turki Z; Boulos L; Gullbo J; Göransson U

2013-02-01

138

Crystal structure of a lectin from Canavalia maritima (ConM) in complex with trehalose and maltose reveals relevant mutation in ConA-like lectins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The crystal structure of Canavalia maritima lectin (ConM) complexed with trehalose and maltose revealed relevant point mutations in ConA-like lectins. ConM with the disaccharides and other ConA-like lectins complexed with carbohydrates demonstrated significant differences in the position of H-bonds. The main difference in the ConM structure is the replacement of Pro202 by Ser202, a residue that promotes the approximation of Tyr12 to the carbohydrate-binding site. The O-6' of the second glucose ring in maltose interacts with Tyr12, while in trehalose the interaction is established by the O-2' and Tyr12, explaining the higher affinity of ConM for disaccharides compared to monosaccharides.

Delatorre P; Rocha BA; Gadelha CA; Santi-Gadelha T; Cajazeiras JB; Souza EP; Nascimento KS; Freire VN; Sampaio AH; Azevedo WF Jr; Cavada BS

2006-06-01

139

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the putative ABC transporter ATP-binding protein from Thermotoga maritima  

Science.gov (United States)

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are ATP hydrolysis-dependent transmembrane transporters. Here, the overproduction, purification and crystallization of the putative ABC transporter ATP-binding protein TM0222 from Thermotoga maritima are reported. The protein was crystallized in the hexagonal space group P6422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 148.49, c = 106.96?Å, ? = 120.0°. Assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the calculated V M is 2.84?Å3?Da?1, which corresponds to a solvent content of 56.6%. A three-wavelength MAD data set was collected to 2.3?Å resolution from SeMet-substituted TM0222 crystals. Data sets were collected on the BL38B1 beamline at SPring-8, Japan.

Ethayathulla, Abdul S.; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Shinkai, Akeo; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Singh, Tej P.; Kaur, Punit; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

2008-01-01

140

Urginea maritima (squill) toxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 55 year-old female ingested two bulbs of Urginea maritime (squill) plant as a folk remedy for her arthritic pains. Her past history was significant for Hashimoto thyroiditis and she was hypothyroid upon presentation. Subsequent effects resembling those seen with cardiac glycoside intoxication included nausea, vomiting, seizures, hyperkalemia, atrioventricular block and ventricular arrhythmias resembling digitalis toxicity. A serum digoxin level by an enzyme immunoassay method was 1.59 ng/mL. Despite supportive treatment and pacing, the patient expired from ventricular arrhythmias 30 h after ingestion. Squill has been recognized since antiquity for the clinical toxicity of its cardiac glycosides, but this appears to be the first report of a fatality since 1966. PMID:7837318

Tuncok, Y; Kozan, O; Cavdar, C; Guven, H; Fowler, J

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Urginea maritima (squill) toxicity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 55 year-old female ingested two bulbs of Urginea maritime (squill) plant as a folk remedy for her arthritic pains. Her past history was significant for Hashimoto thyroiditis and she was hypothyroid upon presentation. Subsequent effects resembling those seen with cardiac glycoside intoxication included nausea, vomiting, seizures, hyperkalemia, atrioventricular block and ventricular arrhythmias resembling digitalis toxicity. A serum digoxin level by an enzyme immunoassay method was 1.59 ng/mL. Despite supportive treatment and pacing, the patient expired from ventricular arrhythmias 30 h after ingestion. Squill has been recognized since antiquity for the clinical toxicity of its cardiac glycosides, but this appears to be the first report of a fatality since 1966.

Tuncok Y; Kozan O; Cavdar C; Guven H; Fowler J

1995-01-01

142

Structural Analysis of Semi-specific Oligosaccharide Recognition by a Cellulose-binding Protein of Thermotoga maritima Reveals Adaptations for Functional Diversification of the Oligopeptide Periplasmic Binding Protein Fold  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) constitute a protein superfamily that binds a wide variety of ligands. In prokaryotes, PBPs function as receptors for ATP-binding cassette or tripartite ATP-independent transporters and chemotaxis systems. In many instances, PBPs bind their cognate ligands with exquisite specificity, distinguishing, for example, between sugar epimers or structurally similar anions. By contrast, oligopeptide-binding proteins bind their ligands through interactions with the peptide backbone but do not distinguish between different side chains. The extremophile Thermotoga maritima possesses a remarkable array of carbohydrate-processing metabolic systems, including the hydrolysis of cellulosic polymers. Here, we present the crystal structure of a T. maritima cellobiose-binding protein (tm0031) that is homologous to oligopeptide-binding proteins. T. maritima cellobiose-binding protein binds a variety of lengths of {beta}(1 {yields} 4)-linked glucose oligomers, ranging from two rings (cellobiose) to five (cellopentaose). The structure reveals that binding is semi-specific. The disaccharide at the nonreducing end binds specifically; the other rings are located in a large solvent-filled groove, where the reducing end makes several contacts with the protein, thereby imposing an upper limit of the oligosaccharides that are recognized. Semi-specific recognition, in which a molecular class rather than individual species is selected, provides an efficient solution for the uptake of complex mixtures.

Cuneo, Matthew J.; Beese, Lorena S.; Hellinga, Homme W.; (Duke)

2010-05-25

143

Isolation, identification and expression analysis of salt-induced genes in Suaeda maritima, a natural halophyte, using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite wealth of information generated on salt tolerance mechanism, its basics still remain elusive. Thus, there is a need of continued effort to understand the salt tolerance mechanism using suitable biotechnological techniques and test plants (species) to enable development of salt tolerant cultivars of interest. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to generate information on salt stress responsive genes in a natural halophyte, Suaeda maritima, using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization (PCR-SSH) technique. Results Forward and reverse SSH cDNA libraries were constructed after exposing the young plants to 425 mM NaCl for 24 h. From the forward SSH cDNA library, 429 high quality ESTs were obtained. BLASTX search and TIGR assembler programme revealed overexpression of 167 unigenes comprising 89 singletons and 78 contigs with ESTs redundancy of 81.8%. Among the unigenes, 32.5% were found to be of special interest, indicating novel function of these genes with regard to salt tolerance. Literature search for the known unigenes revealed that only 17 of them were salt-inducible. A comparative analysis of the existing SSH cDNA libraries for NaCl stress in plants showed that only a few overexpressing unigenes were common in them. Moreover, the present study also showed increased expression of phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene, indicating the possible accumulation of a much studied osmoticum, glycinebetaine, in halophyte under salt stress. Functional categorization of the proteins as per the Munich database in general revealed that salt tolerance could be largely determined by the proteins involved in transcription, signal transduction, protein activity regulation and cell differentiation and organogenesis. Conclusion The study provided a clear indication of possible vital role of glycinebetaine in the salt tolerance process in S. maritima. However, the salt-induced expression of a large number of genes involved in a wide range of cellular functions was indicative of highly complex nature of the process as such. Most of the salt inducible genes, nonetheless, appeared to be species-specific. In light of the observations made, it is reasonable to emphasize that a comparative analysis of ESTs from SSH cDNA libraries generated systematically for a few halophytes with varying salt exposure time may clearly identify the key salt tolerance determinant genes to a minimum number, highly desirable for any genetic manipulation adventure.

Sahu Binod B; Shaw Birendra P

2009-01-01

144

Effects of seed ingestion and herbivory by waterfowl on seedling establishment: a field experiment with wigeongrass Ruppia maritima in Donana, south-west Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ingestion of seeds by vertebrates usually affects the viability and/or germination rate of seeds. Increases in germination rate following passage through the vertebrate gut have often been assumed to be favourable for seedling survival and plant fitness, but this assumption has never been tested experimentally. Given that numbers of herbivorous waterfowl are higher in winter in Mediterranean wetlands, herbivory pressure there will be higher for early growing plants. In a factorial experiment we investigated the effects of seed ingestion by ducks (shoveler, Anas clypeata) on the survival of wigeongrass Ruppia maritima seedlings in the field in Doñana (south-west Spain), under differing exposures to herbivory by waterfowl and fish. We planted ingested and non-ingested seeds in December, using exclosures to protect half of them from herbivores. When they were protected inside exclosures, there was no difference between ingested and non-ingested seeds in the number of plants that survived until June-July. However, fewer plants survived from ingested seeds when exposed to natural levels of herbivory because they were exposed for longer than plants germinating from non-ingested seeds. In conclusion, increases in germination rate after ingestion are not necessarily beneficial for the plant, and the final outcome depends on complex interactions with other factors such as herbivore abundance.

Figuerola J; Green AJ

2004-01-01

145

A novel amylolytic enzyme from Thermotoga maritima, resembling cyclodextrinase and alpha-glucosidase, that liberates glucose from the reducing end of the substrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gene previously designated as putative cyclodextrinase from Thermotoga maritima (TMG) was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant TMG was partially purified and its enzymatic characteristics on various substrates were examined. The enzyme hydrolyzes various maltodextrins including maltotriose to maltoheptaose and cyclomaltodextrins (CDs) to mainly glucose and maltose. Although TMG could not degrade pullulan, it rapidly hydrolyzes acarbose, a strong amylase and glucosidase inhibitor, to acarviosine and glucose. Also, TMG initially hydrolyzes p-nitrophenyl-alpha-pentaoside to give maltopentaose and p-nitrophenol, implying that the enzyme specifically cleaves a glucose unit from the reducing end of maltooligosaccharides unlike to other glucosidases. Since its enzymatic activity is negligible if alpha-methylglucoside is present in the reducing end, the type of the residue at the reducing end of the substrate is important for the TMG activity. These results support the fact that TMG is a novel exo-acting glucosidase possessing the characteristics of both CD-/pullulan hydrolyzing enzyme and alpha-glucosidase. PMID:12127967

Lee, Myoung Hee; Kim, Young Wan; Kim, Tae Jip; Park, Cheon Seok; Kim, Jung Wan; Moon, Tae Wha; Park, Kwan Hwa

2002-07-26

146

A novel amylolytic enzyme from Thermotoga maritima, resembling cyclodextrinase and alpha-glucosidase, that liberates glucose from the reducing end of the substrates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The gene previously designated as putative cyclodextrinase from Thermotoga maritima (TMG) was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant TMG was partially purified and its enzymatic characteristics on various substrates were examined. The enzyme hydrolyzes various maltodextrins including maltotriose to maltoheptaose and cyclomaltodextrins (CDs) to mainly glucose and maltose. Although TMG could not degrade pullulan, it rapidly hydrolyzes acarbose, a strong amylase and glucosidase inhibitor, to acarviosine and glucose. Also, TMG initially hydrolyzes p-nitrophenyl-alpha-pentaoside to give maltopentaose and p-nitrophenol, implying that the enzyme specifically cleaves a glucose unit from the reducing end of maltooligosaccharides unlike to other glucosidases. Since its enzymatic activity is negligible if alpha-methylglucoside is present in the reducing end, the type of the residue at the reducing end of the substrate is important for the TMG activity. These results support the fact that TMG is a novel exo-acting glucosidase possessing the characteristics of both CD-/pullulan hydrolyzing enzyme and alpha-glucosidase.

Lee MH; Kim YW; Kim TJ; Park CS; Kim JW; Moon TW; Park KH

2002-07-01

147

Structural analysis of Canavalia maritima and Canavalia gladiata lectins complexed with different dimannosides: new insights into the understanding of the structure-biological activity relationship in legume lectins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant lectins, especially those purified from species of the Leguminosae family, represent the best studied group of carbohydrate-binding proteins. The legume lectins from Diocleinae subtribe are highly similar proteins that present significant differences in the potency/efficacy of their biological activities. The structural studies of the interactions between lectins and sugars may clarify the origin of the distinct biological activities observed in this high similar class of proteins. In this way, this work presents a crystallographic study of the ConM and CGL (agglutinins from Canavalia maritima and Canavalia gladiata, respectively) in the following complexes: ConM/CGL:Man(alpha1-2)Man(alpha1-O)Me, ConM/CGL:Man(alpha1-3)Man(alpha1-O)Me and ConM/CGL:Man(alpha1-4)Man(alpha1-O)Me, which crystallized in different conditions and space group from the native proteins. The structures were solved by molecular replacement, presenting satisfactory values for R(factor) and R(free). Comparisons between ConM, CGL and ConA (Canavalia ensiformis lectin) binding mode with the dimannosides in subject, presented different interactions patterns, which may account for a structural explanation of the distincts biological properties observed in the lectins of Diocleinae subtribe.

Bezerra GA; Oliveira TM; Moreno FB; de Souza EP; da Rocha BA; Benevides RG; Delatorre P; de Azevedo WF Jr; Cavada BS

2007-11-01

148

Exploring the structure and function of Thermotoga maritima CorA reveals the mechanism of gating and ion selectivity in Co2+/Mg2+ transport  

Science.gov (United States)

The CorA family of divalent cation transporters utilizes Mg2+ and Co2+ as primary substrates. The molecular mechanism of its function, including ion selectivity and gating, has not been fully characterized. Recently we reported a new structure of a CorA homologue from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, which provided novel structural details that offered the conception of a unique gating mechanism involving conversion of an open hydrophilic gate into a closed hydrophobic one. In the present study we report functional evidence for this novel gating mechanism in the Thermotoga maritima CorA together with an improved crystal structure of this CorA to 2.7 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution. The latter reveals the organization of the selectivity filter to be similar to that of M. jannaschii CorA and also the previously unknown organization of the second signature motif of the CorA family. The proposed gating is achieved by a helical rotation upon the binding of a metal ion substrate to the regulatory binding sites. Additionally, our data suggest that the preference of this CorA for Co2+ over Mg2+ is controlled by the presence of threonine side chains in the channel. Finally, the roles of the intracellular metal-binding sites have been assigned to increased thermostability and regulation of the gating. These mechanisms most likely apply to the entire CorA family as they are regulated by the highly conserved amino acids.

Nordin, Nurhuda; Guskov, Albert; Phua, Terri; Sahaf, Newsha; Xia, Yu; Lu, Siyan; Eshaghi, Hojjat; Eshaghi, Said

2013-01-01

149

Isolation and cloning of Omp alpha, a coiled-coil protein spanning the periplasmic space of the ancestral eubacterium Thermotoga maritima.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have discovered a new oligomeric protein component associated with the outer membrane of the ancestral eubacterium Thermotoga maritima. In electron micrographs, the protein, Omp alpha, appears as a rod-shaped spacer that spans the periplasm, connecting the outer membrane to the inner cell body. Purification, biochemical characterization and sequencing of Omp alpha suggest that it is a homodimer composed of two subunits of 380 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 43,000 and a pI of 4.54. The sequence of the omp alpha gene indicates a tripartite organization of the protein with a globular NH2-terminal domain of 64 residues followed by a putative coiled-coil segment of 300 residues and a COOH-terminal, membrane-spanning segment. The predicted length of the coiled-coil segment (45 nm) correlates closely with the spacing between the inner and outer membranes. Despite sequence similarity to a large number of coiled-coil proteins and high scores in a coiled-coil prediction algorithm, the sequence of the central rod-shaped domain of Omp alpha does not have the typical 3.5 periodicity of coiled-coil proteins but rather has a periodicity of 3.58 residues. Such a periodicity was also found in the central domain of staphylococcal M protein and beta-giardin and might be indicative of a subclass of fibrous proteins with packing interactions that are distinct from the ones seen in other two-stranded coiled-coils.

Engel AM; Cejka Z; Lupas A; Lottspeich F; Baumeister W

1992-12-01

150

Post-translational modification of ribosomal proteins: structural and functional characterization of RimO from Thermotoga maritima, a radical S-adenosylmethionine methylthiotransferase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Post-translational modifications of ribosomal proteins are important for the accuracy of the decoding machinery. A recent in vivo study has shown that the rimO gene is involved in generation of the 3-methylthio derivative of residue Asp-89 in ribosomal protein S12 (Anton, B. P., Saleh, L., Benner, J. S., Raleigh, E. A., Kasif, S., and Roberts, R. J. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105, 1826-1831). This reaction is formally identical to that catalyzed by MiaB on the C2 of adenosine 37 near the anticodon of several tRNAs. We present spectroscopic evidence that Thermotoga maritima RimO, like MiaB, contains two [4Fe-4S] centers, one presumably bound to three invariant cysteines in the central radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) domain and the other to three invariant cysteines in the N-terminal UPF0004 domain. We demonstrate that holo-RimO can specifically methylthiolate the aspartate residue of a 20-mer peptide derived from S12, yielding a mixture of mono- and bismethylthio derivatives. Finally, we present the 2.0 A crystal structure of the central radical AdoMet and the C-terminal TRAM (tRNA methyltransferase 2 and MiaB) domains in apo-RimO. Although the core of the open triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel of the radical AdoMet domain was conserved, RimO showed differences in domain organization compared with other radical AdoMet enzymes. The unusually acidic TRAM domain, likely to bind the basic S12 protein, is located at the distal edge of the radical AdoMet domain. The basic S12 protein substrate is likely to bind RimO through interactions with both the TRAM domain and the concave surface of the incomplete TIM barrel. These biophysical results provide a foundation for understanding the mechanism of methylthioation by radical AdoMet enzymes in the MiaB/RimO family.

Arragain S; Garcia-Serres R; Blondin G; Douki T; Clemancey M; Latour JM; Forouhar F; Neely H; Montelione GT; Hunt JF; Mulliez E; Fontecave M; Atta M

2010-02-01

151

Post-translational Modification of Ribosomal Proteins - Structural and Functional Characterization of RimO from Thermotoga Maritima, A Radiacal S-Adenosylmethionine Methylthiotransferase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Post-translational modifications of ribosomal proteins are important for the accuracy of the decoding machinery. A recent in vivo study has shown that the rimO gene is involved in generation of the 3-methylthio derivative of residue Asp-89 in ribosomal protein S12 (Anton, B. P., Saleh, L., Benner, J. S., Raleigh, E. A., Kasif, S., and Roberts, R. J. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105, 1826-1831). This reaction is formally identical to that catalyzed by MiaB on the C2 of adenosine 37 near the anticodon of several tRNAs. We present spectroscopic evidence that Thermotoga maritima RimO, like MiaB, contains two [4Fe-4S] centers, one presumably bound to three invariant cysteines in the central radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) domain and the other to three invariant cysteines in the N-terminal UPF0004 domain. We demonstrate that holo-RimO can specifically methylthiolate the aspartate residue of a 20-mer peptide derived from S12, yielding a mixture of mono- and bismethylthio derivatives. Finally, we present the 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the central radical AdoMet and the C-terminal TRAM (tRNA methyltransferase 2 and MiaB) domains in apo-RimO. Although the core of the open triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel of the radical AdoMet domain was conserved, RimO showed differences in domain organization compared with other radical AdoMet enzymes. The unusually acidic TRAM domain, likely to bind the basic S12 protein, is located at the distal edge of the radical AdoMet domain. The basic S12 protein substrate is likely to bind RimO through interactions with both the TRAM domain and the concave surface of the incomplete TIM barrel. These biophysical results provide a foundation for understanding the mechanism of methylthioation by radical AdoMet enzymes in the MiaB/RimO family.

Arragain, S.; Garcia-Serres, R; Blondin, G; Douki, T; Clemancey, M; Latour, J; Forouhar, F; Neely, H; Montelione, G; et. al.

2010-01-01

152

Positive implicative ordered filters of implicative semigroups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We introduce the notion of positive implicative ordered filters in implicative semigroups. We show that every positive implicative ordered filter is both an ordered filter and an implicative ordered filter. We give examples that an ordered filter (an implicative ordered filter) may not be a positive implicative ordered filter. We also give equivalent conditions of positive implicative ordered filters. Finally we establish the extension property for positive implicative ordered filters.

Young Bae Jun; Kyung Ho Kim

2000-01-01

153

Ardenticatena maritima gen. nov., sp. nov., a ferric iron- and nitrate-reducing bacterium of the phylum 'Chloroflexi' isolated from an iron-rich coastal hydrothermal field, and description of Ardenticatenia classis nov.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel thermophilic, chemoheterotrophic, Gram-negative-staining, multicellular filamentous bacterium, designated strain 110S(T), was isolated from an iron-rich coastal hydrothermal field in Japan. The isolate is facultatively aerobic and chemoheterotrophic. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences nested strain 110S(T) in a novel class-level clone cluster of the phylum 'Chloroflexi'. The isolate grows by dissimilatory iron- and nitrate-reduction under anaerobic conditions, which is the first report of these abilities in the phylum 'Chloroflexi'. The organism is capable of growth with oxygen, ferric iron and nitrate as a possible electron acceptor, has a wide range of growth temperatures, and tolerates higher NaCl concentrations for growth compared to the other isolates in the phylum. Using phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain 110S(T) (= JCM 17282(T) = NBRC 107679(T) = DSM 23922(T) = KCTC 23289(T) = ATCC BAA-2145(T)) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species in a new genus, Ardenticatena maritima gen. nov., sp. nov. In addition, as strain 110S(T) apparently constitutes a new class of the phylum 'Chloroflexi' with other related uncultivated clone sequences, we propose Ardenticatenia classis nov. and the subordinate taxa Ardenticatenales ord. nov. and Ardenticatenaceae fam. nov. PMID:23378114

Kawaichi, Satoshi; Ito, Norihiro; Kamikawa, Ryoma; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Takashi; Sako, Yoshihiko

2013-02-01

154

Environmental implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors examine the environmental implications and applications of current information and communication technologies. The book also reviews emerging trends in information technology and some of the attendant issues for policy makers, particularly those relating to economic growth in developing countries.

Elkington, J.; Shopley, J.

1988-01-01

155

On n-fold implicative filters of lattice implication algebras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We introduce the notion of n-fold implicative filters and n-fold implicative lattice implication algebras. We give characterizations of n-fold implicative filters and n-fold implicative lattice implication algebras. Finally, we construct an extension property for n-fold implicative filter.

Young Bae Jun

2001-01-01

156

On n-fold implicative filters of lattice implication algebras  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce the notion of n-fold implicative filters and n-fold implicative lattice implication algebras. We give characterizations of n-fold implicative filters and n-fold implicative lattice implication algebras. Finally, we construct an extension property for n-fold implicative filter.

Young Bae Jun

157

Francis: implications for midwives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The final report of the Mid Staffordshire hospital Trust enquiry has recently been released (Francis 2013). Following this, the current Government produced Patients first and foremost (DH 2013) as a response. These reports will have a wide impact on the NHS and throughout health care. The purpose of this article is to explore some of the implications for midwives and the maternity services

Hall J

2013-06-01

158

[Glaucoma: pharmacological implications].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Glaucoma is the first cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Its prevalence in our country is 2%; half of patients remain undiagnosed. Certain drugs can trigger and/or exacerbate glaucoma; hence the importance of having knowledge of these drugs by Primary Care physician. In addition, the drugs used in the treatment of glaucoma, even topically, can have systemic side effects that should be also know to the Primary Care physician. An adequate knowledge of all the drug groups and the prescribing of the appropriate drug in patients with risk factors and underlying pathology, will enable the Primary Care physician to optimise the risk/benefit ratio in the therapeutic management of these patients. An update is presented on this ophthalmological disease, with special attention to its implications for pharmacological treatments.

Rieger-Reyes C; Rubio-Galán FJ

2013-01-01

159

The privacy implications of Bluetooth  

CERN Multimedia

A substantial amount of research, as well as media hype, has surrounded RFID technology and its privacy implications. Currently, researchers and the media focus on the privacy threats posed by RFID, while consumer groups choose to boycott products bearing RFID tags. At the same, however, a very similar technology has quietly become part of our everyday lives: Bluetooth. In this paper we highlight the fact that Bluetooth is a widespread technology that has real privacy implications. Furthermore, we explore the applicability of RFID-based solutions to address these privacy implications.

Kostakos, Vassilis

2008-01-01

160

Glycemic variability: Clinical implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Glycemic control and its benefits in preventing microvascular diabetic complications are convincingly proved by various prospective trials. Diabetes control and complications trial (DCCT) had reported variable glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) as a cause of increased microvascular complications in conventional glycemic control group versus intensive one. However, in spite of several indirect evidences, its link with cardiovascular events or macrovascular complications is still not proved. Glycemic variability (GV) is one more tool to explain relation between hyperglycemia and increased cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. In fact GV along with fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, HbA1C, and quality of life has been proposed to form glycemic pentad, which needs to be considered in diabetes management. Postprandial spikes in blood glucose as well as hypoglycemic events, both are blamed for increased cardiovascular events in Type 2 diabetics. GV includes both these events and hence minimizing GV can prevent future cardiovascular events. Modern diabetes management modalities including improved sulfonylureas, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapy, newer basal insulins, and modern insulin pumps address the issue of GV effectively. This article highlights mechanism, clinical implications, and measures to control GV in clinical practice.

Satya Krishna SV; Kota SK; Modi KD

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Implications of antisocial parents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antisocial behavior is a socially maladaptive and harmful trait to possess. This can be especially injurious for a child who is raised by a parent with this personality structure. The pathology of antisocial behavior implies traits such as deceitfulness, irresponsibility, unreliability, and an incapability to feel guilt, remorse, or even love. This is damaging to a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parents with this personality makeup can leave a child traumatized, empty, and incapable of forming meaningful personal relationships. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of antisocial behavior. Moreover, the child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial behavior who is raised with a parental style that triggers the genetic liability is at high risk for developing the same personality structure. Antisocial individuals are impulsive, irritable, and often have no concerns over their purported responsibilities. As a parent, this can lead to erratic discipline, neglectful parenting, and can undermine effective care giving. This paper will focus on the implications of parents with antisocial behavior and the impact that this behavior has on attachment as well as on the development of antisocial traits in children.

Torry ZD; Billick SB

2011-12-01

162

Magnetic imaging of a submerged Roman harbour, Caesarea Maritima, Israel  

Science.gov (United States)

The harbour built by King Herod's engineers at Caesarea represented a major advance in Roman harbour construction that incorporated the use of large (390 m^3), form-filled hydraulic concrete blocks to build an extensive foundation for the harbour moles and breakwater barriers. Marine geophysical surveys were recently conducted across the submerged harbour in an attempt to map the configuration of the buried concrete foundation. A total of 107 line km of high-resolution marine magnetic surveys (nominal 15 m line separations) and bathymetry data were acquired over a 1 km^2 area of the submerged harbour using an Overhauser marine magnetometer, integrated DGPS and single-beam (200 KHz) echosounder. The feasibility of magnetic detection of the concrete was established before the survey by magnetic susceptibility testing of concrete core samples. All concrete samples contained appreciable amounts of fe-oxide-rich volcanic ash ('pozzolana') and showed uniformly high susceptibility values (k > 10^-^4 cgs) when compared to harbour bottom sediments and building stones (k < 10 ^-^6 cgs). Magnetic surveys of the harbour identify a localized increase in magnetic intensity (ca. 1-7 nT) that is attributed to the presence of hydraulic concrete within the buried harbour structure. The mapped anomaly patterns are distinctly rectilinear, indicating that the concrete foundation was laid out in header fashion in dominantly N-S and W-E trending segments. Magnetic lows identify 'cells' within the concrete foundation framework that were likely filled with harbour sediments prior to construction of the harbour moles and quays.

Boyce, J. I.; Reinhardt, E. G.; Raban, A.; Pozza, M. R.

2003-04-01

163

Galicia, ¿En la Ora maritima de R.F. Avieno?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The classical sources have been some times studied in order to identify names and places with the present Geograghy. This position can produce mistaken interpretations, as in the case of the Ora maritime, a complicated and dark work attributed to Rufus Festus Avienus. We propose here an interpretation of the verses that have been related to the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula.En ocasiones, las fuentes antiguas han sido abordadas con el afán de identificar los lugares y accidentes geográficos que mencionan con los que conocemos en la actualidad. Ello puede conducir a interpretaciones erróneas, como en el caso de la Ora marítima, un texto complejo y lleno de incógnitas atribuido a Rufo Festo Avieno. A continuación planteamos una propuesta de interpretación de los versos que tradicionalmente se vinculan con el territorio del Noroeste peninsular (vv. 90-200)

Suárez Piñeiro, Ana M.

2002-01-01

164

Implications of prion polymorphisms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sequence of a host's prion protein (PrP) can affect that host's susceptibility to prion disease and is the primary basis for the species barrier to transmission. Yet within many species, polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (Prnp) exist, each of which can further affect susceptibility or influence incubation period, pathology and phenotype. As strains are defined by these features (incubation period, pathology, phenotype), polymorphisms may also lead to the preferential propagation or generation of certain strains. In our recent study of the mouse Prnp (a) and Prnp (b) polymorphisms (which produced the proteins PrP (a) and PrP (b) , respectively), we found differences in aggregation tendency, strain adaptability and conformational variability. Comparing our in vitro data with that of in vivo studies, we found that differing incubation periods between Prnp (a) and Prnp (b) mice can primarily be explained on the basis of faster or more efficient aggregation of PrP (a) . In addition, and more importantly, we found that the faithful propagation of strains in Prnp (b) mice can be explained by the ability of PrP (b) to adopt a wider range of conformations. This adaptability allows PrP (b) to successfully propagate the structural features of a seed. In contrast, Prnp (a) mice revert PrP (b) strains into PrP (a) -type strains, and overall they have a narrower distribution of incubation periods. This can be explained by PrP (a) having fewer preferred conformations. We propose that Prnp polymorphisms are one route by which certain prion strains may preferentially propagate. This has significant implications for prion disease, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in particular, as it is spreading through North America. Deer which are susceptible to CWD also carry polymorphisms which influence their susceptibility. If these polymorphisms also preferentially allow strain diversification and propagation, this may accelerate the crossing of species barriers and propagation of the disease up the food chain.

Cortez LM; Sim VL

2013-06-01

165

Strong implicative hyper K-ideals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A condition for a strong hyper K-ideal to be a strong implicative hyper K-ideal is given. Homomorphic images and inverse images of strong implicative hyper K-ideals are considered.

Young Bae Jun; Kyung Ho Kim; Eun Hwan Roh

2006-01-01

166

Nearpoint visual stress: clinical implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

A physiological model of nearpoint stress, based on autonomic arousal, was presented in a companion paper. This paper deals with clinical implications of the nearpoint stress model, including clinical manifestations, adaptive responses to nearpoint stress, and management of nearpoint stress-induced vision disorders. PMID:4008858

Birnbaum, M H

1985-06-01

167

Military Implications of Global Warming.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1998 National Security Strategy repeatedly cites global environmental issues as key to the long-term security of the United States. Similarly, U.S. environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current U.S. Policy a...

P. E. Greene

1999-01-01

168

Nearpoint visual stress: clinical implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A physiological model of nearpoint stress, based on autonomic arousal, was presented in a companion paper. This paper deals with clinical implications of the nearpoint stress model, including clinical manifestations, adaptive responses to nearpoint stress, and management of nearpoint stress-induced vision disorders.

Birnbaum MH

1985-06-01

169

A Bayesian Model for Discovering Typological Implications  

CERN Document Server

A standard form of analysis for linguistic typology is the universal implication. These implications state facts about the range of extant languages, such as ``if objects come after verbs, then adjectives come after nouns.'' Such implications are typically discovered by painstaking hand analysis over a small sample of languages. We propose a computational model for assisting at this process. Our model is able to discover both well-known implications as well as some novel implications that deserve further study. Moreover, through a careful application of hierarchical analysis, we are able to cope with the well-known sampling problem: languages are not independent.

Daumé, Hal

2009-01-01

170

Mechanical architecture and development in Clematis: implications for canalised evolution of growth forms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mechanical architectures of two Clematis species, the herbaceous perennial Clematis recta and the woody liana, Clematis vitalba, were investigated and compared with the woody rhizomatous sand dune plant Clematis flammula var. maritima. Bending mechanical properties of stems from various developmental stages were compared and related to stem geometry and relative proportions of tissues during development. Clematis vitalba and C. flammula var. maritima showed mechanical architectures with reductions in structural Young's modulus of the stem during ontogeny. Irreversible loss of stem rigidity was mediated by disruption, separation and eventual loss of primary phloem fibres via secondary growth of the periderm and cambial activity. Each species showed variations of non-self-supporting mechanical architecture relating to specific habitat preferences. In aerial stems of C. recta the structural Young's modulus remained approximately constant during ontogeny, a mechanical signal characteristic for semi-self-supporting architectures. Woody aerial plant stems are extremely rare in the Ranunculaceae and seldom, if ever, show self-supporting characteristics. Growth form evolution in the group may have been canalised by evolution of rhizomatous geophytic growth forms with secondary growth confined to underground stems specialized for water conduction, storage and perennation. Variation of this ground plan includes climbing, straggling or rhizomatous architectures but not self-supporting shrubs or trees with secondary growth generating requisite self-supporting mechanical properties. Certain body plan organisations appear to have inbuilt mechanical constraints which may have profound effects on the subsequent evolution of growth forms.

Isnard S; Speck T; Rowe NP

2003-06-01

171

Lateral Thoracic Maningocele : Anaesthetic Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Meningomyelocele is a broad term representing herniation of extracranial contents through a congenital defect in the vertebral column. If only cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and meninges herniate, it is termed as a meningocele. A meningoencephalocele is herniation of neural elements along with meninges. Anaesthetic challenges in management of thoracic meningomyelocele include securing the airway with intubation in lateral or supine position, intraoperative prone position with its associated complications and accurate assessment of blood loss and prevention of hypothermia. We report a case of a thoracic meningocele posted for resection and discuss its anaesthetic implications

Nazeer Ahmed K

2008-01-01

172

Philosophical Implications of Inflationary Cosmology  

CERN Document Server

Recent developments in cosmology indicate that every history having a nonzero probability is realized in infinitely many distinct regions of spacetime. Thus, it appears that the universe contains infinitely many civilizations exactly like our own, as well as infinitely many civilizations that differ from our own in any way permitted by physical laws. We explore the implications of this conclusion for ethical theory and for the doomsday argument. In the infinite universe, we find that the doomsday argument applies only to effects which change the average lifetime of all civilizations, and not those which affect our civilization alone.

Knobe, J; Vilenkin, A; Knobe, Joshua; Olum, Ken D.; Vilenkin, Alexander

2003-01-01

173

Networking activism: implications for Greece  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The outbreak of December 2008 against police brutality through a wave of demonstrations and street protests in Athens, which was strongly advocated by protest activities and practices across the world, addresses several issues in relation to the transformative potentials of mediated collective action. The paper critically evaluates different accounts of December events, probing then into thevery networking of that movement. From this perspective, it points out another aspect of the local-global interplay in protest culture along new mediating practices (beyond the creation of transnational publics), that of the implications of transnational networking for local social activism and identi?cation, addressing relevant questions in the Greek context.

Pantelis Vatikiotis

2011-01-01

174

HIPAA--Implications for research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Privacy, anonymity, and informed consent are the hallmarks of current research conduct. How do the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations regarding individually identified health information and protected health information affect research? The purpose of this article is to discuss ways that the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act is influencing the conduct of research, including the implications for institutional review boards, recruitment of subjects, obtaining consent, access to data, de-identification of data, authorization to disclose data, and the processing, transmission, and storage of collected data.

Erlen JA

2005-03-01

175

Implications of Network Centric Warfare  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

This paper will examine Network Centric Warfare the centerpiece of Transformation. This form of warfare depends heavily on computer networks the Internet communications and sensors. These areas of dependence also provide numerous vulnerabilities. This paper will focus specifically on Network Centric Warfare's vulnerabilities in terms of sensors cyberterrorism/ Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) and bandwidth/ frequency. The assessment of the areas listed above and the other strategic implications will lead to a conclusion as to its efficacy of Network Centric Warfare as the centerpiece of Transformation.

2004-01-01

176

Female Genital Cutting: Nursing Implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Female genital cutting (FGC) is a practice that affects millions of girls and women worldwide. This deeply rooted practice has cultural, religious, and psychosexual meaning to its practitioners, but it also carries long-term physical and mental complications. Decried as a human rights violation, nonetheless this practice is still carried out today. Nurses are in a unique position to contact and educate women who have been cut or are at risk for mutilation. To advocate for these women, a thorough understanding of the practice of FGC, its cultural overtones, religious implications, and psychosexual effects is needed.

Goldenstein RA

2013-07-01

177

Fetal genital anatomy reconstructive implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Genital anomalies are not typically diagnosed and/or treated in utero. Recent reports have focused on the prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The normal male and female genitalia anatomy is reviewed with an emphasis on reconstructive implications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Normal fetal genital anatomy was analyzed by serial immunohistochemical staining and 3-dimensional computer reconstruction. RESULTS: The neuroanatomy was analogous in male and female patients, revealing an extensive network of nerves not only at the 11 and 1 o'clock position, but completely surrounding the ventral aspect of erectile bodies. The 12 o'clock position was notable for a lack of nerves which has implications in the design of penile straightening procedures. Ultrastructure of the female corporeal bodies is similar to the male counterpart. Evaluation of a fetal specimen with hypospadias revealed a similar anatomy to the normal penis except at the area of deficient urethral spongiosum. CONCLUSIONS: Attention to anatomical detail will improve surgical techniques for reconstruction in patients with penile curvature and masculinization of the external genitalia.

Baskin LS

1999-08-01

178

Fantastic filters of lattice implication algebras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The notion of a fantastic filter in a lattice implication algebra is introduced, and the relations among filter, positive implicative filter, and fantastic filter are given. We investigate an equivalent condition for a filter to be fantastic, and state an extension property for fantastic filter.

Young Bae Jun

2000-01-01

179

Clinical implications of impaired microcirculation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various types of microcirculation disturbances have been described in the course of systemic diseases, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and the so-called "idiopathic oedema" syndrome. This article summarizes the relevant microcirculatory disorders associated with diabetes and their pathophysiology. These functional disorders occur before or in association with anatomical lesions of diabetic microangiopathy. Increased capillary permeability to albumin is frequently observed in diabetes. In a placebo-controlled trial, Daflon 500 mg, a purified, micronized, flavonoidic fraction, significantly improved this disorder. Patients complaining of an oedematous syndrome almost always have an increased extracellular fluid volume, probably largely due to increased capillary permeability. Diabetes and "idiopathic oedema" therefore constitute two examples of the major clinical implications of impaired microcirculation. PMID:8919261

Valensi, P; Behar, A

1995-09-01

180

Clinical implications of impaired microcirculation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Various types of microcirculation disturbances have been described in the course of systemic diseases, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and the so-called "idiopathic oedema" syndrome. This article summarizes the relevant microcirculatory disorders associated with diabetes and their pathophysiology. These functional disorders occur before or in association with anatomical lesions of diabetic microangiopathy. Increased capillary permeability to albumin is frequently observed in diabetes. In a placebo-controlled trial, Daflon 500 mg, a purified, micronized, flavonoidic fraction, significantly improved this disorder. Patients complaining of an oedematous syndrome almost always have an increased extracellular fluid volume, probably largely due to increased capillary permeability. Diabetes and "idiopathic oedema" therefore constitute two examples of the major clinical implications of impaired microcirculation.

Valensi P; Behar A

1995-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

Anaesthetic implications of Nager syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nager acrofacial dysostosis is an oromandibular hypogenesis syndrome with associated limb abnormalities. Although it shares some phenotypic features with Treacher-Collins syndrome, it is recognized as a separate disorder. The physical features of Nager syndrome include down slanted palpebral fissures, malar hypoplasia, a high nasal bridge, atretic external auditory canals, cleft palate and micrognathia. Preaxial limb malformations include absent or hypoplastic thumbs, hypoplasia of the radius and shortened humeral bones. Of primary concern to the anaesthetist are the midface and mandibular manifestations which may complicate perioperative airway management. These problems may also manifest in the postoperative period with airway obstruction. Associated defects have included vertebral malformations with reports of cervical spine involvement, congenital cardiac defects and upper limb defects affecting the preaxial or radial side. We describe a 7-year-old boy with Nager syndrome who required anaesthetic care during placement of a syringopleural shunt for drainage of a spinal cord syrinx. The perioperative implications of this disorder are reviewed.

Groeper K; Johnson JO; Braddock SR; Tobias JD

2002-05-01

182

Health implications of animal hoarding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Animal hoarding is a poorly understood phenomenon, the public health implications of which are not well documented. In this study, professionals dealing with hoarding cases submitted 71 case report forms. The hoarders' residences were characterized by extreme clutter and poor sanitation that impaired ability to maintain functional households. Appliances and utilities were frequently nonfunctional, and animal excrement sometimes accumulated to the extent that the homes were unfit for human habitation. The majority of cases satisfied criteria for adult self-neglect, and dependent elderly people, children, or disabled individuals were present in many of the residences. Animal hoarding may be a sentinel for a range of medical, social, and economic problems. More research addressing the causes and features of animal hoarding is needed to shed light on appropriate interventions.

2002-05-01

183

Health implications of animal hoarding.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal hoarding is a poorly understood phenomenon, the public health implications of which are not well documented. In this study, professionals dealing with hoarding cases submitted 71 case report forms. The hoarders' residences were characterized by extreme clutter and poor sanitation that impaired ability to maintain functional households. Appliances and utilities were frequently nonfunctional, and animal excrement sometimes accumulated to the extent that the homes were unfit for human habitation. The majority of cases satisfied criteria for adult self-neglect, and dependent elderly people, children, or disabled individuals were present in many of the residences. Animal hoarding may be a sentinel for a range of medical, social, and economic problems. More research addressing the causes and features of animal hoarding is needed to shed light on appropriate interventions. PMID:12079167

2002-05-01

184

Childhood bullying: implications for physicians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood bullying has potentially serious implications for bullies and their targets. Bullying involves a pattern of repeated aggression, a deliberate intent to harm or disturb a victim despite the victim's apparent distress, and a real or perceived imbalance of power. Bullying can lead to serious academic, social, emotional, and legal problems. Studies of successful antibullying programs suggest that a comprehensive approach in schools can change student behaviors and attitudes, and increase adults' willingness to intervene. Efforts to prevent bullying must address individual, familial, and community risk factors, as well as promote an understanding of the severity of the problem. Parents, teachers, and health care professionals must become more adept at identifying possible victims and bullies. Physicians have important roles in identifying at-risk patients, screening for psychiatric comorbidities, counseling families about the problem, and advocating for bullying prevention in their communities.

Lyznicki JM; McCaffree MA; Robinowitz CB

2004-11-01

185

NSF Awards New Grants to Study Societal Implications of Nanotechnology  

Science.gov (United States)

... Grants to Study Societal Implications of Nanotechnology The National Science Foundation (NSF) has ... to study the societal implications of nanotechnology: the emerging discipline that seeks to control ...

186

On implications in sectionally pseudocomplemented posets  

CERN Multimedia

A sectionally pseudocomplemented poset P is one which has the top element and in which every principal order filter is a pseudocomplemented poset. The sectional pseudocomplements give rise to an implication-like operation on P which coincides with the relative pseudocomplementation if P is relatively psudocomplemented. We characterise this operation and study some elementary properties of upper semilattices, lower semilattices and lattices equipped with this kind of implication. We deal also with a few weaker versions of implication. Sectionally pseudocomplemented lattices have already been studied in the literature.

Cärulis, Jänis

2007-01-01

187

Implications of Donald Macdonald's report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The chairman of the session debating the implications of the Macdonald report identified three important aspects of utility restructuring: equity, efficiency and sustainability. Dr. Jan Carr, a member of the Macdonald Committee, predicted that the continental energy market will likely demand a much larger number of smaller energy transactions, and the value in having inherently low-cost generation located close to load centres, and/or close to the US border. Douglas Hall, Vice President of RBC Dominion Securities criticized the Macdonald Committee for leaving 70 per cent of Hydro's generating capacity in public hands. He favored transferring all assets to the private sector, and questioned the Committee's assumption that the utility could be broken down into four components that would share overhead and still compete against each other. John Murphy, President of the Power Workers Union stated that the Union was not ideologically opposed to competition in the electricity industry, but he questioned the Committee's assumption that competition would promote efficient supply of power at the least cost to the economy. Tony Jennings, Chief Executive of the Municipal Electric Association tackled a series of myths about municipal electric utilities, and IPPSO Counsel Jay Sheppard emphasized the need for making sure that the entity buying the power in the short term is truly independent and is not doing incestuous deals with its friends at Ontario Hydro Generation (one of the four components of the proposed, restructured Corporation) , because otherwise competition will not work

1997-01-01

188

Energy implications of bottled water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs-for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration-are far smaller than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.

2009-01-01

189

Anaesthetic implications of Nager syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nager acrofacial dysostosis is an oromandibular hypogenesis syndrome with associated limb abnormalities. Although it shares some phenotypic features with Treacher-Collins syndrome, it is recognized as a separate disorder. The physical features of Nager syndrome include down slanted palpebral fissures, malar hypoplasia, a high nasal bridge, atretic external auditory canals, cleft palate and micrognathia. Preaxial limb malformations include absent or hypoplastic thumbs, hypoplasia of the radius and shortened humeral bones. Of primary concern to the anaesthetist are the midface and mandibular manifestations which may complicate perioperative airway management. These problems may also manifest in the postoperative period with airway obstruction. Associated defects have included vertebral malformations with reports of cervical spine involvement, congenital cardiac defects and upper limb defects affecting the preaxial or radial side. We describe a 7-year-old boy with Nager syndrome who required anaesthetic care during placement of a syringopleural shunt for drainage of a spinal cord syrinx. The perioperative implications of this disorder are reviewed. PMID:11982847

Groeper, Kelly; Johnson, Joel O; Braddock, Stephen R; Tobias, Joseph D

2002-05-01

190

Implications of increased ethanol production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implications of increased ethanol production in Canada, assuming a 10% market penetration of a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend, are evaluated. Issues considered in the analysis include the provision of new markets for agricultural products, environmental sustainability, energy security, contribution to global warming, potential government cost (subsidies), alternative options to ethanol, energy efficiency, impacts on soil and water of ethanol crop production, and acceptance by fuel marketers. An economic analysis confirms that ethanol production from a stand-alone plant is not economic at current energy values. However, integration of ethanol production with a feedlot lowers the break-even price of ethanol by about 35 cents/l, and even further reductions could be achieved as technology to utilize lignocellulosic feedstock is commercialized. Ethanol production could have a positive impact on farm income, increasing cash receipts to grain farmers up to $53 million. The environmental impact of ethanol production from grain would be similar to that from crop production in general. Some concerns about ethanol/gasoline blends from the fuel industry have been reduced as those blends are now becoming recommended in some automotive warranties. However, the concerns of the larger fuel distributors are a serious constraint on an expansion of ethanol use. The economics of ethanol use could be improved by extending the federal excise tax exemption now available for pure alcohol fuels to the alcohol portion of alcohol/gasoline blends. 9 refs., 10 tabs

1992-01-01

191

Climatic implications of ice microphysics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on aircraft measurements of mid-latitude cirrus clouds, ice crystal size distribution and ice water content (IWC) are shown to be dependent on temperature. This dependence is also evident from the theoretical consideration of ice crystal growth. Using simple models of the diffusion and accretion growth of ice particles, the computed mean ice crystal size and IWC compare reasonably well with the measured mean values. The temperature dependence of ice crystal size and IWC has important climatic implications in that the temperature field perturbed by external radiative forcings, such as greenhouse warming, can alter the composition of ice crystal clouds. Through radiative transfer, ice microphysics can in turn affect the temperature field. Higher IWC would increase cloud solar albedo and infrared emissivity, while for a given IWC, larger crystals would reduce cloud albedo and emissivity. The competing effects produced by greenhouse temperature perturbations via ice micro-physics and radiation interactions and feedbacks are assessed by a one-dimensional radiative-convective climate model that includes an advanced radiation parameterization program. 3 figs.

Liou, K.N. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1995-09-01

192

Green buildings: Implications for acousticians  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation will deal with the practical implications of green design protocols of the US Green Building Council on interior acoustics of buildings. Three areas of particular consequence to acousticians will be discussed. Ventilation Systems: reduced energy consumption goals dictate reliance on natural cooling and ventilation using ambient air when possible. The consequent large openings in the building envelope to bring fresh air into rooms, and similar sized openings to transfer the mixed air out, can severely compromise the noise isolation of the rooms concerned. Radiant Cooling: the heavy concrete floors of buildings can be used as a thermal flywheel to lessen the cooling load, which forces the concrete ceilings to be exposed to the occupied rooms for heat transfer, and strictly limits the application of acoustical absorption on the ceilings. This challenges the room acoustics design. Green Materials: the LEED protocols require the elimination of potentially harmful finishes, including fibrous materials which may impact air quality or contribute to health problems. Since the backbone of sound absorption is glass and mineral fibres, this further challenges provision of superior room acoustics. Examples and commentary will be provided based on current and recent projects.

Noble, Michael R.

2005-04-01

193

Environmental Implications of the Tourism Industry  

Science.gov (United States)

This Discussion Paper was posted at the Resources for the future (RFF) Website during March 2000. Terry Davies and Sarah Cahill wrote "Environmental Implications of the Tourism Industry," which elaborates on the impacts of tourism on the environment.

Cahill, Sarah.; Davies, Terry

2000-01-01

194

Business ethics: implications for managed care contracts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Business ethics is a specialized study that emphasizes how moral standards apply to organizations, policies, procedures and behavior. Moral standards must be considered to understand the implications of business ethics in subacute care.

Stahl DA

1997-01-01

195

Emerging Petrochemicals Technology: Implications for Developing Countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this document are to identify: Major developments in petrochemical technology in the advanced countries; The major factors influencing technology change; The implications of technology ownership in relation to the mobility and transferab...

V. R. S. Arni

1982-01-01

196

Some implications of recent observations of radiogalaxies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Theories of extended radiogalaxies are discussed and the question of whether they can be distinguished by observations considered. New observations of optical emission in radio lobes and their implications are described. (Auth.)

1979-07-27

197

Business ethics: implications for managed care contracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Business ethics is a specialized study that emphasizes how moral standards apply to organizations, policies, procedures and behavior. Moral standards must be considered to understand the implications of business ethics in subacute care. PMID:9004681

Stahl, D A

1997-01-01

198

Tuberous sclerosis - clinical manifestations and genetic implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twenty-five patients with tuberous sclerosis have been studied with regard to their clinical manifestations, radiological features and genetic background. The practical implications of the condition in southern Africa are reviewed with reference to the literature.

Cornell, J. (Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Human Genetics)

1983-06-18

199

Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology—An Update  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some engineers and scientists are either directly or indirectly involved with nanotechnology issues. Nanotechnology concerns dealing with environmental implications and regulatory compliance encompass practicing areas for these technical individuals. Areas of particular concern include current/propo...

Leo Stander; Louis Theodore

200

Implications for decision making: Industrial sector perspectives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Implications for decision making in areas related to policy towards greenhouse gas emissions are discussed from the perspective of the industrial sector. Industry is presented as supportive of energy conservation measures in spite of the large uncertainties in the global warming issue. Perspectives of developed and developing countries are contrasted, and carbon dioxide emissions are compared. Socioeconomic implications of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, particularly in the form of higher prices for goods and services, are outlined.

Mangelsdorf, F.E. [Texaco, Inc., Beacon, NY (United States)

1992-12-31

 
 
 
 
201

Second-law analysis: approaches and implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparison is presented of the main approaches to second-law analysis (SLA) reported in the literature. Five SLAs are considered: exergy, physical-exergy, exergy-consumption, negentropy and entropy analyses. The application of the SLAs is illustrated through an example. In addition, several significant implications of SLA are examined in the fields of environmental impact and economics. The presentation herein of the approaches to and implications of SLA is expected to enhance understanding of SLA and improve its usefulness. (Author)

Rosen, M.A. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Toronto, ON (Canada)

1999-07-01

202

Hepatitis B genotyping and its clinical implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hepatitis B is a crucial medical problem in Saudi Arabia. Different hepatitis B virus genotypes have been discovered and have been shown to cluster in different areas of the world. Hepatitis B virus genotyping has received a lot of attention recently, and its clinical implications are being investigated extensively throughout the world. In this review, we will discuss the virology, epidemiology and clinical implications of the different hepatitis B genotypes.

Aljarallah Badr

2006-01-01

203

Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

2010-03-01

204

Venous chest anatomy: clinical implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article provides a practical approach to the clinical implications and importance of understanding the collateral venous anatomy of the thorax. Routine radiography, conventional venography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies provide correlative anatomic models for the demonstration of how interconnecting collateral vascular networks within the thorax maintain venous stability at all times. Five major systems comprise the collateral venous network of the thorax ( Fig. 1 ). These include the paravertebral, azygos-hemiazygos, internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and anterior jugular venous systems (AJVS). The five systems are presented in the following sequence: (a) a brief introduction to the importance of catheter position and malposition in understanding access to the thoracic venous system, (b) the anatomy of the azygos-hemiazygos systems and their relationship with the paravertebral plexus, (c) the importance of the AJVS, (d) 'loop' concepts interconnecting the internal mammary and azygos-hemiazygos systems by means of the lateral thoracic and intercostal veins, and (e) the interconnecting venous networks on the thoracic side of the thoracoabdominal junction. Certain aspects of the venous anatomy of the thorax will not be discussed in this chapter and include (a) the intra-abdominal anastomoses between the superior and inferior vena cavae (IVC) via the internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and azygos-hemiazygos systems (beyond the scope of this article), (b) potential collateral vessels involving vertebral, parascapular, thyroidal, thymic, and other smaller veins that might anastomose with the major systems, and (c) anatomic variants and pitfalls that may mimic pathologic conditions (space limitations). (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

Chasen, M.H.; Charnsangavej, C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

1998-03-01

205

Possible implications of exponential decay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Semiclassical concepts are developed which could make the appearance of a logarithmic nonlinearity in a Schroedinger-type equation plausible. This approach is based on the introduction of a novel wave function describing the center of mass (CM) motion of unstable particles or composite systems subject to statistical changes of their internal quantum state. The element of statistical randomness associated with a purely exponential decay law suggests the use of thermodynamic concepts like entropy and free energy. These concepts are applied only to a domain open-quotes blurredclose quotes by the quantum uncertainty principle where the problematic definition of a time and entropy operator might be possible. The paper consists of three main parts. Section 1 develops an extended nonrelativistic equation of motion. The proposed equation contains yet reinterprets the BBM equation, and for stable systems is reduced to the Schroedinger equation. Definite predictions are made for observable quantities. In Section 2, the family of localized, nonspreading ground-state solutions to the BBM equation is extended, in two and three spatial dimensions, to states classified by finite quantized angular momenta and definite values of entropy. The statistical behavior of CM systems and their electromagnetic interaction are investigated. In Section 3, implications of these concepts are outlined with emphasis on possible experimental manifestations. Suggested laboratory tests include high-precision measurements of unstable particle diffraction on linear gratings as well as neutron interferometer experiments of the type previously attempted to test the BBM equation. A further testing possibility is the investigation of particle resonances. An important feature of the present model is a subtle combination of quantum and classical aspects, achieved without compromising fundamental principles, while reinterpreting microreversibility. 46 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

1992-01-01

206

Environmental implications of synfuel development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The synthetic fuel industry is perhaps the only industry ever to be subjected to a nationwide review of potential environmental consequences before the first commercial scale plant is built. The first wave of synfuel plants will continue to be scrutinized by a suspicious public that has witnessed a decade of increasing environmental regulation, Three Mile Island, and Love Canal. The EPA will not be issuing pollutant discharge limits for synfuel facilities in the near future. Instead, the first plants will be regulated on a case-by-case basis using the environmental permit system. In general, synfuel plants should be capable of complying with applicable environmental standards by adapting commercial pollution control technology. There should be no acute environmental impacts from a properly suited, designed, and controlled plant. However, because no commercial-scale plants exist for most synfuel technologies, many environmental questions remain unanswered. The major questions deal with: (1) the long-term effects on workers and the environment of low-level exposure to synfuel chemicals; (2) the characteristics of actual gaseous, liquid, and solid waste from large-scale facilities; and (3) the adaptability effectiveness, and reliability of commercially available pollution control technology. Specific issues relate to the need for quantitative health risk assessments, the implications of the Toxic Substances Control Act, the practicality of the mandate for zero wastewater discharge, the control of fugitive hydrocarbon emissions, the effects of solid waste disposal, and the cumulative impacts of regional energy development (especially socioeconomics). Environmental monitoring will play a large role in understanding the technologies, characterizing pollutants and the effectiveness of control technology, developing realistic environmental standards, and determining the effects of synfuel chemicals on workers and the environment.

DeCicco, S.G.

1983-02-25

207

Impacts of oil sands process water on fen plants: Implications for plant selection in required reclamation projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fen plant growth in peat contaminated with groundwater discharges of oil sands process water (OSPW) was assessed in a greenhouse over two growing seasons. Three treatments (non-diluted OSPW, diluted OSPW and rainwater) were tested on five vascular plants and four mosses. All vascular plants tested can grow in salinity and naphthenic acids levels currently produced by oil sands activity in northwestern Canada. No stress sign was observed after both seasons. Because of plant characteristics, Carex species (C. atherodes and C. utriculata) and Triglochin maritima would be more useful for rapidly restoring vegetation and creating a new peat-accumulating system. Groundwater discharge of OSPW proved detrimental to mosses under dry conditions and ensuring adequate water levels would be crucial in fen creation following oil sands exploitation. Campylium stellatum would be the best choice to grow in contaminated areas and Bryum pseudotriquetrum might be interesting as it has spontaneously regenerated in all treatments. - Highlights: ? Fen plant growth was assessed under groundwater discharges of oil sands process water. ? Sedge and grass species were not stressed after two growing seasons in greenhouse. ? Carex species and Triglochin maritima would be helpful in created contaminated fens. ? In dry conditions, contaminated groundwater discharge was detrimental for mosses. ? Campylium stellatum would be the best choice in created fens with contaminated water. - Sedges and grasses tolerated the contact with oil sands process water and could probably grow well in contaminated created fens, but mosses were particularly affected under dry conditions.

2012-01-01

208

Essentializing race: its implications on racial categorization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Racial classification has drawn increasing attention in public discourse; it intertwines with issues related to racialized perceptions. However, few social psychological studies have systematically examined racial categorization processes and their implications for interracial relations. In 5 studies, we investigated the role of racial essentialism in influencing several important psychological aspects of racial categorization. Results linked the belief in racial essentialism to an increased tendency to engage in race-based categorization (Studies 1-3) and greater sensitivity in discerning racial group membership (Studies 4-5). These results are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding and managing interracial relations in the United States.

Chao MM; Hong YY; Chiu CY

2013-04-01

209

Constructivism and Education: Misunderstandings and Pedagogical Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Constructivism is a popular concept in contemporary teacher education programs. However, a genuine concern arises with the concept's application because many teachers and teacher educators claim that knowledge is constructed, without appreciating the epistemological and pedagogical implications such a claim entails. This article employs Phillips'…

Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Strobel, Johannes

2008-01-01

210

ECOHYDROLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF WOODY PLANT ENCROACHMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Increases in the abundance or density of woody plants in historically semiarid and arid grassland ecosystems have important implications for hydrology, ecology, and society. Using a simplified water-balance model, we propose a framework for conceptualizing how woody plant encroachment is likely to ...

211

Self-Directed Learning: Implications for Museums  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-directed learning (SDL) has numerous implications for understanding adult learners and for improving their museum experiences. Through a review of the conceptual and empirical literature, the relationship between SDL and education within a museum setting is explored in this article. Discussion includes an overview of SDL, inquiry into two…

Banz, Richard

2008-01-01

212

Implications of LHC Higgs results for supersymmetry  

Science.gov (United States)

The current LHC Higgs results may be used as a guide for where to look for SUSY. I discuss implications for the MSSM and NMSSM. Particularly interesting are NMSSM scenarios with large ? and small tan ? they are characterized by light stops and light higgsinos, and offer the intriguing possibility of observing more than one light Higgs at the LHC.

Kraml, Sabine

2013-08-01

213

Retroelements: molecular features and implications for disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eukaryotic genomes comprise numerous retroelements that have a major impact on the structure and regulation of gene function. Retroelements are regulated by epigenetic controls, and they generate multiple miRNAs that are involved in the induction and progression of genomic instability. Elucidation of the biological roles of retroelements deserves continuous investigation to better understand their evolutionary features and implications for disease.

Jung YD; Ahn K; Kim YJ; Bae JH; Lee JR; Kim HS

2013-01-01

214

Tiered Pricing: Implications for Library Collections  

Science.gov (United States)

|In recent years an increasing number of publishers have adopted tiered pricing of journals. The design and implications of tiered-pricing models, however, are poorly understood. Tiered pricing can be modeled using several variables. A survey of current tiered-pricing models documents the range of key variables used. A sensitivity analysis…

Hahn, Karla

2005-01-01

215

Regional implications of future climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A total of 26 papers were presented at the workshop, in five main sessions headed: general; climate changes during the last 10,000 years; expected regional changes based on numerical models; environmental implications; and potential international impacts of global warming. All papers have been indexed separately.

Graber, M.; Cohen, A.; Magaritz, M. [eds.

1993-09-01

216

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Implications for Educators.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides a discussion of definitions, historical precursors, and prevalence figures for children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and highlights relevant medical and behavioral characteristics. It also addresses the educational implications of working with children with FAS in terms of instruction and curriculum. Educators are urged…

Ackerman, Margaret E.

217

Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology--An Update  

Science.gov (United States)

Some engineers and scientists are either directly or indirectly involved with nanotechnology issues. Nanotechnology concerns dealing with environmental implications and regulatory compliance encompass practicing areas for these technical individuals. Areas of particular concern include current/proposed environmental regulations and procedures for quantifying both health risks and hazard risks. This article addresses both of these issues.

Stander, Leo; Theodore, Louis

2011-01-01

218

Implications of tritium in neutral beam injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neutral injectors for heating plasmas of D-T burning fusion reactors are subject to tritium contamination. This paper discusses relevant questions and problem areas pertinent to tritium environment, including calculations of tritium contaminations in different neutral injectors, gas handling and pumping systems, and implications on beam line components.

Kim, J; Stewart, L D

1980-01-01

219

Transnational Education: Current Developments and Policy Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Ever since the transnational education trend took off since the 1980s, transnational education has come to bearing political, economic and cultural implications. Different approaches have been formulated to achieve specific policy objectives by both importing and exporting countries. Such approaches demonstrate a four dimensional composition,…

Gu, Jianxin

2009-01-01

220

Welfare implications of public education spending rules  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we quantitatively assess the welfare implications of alternative public education spending rules. To this end, we employ a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model in which human capital externalities and public education expenditures, financed by distorting taxes, enhance the pro...

Angelopoulos, Konstantinos; Malley, Jim; Philippopoulos, Apostolis

 
 
 
 
221

The implications of Jesus’ radical love  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

How to cite this book review: Pieterse, H.J.C., 2011, ‘The implications of Jesus’ radical love’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 67(3), Art. #1139, 1 page. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v67i3.1139

Hennie J.C. Pieterse

222

The implications of Jesus’ radical love  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to cite this book review: Pieterse, H.J.C., 2011, ‘The implications of Jesus’ radical love’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 67(3), Art. #1139, 1 page. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v67i3.1139

Hennie J.C. Pieterse

2011-01-01

223

The nuclear and its psychological implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the 13. to 15. january 1977, the S.F.R.P. has organised at Paris, with the patronage of The National Institute of Health and Medical Research, the French Society of Radiology, a colloquium devoted to the nuclear and its psycho-implications sociological. It is a second edition, realised at the demand of the Antoine Beclere Center. (N.C.)

2001-01-01

224

Origin of comets - implications for planetary formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Primordial and episodic theories for the origin of comets are discussed. The implications of the former type for the origin of the solar system are considered. Candidate sites for the formation of comets are compared. The possible existence of a massive inner Oort cloud is discussed

1985-01-01

225

Multi-Sommerfeld enhancement and its implication  

CERN Document Server

We study the Multi-Sommerfeld enhancement in the case where $V(r)$ is composed of different kinds of potentials. In addition to some general results of the Multi-Sommerfeld enhancement, its possible implication in dark matter annihilation is briefly discussed.

Zhang, Zhentao

2013-01-01

226

Peptides Targeting Protein Kinases: Strategies and Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein kinases are important key regulators in most, if not all, biological processes and are linked with many human diseases. Protein kinases thus became attractive targets for drug design. Intracellularly active peptides that selectively interfere with kinase function and or kinase-mediated signaling pathways are potential drug compounds with therapeutic implications.

2006-12-01

227

A Deep Study of Fuzzy Implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis contributes a deep study on the extensions of the IMPLY operator in classical binary logic to fuzzy logic, which are called fuzzy implications. After the introduction in Chapter 1 and basic notations about the fuzzy logic operators In Chapter 2 we first characterize In Chapter 3 S- and...

Kerre, Etienne; Ruan, Da; Shi, Yun

228

Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology—An Update  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some engineers and scientists are either directly or indirectly involved with nanotechnology issues. Nanotechnology concerns dealing with environmental implications and regulatory compliance encompass practicing areas for these technical individuals. Areas of particular concern include current/proposed environmental regulations and procedures for quantifying both health risks and hazard risks. This article addresses both of these issues.

Leo Stander; Louis Theodore

2011-01-01

229

IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBALIZATION ON THE WORLD ECONOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the issues of maximum interes to our century is the analysis of implications of globalization on the world economy and this proves to be even more important now in the middle of financial crisis. Forecasts from the World Bank are very optimistic o

Culita Gica Gherghina; Niculcea Silviu Petrisor

2009-01-01

230

Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are perceived, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise. Keywords: ERP, Chinese Cultural Implications, Societal Culture, Strategy Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are perceived, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise. Keywords: ERP, Chinese Cultural Implications, Societal Culture, Strategy Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are perceived, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise. Keywords: ERP, Chinese Cultural Implications, Societal Culture, Strategy

Mukesh Srivastava; Betsy Gips

2009-01-01

231

Implications of Genetic Findings for Understanding Schizophrenia  

Science.gov (United States)

From the perspective of those of us working on the genetics of schizophrenia, recent progress in identifying specific genetic risk factors at highly robust levels of statistical significance has been striking. However, the prevailing response among other schizophrenia researchers and some funders, families, and sufferers is often one of disappointment. In particular, it is often claimed that these discoveries explain only a small proportion of the genetic risk and hence tell us little about the nature of schizophrenia. The purpose of this article is to persuade you that recent genetic findings, while only revealing the tip of a complex genetic iceberg, already have profound implications for our general understanding of the classification and pathogenesis of schizophrenia and related disorders and that these have implications for schizophrenia research of all kinds.

Owen, Michael J.

2012-01-01

232

Implications of genetic findings for understanding schizophrenia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From the perspective of those of us working on the genetics of schizophrenia, recent progress in identifying specific genetic risk factors at highly robust levels of statistical significance has been striking. However, the prevailing response among other schizophrenia researchers and some funders, families, and sufferers is often one of disappointment. In particular, it is often claimed that these discoveries explain only a small proportion of the genetic risk and hence tell us little about the nature of schizophrenia. The purpose of this article is to persuade you that recent genetic findings, while only revealing the tip of a complex genetic iceberg, already have profound implications for our general understanding of the classification and pathogenesis of schizophrenia and related disorders and that these have implications for schizophrenia research of all kinds.

Owen MJ

2012-09-01

233

Implications of changes for the field: ADHD.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article provides a thorough discussion of the proposed DSM-5 changes and their implications for current and future approaches to assessment, identification, and service delivery for children and adolescents with ADHD. Educational and clinical implications are discussed with special attention to the individual impact of the changes, diagnostic prevalence rates, and associated societal costs. Developmental period is considered as an important factor in the potential impact of the DSM-5 changes. The authors conclude that the DSM-5 proposed revisions may improve diagnostic sensitivity and specificity; yet the overall impact of these changes remains largely unknown as many were not empirically validated. The authors suggest that the cumulative impact of the set of changes be considered when finalizing the DSM-5 revisions.

Sibley MH; Waxmonsky JG; Robb JA; Pelham WE

2013-01-01

234

Growth Laws in Cancer: Implications for Radiotherapy  

CERN Document Server

Comparing both, the more conventional Gompertz tumor growth law (GL) and the ``Universal'' law (UL), recently proposed and applied to cancer,we have investigated the growth law's implications on various radiotherapy regimen. According to GL, the surviving tumor cell fraction could be reduced 'ad libidum', independently of the initial tumor mass,simply by increasing the number of treatments. On the contrary, if tumor growth dynamics would indeed follow the Universal scaling law, there is a lower limit of the survival fraction that cannot be reduced any further regardless of the total number of treatments. This finding can explain the so called ``tumor size effect'' and re-emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis as it implies that radiotherapy may be successful provided the tumor mass at treatment onset is rather small. Taken together with our previous works, implications of these findings include revisiting standard radiotherapy regimen and overall treatment protocols.

Castorina, P; Gabriele, P; Guiot, C

2006-01-01

235

Implications of environmental degradation in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The environment can be broadly classified into two areas: physical and cultural. The interaction between these two categories have far reaching implications for both. Their interactions is already exerting a negative influence, in various ways, on man and on ecosystems. An urgent and enduring solution is therefore called for to ensure the survival of both man and ecosystems. This paper looks at three major environmental problems in Nigeria - gas flaring, soil erosion and solid waste. It analyses their causes, and socio-economic and socio-cultural implications for the country. In conclusion, a strategy of action is proposed to combat these problems and alleviate their pressure on the nation. (author). 34 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

1996-01-01

236

Cognitive Variables Implicated In Chronic Pain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the creation of gate control theory, the importance of psychological variables in chronic pain has emerged. Thus, the cognitive variables are emphasized in between behaviors, emotions and social factors for the explanation of chronic pain. Considering the gate control theory, cognitive variables modulate the other two dimensions of the chronic pain experience: the motivational-afective dimension and the sensory-discriminative dimension (Camacho Martel & Anarte Ortiz, 2001; Gatchel, Peng, Peters, Fuchs & Turk, 2007). The aim of this work is to review the main cognitive variables implicated in the chronic pain experience. Moreover, empirical evidence that support the importance of these variables is presented. Furthermore, it is discussed the clinical implications and the importance of this area in the local context.

Moretti, Luciana Sofía

2010-01-01

237

Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study.

Hickey, H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Whicker, F.W. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

1991-12-05

238

Implication of the regulations for industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental regulations aim to protect the air, surface water, the ground, underground water and human health. This impacts on industry in two ways: on the products themselves and on the industrial activities resulting in the production of such products. The present paper is focussing on the second of these. There are numerous implications of regulations for industrial activities. In the light of the subject of this workshop, the present paper will review two main topics: measurements issues and acceptance issues. (orig.)

Vicard, J.F. (Chairman of CEN/TC 264, Air Quality' ' , LAB S.A., 69 Lyon (France))

1994-01-01

239

Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory

1998-12-01

240

Civil implications of commercial nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following aspects are discussed; spent fuel transport by rail, routes and possible accidents; reactors, possible accidents and effects of radioactive releases to the environment; possible effects of sabotage and terrorist attacks; possible hazards from fuel reprocessing plants; radioactive wastes, inventories and possible effects of escape to environment; biological radiation effects; civil war effects and democratic freedoms; the miners' strike and its implications. (U.K.).

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Functional and evolutionary implications of gene orthology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Orthologues and paralogues are types of homologous genes that are related by speciation or duplication, respectively. Orthologous genes are generally assumed to retain equivalent functions in different organisms and to share other key properties. Several recent comparative genomic studies have focused on testing these expectations. Here we discuss the complexity of the evolution of gene-phenotype relationships and assess the validity of the key implications of orthology and paralogy relationships as general statistical trends and guiding principles.

Gabaldón T; Koonin EV

2013-05-01

242

Obesity in adolescence: implications in orthodontic treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The incidence of obesity is increasing in the United States and around the world, and it is likely that obese patients will present for orthodontic therapy in greater numbers in the future. The implications of obesity for psychosocial well-being, bone metabolism, craniofacial growth, and pubertal growth must be assessed in treating obese orthodontic patients. This review article focuses on the relevant issues concerning obesity in regard to orthodontic therapy.

Neeley WW 2nd; Gonzales DA

2007-05-01

243

DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY AND JOURNALISM: implications for Democracy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital technology has brought sweeping changes to journalism  and the social institutions it serves. Journalism has historically played a central role in the U.S. and other democracies, serving as a primary source of news and information for citizens on matters of public importance. This paper examines the implications of these changes for democracy. It explores the question of whether a more interactive form of journalism will produce a more engaged and informed electorate.

John V. Pavlik

2011-01-01

244

Implications of recent neutrino oscillation data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Implications of the oscillation interpretations of solar, atmospheric, and LSND neutrino data are discussed. We list many open questions, and point out the promise of future data to answer these. Two issues discussed in some detail are (i) the difficult nature of measuring CP-violation in oscillations, and (ii) the promise of reconstructing the flavor-basis neutrino mass matrix from oscillation data. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Weiler, T.J. [Department of Physics Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

1999-07-01

245

Implications of a light charged Higgs boson  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the standard model with two Higgs doublets, there exists one neutral scalar of mass m0 ? ?2m+ where m+ is the mass of the charged Higgs boson. We discuss the implications of such a light neutral Higgs boson in the light of the proposal that the recently observed B0-anti B0 mixing could be due to the contribution of the charged Higgs boson in the box diagram. (orig.)

1988-03-10

246

Implications of Repo Markets for Central Banks  

Science.gov (United States)

A report by the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) (reviewed in the March 7, 1997 Scout Report), Implications of Repo Markets for Central Banks, seeks to "enhance central banks' understanding of the economic and monetary policy role of repo markets." Three chapters examine how private market participants use repos for hedging and leverage purposes and focus on the use of repos by central banks as an information source and policy instrument.

247

Therapeutic implications of iodine-125 cytotoxicity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The biological consequences of differential subcellular radionuclide accumulation within nuclear stuctures have important implications for the design and development of new therapeutic agents for cancer management. A growing body of experimental data demonstrates that localization of /sup 125/I within the genome results in marked cytotoxicity. Investigations of iodine-125 labeled iododeoxyuridine, DNA intercalators and tamoxifen are reviewed as representative of this new group of potential radiotherapeutic agents.

Bloomer, W.D.; McLaughlin, W.H.; Adelstein, S.J.

1982-11-01

248

Impacts of oil sands process water on fen plants: implications for plant selection in required reclamation projects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fen plant growth in peat contaminated with groundwater discharges of oil sands process water (OSPW) was assessed in a greenhouse over two growing seasons. Three treatments (non-diluted OSPW, diluted OSPW and rainwater) were tested on five vascular plants and four mosses. All vascular plants tested can grow in salinity and naphthenic acids levels currently produced by oil sands activity in northwestern Canada. No stress sign was observed after both seasons. Because of plant characteristics, Carex species (C. atherodes and C. utriculata) and Triglochin maritima would be more useful for rapidly restoring vegetation and creating a new peat-accumulating system. Groundwater discharge of OSPW proved detrimental to mosses under dry conditions and ensuring adequate water levels would be crucial in fen creation following oil sands exploitation. Campylium stellatum would be the best choice to grow in contaminated areas and Bryum pseudotriquetrum might be interesting as it has spontaneously regenerated in all treatments. PMID:22575093

Pouliot, Rémy; Rochefort, Line; Graf, Martha D

2012-05-08

249

PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF LOCATION-BASED SCHEDULING  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The traditional method for planning, scheduling and controlling activities and resources in construction projects is the CPM-scheduling, which has been the predominant scheduling method since its introduction in the late 1950s. Over the years, CPM has proven to be a very powerful technique for planning, scheduling and controlling projects. However, criticism has been raised on the CPM method, specifically in the case of construction projects, for deficient management of construction work and discontinuous flow of resources. Alternative scheduling techniques, often called repetitive or linear scheduling methods, have proven to be well suited for projects of a repetitive nature, such as building projects. As the repetitive or linear scheduling methods may include locations or places, they are also referred to by the comprehensive term of location-based scheduling (LBS), which is the concept that will be used in this study. LBS is a scheduling method that rests upon the theories of line-of-balance and which usesthe graphic representation of a flowline chart. As such, LBS is adapted for planning and management of workflows and, thus, may provide a solution to the identified shortcomings of CPM. Even though LBS has a long history and is well grounded theoretically, it has gained generally little attention in the construction industry. Besides the theoretical research available on LBS, some studies report on the application of LBS, but empirical data on the practical implications of LBS is limited. This study rests upon three case studies of residential projects carried out in Denmark in 2006. The purpose is to test and evaluate the practical implications of LBS when applied on site. The study concludes, with emphasis from the site management involved, that improved schedule overview, establishment of workflows and improved project control constitute the three most important implications of LBS.

Andersson, Niclas; Christensen, Knud

2007-01-01

250

Transformation of University Organizations:Leadership and Managerial Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transformation of University Organizations:Leadership and Managerial Implications Cemil ULUKAN, Ph.D Anadolu UniversityOpen Education Faculty Eskisehir-TURKEYABSTRACT Technology and globalization are forcing higher education institutions to transform themselves. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding the leadership and managerial implications of recent developments for higher education. Reviewing unique characteristics and the fundamental changes shaping higher education, the paper examines the need for organizational transformation and the major managerial implications.

Cemil ULUKAN

2005-01-01

251

Implications of organizational ethics to healthcare.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Organizational ethics is an emerging field concerned with the study and practice of the ethical behaviour of organizations. For effective application to healthcare settings, we argue that organizational ethics requires attention to organizations' special characteristics combined with tools borrowed from the fields of business ethics and bioethics. We identify and discuss several implications of this burgeoning field to healthcare organizations, showing how organizational ethics can facilitate policy making, accountability, self-evaluation, and patient and business perspectives. In our conclusion, we suggest an action plan for healthcare organizations to help them respond appropriately to their ethical responsibilities.

Ells C; MacDonald C

2002-01-01

252

Arab Spring: Geopolitical Implications for Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article sets out to examine the geopolitical implications of the Arab Spring for Iran. It hypothesizes that in spite of the initial short-term benefits of the Arab Spring, in the long-term it has transformed into an acute challenge for Iran. Developments in Bahrain, Egypt, and Syria-- thanks to their prominent positions in Iran’s foreign policy apparatus-- have contributed to serious friction between Iran and other regional rivals, namely Saudi Arabia, Israel and Turkey. The Arab Spring seems to have given rise to an Iranian Autumn.

Reza Ekhtiari Amiri; Mohammad Agus Yusoff; Fakhreddin Soltani

2012-01-01

253

GLOBAL WARMING: IMPLICATIONS AND ANTICIPATORY ADAPTIVE MEASURES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our earth is warming up. There is no denying to this fact that the gradual heating up of our globe has a tremendous effect on the climate. It in turn has affected the biotic factors that make up our biosphere, eventually directing the course of our socio-economic development. Some workers are, however, optimistic about this natural phenomenon. Various ways have been suggested to mitigate the effects of global warming, but the damage already done cannot be revoked. Hence, the thing that we are left with is to go for anticipatory adaptive measures so as to tone down the intensity of future implications of global warming.

AABID RASOOL ZARGAR; MEHRAJ A. SHEIKH; MUNESH KUMAR

2011-01-01

254

Stopping Power Measurements: Implications in Nuclear Astrophysics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The stopping powers of C, CH{sub 2}, Al, Ni, and polyvinylchloride (PVC) for several light ions ({sup 9}Be, {sup 11}B, {sup 12}C, {sup 14}N, {sup 16}O, {sup 19}F, {sup 20}Ne) with an incident energy of 1 MeV/amu have been measured at the Louvain-la-Neuve cyclotron facility. Stopping powers are given relative to the one for 5.5 MeV {sup 4}He ions with an uncertainty of less than 1%. We compare our results with two widely used semiempirical models and we discuss some implications in nuclear astrophysics studies.

Carmen Angulo; Thierry Delbar; Jean-Sebastien Graulich; Pierre Leleux

1999-12-31

255

Comparative Loss Aversion: Some New Behavioral Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a new loss aversion coefficient for decision makers. Considering this loss aversion coefficient and Shalev’s (2002) perceptive utility function, we define a new version of rank-dependent expected utility theory. Our main results extend the restrictions of comparative loss aversion, and reveal the behavioral implications of comparative loss aversion. The new loss aversion coefficient is well defined as a measure of degree of loss aversion. Our main findings of comparative loss aversion can also be applied to welfare, health, insurance and other topical economic problems.Key words: Loss aversion coefficient; Comparative loss aversion; Rank-dependent expected utility; Decision making under risk

Minggao Xue; Wen CHENG

2012-01-01

256

PRIMARY NURSING IMPLICATIONS ON NURSING CARE ASSISTANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors present the method ?Primary Nursing?, which has as principle the elevation of thenurse?s autonomy, in which he is responsible for the patient 24 hours a day. The also present the function of eachnurse engaged in that process, pointing out the advantages of the method and its implications in the practice. In itsreview, they put results of 07 present works accomplished with the introduction of the ?Primary Nursing?. As finalconsiderations, the state that the ?Primary Nursing? improves the quality of assistance given by the nurse, and itsperformance will mainly depend on the nurse?s interest, on changing the reference system towards the professionalcompetence.

Luciana Mahnis Pereira Carmona; Maria Cristina M. Capel Laluna

2002-01-01

257

Implications of Generalized Z-Z' Mixing  

CERN Multimedia

We discuss experimental implications of extending the gauge structure of the Standard Model to include an additional U(1) interaction broken at or near the weak scale. We work with the most general, renormalizable Lagrangian for the SU(2)\\times U(1)\\times U(1) sector, with emphasis on the phenomenon of gauge kinetic mixing between the two U(1) gauge fields, and do not restrict ourselves to any of the "canonical" Z' models often discussed in the literature. Low-energy processes and Z-pole precision measurements are specifically addressed.

Babu, K S; March-Russell, John David; Kolda, Christopher; March-Russell, John

1998-01-01

258

Cardiomyocyte death: mechanisms and translational implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although treatments have improved, development of novel therapies for patients with CVD remains a major research goal. Apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy occur in cardiac myocytes, and both gradual and acute cell death are hallmarks of cardiac pathology, including heart failure, myocardial infarction, and ischemia/reperfusion. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy, apoptosis, or necrosis diminishes infarct size and improves cardiac function in these disorders. Here, we review recent progress in the fields of autophagy, apoptosis, and necrosis. In addition, we highlight the involvement of these mechanisms in cardiac pathology and discuss potential translational implications.

Chiong M; Wang ZV; Pedrozo Z; Cao DJ; Troncoso R; Ibacache M; Criollo A; Nemchenko A; Hill JA; Lavandero S

2011-01-01

259

The Global Economic Crisis: Implications in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global economic crisis which the whole world has been witnessing in the past few years now has taken a toll on Nigeria and Nigerians. This paper examined the implications of the global crisis on Nigeria and suggests few steps to be taken to ameliorate the effects on the citizens. It also studied the steps the Federal government has taken so far to reduce the impact on the economy and the society at large most importantly, the paper highlighted the need for Nigeria to diversify its economy and look more inward into other solid minerals deposits development and agriculture so as to remove herself from the over dependence on oil.

Uchem R. O.

2010-01-01

260

Sexual and psychological implications of gynecologic malignancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sexual implications of gynecologic malignancy are best understood by asking, and answering, the following three questions. What is the psychological effect on the woman? What is the physiological effect on the woman? What is the psychological effect on the partner? The psychological effect of the cancer on the woman is primarily determined by whether the malignancy is primary, recurrent, or terminal; the primary physiological determinants are whether the treatment is with surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. The partner can be affected psychologically by all six of the variables. Preoperative knowledge of the woman's sexual history may influence subsequent treatments. PMID:6569213

Wabrek, A J; Gunn, J L

 
 
 
 
261

Implications of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell aging.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aging is defined as the progressive and generalized impairment of function, resulting in an increasing vulnerability to environmental challenges and a growing risk of disease and death. The decline in the regenerative capacity of resident stem cells across different tissues is a central mediator of aging. In this paper we review the evidence implicating multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells as being subject to and causes of tissue and organismal aging. We specifically discuss the nuclear changes that occur in the context of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, a premature aging syndrome that preferentially affects tissues of mesenchymal origin.

Stochaj U; Kodiha M; Shum-Tim D; Colmegna I

2013-03-01

262

The ENCODE project: implications for psychiatric genetics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project is a public research consortium that aims to identify all functional elements of the human genome sequence. The project comprised 1640 data sets, from 147 different cell type and the findings were released in a coordinated set of 34 publications across several journals. The ENCODE publications report that 80.4% of the human genome displays some functionality. These data have important implications for interpreting results from large-scale genetics studies. We reviewed some of the key findings from the ENCODE publications and discuss how they can influence or inform further investigations into the genetic factors contributing to neuropsychiatric disorders.

Kavanagh DH; Dwyer S; O'Donovan MC; Owen MJ

2013-05-01

263

The nuclear and its psychological implications; Le nucleaire et ses implications psycho-sociologiques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the 13. to 15. january 1977, the S.F.R.P. has organised at Paris, with the patronage of The National Institute of Health and Medical Research, the French Society of Radiology, a colloquium devoted to the nuclear and its psycho-implications sociological. It is a second edition, realised at the demand of the Antoine Beclere Center. (N.C.)

Blanc, D. [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

2001-03-01

264

Implications of Curriculum Reform for School Buildings in Scotland  

Science.gov (United States)

Scotland's Building Excellence programme is exploring the implications of curriculum reform for school building design. It includes events which bring together teachers, designers, school managers and local authorities.

Scott-Watson, W.

2008-01-01

265

Forensic Implications: Adolescent Sexting and Cyberbullying.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adolescence is marked by establishing a sense of identity, core values, a sense of one's relationship to the outside world and heightened peer relationships. In addition, there is also risk taking, impulsivity, self exploration and dramatic increase in sexuality. The dramatic increase in the use of cell phones and the Internet has additional social implications of sexting and cyberbullying. Sexting refers to the practice of sending sexually explicit material including language or images to another person's cell phone. Cyberbullying refers to the use of this technology to socially exclude, threaten, insult or shame another person. Studies of cell phone use in the 21st century report well over 50 % of adolescents use them and that text messaging is the communication mode of choice. Studies also show a significant percentage of adolescents send and receive sex messaging, both text and images. This paper will review this expanding literature. Various motivations for sexting will also be reviewed. This new technology presents many dangers for adolescents. The legal implications are extensive and psychiatrists may play an important role in evaluation of some of these adolescents in the legal context. This paper will also make suggestions on future remedies and preventative actions.

Korenis P; Billick SB

2013-10-01

266

Annual Research Review: Resilience--clinical implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: It is a universal finding that there is huge heterogeneity in people's responses to all kinds of stress and adversity. Resilience is an interactive phenomenon that is inferred from findings indicating that some individuals have a relatively good outcome despite having experienced serious adversities. METHODS: Resilience can only be inferred if there has been testing of environmental mediation of risks and quantification of the degree of risk. The use of 'natural experiments' to test environmental mediation is briefly discussed. The literature is then reviewed on features associated with resilience in terms of (a) those that are neutral or risky in the absence of the risk experience (such as adoption); (b) brief exposure to risks and inoculation effects; (c) mental features (such as planning, self-regulation or a sense of personal agency); (d) features that foster those mental features; (e) turning point effects; (f) gene-environment interactions; (g) social relationships and promotive effects; and (h) the biology of resilience. RESULTS: Clinical implications are considered with respect to (a) conceptual implications; (b) prevention; and (c) treatment. CONCLUSION: Resilience findings do not translate into a clear programme of prevention and treatment, but they do provide numerous leads that focus on the dynamic view of what may be involved in overcoming seriously adverse experiences.

Rutter M

2013-04-01

267

Three dimensional structure and implications for the catalytic mechanism of 6-phosphogluconolactonase from Trypanosoma brucei.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enzymes from the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) are potential drug targets for the development of new drugs against Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping disease: for instance, the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase is currently studied actively for such purposes. Structural and functional studies are necessary to better characterize the associated enzymes and compare them to their human homologues, in order to undertake structure-based drug design studies on such targets. In this context, the crystal structure of 6-phosphogluconolactonase (6PGL) from T. brucei, the second enzyme from PPP, was determined at 2.1 Angstroms resolution. Comparison of its sequence and structure to other related proteins in the 6PGL family with a known structure (Thermotoga maritima Tm6GPL 1PBT and Vibrio cholerae Vc6PGL (1Y89), which have not been discussed in print), or in the glucosamine-6-phosphate-deaminase family (hexameric Escherichia coli 1DEA and monomeric Bacillus subtilis 2BKV), allowed the identification of the 6PGL active site. In addition to the analysis of the crystal structure, 3D NMR interaction studies and docking experiments are reported here. Key residues involved in substrate binding or in catalysis were identified. PMID:17196981

Delarue, Marc; Duclert-Savatier, Nathalie; Miclet, Emeric; Haouz, Ahmed; Giganti, David; Ouazzani, Jamal; Lopez, Philippe; Nilges, Michael; Stoven, Véronique

2006-11-22

268

Three dimensional structure and implications for the catalytic mechanism of 6-phosphogluconolactonase from Trypanosoma brucei.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Enzymes from the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) are potential drug targets for the development of new drugs against Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping disease: for instance, the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase is currently studied actively for such purposes. Structural and functional studies are necessary to better characterize the associated enzymes and compare them to their human homologues, in order to undertake structure-based drug design studies on such targets. In this context, the crystal structure of 6-phosphogluconolactonase (6PGL) from T. brucei, the second enzyme from PPP, was determined at 2.1 Angstroms resolution. Comparison of its sequence and structure to other related proteins in the 6PGL family with a known structure (Thermotoga maritima Tm6GPL 1PBT and Vibrio cholerae Vc6PGL (1Y89), which have not been discussed in print), or in the glucosamine-6-phosphate-deaminase family (hexameric Escherichia coli 1DEA and monomeric Bacillus subtilis 2BKV), allowed the identification of the 6PGL active site. In addition to the analysis of the crystal structure, 3D NMR interaction studies and docking experiments are reported here. Key residues involved in substrate binding or in catalysis were identified.

Delarue M; Duclert-Savatier N; Miclet E; Haouz A; Giganti D; Ouazzani J; Lopez P; Nilges M; Stoven V

2007-02-01

269

Structure of indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase from Thermus thermophilus HB8: implications for thermal stability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The three-dimensional structure of indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtIGPS) has been determined at 1.8 Å resolution. The structure adopts a typical (?/?)(8)-barrel fold with an additional N-terminal extension of 46 residues. A detailed comparison of the crystal structure of TtIGPS with available structures of IGPS from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (SsIGPS) and the bacteria Thermotoga maritima (TmIGPS) and Escherichia coli (EcIGPS) has been performed. Although the overall folds of the proteins are the same, there are differences in amino-acid composition, structural rigidity, ionic features and stability clusters which may account for the high thermostability of the hyperthermophilic (SsIGPS and TmIGPS) and thermophilic (TtIGPS) proteins when compared with the mesophilic EcIGPS. The thermostability of IGPS seems to be established mainly by favourable interactions of charged residues, salt bridges and the spatial distribution of relatively rigid clusters of extensively interacting residues.

Bagautdinov B; Yutani K

2011-12-01

270

The development of maritime geophysical activities in PETROBRAS; O desenvolvimento das atividades geofisicas maritimas na PETROBRAS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first stage of PETROBRAS` marine surveys, from 1957 to 1967, was carried out to verify the offshore extension of Brazilian onshore basins. The second stage, from 1968 up to present date, characterized by a systematic survey of the Brazilian continental shelf, have provided an expressive amount of seismic, gravimetric and magneto metric data. In the third stage, that will be started in near future, the focus will be directed on exploitation surveys. This paper depict the marine geophysical acquisition developments performed by PETROBRAS and the correlation with technological evolution observed this period. 4 refs.

Costa, C.A. da; Veras, I.M.; Lengler, R.L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

1996-12-31

271

Rubella Deaf-Blind Child: Implications of Psychological Assessment. Proceedings.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Presented are proceedings of a conference involving authorities in testing and evaluating the blind, deaf, and deaf-blind. In a paper titled "Psychological Implications of Assessing the Deaf", C. Goetzinger discusses references used in audiology, anatomy and physiology of the ear, degrees of hearing impairment, and implications of the various…

Rouin, Carole

272

Motivation and Gifted Students: Implications of Theory and Research  

Science.gov (United States)

|An analysis of contemporary motivation theories reveals implications for gifted and talented students. The expectancy-value framework, intrinsic-extrinsic motivation theories, goal orientations, self-efficacy and other self-perceptions, and attribution theory are described and discussed with respect to implications for the psychology and…

Clinkenbeard, Pamela R.

2012-01-01

273

Education System Reform in China after 1978: Some Practical Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

|Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of education system reform in China since 1978, and its practical implications. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from literature review and interview. An overview of education system reform and its practical implications was found through data analysis. Findings: There has been two…

Sun, Miantao

2010-01-01

274

Heat Shock Proteins and their clinical Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge of the physiological role of heat shock proteins is currently limited; however better understanding of their function and thereby the acquisition of the capacity to harness their power might lead to their use as therapeutic agents and revolutionize clinical practice in a number of areas. Future work is needed to translate the experimental data on the capacity of heat shock proteins to induce tumor protection and immunity to infectious agents into the clinical environment. Approach to cancer vaccine is based on the role of HSP in the presentation of antigens. In several infections and especially autoimmune diseases, the implications of immune responses against HSP are still not properly or fully understood. HSP have clinical significance in conditions such as cardiac hypertrophy, vascular wall injury, cardiac surgery, ischemic preconditioning and ageing. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000): 558-560

M. M. Pathan; A. Latif; H. Das; G. M. Siddiquee and Md. J. Z. Khan

2010-01-01

275

Religion, Spirituality and Therapy: Implications for Training.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Religion and spirituality are recognized coping resources but are neglected in psychological training and practice. However, religion and spirituality can be successfully used to cope with psychological disorders, prevent unhealthy behaviors and promote resilience. This study explored and described two questions regarding the concepts of the terminology religion and spirituality, and the perceptions of the use of religion and spirituality in therapy. Purposive sampling was utilized in a qualitative study of 15 registered psychologists, and data were analyzed using Tesch's model of qualitative content analysis. The concepts religion and spirituality appear difficult to define but the importance of their use as coping mechanisms in their own and their clients' lives was recognized. These findings have implications for professional training.

Elkonin D; Brown O; Naicker S

2012-05-01

276

Religion, Spirituality and Therapy: Implications for Training.  

Science.gov (United States)

Religion and spirituality are recognized coping resources but are neglected in psychological training and practice. However, religion and spirituality can be successfully used to cope with psychological disorders, prevent unhealthy behaviors and promote resilience. This study explored and described two questions regarding the concepts of the terminology religion and spirituality, and the perceptions of the use of religion and spirituality in therapy. Purposive sampling was utilized in a qualitative study of 15 registered psychologists, and data were analyzed using Tesch's model of qualitative content analysis. The concepts religion and spirituality appear difficult to define but the importance of their use as coping mechanisms in their own and their clients' lives was recognized. These findings have implications for professional training. PMID:22562170

Elkonin, Diane; Brown, Ottilia; Naicker, Samantha

2012-05-01

277

Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing.

Phillips J

2013-03-01

278

Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are perceived, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a (more) country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise.

Srivastava, Mukesh; Gips, Betsy J

2009-05-01

279

Multiple Sclerosis: Oral Manifestations and Dental Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a disease of the central nervous system, involves the nerves of the spinal cord and brain. Common early symptoms include visual disturbances, facial pain or trigeminal neuralgia and paresthesia or numbness of feet, legs, hands and arms. Also, many of the medications used in the symptomatic management of the condition have the potential to cause Dry Mouth and associated Oral Disease. Patients taking these medications have a predisposition to hemorrhage and are particularly susceptible to infection. The principal side effects of the medications in the oral cavity are: Stomatitis, ulcers, gingivitis, candidiasis and certain other opportunistic infections (e.g. herpes simplex). Dentists should also be aware of the importance of this disease in the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of certain oro-facial lesions or conditions. This study reviews the oro-facial manifestations of the disease and discusses the dental implications.

G.A. Scardina; F. Carini; G. Fuca; V. Valenza; P. Messina

2007-01-01

280

Vascular calcification in diabetes: mechanisms and implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death among adults with diabetes, and CVD prevention remains a major challenge. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) score measured by electron beam tomography (EBT) or multi-slice detector computed tomography correlates closely with plaque burden and coronary angiography, and predicts coronary events independently of other risk factors. Further, progression of CAC over several years has been shown to predict increased mortality. Coronary calcification is an active process strongly associated with atherosclerotic plaque evolution and is an accepted surrogate endpoint in studies of patients with diabetes older than 30. In this review, recent findings regarding the mechanisms and implications of vascular calcification in diabetes will be discussed. PMID:23526400

Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Budoff, Matthew J; Hokanson, John E

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
281

Vascular calcification in diabetes: mechanisms and implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death among adults with diabetes, and CVD prevention remains a major challenge. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) score measured by electron beam tomography (EBT) or multi-slice detector computed tomography correlates closely with plaque burden and coronary angiography, and predicts coronary events independently of other risk factors. Further, progression of CAC over several years has been shown to predict increased mortality. Coronary calcification is an active process strongly associated with atherosclerotic plaque evolution and is an accepted surrogate endpoint in studies of patients with diabetes older than 30. In this review, recent findings regarding the mechanisms and implications of vascular calcification in diabetes will be discussed.

Snell-Bergeon JK; Budoff MJ; Hokanson JE

2013-06-01

282

Safety implications of self-managed teams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report traces the history of self-management and the reasons for the introduction of self-management. The Health and Safety Executive's approach to management of safety, literature on self-managing teams and safety, and published examples of self-managing teams in the petrochemical industry are discussed. Diagnosing the suitability for self-management, and best practice in implementation are considered, four UK case studies involving the BP Chemicals plant in Baglan Bay, the Shell Exploration and Production Cada Platforms, Industrial Colours Limited, and Amec Process and Energy at Great Yarmouth are given. The research undertaken at BP Oil's Grangemouth refinery on safety implications of self-managed teams is reviewed.

Lardner, R.

1999-08-01

283

Patient satisfaction: Implications and predictors of success.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patient satisfaction is an individual's cognitive evaluation of, and emotional reaction to, his or her health-care experience. This concept is increasing in importance as survey data are being used by health-care facilities for self-assessment, accreditation requirements, and compensation formulas. High patient satisfaction is associated with increased market share, financial gains, decreased malpractice claims, and improved reimbursement rates. Modifiable factors that contribute to satisfaction include physician-patient communication, the setting of appropriate expectations, minimization of waiting times, and provision of continuity of care. There are also factors that are less amenable to change, including chronic illness, opioid dependence, and sociodemographic status. Satisfaction with a surgical outcome differs from satisfaction with an office visit. Accurate expectations and patient-reported outcome measures are important determinants of satisfaction after a surgical procedure. Physicians can improve patient satisfaction in their practice by understanding the implications of satisfaction and the predictors of success.

Shirley ED; Sanders JO

2013-05-01

284

Implications of inherent safe nuclear power system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The safety of present day nuclear power reactors and research reactors depends on a combination of design features of passive and active systems, and the alert judgement of their operators. A few inherently safe designs of nuclear reactors for power plants are currently under development. In these designs, the passive systems are emphasized, and the active systems are minimized. Also efforts are made to eliminate the potential for human failures that initiate the series of accidents. If a major system fails in these designs, the core is flooded automatically with coolants that flow by gravity, not by mechanical pumps or electromagnetic actuators. Depending on the choice of the coolants--water, liquid metal and helium gas--there are three principal types of inherently safe reactors. In this paper, these inherently safe reactor designs are reviewed and their implications are discussed. Further, future perspectives of their acceptance by nuclear industries are discussed. (author).

1987-09-04

285

Environmental implications of China's WTO accession  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China's accession to the WTO in 2001 completed the country's entry into the global economy. We investigate environmental implications of WTO-accession. There are several hypotheses in this area: The scale hypothesis says that production is scaled up and in turn, pollution increases. The composition hypothesis says that composition of industries changes and pollution reflects the new composition. The technique hypothesis says that production methods become cleaner and pollution decreases. We analyze the relative strength of the hypotheses by means of an environmental CGE-model, and in the case of air pollution find support for a composition effect in favor of clean industries. Thanks to the composition effect, emissions to air of greenhouse gases fall. Emissions of particles and SO2 also fall, but emissions of NOx and VOC rise. Since particle and SO2-emissions fall we estimate that public health improves (author)

2005-01-01

286

Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are perceived, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise.

Mukesh Srivastava; Betsy Gips

2009-01-01

287

Implications of the Human Genome Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Human Genome Project (HGP), launched in 1991, aims to map and sequence the human genome by 2006. During the fifteen-year life of the project, it is projected that $3 billion in federal funds will be allocated to it. The ultimate aims of spending this money are to analyze the structure of human DNA, to identify all human genes, to recognize the functions of those genes, and to prepare for the biology and medicine of the twenty-first century. The following summary examines some of the implications of the program, concentrating on its scientific import and on the ethical and social problems that it raises. Its aim is to expose principles that might be used in applying the information which the HGP will generate. There is no attempt here to translate the principles into detailed proposals for legislation. Arguments and discussion can be found in the full report, but, like this summary, that report does not contain any legislative proposals.

Kitcher, P.

1998-11-01

288

Promoting biofuels: Implications for developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interest in biofuels is growing worldwide as concerns about the security of energy supply and climate change are moving into the focus of policy makers. With the exception of bioethanol from Brazil, however, production costs of biofuels are typically much higher than those of fossil fuels. As a result, promotion measures such as tax exemptions or blending quotas are indispensable for ascertaining substantial biofuel demand. With particular focus on developing countries, this paper discusses the economic justification of biofuel promotion instruments and investigates their implications. Based on data from India and Tanzania, we find that substantial biofuel usage induces significant financial costs. Furthermore, acreage availability is a binding natural limitation that could also lead to conflicts with food production. Yet, if carefully implemented under the appropriate conditions, biofuel programs might present opportunities for certain developing countries.

2008-01-01

289

Implications of LHCb measurements and future prospects  

CERN Document Server

During 2011 the LHCb experiment at CERN collected $1.0 {\\mbox{fb}^{-1}}$ of $\\sqrt{s} = 7 {\\mathrm{\\,Te\\kern -0.1em V}}$ $pp$ collisions. Due to the large heavy quark production cross-sections, these data provide unprecedented samples of heavy flavoured hadrons. The first results from LHCb have made a significant impact on the flavour physics landscape and have definitively proved the concept of a dedicated experiment in the forward region at a hadron collider. This document discusses the implications of these first measurements on classes of extensions to the Standard Model, bearing in mind the interplay with the results of searches for on-shell production of new particles at ATLAS and CMS. The physics potential of an upgrade to the LHCb detector, which would allow an order of magnitude more data to be collected, is emphasised.

Aaij, R; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Anelli, M; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Band, H; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Beigbeder-Beau, C; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernard, F; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; van Beveren, V; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bochin, B; Boer Rookhuizen, H; Bogdanova, G; Bonaccorsi, E; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Brarda, L; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cacérès, T; Cachemiche, J -P; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casajus Ramo, A; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Ceelie, L; Chadaj, B; Chanal, H; Charles, M; Charlet, D; Charpentier, Ph; Chebbi, M; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciambrone, P; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corajod, B; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; D'Antone, I; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Groen, P; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Decreuse, G; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Domke, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Drancourt, C; Duarte, O; Dumps, R; Dupertuis, F; Duval, P -Y; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Evangelisti, F; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Faulkner, P J W; Fave, V; Felici, G; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Föhr, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Fournier, C; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frei, R; Frosini, M; Fuchs, H; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Gets, S; Ghez, Ph; Giachero, A; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golovtsov, V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gong, G; Gong, H; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gromov, V; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Guzik, Z; Gys, T; Hachon, F; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; van der Heijden, B; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hofmann, W; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jamet, O; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jansen, L; Jansweijer, P; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karavichev, O; Karbach, T M; Kashchuk, A; Kechadi, T; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kihm, T; Kluit, R; Kochebina, O; Komarov, V; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kos, J; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Kristic, R; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudenko, Y; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Landi, L; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Laptev, S; Latham, T; Lax, I; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Likhoded, A; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V

2013-01-01

290

Histone modifications: implications in renal cell carcinoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 2012, an estimated 64,770 men and women were diagnosed with malignancy of the kidney and renal pelvis, of which 13,570 succumbed to their disease. Common genetic aberrations in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) include loss of function of the VHL gene in clear-cell RCC, overexpression of the c-MET gene in papillary RCC type I, deficiency in the FH gene in papillary RCC type II and loss of heterozygozity of the BHD gene in chromophobe RCC. Recent studies illustrate epigenetic silencing of VHL, as well as alterations in histone modifications and their governing enzymes. The possibility of reversing these epigenetic marks has resulted in efforts to target these changes by utilizing inhibitors of HDACs, DNA methyltransferases and, recently, histone methyltransferases in preclinical and clinical studies. This article focuses on potential therapeutic interventions, and the implications of histone modifications and related enzyme alterations in RCC.

Ramakrishnan S; Ellis L; Pili R

2013-08-01

291

Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter  

Science.gov (United States)

We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has shown that the application of shear not only accelerates the transitions to more stable polymorphs, but also causes orientation of the crystallites[1]. The implications of orientation on the structures formed under conditions of shear and cooling will be described using x-ray diffraction and mechanical measurements. 1 G. Mazzanti, S. E. Guthrie, E. B. Sirota et al., Crystal Growth & Design 3 (5), 721 (2003).

Guthrie, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

2004-03-01

292

Name Strategy Its Existence and Implications  

CERN Document Server

It is argued that colour name strategy, object name strategy, and chunking strategy in memory are all aspects of the same general phenomena, called stereotyping. It is pointed out that the Berlin-Kay universal partial ordering of colours and the frequency of traffic accidents classified by colour are surprisingly similar. Some consequences of the existence of a name strategy for the philosophy of language and mathematics are discussed. It is argued that real valued quantities occur {\\it ab initio}. The implication of real valued truth quantities is that the {\\bf Continuum Hypothesis} of pure mathematics is side-stepped. The existence of name strategy shows that thought/sememes and talk/phonemes can be separate, and this vindicates the assumption of thought occurring before talk used in psycholinguistic speech production models.

Roberts, M D

1998-01-01

293

Nursing implications for Hepatic arterial perfusion scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nurses working in Nuclear Medicine assist in Hepatic Artery Catheter (HAC) perfusion studies. This scan is not widely performed in Australia, the St George hospital for example performs approximately five per year. The purpose of this article is firstly to review the indications and rationale of HAC patency studies. Secondly, this article will stress the clinical implications for the Nuclear Medicine Nurse during this study. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of patient education during the procedure. A brief overview of hepatic anatomy and the radiopharmaceuticals administered during the scan is discussed. Finally, a step by step protocol is presented to show how the perfusion/ shunt study is performed. Copyright (1999) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

1999-01-01

294

Implications of nonlinearity for spherically symmetric accretion  

CERN Document Server

Stationary solutions of spherically symmetric accretion processes have been subjected to a time-dependent radial perturbation, whose equation includes nonlinearity to any arbitrary order. Regardless of the order of nonlinearity, the equation of the perturbation bears a form that is remarkably similar to the metric equation of an analogue acoustic black hole. Casting the perturbation as a standing wave and maintaining nonlinearity in it up to the second order, brings out the time-dependence of the perturbation in the form of a Lienard system. A dynamical systems analysis of this Lienard system reveals a saddle point in real time, with the implication that instabilities will develop in the accreting system when the perturbation is extended into the nonlinear regime. The instability of initial subsonic states may also adversely affect the temporal evolution of the flow towards a final stable transonic state.

Sen, Sourav

2012-01-01

295

Dialectics of mindfulness: implications for western medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Mindfulness as a clinical and nonclinical intervention for a variety of symptoms has recently received a substantial amount of interest. Although the application of mindfulness appears straightforward and its effectiveness is well supported, the concept may easily be misunderstood. This misunderstanding may severely limit the benefit of mindfulness-based interventions. It is therefore necessary to understand that the characteristics of mindfulness are based on a set of seemingly paradoxical structures. This article discusses the underlying paradox by disentangling it into five dialectical positions - activity vs. passivity, wanting vs. non-wanting, changing vs. non-changing, non-judging vs. non-reacting, and active acceptance vs. passive acceptance, respectively. Finally, the practical implications for the medical professional as well as potential caveats are discussed.

Sauer Sebastian; Lynch Siobhan; Walach Harald; Kohls Niko

2011-01-01

296

Mediating lipid biosynthesis: Implications for cardiovascular disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dysregulation of lipid homeostasis is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms of maintaining lipid homeostasis may aid the discovery of novel targets for treating CVD. MED15 and cyclin-dependent kinase-8 (CDK8) are subunits of the Mediator complex, which contains multiple proteins and functions as a transcriptional cofactor. Mediator can positively or negatively regulate gene expression, depending on the contexts and its associated transcription factors. Recent studies revealed a critical role of MED15 and CDK8 in regulating sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors, which are master activators for genes that are responsible for lipid biosynthesis. Here, we review the function of MED15 and CDK8 in regulating lipid homeostasis and discuss the implications for CVD.

Xiaoli; Yang F

2013-10-01

297

Implications of Ice Morphology for Comet Formation  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory surface science under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions allows us to simulate the growth of ices in astrophysical environments. Using the techniques of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and microbalance methods we have studied binary ice systems consisting of water (H2O) and variety of other species including carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) at astrophysically relevant conditions of temperature and pressure. We present results that demonstrate that the morphology of water ice has an important influence on the behaviour of such systems by allowing processes such as diffusion and trapping that can not be understood through a knowledge of the binding energies of the species alone. Through an understanding of the implications of water ice morphology on the behaviour of ice mixtures in the interstellar environment additional constraints can be placed on the thermodynamic conditions and ice compositions during comet formation.

Collings, M. P.; Dever, J. W.; McCoustra, M. R. S.; Fraser, H. J.

2005-01-01

298

Pituitary stem cells: candidates and implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pituitary is the master endocrine gland of the body. It undergoes many changes after birth, and these changes may be mediated by the differentiation of pituitary stem cells. Stem cells in any tissue source must display (1) pluripotent capacity, (2) capacity for indefinite self-renewal, and (3) a lack of specialization. Unlike neural stem cells identified in the hippocampus and subventricular zone, pituitary stem cells are not associated with one specific cell type. There are many major candidates that are thought to be potential pituitary stem cell sources. This article reviews the evidence for each of the major cell types and discuss the implications of identifying a definitive pituitary stem cell type. PMID:23423660

Nassiri, Farshad; Cusimano, Michael; Zuccato, Jeff A; Mohammed, Safraz; Rotondo, Fabio; Horvath, Eva; Syro, Luis V; Kovacs, Kalman; Lloyd, Ricardo V

2013-09-01

299

Osteoimmunology and its implications for transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoimmunology is a field of research dedicated to the study of the interactions between the immune system, the hemopoietic system and bone. Among the cells of the immune system that regulate bone cells and the hemopoietic function are T lymphocytes. These cells secrete inflammatory cytokines that promote bone resorption, as well as Wnt ligands that stimulate bone formation. In addition, T cells regulate bone homeostasis by cross talking with BM stromal cells and osteoblastic cells via CD40 ligand (CD40L) and other costimulatory molecules. This article describes the immune cells relevant to bone and the hemopoietic function, reviews the role of lymphocytes as mediators of the effects of PTH and estrogen in bone and the hemopoietic system and discusses the implication of osteoimmunology for transplant medicine. PMID:23915249

Pacifici, R

2013-08-05

300

Fixing the "broken heart": pharmacologic implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Broken-heart syndrome also known as Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome or Stress-induced cardiomyopathy or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is an important clinical entity, which presents clinically, similar to acute coronary syndrome with an acute onset of chest pain, ST-T changes in electrocardiogram, and moderate cardiac enzyme elevation. Recent studies have shown that it accounts for 1%-2% of cases of ST-elevation infarction. An episode of intense emotional or physiologic stress has been reported before its presentation and is presumed to be the triggering factor in the pathogenesis. The pathophysiology of this syndrome still remains unclear, and management is mostly empiric and supportive. In this review, we have discussed various pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this cardiomyopathy and their pharmacological implications and role of medications such as aspirin, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and statins for patients presenting with this syndrome in treatment and prevention.

Shah RM; Kodumuri VK; Bhuriya R; Singh PP; Adigopula S; Khosla S; Arora RR

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
301

Rumen bypass nutrients: Manipulation and implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The feeds available for ruminants in developing countries are either agro-industrial by-products or specially grown forage crops. Many of these feeds are low in protein and require supplementation with non-protein N (NPN) to maintain efficient rumen function and digestibility. The principles for utilizing high energy, low protein feeds by ruminants are discussed in relation to the supply of NPN, the establishment of efficient rumen function, maximizing feed intake by means of supplements, and increasing total energy and protein intake by using supplements which bypass the rumen. To illustrate it the application of these principles to feeding systems based on molasses, chopped whole sugar cane and derinded sugar cane is discussed. The implications of the principles in increasing the feeding value of straw are also discussed. (author)

1981-12-04

302

Gaming Goes Mobile: Issues and Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A recent report by the telecommunications research firm Analysys predicts that mobile games will replace ringtones, logos and other personalisation services as one of the key drivers of the mobile market. Despite the rapid growth of the mobile gaming market, there appears to have been little critical analysis of this phenomenon. The paper aims to investigate the industrial and social implications of mobile gaming, by bringing together some of the current research on both mobile communications and computer games. Beginning with a broad overview of the major stakeholders in the market, the paper examines how mobile gaming functions as a vehicle for convergence, bringing together previously disparate industries around a common form of content. It also examines the regulatory complexities that arise when gaming becomes mobile, and in particular how the rise of technologies like location-based services might impact on issues such as privacy.

Finn, Mark

2005-01-01

303

Cardiac lipotoxicity: molecular pathways and therapeutic implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes and obesity are both associated with lipotoxic cardiomyopathy exclusive of coronary artery disease and hypertension. Lipotoxicities have become a public health concern and are responsible for a significant portion of clinical cardiac disease. These abnormalities may be the result of a toxic metabolic shift to more fatty acid and less glucose oxidation with concomitant accumulation of toxic lipids. Lipids can directly alter cellular structures and activate downstream pathways leading to toxicity. Recent data have implicated fatty acids and fatty acyl coenzyme A, diacylglycerol, and ceramide in cellular lipotoxicity, which may be caused by apoptosis, defective insulin signaling, endoplasmic reticulum stress, activation of protein kinase C, MAPK activation, or modulation of PPARs. PMID:23508767

Drosatos, Konstantinos; Schulze, P Christian

2013-06-01

304

[Normal and pathologic implication of cytokines].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cytokines involved in the immune process proof, also, the neurotransmitter role, being synthesized by various cells of the body, with specific genes participation. Cytokines can act on the some membrane receptor like the neurotransmitters, and they can produce diverse biological effects. Pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory or haematopoetic cytokines as those in the central nervous system can be identified by immunoassay and bioassay methods. Recent works show that the cytokines implication in hypothalamo-hypophyso-corticopsuprarenal and gonad axis have consequence on ACTH, corticoids and LH secretion, explaining the ovulatory and gestational disorders. Excessive or insufficient cytokines synthesis, at neuronal level (astrocytes, microglies), explains psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer's disease; cytokines (interferon) long term use for the treatment of some diseases, produce irritability, anxiety, delirium, and confusion etc.

Stratone A; Stratone C; Chiru?? R; Topoliceanu F

2001-10-01

305

Frequency and implications of HIV superinfection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

HIV superinfection occurs when an individual with HIV is infected with a new distinct HIV viral strain. Superinfection has been reported throughout the world, and studies have recorded incidence rates of 0-7·7% per year. Use of next-generation sequencing has improved detection of superinfection, which can be transmitted by injecting drug use and sexual intercourse. Superinfection might have incidence rates comparable to those of initial HIV infection. Clinicians should encourage safe sexual and injecting drug use practices for HIV-infected patients because superinfection has detrimental effects on clinical outcomes and could pose a concern for large-scale antiretroviral treatment plans. The occurrence of superinfection has implications for vaccine research, since it seems initial HIV infection is not fully protective against a subsequent infection. Additional collaborative research could benefit care of patients and inform future vaccine design.

Redd AD; Quinn TC; Tobian AA

2013-07-01

306

Destination image: Origins, Developments and Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the last few decades, tourism has become one of the main sectors of the global economy, not only because of its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of different countries, but also because of the employment it generates. Since 2009, however, the results of tourism have been severely affected by the economic and financial crisis and it is now essential to analyze the key elements of tourist consumer behavior. In this context, the image that a destination transmits to the market becomes one of the elements which influence tourists the most when choosing a tourist destination. The authors therefore aim to identify the main elements that characterize the image of a tourist destination, as well as their implications for the management of tourist destinations.

Sérgio Dominique Ferreira Lopes

2011-01-01

307

Waste management implications of concentrating slimes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The anticipated increase in demand for sand-size tailings from the uranium industry suggests that the fine-grained or 'slime' fraction will require special attention for disposal. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) required information on the behaviour and environmental significance of the fine-grained tailings fraction in disposal facilities. Beak Consultants and Golder Associates were contracted to review the significant characteristics of slimes disposal and prepare a report on the physical and chemical characteristics of fine-grained tailings (Phase 1). This report (Phase 2) presents a summary of disposal and management practices for slimes and outlines potential concerns related to these practices. The report also presents an approach to disposal planning and the implications of available and potential management techniques. Experience with the disposal of uranium slimes is scarce and, therefore, relevant information was borrowed from the other mining sectors to predict the consequences of various disposal scenarios.

1988-01-01

308

Implications of laboratory diagnosis on brucellosis therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis with a huge economic impact on animal husbandry and public health. The diagnosis of human brucellosis can be protracted because the disease primarily presents as fever of unknown origin with unspecific clinical signs and symptoms. The isolation rate of the fastidious etiologic agent from blood cultures is low, and therefore laboratory diagnosis is mainly based on serologic and molecular testing. However, seronegative brucellosis patients have been described, and antibody titers of diagnostic significance are difficult to define. Whether the molecular detection of Brucella DNA in clinical samples should be followed by long-term antibiotic treatment or not is also a matter of debate. The aim of this article is to review and discuss the implications of laboratory test results in the diagnosis of human brucellosis on disease therapy. PMID:21810055

Al Dahouk, Sascha; Nöckler, Karsten

2011-07-01

309

Implications of laboratory diagnosis on brucellosis therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis with a huge economic impact on animal husbandry and public health. The diagnosis of human brucellosis can be protracted because the disease primarily presents as fever of unknown origin with unspecific clinical signs and symptoms. The isolation rate of the fastidious etiologic agent from blood cultures is low, and therefore laboratory diagnosis is mainly based on serologic and molecular testing. However, seronegative brucellosis patients have been described, and antibody titers of diagnostic significance are difficult to define. Whether the molecular detection of Brucella DNA in clinical samples should be followed by long-term antibiotic treatment or not is also a matter of debate. The aim of this article is to review and discuss the implications of laboratory test results in the diagnosis of human brucellosis on disease therapy.

Al Dahouk S; Nöckler K

2011-07-01

310

Cosmological implications of the Machian principle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The famous idea of Ernst Mach concerning the non-absolute but relational character of particle inertia is taken up in this paper and is reinvestigated with respect to its cosmological implications. From Thirring's general relativistic study of the old Newtonian problem of the relativity of rotations in different reference systems, it appears that the equivalence principle with respect to rotating reference systems, if at all, can only be extended to the system of the whole universe, if the mass of the universe scales with the effective radius or extent of the universe. A reanalysis of Thirring's derivations still reveals this astonishing result, and thus the general question must be posed: how serious this result has to be taken with respect to cosmological implications. As we will show, the equivalence principle is, in fact, fulfilled by a universe with vanishing curvature, i.e. with a curvature parameter k = 0, which just has the critical density rho (crit) = (3H)(2)/8piG, where H is the Hubble constant. It turns out, however, that this principle can only permanently be fulfilled in an evolving cosmos, if the cosmic mass density, different from its conventional behaviour, varies with the reciprocal of the squared cosmic scale. This, in fact, would automatically be realized, if the mass of each cosmic particle scales with the scale of the universe. The latter fact, on one hand, is a field-theoretical request from a general relativistic field theory which fulfills H. Weyl's requirement of a conformal scale invariance. On the other hand, it can perhaps also be concluded on purely physical grounds, when taking into account that as source of the cosmic metrics only an effective mass density can be taken. This mass density represents the bare mass density reduced by its mass equivalent of gravitational self-binding energy. Some interesting cosmological conclusions connected with this fact are pointed out in this paper.

Fahr HJ; Zoennchen JH

2006-12-01

311

Comparative anatomy of a regulatory ribosomal protein.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ribosomal protein L4 is a crucial folding mediator and an important architectural component of the large ribosomal subunit. Furthermore, Escherichia coli L4 produced in excess of its rRNA binding sites downregulates the transcription and translation of its own S10 operon, encoding 11 ribosomal proteins. Genetic experiments and the crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima L4 had implicated separable regions on L4 in ribosome association and expression control while RNA competition experiments and the regulatory capacity of heterologous L4 had suggested an overlap of the protein sequences involved in the two functions. We report herein that contrary to other foreign bacterial L4 proteins, L4 from T. maritima only weakly controlled expression of the S10 operon in E. coli. Also, wildtype T. maritima L4 was more weakly associated with E. coli ribosomes than with the E. coli analog. Rational mutageneses were performed to try to increase the regulatory competence of T. maritima L4. The ribosome incorporation of the mutant proteins was also investigated. Two different deletions removing T. maritima-specific sequences had little effects on regulation although one did improve ribosome association. Interestingly, a set of multiple mutations, which rendered the region around helices alpha4 and alpha5 in T. maritima L4 more E. coli-like, had no influence on the incorporation of the protein into the large ribosomal subunit but considerably improved its regulatory potential. Therefore, the area around helices alpha4 and alpha5, which is critical for the initial folding steps of the large subunit, is also a central element of autogenous control, presumably by contacting the S10 mRNA leader. Ribosome association is compounded at later stages of assembly by additional rRNA contacts through L4 areas which do not participate in regulation. Similarly, sequences outside the alpha4/alpha5 region aid expression control.

Worbs M; Wahl MC; Lindahl L; Zengel JM

2002-08-01

312

Assortative mating for relative weight: genetic implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most work on the genetics of relative weight has not considered the role of assortative mating, i.e., mate selection based on similarity between mates. We investigated the extent to which engaged men and women in an archival longitudinal database were similar to each other in relative body weight prior to marriage and cohabitation. After controlling for age, a small but statistically significant mate correlation was found for relative weight (r=.13, p=.023), indicating some assortative mating. Furthermore, we examined whether mate similarity in relative weight prior to marriage predicts survival of the marriage. No significant effects were found. In sum, these results are consistent with those of other studies in suggesting that there is a small but significant intermate correlation for relative weight. However, they are unique in showing that these results cannot be explained on the basis of (a) cohabitation, (b) age similarity, or (c) selective survival of marriages between couples more similar in relative weight. The implications of these findings for heritability studies, linkage studies, and the estimation of shared environmental effects are discussed.

Allison DB; Neale MC; Kezis MI; Alfonso VC; Heshka S; Heymsfield SB

1996-03-01

313

ZEB definition: assessing the implications for design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: Conceptually a Zero Emission Building (ZEB) is a building with greatly reduced energy demand and able to generate electricity (or other carriers) from renewable sources in order to achieve a carbon neutral balance. However, a rigorous and agreed definition of ZEB is yet to come. A parallel paper in this conference explains how a formal and comprehensive ZEB definition can be based on the evaluation of certain criteria. These criteria are extensively discussed in ongoing projects, both in Norway and internationally. The objective of this paper is to focus on two of these criteria: energy performance and credits used to measure the ZEB balance. For each criterion different options are considered and the implications they have on the building design are assessed. The case study is on a typical Norwegian single family house. It is shown that for certain choices on the two criteria options, a paradoxical situation could arise. When using off-site generation based on biomass/biofuels, achieving the ZEB balance may be easier for high energy consuming buildings than for efficient ones. This is the exact opposite of what ZEBs are meant to promote: design of energy efficient buildings with on-site generation options. Recommendations on how to avoid such a paradox are suggested. (Author)

Sartori, I.; Andresen, I.; Dokka, T.H.

2010-07-01

314

Implications of psychometric measurement for neuropsychological interpretation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study is to examine the implications of various less-examined psychometric issues in the interpretation of neuropsychological data. Using a dataset of 4371 independent functioning and community-dwelling individuals who underwent neuropsychological evaluations, it was demonstrated that many common measures are not normally distributed. Non-normalized data can lead to erroneously pathological conclusions, particularly on the lower end of negatively skewed distributions. Another issue involves scatter. In line with previous studies, the current study found that approximately 67% of the 4371 participants showed discrepancies of three or more standard deviations between their highest and lowest test scores on 21 measures. However, in contradiction to the existing literature, in the current study mean scatter levels were relatively stable across increasing levels of intelligence. It is argued that this is due to regression to the mean. As an individual moves away from the population average in either direction, scores on other measures will regress from that person's IQ score toward the population mean. The lower a test correlates with IQ, the greater will be the regression toward the mean. Therefore the test battery in question must be considered during the interpretation process, in addition to the individual's premorbid IQ.

Donnell AJ; Belanger HG; Vanderploeg RD

2011-10-01

315

Language Learning Strategies: Classification and Pedagogical Implication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to explore language learning strategies (Rubin, 1975, Naiman et . al ., 1978; Fillmore, 1979; O'Malley et . al ., 1985 and 1990; Politzer and Groarty, 1985; Prokop, 1989; Oxford, 1990; and Wenden, 1991). In the current study a total of 79 university students participating in a 3 month English course participated. This study attempted to explore what language learning strategies successful learners used and to what extent the strategies contributed to success in learning English in Indonesia . Factor analyses, accounting for 62.1 %, 56.0 %, 41.1 %, and 43.5 % of the varience of speaking, listening, reading and writing measures in the language learning strategy questionnaire, suggested that the questionnaire constituted three constructs. The three constructs were named metacognitive strategies, deep level cognitive and surface level cognitive strategies. Regression analyses, performed using scales based on these factors revealed significant main effects for the use of the language learning strategies in learning English, constituting 43 % of the varience in the posttest English achievement scores. An analysis of varience of the gain scores of the highest, middle, and the lowest groups of performers suggested a greater use of metacognitive strategies among successful learners and a greater use of surface level cognitive strategies among unsuccessful learners. Implications for the classroom and future research are also discussed.

Ag. Bambang Setiyadi

2001-01-01

316

Epigenetics and its implications for ecotoxicology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Epigenetics is the study of mitotically or meiotically heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the DNA sequence. Interestingly, epigenetic changes can be triggered by environmental factors. Environmental exposure to e.g. metals, persistent organic pollutants or endocrine disrupting chemicals has been shown to modulate epigenetic marks, not only in mammalian cells or rodents, but also in environmentally relevant species such as fish or water fleas. The associated changes in gene expression often lead to modifications in the affected organism's phenotype. Epigenetic changes can in some cases be transferred to subsequent generations, even when these generations are no longer exposed to the external factor which induced the epigenetic change, as observed in a study with fungicide exposed rats. The possibility of this phenomenon in other species was demonstrated in water fleas exposed to the epigenetic drug 5-azacytidine. This way, populations can experience the effects of their ancestors' exposure to chemicals, which has implications for environmental risk assessment. More basic research is needed to assess the potential phenotypic and population-level effects of epigenetic modifications in different species and to evaluate the persistence of chemical exposure-induced epigenetic effects in multiple subsequent generations.

Vandegehuchte MB; Janssen CR

2011-05-01

317

Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

1992-03-01

318

The public health implications of melioidosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Melioidosis, which is caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a potentially fatal tropical infection, little known outside its main endemic zone of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Though it has received more attention in recent years on account of its claimed suitability as a biological weapon agent, the principal threat from melioidosis is a result of naturally occurring events. Occasional case clusters, sporadic cases outside the known endemic zone (more) and infections in unusual demographic groups highlight a changing epidemiology. As melioidosis is the result of an environmental encounter and not person-to-person transmission, subtle changes in its epidemiology indicate a role environmental factors, such as man-made disturbances of soil and surface water. These have implications for travel, occupational and tropical medicine and in particular for risk assessment and prevention. Practical problems with definitive laboratory diagnosis, antibiotic treatment and the current lack of a vaccine underline the need for prevention through exposure avoidance and other environmental health measures. It is likely that the increasing population burden of the tropical zone and extraction of resources from the humid tropics will increase the prevalence of melioidosis. Climate change-driven extreme weather events will both increase the prevalence of infection and gradually extend its main endemic zone.

Inglis, Timothy J.J.; Sousa, Anastácio Q.

2009-02-01

319

Implications of Donald Macdonald`s report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chairman of the session debating the implications of the Macdonald report identified three important aspects of utility restructuring: equity, efficiency and sustainability. Dr. Jan Carr, a member of the Macdonald Committee, predicted that the continental energy market will likely demand a much larger number of smaller energy transactions, and the value in having inherently low-cost generation located close to load centres, and/or close to the US border. Douglas Hall, Vice President of RBC Dominion Securities criticized the Macdonald Committee for leaving 70 per cent of Hydro`s generating capacity in public hands. He favored transferring all assets to the private sector, and questioned the Committee`s assumption that the utility could be broken down into four components that would share overhead and still compete against each other. John Murphy, President of the Power Workers Union stated that the Union was not ideologically opposed to competition in the electricity industry, but he questioned the Committee`s assumption that competition would promote efficient supply of power at the least cost to the economy. Tony Jennings, Chief Executive of the Municipal Electric Association tackled a series of myths about municipal electric utilities, and IPPSO Counsel Jay Sheppard emphasized the need for making sure that the entity buying the power in the short term is truly independent and is not doing incestuous deals with its friends at Ontario Hydro Generation (one of the four components of the proposed, restructured Corporation) , because otherwise competition will not work.

Margolick, M.; Carr, J.; Hall, D.; Murphy, J.; Jennings, T.; Shepherd, J.

1997-05-01

320

Implications and Prospects of the GNEP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As increased recognition for a role of an economical carbon-free nuclear energy, it is expected that possibility for introduction and an expansion of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be increased around the world,1) with pursuing self-reliant nuclear fuel cycle in certain states to secure assurances of nuclear fuel supply. However, the pursuit of sensitive nuclear technology such as enrichment and reprocessing has led to concerns about nuclear proliferation. The disclosure of nuclear black market has threatened the current global nonproliferation regime.2) To respond to these concerns, efforts have been made to overcome the loophole of the existing nuclear nonproliferation regime. In February 2004, US President Bush proposed that nuclear exporters refuse to transfer sensitive nuclear technology to prevent new states from producing fissile material to close a loophole in the NPT.3) Meanwhile as the amount of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) by once-through fuel cycle increases, the US needs multiple repositories by the end of the century.4) In February 2006, therefore, Bush administration announced the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), which can bring about expansion of nuclear energy including SNF management while decreasing the risk of nuclear proliferation. It is expected that the GNEP will have an effect on national nuclear programs of participating countries as well as nuclear international cooperation. In this regard, this paper discusses the implication of the GNEP and its prospects.

Ryu, Jae-Soo; Lee, Byung-Wook; Lee, Han-Myung; Ko, Han-Suk; Lee, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Hak-Ro [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2008-05-15

 
 
 
 
321

Implications and Prospects of the GNEP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As increased recognition for a role of an economical carbon-free nuclear energy, it is expected that possibility for introduction and an expansion of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be increased around the world,1) with pursuing self-reliant nuclear fuel cycle in certain states to secure assurances of nuclear fuel supply. However, the pursuit of sensitive nuclear technology such as enrichment and reprocessing has led to concerns about nuclear proliferation. The disclosure of nuclear black market has threatened the current global nonproliferation regime.2) To respond to these concerns, efforts have been made to overcome the loophole of the existing nuclear nonproliferation regime. In February 2004, US President Bush proposed that nuclear exporters refuse to transfer sensitive nuclear technology to prevent new states from producing fissile material to close a loophole in the NPT.3) Meanwhile as the amount of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) by once-through fuel cycle increases, the US needs multiple repositories by the end of the century.4) In February 2006, therefore, Bush administration announced the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), which can bring about expansion of nuclear energy including SNF management while decreasing the risk of nuclear proliferation. It is expected that the GNEP will have an effect on national nuclear programs of participating countries as well as nuclear international cooperation. In this regard, this paper discusses the implication of the GNEP and its prospects

2008-01-01

322

Implications of observations of international oil spills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Intentional releases of crude oil on the open ocean were carried out in the Norwegian Sea in 1989 and 1991. The releases were used to evaluate selected satellite-tracked surface drifting buoys for their ability to simulate the movement of oil on the sea surface, and to improve our understanding of the behavior and fate of oil at sea. The crude oil used in 1989 rapidly formed a stable, highly viscous emulsion with water; the crude oil used in 1991 formed a very unstable emulsion, and spread rapidly to a relatively uniform, thin sheen. Both the surface drifters and a simple drift model simulated slick drift relatively well in 1989, but were significantly in error two out of three times in 1991. A physical explanation and numerical model have been constructed to explain the data. Implications of these and other observations, both for surface drifters and models of oil spills, are discussed. The model hypothesized incorporates the physics of oil entrainment, resurfacing, and transport in a framework that appears to explain all 4 experimental oil spills. The data implies that oils that form stable, viscous emulsions will drift quite differently from those that do not. For oils that emulsify, the key piece of environmental information necessary to compute a trajectory is the wind; for nonemulsifying oils and petroleum products, currents dominate the trajectory

1993-04-01

323

Stress generation: future directions and clinical implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although the past two decades have seen increasing empirical interest in stress generation, the process whereby depressed or depression-prone individuals experience higher rates of life stress that are at least in part influenced by their own cognitive and behavioral characteristics, several important aspects of this phenomenon remain relatively unexamined, leaving open several promising opportunities for future advancement of the field. The current paper begins with a brief review of the extant literature on the influence of cognitive, behavioral and interpersonal, childhood maltreatment, and genetic factors on stress generation. An integrative theoretical model is then presented tying together these different lines of research in accounting for the stress generation effect and its potential depressogenic sequelae (i.e., depression recurrence and depression contagion). Drawing on this model, particular focus is given to the need to identify the behavioral processes through which cognitive factors confer risk for stress generation, as well as to the need for research assessing the full etiological chain posited by the stress generation hypothesis linking self-generated stress with subsequent depression. In addition, methodological issues of particular relevance to this area of research are discussed. The current review ends with a consideration of the clinical implications of the stress generation phenomenon.

Liu RT

2013-04-01

324

Cosmological and Astrophysical Implications of Sterile Neutrinos  

CERN Multimedia

The discovery of neutrino masses implies the existence of new particles, the sterile neutrinos. These particles can have important implications for cosmology and astrophysics. A sterile neutrino with mass of a few keV can account for the dark matter of the universe. Its relic abundance can be produced via different mechanisms. A minimal extension of the Higgs sector of the Standard Model, with a gauge-singlet boson coupled to sterile neutrinos, can provide a consistent framework for the theory of neutrino masses, and can produce relic keV sterile neutrinos via decays of the singlet Higgs. This mechanism operates around the electroweak scale, and has interesting consequences for the electroweak phase transition. The resulting dark matter is "colder" than the one produced via oscillations. This property changes the small-scale structure formation limits. Heavier sterile neutrinos can be produced in supernova cores and affect the thermal evolution of the star. Being short-lived, they decay inside the envelope an...

Petraki, Kalliopi

2009-01-01

325

Environmental health implications of global climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the background that has led to the now almost-universally held opinion in the scientific community that global climate change is occurring and is inescapably linked with anthropogenic activity. The potential implications to human health are considerable and very diverse. These include, for example, the increased direct impacts of heat and of rises in sea level, exacerbated air and water-borne harmful agents, and - associated with all the preceding - the emergence of environmental refugees. Vector-borne diseases, in particular those associated with blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes, may be significantly impacted, including redistribution of some of those diseases to areas not previously affected. Responses to possible impending environmental and public health crises must involve political and socio-economic considerations, adding even greater complexity to what is already a difficult challenge. In some areas, adjustments to national and international public health practices and policies may be effective, at least in the short and medium terms. But in others, more drastic measures will be required. Environmental monitoring, in its widest sense, will play a significant role in the future management of the problem. (Author)

Watson, Robert T.; Patz, Jonathan; Gubler, Duane J.; Parson, Edward A.; Vincent, James H.

2005-07-01

326

Renal denervation: current implications and future perspectives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SNS (sympathetic nervous system) activation is a common feature of arterial hypertension and has been demonstrated to contribute to the development and progression of the hypertensive state. Persuasive evidence suggests a strong association between SNS overactivity and variety of disease states, including chronic renal failure, insulin resistance, congestive heart failure, sleep apnoea, ventricular arrhythmias and others. Although sympatholytic agents are available to target SNS overactivity pharmacologically, they are not widely used in clinical practice, leaving the SNS unopposed in many patients. The recent introduction of catheter-based renal denervation as an alternative approach to target the SNS therapeutically has been demonstrated to result in a clinically relevant blood pressure reduction in patients with resistant hypertension, presumably through its effects on both efferent and afferent renal nerve traffic. Available data on this interventional procedure demonstrate a favourable vascular and renal safety profile. Preliminary data obtained primarily from small and mostly uncontrolled studies in related disease states often characterized by overactivity of the SNS are promising, but require confirmation in appropriately designed clinical trials. In the present paper, we briefly review the physiology of the renal nerves and their role in hypertension and other relevant disease states, summarize the data currently available from clinical studies pertaining to the safety and efficacy of renal denervation in resistant hypertension, discuss potential future implications and the available data supporting such a role for renal denervation, and describe some of the newer devices currently under investigation to achieve improved blood pressure control via renal denervation.

Xu J; Hering D; Sata Y; Walton A; Krum H; Esler MD; Schlaich MP

2014-01-01

327

Absorption atelectasis: incidence and clinical implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

General anesthesia is known to cause pulmonary atelectasis; in turn, atelectasis increases shunt, decreases compliance, and may lead to perioperative hypoxemia. One mechanism for the formation of atelectasis intraoperatively is ventilation with 100% oxygen. The goal of this review is to determine if research suggests that intraoperative ventilation with 100% oxygen leads to clinically significant pulmonary side effects. An initial literature search included electronic databases (Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature [CINAHL], PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and The GeneraCochrane Library) using the following search terms: oxygen (administration and dosage), atelectasis, pulmonary complications, and anesthesia. Results were limited to research studies, human subjects, and English-language publications between 1965 and 2011. From this body of research, it appears that absorption atelectasis does occur in healthy anesthetized adults breathing 100% oxygen. Data reviewed suggest that absorption atelectasis does not have significant clinical implications in healthy adults. However, further research is warranted in populations at increased risk of postoperative hypoxemia, including obese or elderly patients and those with preexisting cardiopulmonary disease.

O'Brien J

2013-06-01

328

Safety implications of diesel generator aging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The emergency diesel generators in a nuclear power plant have an important safety function-supplying emergency electrical power to maintain cooling and other vital functions. The research reviewed in this article addresses the safety implications of aging of these emergency diesel generators and the influence of aging on their reliability. Historical operational information was assembled on component and system failures and their causes. One significant research result is that the fast-starting and fast-loading test procedure mandated by Regulatory Guide 1.108 and the standard Technical Specifications has contributed to wear and degradation. Other equally important aging and degradation factors for the diesel generators are identified and reviewed. A new approach developed represents a more balanced aging management program that includes (1) slow-start testing during which operating parameters are monitored, (2) analysis of data trends, (3) training, and (4) maintenance. This approach should improve safety by identifying aging degradation that leads to future diesel generator failures. Timely maintenance could then prevent actual failures

1990-01-01

329

Cellular factors implicated in filovirus entry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although filoviral infections are still occurring in different parts of the world, there are no effective preventive or treatment strategies currently available against them. Not only do filoviruses cause a deadly infection, but they also have the potential of being used as biological weapons. This makes it imperative to comprehensively study these viruses in order to devise effective strategies to prevent the occurrence of these infections. Entry is the foremost step in the filoviral replication cycle and different studies have reported the involvement of a myriad of cellular factors including plasma membrane components, cytoskeletal proteins, endosomal components, and cytosolic factors in this process. Signaling molecules such as the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases comprising of Tyro3, Axl, and Mer have also been implicated as putative entry factors. Additionally, filoviruses are suggested to bind to a common receptor and recent studies have proposed T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) as potential receptor candidates. This paper summarizes the existing literature on filoviral entry with a special focus on cellular factors involved in this process and also highlights some fundamental questions. Future research aimed at answering these questions could be very useful in designing novel antiviral therapeutics.

Bhattacharyya S; Hope TJ

2013-01-01

330

Some practical implications of source term reassessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides a brief summary of the current knowledge of severe accident source terms and suggests how this knowledge might be applied to a number of specific aspects of reactor safety. In preparing the report, consideration has been restricted to source term issues relating to light water reactors (LWRs). Consideration has also generally been restricted to the consequences of hypothetical severe accidents rather than their probability of occurrence, although it is recognized that, in the practical application of source term research, it is necessary to take account of probability as well as consequences. The specific areas identified were as follows: Exploration of the new insights that are available into the management of severe accidents; Investigating the impact of source term research on emergency planning and response; Assessing the possibilities which exist in present reactor designs for preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents and how these might be used effectively; Exploring the need for backfitting and assessing the implications of source term research for future designs; and Improving the quantification of the radiological consequences of hypothetical severe accidents for probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) and informing the public about the realistic risks associated with nuclear power plants. 7 refs

1988-01-01

331

The Spiral Curriculum: implications for online learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an apparent disjuncture between the requirements of the medical spiral curriculum and the practice of replacing previous online material in undergraduate courses. This paper investigates the extent to which students revisit previous online material for the purposes of building the educational spiral, and the implications for the implementation of a Faculty's Learning Management System implementation. Methods At the University of Cape Town, medical students' last date of access to 16 previous online courses was determined. Students completed a survey to determine their reasons for revisiting this material and the perceived benefits of this availability. Results 70% of the students revisited their previous online courses. The major reasons were to review lecture presentations, lectures notes, and quizzes. The perceived benefits were for understanding new material, preparation for assessments, and convenience. Although student comments were not always in line with the concept of the spiral curriculum, most referred to processes of building on previous work, and some mentioned the spiral curriculum specifically. Conclusion This study suggests that the practice of replacing previous online courses may hinder rather than support student learning. Although students visit previous material for ranges of reasons, a large number are aware of the spiral curriculum, and use the online environment to build upon previous material. Any practice, which entails replacing material and redesigning curricula content may be detrimental to the students' future learning needs, and such activities may need revision.

Masters Kenneth; Gibbs Trevor

2007-01-01

332

Implications of reengineering in health care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Currently the United States spends 12 percent of its gross national product on health care, far more than any other industrialized nation. Technology accounts for 15 percent to 50 percent of the rise in hospital costs. No country is immune from public calls for strategic developments to maintain or lower costs and guarantee high quality while maintaining access for all patients. To achieve these goals of adequate access, high quality, and greater efficiency, hospitals must discard complicated and unwieldy administrative practices that have evolved. How to best deploy technology in health service organizations requires a strategic perspective that results in operational break-throughs. Accelerated alignment of clinical and management processes, systems integration, and health care process redesign are required to achieve the goals of lower costs, higher quality, and greater access. An environmental background of reengineering is presented for health service organizations to use in their processes. Some critical relationships between reengineering and total quality management (TQM) in the health care setting are addressed. Implications of reengineering for health service organizations are offered to facilitate the implementation of the concept.

Lin B; Vassar JA

1996-12-01

333

SUBSIDIES - CONCEPT, RECOGNITION AND TAX IMPLICATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Even if, theoretically speaking the specialty literature accepted andvalidated the concept of perfect competition, this remains, only a hypothetical issue that cannotbe met in its pure form - in the real economy. The impossibility of the market to regulate itselfas well as the anti-competition practices or unfair competition make absolute necessary theintervention of the state at the economic level in order to re-establish the market equilibriumand to relaunch the economic growth. But this intervention - both at world level as well as atEU level - or more specific at the Romanian level - takes place in a controlled way based uponsome specific regulations. Such regulations aim at the domains of state intervention, type andquantum of aid, concession conditions, as well as at the reflection in the beneficiaries’ financialsituations of the aid received and their influence upon the economic - financial results. We tryhereafter a brief presentation of the concept, recognition and fiscal implications of the mostused form of state aid in the economy: subsidies.

ROMAN DANCIU

2009-01-01

334

Gestational diabetes: implications for cardiovascular health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a pregnancy complication that is becoming more prevalent with recent population trends in obesity and advancing maternal age. A diagnosis of GDM not only increases risk for maternal and fetal complications during pregnancy, but also significantly increases a woman's risk of both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the postpartum. Even women with milder forms of abnormal glucose homeostasis during pregnancy, specifically gestational impaired glucose tolerance, are at increased risk, justifying the recent recommendation to tighten the diagnostic criteria for GDM, thus implicating many more women. Risk factors that increase risk for future CVD among women with a history of GDM include postpartum progression to T2DM; metabolic syndrome; obesity; hypertension; and altered levels of circulating inflammatory markers, specifically, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor-?. Medical therapies such as metformin that prevent progression to T2DM may prove to be our primary defense against earlier CVD among women with GDM.

Sullivan SD; Umans JG; Ratner R

2012-02-01

335

Therapeutic implications of colon cancer stem cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in many industrialized countries and is characterized by a heterogenic pool of cells with distinct differentiation patterns. Recently, the concept that cancer might arise from a rare population of cells with stem cell-like properties has received support with regard to several solid tumors, including colorectal cancer. According to the cancer stem cell hypothesis, cancer can be considered a disease in which mutations either convert normal stem cells into aberrant counterparts or cause a more differentiated cell to revert toward a stem cell-like behaviour; either way these cells are thought to be responsible for tumor generation and propagation. The statement that only a subset of cells drives tumor formation has major implications for the development of new targeted therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating the tumor stem cell population. This review will focus on the biology of normal and malignant colonic stem cells, which might contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for tumor development and resistance to therapy.

Eros Fabrizi, Simona di Martino, Federica Pelacchi, Lucia Ricci-Vitiani

2010-01-01

336

The Greek crisis: Causes and implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents and critically discusses the origins and causes of the Greek fiscal crisis and its implications for the euro currency as well as the SEE economies. In the aftermath of the 2007-2009 financial crisis the enormous increase in sovereign debt has emerged as an important negative outcome, since public debt was dramatically increased in an effort by the US and the European governments to reduce the accumulated growth of private debt in the years preceding the recent financial turmoil. Although Greece is the country member of the eurozone that has been in the middle of this ongoing debt crisis, since November 2009 when it was made clear that its budget deficit and mainly its public debt were not sustainable, Greece’s fiscal crisis is not directly linked to the 2007 US subprime mortgage loan market crisis. As a result of this negative downturn the Greek government happily accepted a rescue plan of 110 billion euros designed and financed by the European Union and the IMF. A lengthy austerity programme and a fiscal consolidation plan have been put forward and are to be implemented in the next three years.

Kouretas Georgios P.; Vlamis Prodromos

2010-01-01

337

Environmental implications of excessive selenium: a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Selenium is a naturally occurring trace element that is nutritionally required in small amounts but it can become toxic at concentrations only twice those required. The narrow margin between beneficial and harmful levels has important implications for human activities that increase the amount of selenium in the environment. Two of these activities, disposal of fossil fuel wastes and agricultural irrigation of arid, seleniferous soils, have poisoned fish and wildlife, and threatened public health at several locations in the United States. Research studies of these episodes have generated a data base that clearly illustrates the environmental hazard of excessive selenium. It is strongly bioaccumulated by aquatic organisms and even slight increases in waterborne concentrations can quickly result in toxic effects such as deformed embryos and reproductive failure in wildlife. The selenium data base has been very beneficial in developing hazard assessment procedures and establishing environmentally sound water quality criteria. The two faces of selenium, required nutrient and potent toxin, make it a particularly important trace element in the health of both animals and man. Because of this paradox, environmental selenium in relation to agriculture, fisheries, and wildlife will continue to raise important land and water management issues for decades to come. If these issues are dealt with using prudence and the available environmental selenium data base, adverse impacts to natural resources and public health can be avoided.

Lemly AD

1997-12-01

338

Implications of the Foucauldian decentralization of economics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay aims to explore Foucault’s project of decentralizing economics and to hint on some implications. It also makes a comparative analysis between Foucault’s project and the projects similar to his design and aim. I argue that Foucault’s critique of the idea of economics as a science is stronger than that of the critiques which challenge the status of economics as a science by exposing its deep fictional, literary or narrative content and style. I argue that the strength of Foucault’s decentralization project lies in the fact that he does not refer to the discursive content of economics in order to demonstrate that it is not a science. Instead, he unveils its epistemological conditions the character of which deeply haunts the sketch of economics as a science. Foucault undertakes decentralization both at the formal and historical level. At the formal level he shows that there are underlying epistemological conditions that govern the formation of discourses including economics in the West. At the historical level he demonstrates that there is no trace of economics up to the eighteenth century in the West. This fact, that economics is governed by modern Western epistemological conditions, encourages me to question the aim of teaching economics in societies such as Pakistan which are not part of the Western civilization.

Zulfiqar Ali

2011-01-01

339

Serrated polyps: clinical implications and future directions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serrated polyps were once thought to have no clinical implications with regards to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Over the past several years, published data have enabled clinicians to develop a better understanding of these lesions. The serrated pathway associated with these lesions involves an epigenetic mechanism characterized by abnormal hypermethylation of CpG islands located in the promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes. It is often associated with BRAF mutations and may account for 15-35 % of all CRC. This pathway may also play a major role in proximal neoplasia and missed cancer. There are three distinct subtypes of serrated neoplasia; hyperplastic (70 % of all serrated polyps), sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) (25 %) and traditional serrated adenoma (serrated neoplasia are usually flat or sessile, may be large, and occasionally have a mucous cap. Serrated lesions provide many challenges for the clinician and may be difficult to detect and completely remove. Furthermore, pathologists may misclassify SSA/P as HP. For the first time, the Multi-Society Task Force guidelines for colorectal polyp surveillance have included the management of serrated lesions in their published recommendations. In addition, an expert panel has also recently issued recommendations regarding serrated neoplasia. In this article, we provide the reader with a summary as well as the latest developments regarding serrated colonic lesions. PMID:23934652

Tadros, Michael; Anderson, Joseph C

2013-09-01

340

Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several lines of evidence converge to the idea that rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a good model to foster our understanding of psychosis. Both REMS and psychosis course with internally generated perceptions and lack of rational judgment, which is attributed to a hyperlimbic activity along with hypofrontality. Interestingly, some individuals can become aware of dreaming during REMS, a particular experience known as lucid dreaming (LD), whose neurobiological basis is still controversial. Since the frontal lobe plays a role in self-consciousness, working memory and attention, here we hypothesize that LD is associated with increased frontal activity during REMS. A possible way to test this hypothesis is to check whether transcranial magnetic or electric stimulation of the frontal region during REMS triggers LD. We further suggest that psychosis and LD are opposite phenomena: LD as a physiological awakening while dreaming due to frontal activity, and psychosis as a pathological intrusion of dream features during wake state due to hypofrontality. We further suggest that LD research may have three main clinical implications. First, LD could be important to the study of consciousness, including its pathologies and other altered states. Second, LD could be used as a therapy for recurrent nightmares, a common symptom of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, LD may allow for motor imagery during dreaming with possible improvement of physical rehabilitation. In all, we believe that LD research may clarify multiple aspects of brain functioning in its physiological, altered and pathological states.

Mota-Rolim SA; Araujo JF

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Cloud Computing : Research Issues and Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cloud computing is a rapidly developing and excellent promising technology. It has aroused the concern of the computer society of whole world. Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared information, resources, and software, are provided to terminals and portable devices on-demand, like the energy grid. Cloud computing is the product of the combination of grid computing, distributed computing, parallel computing, and ubiquitous computing. It aims to build and forecast sophisticated service environment with powerful computing capabilities through an array of relatively low-cost computing entity, and using the advanced deployment models like SaaS (Software as a Service), PaaS (Platform as a Service), IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service),HaaS (Hardware as a Service) to distribute the powerful computing capacity to end-users. This paper will explore the background and service models and also presents the existing research issues and implications in cloud computing such as security, reliability, privacy, and so on.

Marupaka Rajenda Prasad; R. Lakshman Naik; V. Bapuji

2013-01-01

342

Argentine nuclear development: capabilities and implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Complacency was shattered in 1974 by the Indian explosion of a nuclear device developed from a civil nuclear program. The fear of nuclear weapon spread led the international system to consider the other states that could develop devices from what were assumed to be peaceful nuclear programs. Many states of the non-nuclear ranks, often the more developed states of the Third World, resented the nuclear suppliers weapon holders dictating to the developing states the types of technology that these states could handle. Some of these developing states had highly sophisticated nuclear programs that no longer rely on the suppliers for assistance. These states are using the options that their nuclear developments present in an attempt to alter the international system, or the balance of power, that has existed since the end of World War II. Argentina's nuclear program has become one of the most-sophisticated in the Third World. This work discusses the implications of the country's present capabilities as they affect Argentine actions in the foreign policy areas of nuclear commerce and the international nuclear weapons non-proliferation regime.

Watson, C.A.

1984-01-01

343

Renal denervation: current implications and future perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

SNS (sympathetic nervous system) activation is a common feature of arterial hypertension and has been demonstrated to contribute to the development and progression of the hypertensive state. Persuasive evidence suggests a strong association between SNS overactivity and variety of disease states, including chronic renal failure, insulin resistance, congestive heart failure, sleep apnoea, ventricular arrhythmias and others. Although sympatholytic agents are available to target SNS overactivity pharmacologically, they are not widely used in clinical practice, leaving the SNS unopposed in many patients. The recent introduction of catheter-based renal denervation as an alternative approach to target the SNS therapeutically has been demonstrated to result in a clinically relevant blood pressure reduction in patients with resistant hypertension, presumably through its effects on both efferent and afferent renal nerve traffic. Available data on this interventional procedure demonstrate a favourable vascular and renal safety profile. Preliminary data obtained primarily from small and mostly uncontrolled studies in related disease states often characterized by overactivity of the SNS are promising, but require confirmation in appropriately designed clinical trials. In the present paper, we briefly review the physiology of the renal nerves and their role in hypertension and other relevant disease states, summarize the data currently available from clinical studies pertaining to the safety and efficacy of renal denervation in resistant hypertension, discuss potential future implications and the available data supporting such a role for renal denervation, and describe some of the newer devices currently under investigation to achieve improved blood pressure control via renal denervation. PMID:24020446

Xu, Jianzhong; Hering, Dagmara; Sata, Yusuke; Walton, Antony; Krum, Henry; Esler, Murray D; Schlaich, Markus P

2014-01-01

344

Implications for global energy markets: energy market outlook and implications for gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the Shell companies views on the implications for global energy markets, and discusses the belief in precautionary measures such as greenhouse gases emissions limits, the need for the developed countries to take the lead in reducing emissions, and the goal of better living standards globally spread and globally sustainable. The energy future is considered, and the changing world of gas, Shell initiatives in gas development including the Camisea gas and condensate field project in South America, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) developments in India, China and Brazil are considered. (UK)

Vijver, Walter van de

1998-07-01

345

Grand unification with and without supersymmetry cosmological implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents papers on grand unification with and without supersymmetry and cosmological implication. Topics covered include the following: calculational schemes in GUT's, the physics of supersymmetry and supergravity, cosmology and GUT's.

Kounnas, C.; Masiero, A.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Olive, K.A.

1984-01-01

346

SSC event characteristics and implications for detector design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the course of a one week workshop recent progress on event simulation at SSC energies was reviewed and implications for detector design were briefly evaluated. Questions needing to be answered by future work were formulated. 9 references, 16 figures.

1986-01-01

347

Projecting the future of Canada's population: assumptions, implications, and policy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After considering the assumptions for fertility, mortality and international migration, this paper looks at implications of the evolving demographics for population growth, labour force, retirement, and population distribution. With the help of policies favouring gender equity and supporting familie...

Beaujot, Roderic

348

The prime filter theorem of lattice implication algebras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using a special set x−1F, we give an equivalent condition for a filter to be prime, and applying this result, we provide the prime filter theorem in lattice implication algebras

Young Bae Jun

2001-01-01

349

Some results on ordered filters of implicative semigroups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We introduce a special set in an implicative semigroup. Using it, an equivalent condition of an ordered filter is stated. We prove that an ordered filter can be represented by the union of such sets.

Young Bae Jun

2001-01-01

350

Malaysia: Political Transition and Implications for U.S. Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report analyzes the political changes and economic developments in Malaysia and their implications for U.S. policy. The bilateral relationship between the United States and Malaysia is generally positive and constructive, particularly in the area of ...

B. Vaughn

2003-01-01

351

El Nino - La Nina Implications on Flood Hazard Mitigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of El Nino and La Nina periods on the maximum daily winter period depths of precipitation are examined using records from five precipitation gages on the Nevada Test Site. The potential implications of these effects are discussed.

R. French; J. Miller

2006-03-31

352

A new algorithm for ccomputing theory prime implicates compilations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a new algorithm (called TPI/BDD) for computing the theory prime implicates compilation of a knowledge base {Sigma}. In contrast to many compilation algorithms, TPI/BDD does not require the prime implicates of {Sigma} to be generated. Since their number can easily be exponential in the size of {Sigma}, TPI/BDD can save a lot of computing. Thanks to TPI/BDD, we can now conceive of compiling knowledge bases impossible to before.

Marquis, P.; Sadaoui, S. [CRIN-CNRS and INRIA-Lorraine Batiment LORIA, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

1996-12-31

353

[The implications of various scientific-philosophical models on nursing  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article focuses on the implications for nursing of philosophy of science. The relation between the dimensions of research in nursing, paradigms in nursing and the philosophy of science are explained as background. Models of philosophies of science are described, namely positivism, critical rationalism, Kuhn's historical approach, the phenomenological approach, hermeneutics, critical theory, scientific realism and post-modernism. The implications of each of these models are described within nursing as a science.

Botes A

1996-03-01

354

Predictable Meaning Shift: Some Linguistic Properties of Lexical Implication Rules  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drawing on a growing database of systematic relationships between word-senses,the authors argue that a significant class of these represent Lexical ImplicationRules, a set of formal rules within the domain of lexical semantics; these theydistinguish from other types of semantic relation more closely dependent onmetaphor and world-knowledge. Some formal properties of Lexical ImplicationRules are proposed, as evidence of their linguistic, rather than real-world, nature.

Nicholas Ostler; Touche Ross; Management Consultants; B. T. S. Atkins; Sussex Bn Bt

355

Implication of perturbed axoglial apparatus in early pediatric multiple sclerosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cerebrospinal fluid samples collected from children during initial presentation of central nervous system inflammation, who may or may not subsequently be diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis (MS), were subjected to large-scale proteomics screening. Unexpectedly, major compact myelin membrane proteins typically implicated in MS were not detected. However, multiple molecules that localize to the node of Ranvier and the surrounding axoglial apparatus membrane were implicated, indicating perturbed axon-glial interactions in those children destined for diagnosis of MS.

Dhaunchak AS; Becker C; Schulman H; De Faria O Jr; Rajasekharan S; Banwell B; Colman DR; Bar-Or A

2012-05-01

356

Fuzzifying Bi-Ideals of Semigroups and Implication Operators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the notion of (?,?)-fuzzy bi-ideal of a semigroup is introduced and related properties are investigated. Also, the definition of implication operator in the Lukasiewicz system of continuous-valued logic for fuzzy bi-ideals is considered. In particular, the relationship between fuzzy bi-ideals with thresholds and implication-based fuzzy bi-ideals is analyzed.

H. Hedayati; Z. Jafari

2011-01-01

357

Socio-economic implications of lignite development. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This working paper addresses the socio-economic implications of lignite development in the rural areas of Arkansas and Louisiana. It draws upon the experience with lignite development in Texas as well as the coal and lignite development in the West. The general implications of lignite development are identified and discussed and are illustrated with a case study of Mt. Pleasant, Texas. Requirements for future research relevant to Arkansas and Louisiana are identified

1979-01-01

358

Genital herpes beliefs: implications for sexual health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Genital herpes (HSV) is exceedingly common in the United States and women are disproportionally affected. This study aims to describe young women's beliefs about HSV and examine the correlates of those beliefs. DESIGN: A 40-item Herpes Representation measure (HSV-RoSTD) and a demographic questionnaire were administered to a convenience sample of young women. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, t-tests and Pearson's correlations. SETTING: Four women's health clinics and one large state university. PARTICIPANTS: 302 women aged 18-24 years. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Four dimensions of HSV representations (cause, identity, future perspective, and psychosocial consequences), age and STD testing history. RESULTS: Nearly all (98%) believed that HSV would result in genital sores and 68% believed they could tell if their sexual partner had HSV. Most (89%) understood the longevity of HSV; however, 30% believed that they could take a pill to get rid of the infection, and 15% indicated that it was likely they would die from HSV. Negative beliefs about the psychosocial impact of HSV were common as 95% indicated they would be depressed and 90% indicated concern about sex and partner notification. Those who were younger and those who had never been tested for STDs believed a genital herpes infection is highly symptomatic. Finally, negative beliefs about the psychosocial consequences of HSV were associated with beliefs about HSV being symptomatic, having a negative impact on future health, and being associated with sexual risk behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Young women have misconceptions about HSV, particularly regarding the symptomatology and the role of HSV medication. Noteworthy concerns about the negative psychosocial consequences of an HSV diagnosis were also raised, all of which have implications for young women's sexual health.

Royer HR; Falk EC; Heidrich SM

2013-04-01

359

BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

SERGHEI MARGULESCU; ELENA MARGULESCU

2012-01-01

360

BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level.. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

Serghei MARGULESCU; Elena MARGULESCU

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Implications for environmental health of multiple stressors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose effects of ionising radiation have revealed that similar mechanisms can be induced by chemical stressors in the environment. This means that interactions between radiation and chemicals are likely and that the outcomes following mixed exposures to radiation and chemicals may not be predictable for human health, by consideration of single agent effects. Our understanding of the biological effects of low dose exposure has undergone a major paradigm shift. We now possess technologies which can detect very subtle changes in cells due to small exposures to radiation or other pollutants. We also understand much more now about cell communication, systems biology and the need to consider effects of low dose exposure at different hierarchical levels of organisation from molecules up to and including ecosystems. Furthermore we understand, at least in part, some of the mechanisms which drive low dose effects and which perpetuate these not only in the exposed organism but also in its progeny and in certain cases, its kin. This means that previously held views about safe doses or lack of harmful effects cannot be sustained. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and all national radiation and environmental protection organisations have always accepted a theoretical risk and have applied the precautionary principle and the LNT (linear-non-threshold) model which basically says that there is no safe dose of radiation. Therefore even in the absence of visible effects, exposure of people to radiation is strictly limited. This review will consider the historical context and the new discoveries and will focus on evidence for emergent effects after mixed exposures to combined stressors which include ionising radiation. The implications for regulation of low dose exposures to protect human health and environmental security will be discussed. PMID:19454807

Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, Colin

2009-05-19

362

Implications for environmental health of multiple stressors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose effects of ionising radiation have revealed that similar mechanisms can be induced by chemical stressors in the environment. This means that interactions between radiation and chemicals are likely and that the outcomes following mixed exposures to radiation and chemicals may not be predictable for human health, by consideration of single agent effects. Our understanding of the biological effects of low dose exposure has undergone a major paradigm shift. We now possess technologies which can detect very subtle changes in cells due to small exposures to radiation or other pollutants. We also understand much more now about cell communication, systems biology and the need to consider effects of low dose exposure at different hierarchical levels of organisation from molecules up to and including ecosystems. Furthermore we understand, at least in part, some of the mechanisms which drive low dose effects and which perpetuate these not only in the exposed organism but also in its progeny and in certain cases, its kin. This means that previously held views about safe doses or lack of harmful effects cannot be sustained. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and all national radiation and environmental protection organisations have always accepted a theoretical risk and have applied the precautionary principle and the LNT (linear-non-threshold) model which basically says that there is no safe dose of radiation. Therefore even in the absence of visible effects, exposure of people to radiation is strictly limited. This review will consider the historical context and the new discoveries and will focus on evidence for emergent effects after mixed exposures to combined stressors which include ionising radiation. The implications for regulation of low dose exposures to protect human health and environmental security will be discussed.

2009-06-01

363

Implication of BIRC5 in asthma pathogenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the last few years, it has been recognized that the unbalanced regulation of survival and apoptosis of bronchial inflammatory cells is a key component in the development of asthma. Baculoviral IAP repeat containing 5 (BIRC5) (also known as survivin) is an important anti-apoptotic protein that has been implicated in many cancer types, and recent studies provide evidence for its role in controlling inflammatory disorders as well. Our aim was to investigate at both genetic and transcriptional levels if BIRC5 has an impact on asthma development. We found that induced sputum samples of patients with bronchial asthma contained elevated levels of BIRC5 mRNA compared with healthy subjects and its level was in correlation with sputum eosinophil percentages. Furthermore, in a case-control study examining single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BIRC5 regulatory regions, the minor alleles of rs8073903 and rs8073069 were found to be significantly associated with asthma and especially non-allergic asthma phenotypes, which associations were more prominent among women. Two marker haplotype analyses further strengthen the impact of these two polymorphisms on both asthma and non-allergic asthma. In the female cohort, rs1508147 was also significantly associated with increased risk of non-allergic asthma. Additionally, with linear regression analysis, we showed that rs9904341 was significantly correlated with both absolute and relative serum eosinophil levels. In conclusion, our results suggest that possibly by inhibition of the eosinophil apoptosis, BIRC5 might be an important regulator of the asthmatic processes and we provide some evidence that its effect might be affected by SNPs located in the gene regulatory regions.

Ungvári I; Hadadi E; Virág V; Bikov A; Nagy A; Semsei AF; Gálffy G; Tamási L; Horváth I; Szalai C

2012-05-01

364

Multiple Infections and Cancer: Implications in Epidemiology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Approximately 18% of the global cancer burden has been attributed to infectious agents, with estimates ranging from 7% in developed countries to about 22% in developing countries. Chronic infections caused by the hepatitis B and C viruses, human papilloma viruses (HPV), and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are reported to be responsible for approximately 15% of all human cancers. Interestingly, although many of the infectious agents that have been associated with cancer-such as HPV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and H. pylori-are highly prevalent in the world, most infected individuals do not develop cancer but remain lifelong carriers. Malignancies associated with infectious agents may result from prolonged latency as a result of chronic infections. Pathogenic infections are necessary but are not sufficient for cancer initiation or progression. Cancer initiation may require additional cofactors, including secondary infections. Therefore, in patients with chronic infection with one agent, secondary co-infection with another agent may serve as an important co-factor that may cause cancer initiation and progression. Additionally, opportunistic co-infections could significantly inhibit response to cancer treatment and increase cancer mortality. Co-infections are relatively common in areas with a high prevalence of infectious agents, especially in developing countries. These co-infections can cause an imbalance in the host immune system by affecting persistence of and susceptibility to malignant infections. Several articles have been published that focus on infectious agents and cancer. In this article, we discuss the role of infectious agents in malignancies, highlight the role of multiple/co-infections in cancer etiology, and review implications for cancer epidemiology.

Vedham V; Divi RL; Starks VL; Verma M

2013-08-01

365

Implications of new anticoagulants in primary practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Effective prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic disorders remain suboptimal in many healthcare systems, partly owing to limitations of traditional anticoagulants. New oral anticoagulants have been developed and among these, rivaroxaban, apixaban and dabigatran etexilate are in the most advanced stage of clinical development. METHOD: A literature search using the PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov databases was performed to identify English-language publications. The search was performed up to 31 December 2011 with the terms rivaroxaban OR Xarelto, apixaban OR Eliquis and dabigatran OR Pradaxa. Ongoing, completed and published phase III randomised controlled trials were selected as the primary source of information for the clinical development programme of each drug. RESULTS: The new oral agents demonstrate several advantages over traditional anticoagulants, including administration at fixed doses and no requirement for routine coagulation monitoring On the basis of phase III clinical trials, rivaroxaban, apixaban and dabigatran etexilate have been approved in many countries for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after hip and knee replacement surgery. Dabigatran etexilate and rivaroxaban have also been approved for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation in Europe and the US. In addition, rivaroxaban has been approved in Europe for the treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis and prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism. Approval of these agents and postapproval monitoring of their safety and efficacy will have implications for primary care. CONCLUSION: Rivaroxaban, apixaban and dabigatran etexilate offer the possibility of simplified prevention and treatment strategies for thromboembolic disorders in the outpatient setting.

Perez A; Eraso LH; Merli GJ

2013-02-01

366

Immunopathology of primary hypophysitis: implications for pathogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The etiology of primary hypophysitis is still not fully elucidated. Histologically, primary hypophysitis includes three different main subtypes: lymphocytic (LYH), granulomatous (GRH), and xanthomatous (XH) hypophysitis. Clinical and laboratory findings suggest an autoimmune basis in primary hypophysitis. Controversy still exists about the composition of the inflammatory infiltrate and the relevant immunopathogenic effector mechanisms. Therefore, 21 cases of primary hypophysitis of different subtypes were analyzed with respect to the expression of lymphocyte and macrophage antigens as well as MHC class I and II molecules of the inflammatory infiltrate and the resident pituitary acinar cells. Lymphocyte infiltration in LYH (n = 15), but also in GRH (n = 4) and XH (n = 2), mainly consisted of T cells, while B cells were rare. Independent from the histopathologic subtype, T cell subsets showed equal ratios of CD4+ to CD8+ T cells. Highest numbers of activated CD8+ T cells were observed in LYH presenting during pregnancy, surrounding or even infiltrating preserved pituitary acinar cells. Moreover, an increased rate of activated CD8+ T cells correlated with a shorter duration of clinical symptoms. In LYH, aberrant expression of MHC class II antigens as well as overexpression of MHC class I molecules on pituitary cells were observed. Independent of the histologic subtype, macrophages mostly expressed markers of chronic activation and showed MHC class II positivity. LYH, GRH, and XH, although heterogeneous in their histologic appearance and in age distribution, exhibit a similar if not identical immunohistologic profile. It is highly likely that direct T cell-mediated cytotoxicity through CD8+ T cells, with the initial help of CD4+ T cells, is pivotal in the pathogenesis of primary hypophysitis, implicating a target autoantigen expressed by pituitary cells. PMID:15725801

Gutenberg, A; Buslei, R; Fahlbusch, R; Buchfelder, M; Brück, W

2005-03-01

367

Serrated polyps: clinical implications and future directions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Serrated polyps were once thought to have no clinical implications with regards to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Over the past several years, published data have enabled clinicians to develop a better understanding of these lesions. The serrated pathway associated with these lesions involves an epigenetic mechanism characterized by abnormal hypermethylation of CpG islands located in the promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes. It is often associated with BRAF mutations and may account for 15-35 % of all CRC. This pathway may also play a major role in proximal neoplasia and missed cancer. There are three distinct subtypes of serrated neoplasia; hyperplastic (70 % of all serrated polyps), sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) (25 %) and traditional serrated adenoma (<2 %). The last two forms are considered to be precursors for CRC. SSA/P are associated with synchronous CRC especially if the polyps are large (?1 cm), multiple, or if they are in the proximal colon. Lesions containing serrated neoplasia are usually flat or sessile, may be large, and occasionally have a mucous cap. Serrated lesions provide many challenges for the clinician and may be difficult to detect and completely remove. Furthermore, pathologists may misclassify SSA/P as HP. For the first time, the Multi-Society Task Force guidelines for colorectal polyp surveillance have included the management of serrated lesions in their published recommendations. In addition, an expert panel has also recently issued recommendations regarding serrated neoplasia. In this article, we provide the reader with a summary as well as the latest developments regarding serrated colonic lesions.

Tadros M; Anderson JC

2013-09-01

368

Soils: their implications to human health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reviews how the health of humans is affected by the world's soils, an association that to date has been under appreciated and under reported. Soils significantly influence a variety of functions (e.g. as a plant growth medium; its importance on the cycling of water; as a foundation for buildings) that sustains the human population. Through ingestion (either deliberate or involuntary), inhalation and dermal absorption, the mineral, chemical and biological components of soils can either be directly beneficial or detrimental to human health. Specific examples include: geohelminth infection and the supply of mineral nutrients and potentially harmful elements (PHEs) via soil ingestion; cancers caused by the inhalation of fibrous minerals or Rn gas derived from the radioactive decay of U and Th in soil minerals; and tetanus, hookworm disease and podoconiosis caused by skin contact and dermal absorption of appropriate soil constituents. Human health can also be influenced in more indirect ways as soils interact with the atmosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere. Examples include: the volatilisation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soils and their subsequent global redistribution that has health implications to the Aboriginal people of the Arctic; the frequent detrimental chemical and biological quality of drinking and recreational waters that are influenced by processes of soil erosion, surface runoff, interflow and leaching; and the transfer of mineral nutrients and PHEs from soils into the plants and animals that constitute the human food chain. The scale and magnitude of soil/health interactions are variable, but at times a considerable number of people can be affected as demonstrated by the extent of hookworm infection or the number of people at risk because they live in an I-deficient environment. Nevertheless, it can often be difficult to establish definite links between soils and human health. This, together with the emergence of new risks, knowledge, or discoveries, means that there is considerable scope for research in the future. Such investigations should involve a multidisciplinary approach that both acquires knowledge and ensures its dissemination to people in an understandable way. This requires an infrastructure and finance that governments need to be responsive to.

Abrahams PW

2002-05-01

369

Implications European Environmental Legislation for Photovoltaic Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is given of European environmental legislation which is effective now or proposed and which may have implications for the photovoltaic industry. The focus will be on legislation, which has been implemented already in national law, like the WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment) and ROHS (restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances) directives. Photovoltaic modules are presently excluded from the WEEE- and ROHS- directives, but this situation may very well change in the future. As a common European waste policy the producer will be responsible for its end-of-life collection and 'treatment' of his products. When PV modules are included in the ROHS regulation, it will be prohibited to put lead- or cadmium-containing modules on the EU-market, above the regulatory limits for hazardous metal contents. Therefore an overview is also given of repair, recovery and recycling technologies for PV modules, design-for-recycling concepts and the replacement of lead and cadmium. A number of other proposals for future legislation may have an impact on photovoltaic products as well. Among these are Reach (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), F-gases (regulation on certain fluorinated greenhouse gases) and EuP (eco-design requirements for energy-using products). A change of the module design, with the research, development, implementation and certification necessary to be able to produce photovoltaic systems that comply with such legislation, may be very time-consuming and expensive. Therefore a pro-active approach by the PV community is desirable. Environmental life cycle thinking and eco-design is becoming increasingly important as part of the European product and waste policy and will have its impact on the PV industry as well. Design-for-recycling must be encouraged to allow for an easy, cost-effective disassembly, with a high retrieval of for instance the precious crystalline silicon solar cells. A closed production cycle, i.e. guaranteed take back system, would probably prevent the commission as well as member states to impose legislative measures.

De Wild-Scholten, M.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Wambach, K. [Deutsche Solar, Geschaeftsbereich Solar Materials, Freiberg/Sachsen (Germany); Alsema, E.A. [Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jager-Waldau, A. [DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Renewable Energies Unit, European Commission, Ispra (Italy)

2005-06-01

370

Generic implications of ATWS events at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant: generic implications. Vol. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is the first of two volumes. It documents the work of an interoffice, interdisciplinary NRC Task Force established to determine the generic implications of two anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 on February 22 and 25, 1983. A second report will document the NRC actions to be taken based on the work of the Task Force. The Task Force was established to address three questions: (1) Is there a need for prompt action for similar equipment in other facilities. (2) Are NRC and its licensees learning the sefety-management lessons, and, (3) How should the priority and content of the ATWS rule be adjusted. A number of short-term actions were taken through Bulletins and an Information Notice. Intermediate-term actions to address the generic issues will be addressed in the separate report and implemented through appropriate regulatory mechanisms

1983-01-01

371

Generic implications of ATWS events at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant: generic implications. Vol. 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is the first of two volumes. It documents the work of an interoffice, interdisciplinary NRC Task Force established to determine the generic implications of two anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 on February 22 and 25, 1983. A second report will document the NRC actions to be taken based on the work of the Task Force. The Task Force was established to address three questions: (1) Is there a need for prompt action for similar equipment in other facilities. (2) Are NRC and its licensees learning the sefety-management lessons, and, (3) How should the priority and content of the ATWS rule be adjusted. A number of short-term actions were taken through Bulletins and an Information Notice. Intermediate-term actions to address the generic issues will be addressed in the separate report and implemented through appropriate regulatory mechanisms.

1983-04-01

372

Implications for global energy markets: implications for non-fossil energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper highlights the recent developments concerning non-fossil energy and examines the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on non-fossil energy sources, and the implications for non-fossil sources in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. The current contributions of fossil and non-fossil fuels to electricity production, prospects for expansion of the established non-fossil sources, new renewables in Europe to date, renewables in Europe to 2010, and policy integration in the EU are discussed. Charts illustrating the generating capacity of renewable energy plant in Britain (1992-1966), wind energy capacity in Europe (1990-2000), and projected renewable energy contributions in the EU (wind, small hydro, photovoltaic, biomass and geothermal) are provided. (UK)

Grubb, Michael [Royal Institute of International Affairs, London (United Kingdom)

1998-07-01

373

What Are the New Implications of Chaos for Unpredictability?  

CERN Multimedia

From the beginning of chaos research until today, the unpredictability of chaos has been a central theme. It is widely believed and claimed by philosophers, mathematicians and physicists alike that chaos has a new implication for unpredictability, meaning that chaotic systems are unpredictable in a way that other deterministic systems are not. Hence one might expect that the question 'What are the new implications of chaos for unpredictability?' has already been answered in a satisfactory way. However, this is not the case. I will critically evaluate the existing answers and argue that they do not fit the bill. Then I will approach this question by showing that chaos can be defined via mixing, which has not been explicitly argued for. Based on this insight, I will propose that the sought-after new implication of chaos for unpredictability is the following: for predicting any event all sufficiently past events are approximately probabilistically irrelevant.

Werndl, Charlotte

2013-01-01

374

Clinical implications of microRNAs in cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously produced non-coding RNAs that serve as micromanagers by negatively regulating gene expression. MiRNAs are implicated in several biological pathways including development of neoplasia. Because altered miRNA expression is implicated in the pathobiology of various cancers, these molecules serve as potential therapeutic targets. Using miRNA mimics to restore levels of aberrantly down-regulated miRNAs or miRNA inhibitors to inactivate over-expressed miRNAs shows promise as the next generation of therapeutic strategies. Manipulation of miRNAs offers an alternative therapeutic approach for chemo- and radiation-resistant tumors. Similarly, miRNA expression patterns can be used for diagnosis and to predict prognosis and efficacy of therapy. We present here an overview of how miRNAs affect cancers, how they may be used as biomarkers, and the clinical implications of miRNAs in cancer.

Bovell L; Putcha B; Samuel T; Manne U

2013-10-01

375

Evaporites in Martian Paleolakes: Observations and Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Ancient lakes on Mars have long been inferred from morphologic evidence [e.g., 1], and are considered high-priority targets in the search for Martian biomarkers. Minerals precipitated from lake water reflect water chemistry and temperature, as well as the composition of the contemporaneous atmosphere, providing constraints on habitability. However, proposed paleolakes have until recently shown little evidence for evaporite minerals such as carbonates and sulfates. We previously reported CRISM detections of sulfates and phyllosilicates in finely bedded deposits within impact craters in Terra Sirenum [2]. Subsequent mapping reveals that Al-phyllosilicates are found not only within these ~10 craters, but also on the intercrater plains. Sulfates, however, are found only within the craters Columbus (29S, 166W) and Cross (30S, 158W). Cross contains the acid sulfate alunite [3], while Columbus has predominantly polyhydrated Ca and possibly Mg sulfates in a “bathtub ring” around its walls. Thermal infrared data are consistent with ~40% clay and ~16% sulfate abundances in the Columbus ring, suggesting strong alteration, possibly in a lacustrine setting. Since most craters in the region lack major inlet valleys, they may have been filled by groundwater. Indeed, global hydrologic models [4] predict enhanced Noachian/Hesperian groundwater upwelling in this region, and a new regional model predicts the greatest thicknesses of evaporites in Columbus and Cross craters specifically. Therefore, groundwater may have caused regional alteration, before ponding and evaporating in the largest craters to form sulfates. A new CRISM image reveals sulfate in another deep lacustrine setting. A depression within Shalbatana Vallis (3N, 43.3W) has been described as a Hesperian-aged paleolake based on topography and morphology, including inlet channels that feed six fan-shaped deposits interpreted as deltas, the largest of which preserves features inferred to be shorelines [5]. The valley wall adjacent to this fan contains Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate, and near the bottom of the depression, over 300 meters below the shoreline elevation, polyhydrated sulfate is detected in finely bedded deposits. These sulfate deposits contrast with carbonate-bearing sediments seen in Jezero crater, another inferred paleolake site [6,7]. This difference in dominant anion could reflect local differences in water chemistry, groundwater vs. meteoric inputs, or possibly a change in atmospheric composition over time. Finding more examples of lake evaporites on Mars should improve our understanding of their paleo-environmental and astrobiological implications. [1] Cabrol N A and Grin E A (1999) Icarus 142, 160. [2] Wray J J et al. (2009) LPSC 40, #1896. [3] Swayze G A et al. (2008) AGU Fall Meeting, #P44A-04. [4] Andrews-Hanna J C et al. (2007) Nature 446, 163. [5] Di Achille G et al. (2009) GRL 36, L14201. [6] Ehlmann B L et al. (2008) Nature Geosci. 1, 355. [7] Ehlmann B L et al. (2008) Science 322, 1828.

Wray, J. J.; Milliken, R.; Swayze, G. A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Dundas, C. M.; Baldridge, A. M.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Murchie, S. L.

2009-12-01

376

Anaesthesia of farmed fish: implications for welfare.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During their life cycle as farmed animals, there are several situations in which fish are subjected to handling and confinement. Netting, weighing, sorting, vaccination, transport and, at the end, slaughter are frequent events under farming conditions. As research subjects, fish may also undergo surgical procedures that range from tagging, sampling and small incisions to invasive procedures. In these situations, treatment with anaesthetic agents may be necessary in order to ensure the welfare of the fish. The main objective of this paper is to review our knowledge of the effects of anaesthetic agents in farmed fish and their possible implications for welfare. As wide variations in response to anaesthesia have been observed both between and within species, special attention has been paid to the importance of secondary factors such as body weight, water temperature and acute stress. In this review, we have limited ourselves to the anaesthetic agents such as benzocaine, metacaine (MS-222), metomidate hydrochloride, isoeugenol, 2-phenoxyethanol and quinaldine. Anaesthetic protocols of fish usually refer to one single agent, whereas protocols of human and veterinary medicine cover combinations of several drugs, each contributing to the effects needed in the anaesthesia. As stress prior to anaesthesia may result in abnormal reactions, pre-anaesthetic sedation is regularly used in order to reduce or avoid stress and is an integral part of the veterinary protocols of higher vertebrates. Furthermore, the anaesthetic agents that are used in order to obtain general anaesthesia are combined with analgesic agents that target nociception. The increased use of such combinations in fish is therefore included as a special section. Anaesthetic agents are widely used to avoid stress during various farming procedures. While several studies report that anaesthetics are effective in reducing the stress associated with confinement and handling, there are indications that anaesthesia may in itself induce a stress response, measured by elevated levels of cortisol. MS-222 has been reported to elicit high cortisol release rates immediately following exposure, while benzocaine causes a bimodal response. Metomidate has an inhibitory effect on cortisol in fish and seems to induce the lowest release of cortisol of the agents reported in the literature. Compared to what is observed following severe stressors such as handling and confinement, the amount of cortisol released in response to anaesthesia appears to be low but may represent an extra load under otherwise stressful circumstances. Furthermore, anaesthetics may cause secondary adverse reactions such as acidosis and osmotic stress due to respiratory arrest and insufficient exchange of gas and ions between the blood and the water. All in all, anaesthetics may reduce stress and thereby improve welfare but can also have unwanted side effects that reduce the welfare of the fish and should therefore always be used with caution. Finally, on the basis of the data reported in the literature and our own experience, we recommend that anaesthetic protocols should always be tested on a few fish under prevailing conditions in order to ensure an adequate depth of anaesthesia. This recommendation applies whether a single agent or a combination of agents is used, although it appears that protocols comprising combinations of agents provide wider safety margins. The analgesic effects of currently used agents, in spite of their proven local effects, are currently being debated as the agents are administrated to fish via inhalation rather than locally at the target site. We therefore recommend that all protocols of procedures requiring general anaesthesia should be complemented by administration of agents with analgesic effect at the site of tissue trauma.

Zahl IH; Samuelsen O; Kiessling A

2012-02-01

377

Anaesthesia of farmed fish: implications for welfare.  

Science.gov (United States)

During their life cycle as farmed animals, there are several situations in which fish are subjected to handling and confinement. Netting, weighing, sorting, vaccination, transport and, at the end, slaughter are frequent events under farming conditions. As research subjects, fish may also undergo surgical procedures that range from tagging, sampling and small incisions to invasive procedures. In these situations, treatment with anaesthetic agents may be necessary in order to ensure the welfare of the fish. The main objective of this paper is to review our knowledge of the effects of anaesthetic agents in farmed fish and their possible implications for welfare. As wide variations in response to anaesthesia have been observed both between and within species, special attention has been paid to the importance of secondary factors such as body weight, water temperature and acute stress. In this review, we have limited ourselves to the anaesthetic agents such as benzocaine, metacaine (MS-222), metomidate hydrochloride, isoeugenol, 2-phenoxyethanol and quinaldine. Anaesthetic protocols of fish usually refer to one single agent, whereas protocols of human and veterinary medicine cover combinations of several drugs, each contributing to the effects needed in the anaesthesia. As stress prior to anaesthesia may result in abnormal reactions, pre-anaesthetic sedation is regularly used in order to reduce or avoid stress and is an integral part of the veterinary protocols of higher vertebrates. Furthermore, the anaesthetic agents that are used in order to obtain general anaesthesia are combined with analgesic agents that target nociception. The increased use of such combinations in fish is therefore included as a special section. Anaesthetic agents are widely used to avoid stress during various farming procedures. While several studies report that anaesthetics are effective in reducing the stress associated with confinement and handling, there are indications that anaesthesia may in itself induce a stress response, measured by elevated levels of cortisol. MS-222 has been reported to elicit high cortisol release rates immediately following exposure, while benzocaine causes a bimodal response. Metomidate has an inhibitory effect on cortisol in fish and seems to induce the lowest release of cortisol of the agents reported in the literature. Compared to what is observed following severe stressors such as handling and confinement, the amount of cortisol released in response to anaesthesia appears to be low but may represent an extra load under otherwise stressful circumstances. Furthermore, anaesthetics may cause secondary adverse reactions such as acidosis and osmotic stress due to respiratory arrest and insufficient exchange of gas and ions between the blood and the water. All in all, anaesthetics may reduce stress and thereby improve welfare but can also have unwanted side effects that reduce the welfare of the fish and should therefore always be used with caution. Finally, on the basis of the data reported in the literature and our own experience, we recommend that anaesthetic protocols should always be tested on a few fish under prevailing conditions in order to ensure an adequate depth of anaesthesia. This recommendation applies whether a single agent or a combination of agents is used, although it appears that protocols comprising combinations of agents provide wider safety margins. The analgesic effects of currently used agents, in spite of their proven local effects, are currently being debated as the agents are administrated to fish via inhalation rather than locally at the target site. We therefore recommend that all protocols of procedures requiring general anaesthesia should be complemented by administration of agents with analgesic effect at the site of tissue trauma. PMID:22160749

Zahl, Inger Hilde; Samuelsen, Ole; Kiessling, Anders

2011-12-09

378

Deforming Etna's Basement: Implications for Edifice stability.  

Science.gov (United States)

At over 3 kilometers in height, Mt. Etna (Italy) is the largest volcano of continental Europe. The volcano formed on top of the alpine fold and thrust belt, with basaltic outflows lying unconformably on top of an alternation between sandstones, limestones and clays. Presently Etna's eastern flank is moving with speeds up to 2cm/yr to the east [Tibaldi and Groppelli, 2002]. It is the sequence of layers below the volcano that is thought to provide a complex, structurally controlled, mechanism to the volcano deformation as a whole. This is due to the interplay of gravitational forces, volcanic pressurization, and regional tectonics, which combine to play a complex role that remains poorly understood, especially when the physical and mechanical properties of the rocks are considered. In this study, we concentrate on the rock mechanical component, and in particular the formation known as Comiso Limestone. This limestone forms of one of the key lithologies of Etna's basement. The formation has been suggested to be affected by thermal weakening [Heap et al., 2013]. Previous work on Comiso Limestone suggests brittle behavior for the range of temperatures (up to 760 ?C) and a significant reduction in strength with higher temperatures. [Mollo et al., 2011]. Chiodini et al [2011], speculate carbonate assimilation. This implies that the Carbondioxide created by decarbonatization, is able to escape. Using an internally heated "Paterson" type pressure vessel, we recreated conditions at 2-4 km depth (50-100 MPa) and using an anomalously high geotherm, as expected in volcanic settings (ranging from room to 600 ?C). With the addition of confining pressure, we show a brittle to ductile transition occurs at a relatively low temperature of 300 ?C. A significant decrease in strength occurs when the rock is exposed to temperatures exceeding 400 ?C. In addition, we observe a significant difference in mechanical behavior between vented and unvented situations when decarbonatization is active (>500 ?C). As shown by Gudmundsson [2011] a large contrast in mechanical properties between two formations could cause dyke arrest or deflection. Contacts between the Comiso Limestone (overall ductile at depth) and extruded basalt flows (overall brittle) could very well facilitate such a locality, and such 'layering' will form part of future laboratory investigations. References: Chiodini, G., S. Caliro, A. Aiuppa, R. Avino, D. Granieri, R. Moretti, and F. Parello (2011), First 13C/12C isotopic characterisation of volcanic plume CO2, Bulletin of Volcanology, 73(5), 531-542. Gudmundsson, A. (2011), Deflection of dykes into sills at discontinuities and magma-chamber formation, Tectonophysics, 500(1-4), 50-64. Heap, M. J., S. Mollo, S. Vinciguerra, Y. Lavallée, K. U. Hess, D. B. Dingwell, P. Baud, and G. Iezzi (2013), Thermal weakening of the carbonate basement under Mt. Etna volcano (Italy): Implications for volcano instability, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 250(0), 42-60. Mollo, S., S. Vinciguerra, G. Iezzi, A. Iarocci, P. Scarlato, M. J. Heap, and D. B. Dingwell (2011), Volcanic edifice weakening via devolatilization reactions, Geophysical Journal International, 186(3), 1073-1077. Tibaldi, A., and G. Groppelli (2002), Volcano-tectonic activity along structures of the unstable NE flank of Mt. Etna (Italy) and their possible origin, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 115(3-4), 277-302.

Bakker, Richard; Benson, Philip; Vinciguerra, Sergio

2013-04-01

379

Software Development Methodologies, Trends and Implications: A Testing Centric View  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The practice of software development has evolved steadily over the decades. Numerous methods and models (e.g., life cycle models and agile methods) have been proposed to enhance its efficiency and effectiveness. This study provides a testing centric view of software development practices. Specifically, it reviews software development methodologies (i.e., methods and models), identifies the latest trends in the industry and discusses their implications. The review of methodologies, the identification of these trends and the discussion of their implications will be useful to software development educators, students, practitioners and researchers.

Xihui Zhang; Tao Hu; Hua Dai; Xiang Li

2010-01-01

380

Emotional and psychological implications of early AD diagnosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article reviews the current recommendations in early diagnosis and the desires of the patients and their relatives, put in perspective with the reality of the clinical practices. More specific situations covered are: (1) the issue of young diseased patients, taking into account the psychological implications of the early occurrence of the disease in life and of the longer delay for these patients between the first observable signs and the diagnosis and (2) the issue of genetic testing, taking into account the implications of this extremely early form of bad news on the individual's existence and on the family structure.

Antoine P; Pasquier F

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
381

Emotional and psychological implications of early AD diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the current recommendations in early diagnosis and the desires of the patients and their relatives, put in perspective with the reality of the clinical practices. More specific situations covered are: (1) the issue of young diseased patients, taking into account the psychological implications of the early occurrence of the disease in life and of the longer delay for these patients between the first observable signs and the diagnosis and (2) the issue of genetic testing, taking into account the implications of this extremely early form of bad news on the individual's existence and on the family structure. PMID:23642581

Antoine, Pascal; Pasquier, Florence

2013-02-06

382

The Political Implications of Violence Against Women in Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using the primary and secondary tools of analysis, this paper brings out in succinct details, the diverse forms of violence that affect Africa women with greater emphasis, the implications of the phenomenon of violence against women’s political participation is discussed. We thus, canvass the elimination of all forms of violence against women through a new continental gender reawakening process. We reasoned that only this would enable women contribute their quota to the socio-economic and political development of Africa.Key words: Violence; Africa women; Political participation; Implication

Adebukola Foluke Osunyikanmi

2011-01-01

383

Implications for decision making: The electric utilities` perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Implications for decision making in three areas related to policy towards greenhouse gas emissions are discussed from the perspective of the electric industry. The first area addresses economic factors in the electric industry. The second concerns the interrelationship of energy, electricity and the environment, and the global climate change issue. The third addresses the global context of the issue. It is concluded that a comprehensive examination of international implications of governmental policy should be made before implementation of carbon emissions limitations, and that limiting electricity demand could negatively affect economic growth and the environment.

Fang, W.L. [Edison Electric Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

1992-12-31

384

General combinatorical structure of truth tables of bracketed formulae connected by implication  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we investigate the general combinatorical structure of the truth tables of all bracketed formulae with n distinct variables connected by the binary connective of implication, an m-implication.

Yildiz, Volkan

2012-01-01

385

eBay Law: The Legal Implications of the C2C Electronic Commerce Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper attempts to address some of the legal implications of the popular Consumer-to-Consumer electronic commerce model, in particular the implications of the successful and popular auctions site eBay.

Guadamuz, Andres

386

76 FR 20974 - Implications of Climate Change for Bioassessment Programs and Approaches To Account for Effects  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-ORD-2011-0368] Implications of Climate Change for Bioassessment Programs and...draft report titled, ``Implications of Climate Change for Bioassessment Programs and...bioassessment programs that may be affected by climate change. The study (1)...

2011-04-14

387

The Skills Implications of Electronic Retailing. IES Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The skills and education/training implications of the development of electronic commerce in the United Kingdom's retail industry and its associated supply chain were examined. The major data collection activities were as follows: a literature review; consultation with leading academics and advisers; an e-mail-based call for information from…

Tackey, Nii Djan; Hillage, Jim; Jagger, Nick; Bates, Peter

388

Constructivism: Its Theoretical Underpinnings, Variations, and Implications for Classroom Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of constructivism and its implications for classroom practices. To that end, it first describes the basic features of constructivism along with its major forms or variations. It then elucidates the constructivist view of knowledge, learning, teaching, and the relationship among these constructs. More specifically,…

Yilmaz, Kaya

2008-01-01

389

Missing anterior teeth: treatment options and their orthodontic implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent advances in restorative and surgical materials and techniques have increased the treatment options available for patients who are missing an anterior tooth. The factors influencing the management of such patients and the orthodontic implications of these treatment options are discussed in this paper.

Bowden DE; Harrison JE

1994-12-01

390

Hedgehog Signaling in Prostate Cancer and Its Therapeutic Implication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Activation of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is implicated in the development and progression of several tumor types, including prostate cancer, which is still the most common non-skin malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in industrialized countries worldwide. Several s...

Annelies Gonnissen; Sofie Isebaert; Karin Haustermans

391

Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy; FINAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

1998-01-01

392

The precision of higgs boson measurements and their implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The prospects for a precise exploration of the properties of a single or many observed Higgs bosons at future accelerators are summarized, with particular emphasis on the abilities of a Linear Collider (LC). Some implications of these measurements for discerning new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) are also discussed.

J. Conway et al.

2002-12-05

393

Climate and sea level change: observations, projections and implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The theme of the book is sea level change and the major subject areas addressed are observations, projections and implications. There are case studies on the Bay of Bengal, Egypt, Bangladesh, the Mississippi River, Norfolk UK, the Netherlands, South America and Hong Kong. Two chapters have been abstracted.

Warrick, R.A.; Barrow, E.M.; Wigley, T.M.L. (eds.) (Waikato University, Hamilton (New Zealand). Centre for Environmental and Resource Studies)

1993-01-01

394

Marital Conflict Behaviors and Implications for Divorce over 16 Years  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined self-reported marital conflict behaviors and their implications for divorce. Husbands and wives (N = 373 couples; 47% White American, 53% Black American) reported conflict behaviors in Years 1, 3, 7, and 16 of their marriages. Individual behaviors (e.g., destructive behaviors) and patterns of behaviors between partners (e.g.,…

Birditt, Kira S.; Brown, Edna; Orbuch, Terri L.; McIlvane, Jessica M.

2010-01-01

395

Counselors' Values Profile: Implications for Counseling Ethnic Minority Clients  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors review the empirical literature on counselors' values, describe values salient to the 4 largest ethnic minority groups in the United States, identify similarities and differences between counselors' values and those of the minority groups, and discuss implications for counseling ethnically different clients. Understanding counselors'…

Consoli, Andres J.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Meyer, Dinorah M.

2008-01-01

396

Fly-in/Fly-out: Implications for Community Sustainability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

“Fly-in/fly-out” is a form of work organization that has become the standard model for new mining, petroleum and other types of resource development in remote areas. In many places this “no town” model has replaced that of the “new town.” The work system has both beneficial and adverse implications ...

Keith Storey

397

Workplace bullying after whistleblowing:Future research and implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Findings: Empirical research has documented the link between whistleblowing and workplace bullying and the devastating effects on health that may follow (e.g. depression and symptoms analogous to post traumatic stress). Implications for practice are as follows: first, to provide clear examples of un...

Bjørkelo, Brita

398

Youth Victimization: Implications for Prevention, Intervention, & Public Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

Following violence exposure, an interplay of personal, familial, and social factors may serve to either promote or undermine child psychosocial adjustment. This article provides a review of youth victimization, with implications for prevention, intervention, and public policy discussed. (Contains 1 table.)

Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Saunders, Benjamin; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

2007-01-01

399

Implications of LHC Higgs and SUSY searches for MSSM  

CERN Multimedia

The implications of the LHC SUSY searches as well as the discovery of a new bosonic state compatible with the lightest Higgs boson will be discussed in the context of constrained and general MSSM scenarios. Exploring the MSSM through the Higgs sector is an alternative and complementary path to direct searches, and tight constraints on the MSSM parameter space can be obtained.

Mahmoudi, F; Battaglia, M; Djouadi, A

2012-01-01

400

The Vietnam warrior: his experience, and implications for psychotherapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The psychodynamic experience of the Vietnam trooper is described and emotionally evoked by the author, who is both a psychiatrist and a combat veteran of that war. It is shown how that experience continues to affect the lives of these men. The special implications of that experience for psychotherapy are then discussed.

Howard S

1976-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Local Citation Analysis of Graduate Biology Theses: Collection Development Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

|This paper will focus on the citation analysis of graduate masters theses from Carleton University's Biology Department with implications for library collection management decisions. Twenty-five masters theses were studied to determine citation types and percentages, ranking of journals by frequency of citation and by number of authors citing,…

Miller, Laura Newton

2011-01-01

402

Cosmological implications of Compton tails in long duration GRB  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recent suggestion of the possible presence of a significant amount of material (Thomson optical depth {approx} 1) at rest and at a typical distance of {approx} 10{sup 15} cm with respect to the GRB is presented. The relevance of such interpretation for GRB energetics and its cosmological implications is outlined.

Longo, F.; Barbiellini, G. [Trieste Univ., Trieste (Italy); INFN, Trieste (Italy); Bosnjak, Z.M.; Celotti, A. [SISSA, Trieste (Italy)

2005-07-15

403

The Natural Resource Management Implications of Rural Property Turnover  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One aspect of recent rural change is in-migration, which is challenging the traditional dominance of production values in some areas. We explored the natural resource management implications of property turnover in two Australian regions. Our mixed-methods approach combined analysis of property sale...

Emily Mendham; Allan Curtis; Joanne Millar

404

Orbital pseudotumor in a child: diagnostic implications and treatment strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Orbital pseudotumor is a benign, idiopathic, non-infectious and non-neoplastic clinical syndrome characterized by the presence of an inflammatory mass at orbital level with no identifiable cause. The disease is rarely observed in the pediatric population. This article describes a relapsing bilateral orbital pseudotumor in a young girl. The diagnostic implications and treatment strategies are discussed.

Guerriero S; Di Leo E; Piscitelli D; Ciracì L; Vacca A; Sborgia C; Dammacco R

2011-03-01

405

Orbital pseudotumor in a child: diagnostic implications and treatment strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orbital pseudotumor is a benign, idiopathic, non-infectious and non-neoplastic clinical syndrome characterized by the presence of an inflammatory mass at orbital level with no identifiable cause. The disease is rarely observed in the pediatric population. This article describes a relapsing bilateral orbital pseudotumor in a young girl. The diagnostic implications and treatment strategies are discussed. PMID:20844916

Guerriero, Silvana; Di Leo, Elisabetta; Piscitelli, Domenico; Ciracì, Lorenza; Vacca, Angelo; Sborgia, Carlo; Dammacco, Rosanna

2010-09-16

406

Psychological implications of advances in genetics--3 predictive testing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The psychosocial effects of genetic testing on individuals and families are complex, and the implications should be considered carefully. Testing of children for carrier status or adult-onset conditions is not usually advised. Professionals need to be aware of the complexity of the issues affecting clients and provide appropriate education and support.

Skirton H

1995-07-01

407

Psychological implications of advances in genetics--3 predictive testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The psychosocial effects of genetic testing on individuals and families are complex, and the implications should be considered carefully. Testing of children for carrier status or adult-onset conditions is not usually advised. Professionals need to be aware of the complexity of the issues affecting clients and provide appropriate education and support. PMID:7630908

Skirton, H

1995-07-01

408

Does Test Preparation Work? Implications for Score Validity  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports an empirical study that examined the pattern of test preparation for College English Test Band 4 (CET4) and the differential effects of test preparation practices on its scores, thereby drawing implications for CET4 score validity. Data collection involved 1,003 test takers of CET4. A pretest was administered at the beginning…

Xie, Qin

2013-01-01

409

Health Implications of Smokeless Tobacco Use. Volume 6, Number 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Concerned with the increase in use of chewing tobacco and snuff, this brochure looks at the health risks of using smokeless tobacco. It presents five questions about smokeless tobacco use and provides answers to the questions developed by a consensus development conference on health implications of smokeless tobacco use convened by the National…

National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD. Office of Medical Applications of Research.

410

Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

1998-01-01

411

Targeting in Advertising Markets: Implications for Offline Versus Online Media  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We develop a model with many advertisers (products) and many advertising markets (media). Each advertiser sells to a different segment of consumers, and each medium is targeting a different audience. We characterize the competitive equilibrium in the advertising markets and evaluate the implications...

Bergemann, Dirk; Bonatti, Alessandro

412

[Long-term cancer survivorship: definition and clinical implications].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Defining whether long-term cancer survivorship must be considered as a disease stage with its own characteristics, or as a condition ascribable to the state of health of the general population, has significant implications for the intervention proposals and the medical psychosocial rehabilitation. This issue is noteworthy also for the dimensions of this phenomenon and its subjective impact.

Annunziata MA; Muzzatti B

2012-02-01

413

Bimetric gravity doubly coupled to matter: theory and cosmological implications  

CERN Multimedia

A ghost-free theory of gravity with two dynamical metrics both coupled to matter is shown to be consistent and viable. Its cosmological implications are studied, and the models, in particular in the context of partially massless gravity, are found to naturally explain the cosmic acceleration without resorting to dark energy.

Akrami, Yashar; Mota, David F; Sandstad, Marit

2013-01-01

414

Causes and implications of colloid and microorganism retention hysteresis  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were designed to better understand the causes and implications of colloid and microorganism retention hysteresis with transients in solution ionic strength (IS). Saturated packed column experiments were conducted using two sizes of carboxyl modified latex (CML) microspheres (0.1 and 1.1...

415

Observations and implications of extra-terrestrial neutrinos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Several examples of the data on extra-terrestrial neutrinos are treated to illustrate the progress in experimental neutrino astrophysics. Limits obtained from searches for stellar point sources of neutrinos and relic supernovae neutrinos are briefly described. The observations of atmospheric and solar neutrinos and their implications are discussed in greater detail

1990-01-01

416

Assessing implications between genotypic and phenotypic variables through lattice analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A previous paper assessed a "Molecular Mapping of Twenty-Four Features of Down Syndrome on Chromosome 21" (Delabar et al., 1993), by analyzing the genotypes/phenotypes of patients suffering from partial trisomy. The mapping was defined through implications--each feature was mapped to the conjunction of cytogenetic bands that were shared by all patients having that feature. In the present paper, we extend that approach to determine how far those implications depart from defining equivalences. Finding equivalences is important. Local equivalences permit a genetic characterization of a feature. And if global equivalences held for all features, that set of bands would be sufficient to characterize the various phenotypes observed in individuals with partial trisomy 21. To extend the earlier approach, we examine the structure of equivalences as well as the structure of implications. We examine both conjunctions of bands and conjunctions of features. The use of Galois lattices permits simultaneous evaluation of both kinds of structures. Each Galois lattice is labeled with a basis (minimal generating set) of implications going from conjunctions of features into bands and those going from conjunctions of bands into features. Analysis reveals that about half of the conjunctions of bands that characterize the genetic structure embody equivalences. This allows us to improve the genetic description of features and to specify minimal sets of questions that need to be investigated to make the global genetic description more precise. PMID:11529269

Chabert, C; Cherfouh, A; Delabar, J M; Duquenne, V

2001-01-01

417

Assessing implications between genotypic and phenotypic variables through lattice analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A previous paper assessed a "Molecular Mapping of Twenty-Four Features of Down Syndrome on Chromosome 21" (Delabar et al., 1993), by analyzing the genotypes/phenotypes of patients suffering from partial trisomy. The mapping was defined through implications--each feature was mapped to the conjunction of cytogenetic bands that were shared by all patients having that feature. In the present paper, we extend that approach to determine how far those implications depart from defining equivalences. Finding equivalences is important. Local equivalences permit a genetic characterization of a feature. And if global equivalences held for all features, that set of bands would be sufficient to characterize the various phenotypes observed in individuals with partial trisomy 21. To extend the earlier approach, we examine the structure of equivalences as well as the structure of implications. We examine both conjunctions of bands and conjunctions of features. The use of Galois lattices permits simultaneous evaluation of both kinds of structures. Each Galois lattice is labeled with a basis (minimal generating set) of implications going from conjunctions of features into bands and those going from conjunctions of bands into features. Analysis reveals that about half of the conjunctions of bands that characterize the genetic structure embody equivalences. This allows us to improve the genetic description of features and to specify minimal sets of questions that need to be investigated to make the global genetic description more precise.

Chabert C; Cherfouh A; Delabar JM; Duquenne V

2001-01-01

418

The Neuropsychiatric Implications of Illiteracy: 20 Years Later.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research project was to replicate a study of the neuropsychiatric implications of illiteracy conducted by Hunt and Wittson in 1951. First-year discharge information was collected for (1) 1518 recruits who had been assigned to an academ...

A. L. Holberg C. J. Hysham N. H. Berry

1974-01-01

419

Cisplatin carbonato complexes. Implications for uptake, antitumor properties, and toxicity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The reaction of aquated cisplatin with carbonate which is present in culture media and blood is described. The first formed complex is a monochloro monocarbonato species, which upon continued exposure to carbonate slowly forms a biscarbonato complex. The formation of carbonato species under conditions that simulate therapy may have important implications for uptake, antitumor properties, and toxicity of cisplatin.

Centerwall CR; Goodisman J; Kerwood DJ; Dabrowiak JC

2005-09-01

420

Cisplatin carbonato complexes. Implications for uptake, antitumor properties, and toxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reaction of aquated cisplatin with carbonate which is present in culture media and blood is described. The first formed complex is a monochloro monocarbonato species, which upon continued exposure to carbonate slowly forms a biscarbonato complex. The formation of carbonato species under conditions that simulate therapy may have important implications for uptake, antitumor properties, and toxicity of cisplatin. PMID:16159248

Centerwall, Corey R; Goodisman, Jerry; Kerwood, Deborah J; Dabrowiak, James C

2005-09-21

 
 
 
 
421

Early Intervention with Latino Families: Implications for Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

|Counselors and early interventionists increasingly serve Spanish-speaking families. Yet, often, cultural accommodations merely imply use of interpreters or bilingual providers. Cultural competence requires self-awareness and understanding the client's community and specific risk and resiliency factors. Implications for serving clients of Latino…

Withrow, Rebecca L.

2008-01-01

422

Family Satisfaction and Job Performance: Implications for Career Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focuses on recent research examining the relationships between family satisfaction and job satisfaction, the impact of work on family, and the influence of family on work, with special emphasis on job performance and productivity. It concludes by drawing program implications for career development specialists and suggesting needed family support…

Schultz, Jerelyn B.; Henderson, Chinella

1985-01-01

423

On n-fold fuzzy positive implicative ideals of BCK-algebras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We consider the fuzzification of the notion of an n-fold positive implicative ideal. We give characterizations of an n-fold fuzzy positive implicative ideal. We establish the extension property for n-fold fuzzy positive implicative ideals, and state a characterization of PIn-Noetherian BCK-algebras. Finally we study the normalization of n-fold fuzzy positive implicative ideals.

Young Bae Jun; Kyung Ho Kim

2001-01-01

424